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Sample records for radioactively contaminated reactor

  1. Packaging, Transportation, and Disposal Logistics for Large Radioactively Contaminated Reactor Decommissioning Components

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mark S.

    2008-01-15

    The packaging, transportation and disposal of large, retired reactor components from operating or decommissioning nuclear plants pose unique challenges from a technical as well as regulatory compliance standpoint. In addition to the routine considerations associated with any radioactive waste disposition activity, such as characterization, ALARA, and manifesting, the technical challenges for large radioactively contaminated components, such as access, segmentation, removal, packaging, rigging, lifting, mode of transportation, conveyance compatibility, and load securing require significant planning and execution. In addition, the current regulatory framework, domestically in Titles 49 and 10 and internationally in TS-R-1, does not lend itself to the transport of these large radioactively contaminated components, such as reactor vessels, steam generators, reactor pressure vessel heads, and pressurizers, without application for a special permit or arrangement. This paper addresses the methods of overcoming the technical and regulatory challenges. The challenges and disposition decisions do differ during decommissioning versus component replacement during an outage at an operating plant. During decommissioning, there is less concern about critical path for restart and more concern about volume reduction and waste minimization. Segmentation on-site is an available option during decommissioning, since labor and equipment will be readily available and decontamination activities are routine. The reactor building removal path is also of less concern and there are more rigging/lifting options available. Radionuclide assessment is necessary for transportation and disposal characterization. Characterization will dictate the packaging methodology, transportation mode, need for intermediate processing, and the disposal location or availability. Characterization will also assist in determining if the large component can be transported in full compliance with the transportation

  2. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A. Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A. Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-15

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  3. Hybrid fusion reactor for production of nuclear fuel with minimum radioactive contamination of the fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikhov, E. P.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Azizov, E. A.; Ignatiev, V. V.; Subbotin, S. A.; Tsibulskiy, V. F.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the system research on the coordinated development of nuclear and fusion power engineering in the current century. Considering the increasing problems of resource procurement, including limited natural uranium resources, it seems reasonable to use fusion reactors as high-power neutron sources for production of nuclear fuel in a blanket. It is shown that the share of fusion sources in this structural configuration of the energy system can be relatively small. A fundamentally important aspect of this solution to the problem of closure of the fuel cycle is that recycling of highly active spent fuel can be abandoned. Radioactivity released during the recycling of the spent fuel from the hybrid reactor blanket is at least two orders of magnitude lower than during the production of the same number of fissile isotopes after the recycling of the spent fuel from a fast reactor.

  4. Characterization of radioactive contaminants and water treatment trials for the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Ping; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Chiao, Ling-Huan; Chen, Hong-Bin

    2012-09-30

    There were approximately 926 m(3) of water contaminated by fission products and actinides in the Taiwan Research Reactor's spent fuel pool (TRR SFP). The solid and ionic contaminants were thoroughly characterized using radiochemical analyses, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in this study. The sludge was made up of agglomerates contaminated by spent fuel particles. Suspended solids from spent ion-exchange resins interfered with the clarity of the water. In addition, the ionic radionuclides such as (137)Cs, (90)Sr, U, and α-emitters, present in the water were measured. Various filters and cation-exchange resins were employed for water treatment trials, and the results indicated that the solid and ionic contaminants could be effectively removed through the use of <0.9 μm filters and cation exchange resins, respectively. Interestingly, the removal of U was obviously efficient by cation exchange resin, and the ceramic depth filter composed of diatomite exhibited the properties of both filtration and adsorption. It was found that the ceramic depth filter could adsorb β-emitters, α-emitters, and uranium ions. The diatomite-based ceramic depth filter was able to simultaneously eliminate particles and adsorb ionic radionuclides from water.

  5. Reactor radioactive emission monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Jester, W.A.; Mc Master, I.B.; Baratta, A.J.

    1987-05-05

    This patent describes a means for measuring quantities of a selected radioactive component in a stream of radioactive fluid. The means comprise: a first fluid path with a first means for retaining the selected radioactive component mounted in the fluid path for retaining the radioactive component while passing the remainder of the stream of radioactive fluid; a second fluid path with a second means for retaining the selected radioactive component mounted in the second fluid path for retaining the radioactive component while passing the remainder of the stream of the radioactive fluid; first and second detectors for detecting the level of radioactivity emitted by the retained radioactive component in the first and second retaining means; a means for integrating the output of one or more of the detectors as a function of time to measure any increase in the radioactivity emitted by the radioactive component retained by the retaining means, and the increase being representative of the amount of selected radioactive component present in the stream of radioactive fluid.

  6. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  7. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  8. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  9. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  10. 49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section 175.705... Regulations Applicable According to Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A... (radioactive) materials that may have been released from their packagings. (b) When contamination is present...

  11. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunkel, D.; Lelieveld, J.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a core melt of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90 % of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50 % beyond 1000 km distance. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human deposition exposure are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in southern Asia where a core melt can subject 55 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  12. Global risk of radioactive fallout after nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2011-11-01

    Reactor core meltdowns of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. It appears that previously the occurrence of major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a core melt of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human deposition exposure are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in southern Asia where a core melt can subject 55 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  13. Status of outdoor radioactive contamination at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, S.M.; Markes, B.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document summarizes the status of outdoor radioactive contamination near Hanford Site facilities and disposal sites. It defines the nature and areal extend of the radioactively contaminated areas and describes the historical, ongoing, and planned radiological monitoring and control activities. Radioactive waste has been disposed of to the soil column since shortly after the reactors and production facilities began operating. Radioactive liquid wastes were placed directly into the ground via liquid discharges to cribs, ponds, ditches, and reverse wells. Solid wastes were placed in trenches, burial vaults, and caissons. Although the Hanford Site covers 1,450 km{sup 2}, the radioactively contaminated area is only about 36 km{sup 2} or 2.5% of the original site. Over time, contamination has migrated from some of the waste management sites through various vectors (e.g., burrowing animals, deep-rooted vegetation, erosion, containment system failure) or has been deposited to the surface soil via spills and unplanned releases (e.g., line leaks/breaks, tank leaks, and stack discharges) and created areas of outdoor radioactivity both on and below the surface. Currently 26 km{sup 2} are posted as surface contamination and 10 km{sup 2} are posted as underground contamination.

  14. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  15. Chernobyl three years later: radiobiologic evaluation of a radioactive contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Behar, A.; Cohen-Boulakia, F.; Othmani, S. )

    1990-11-01

    On April 26, 1986, after partial fusion and confining loss by explosion of a nuclear reactor, 5 x 10(7) Ci of radionuclides escaped from Chernobyl. Three years later, maps show contamination by radioactive isotopes (formed during that period) of 21,000 km2 of Soviet soil, mainly in Byelorussia and part of the Ukraine. Decontamination measures have not been effective to date and 135,000 persons are being followed medically, taking into account the radioactive doses they received. An initial excess of morbidity from solid tumors has been noted much sooner than in the case of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but its significance is in dispute. Three years later, only the extent of the ecologic disaster caused by the radioactive contamination can be confirmed. It is too early to draw conclusions about radiation-induced carcinogenesis for the contaminated population.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

  17. Measurements of radioactive contaminants in semiconductor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Rodbell, Kenneth P.; Murray, Conal E.; McNally, Brendan D.

    2016-12-01

    The emission of alpha particles from materials used to manufacture semiconductors can contribute substantially to the single-event upset rate. The alpha particles originate from contamination in the materials, or from radioactive isotopes, themselves. In this review paper, we discuss the sources of the radioactivity and the measurement methods to detect the emitted particles.

  18. Perspectives of Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear War

    PubMed Central

    Waters, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    The degrees of risk associated with the medical, industrial and military employment of nuclear energy are compared. The nature of radioactive contamination of areas and of persons resulting from the explosion of nuclear weapons, particularly the relationship between the radiation exposure and the amount of physical debris, is examined. Some theoretical examples are compared quantitatively. It is concluded that the amount of radio-activity that may be carried on the contaminated person involves a minor health hazard from gamma radiation, compared to the irradiation arising from contaminated areas. PMID:6015741

  19. Experiments on rehabilitation of radioactive metallic waste (RMW) of reactor stainless steels of Siberian chemical plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpakov, G. N.; Zakusilov, V. V.; Demyanenko, N. V.; Mishin, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Stainless steel pipes, used to cool a reactor plant, have a high cost, and after taking a reactor out of service they must be buried together with other radioactive waste. Therefore, the relevant problem is the rinse of pipes from contamination, followed by returning to operation.

  20. [Examination of radioactive contamination in foods].

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Terada, Hisaya

    2013-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear plant accident in Mar. 2011, the examination of radioactive contamination in foods is being carried out in Nagoya. During the period between 30 Mar. 2011 and 31 Oct. 2012, a total of 300 food samples were collected and the concentrations of radioactive nuclides were determined by means of γ-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector. The results of analysis indicate that the concentrations of radioactive iodine (I) and cesium (Cs) were below the regulatory limits. Radioactive I ((131)I) was detected in 7 samples which belonged to the categories of green and yellow vegetables and other vegetables. Radioactive Cs ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) was detected in 60 samples which belonged to the categories of rice and its processed products, potatoes and its processed products, nuts and seeds, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, fishes and shellfishes, processed sea foods, meat, milk and dairy products and other beverages.

  1. Removal of radioactive contaminants by polymeric microspheres.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2016-11-01

    Radionuclide removal from radioactive liquid waste by adsorption on polymeric microspheres is the latest application of polymers in waste management. Polymeric microspheres have significant immobilization capacity for ionic substances. A laboratory study was carried out by using poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for encapsulation of radionuclide in the liquid radioactive waste. There are numbers of advantages to use an encapsulation technology in radioactive waste management. Results show that polymerization step of radionuclide increases integrity of solidified waste form. Test results showed that adding the appropriate polymer into the liquid waste at an appropriate pH and temperature level, radionuclide was encapsulated into polymer. This technology may provide barriers between hazardous radioactive ions and the environment. By this method, solidification techniques became easier and safer in nuclear waste management. By using polymer microspheres as dust form, contamination risks were decreased in the nuclear industry and radioactive waste operations.

  2. Decontamination of protective clothing against radioactive contamination.

    PubMed

    Vošahlíková, I; Otáhal, P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the experimental results of external surface mechanical decontamination of the studied materials forming selected suits. Seven types of personal protective suits declaring protection against radioactive aerosol contamination in different price ranges were selected for decontamination experiments. The outcome of this study is to compare the efficiency of a double-step decontamination process on various personal protective suits against radioactive contamination. A comparison of the decontamination effectiveness for the same type of suit, but for the different chemical mixtures ((140)La in a water-soluble or in a water-insoluble compound), was performed.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF RADIOACTIVITY IN THE REACTOR VESSEL OF THE HEAVY WATER COMPONENT TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, Dennis

    2010-06-01

    The Heavy Water Component Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility is a pressurized heavy water reactor that was used to test candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. The reactor operated at nominal power of 50 MW{sub th}. The reactor coolant loop operated at 1200 psig and 250 C. Two isolated test loop were designed into the reactor to provide special test conditions. Fig. 1 shows a cut-away view of the reactor. The two loops are contained in four inch diameter stainless steel piping. The HWCTR was operated for only a short duration, from March 1962 to December 1964 in order to test the viability of test fuel elements and other reactor components for use in a heavy water power reactor. The reactor achieved 13,882 MWd of total power while testing 36 different fuel assemblies. In the course of operation, HWCTR experienced the cladding failures of 10 separate test fuel assemblies. In each case, the cladding was breached with some release of fuel core material into the isolated test loop, causing fission product and actinide contamination in the main coolant loop and the liquid and boiling test loops. Despite the contribution of the contamination from the failed fuel, the primary source of radioactivity in the HWCTR vessel and internals is the activation products in the thermal shields, and to a lesser degree, activation products in the reactor vessel walls and liner. A detailed facility characterization report of the HWCTR facility was completed in 1996. Many of the inputs and assumptions in the 1996 characterization report were derived from the HWCTR decommissioning plan published in 1975. The current paper provides an updated assessment of the radioisotopic characteristics of the HWCTR vessel and internals to support decommissioning activities on the facility.

  4. Radioactively Contaminated Sites | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-01-17

    If radioactive materials are used or disposed of improperly, they can contaminate buildings and the environment. Every site requiring cleanup is different depending on the type of facility, the radioactive elements involved and the concentration of the radioactive elements.

  5. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  6. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant

    PubMed Central

    Marui, Atsunao; Gallardo, Adrian H.

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima. PMID:26197330

  7. Managing Groundwater Radioactive Contamination at the Daiichi Nuclear Plant.

    PubMed

    Marui, Atsunao; Gallardo, Adrian H

    2015-07-21

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 severely damaged three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, leading to a major release of radiation into the environment. Groundwater flow through these crippled reactors continues to be one of the main causes of contamination and associated transport of radionuclides into the Pacific Ocean. In this context, a number of strategies are being implemented to manage radioactive pollution of the water resources at the nuclear plant site. Along with water treatment and purification, it is critical to restrict the groundwater flow to and from the reactors. Thus, the devised strategies combine walls containment, bores abstraction, infiltration control, and the use of tanks for the temporary storage of contaminated waters. While some of these techniques have been previously applied in other environments, they have never been tested at such a large scale. Therefore, their effectiveness remains to be seen. The present manuscript presents an overview of the methods being currently implemented to manage groundwater contamination and to mitigate the impact of hydrological pathways in the dispersion of radionuclides at Fukushima.

  8. Ecological Role of Soils upon Radioactive Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsvetnov, Evgeny; Shcheglov, Alexei; Tsvenova, Olga

    2016-04-01

    The ecological role of soils upon radioactive contamination is clearly manifested in the system of notions about ecosystems services, i.e., benefits gained by humans from ecosystems and their components, including soils (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). For the soils, these services are considered on the basis of soil functions in the biosphere that belong to the protective ecosystem functions within the group of soil functions known under the names of "Buffer and protective biogeocenotic shield" (at the level of particular biogeocenoses) and "Protective shield of the biosphere" (at the global biospheric level) (according to Dobrovol'skii & Nikitin, 2005). With respect to radionuclides, this group includes (1) the depositing function, i.e., the accumulation and long-term sequestration of radioactive substances by the soil after atmospheric fallout; (2) the geochemical function, i.e., the regulation of horizontal and vertical fluxes of radionuclides in the system of geochemically conjugated landscapes and in the soil-groundwater and soil-plant systems; and (3) the dose-forming function that is manifested by the shielding capacity of the soil with respect to the external ionizing radiation (lowering of the dose from external radiation) and by the regulation of the migration of radionuclides in the trophic chain (lowering of the dose from internal radiation). The depositing and geochemical functions of the soils are interrelated, which is seen from quantitative estimates of the dynamics of the fluxes of radionuclides in the considered systems (soil-plant, soil-groundwater, etc.). The downward migration of radionuclides into the lower soil layers proceeds very slowly: for decades, more than 90% of the pool of radionuclides is stored in the topmost 10 cm of the soil profile. In the first 3-5 years after the fallout, the downward migration of radionuclides with infiltrating water flows decreases from several percent to decimals and hundredths of percent from the

  9. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    SciTech Connect

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  10. Method of treating radioactively contaminated solvent waste

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, W.; Mallek, H.; Plum, W.

    1981-07-07

    A method of and apparatus for treating radioactively contaminated solvent waste are claimed. The solvent waste is supplied to material such as peat, vermiculite, diaton, etc. This material effects the distribution or dispersion of the solvent and absorbs the foreign substances found in the solvent waste. Air or an inert gas flows through the material in order to pick up the solvent portions which are volatile as a consequence of their vapor pressure. The thus formed gas mixture, which includes air or inert gas and solvent portions, is purified in a known manner by thermal, electrical, or catalytic combustion of the solvent portions.

  11. Packaging and transportation of radioactively contaminated lead

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, Eugene; Holden, Gerard

    2007-07-01

    Under the management of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) the government of the United Kingdom has launched an ambitious program to remediate the nation's nuclear waste legacy. Over a twenty-five year period NDA plans to decommission several first generation nuclear power plants and other radioactive facilities. The use innovative, safe 'fit for purpose' technologies will be a major part of this complex program. This paper will present a case study of a recently completed project undertaken in support of the nuclear decommissioning activities at the Sellafield site in the United Kingdom. The focus is on an innovative application of new packaging technology developed for the safe transportation of radioactively contaminated lead objects. Several companies collaborated on the project and contributed to its safe and successful conclusion. These companies include British Nuclear Group, Gravatom Engineering, W. F. Bowker Transport, Atlantic Container Lines, MHF Logistical Solutions and Energy Solutions. New containers and a new innovative inter-modal packaging system to transport the radioactive lead were developed and demonstrated during the project. The project also demonstrated the potential contribution of international nuclear recycling activities as a safe, economic and feasible technical option for nuclear decommissioning in the United Kingdom. (authors)

  12. Individual dose due to radioactivity accidental release from fusion reactor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Baojie; Ni, Muyi; Wei, Shiping

    2017-04-05

    As an important index shaping the design of fusion safety system, evaluation of public radiation consequences have risen as a hot topic on the way to develop fusion energy. In this work, the comprehensive public early dose was evaluated due to unit gram tritium (HT/HTO), activated dust, activated corrosion products (ACPs) and activated gases accidental release from ITER like fusion reactor. Meanwhile, considering that we cannot completely eliminate the occurrence likelihood of multi-failure of vacuum vessel and tokamak building, we conservatively evaluated the public radiation consequences and environment restoration after the worst hypothetical accident preliminarily. The comparison results show early dose of different unit radioactivity release under different conditions. After further performing the radiation consequences, we find it possible that the hypothetical accident for ITER like fusion reactor would result in a level 6 accident according to INES, not appear level 7 like Chernobyl or Fukushima accidents. And from the point of environment restoration, we need at least 69 years for case 1 (1kg HTO and 1000kg dust release) and 34-52years for case 2 (1kg HTO and 10kg-100kg dust release) to wait the contaminated zone drop below the general public safety limit (1mSv per year) before it is suitable for human habitation.

  13. 10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radioactive contamination control. 39.69 Section 39.69 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee...

  14. Contribution from the Yenisei River to the total radioactive contamination of the Kara Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Revenko, Yu.A.; Legin, V.K.

    1995-07-01

    An attempt is made to estimate the contribution from the Yenisei River and, therefore, the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Plant (MCP), which discharged wastewaters to the Yenisei, to the total contamination of the Kara Sea using results from a study of the radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River, Yenisei Bay, Yenisei Gulf, and the Kara Sea itself. Radionuclides generated from using river water in cooling circuits of production reactors make the largest contribution to the total activity. The radioactive contamination of the river decreased by more than 20 times after two of the three operating reactors were shut down. Only several wetlands are actually affected by MCP hundreds of kilometers from the discharge point.

  15. The Accumulation of Radioactive Contaminants in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution systems has been documented and the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of particular concern because of their known health eff...

  16. 10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee detects... licensee shall continuously monitor, with an appropriate radiation detection instrument or a logging...

  17. 10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee detects... licensee shall continuously monitor, with an appropriate radiation detection instrument or a logging...

  18. 10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee detects... licensee shall continuously monitor, with an appropriate radiation detection instrument or a logging...

  19. 10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee detects... licensee shall continuously monitor, with an appropriate radiation detection instrument or a logging...

  20. Radioactive contamination of food and the intake by man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frissel, M. J.; Blaauboer, R. O.; Köster, H. W.; Leenhouts, H. P.; Stoutjesdijk, J. F.; Vaas, L. H.

    This paper describes the different pathways by which food is contaminated after a release of radionuclides into the environment. Equations to calculate the contamination level, as well as the most important parameters used in these equations, are included. Thereupon is explained how the radiation dose can be calculated from the intake of radioactivity. The principles which are used to derive criteria for the amounts of radioactivity which are allowed in food are described.

  1. Economics and risks of recycling radioactively contaminated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, F.L.; Ayers, K.W.

    1997-12-31

    As Decontamination and Decommissioning activities proceed within the DOE complex, tremendous volumes of both radioactively contaminated and non-contaminated concrete will be processed for disposal. Current practice is to decontaminate the concrete, dispose of the contamination at LLW facilities and ship the concrete rubble to C & D landfills for disposal. This study evaluates the economic, health and safety, legal, and social aspects of recycling radioactively contaminated concrete. Probabilistic models were used to estimate costs and risks. The model indicates that the radioactively contaminated concrete can be recycled at the same or lower cost than current or alternative practices. The risks associated with recycling were consistently less than or equal to the other alternatives considered.

  2. A comparison of radioactive waste from first generation fusion reactors and fast fission reactors with actinide recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, M.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1991-04-01

    Limitations of the fission fuel resources will presumably mandate the replacement of thermal fission reactors by fast fission reactors that operate on a self-sufficient closed fuel cycle. This replacement might take place within the next one hundred years, so the direct competitors of fusion reactors will be fission reactors of the latter rather than the former type. Also, fast fission reactors, in contrast to thermal fission reactors, have the potential for transmuting long-lived actinides into short-lived fission products. The associated reduction of the long-term activation of radioactive waste due to actinides makes the comparison of radioactive waste from fast fission reactors to that from fusion reactors more rewarding than the comparison of radioactive waste from thermal fission reactors to that from fusion reactors. Radioactive waste from an experimental and a commercial fast fission reactor and an experimental and a commercial fusion reactor has been characterized. The fast fission reactors chosen for this study were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Integral Fast Reactor. The fusion reactors chosen for this study were the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and a Reduced Activation Ferrite Helium Tokamak. The comparison of radioactive waste parameters shows that radioactive waste from the experimental fast fission reactor may be less hazardous than that from the experimental fusion reactor. Inclusion of the actinides would reverse this conclusion only in the long-term. Radioactive waste from the commercial fusion reactor may always be less hazardous than that from the commercial fast fission reactor, irrespective of the inclusion or exclusion of the actinides. The fusion waste would even be far less hazardous, if advanced structural materials, like silicon carbide or vanadium alloy, were employed.

  3. Evaluating and planning the radioactive waste options for dismantling the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Rule, K.; Scott, J.; Larson, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a kind tritium fusion research reactor, and is planned to be decommissioned within the next several years. This is the largest fusion reactor in the world and as a result of deuterium-tritum reactions is tritium contaminated and activated from 14 Mev neutrons. This presents many unusual challenges when dismantling, packaging and disposing its components and ancillary systems. Special containers are being designed to accommodate the vacuum vessel, neutral beams, and tritium delivery and processing systems. A team of experienced professionals performed a detailed field study to evaluate the requirements and appropriate methods for packaging the radioactive materials. This team focused on several current and innovative methods for waste minimization that provides the oppurtunmost cost effective manner to package and dispose of the waste. This study also produces a functional time-phased schedule which conjoins the waste volume, weight, costs and container requirements with the detailed project activity schedule for the entire project scope. This study and project will be the first demonstration of the decommissioning of a tritium fusion test reactor. The radioactive waste disposal aspects of this project are instrumental in demonstrating the viability of a fusion power reactor with regard to its environmental impact and ultimate success.

  4. Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry).

  5. Natural radioactivity contamination problems. Report no. 2. (final)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Levels of naturally occurring radionuclides associated with the bauxite, columbium-tantalum, phosphate, tin, pumice, and titanium mineral extraction industries are reported. Data is also presented on radioactivity measurements in ground water, in selected geothermal waters, and in oil production brines. Radiation protection guidance is provided for uranium recovery from wet-process phosphate plants, for soil contamination limits, and for radiological exposure in natural caves. Dose pathways from incidental uses of naturally occurring radioactive materials are presented. Model state regulations for protecting public health and safety from use and disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material are outlined.

  6. Behavior of radioactive materials and safety stock of contaminated sludge.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Ikuo

    2017-01-28

    The radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster in 2011 has flowed into and accumulated in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) via sewer systems; this has had a negative impact on WWTPs in eastern Japan. The behavior of radioactive materials was analyzed at four WWTPs in the Tohoku and Kanto regions to elucidate the mechanism by which radioactive materials are concentrated during the sludge treatment process from July 2011 to March 2013. Furthermore, numerical simulations were conducted to study the safe handling of contaminated sewage sludge stocked temporally in WWTPs. Finally, a dissolution test was conducted by using contaminated incinerated ash and melted slag derived from sewage sludge to better understand the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills. Measurements indicate that a large amount of radioactive material accumulates in aeration tanks and is becoming trapped in the concentrated sludge during the sludge condensation process. The numerical simulation indicates that a worker's exposure around contaminated sludge is less than 1 µSv/h when maintaining an isolation distance of more than 10 m, or when shielding with more than 20-cm-thick concrete. The radioactivity level of the eluate was undetectable in 9 out of 12 samples; in the remaining three samples, the dissolution rates were 0.5-2.7%.

  7. Emergency department management of patients internally contaminated with radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Kazzi, Ziad; Buzzell, Jennifer; Bertelli, Luiz; Christensen, Doran

    2014-11-15

    After a radiation emergency that involves the dispersal of radioactive material, patients can become externally and internally contaminated with one or more radionuclides. Internal contamination can lead to the delivery of harmful ionizing radiation doses to various organs and tissues or the whole body. The clinical consequences can range from acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to the long term development of cancer. Estimating the amount of radioactive material absorbed into the body can guide the management of patients. Treatment includes, in addition to supportive care and long term monitoring, certain medical countermeasures like Prussian blue, Calcium DTPA and Zinc DTPA.

  8. [On the problem of biodiagnostics under conditions of radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Tsvetnova, O B; Shcheglov, A I; Stolbova, V V

    2014-01-01

    The possibilities of biodiagnostics methods (bioindication and bioassay) have been analyzed for conditions of radioactive contamination of natural ecosystems components. The prospects of using biodiagnostics data to address some practical radioecology problems are discussed. The data on dynamics of long-term indicators in the ecosystems contaminated after the Chernobyl accident are shown. The authors have formulated a number of provisions relating to the accumulative bioindication for structural components of forest ecosystems (arboreal and herbaceous vegetation, mosses, lichens, higher fungi).

  9. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-03-23

    Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels.

  10. [Statistical prediction of radioactive contamination impacts on agricultural pasture lands].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, S I; Ivanov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Based on the literature data analysis, the rationale is given for the use of probabilistic approaches to solve the problems of estimation of a long-lived radionuclide uptake in animal products. Methods for statistical prediction of radioactive contamination consequences for agricultural pasture lands have been devised and implemented in the form of models and program modules. These offer the estimation of radionuclide transfer between the links of an agricultural chain, taking into account variability in the migration parameters, estimation of soil contamination limits based on the preset risk levels for the stuffs produced and statistical coordination of standards. An illustration is given of the application of the above methods using statistical characteristics of 137Cs migration parameters in the soil-plant-animal produce chain. Further trends have been formulated in the development of the risk concept as applied to the assessment of radioecological situations of radioactive contamination of the agricultural land.

  11. Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

    2003-02-24

    This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

  12. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by (137)Cesium ((137)Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as (132)Te-(132)I, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h(-1) per initial (137)Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2), whereas it was 100 μGy h(-1) around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2) for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively.

  13. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1

    PubMed Central

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by 137Cesium (137Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as 132Te-132I, 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h−1 per initial 137Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m−2, whereas it was 100 μGy h−1 around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m−2 for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums (134Cs + 137Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. PMID:26568603

  14. Radioactive waste and contamination in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Suokko, K.; Reicher, D. )

    1993-04-01

    Decades of disregard for the hazards of radioactive waste have created contamination problems throughout the former Soviet Union rivaled only by the Chernobyl disaster. Although many civilian activities have contributed to radioactive waste problems, the nuclear weapons program has been by far the greatest culprit. For decades, three major weapons production facilities located east of the Ural Mountains operated in complete secrecy and outside of environmental controls. Referred to until recently only by their postal abbreviations, the cities of Chelyabinsk-65, Tomsk-7, and Krasnoyarsk-26 were open only to people who worked in them. The mismanagement of waste at these sites has led to catastrophic accidents and serious releases of radioactive materials. Lack of public disclosure, meanwhile, has often prevented proper medical treatment and caused delays in cleanup and containment. 5 refs.

  15. Radioactive Waste Management and Environmental Contamination Issues at the Chernobyl Site

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Schmieman, Eric A.; Voitsekhovitch, Oleg V.

    2007-11-01

    The destruction of the Unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the generation of radioactive contamination and radioactive waste at the site and in the surrounding area (referred to as the Exclusion Zone). In the course of remediation activities, large volumes of radioactive waste were generated and placed in temporary near surface waste-storage and disposal facilities. Trench and landfill type facilities were created from 1986 to 1987 in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone at distances 0.5 to 15 km from the NPP site. This large number of facilities was established without proper design documentation, engineered barriers, or hydrogeological investigations and they do not meet contemporary waste-safety requirements. Immediately following the accident, a Shelter was constructed over the destroyed reactor; in addition to uncertainties in stability at the time of its construction, structural elements of the Shelter have degraded as a result of corrosion. The main potential hazard of the Shelter is a possible collapse of its top structures and release of radioactive dust into the environment. A New Safe Confinement (NSC) with a 100-years service life is planned to be built as a cover over the existing Shelter as a longer-term solution. The construction of the NSC will enable the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of highly radioactive, fuel-containing materials from Unit 4, and eventual decommissioning of the damaged reactor. More radioactive waste will be generated during NSC construction, possible Shelter dismantling, removal of fuel containing materials, and decommissioning of Unit 4. The future development of the Exclusion Zone depends on the future strategy for converting Unit 4 into an ecologically safe system, i.e., the development of the NSC, the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of fuel containing material, and eventual decommissioning of the accident site. To date, a broadly accepted strategy for radioactive waste

  16. Radioactive waste management and environmental contamination issues at the Chernobyl site.

    PubMed

    Napier, B A; Schmieman, E A; Voitsekovitch, O

    2007-11-01

    The destruction of the Unit 4 reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant resulted in the generation of radioactive contamination and radioactive waste at the site and in the surrounding area (referred to as the Exclusion Zone). In the course of remediation activities, large volumes of radioactive waste were generated and placed in temporary near-surface waste storage and disposal facilities. Trench and landfill type facilities were created from 1986-1987 in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone at distances 0.5-15 km from the nuclear power plant site. This large number of facilities was established without proper design documentation, engineered barriers, or hydrogeological investigations and they do not meet contemporary waste-safety requirements. Immediately following the accident, a Shelter was constructed over the destroyed reactor; in addition to uncertainties in stability at the time of its construction, structural elements of the Shelter have degraded as a result of corrosion. The main potential hazard of the Shelter is a possible collapse of its top structures and release of radioactive dust into the environment. A New Safe Confinement (NSC) with a 100 y service life is planned to be built as a cover over the existing Shelter as a longer-term solution. The construction of the NSC will enable the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of highly radioactive, fuel-containing materials from Unit 4, and eventual decommissioning of the damaged reactor. More radioactive waste will be generated during NSC construction, possible Shelter dismantling, removal of fuel-containing materials, and decommissioning of Unit 4. The future development of the Exclusion Zone depends on the future strategy for converting Unit 4 into an ecologically safe system, i.e., the development of the NSC, the dismantlement of the current Shelter, removal of fuel-containing material, and eventual decommissioning of the accident site. To date, a broadly accepted strategy for radioactive waste

  17. Radioactive contamination of the Techa River, the Urals.

    PubMed

    Trapeznikov, A V; Pozolotina, V N; Chebotina MYa; Chukanov, V N; Trapeznikova, V N; Kulikov, N V; Nielsen, S P; Aarkrog, A

    1993-11-01

    The Techa River in the Urals was contaminated with high-level radioactive waste from the MAJAK nuclear installation around 1950. The total discharge to the river amounted to 100 PBq with 90Sr and 137Cs contributing approximately 10 PBq each. This study has shown that the river presently contains approximately 0.3 TBq 90Sr, > 6 TBq 137Cs, and approximately 8 GBq 239,240Pu. The estimates were made for the part of the river starting 50 km from the point of discharge and ending 240 km downstream at the confluence with the Iset River. Radioactivity was measured only in the upper 0.10-m sediments layer. The external dose rates from the contamination range from 0.1-30 microGy h-1. The activity concentrations decrease exponentially or by power functions with distance.

  18. Vitrification of radioactive contaminated soil by means of microwave energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xun; Qing, Qi; Zhang, Shuai; Lu, Xirui

    2017-03-01

    Simulated radioactive contaminated soil was successfully vitrified by microwave sintering technology and the solidified body were systematically studied by Raman, XRD and SEM-EDX. The Raman results show that the solidified body transformed to amorphous structure better at higher temperature (1200 °C). The XRD results show that the metamictization has been significantly enhanced by the prolonged holding time at 1200 °C by microwave sintering, while by conventional sintering technology other crystal diffraction peaks, besides of silica at 2θ = 27.830°, still exist after being treated at 1200 °C for much longer time. The SEM-EDX discloses the micro-morphology of the sample and the uniform distribution of Nd element. All the results show that microwave technology performs vitrification better than the conventional sintering method in solidifying radioactive contaminated soil.

  19. Radioactive waste from decommissioning of fast reactors (through the example of BN-800)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybin, A. A.; Momot, O. A.

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of volume of radioactive waste from operating and decommissioning of fast reactors is introduced. Preliminary estimation has shown that the volume of RW from decommissioning of BN-800 is amounted to 63,000 cu. m. Comparison of the amount of liquid radioactive waste derived from operation of different reactor types is performed. Approximate costs of all wastes disposal for complete decommissioning of BN-800 reactor are estimated amounting up to approx. 145 million.

  20. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste processing in plasma reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sauchyn, V.; Khvedchyn, I.; Van Oost, G.

    2013-07-01

    Methods of low and intermediate level radioactive waste processing comprise: cementation, bituminization, curing in polymer matrices, combustion and pyrolysis. All these methods are limited in their application in the field of chemical, morphological, and aggregate composition of material to be processed. The thermal plasma method is one of the universal methods of RAW processing. The use of electric-arc plasma with mean temperatures 2000 - 8000 K can effectively carry out the destruction of organic compounds into atoms and ions with very high speeds and high degree of conversion. Destruction of complex substances without oxygen leads to a decrease of the volume of exhaust gases and dimension of gas cleaning system. This paper presents the plasma reactor for thermal processing of low and intermediate level radioactive waste of mixed morphology. The equipment realizes plasma-pyrolytic conversion of wastes and results in a conditioned product in a single stage. As a result, the volume of conditioned waste is significantly reduced (more than 10 times). Waste is converted into an environmentally friendly form that suits long-term storage. The leaching rate of macro-components from the vitrified compound is less than 1.10{sup -7} g/(cm{sup 2}.day). (authors)

  1. The accumulation of radioactive contaminants in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas; Wang, Lili; Chen, Abe

    2014-03-01

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution system sediment and scales has been documented, raising concerns that the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential human exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of concern because of their known health effects and because of their persistence within associated distribution system materials. The objective of this work was to measure the amount of a number of radioactive contaminants (radium, thorium, and uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity) in distribution solids collected from water systems in four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas). The water utilities chosen had measurable levels of radium in their source waters. In addition, 19 other elements in the solids were quantified. Water systems provided solids primarily collected during routine fire hydrant flushing. Iron was the dominant element in nearly all of the solids and was followed by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, silicon, aluminum and barium in descending order. Gross alpha and beta radiation averaged 255 and 181 pCi/g, and were as high as 1602 and 1169 pCi/g, respectively. Total radium, thorium and uranium averaged 143, 40 and 6.4 pCi/g, respectively. Radium-226 and -228 averaged 74 and 69 pCi/g, and were as high as 250 and 351 pCi/g, respectively.

  2. Processing results of 1800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-05-01

    Mercury-contaminated rinse solution was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 reactor shield tank. Approximately 6.8 m{sup 3} (1,800 pi) of waste was generated and placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 2--5 cm in depth, with the average depth of about 6 cm. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/mL while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pCi/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. The resulting solution after treatment had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml.

  3. Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference.

  4. Water wash apparatus for cleaning radioactively contaminated garments

    SciTech Connect

    Sewter, B.R.; Jarvis, T.A.; Kirchner, M.A.; Prisco, A.J. Jr.; Bonneau, A.M.; Trendler, K.E.; Briggs, W.E.; Godfrey, L.E.

    1990-03-20

    This patent describes an apparatus for water washing fabrics and removing radioactive contaminants therefrom without the generation of liquid effluents. It comprises: a washing machine means for washing the fabrics having a wash water inlet, a rinse water inlet, and an outlet, and a hydraulically closed wash water system which includes a reservoir means of polished water connected to the wash water inlet of the machine means, a particulate filtration means connected to the outlet for removing particulate impurities from the wash water discharged from the outlet, and a water polishing means connected between the particulate filtration means and the wash water inlet for supplying the reservoir means with filtered and polished water.

  5. 12. Chernobyl's radioactive contamination of food and people.

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, Alexey V; Nesterenko, Vassily B; Yablokov, Alexey V

    2009-11-01

    In many European countries levels of I-131, Cs-134/137, Sr-90, and other radionuclides in milk, dairy products, vegetables, grains, meat, and fish increased drastically (sometimes as much as 1,000-fold) immediately after the catastrophe. Up until 1991 the United States imported food products with measurable amounts of Chernobyl radioactive contamination, mostly from Turkey, Italy, Austria, West Germany, Greece, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Sweden, and Denmark. These products included juices, cheeses, pasta, mushrooms, hazelnuts, sage, figs, tea, thyme, juniper, caraway seeds, and apricots. In Gomel, Mogilev, and Brest provinces in Belarus 7-8% of milk and 13-16% of other food products from small farms exceeded permissible levels of Cs-137, even as recently as 2005-2007. As of 2000, up to 90% of the wild berries and mushrooms exceeded permissible levels of Cs-137 in Rovno and Zhytomir provinces, Ukraine. Owing to weight and metabolic differences, a child's radiation exposure is 3-5 times higher than that of an adult on the same diet. From 1995 to 2007, up to 90% of the children from heavily contaminated territories of Belarus had levels of Cs-137 accumulation higher than 15-20 Bq/kg, with maximum levels of up to 7,300 Bq/kg in Narovlya District, Gomel Province. Average levels of incorporated Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the heavily contaminated territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia did not decline, but rather increased from 1991 to 2005. Given that more than 90% of the current radiation fallout is due to Cs-137, with a half-life of about 30 years, we know that the contaminated areas will be dangerously radioactive for roughly the next three centuries.

  6. Memorandum of the Establishment of Cleanup Levels for CERCLA Sites with Radioactive Contamination

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum presents clarifying guidance for establishing protective cleanup levels for radioactive contamination at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) sites.

  7. Development of RadRob15, A Robot for Detecting Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear Medicine Departments

    PubMed Central

    Shafe, A.; Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Joharnia, A.; Safaeyan, Gh.H.

    2016-01-01

    Accidental or intentional release of radioactive materials into the living or working environment may cause radioactive contamination. In nuclear medicine departments, radioactive contamination is usually due to radionuclides which emit high energy gamma photons and particles. These radionuclides have a broad range of energies and penetration capabilities. Rapid detection of radioactive contamination is very important for efficient removing of the contamination without spreading the radionuclides. A quick scan of the contaminated area helps health physicists locate the contaminated area and assess the level of activity. Studies performed in IR Iran shows that in some nuclear medicine departments, areas with relatively high levels of activity can be found. The highest contamination level was detected in corridors which are usually used by patients. To monitor radioactive contamination in nuclear medicine departments, RadRob15, a contamination detecting robot was developed in the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC). The motor vehicle scanner and the gas radiation detector are the main components of this robot. The detection limit of this robot has enabled it to detect low levels of radioactive contamination. Our preliminary tests show that RadRob15 can be easily used in nuclear medicine departments as a device for quick surveys which identifies the presence or absence of radioactive contamination. PMID:27853728

  8. Development of RadRob15, A Robot for Detecting Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear Medicine Departments.

    PubMed

    Shafe, A; Mortazavi, S M J; Joharnia, A; Safaeyan, Gh H

    2016-09-01

    Accidental or intentional release of radioactive materials into the living or working environment may cause radioactive contamination. In nuclear medicine departments, radioactive contamination is usually due to radionuclides which emit high energy gamma photons and particles. These radionuclides have a broad range of energies and penetration capabilities. Rapid detection of radioactive contamination is very important for efficient removing of the contamination without spreading the radionuclides. A quick scan of the contaminated area helps health physicists locate the contaminated area and assess the level of activity. Studies performed in IR Iran shows that in some nuclear medicine departments, areas with relatively high levels of activity can be found. The highest contamination level was detected in corridors which are usually used by patients. To monitor radioactive contamination in nuclear medicine departments, RadRob15, a contamination detecting robot was developed in the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC). The motor vehicle scanner and the gas radiation detector are the main components of this robot. The detection limit of this robot has enabled it to detect low levels of radioactive contamination. Our preliminary tests show that RadRob15 can be easily used in nuclear medicine departments as a device for quick surveys which identifies the presence or absence of radioactive contamination.

  9. Evaluation and ranking of restoration strategies for radioactively contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Zeevaert, T; Bousher, A; Brendler, V; Jensen, P H; Nordlinder, S

    2001-01-01

    An international project, whose aim was the development of a transparent and robust method for evaluating and ranking restoration strategies for radioactively contaminated sites (RESTRAT), was carried out under the Fourth Framework of the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the EU. The evaluation and ranking procedure used was based on the principles of justification and optimisation for radiation protection. A multi-attribute utility analysis was applied to allow for the inclusion of radiological health effects, economic costs and social factors. Values of these attributes were converted into utility values by applying linear utility functions and weighting factors, derived from scaling constants and expert judgement. The uncertainties and variabilities associated with these utility functions and weighting factors were dealt with by a probabilistic approach which utilised a Latin Hypercube Sampling technique. Potentially relevant restoration techniques were identified and their characteristics determined through a literature review. The methodology developed by this project has been illustrated by application to representative examples of different categories of contaminated sites; a waste disposal site, a uranium tailing site and a contaminated freshwater river.

  10. Fluvial Placement of Radioactive Contaminants a Weldon Spring Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, J.

    2002-02-26

    The operation of the Weldon Spring Uranium Feed Materials Plant in St. Charles, MO between 1958 and 1966 resulted in the migration and emplacement of radioactive contaminants into surface water drainage systems. Multiple drainage systems, receiving from a variety of waste discharge points, combined to create unique and unexpected depositional environment. Discovery and investigation of the depositional environments was a significant technical challenge due to the complex nature of sediment movement and emplacement. The objective of this investigation was to show that application of the knowledge of geomorphic processes is an essential element of a complete stream characterization, pursuant to risk analysis and remediation. This paper sets out to describe many of the expected and unexpected findings of the investigations by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) into the placement and rework of contaminated sediments in stream systems. Information from this paper will be useful to other agencies and contractor personnel faced with the challenge of locating and quantifying contaminated sediments in seemingly haphazard fluvial depositional conditions.

  11. Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A. )

    1990-01-01

    This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs.

  12. Radioactive contamination of the environment and the possible consequences.

    PubMed

    Knizhnikov, V A; Barkhudarov, R M

    1975-06-01

    To find the optimum solution to the problem of how to protect the environment from pollution by industrial waste, it is necessary, first and foremost, to obtain information on the existing levels of various forms of pollution and the damage caused by them. In this review data are given on all the main sources of contamination of the environment by radioactive substances. The pathways by which these substances reach and affect the human body are discussed, the doses incurred are characterized and the possible consequences of existing levels of exposure are assessed in the light of the latest data on the dose-effect relationship. The wisdom of treating the evaluation of radiation hazards arising from the use of atomic energy not in isolation but as part of a whole complex of ecological factors - including the use of conventional fuels for power generation and transport - is duly noted.

  13. Processing results of 1,800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mercury-contaminated rinse solution (INEL waste ID{number_sign} 123; File 8 waste) was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 (HTRE-3) reactor shield tank. Approximately 1,800 gal of waste was generated and was placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 1--10 in. in depth, with the average depth of about 2.5 in. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/ml, while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pci/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. Because of difficulties in processing, three trials were required to reduce the mercury levels to below the RCRA limit. In the first trial, insufficient filtration of the waste allowed solid particulate produced during pH adjustment to enter into the ion exchange columns and ultimately the waste storage tank. In the second trial, the waste was filtered down to 0.1 {mu} to remove all solid mercury compounds. However, before filtration could take place, a solid mercury complex dissolved and mercury levels exceeded the RCRA limit after filtration. In the third trial, the waste was filtered through 0.3-A filters and then passed through the S-920 resin to remove the dissolved mercury. The resulting solution had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml. This solution was disposed of at the TAN warm waste pond, TAN782, TSF-10.

  14. Utilization of coal fly ash in solidification of liquid radioactive waste from research reactor.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2014-05-01

    In this study, the potential utilization of fly ash was investigated as an additive in solidification process of radioactive waste sludge from research reactor. Coal formations include various percentages of natural radioactive elements; therefore, coal fly ash includes various levels of radioactivity. For this reason, fly ashes have to be evaluated for potential environmental implications in case of further usage in any construction material. But for use in solidification of radioactive sludge, the radiological effects of fly ash are in the range of radioactive waste management limits. The results show that fly ash has a strong fixing capacity for radioactive isotopes. Specimens with addition of 5-15% fly ash to concrete was observed to be sufficient to achieve the target compressive strength of 20 MPa required for near-surface disposal. An optimum mixture comprising 15% fly ash, 35% cement, and 50% radioactive waste sludge could provide the solidification required for long-term storage and disposal. The codisposal of radioactive fly ash with radioactive sludge by solidification decreases the usage of cement in solidification process. By this method, radioactive fly ash can become a valuable additive instead of industrial waste. This study supports the utilization of fly ash in industry and the solidification of radioactive waste in the nuclear industry.

  15. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives. PMID:27420080

  16. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    PubMed

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  17. The combined hybrid system: A symbiotic thermal reactor/fast reactor system for power generation and radioactive waste toxicity reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Hollaway, W.R.

    1991-08-01

    If there is to be a next generation of nuclear power in the United States, then the four fundamental obstacles confronting nuclear power technology must be overcome: safety, cost, waste management, and proliferation resistance. The Combined Hybrid System (CHS) is proposed as a possible solution to the problems preventing a vigorous resurgence of nuclear power. The CHS combines Thermal Reactors (for operability, safety, and cost) and Integral Fast Reactors (for waste treatment and actinide burning) in a symbiotic large scale system. The CHS addresses the safety and cost issues through the use of advanced reactor designs, the waste management issue through the use of actinide burning, and the proliferation resistance issue through the use of an integral fuel cycle with co-located components. There are nine major components in the Combined Hybrid System linked by nineteen nuclear material mass flow streams. A computer code, CHASM, is used to analyze the mass flow rates CHS, and the reactor support ratio (the ratio of thermal/fast reactors), IFR of the system. The primary advantages of the CHS are its essentially actinide-free high-level radioactive waste, plus improved reactor safety, uranium utilization, and widening of the option base. The primary disadvantages of the CHS are the large capacity of IFRs required (approximately one MW{sub e} IFR capacity for every three MW{sub e} Thermal Reactor) and the novel radioactive waste streams produced by the CHS. The capability of the IFR to burn pure transuranic fuel, a primary assumption of this study, has yet to be proven. The Combined Hybrid System represents an attractive option for future nuclear power development; that disposal of the essentially actinide-free radioactive waste produced by the CHS provides an excellent alternative to the disposal of intact actinide-bearing Light Water Reactor spent fuel (reducing the toxicity based lifetime of the waste from roughly 360,000 years to about 510 years).

  18. Reactor surface contamination stabilization. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Contaminated surfaces, such as the face of a nuclear reactor, need to be stabilized (fixed) to avoid airborne contamination during decontamination and decommissioning activities, and to prepare for interim safe storage. The traditional (baseline) method of fixing the contamination has been to spray a coating on the surfaces, but ensuring complete coverage over complex shapes, such as nozzles and hoses, is difficult. The Hanford Site C Reactor Technology Demonstration Group demonstrated innovative technologies to assess stabilization properties of various coatings and to achieve complete coverage of complex surfaces on the reactor face. This demonstration was conducted in two phases: the first phase consisted of a series of laboratory assessments of various stabilization coatings on metal coupons. For the second phase, coatings that passed the laboratory tests were applied to the front face of the C Reactor and evaluated. The baseline coating (Rust-Oleum No. 769) and one of the innovative technologies did not completely cover nozzle assemblies on the reactor face, the most critical of the second-phase evaluation criteria. However, one of the innovative coating systems, consisting of a base layer of foam covered by an outer layer of a polymeric film, was successful. The baseline technology would cost approximately 33% as much as the innovative technology cost of $64,000 to stabilize an entire reactor face (196 m{sup 2} or 2116 ft{sup 2}) with 2,004 nozzle assemblies, but the baseline system failed to provide complete surface coverage.

  19. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US. (TEM)

  20. Long-term assessment of contaminated articles from the Chernobyl reactor.

    PubMed

    Alkhomashi, N; Monged, M H E

    2015-06-01

    The Chernobyl accident caused a release of radioactive materials from the reactor into the environment. This event contaminated people, their surroundings and their personal property, especially in the zone around the reactor. Among the affected individuals were British students who were studying in Minsk and Kiev at the time of the Chernobyl accident. These students were exposed to external and internal radiation, and the individuals' articles of clothing were contaminated. The primary objective of this study was to analyze a sample of this contaminated clothing 20 years after the accident using three different detectors, namely, a BP4/4C scintillation detector, a Min-Con Geiger-Müller tube detector and a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The clothing articles were initially assessed and found not to be significantly contaminated. However, there were several hot spots of contamination in various regions of the articles. The net count rates for these hot spots were in the range of 10.00 ± 3.16 c/s to 41.00 ± 6.40 c/s when the BP4/4C scintillation detector was used. The HPGe detector was used to identify the radionuclides present in the clothing, and the results indicated that the only active radionuclide was (137)Cs because of this isotope's long half-life.

  1. US screening of international travelers for radioactive contamination after the Japanese nuclear plant disaster in March 2011.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Todd; Chang, Arthur; Berro, Andre; Still, Aaron; Brown, Clive; Demma, Andrew; Nemhauser, Jeffrey; Martin, Colleen; Salame-Alfie, Adela; Fisher-Tyler, Frieda; Smith, Lee; Grady-Erickson, Onalee; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Brunette, Gary; Ansari, Armin; McAdam, David; Marano, Nina

    2012-10-01

    On March 11, 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake and subsequent tsunami damaged nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi complex in Japan, resulting in radionuclide release. In response, US officials augmented existing radiological screening at its ports of entry (POEs) to detect and decontaminate travelers contaminated with radioactive materials. During March 12 to 16, radiation screening protocols detected 3 travelers from Japan with external radioactive material contamination at 2 air POEs. Beginning March 23, federal officials collaborated with state and local public health and radiation control authorities to enhance screening and decontamination protocols at POEs. Approximately 543 000 (99%) travelers arriving directly from Japan at 25 US airports were screened for radiation contamination from March 17 to April 30, and no traveler was detected with contamination sufficient to require a large-scale public health response. The response highlighted synergistic collaboration across government levels and leveraged screening methods already in place at POEs, leading to rapid protocol implementation. Policy development, planning, training, and exercising response protocols and the establishment of federal authority to compel decontamination of travelers are needed for future radiological responses. Comparison of resource-intensive screening costs with the public health yield should guide policy decisions, given the historically low frequency of contaminated travelers arriving during radiological disasters.

  2. Levels and trends of radioactive contaminants in the Greenland environment.

    PubMed

    Dahlgaard, Henning; Eriksson, Mats; Nielsen, Sven P; Joensen, Hans Pauli

    2004-09-20

    Levels of radioactive contaminants in various Greenland environments have been assessed during 1999-2001. The source of 137Cs, 90Sr and (239,240)Pu in terrestrial and fresh water environments is mainly global fallout. In addition, the Chernobyl accident gave a small contribution of 137Cs. Reindeer and lamb contain the largest observed 137Cs concentrations in the terrestrial environment--up to 80 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight have been observed in reindeer. Due to special environmental conditions, 137Cs is transferred to landlocked Arctic char with extremely high efficiency in South Greenland leading to concentrations up to 100 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight. In these cases very long ecological half-lives are seen. Concentrations of 99Tc, 137Cs and 90Sr in seawater and in marine biota decrease in the order North-East Greenland and the coastal East Greenland current > South-West Greenland > Central West Greenland and North-West Greenland > Irmiger Sea-Faroe Islands. The general large-scale oceanic circulation combined with European coastal discharges and previous contamination of the Arctic Ocean causes this. As the same tendency is seen for the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) DDT and PCB in marine biota, it is suggested that long-distance oceanic transport by coastal currents is a significant pathway also for POPs in the Greenland marine environment. The peak 99Tc discharge from Sellafield 1994-1995 has only been slightly visible in the present survey year 2000. The concentrations are expected to increase in the future, especially in East Greenland. The Bylot Sound at the Thule Airbase (Pituffik) in North-West Greenland was contaminated with plutonium and enriched uranium in a weapons accident in 1968. Biological activity has mixed accident plutonium efficiently into the new sediments resulting in continued high surface sediment concentrations three decades after the accident. Transfer of plutonium to benthic biota is low--and lower than observed in the Irish Sea. This is

  3. A Technical Guide to Ground-Water Model Selection at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Substances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report addresses the selection of ground-water flow and contaminant transport models and is intended to be used by hydrogeologists and geoscientists responsible for selecting transport models for use at sites containing radioactive materials.

  4. DEMONSTRATION SOLIDIFICATION TESTS CONDUCTED ON RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED ORGANIC LIQUIDS AT THE AECL WHITESHELL LABORATORIES

    SciTech Connect

    Ryz, R. A.; Brunkow, W. G.; Govers, R.; Campbell, D.; Krause, D.

    2002-02-25

    The AECL, Whiteshell Laboratory (WL) near Pinawa Manitoba, Canada, was established in the early 1960's to carry out AECL research and development activities for higher temperature versions of the CANDU{reg_sign} reactor. The initial focus of the research program was the Whiteshell Reactor-1 (WR-1) Organic Cooled Reactor (OCR) that began operation in 1965. The OCR program was discontinued in the early 1970's in favor of the successful heavy-water-cooled CANDU system. WR-1 continued to operate until 1985 in support of AECL nuclear research programs. A consequence of the Federal government's recent program review process was AECL's business decision to discontinue research programs and operations at the Whiteshell Laboratories and to consolidate its' activities at the Chalk River Laboratories. As a result, AECL received government concurrence in 1998 to proceed to plan actions to achieve closure of WL. The planning actions now in progress address the need to safely and effectively transition the WL site from an operational state, in support of AECL's business, to a shutdown and decommissioned state that meets the regulatory requirements for a licensed nuclear site. The decommissioning program that will be required at WL is unique within AECL and Canada since it will need to address the entire research site rather than individual facilities declared redundant. Accordingly, the site nuclear facilities are being systematically placed in a safe shutdown state and planning for the decommissioning work to place the facilities in a secure monitoring and surveillance state is in progress. One aspect of the shutdown activities is to deal with the legacy of radioactively contaminated organic liquid wastes. Use of a polymer powder to solidify these organic wastes was identified as one possibility for improved interim storage of this material pending final disposition.

  5. Combustion aerosols formed during burning of radioactively contaminated materials: Experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, M.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Dennis, G.W.

    1987-03-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases. Radioactive aerosols generated by fires were investigated in experiments in which combustible solids and liquids were contaminated with radioactive materials and burned. Uranium in powder and liquid form was used to contaminate five fuel types: polychloroprene, polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate, cellulose, and a mixture of 30% tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. Heat flux, oxygen concentration, air flow, contaminant concentration, and type of ignition were varied in the experiments. The highest release (7.1 wt %) came from burning TBP/kerosene over contaminated nitric acid. Burning cellulose contaminated with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate liquid gave the lowest release (0.01 wt %). Rate of release and particle size distribution of airborne radioactive particles were highly dependent on the type of fuel burned.

  6. Imaging plant leaves to determine changes in radioactive contamination status in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hiroo; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Tanihata, Isao; Saito, Tadashi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Todo, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    The chemical composition of plant leaves often reflects environmental contamination. The authors analyzed images of plant leaves to investigate the regional radioactivity ecology resulting from the 2011 accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, Japan. The present study is not an evaluation of the macro radiation dose per weight, which has been performed previously, but rather an image analysis of the radioactive dose per leaf, allowing the capture of various gradual changes in radioactive contamination as a function of elapsed time. In addition, the leaf analysis method has potential applications in the decontamination of food plants or other materials.

  7. 10 CFR 72.108 - Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor... RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.108 Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste transportation....

  8. 10 CFR 72.108 - Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor... RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.108 Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste transportation....

  9. 10 CFR 72.108 - Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor... RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.108 Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste transportation....

  10. 10 CFR 72.108 - Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor... RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.108 Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste transportation....

  11. 10 CFR 72.108 - Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor... RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Siting Evaluation Factors § 72.108 Spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, or reactor-related greater than Class C waste transportation....

  12. Sequencing batch reactor performance treating PAH contaminated lagoon sediments.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Andrea; Stante, Loredana; Pirozzi, Francesco; Cesaro, Raffaele; Bortone, Giuseppe

    2005-03-17

    The applicability of sediment slurry sequencing batch reactors (SBR) to treat Venice lagoon sediments contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated, carrying out experimental tests. The slurry, obtained mixing tap water and contaminated sediments with 17.1 mg kg(-1) TS total PAHs content, was loaded to a 8l lab-scale completely stirred reactor, operated as a sequencing batch reactor. Oxygen uptake rate exerted by the slurry, measured by means of a DO-stat titrator, was used to monitor the in-reactor biological activity and to select the optimal operating conditions for the sediment slurry SBR. The PAHs removal efficiency was evaluated in different operating conditions, obtained changing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the lab-scale reactor and adding an external carbon source to the slurry. HRT values used during the experiments are 98, 70 and 35 days, whereas the carbon source was added in order to evaluate its effect on the biological activity. The results have shown a stable degradation of PAHs, with a removal efficiency close to 55%, not dependent on the addition of carbon source and the tested HRTs.

  13. Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, George; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    2000-06-01

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous building materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. This intractable radioactive-and-hazardous-asbestos mixed-waste stream has created a tremendous challenge to DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project managers. The current practice to identify asbestos and to characterize radioactive contamination depth profiles in based solely on bore sampling, which is inefficient, costly, and unsafe. A three-year research project was started 1998 at Rensselaer with the following ultimate goals: (1) development of novel non-destructive methods for identifying the hazardous asbestos in real-time and in-situ, and (2) development of new algorithms and apparatus for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profile in real-time and in-situ.

  14. Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, George; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    1999-06-01

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous building materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. This intractable radioactive-and-hazardous- asbestos mixed-waste-stream has created a tremendous challenge to DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project managers. The current practice to identify asbestos and to characterize radioactive contamination depth profiles involve bore sampling, and is inefficient, costly, and unsafe. A three-year research project was started on 10/1/98 at Rensselaer with the following ultimate goals: (1) development of novel non-destructive methods for identifying the hazardous asbestos in real-time and in-situ, and (2) development of new algorithms and apparatus for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profile in real-time and in-situ.

  15. Helium leak testing of a radioactive contaminated vessel under high pressure in a contaminated environment

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, M.E.

    1996-10-01

    At ANL-W, with the shutdown of EBR-II, R&D has evolved from advanced reactor design to the safe handling, processing, packaging, and transporting spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. New methods of processing spent fuel rods and transforming contaminated material into acceptable waste forms are now in development. Storage of nuclear waste is a high interest item. ANL-W is participating in research of safe storage of nuclear waste, with the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site in New Mexico the repository. The vessel under test simulates gas generated by contaminated materials stored underground at the WIPP site. The test vessel is 90% filled with a mixture of contaminated material and salt brine (from WIPP site) and pressurized with N2-1% He at 2500 psia. Test acceptance criteria is leakage < 10{sup -7} cc/seconds at 2500 psia. The bell jar method is used to determine leakage rate using a mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD). The efficient MSLD and an Al bell jar replaced a costly, time consuming pressure decay test setup. Misinterpretation of test criterion data caused lengthy delays, resulting in the development of a unique procedure. Reevaluation of the initial intent of the test criteria resulted in leak tolerances being corrected and test efficiency improved.

  16. DOE`s radioactively - contaminated metal recycling: The policy and its implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.; Rizkalla, E.

    1997-02-01

    In 1994, the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration initiated development of a recycling policy to minimize the amount of radioactively-contaminated metal being disposed of as waste. During the following two years, stakeholders (including DOE and contractor personnel, regulators, members of the public, and representatives of labor and industry) were invited to identify key issues of concern, and to provide input on the final policy. As a result of this process, a demonstration policy for recycling radioactively-contaminated carbon steel resulting from decommissioning activities within the Environmental Management program was signed on September 20, 1996. It specifically recognizes that the Office of Environmental Management has a tremendous opportunity to minimize the disposal of metals as waste by the use of disposal containers fabricated from contaminated steel. The policy further recognizes the program`s demand for disposal containers, and it`s role as the major generator of radioactively-contaminated steel.

  17. Management and disposal of radioactively contaminated PCBs and PCB items at a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaster, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    In order to manage and dispose of radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) properly, a federal facility placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) must establish and implement a sitewide management concept to address radioactively contaminated PCBs in soil and debris area and PCBs encountered as a result of remedial activities. Suspect PCB contamination may include areas under and former uranium processing plants and facilities, roads, buildings, and structures known to have contained or utilized different types of electric, high temperature, and/or hydraulic equipment containing PCB contaminated fluids. It is the responsibility of the Superfund site to consult with EPA regional offices for the purpose of selecting response action strategies, cleanup levels, and disposal options CERCLA by evaluating the form and concentration of the PCB contamination as well as the presence of other contaminants such as low level radionuclides. Cleanup levels, limited treatment and disposal options, and associated technologies must be determined while ensuring adequate protection to human health and the environment.

  18. [Radioactive contamination of foods marketed in saitama prefecture].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Terumitsu; Nagahama, Yoshiyuki; Takekuma, Mikiko; Miyake, Sadaaki; Nomoto, Kahoru; Takano, Mariko

    2013-01-01

    Up to October 31, 2012, a total of 170 food samples marketed in Saitama Prefecture were examined following the setting of provisional regulatory limits for radioactivity in drinking water and foodstuffs by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare on 1 April 2012. No sample exceeded the regulatory limits as determined by gamma ray spectrometry with a germanium semiconductor detector. However the radioactive cesium concentrations of food samples such as raw wood-shiitake and maccha (powdered green tea) produced in Saitama were nearly at the regulatory limits, being 74 Bq/kg and 84 Bq/kg, respectively.

  19. Tools for modeling radioactive contaminants in chip materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrobel, F.; Kaouache, A.; Saigné, F.; Touboul, A. D.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Warot, G.; Bruguier, O.

    2017-03-01

    Radioactive pollutants are naturally present in microelectronic device materials and can be an issue for the reliability of devices. The main concern is alpha emitters that produce high-energy particles (a few MeV) that ionize the semiconductor and then trigger soft errors. The question is to know what kinds of radionuclides are present in the device, their location in the device and the abundance of each species. In this paper we describe tools that are required to address the issue of radioactive pollutants in electronic devices.

  20. [Influence of the consumption of radioactive contaminated food on the formation of the irradiation levels and health of the inhabitants of radioactive contaminated regions of Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Khomenko, I M; Omel'yanets, N I

    2014-01-01

    Within all these years after the Chernobyl disaster the population of contaminated areas of the Rivne region was shown to consume radioactive contaminated foodstuffs. The main components of the formation of the internal irradiation of the population in them were and remain locally sourced milk and meat, forest mushrooms and berries. After 1991, the largest annual internal doses in persons observed in 1997 varied from 2,2 to 1,45 mSv/year and in 2011--in the inhabitants of the village of El'no they were yet reaching 1.43 mSv/year. After 2003, exposure levels in most inhabitatants of affected areas exceeded the criterion specified by national legislation for residents of the tightened radioecological control zone (0,5 mSv/year). The long-term residence in the contaminated area, elevated levels of chronic internal exposure, lack of radioactively sound foodstuffs and involuntary consumption in 1987-2011 radioactively contaminated food of local production were noted to led to an increase in general morbidity, and incidence of endocrine diseases rate and their separate nosological forms.

  1. The IAEA CRP on Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maschek, W.; Chen, X.; Rineiski, A.; Schikorr, M.; Stanculescu, A.; Arien, B.; Malambu, E.; Bai, Y.; Li, J.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, S.; Chabert, C.; Peneliau, Y.; Chebeskov, A.; Dekoussar, V.; Vorotyntsev, M.; da Cruz, D.F.; Devan, K.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Harish, R.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Pandikumar, G.; Dulla, S.; Ravetto, P.; Feynberg, O.; Ignatiev, V.; Subbotin, V.; Surenkov, A.; Zakirov, R.; Kophazi, J.; Szieberth, M.; Morita, K.; Srivenkatesan, R.; Taczanowski, S.; Tucek, K.; Wider, H.; Vertes, P.; Uhlir, J.

    2007-07-01

    In 2003, the IAEA has initiated the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors, is to increase the capability of Member States in developing and applying advanced technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilization and transmutation. Twenty institutions from 15 Member States and one international organization participated in this CRP. The CRP concentrated on the assessment of the dynamic behavior of various transmutation systems. The reactor systems investigated comprise critical reactors, sub-critical accelerator driven systems with heavy liquid metal and gas cooling, critical molten salt systems, and hybrid fusion/fission systems. Both fertile and fertile-free fuel options have been investigated. Apart from the benchmarking of steady state core configurations (including the investigation of transmutation potential, burn-up behavior and decay heat of minor actinide (MA) bearing fuels), the CRP participants determined the safety coefficients for the individual systems and, in a second stage, performed transient analyses which reflected the generic safety related behavior of the various reactors types. (authors)

  2. Preparation and quantification of radioactive particles for tracking hydrodynamic behavior in multiphase reactors.

    PubMed

    Yunos, Mohd Amirul Syafiq Mohd; Hussain, Siti Aslina; Yusoff, Hamdan Mohamed; Abdullah, Jaafar

    2014-09-01

    Radioactive particle tracking (RPT) has emerged as a promising and versatile technique that can provide rich information about a variety of multiphase flow systems. However, RPT is not an off-the-shelf technique, and thus, users must customize RPT for their applications. This paper presents a simple procedure for preparing radioactive tracer particles created via irradiation with neutrons from the TRIGA Mark II research reactor. The present study focuses on the performance evaluation of encapsulated gold and scandium particles for applications as individual radioactive tracer particles using qualitative and quantitative neutron activation analysis (NAA) and an X-ray microcomputed tomography (X-ray Micro-CT) scanner installed at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency.

  3. Early-stage bioassay for monitoring radioactive contamination in living livestock.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Sawano, Kaita; Kishimoto, Miori; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2012-12-01

    Soil samples from the ground surface and feces and blood from a mixed-breed male pig were collected on April 10, 2011 at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The radioactivity of each sample was measured using a Ge semiconductor detector. Despite the fact that the pig had been fed non-contaminated imported feed, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the feces, and (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the blood clots. Because it is considerably difficult to measure radioactive contamination in the edible muscle of living livestock, bioassays are an option for the screening of radioactive contamination in living livestock to ensure food safety.

  4. Local variation of soil contamination with radioactive cesium at a farm in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Sasaki, Jun; Satoh, Hiroshi; Murata, Takahisa; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Otani, Kumiko; Okada, Keiji

    2016-02-01

    Radioactive cesium concentration in soil was measured at 27 sections with 5 points per section, and surface dose of ground was measured at 10 sections with 13 points per section at a farm in Fukushima to assess local variation of soil contamination with radioactive cesium. As for the cesium in soil, averages of the coefficient of variance (CV) and the maximum/minimum ratio in each section were 49% and 4.9, respectively. As for the surface dose, average of its CV in each section was 20% and the maximum/minimum ratio reached a maximum of 3.0. These findings suggest that exact evaluation of soil contamination with cesium is difficult. Small changes or differences in soil contamination may not be detected in studies of the environmental radioactivity.

  5. Advanced Test Reactor Complex Facilities Radioactive Waste Management Basis and DOE Manual 435.1-1 Compliance Tables

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa Harvego; Brion Bennett

    2011-11-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management,' along with its associated manual and guidance, requires development and maintenance of a radioactive waste management basis for each radioactive waste management facility, operation, and activity. This document presents a radioactive waste management basis for Idaho National Laboratory's Advanced Test Reactor Complex facilities that manage radioactive waste. The radioactive waste management basis for a facility comprises existing laboratory-wide and facility-specific documents. U.S. Department of Energy Manual 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual,' facility compliance tables also are presented for the facilities. The tables serve as a tool to develop the radioactive waste management basis.

  6. [Influence of nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl' on the environmental radioactivity in Toyama].

    PubMed

    Morita, M; Shoji, M; Honda, T; Sakanoue, M

    1987-06-01

    The environmental radioactivity caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl' was investigated from May 7 to May 31 of 1986 in Toyama. Measurement of radioactivities in airborne particles, rain water, drinking water, milk, and mugwort are carried out by gamma-ray spectrometry (pure Ge detector; ORTEC GMX-23195). Ten different nuclides (103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 132Te-I, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba-La) are identified from samples of airborne particles. In the air samples, a maximum radioactivity concentration of each nuclide is observed on 13th May 1986. The time of the reactor shut-down and the flux of thermal neutron at the reactor were calculated from 131I/132I and 137Cs/134Cs ratio. The exposure dose in Toyama by this accident is given as follows: internal exposure; [thyroid] adult-59 microSv, child-140 microSv, baby-130 microSv, [total body] adult-0.2 microSv, child, baby-0.4 microSv, external exposure; 7 microSv, effective dose equivalent; adult-9 microSv, child-12 Sv, baby-11 microSv.

  7. Radioactive particles released to the environment from the Fukushima reactors-Confirmation is still needed.

    PubMed

    Salbu, Brit; Lind, Ole Christian

    2016-10-01

    After severe nuclear events, a major fraction of refractory radionuclides such as U and Pu are released to the environment in the form of radioactive particles. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, Pu isotope ratio signals different from that of global fallout have been reported, indicating that spent fuel particles have been released from the reactors or reactor vessels. Radioactive particles containing (37) Cs and other volatile radionuclides, as well as a series of stable refractory metals (Cs, Fe, Zn, U, etc.), have been identified by several authors claiming that these particles originated from the FDNPP fuel. If so, long-lived radioactive isotopes of the refractory metals should have been identified in these particles. It is therefore most probable that volatile radionuclides released as gases during the accidents have deposited on available surfaces such as fly ash, forming condensation particles during release or transport. If spent fuel particles have been deposited in the FDNPP surroundings, information on particle characteristics influencing ecosystem transport, uptake, and effects is essential for assessing environmental impact and risk. More emphasis should therefore be put on the identification of hot spots in the FDNPP environment followed by the characterization of radioactive particles using nanoanalytical-microanalytical techniques to support environmental monitoring, as recommended in the present study. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:687-689. © 2016 SETAC.

  8. Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    1995-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of eastern Tennessee (USA). Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL. Contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory's boundaries have been found to contain {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs on the order of 10{sup -2}-10{sup 4} Bqg{sup -1} and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Animals that are capable of flight and animals with behavior patterns or developmental life stages involving contact with sediments in radioactive ponds, like benthic invertebrates, present the greatest potential for dispersal of radioactivity. The emigration of frogs and turtles from waste ponds also presents a potential for dispersal of radioactivity but over distances < 5 km. Mud-dauber wasps (Hymenoptera) and swallows (Hirundinidae) may transport radioactive mud for nest building, but also over relatively short distances (0.2-1 km). Movement by small mammals is limited by several factors, including physical barriers and smaller home ranges. Larger animals, like white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), are potential vectors of radioactivity due to their greater body size, longer life expectancy, and larger home range. Larger animals contain greater amounts of total radioactivity than smaller animals, but tissue concentrations of {sup 137}Cs generally decline with body size.

  9. Radiological criteria for remedial actions at radioactively contaminated sites. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1994-09-01

    Radiological criteria for determining acceptable remedical actions at radioactively contaminated sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation are presented in this report. The proposed criteria address protection of human health and man`s exposure environment but do not address protection of nonhuman biota. In addition, the criteria do not address potential exposures to nonradioactive hazardous chemicals that might be present at contaminated sites; however, as discussed, the protection principles on which the proposed radiological criteria are based could be used to determine acceptable remedial actions for carcinogenic hazardous chemicals. An important rationale for the proposed remedial action criteria is that many of the contaminated sites of concern were used for deliberate disposals of radioactive waste, principally low-level waste, or the sites contain radioactive materials similar in composition and potential hazard to many low-level wastes. Indeed, the basis for this proposal is the notion that remedial actions at radioactively contaminated sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation should achieve risks to human health consistent with current standards for ongoing, permitted disposals of low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge and all other United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites.

  10. Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

  11. Evaluation of the Parameters of Radioactive Contamination of Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Panasyuk M.I.; Skorbun A.D.; Klyuchnikov O.O.

    2002-02-26

    After Chornobyl NPP (ChNPP) accident the territory near destroyed Unit 4 (that now with the special confinement has the name the ''Shelter'' object) is contaminated of fuel fallouts. During liquidation of the accident consequences this territory was covered with pure earth, concrete, etc. As a result a contaminated anthropogenic layer of the soil on the depth up to 10 m was formed. Now the problem of contamination estimation and the soils management arose. For this tasks a gamma logging method was modified conformably to ChNPP conditions. The methods for necessary coefficients receiving and log treatment have been suggested.

  12. A United States perspective on long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Jones, C Rick

    2004-01-01

    The US has far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials. This experience base includes the Department of Energy's continued follow-up with Hiroshima and Nagasaki from the 1940s at the Radiological Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima, Japan, the long-term management of the Marshall Islands Programme, the clean-up of the US nuclear weapons complex and the ongoing management of accident sites such as in Palomares, Spain. This paper discusses the lessons learnt and best practices gained from this far-reaching and extensive experience in the long-term management of areas contaminated with radioactive materials.

  13. Accumulation of radioactive corrosion products on steel surfaces of VVER-type nuclear reactors. II. 60Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Kálmán; Hirschberg, Gábor; Németh, Zoltán; Myburg, Gerrit; Schunk, János; Tilky, Péter

    2001-10-01

    In the case of intact fuel claddings, the predominant source of radioactivity in the primary circuits of water-cooled nuclear reactors is the activation of corrosion products in the core. The most important corrosion product radionuclides in the primary coolant of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are 60Co, 58Co, 51Cr, 54Mn, 59Fe (as well as 110mAg in some Soviet-made VVER-type reactor). The second part of this series is focused on the complex studies of the formation and build-up of 60Co-containing species on an austenitic stainless steel type 08X18H10T (GOST 5632-61) and magnetite-covered carbon steel often to be used in Soviet-planned VVERs. The kinetics and mechanism of the cobalt accumulation were studied by a combination (coupling) of an in situ radiotracer method and voltammetry in a model solution of the primary circuit coolant. In addition, independent techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) and ICP-OES are also used to analyze the chemical state of Co species in the passive layer formed on stainless steel as well as the chemical composition of model solution. The experimental results have revealed that: (i) The passive behavior of the austenitic stainless steel at open-circuit conditions, the slightly alkaline pH and the reducing water chemistry can be considered to be optimal to minimize the 60Co contamination. (ii) The highly potential dependent deposition of various Co-oxides at E>1.10 V (vs. RHE) offers a unique possibility to elaborate a novel electrochemical method for the decrease or removal of cobalt traces from borate-containing coolants contaminated with 60Co and/or 58Co radionuclides.

  14. Effects of radioactive contamination on Scots pines in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, Stanislav; Oudalova, Alla; Dikareva, Nina; Spiridonov, Sergey; Hinton, Thomas; Chernonog, Elena; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2011-08-01

    A 6 year study of Scots pine populations inhabiting sites in the Bryansk region of Russia radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident is presented. In six study sites, (137)Cs activity concentrations and heavy metal content in soils, as well as (137)Cs, (90)Sr and heavy metal concentrations in cones were measured. Doses absorbed in reproduction organs of pine trees were calculated using a dosimetric model. The maximum annual dose absorbed at the most contaminated site was about 130 mGy. Occurrence of aberrant cells scored in the root meristem of germinated seeds collected from pine trees growing on radioactively contaminated territories for over 20 years significantly exceeded the reference levels during all 6 years of the study. The data suggest that cytogenetic effects occur in Scots pine populations due to the radioactive contamination. However, no consistent differences in reproductive ability were detected between the impacted and reference populations as measured by the frequency of abortive seeds. Even though the Scots pine populations have occupied radioactively contaminated territories for two decades, there were no clear indications of adaptation to the radiation, when measured by the number of aberrant cells in root meristems of seeds exposed to an additional acute dose of radiation.

  15. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72.128... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  16. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72.128... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  17. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72.128... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  18. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72.128... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Design Criteria § 72.128 Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste,...

  19. 10 CFR 72.128 - Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste, reactor-related greater than Class C waste...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., reactor-related greater than Class C waste, and other radioactive waste storage and handling. 72.128... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Design Criteria § 72.128 Criteria for spent fuel, high-level radioactive waste,...

  20. Residual radioactivity guidelines for the heavy water components test reactor at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, M.B. Smith, R.; McNeil, J.

    1997-04-01

    Guidelines were developed for acceptable levels of residual radioactivity in the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility at the conclusion of its decommissioning. Using source terms developed from data generated in a detailed characterization study, the RESRAD and RASRAD-BUILD computer codes were used to calculate derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for the radionuclides that will remain in the facility. The calculated DCGLs, when compared to existing concentrations of radionuclides measured during a 1996 characterization program, indicate that no decontamination of concrete surfaces will be necessary. Also, based on the results of the calculations, activated concrete in the reactor biological shield does not have to be removed, and imbedded radioactive piping in the facility can remain in place. Viewed in another way, the results of the calculations showed that the present inventory of residual radioactivity in the facility (not including that associated with the reactor vessel and steam generators) would produce less than one millirem per year above background to a hypothetical individual on the property. The residual radioactivity is estimated to be approximately 0.04 percent of the total inventory in the facility as of March, 1997. According to the results, the only radionuclides that would produce greater than 0.0.1-millirem per year are Am-241 (0.013 mrem/yr at 300 years), C-14 (0.022 mrem/yr at 1000 years) and U-238 (0.034 mrem/yr at 6000 years). Human exposure would occur only through the groundwater pathways, that is, from water drawn from, a well on the property. The maximum exposure would be approximately one percent of the 4 millirem per year ground water exposure limit established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 11 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott A.

    2012-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Area 8 Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively.

  2. REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

    2002-05-10

    Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

  3. Analysis of disposition alternatives for radioactively contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    Millions of tonnes of slightly radioactive, scrap iron and steel, stainless steel, and copper are likely to become available as nuclear and other facilities and equipment are withdrawn from service. Disposition of this material is an international policy issue under consideration currently. The major alternatives for managing this material are to either develop a regulatory process for decontamination and recycling that will safeguard human health or to dispose of the scrap and replace the metal stocks. To evaluate the alternatives, we estimate quantities of scrap arising from nuclear power plant decommissioning, evaluate potential price impacts of recycling on regional markets, and assess the health and environmental impacts of the management alternatives. We conclude that decontaminating and recycling the scrap is the superior alternative.

  4. Effect of reactor coolant radioactivity upon configuration feasibility for a nuclear electric propulsion vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soffer, L.; Wright, G. N.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary shielding analysis was carried out for a conceptual nuclear electric propulsion vehicle designed to transport payloads from low earth orbit to synchronous orbit. The vehicle employed a thermionic nuclear reactor operating at 1575 kilowatts and generated 120 kilowatts of electricity for a round-trip mission time of 2000 hours. Propulsion was via axially directed ion engines employing 3300 pounds of mercury as a propellant. The vehicle configuration permitted a reactor shadow shield geometry using LiH and the mercury propellant for shielding. However, much of the radioactive NaK reactor coolant was unshielded and in close proximity to the power conditioning electronics. An estimate of the radioactivity of the NaK coolant was made and its unshielded dose rate to the power conditioning equipment calculated. It was found that the activated NaK contributed about three-fourths of the gamma dose constraint. The NaK dose was considered a sufficiently high fraction of the allowable gamma dose to necessitate modifications in configuration.

  5. Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Nancarrow, D J; White, M M

    2004-03-01

    A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation. This is expected to be principally wastes of high volume and low activity (categorised as low level waste (LLW) and very low level waste (VLLW)). The availability problem results from a lack of applications by landfill operators for authorisation to accept LLW wastes for disposal. This is apparently due to perceived adverse publicity associated with the consultation process for authorisation coupled with uncertainty over future liabilities. Disposal of waste as VLLW is limited both by questions over volumes that may be acceptable and, more fundamentally, by the likely alpha activity of wastes (originating from radium and thorium operations). Authorised on-site disposal has had little attention in policy and guidance in recent years, but may have a part to play, especially if considered commercially attractive. Disposal at BNFL's near surface disposal facility for LLW at Drigg is limited to wastes for which there are no practical alternative disposal options (and preference has been given to operational type wastes). Therefore, wastes from the radioactively contaminated land (RCL) regime are not obviously attractive for disposal to Drigg. Illustrative calculations have been performed based on possible volumes and activities of RCL arisings (and assuming Drigg's future volumetric disposal capacity is 950,000 m3). These suggest that wastes arising from implementing the RCL regime, if all disposed to Drigg, would not represent a significant fraction of the volumetric capacity of Drigg, but could have a significant impact on the radiological

  6. Hanford Site surface soil radioactive contamination control plan, March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mix, P.D.; Winship, R.A.

    1993-04-01

    The Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Program is responsible to the US Department of Energy Richland Field Office, for the safe and cost-effective surveillance, maintenance, and decommissioning of surplus facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 closures at the Hanford Site. This program also manages the Radiation Area Remedial Action that includes the surveillance, maintenance, decontamination, and/or interim stabilization of inactive burial grounds, cribs, ponds, trenches, and unplanned release sites. This plan addresses only the Radiation Area Remedial Action activity requirements for managing and controlling the contaminated surface soil areas associated with these inactive sites until they are remediated as part of the Hanford Site environmental restoration process. All officially numbered Radiation Area Remedial Action and non-Radiation Area Remedial Action contaminated surface soil areas are listed in this document so that a complete list of the sites requiring remediation is contained in one document.

  7. [Probabilistic assessment of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, S I; Ivanov, V V

    2013-01-01

    A number of models have been developed to assess the risks of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and to determine the permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination. The proposed approach takes into account uncertainties of some parameters that describe the radionuclide content in different links of food chains. The models are implemented in the form of software for on-line computations. The validity of applying the probabilistic methods for assessing the impacts of radioactive fallout as compared with the deterministic ones is demonstrated on some specific examples. A universal nature of the dependence between the risks of radionuclide content in products and the density of soil contamination is shown. Contamination limits of the agricultural land are found to vary significantly as a function of the risk size. Directions for further research are defined within the framework of this research.

  8. Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1992-03-27

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of eastern Tennessee (USA). This area is characterized by deciduous forests dominated by hardwood and mixed mesophytic tree species. Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL, and contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory`s boundaries have been found to contain on the order of 10{sup {minus}12} to 10{sup {minus}6} Ci/g of {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Theoretical calculations indicate that nanocurie levels of {sup 90}Sr in bone can arise from relatively small amounts (1%) of contaminated browse vegetation in a deer`s diet. Measures that have been undertaken at ORNL to curtail the dispersal of radioactivity by animals are briefly reviewed.

  9. Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1992-03-27

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of eastern Tennessee (USA). This area is characterized by deciduous forests dominated by hardwood and mixed mesophytic tree species. Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL, and contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory's boundaries have been found to contain on the order of 10{sup {minus}12} to 10{sup {minus}6} Ci/g of {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Theoretical calculations indicate that nanocurie levels of {sup 90}Sr in bone can arise from relatively small amounts (1%) of contaminated browse vegetation in a deer's diet. Measures that have been undertaken at ORNL to curtail the dispersal of radioactivity by animals are briefly reviewed.

  10. Radiological Dose Assessment - Nonuniform Skin Dose, Radioactive Skin Contamination, and Multiple Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. Inkret; M. E. Schillaci

    1999-03-01

    Radioactive skin contamination with {beta}- and {gamma}-emitting radionuclides may result in biologically significant absorbed doses to the skin. A specific exposure scenario of interest is a nonuniform skin dose delivered by {beta}- and {gamma}-emissions from radioactive skin contamination. The United States Department of Energy requires a formal evaluation and reporting of nonuniform skin doses. The United States Department of Energy also requires specific, formal procedures for evaluating the results from the placement or use of multiple dosimeters. Action levels relative to potential absorbed doses for the contamination survey instrumentation in use at Los Alamos and formal procedures for evaluating nonuniform skin doses and multiple dosimeters are developed and presented here.

  11. [Radioactive caesium contamination in Inago and sustainability of Inago cuisine in Fukushima].

    PubMed

    Mitsuhashi, Ryota; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Saeki, Shinjiro; Uchiyama, Sho-ichi; Yoshida, Makoto; Takamatsu, Yuki; Fugo, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    Inago (edible grasshoppers, Oxya spp.) was a popular food in the Fukushima area, before the reactor accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station in March 2011. We investigated the radioactivity of Cs-134 and Cs-137 contained in Inago captured in Sukagawa, Motomiya, Inawashiro, Date, and Iidate in Fukushima prefecture in 2011 and 2012. The maximum combined radioactivity of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in Inago was 60.7 Bq/kg, which is below the maximum permitted level (100 Bq/kg) in foods established by the government of Japan in April 2012. Furthermore, conventional cooking processes decreased the radioactivity in cooked Inago to under 15.8 Bq/kg, a quarter of that in uncooked Inago. Therefore, we concluded that the health risk of eating Inago is low.

  12. Remediation of a large contaminated reactor cooling reservoir: Resolving and environmental/regulatory paradox

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.A.: Gladden, J.B.; Hickey, H.M.; Jones, M.P.; Mackey, H.E.; Mayer, J.J.; Doswell, A.

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a case study of a former reactor cooling water reservoir, PAR Pond, located Savannah River Site. PAR Pond, a 2640 acre, man-made reservoir was built in 1958 and until 1988, received cooling water from two DOE nuclear production reactors, P and R. The lake sediments were contaminated with low levels of radiocesium (CS-137) and transuranics in the late 1950s and early 1960s because of leaking fuel elements. Elevated levels of mercury accumulated in the sediments from pumping water from the Savannah River to maintain a full pool. PAR Ponds` stability, size, and nutrient content made a significant, unique, and highly studied ecological resource for fish and wildlife populations until it was partially drained in 1991 due to a depression in the downslope of the earthen dam. The drawdown, created 1340 acres of exposed, radioactively contaminated sediments along 33 miles of shoreline. This led US EPA to declare PAR Pond as a CERCLA operable unit subject to remediation. The drawdown also raised concerns for the populations of aquatic plants, fish, alligators, and endangered species and increased the potential for off-site migration of contaminated wildlife from contact with the exposed sediments. Applicable regulations, such as NEPA and CERCLA, require wetland loss evaluations, human health and ecological risk assessments, and remediation feasibility studies. DOE is committed to spending several million dollars to repair the dam for safety reasons, even though the lake will probably not be used for cooling purposes. At the same time, DOE must make decisions whether to refill and expend additional public funds to maintain a full pool to reduce the risks defined under CERCLA or spend hundreds of millions in remediation costs to reduce the risks of the exposed sediments.

  13. Survey on radioactive contamination in Beijing following the Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yun; Wan, Ling; Ma, Yongzhong; Li, Huijuan; Meng, Qinghua; Kong, Yuxia; Zhu, Weijie; Wu, Dapeng; Cui, Limeng

    2013-09-01

    The radioactive contamination in Beijing caused by the Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident was monitored. In this research, samples of air, rainwater, surface water and vegetables in Beijing were collected and measured to estimate the radioactive contamination levels in Beijing. During the period from the 15th to the 41st day after the first emission of radioactive material (first emission) from the Japanese Fukushima nuclear power station (NPS) on 12 March 2011, obvious radioactive contamination was found in the Beijing air samples. The maximum concentration of I-131 was 5.89 mBq m(-3) in the air samples detected on the 22nd day after the first emission, and the maximum concentration of Cs-137 and Cs-134 was found on the 20th day after the first emission. Except for one sample of rainwater, no artificial radionuclides associated with Fukushima were found in surface water. The measurement results showed that there was no harm to the health of local Beijing residents.

  14. Production and modeling of radioactive gold nanoparticles in Tehran research reactor.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Aboudzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Mohseni, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    Gold has two medically useful radioactive isotopes, (198)Au and (199)Au, for locally irradiating and killing tumor cells. (198)Au radionuclide has been produced through the irradiation of the pure gold via (197)Au(n,γ)(198)Au reaction in the Tehran Research Reactor at a thermal neutron flux of 4.5×10(13)ncm(-2)s(-1) for the different irradiation times. In this paper, the activity of (198)Au radionuclide has been determined using MCNPX-2.6 and TALYS-1.6 codes and also the theoretical approach. The calculated results were compared with the corresponding experimental values. The calculated results were in good agreement with the experimental data, thus the used codes can be used as a powerful tool to predict and optimize production conditions in reactor.

  15. Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume.

    PubMed

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottlé, Catherine; Bonté, Philippe

    2013-10-29

    Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons to the coastal plains as soon as by November 2011. This export was amplified during snowmelt and typhoons in 2012. In 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. We thereby suggest that storage of contaminated sediment in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the river channels now represents the most crucial issue.

  16. Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume

    PubMed Central

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottlé, Catherine; Bonté, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons to the coastal plains as soon as by November 2011. This export was amplified during snowmelt and typhoons in 2012. In 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. We thereby suggest that storage of contaminated sediment in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the river channels now represents the most crucial issue. PMID:24165695

  17. Removal and treatment of radioactive, organochlorine and heavy metal contaminants from solid surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Grieco, S.A.; Neubauer, E.D.; Rhea, J.R.; Escue, L.S.

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is defining decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its sites. Current D&D activities are Generally labor intensive, use chemical reagents that are difficult to treat, and may expose workers to radioactive and hazardous chemicals. Therefore, new technologies are desired that minimize waste, allow much of the decommissioned materials to be reused rather than disposed of as waste, and produce wastes that will meet disposal criteria The O`Brien & Gere Companies tested a scouring decontamination system on concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous wastes under the sponsorship of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES) at DOE`s K-25 former gaseous diffusion plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The scouring system that O`Brien & Gere Companies developed removes fixed radioactive and hazardous surface contamination, while leaving the surface intact. Blasting residuals are dissolved and treated using physical/chemical processes. Bench- and pilot-scale testing of the soda blasting system was conducted between December 1993 and September 1994 on surfaces contaminated with uranium, technetium, heavy metals, and PCBs. Areas of concrete and metal surfaces were blasted. Blasting residuals were dissolved in tap water and treated for radioactive, hazardous, and organochlorine constituents. The treatment system comprised pH adjustment, aeration, solids settling, filtration, carbon adsorption, and ion exchange. This system produced treated water and residual solid waste. Testing demonstrated that the system is capable of removing greater than 95% of radioactive and PCB surface contamination to below DOE`s unrestricted use release limits; aqueous radionuclides, heavy metals, and PCBs were below DOE and USEPA treatment objectives after blasting residuals treatment. Waste residuals volume was decreased by 71%.

  18. Removal and treatment of radioactive, organochlorine, and heavy metal contaminants from solid surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Grieco, S.A.; Neubauer, E.D.

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is defining decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its sites. Current D&D activities are generally labor intensive, use chemical reagents that are difficult to treat, and may expose workers to radioactive and hazardous chemicals. Therefore, new technologies are desired that minimize waste, allow much of the decommissioned materials to be reused rather than disposed of as waste, and produce wastes that will meet disposal criteria. The O`Brien & Gere companies tested a scouring decontamination system on concrete and steel surfaces contaminated with radioactive and hazardous wastes under the sponsorship of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES) at DOE`s K-25 former gaseous diffusion plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The scouring system removes fixed radioactive and hazardous contamination yet leaves the surface intact. Blasting residuals are treated using physical/chemical processes. Bench- and pilot-scale testing of the system was conducted on surfaces contaminated with uranium, technetium, heavy metals, and PCBs. Areas of concrete and metal surfaces were blasted. Residuals were dissolved in tap water and treated for radioactive, hazardous, and organochlorine constituents. The treatment system comprised pH adjustment, aeration, solids settling, filtration, carbon adsorption, and ion exchange. This system produced treated water and residual solid waste. Testing demonstrated that the system is capable of removing greater than 95% of radioactive and PCB surface contamination to below DOE`s unrestricted use release limits; aqueous radionuclides, heavy metals, and PCBs were below DOE and USEPA treatment objectives after treatment. Waste residuals volume was decreased by 71 %. Preliminary analyses suggest that this system provides significant waste volume reduction and is more economical than alternative surface decontamination techniques that are commercially available or under development.

  19. Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ˜0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds.

  20. Biotesting of radioactively contaminated forest soils using barley-based bioassay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel’nikova, T. V.; Polyakova, L. P.; Oudalova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Findings from radioactivity and phytotoxicity study are presented for soils from nine study-sites of the Klintsovsky Forestry located in the Bryansk region that were radioactively contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. According to the bioassay based on barley as test-species, stimulating effect of the soils analyzed is revealed for biological indexes of the length of barley roots and sprouts. From data on 137Cs specific activities in soils and plant biomass, the migration potential of radionuclide in the "soil-plant" system is assessed as a transfer factor. With correlation analysis, an impact of 137Cs in soil on the biological characteristics of barley is estimated.

  1. Radioactive artifacts: historical sources of modern radium contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Blaufox, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radium has been distributed in a wide variety of devices during the early part of this century. Antique objects containing significant amounts of radium turn up at flea markets, antique shows, and antique dealers, in a variety of locations. These objects include radium in devices which were used by legitimate medical practitioners for legitimate medical purposes such as therapy, as well as a wide variety of quack cures. These devices may contain anywhere from a few nanocuries to as much as several hundred microcuries of radium. In addition to medical sources, a large variety of scientific instruments utilize radium in luminous dials. These instruments include compasses, azimuth indicators, and virtually any object which might require some form of calibration. In addition, the consumer market utilized a large amount of radium in the production of wrist watches, pocket watches, and clocks with luminous dials. Some of these watches contained as much as 4.5 microCi of radium, and between 1913 and 1920 about 70 gm was produced for the manufacture of luminous compounds. In addition to the large amount of radium produced for scientific and consumer utilization, there were a number of materials produced which were claimed to contain radium but in fact did not, further adding to the confusion in this area. The wide availability of radium is a result of the public's great fascination with radioactivity during the early part of this century and a belief in its curative properties. A number of objects were produced in order to trap the emanations of radium in water for persons to drink in order to benefit from their healing effects. Since the late 20s and early 30s the public's attitude towards radiation has shifted 180 degrees and it is now considered an extremely dangerous and harmful material.

  2. Monitoring of radioactive contamination of water systems after Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Y.V.

    1993-12-31

    The contamination of the water systems within the Russian North-West region, the Danube river and the reservoir of the Dnieper River during the period from June 1986 to 1992 was studied. The water reservoirs in the vicinity of the Chernobyl NPP contained suspended matter and the bottom sediments contained a wide range of radionuclides, including the isotopes of Pu and TPE. In the Baltic Sea and the allied river and lake reservoirs the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs ({sup 134}Cs was also detected) increased drastically, however, the concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and plutonium isotopes remained essentially at the global level. The Danube River contained increased concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr as compared with 1985; no rise in the concentration of plutonium was observed. In subsequent years (1987--1990) the concentration of cesium isotopes in the reservoirs decreased sharply; but, on the other hand, their concentrations in sediments increased.

  3. Volume Reduction of Solid Radioactive Waste From Research Reactor and Nuclear Laboratories - Industrial Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, B.N.; Gandhi, K.G.; Chander, M.; Raj, K.

    2006-07-01

    Various research reactors and nuclear laboratories at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India generate approximately 600 m{sup 3} of radioactive solid waste annually. These wastes are categorized and segregated based on their radiation field, physical nature and radionuclides present. The low level waste is further segregated based on compactability criteria. The compactable wastes are packed in 200 litres carbon steel drums and pelletized to get a volume reduction factor of about five. The compaction system designed for Cat-I (Table-1) radioactive waste is having 200 Tons capacity hydraulic press, housed in a well-ventilated enclosure. Before pelletizing, the drum is assayed to estimate {beta},{gamma} activity. Further, the imaging of waste drum is also done so as to avoid any possibility of non-compactable material being taken for pelletizing. The pelletizing system comprises of conveying, pushing, indexing and compacting. All operations are controlled by programmable logic control (PLC) based control system. Apart from the drum palletising, the system is also equipped to compact the used Pre and HEPA filters, being generated from exhaust and supply air system of clean room, nuclear laboratories, research reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, high level waste management facility etc. The system is designed to handle about 5 drums or filters per hour. So far about 3000 number of each, HEPA filters and waste drums have been safely compacted and disposed. (authors)

  4. The sensitivity of different environments to radioactive contamination.

    PubMed

    Tracy, B L; Carini, F; Barabash, S; Berkovskyy, V; Brittain, J E; Chouhan, S; Eleftheriou, G; Iosjpe, M; Monte, L; Psaltaki, M; Shen, J; Tschiersch, J; Turcanu, C

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes modelling calculations carried out to determine the sensitivity of various rural and semi-natural environments to radionuclide contamination by (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (131)I released during a major nuclear accident. Depositions of 1000 Bq/m(3) were assumed for each radionuclide. Four broad types of environments were considered: agricultural, forest or tundra, freshwater aquatic, and coastal marine. A number of different models were applied to each environment. The annual dose to a human population receiving most or all of its food and drinking water from a given environment was taken as a broad measure of sensitivity. The results demonstrated that environmental sensitivity was highly radionuclide specific, with (137)Cs generally giving the highest doses during the first year, especially for adults, in terrestrial and freshwater pathways. However, in coastal marine environments, (131)I and (239)Pu were more significant. Sensitivity was time dependent with doses for the first year dominating those for the 2nd and 10th years after deposition. In agricultural environments the ingestion dose from (137)Cs was higher for adults than other age groups, whereas for (90)Sr and (131)I, the ingestion dose was highest for infants. The dependence of sensitivity on social and economic factors such as individual living habits, food consumption preferences, and agricultural practices is discussed.

  5. An approach to detecting delayed effects of radioactive contamination on industrial-urban-area dwellers

    SciTech Connect

    Privalova, L.I.; Katsnelson, B.A. ); Polzik, E.V.; Kazantsev, V.S. ); Lipatov, G.Ya. ); Beikin, Y.B. )

    1994-05-01

    Detecting changes in humans that result from radioactive contamination of the area of residence many years after an incident (i.e., when the radiation has substantially decayed) presents a difficult epidemiological problem. Problems of this kind are even more complicated in areas where the population is continually exposed to other harmful man-made factors. The city of Kamensk-Uralsky (Sverdlovsk region, Russia) is a good case in point. In 1957, part of Kamensk-Uralsky was contaminated as the result of an accident at the Kyshtym nuclear plant. In addition, the population of the contaminated area is being exposed to atmospheric emissions from several industrial enterprises. Two comparable groups of residents were formed: one in the contaminated area and another in a control area within the same city characterized by similar levels of chemical pollution but substantially lower radioactive contamination. The groups were composed of only those people who had been living in these areas continually since time of the accident and who were under 15 years of age at the time of the accident. The groups were matched by sex, age, and socio-occupational characteristics. For each subject, data were gathered on more than 50 parameters including hematological, immunological, and biochemical indices of the health status. All these data were obtained from blood tests taken in the fall of 1992. Data processing was carried out with the help of a computerized mathematical pattern recognition methodology, which ensured reliable discrimination between the generalized health status in the areas under study. We found that the health status of inhabitants of the area more contaminated with radioactive fallouts were adversely affected by radiation.

  6. Method of determining whether radioactive contaminants are inside or outside a structure

    DOEpatents

    Lattin, Kenneth R.

    1977-01-01

    A measure is obtained of the relative quantities of radioactive material inside and outside a structure such as a pipe by obtaining two spectra of gamma radiation on a dummy structure of the same shape and composition. A first spectrum is obtained with a quantity of the radioactive element to be measured located inside the structure and a second spectrum is obtained with a quantity of the same contaminant located outside the structure. The two spectra are normalized to the same equivalent value in a portion of the spectrum that does not reflect the presence of gamma rays resulting from Compton scattering in the structure. Comparison of that portion of the spectra obtained where Compton scattering is a factor gives a measure of the relative amounts of contaminants inside and outside the structure on a spectrum obtained from a test structure. The invention may also be practiced by obtaining a plurality of spectra at varying known concentrations inside and outside the dummy structure.

  7. Finnish stakeholder engagement in the restoration of a radioactively contaminated food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Rantavaara, A; Wallin, H; Hasunen, K; Härmälä, K; Kulmala, H; Latvio, E; Liskola, K; Mustonen, I; Nieminen, I; Tainio, R

    2005-01-01

    An expert group was established in 2001 representing various organisations and authorities responsible for primary production, food processing, the distribution and consumption of foodstuffs, food safety and availability, catering and extension services, nature conservation, research into environmental impacts, and the media. The aim was to strengthen networking and improve the stakeholder response to accidental radioactive contamination of rural areas through participation in the FARMING network project. A hypothetical contamination of a large milk-producing area provided a suitable framework for evaluation of actions ensuring clean feeding of dairy cows during grazing. The following year the group received a compilation of rural countermeasures and waste disposal methods, described by the STRATEGY project. The robust, uncomplicated approach of the evaluation meetings was fruitful and efficient, and the multidisciplinary group was capable of taking shared views on various measures after updating their knowledge together. High priority was given to measurements of radioactivity and the provision of information and advice to a wider audience.

  8. Electroslag Remelting (ESR) Slags for Removal of Radioactive Oxide Contaminants from Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chernicoff, W.P.; Chou, K.C.; Gao, H.; MacDonald, C.J.; Molecke, M.A.; Pal, U.B.; Van Den, J.; Woolley, D.

    1999-06-30

    Downsizing and decommissioning of nuclear operations is increasing the stockpile of Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM). It is estimated that the annual generation of RSM for the entire DOE complex will be approximately 120,000 metric tons beginning in the year 2000. Out of which contaminated stainless steel with high chromium and nickel contents constitutes 25-30 wt. % [1]. Disposal of this material not only represents resource and value lost, but also necessitates long term monitoring for environmental compliance. The latter results in additional recurring expense. Therefore, it is desirable to be able to decontaminate the radioactive stainless steel to a satisfactory level that can be recycled or at least used for fabrication of containers for RSM disposal instead of using virgin stainless steel. Decontamination of radioactive stainless steel using the ESR process is investigated. In this paper the relevant slag properties, capacity to incorporate the radioactive contaminant, slag-metal partition coefficient, volatilization rate, volatile species, viscosity, electrical conductivity and surface tension are presented as a function of temperature. The impact of these properties on the ESR decontamination process is discussed.

  9. Measurement of Radioactive Contamination on Work Clothing of Workers Engaged in Decontamination Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Hoshi, Katsuya

    To rationally judge the necessity of the contamination screening measurements required in the decontamination work regulations, a field study of the surface contamination density on the clothing of the workers engaged in decontamination operations was performed. The clothing and footwear of 20 workers was analyzed by high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectroscopy. The maximum radiocesium activities (134Cs + 137Cs) observed were 3600, 1300, and 2100 Bq for the work clothing, gloves, and boots, respectively, and the derived surface contamination densities were below the regulatory limit of 40 Bq/cm2. The results of this field study suggest that the upper bounds of the surface contamination density on the work clothing, gloves, and boots are predictable from the maximum soil loading density on the surface of clothing and footwear and the radioactivity concentration in soil at the site.

  10. Speciation of radioactive soil particles in the Fukushima contaminated area by IP autoradiography and microanalyses.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Hiroki; Hatta, Tamao; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Yamada, Hirohisa; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2014-11-18

    Radioactive soil particles several tens of micrometers in size were collected from litter soil in the radiation contaminated area by the Fukushima nuclear plant accident and characterized using electron and X-ray microanalyses. The radioactive particles were discriminated by autoradiography using imaging plates (IP) on which microgrids were formed by laser ablation in order to find the particles under microscopy. Fifty radioactive particles were identified and classified into three types from their morphology and chemical composition, namely: (1) aggregates of clay minerals, (2) organic matter containing clay mineral particulates, and (3) weathered biotite originating from local granite. With respect to the second type, dissolution of the organic matter did not reduce the radiation, suggesting that the radionuclides were also fixed by the clay minerals. The weathered biotite grains have a plate-like shape with well-developed cleavages inside the grains, and kaolin group minerals and goethite filling the cleavage spaces. The reduction of the radiation intensity was measured before and after the trimming of the plate edges using a focused ion beam (FIB), to examine whether radioactive cesium primarily sorbed at frayed edges. The radiation was attenuated in proportion to the volume decrease by the edge trimming, implying that radioactive cesium was sorbed uniformly in the porous weathered biotite.

  11. Restoration of water environment contaminated by radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, H.; Jinbo, Y.; Ishido, A.

    2013-07-01

    In the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident, large amounts of volatile radioactive nuclides, such as {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, were released to the atmosphere and huge areas surrounding the nuclear site were contaminated by the radioactive fallout. In this study, a combined process with a hydrothermal process and a coagulation settling process was proposed for the separation of radioactive Cs from contaminated soil and sewage sludge. The coagulation settling operation uses Prussian Blue (Ferric ferrocyanide) and an inorganic coagulant. The recovery of Cs from sewage sludge sampled at Fukushima city (100.000 Bq/kg) and soil at a nearby village (55.000 Bq/kg), was tested. About 96% of Cs in the sewage sludge was removed successfully by combining simple hydrothermal decomposition and coagulation settling. However, Cs in the soil was not removed sufficiently by the combined process (Cs removal is only 56%). The hydrothermal decomposition with blasting was carried out. The Cs removal from the soil was increased to 85%. When these operations were repeated twice, the Cs recovery was over 90%. The combined process with hydrothermal blasting and coagulation settling is applicable to the removal of Cs from highly contaminated soil.

  12. Environmental Pathway Models-Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Joint Interagency Environmental Pathway Modeling Working Group wrote this report to promote appropriate and consistent use of mathematical environmental models in the remediation and restoration of sites contaminated by radioactive substances.

  13. Efficiency of endothelial dysfunctioncorrection in children residents of radioactively contaminated areas using the method of intermittent normobaric hypoxi therapy.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Ye I; Berezovsky, V Ya; Kolpakov, I Ye; Kondrashova, V H; Vdovenko, V Yu; Lytvynets, O M; Lisukha, L M; Zyhalo, V M; Kolos, V I; Mishchenko, L P

    2016-12-01

    Objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of intermittent normobaric hypoxi therapy as the means that can posi tively influence on the different links in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction in children residents of radioactively contaminated areas.

  14. Bioavailability of caesium-137 from chernozem soils with high and low levels of radioactive contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonova, Tatiana; Shamshurina, Eugenia; Machaeva, Ekaterina; Belyaev, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    Bioavailability of Cs-137 in "soil-plant" system of radioactively contaminated terrestrial ecosystems is the most important factor in the understanding of ecological situation. There are many factors affecting the features of Cs-137 biogeochemical cycle: period since an accident, type and intensity of radioactive fallout, general properties of landscape and the specifics of soil and plant covers, etc. In order to evaluate the importance of soil contamination level for the process of Cs-137 translocation from soil to plant the research in forest-steppe areas of Russia with similar natural properties, but contrasting high (Tula region) and low (Kursk region) levels of radioactive Chernobyl fallout (about 25 years after accident) was conducted. Soil cover of both sites is presented by chernozems with bulk density 1.1-1.2 g/cm3, 6-7% humus and neutral pH 6.5-7.2; plant cover under investigation consist of dry and wet meadows with bioproductivity 1.6-2.5 kg/m2 and 85-90% of biomass concentrated underground, that is typical for Russian forest-steppe landscapes. At the same time levels of soil regional contamination with Cs-137 differ by an order - 620-710 Bq/kg (210-250 kBq/m2) in Tula region and 30-55 Bq/kg (10-20 kBq/m2) in Kursk region. At a higher level of soil radioactive contamination specific activity of Cs-137 in vegetation of meadows is noticeably increased (103-160 Bq/kg in Tula region versus 12-14 Bq/kg in Kursk region) with correlation coefficient r 0.87. Increasing of Cs-137 in the underground parts of plants plays a decisive role in this process, while the specific radionuclide's activity in the aboveground parts of different sites is almost invariant (and ubiquitously roots contain 2-5 times more Cs-137 than shoots). The values of transfer factors for Cs-137 (the ratio of the specific Cs-137 activities in the plant tissue and in the soil) at various levels of soil radioactive contamination vary within a relatively narrow range 0.1-0.4, that confirms the

  15. International policies and strategies for the remediation of land contaminated by radioactive material residues.

    PubMed

    González, Abel J

    2013-05-01

    The paper addresses the international policies and strategies for the remediation of land contaminated by radioactive material residue, its main aim being to describe the misunderstandings, evolution and status of the international paradigms in this area. Thus, the denotation and connotation of the 'remediation' and 'contamination' concepts are explored, including the ambiguity they produce in understanding of the issues by a sceptical public. Then, the international radiation protection approaches for remediation are portrayed. They derive from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), which are described including their basic principles and characterization of exposure situations. Prolonged exposure situations, which are typical in cases of contaminated land, are analysed with particular detail. The newer ICRP general recommendations, as well as recent ICRP recommendations for excluding and exempting exposure situations from regulatory control and for living in long-term contaminated territories after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency, are examined. Remediation vis-à-vis environmental protection is discussed and the non-technical factors usually involved in decision-making on remediation are examined. Finally, the international safety standards on remediation, which are being established under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), are explored. These include the well established International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources, or BSS, as well as the specific international safety requirements for remediation; a brief overview of the current process of revising the BSS is also included. In its outcome the paper suggests that the time is ripe for a simple and clear international agreement on the levels of radioactivity in territorial contamination with radioactive material that may be considered unambiguously safe.

  16. 2011 investigation of internal contamination with radioactive strontium following rubidium Rb 82 cardiac PET scan.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Satish K; Chang, Arthur; Murphy, Matthew W; Buzzell, Jennifer; Ansari, Armin; Whitcomb, Robert C; Miller, Charles; Jones, Robert; Saunders, David P; Cavicchia, Philip; Watkins, Sharon M; Blackmore, Carina; Williamson, John A; Stephens, Michael; Morrison, Melissa; McNees, James; Murphree, Rendi; Buchanan, Martha; Hogan, Anthony; Lando, James; Nambiar, Atmaram; Torso, Lauren; Melnic, Joseph M; Yang, Lucie; Lewis, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    During routine screening in 2011, US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) identified 2 persons with elevated radioactivity. CBP, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory, informed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that these people could have increased radiation exposure as a result of undergoing cardiac Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans several months earlier with rubidium Rb 82 chloride injection from CardioGen-82. We conducted a multistate investigation to assess the potential extent and magnitude of radioactive strontium overexposure among patients who had undergone Rb 82 PET scans. We selected a convenience sample of clinical sites in 4 states and reviewed records to identify eligible study participants, defined as people who had had an Rb 82 PET scan between February and July 2011. All participants received direct radiation screening using a radioisotope identifier able to detect the gamma energy specific for strontium-85 (514 keV) and urine bioassay for excreted radioactive strontium. We referred a subset of participants with direct radiation screening counts above background readings for whole body counting (WBC) using a rank ordering of direct radiation screening. The rank order list, from highest to lowest, was used to contact and offer voluntary enrollment for WBC. Of 308 participants, 292 (95%) had direct radiation screening results indistinguishable from background radiation measurements; 261 of 265 (98%) participants with sufficient urine for analysis had radioactive strontium results below minimum detectable activity. None of the 23 participants who underwent WBC demonstrated elevated strontium activity above levels associated with routine use of the rubidium Rb 82 generator. Among investigation participants, we did not identify evidence of strontium internal contamination above permissible levels. This investigation might serve as a model for future investigations of radioactive internal contamination incidents.

  17. Radioactive contamination of the Balchug (Upper Yenisey) floodplain, Russia in relation to sedimentation processes and geomorphology.

    PubMed

    Linnik, V G; Brown, J E; Dowdall, M; Potapov, V N; Surkov, V V; Korobova, E M; Volosov, A G; Vakulovsky, S M; Tertyshnik, E G

    2005-03-01

    The radioactive contamination of a riverine floodplain, heavily influenced by discharges from Krasnoyarsk-26, has been studied with respect to sedimentation processes and the geomorphology of the Upper Yenisey floodplain. The study was effected by implementation of a regime of in situ observations and measurements, sampling, and the interpretation of satellite images. The results of the study indicate that on the Balchug Bypass Floodplain, radionuclide contamination is primarily influenced by the thickness of the deposited sediments, and the area can be considered as two depositional environments. The Balchug floodplain area was contaminated due to sedimentation of radionuclide-contaminated alluvium, whose depositional regime significantly changed after the construction of a hydroelectric power station in 1967. Contamination levels are lower on the upstream part of the floodplain where sediment depth is less than 0.2-0.3 m, and this contamination started to accumulate in 1967, while the downstream part of the floodplain, exhibiting deeper deposits, displays higher levels of radionuclide contamination because radionuclides began to deposit here in 1958 when the Krasnoyarsk-26 Mining and Chemical Combine (KMCC) commenced operation. Radionuclide contamination of the floodplain is also related to the elevation of the floodplain, higher regions of the floodplain typically having lower contamination than low-lying areas, which tend to be frequently inundated with sediments being deposited during such inundations. Local relief, its orientation, and vegetation cover have also combined to form sediment traps with significantly higher radionuclide contamination. Lithological analysis combined with radiometric assay indicates a total 137Cs floodplain inventory of 33.7 GBq.

  18. Radioactive Fission Product Release from Defective Light Water Reactor Fuel Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Konyashov, Vadim V.; Krasnov, Alexander M.

    2002-04-15

    Results are provided of the experimental investigation of radioactive fission product (RFP) release, i.e., krypton, xenon, and iodine radionuclides from fuel elements with initial defects during long-term (3 to 5 yr) irradiation under low linear power (5 to 12 kW/m) and during special experiments in the VK-50 vessel-type boiling water reactor.The calculation model for the RFP release from the fuel-to-cladding gap of the defective fuel element into coolant was developed. It takes into account the convective transport in the fuel-to-cladding gap and RFP sorption on the internal cladding surface and is in good agreement with the available experimental data. An approximate analytical solution of the transport equation is given. The calculation dependencies of the RFP release coefficients on the main parameters such as defect size, fuel-to-cladding gap, temperature of the internal cladding surface, and radioactive decay constant were analyzed.It is shown that the change of the RFP release from the fuel elements with the initial defects during long-term irradiation is, mainly, caused by fuel swelling followed by reduction of the fuel-to-cladding gap and the fuel temperature. The calculation model for the RFP release from defective fuel elements applicable to light water reactors (LWRs) was developed. It takes into account the change of the defective fuel element parameters during long-term irradiation. The calculation error according to the program does not exceed 30% over all the linear power change range of the LWR fuel elements (from 5 to 26 kW/m)

  19. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A; Soler, Juan J

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  20. Defenses against keratinolytic bacteria in birds living in radioactively contaminated areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Rodríguez, Magdalena; Møller, Anders Pape; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Soler, Juan J.

    2016-10-01

    Microorganisms have shaped the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms against pathogenic infections. Radioactivity modifies bacterial communities and, therefore, bird hosts breeding in contaminated areas are expected to adapt to the new bacterial environment. We tested this hypothesis in populations of barn swallows ( Hirundo rustica) from a gradient of background radiation levels at Chernobyl and uncontaminated controls from Denmark. Investment in defenses against keratinolytic bacteria was measured from feather structure (i.e., susceptibility to degradation) and uropygial secretions. We studied degradability of tail feathers from areas varying in contamination in laboratory experiments using incubation of feathers with a feather-degrading bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis, followed by measurement of the amount of keratin digested. The size of uropygial glands and secretion amounts were quantified, followed by antimicrobial tests against B. licheniformis and quantification of wear of feathers. Feathers of males, but not of females, from highly contaminated areas degraded at a lower rate than those from medium and low contamination areas. However, feathers of both sexes from the Danish populations showed little evidence of degradation. Individual barn swallows from the more contaminated areas of Ukraine produced the largest uropygial secretions with higher antimicrobial activity, although wear of feathers did not differ among males from different populations. In Denmark, swallows produced smaller quantities of uropygial secretion with lower antimicrobial activity, which was similar to swallow populations from uncontaminated areas in Ukraine. Therefore, barn swallows breeding in contaminated areas invested more in all defenses against keratinolytic bacteria than in uncontaminated areas of Ukraine and Denmark, although they had similar levels of feather wear. Strong natural selection exerted by radioactivity may have selected for individuals with higher defense

  1. [The features of radioactive contamination of small birds in Chernobyl zone in 2003-2005].

    PubMed

    Gashchak, S P; Makliuk, Iu A; Maksimenko, A M; Maksimenko, V M; Martynenko, V I; Chizhevskiĭ, I V; Bondar'kov, M D; Mousseau, T A

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of small birds (484 individuals, 44 species) was investigated in the Chernobyl zone (Ukraine) in 2003-2005. Values variation of 90Sr and of 137Cs activity concentration reached 3-4 orders of magnitude even in one site, and maximum values amounted to hundreds Bq/g at the central plots of the zone. The biggest contamination is appropriate to birds in breeding season and to settled species, whilst migrants are the "cleanest". Change of contamination within a year reflects seasonal and short-term changes in birds diet and in behaviour. During breeding season females have higher activity concentration of 90Sr, while on 137Cs accumulation sexual differences are absent. In other seasons radioactive contamination of male and female does not differ if they live in similar conditions and have similar migratory behavior. Young birds during fledging and just after, as a rule, have higher levels of 90Sr contamination than adults, and actually do not differ on 137Cs accumulation. On a set of own and published data, it was assumed, that in small birds the half-life period of 137Cs extraction amounts to 1-2 days, and 90Sr- 5-10 days, and dynamic equilibrium of the radionuclides turnover in organism is reached over 4-7 and 17-34 days, respectively, after the birds arrival on the contaminated site. Among 44 studied species, those who search invertebrates in soil top layer or forest litter (thrushes). have noticeably higher accumulation of 90Sr and of 137Cs. Specific differences of radionuclides accumulation for the rest birds were not revealed due to small sample sizes of the species.

  2. Management of Ir-192 Disused Sealed Sources with Long-Lived Radioactive Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio; Ferreira, Robson de Jesus; Potiens, Ademar Jose Jr.; Vicente, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Iridium-192 sealed sources are the most widely used sealed source in industrial applications in Brazil. They are not recyclable and in the end of the useful life, they are discarded as radioactive waste. The recommended management strategy of this waste is decay in storage and disposal as exempt waste because the half-life is only 73.8 days. Presently, thousands of Ir- 192 sources are under storage waiting release. Surprisingly, sources that were under storage for more than ten years and for which no measurable contact dose rate was expected still present significant remaining radioactivity. The examination of the gamma spectra of these sources showed the presence of Co-60 and the gamma emission lines from the Ir-192m2 isomer, the metastable isotope with half-life of 241 years, which is also formed by the irradiation of natural iridium. The aim of the study reported in this paper is to characterize the Ir-192 disused sources under interim storage at the Radioactive Waste Management Department, considering the presence of minor contaminants in the irradiated iridium and the fraction of the total initial activity of the sources that is attributable to that metastable isotope. The radioactive inventories at the end of the irradiation and after the decay period were predicted using the Scale 6.0 code and the results were compared with activity measurements of the disused sources by gamma spectrometry. (authors)

  3. Radioactive waste treatment in nuclear power plants with VVER reactors using Balakovo NPP (Russia) as an example

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, U.; Hoelker, G.; Chrubasik, A.; Ipatov, P.L.; Ignatov, V.I.

    1993-12-31

    In nuclear power plants with VVER reactors, located in the states of the former USSR, the treatment of solid and liquid radioactive waste represents a problem which--besides measures concerning the increase of reactor safety--requires a quick solution at a high technical level. To help address this problem, Nukem GmbH jointly with Balakovo NPP and the Nuclear Power Project Institute AEP Nizhni Novgorod, has developed a waste Treatment Center (WTC) for the Balakowo NPP. This center possesses all the necessary technological installations to transform liquid low-level, medium-level and solid low-level radioactive waste accumulated to date and waste arising during the futures operation of Balakovo NPP (4 reactors VVER-1000) in a way which allows a safe long-time storage.

  4. Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mayumi; Yokoduka, Tetsuya

    2014-06-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and (137)Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations ((137)Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption.

  5. Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; McCurdy, Greg; Campbell, Scott A.

    2012-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Management’s Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively. Field measurements at the T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, CAU 370, suggest that radioactive material may have migrated along a shallow ephemeral drainage that traverses the site (NNSA/NSO, 2009). (It is not entirely clear how contaminated soils got into their present location at the T-4 Site, but flow to the channel has been redirected and the contamination does not appear to be migrating at present.) Although DRI initially looked at the CAU 370 site, given that it could not be confirmed that migration of contamination into the channel was natural, an alternate study site was selected at CAU 550. Aerial surveys in selected portions of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) also suggest that radioactivity may be migrating along ephemeral channels in Areas 3, 8, 11, 18, and 25 (Colton, 1999). Figure 1 shows the results of a low-elevation aerial survey (Colton, 1999) in Area 8. The numbered markers in Figure 1 identify ground zero for three safety experiments conducted in 1958 [Oberon (number 1), Ceres (number 2), and Titania (number 4)] and a weapons effects test conducted in 1964, Mudpack (number 3). This survey suggests contaminants may be migrating down the ephemeral channels that traverse CAU 550. Note particularly the lobe of higher concentration extending southeastward at the south end of the high concentration area marked as number 3 in Figure 1. CAU 550 in Area 8 of the NNSS was selected for

  6. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government’s response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. Methods and Findings We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products

  7. Measurement of Radioactive Contamination in the High-Resistivity Silicon CCDs of the DAMIC Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.

    2015-08-25

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify α and β particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through α spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the 238U (232Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg-1 d-1 at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from 32Si –32P or 210Pb –210Bi sequences of b decays. The decay rate of 32Si was found to be 80+110-65 (95% CI). An upper limit of ~35 kg -1 d-1 (95% CL) on the 210Pb decay rate was obtained independently by α spectroscopy and the β decay sequence search. Furthermore, these levels of radioactive contamination are sufficiently low for the successful operation of CCDs in the forthcoming 100 g DAMIC detector.

  8. Measurement of Radioactive Contamination in the High-Resistivity Silicon CCDs of the DAMIC Experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.

    2015-08-25

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify α and β particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through α spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the 238U (232Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg-1 d-1 at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from 32Si –32P or 210Pbmore » –210Bi sequences of b decays. The decay rate of 32Si was found to be 80+110-65 (95% CI). An upper limit of ~35 kg -1 d-1 (95% CL) on the 210Pb decay rate was obtained independently by α spectroscopy and the β decay sequence search. Furthermore, these levels of radioactive contamination are sufficiently low for the successful operation of CCDs in the forthcoming 100 g DAMIC detector.« less

  9. Prediction of contaminant migration around radioactive waste repositories in salt formations in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Wollrath, J.

    1995-12-31

    With rock salt as host formation of a radioactive waste repository density effects on the groundwater movement have to be considered. Therefore, the assumptions, results and difficulties of modelling groundwater movement and taking into account density effects are presented and discussed with reference to the calculations performed for the Gorleben repository. The results are compared to results obtained in the safety analyses for the Konrad repository. It is shown that the consideration of variable groundwater density increases groundwater travel times and hence slows down the transport of contaminants from the repository location to the ground surface.

  10. Application of autonomous robotics to surveillance of waste storage containers for radioactive surface contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, F.J.; Beckerman, M.; Butler, P.L.; Jones, J.P.; Reister, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a proof-of-principal demonstration performed with the HERMIES-III mobile robot to automate the inspection of waste storage drums for radioactive surface contamination and thereby reduce the human burden of operating a robot and worker exposure to potentially hazardous environments. Software and hardware for the demonstration were developed by a team consisting of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Universities of Florida, Michigan, Tennessee, and Texas. Robot navigation, machine vision, manipulator control, parallel processing and human-machine interface techniques developed by the team were demonstrated utilizing advanced computer architectures. The demonstration consists of over 100,000 lines of computer code executing on nine computers.

  11. Application of autonomous robotics to surveillance of waste storage containers for radioactive surface contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, F.J.; Beckerman, M.; Butler, P.L.; Jones, J.P.; Reister, D.B.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes a proof-of-principal demonstration performed with the HERMIES-III mobile robot to automate the inspection of waste storage drums for radioactive surface contamination and thereby reduce the human burden of operating a robot and worker exposure to potentially hazardous environments. Software and hardware for the demonstration were developed by a team consisting of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Universities of Florida, Michigan, Tennessee, and Texas. Robot navigation, machine vision, manipulator control, parallel processing and human-machine interface techniques developed by the team were demonstrated utilizing advanced computer architectures. The demonstration consists of over 100,000 lines of computer code executing on nine computers.

  12. Induced Radioactivity and Waste Classification of Reactor Zone Components of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 After Final Shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Bylkin, Boris K.; Davydova, Galina B.; Zverkov, Yuri A.; Krayushkin, Alexander V.; Neretin, Yuri A.; Nosovsky, Anatoly V.; Seyda, Valery A.; Short, Steven M.

    2001-10-15

    The dismantlement of the reactor core materials and surrounding structural components is a major technical concern for those planning closure and decontamination and decommissioning of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Specific issues include when and how dismantlement should be accomplished and what the radwaste classification of the dismantled system would be at the time it is disassembled. Whereas radiation levels and residual radiological characteristics of the majority of the plant systems are directly measured using standard radiation survey and radiochemical analysis techniques, actual measurements of reactor zone materials are not practical due to high radiation levels and inaccessibility. For these reasons, neutron transport analysis was used to estimate induced radioactivity and radiation levels in the Chernobyl NPP Unit 1 reactor core materials and structures.Analysis results suggest that the optimum period of safe storage is 90 to 100 yr for the Unit 1 reactor. For all of the reactor components except the fuel channel pipes (or pressure tubes), this will provide sufficient decay time to allow unlimited worker access during dismantlement, minimize the need for expensive remote dismantlement, and allow for the dismantled reactor components to be classified as low- or medium-level radioactive waste. The fuel channel pipes will remain classified as high-activity waste requiring remote dismantlement for hundreds of years due to the high concentration of induced {sup 63}Ni in the Zircaloy pipes.

  13. Vadose zone characterization of highly radioactive contaminated soil at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Buckmaster, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Hanford Site in south-central Washington State contains over 1500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 remedial investigation is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 investigation on the Hanford Site that involves drilling into highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste site within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling the waste site, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. Predicted modeling concentrations compared favorably to analytical data collected during the initial characterization activities.

  14. Direct accumulation pathway of radioactive cesium to fruit-bodies of edible mushroom from contaminated wood logs

    PubMed Central

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Aiba, Yukitoshi; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the accumulation process of radioactive Cs in edible mushrooms. We here first report the direct accumulation pathway of radioactive Cs from contaminated wood logs to the fruit-bodies of shiitake mushrooms through the basal portion of the stipe. In this pathway, radioactive Cs is not transported through the hyphae. This pathway results in a high accumulation of radioactive Cs in the fruit-body, more by the excess accumulation of radioactive Cs from the wood logs than that through the hyphae. We grew the fruit-bodies of Shiitake mushroom from radioactive-Cs-contaminated wood logs. The spatial distributions of radioactive Cs and Prussian blue as a tracer of interstitial water in the cross section of the wood log measured after the harvest of the fruit-body from the inoculated sawdust spawn area indicated that some fraction of the radioactive Cs and Prussian blue were transported directly to the basal portion of the stipe during the growth of the fruit-bodies. PMID:27430163

  15. Direct accumulation pathway of radioactive cesium to fruit-bodies of edible mushroom from contaminated wood logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Aiba, Yukitoshi; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Niizato, Tadafumi; Sasaki, Yoshito

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the accumulation process of radioactive Cs in edible mushrooms. We here first report the direct accumulation pathway of radioactive Cs from contaminated wood logs to the fruit-bodies of shiitake mushrooms through the basal portion of the stipe. In this pathway, radioactive Cs is not transported through the hyphae. This pathway results in a high accumulation of radioactive Cs in the fruit-body, more by the excess accumulation of radioactive Cs from the wood logs than that through the hyphae. We grew the fruit-bodies of Shiitake mushroom from radioactive-Cs-contaminated wood logs. The spatial distributions of radioactive Cs and Prussian blue as a tracer of interstitial water in the cross section of the wood log measured after the harvest of the fruit-body from the inoculated sawdust spawn area indicated that some fraction of the radioactive Cs and Prussian blue were transported directly to the basal portion of the stipe during the growth of the fruit-bodies.

  16. Evaluation of HPGe spectrometric devices in monitoring the level of radioactive contamination in metallurgical industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, A.; Arnold, D.; Burda, O.; De Felice, P.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Mejuto, M.; Peyres, V.; Šolc, J.; Vodenik, B.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the tests of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) based gamma spectrometers employed for radioactivity control carried out on a daily basis in steel factories. This new application of this type of detector is part of the Joint Research Project (JRP) MetroMETAL supported by the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). The final purpose of the project was the improvement and standardisation of the measurement methods and systems for the control of radioactivity of recycled metal scraps at the beginning of the working process and for the certification of the absence of any radioactive contamination above the clearance levels (IAEA-TECDOC-8S5) in final steel products, Clearance levels for radionuclides in solid materials: application of exemption principles). Two prototypes based on HPGe detectors were designed and assembled to suit the needs of steel mills which had been examined previously. The evaluation of the two prototypes, carried out at three steel factories with standard sources of 60Co, 137Cs, 192Ir, 226Ra and 241Am in three different matrices (slag, fume dust and cast steel) and with samples provided on-site by the factories, was successful. The measurements proved the superiority of the prototypes over the scintillation detectors now commonly used regarding energy resolution and multi-nuclide identification capability. The detection limits were assessed and are presented as well.

  17. The Radioactivity Characteristics of the NPP Charcoal Sample Contaminated by Carbon-14 - 13531

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2013-07-01

    The radioactivity of {sup 14}C-contaminated charcoal sample was analyzed by using a high temperature oxidation and liquid scintillation counting method. The radioactivity of the sample was monotonically increased according to the increase of the combustion time at each temperature where the experimental uncertainty was calculated in the 95 % confidence level. It showed that the {sup 14}C radioactivity was not completely extracted from the sample by simply increasing the combustion time unless the combustion temperature was high enough. The higher the combustion temperature was, the higher the recovery during the first 30 minutes was. The first 30 minute recoveries were 100 % at a temperature equal to or greater than 450 deg. C. The ratios of the recovery during the first 30 minutes to the total recovery during whole duration were more than 90 % at each experiment temperature. It was understood that the temperature was a critical factor for the complete removal of the {sup 14}C from the waste sample. (authors)

  18. Potential for contamination during removal of radioactive seeds from surgically excised tissue.

    PubMed

    Classic, K L; Brunette, J B; Carlson, S K

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of a scalpel or electrocautery to remove radioactive sealed sources ("seeds") from surgically excised tissue could damage the seed and cause it to leak its radioactive contents. Attempts were made to cut or burn Oncura Model 6711 non-radioactive seeds while in pig muscle or on a stainless steel plate. Additionally, one active 125I seed was purposely charred using pressure with an electrocautery knife to see whether the casing could be damaged. Electron microscopy scanning was performed on the dummy seeds to determine if the integrity of the metal casing had been compromised. Two types of leak tests were performed on the active seed to verify the presence or absence of loose contamination. The seed casing was not damaged from either use of a scalpel or electrocautery when the seed was in tissue. The active seed was not found to be leaking after applying pressure with an electrocautery knife while the seed was on a stainless steel plate. We conclude that removal of active Model 6711 seeds from surgically excised tissue can be done safely with a scalpel or electrocautery because constant, firm pressure cannot be applied to the seed. This is likely true for seeds made of similar materials.

  19. Demolition and removal of radioactively contaminated concrete soil: Aerosol control and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Grace, A.C. III

    1995-12-01

    From 1963 to 1985, two concrete-lined ponds were used to reduce the volume of radioactive liquids from the Institute`s research programs. Following withdrawal of the {open_quotes}hot ponds{close_quotes} from active use, the residual sludges and plastic liners of the ponds were removed and shipped to a radioactive waste disposal site. From 1987 to 1994, the concrete structures remained undisturbed pending environmental restoration on the site. Restoration began in 1994 and was completed in 1995. Restoration involved mechanical breakup and removal of the concrete structures and removal of areas of contaminated soils from the site. This report describes the design and results of the aerosol control and monitoring program that was conducted to ensure protection of workers and the environment during the restoration process. The aerosol control and monitoring strategy developed for remediation of the ITRI hot ponds was successful both in preventing dispersion of radioactive dusts and in demonstrating that exposures of workers and offsite releases were within statutory limits.

  20. Genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl fallout to agricultural crops.

    PubMed

    Geraskin, S A; Dikarev, V G; Zyablitskaya, Ye Ya; Oudalova, A A; Spirin, Ye V; Alexakhin, R M

    2003-01-01

    The genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the fallout to agricultural crops after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 have been studied. In the first, acute, period of this accident, when the absorbed dose was primarily due to external beta- and gamma-irradiation, the radiation injury of agricultural crops, according to the basic cytogenetic tests, resembled the effect produced by acute gamma-irradiation at comparable doses. The yield of cytogenetic damage in leaf meristem of plants grown in the 10-km zone of the ChNPP in 1987-1989 (the period of chronic, lower level radiation exposure) was shown to be enhanced and dependent on the level of radioactive contamination. The rate of decline with time in cytogenetic damage induced by chronic exposure lagged considerably behind that of the radiation exposure. Analysis of genetic variability in three sequential generations of rye and wheat revealed increased cytogenetic damage in plants exposed to chronic irradiation during the 2nd and 3rd years.

  1. Comparison of remote consequences in Taraxacum officinale seed progeny collected in radioactively or chemically contaminated areas.

    PubMed

    Pozolotina, Vera N; Antonova, Elena V; Bezel, Victor S

    2012-10-01

    We carried out a comparative study of seed progeny taken from the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale s.l.) coenopopulations exposed for a long time to radioactive or chemical contamination originated from the East-Ural radioactive trace zone (EURT) or Nizhniy Tagil metallurgical combine impact zone (NTMC), respectively. Coenopopulations from EURT, NTMC and background areas significantly differ from each other with respect to the qualitative and quantitative composition of allozyme phenes. An analysis of clonal diversity showed the uniqueness of all coenopopulations in terms of their phenogenetics. P-generation seed viability was found to decrease in a similar manner as all types of the industrial stress increased. Studies of F (1)-generation variability in radio- and metal resistance by family analysis showed that seed progeny from EURT impact zone possessed high viability that, however, was accompanied by development of latent injuries resulting in low resistance to additional man-caused impacts. In F (1)-generation originated from NTMC zone, high seed viability was combined with increased resistance to provocative heavy metal and radiation exposure. No significant differences in responses to 'habitual' and 'new' factors, i.e. pre-adaptation effect, were found in samples from the contaminated areas.

  2. Background in the context of land contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material.

    PubMed

    Read, D; Read, G D; Thorne, M C

    2013-06-01

    The financial implications of choosing a particular threshold for clearance of radioactively contaminated land are substantial, particularly when one considers the volume of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) created each year by the production and combustion of fossil fuels and the exploitation of industrial minerals. Inevitably, a compromise needs to be reached between the level of environmental protection sought and the finite resources available for remediation. In the case of natural series radionuclides, any anthropogenic input is always superimposed on the inventory already present in the soil; this 'background' inventory is conventionally disregarded when assessing remediation targets. Unfortunately, the term is not well defined and the concept of 'background dose' is open to alternative interpretations. In this paper, we address the issue of natural background from a geochemical rather than from a solely radiological perspective, illustrating this with an example from the china clay industry. We propose a simple procedure for decision making based on activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides and their progeny. Subsequent calculations of dose need to take into account the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the contamination, which in the case of NORM are invariably reflected in uranium series disequilibrium.

  3. Mapping large areas of radioactively contaminated land with a self adapted, handheld, GPS coupled, scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Paridaens, Johan

    2008-03-01

    In Belgium, during several decennia, a phosphate plant discharged radium chloride containing waste water into two small rivers. One of those is part of a hydrographically very complex ecosystem with lots of small tributaries and hundreds of hectares of flooding zones. Hence, the river banks and large parts of these flooding zones have become contaminated with radium, heavy metals and chlorides. During a foot campaign, using a home made portable data logging system, consisting of a commercial 2.5 kg NaI detector, a computer mouse sized GPS, and a small pocket PC, the radioactive contamination of about 600 ha of sometimes very rough terrain was measured and mapped. The resulting very detailed radium contamination maps shed a whole new light on the water flow patterns of the ecosystem. The apparatus can also be used for efficiently guiding sampling campaigns for investigating other types of contamination. The ground maps are also compared to existing maps from helicopter measurements, evaluating strengths and weaknesses from both methods.

  4. The Innovations, Technology and Waste Management Approaches to Safely Package and Transport the World's First Radioactive Fusion Research Reactor for Burial

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Rule; Erik Perry; Jim Chrzanowski; Mike Viola; Ron Strykowsky

    2003-09-15

    Original estimates stated that the amount of radioactive waste that will be generated during the dismantling of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor will approach two million kilograms with an associated volume of 2,500 cubic meters. The materials were activated by 14 MeV neutrons and were highly contaminated with tritium, which present unique challenges to maintain integrity during packaging and transportation. In addition, the majority of this material is stainless steel and copper structural metal that were specifically designed and manufactured for this one-of-a-kind fusion research reactor. This provided further complexity in planning and managing the waste. We will discuss the engineering concepts, innovative practices, and technologies that were utilized to size reduce, stabilize, and package the many unique and complex components of this reactor. This waste was packaged and shipped in many different configurations and methods according to the transportation regulations and disposal facility requirements. For this particular project, we were able to utilize two separate disposal facilities for burial. This paper will conclude with a complete summary of the actual results of the waste management costs, volumes, and best practices that were developed from this groundbreaking and successful project.

  5. Distribution of radioactive cesium and stable cesium in cattle kept on a highly contaminated area of Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Okada, Keiji; Sasaki, Jun; Chida, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Hiroshi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Otani, Kumiko; Sato, Shusuke

    2015-07-01

    Radioactivity inspection of slaughtered cattle is generally conducted using a portion of the neck muscle; however, there is limited information about the distribution of radioactive cesium in cattle. In this study, therefore, we measured not only radioactive cesium but also stable cesium in various tissues of 19 cattle that had been kept in the area highly contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident. Skeletal muscles showed approximately 1.5-3.0 times higher concentration of radioactive cesium than internal organs. Radioactive cesium concentration in the tenderloin and top round was about 1.2 times as high as that in the neck muscle. The kidney showed the highest concentration of radioactive cesium among internal organs, whereas the liver was lowest. Radioactive cesium concentration in the blood was about 8% of that in the neck muscle. Characteristics of stable cesium distribution were almost the same as those of radioactive cesium. Correlation coefficient between radioactive cesium and stable cesium in tissues of individual cattle was 0.981 ± 0.012. When a suspicious level near 100 Bq/kg is detected in the neck of slaughtered cattle, re-inspection should be conducted using a different region of muscle, for example top round, to prevent marketing of beef that violates the Food Sanitation Act.

  6. Aluminum recycling from reactor walls: A source of contamination in a-Si:H thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Longeaud, C.; Ray, P. P.; Bhaduri, A.; Daineka, D.; Johnson, E. V.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

    2010-11-15

    In this article, the authors investigate the contamination of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films with aluminum recycled from the walls and electrodes of the deposition reactor. Thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon were prepared under various conditions by a standard radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process in two reactors, the chambers of which were constructed of either aluminum or stainless steel. The authors have studied the electronic properties of these thin films and have found that when using an aluminum reactor chamber, the layers are contaminated with aluminum recycled from the chamber walls and electrode. This phenomenon is observed almost independently of the deposition conditions. The authors show that this contamination results in slightly p-doped films and could be detrimental to the deposition of device grade films. The authors also propose a simple way to control and eventually suppress this contamination.

  7. Radioactivity in persons exposed to fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenker, R.A.; Oltman, B.G.; Lucas, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of fallout radioactivity were made in the thyroid region, abdomen, whole body, or urine of 96 persons who were in eastern Europe at the time of the Chernobyl reactor accident or who went there shortly afterward. The most frequently encountered radionuclides were /sup 131/I, sup 134,137/Cs, and /sup 103/Ru//sup 103/Rh. The median /sup 131/I activity in the thyroids of 42 subjects in whom radioiodine was detected and who were in Europe when the accident began was projected as 42 nCi the day the accident began. The median total body activity of /sup 134/Cs in 40 subjects in which it was detected was 1.7 nCi upon arrival in the US. For 51 subjects with detectable /sup 137/Cs burdens, the total body activity was 4.6 nCi. The risk of fatal thyroid cancer is less than 3 x 10/sup -6/ for nearly all subjects in this series. The risk of fatal cancer from /sup 134,137/Cs for subjects with cesium exposures similar to the ones observed by us, but who remained in Europe, is estimated as 1.4 x 10/sup -6/ to 4.2 x 10/sup -5/ with 95% of the risk attributable to /sup 137/Cs. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Evaluate the radioactivity along the central thimble hole of a decommissioned heavy water research reactor using TLD approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lun-Hui; Sher, Hai-Feng; Lu, I-Hsin; Pan, Lung-Kwang

    2012-04-01

    The radioactivity along the central thimble hole of a decommissioned heavy water research reactor, TRR, was evaluated using TLD approach. The decay radionuclide was verified to be Co-60. The dose along the TRR central thimble hole was detected and revised by performing an unfolding analysis. The revised data reduced to 70-90% of the original data (for example, the maximum dose rate was reduced from 6447 to 4831 mSv/h,) and were more reliable.

  9. Radioactive contamination from dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea--results from the joint Russian-Norwegian expeditions in 1992-1994.

    PubMed

    Salbu, B; Nikitin, A I; Strand, P; Christensen, G C; Chumichev, V B; Lind, B; Fjelldal, H; Bergan, T D; Rudjord, A L; Sickel, M; Valetova, N K; Føyn, L

    1997-08-25

    Russian-Norwegian expeditions to the Kara Sea and to dumping sites in the fjords of Novaya Zemlya have taken place annually since 1992. In the fjords, dumped objects were localised with sonar and ROV equipped with underwater camera. Enhanced levels of 137Cs, 60Co, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in sediments close to dumped containers in the Abrosimov and Stepovogo fjords demonstrated that leaching from dumped material has taken place. The contamination was inhomogeneously distributed and radioactive particles were identified in the upper 10 cm of the sediments. 137Cs was strongly associated with sediments, while 90Sr was more mobile. The contamination was less pronounced in the areas where objects presumed to be reactor compartments were located. The enhanced level of radionuclides observed in sediments close to the submarine in Stepovogo fjord in 1993 could, however, not be confirmed in 1994. Otherwise, traces of 60Co in sediments were observed in the close vicinity of all localised objects. Thus, the general level of radionuclides in waters, sediments and biota in the fjords is, somewhat higher or similar to that of the open Kara Sea, i.e. significantly lower than in other adjacent marine systems (e.g. Irish Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea). The main sources contributing to radioactive contamination were global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, river transport from Ob and Yenisey, marine transport of discharges from Sellafield, UK and fallout from Chernobyl. Thus, the radiological impact to man and the arctic environment of the observed leakages from dumped radioactive waste today, is considered to be low. Assuming all radionuclides are released from the waste, preliminary assessments indicate a collective dose to the world population of less than 50 man Sv.

  10. IMPACT OF TARGET MATERIAL ACTIVATION ON PERSONNEL EXPOSURE AND RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, H; Epperson, P; Thacker, R; Beale, R; Kohut, T; Brereton, S

    2009-06-30

    Detailed activation analyses are performed for the different materials under consideration for use in the target capsules and hohlraums used during the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility. Results of the target material activation were additionally used to estimate the levels of contamination within the NIF target chamber and the workplace controls necessary for safe operation. The analysis examined the impact of using Be-Cu and Ge-doped CH capsules on the external dose received by workers during maintenance activities. Five days following a 20 MJ shot, dose rates inside the Target Chamber (TC) due to the two proposed capsule materials are small ({approx} 1 {micro}rem/h). Gold and depleted-uranium (DU) are considered as potential hohlraum materials. Following a shot, gold will most probably get deposited on the TC first wall. On the other hand, while noble-gas precursors from the DU are expected to stay in the TC, most of the noble gases are pumped out of the chamber and end up on the cryopumps. The dose rates inside the TC due to activated gold or DU, at 5 days following a 20 MJ shot, are about 1 mrem/h. Dose rates in the vicinity of the cryo-pumps (containing noble 'fission' gases) drop-off to about 1 mrem/h during the first 12 hours following the shot. Contamination from activation of NIF targets will result in the NIF target chamber exceeding DOE surface contamination limits. Objects removed from the TC will need to be managed as radioactive material. However, the results suggest that airborne contamination from resuspension of surface contamination will not be significant and is at levels that can be managed by negative ventilation when accessing the TC attachments.

  11. Radioactive contamination of the Arctic Region, Baltic Sea, and the Sea of Japan from activities in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.J.

    1992-09-01

    Contamination of the Arctic regions of northern Europe and Russia, as well as the Sea of Japan, may become a potential major hazard to the ecosystem of these large areas. Widespread poor radioactive waste management practices from nuclear fuel cycle activities in the former Soviet Union have resulted in direct discharges to this area as well as multiple sources that may continue to release additional radioactivity. Information on the discharges of radioactive materials has become more commonplace in the last year, and a clearer picture is emerging of the scale of the contamination. Radioactivity in the Arctic oceans is now reported to be four times higher than would be derived from fallout from weapons tests. Although the characteristics and extent of the contamination are not well known, it has been stated that the contamination in the Arctic may range from 1 to 3.5 billion curies. As yet, no scientific sampling or measurement program has occurred that can verify the amount or extent of the contamination, or its potential impact on the ecosystem.

  12. Trench 'bathtubbing' and surface plutonium contamination at a legacy radioactive waste site.

    PubMed

    Payne, Timothy E; Harrison, Jennifer J; Hughes, Catherine E; Johansen, Mathew P; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Wilsher, Kerry L; Cendón, Dioni I; Hankin, Stuart I; Rowling, Brett; Zawadzki, Atun

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (~12 Bq/L of (239+240)Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest (239+240)Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0-1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the 'bathtub' effect.

  13. Trench ‘Bathtubbing’ and Surface Plutonium Contamination at a Legacy Radioactive Waste Site

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (∼12 Bq/L of 239+240Pu in 0.45 μm-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest 239+240Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0–1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the ‘bathtub’ effect. PMID:24256473

  14. Continuous circulation water wash apparatus and method for cleaning radioactively contaminated garments

    SciTech Connect

    Sewter, B.R.; Clemons, L. Jr.; Battaglia, J.A.; DeBarber, T.A.

    1992-02-25

    This patent describes an apparatus for water washing fabrics and removing particulate radioactive contaminants. It comprises: a washing machine means for washing and rinsing the fabrics having a wash-water inlet, rinse water inlet, a circulation inlet, and a water outlet; a particulate removal system connected between the circulation inlet and the water outlet for continuously circulating water introduced into the washing machine means through a particulate removal means while the machine means washes and rinses the fabric, and a hydraulically closed wash-water system and rinse water inlet and the rinse water inlet, respectively, for supplying polished wash-water and polished rinse water to the washing machine means, wherein each system includes it won separate water polisher.

  15. Application of GIS technologies to monitor secondary radioactive contamination in the Delegen mountain massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alipbeki, O.; Kabzhanova, G.; Kurmanova, G.; Alipbekova, Ch.

    2016-06-01

    The territory of the Degelen mountain massif is located within territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and it is an area of ecological disaster. Currently there is a process of secondary radioactive contamination that is caused by geodynamic processes activated at the Degelen array, violation of underground hydrological cycles and as a consequence, water seepage into the tunnels. One of the methods of monitoring of geodynamic processes is the modern technology of geographic information systems (GIS), methods of satellite radar interferometry and high accuracy satellite navigation system in conjunction with radioecological methods. This paper discusses on the creation of a GIS-project for the Degelen array, facilitated by quality geospatial analysis of the situation and simulation of the phenomena, in order to maximize an objective assessment of the radiation situation in this protected area.

  16. Medical effects of internal contamination with actinides: further controversy on depleted uranium and radioactive warfare.

    PubMed

    Durakovic, Asaf

    2016-05-01

    The Nuclear Age began in 1945 with testing in New Mexico, USA, and the subsequent bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Regardless of attempts to limit the development of nuclear weapons, the current world arsenal has reached the staggering dimensions and presents a significant concern for the biosphere and mankind. In an explosion of a nuclear weapon, over 400 radioactive isotopes are released into the biosphere, 40 of which pose potential dangers including iodine, cesium, alkaline earths, and actinides. The immediate health effects of nuclear explosions include thermal, mechanical, and acute radiation syndrome. Long-term effects include radioactive fallout, internal contamination, and long-term genotoxicity. The current controversial concern over depleted uranium's somatic and genetic toxicity is still a subject of worldwide sustained research. The host of data generated in the past decades has demonstrated conflicting findings, with the most recent evidence showing that its genotoxicity is greater than previously considered. Of particular concern are the osteotropic properties of uranium isotopes due to their final retention in the crystals of exchangeable and nonexchangeable bone as well as their proximity to pluripotent stem cells. Depleted uranium remains an unresolved issue in both warfare and the search for alternative energy sources.

  17. Proposed sale of radioactively contaminated nickel ingots located at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to sell 8,500 radioactively contaminated nickel ingots (9.350 short tons), currently in open storage at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), to Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) for decontamination and resale on the international market. SEG would take ownership of the ingots when they are loaded for transport by truck to its facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. SEG would receive approximately 200 short tons per month over approximately 48 months (an average of 180 ingots per month). The nickel decontamination process specified in SEG`s technical proposal is considered the best available technology and has been demonstrated in prototype at SEG. The resultant metal for resale would have contamination levels between 0.3 and 20 becquerel per gram (Bq/g). The health hazards associated with release of the decontaminated nickel are minimal. The activity concentration of the end product would be further reduced when the nickel is combined with other metals to make stainless steel. Low-level radioactive waste from the SEG decontamination process, estimated to be approximately 382 m{sup 3} (12,730 ft), would be shipped to a licensed commercial or DOE disposal facility. If the waste were packaged in 0.23 m{sup 3}-(7.5 ft{sup 3}-) capacity drums, approximately 1,500 to 1,900 drums would be transported over the 48-month contract period. Impacts from the construction of decontamination facilities and the selected site are minimal.

  18. Thermoplastic encapsulation of commercial reactor low level radioactive, hazardous and mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Lageraaen, P.R.

    1995-05-01

    Conventional hydraulic cement solidification is the primary technology employed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and commercial nuclear facilities for treatment of low-level radioactive (LLW), hazardous and mixed wastes. The extensive use of cement as a solidification binder has been based on its availability, relative low cost, processability, and high alkalinity (beneficial for immobilizing toxic metals). However, a chemical hydration reaction necessary to set and cure the waste form limits the type and quantity of waste that can be incorporated due to possible interferences between the waste and binder material. Alternative encapsulation technologies have been sought under DOE sponsorship that provide increases in waste stream compatibility, waste loading potential, and waste form performance at lower costs. The Environmental & Waste Technology Center (E&WTC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed several low temperature encapsulation processes for improved treatment of commercial reactor and DOE waste streams, using low-density polyethylene and sulfur polymer. Process development studies have shown successful process applicability to a wide range of wastes including evaporator concentrates, such as sodium sulfate and borate salts, incinerator ash and ion exchange resins. Waste form performance studies have been conducted to characterize waste form behavior under disposal conditions in accordance with testing criteria specified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Based on processing and performance considerations, dramatic waste loading improvements compared with conventional hydraulic cement have been achieved. For example, the polyethylene process has been shown to encapsulate up to 70 dry wt% evaporator salt concentrates, compared with a maximum of about 12 dry wt% for the best hydraulic cement formation.

  19. Use of charcoals and broiler litter biochar for removal of radioactive cesium (Cs-134 plus Cs-137) from contaminated water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various charcoals (used in food processing and water treatment) and broiler litter biochar were examined for ability to adsorb water-soluble low-level radioactive cesium (ca. 200-250 Bq/kg) extracted from contaminated wheat bran. Among the materials tested, steam activated broiler litter biochar was...

  20. PILOT SCALE REACTOR FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL DECHLORINATION OF MODEL CHLORINATED CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrochemical degradation (ECD) is a promising technology for in-situ remediation of diversely contaminated submarine matrices, by the application of low level DC electric fields. This study, prompted by successful bench-scale electrochemical dechlorination of Trichloroe...

  1. The phyto-remediation of radioactively contaminated land - a feasible approach or just bananas?

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, Victoria A

    2013-07-01

    Soil is an essential component of all terrestrial ecosystems and is under increasing threat from human activity. Techniques available for removing radioactive contamination from soil and aquatic substrates are limited and often costly to implement; particularly over large areas. Frequently, bulk soil removal, with its attendant consequences, is a significant component of the majority of contamination incidents. Alternative techniques capable of removing contamination or exposure pathways without damaging or removing the soil are therefore of significant interest. An increasing number of old nuclear facilities are entering 'care and maintenance', with significant ground contamination issues. Phyto-remediation - the use of plants' natural metabolic processes to remediate contaminated sites is one possible solution. Its key mechanisms include phyto-extraction and phyto-stabilisation. These are analogues of existing remedial techniques. Further, phyto-remediation can improve soil quality and stability and restore functionality. Information on the application of phyto-remediation in the nuclear industry is widely distributed over an extended period of time and sources. It is therefore difficult to quickly and effectively identify which plants would be most suitable for phyto-remediation on a site by site basis. In response, a phyto-remediation tool has been developed to address this issue. Existing research and case studies were reviewed to understand the mechanisms of phyto-remediation, its effectiveness and the benefits and limitations of implementation. The potential for cost recovery from a phyto-remediation system is also briefly considered. An overview of this information is provided here. From this data, a set of matrices was developed to guide potential users through the plant selection process. The matrices take the user through a preliminary screening process to determine whether the contamination present at their site is amenable to phyto-remediation, and to

  2. Natural radioactivity and metal contamination of river sediments in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; Marguccio, S.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    River sediments from eight different sites of the coast of Calabria, south of Italy, were sampled to determine natural radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the area. Gamma and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry were employed and results of this study show that the mean activity concentrations of radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium) ranged from 15.1Bq/kg to 26.7Bq/kg, that of thorium from 21.8Bq/kg to 48.3Bq/kg and that of potassium from 541.3Bq/kg to 1452.2Bq/kg. In terms of mean mass concentrations, XRF analysis revealed that uranium was lower than 1.5ppm (minimum detectable value), thorium ranged from 6.1ppm to 10.3ppm while potassium ranged from 2.5% to 4.4%. The degree of sediment contaminations were computed using an enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo for some potential hazardous elements. Results suggested that enrichment factor and geoaccumulation values of Pb and Mn were greatest among the studied metals. The study revealed that on the basis of computed indexes, the eight investigated rivers can be classified as no polluted ones.

  3. Foodstuff contamination and pattern of consumption by population of foremost radioactively contaminated territories in Ukraine during the remote period of the Chornobyl disaster clean-up.

    PubMed

    Omelianets, M; Piven, N; Gunko, N; Korotkova, N; Sribna, V

    2014-09-01

    Objective. The goal of the study was to estimate, from the perspective and in terms of hygienic provisions, the level of local food contamination by 137Cs and their pattern of consumption by residents of foremost radionuclide contaminated territories of Ukraine (Zhytomyr, Kyiv and Rivne oblasts) in the remote period of the Chornobyl disaster. Materials and methods. The article presents analytical data from the National Statistics Office of Ukraine concerning production and consumption of agricultural products in the territories of foremost severe radioactive contamination (TRC) i.e. Zhytomyr, Kyiv and Rivne oblasts (provinces). Data on levels of food contamination (milk, meat, fruits and vegetables, wild mushrooms and berries) received from the regional radiological control centers (RCC) and sanitary and epidemiological agencies/bureaus (SEA) were analyzed. According to results of questionnaire survey of residents in TRC of investigated regions (oblasts) the public awareness of radioactive contamination levels in local food production, their level of consumption and the use of cooking measures to reduce internal dose were assayed. Analytical, mathematical, statistical, sociological, and software engineering methods were applied. Results and conclusions. It was found that in the country and in study areas as well there is more than a half decrease of milk and meat production and consumption, and almost half times increased production of potato. It was shown that locally produced food and wide use of wild berries and mushrooms are dominated in the diet of TRC residents in the remote period after the Chornobyl disaster. Ecological and hygienic monitoring of foodstuffs in TRC proves the probability of product consumption with high content of radioactive materials. Residents territories of the foremost severe radioactive contamination in Zhytomyr, Kyiv and Rivne oblasts are aware about possible contamination of locally produced food with substances of Chornobyl origin

  4. Lateral migration of Caesium-137 as a heterogeneity factor of soil radioactive contamination within small catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshurina, Evgeniya

    2014-05-01

    Caesium-137 is long-lived artificial radionuclide with half-life of about 30.17 years. Due to Chernobyl accident in 1986 were received 270-280 PBq of 137Cs. The radioactive material is spread in different directions and then fell to the vast territory on the earth's surface as part of rainfall and under the influence of gravity. The deposition of 137Cs was very heterogeneous due to significant impact of changing weather conditions during the accident. Fixing 137Cs in the soil is because of the high content in the upper layer of fine fractions (especially clay) and organic substances that increase the sorption properties of soil. As a result of small vertical migration down the soil profile, the main migration processes of 137Cs is lateral migration which may occur in soil particles under the deflation but mainly water erosion.The aim of this study was to analyze the main factors of changing the current radioecological situation of small catchments in Chernozem zone of European Russia. The 1st small catchment with total area 1.98 km2 is located in the Kursk Region, where 137Cs soil inventories currently does not exceed 37 kBq/m2. The 2nd small catchment with total area 0.99 km2 is located in the Tula Region called "Plavsk Cs deposition hotspot" was highly contaminated with radioactive fallout with levels up to 600 kBq/m2.For reconstruction of 137Cs initial fallout was defined 4 references sites in Kursk Region and 5 sites in Tula Region. All reference sites were located at the flat interfluve areas in or nearby the study catchment. The analysis of 137Cs inventory within 1st study site references did not show significant differences between them which indicates the absence of the initial fallout heterogeneity. The mean values of 137Cs inventory is 8,7±0,5 kBq/m2 and Cv varies in a range of 13-22%, which are typical for the faraway from Chernobyl territory. Based on 4 references was created the map of initial Chernobyl fallout using the formula of radioactive decay

  5. Historical records of radioactive contamination in biota at the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.R.; Markes, B.M.; Schmidt, J.W.; Shah, A.N.; Weiss, S.G.; Wilson, K.J.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes and reports a literature search of 85 environmental monitoring records of wildlife and vegetation (biota) at the 200 East Area and the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site since 1965. These records were published annually and provided the majority of the data in this report. Additional sources of data have included records of specific facilities, such as site characterization documents and preoperational environmental surveys. These documents have been released for public use. Records before 1965 were still being researched and therefore not included in this document. The intent of compiling these data into a single source was to identify past and current concentrations of radionuclides in biota at specific facilities and waste sites within each operable unit that may be used to help guide cleanup activities in the 200 Areas to be completed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act (CERCLA). The 200 East Area and 200 West Area were the locations of the Hanford Site separation and process facilities and waste management units. For the purposes of this document, a sample was of interest if a Geiger-Mueller counter equipped with a pancake probe-indicated beta/gamma emitting radioactivity above 200 counts per minute (cpm), or if laboratory radioanalyses indicated a radionuclide concentration equaled or exceeded 10 picocuries per gram (pCi/g). About 4,500 individual cases of monitoring for radionuclide uptake or transport in biota in the 200 Areas environs were included in the documents reviewed. About 1,900 (i.e., 42%) of these biota had radionuclide concentrations in excess of 10 pCi/g. These radionuclide transport or uptake cases were distributed among 45 species of wildlife (primarily small mammals and feces) and 30 species of vegetation. The wildlife species most commonly associated with radioactive contamination were the house mouse and the deer mouse and of vegetation species, the Russian thistle.

  6. REACTOR SHIELD

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  7. Comparing radiation dose rates in soils and riverine sediment to track the dispersion of radioactive contamination in Fukushima coastal rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Lepage, Hugo; Chartin, Caroline; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Bonté, Philippe; Ayrault, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident that occurred in March 2011 led to the formation of a 3000-km² radioactive pollution plume on soils located up to 70 km to the northwest of the damaged site. Forests and paddy fields are the dominant land uses in this mountainous region drained to the Pacific Ocean by several rivers that flow across densely inhabited coastal plains. It is then crucial to track the dispersion of radioactive material conveyed by those rivers to estimate the continental supply of radionuclides to the Ocean and to assess redistribution of radioactive sediment in those catchments. Radiations emitted by this contaminated material may indeed lead to an external exposure threat for local populations. As river discharge and sediment concentration data were not available during the first two years that followed the accident, alternative methods had to be developed to track this dispersion. We therefore organized field campaigns every six months and conducted local ground dose rate measurements to estimate whether fresh sediment drape deposits were more or less contaminated compared to local soils. Overall, our results showed that, in those regions exposed to violent typhoons and spring snowmelt, transfers of sediment are massive and episodic, and that they followed a seasonal cycle in 2011-2012. Then, in May 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. This could have indicated a drying-up of the upstream sources of contamination. However, after the violent typhoons that occurred during summer in 2013, dose rates measured in fresh sediment deposits in November 2013 increased again systematically across the region. We thereby suggest that remobilization of contaminated sediment by typhoons and their storage in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the

  8. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends.

    PubMed

    Gulin, S B; Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G; Sidorov, I G; Proskurnin, V Yu

    2013-10-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m(-3), respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq (137)Cs and 22 Bq (90)Sr per m(3) as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly (90)Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995-1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths.

  9. Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive contaminants. Final report September 1992--October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A research and development project to remove uranium and related radioactive contaminants from soil by an ultrasonically-aided chemical leaching process began in 1993. The project objective was to develop and design, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale experimental studies, a cost-effective soil decontamination process to produce a treated soil containing less than 35 pCi/g. The project, to cover a period of about thirty months, was designed to include bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to remove primarily uranium from the Incinerator Area soil, at Fernald, Ohio, as well as strontium-90, cobalt-60 and cesium-137 from a Chalk River soil, at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario. The project goal was to develop, design and cost estimate, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale ex-situ soil treatment studies, a process to remove radionuclides form the soils to a residual level of 35 pCi/g of soil or less, and to provide a dischargeable water effluent as a result of soil leaching and a concentrate that can be recovered for reuse or solidified as a waste for disposal. In addition, a supplementary goal was to test the effectiveness of in-situ soil treatment through a field study using the Chalk River soil.

  10. Radioactive contamination of the marine environment: Uptake and distribution of3H in Dunaliella bioculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, S.; Bonotto, S.; Kirchmann, R.

    1980-03-01

    The marine flagellate Dunaliella bioculata, which is easily cultivated under laboratory conditions, is a suitable organism for assessing the importance of the radioactive contamination by3H bound to organic molecules. We have studied the uptake of the following tritiated precursors: thymidine-methyl-3H, adenine-2-3H, uridine-5-3H, l-leucine-4-3H, glycine-2-3H, l-arginine-3.4-3H, 1-aspartic acid-2. 3-3H, 1-phenylalanine-2.3-3H, D-glucose-2-3H and D-glucose-6-3H. Under the experimental conditions (2000 lux; incubation time 30 min), all tritiated molecules are taken up by D. bioculata. Their intracellular concentration may reach that of the external medium. However, leucine and adenine accumulate in the algae: their respective concentrations are 10 and 100 times higher than in the culture medium. The molecular distribution of3H has been studied by various biochemical techniques and by sieve chromatography on sepharose 4B. It has been found that more l-leucine-4-3H is incorporated into acid and acetone soluble substances than into proteins. Adenine-2-3H is mainly incorporated into macromolecules of biological significance (RNA, DNA). CsCl gradient centrifugation has shown that the total DNA of Dunaliella is constituted by a major (ϖ=1.707 g/cm3) and by a minor (ϖ=1.693 g/cm3) component.

  11. RESRAD-RECYCLE : a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing ratioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J. J.; Kassas, B.; Yu, C.; Arnish, J. J.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.-Y.; Williams, W. A.; Wallo, A.; Peterson, H.; Environmental Assessment; DOE; Univ. of Texas

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

  12. Evaluation of a soil slurry reactor system for treating soil contaminated with munitions compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.; Montemagno, C.; Kulpa, C.F.

    1994-05-01

    Two 0.5-L semicontinuous soil slurry reactors were operated for seven months to evaluate the performance of the slurry reactor system in bioremediating soil contaminated with munitions compounds. Nitrogen and carbon were supplemented. The soil slurry was mixed continuously and aerated 10 min/day. Ten percent of the contaminated soil was replaced every week. The 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) concentration in soil began to drop after 15 days of treatment, falling to less than 0.5 mg/kg from 7800 mg/kg. Total plate counts in both reactors indicated that the bacterial population was maintained, with an average plate count of about 10{sup 8} CFU/mL. The soil slurry was slightly acidic. In addition to TNT, the slurry reactor also removed the other munitions compounds trinitrobenzene (TNB), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), RDX, and HMX. Radiolabeling studies on the reactor biomass showed that 23% of [{sup C}14]TNT was mineralized, while 27% was used as biomass and 8% was adsorbed on to the soil. The rest of the [{sup 14}C]TNT was accounted for as TNT metabolites. Increasing the frequency of soil replacement from once to two or three times weekly did not affect the TNT removal rates. However, the slurry system showed signs of stress, with highly acidic conditions and low oxygen uptake rates.

  13. Electrosorption on carbon aerogel electrodes as a means of treating low-level radioactive wastes and remediating contaminated ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Tri Duc; Farmer, Joseph C.; DePruneda, Jean H.; Richardson, Jeffery H.

    1997-07-01

    A novel separation process based upon carbon aerogel electrodes has been recently developed for the efficient removal of ionic impurities from aqueous streams. This process can be used as an electrical y- regenerated alternative to ion exchange, thereby reducing-the need for large quantities of chemical regenerants. Once spent (contaminated), these regenerants contribute to the waste that must be disposed of in landfills. The elimination of such wastes is especially beneficial in situations involving radioactive contaminants, and pump and treat processing of massive volumes of ground water. A review and analysis of potential applications will be presented.

  14. Evaluating factors affecting the permeability of emulsions used to stabilize radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device.

    PubMed

    Fox, Garey A; Medina, Victor F

    2005-05-15

    Present strategies for alleviating radioactive contamination from a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or dirty bomb involve either demolishing and removing radioactive surfaces or abandoning portions of the area near the release point. In both cases, it is imperative to eliminate or reduce migration of the radioisotopes until the cleanup is complete or until the radiation has decayed back to acceptable levels. This research investigated an alternative strategy of using emulsions to stabilize radioactive particulate contamination. Emergency response personnel would coat surfaces with emulsions consisting of asphalt or tall oil pitch to prevent migration of contamination. The site can then be evaluated and cleaned up as needed. In order for this approach to be effective, the treatment must eliminate migration of the radioactive agents in the terror device. Water application is an environmental condition that could promote migration into the external environment. This research investigated the potential for water, and correspondingly contaminant, migration through two emulsions consisting of Topein, a resinous byproduct during paper manufacture. Topein C is an asphaltic-based emulsion and Topein S is a tall oil pitch, nonionic emulsion. Experiments included water adsorption/ mobilization studies, filtration tests, and image analysis of photomicrographs from an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and a stereomicroscope. Both emulsions were effective at reducing water migration. Conductivity estimates were on the order of 10(-80) cm s(-1) for Topein C and 10(-7) cm s(-1) for Topein S. Water mobility depended on emulsion flocculation and coalescence time. Photomicrographs indicate that Topein S consisted of greater and more interconnected porosity. Dilute foams of isolated spherical gas cells formed when emulsions were applied to basic surfaces. Gas cells rose to the surface and ruptured, leaving void spaces that penetrated throughout the emulsion. These

  15. Food after Fukushima--Japan's regulatory response to the radioactive contamination of its food chain.

    PubMed

    Berends, Gijs; Kobayashi, Megumi

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident in Fukushima triggered a process of regulatory action, inspections, and market restrictions that has deeply affected the Japanese food market. When higher than permissible levels of radioactivity entered the food chain, the Japanese Government had to take strong measures to protect consumers. At the same time, it had to explore ways to avoid disproportionate penalties on the producers from the affected region. This article examines Japan's regulatory response to the nuclear accident and the legal instruments the government accordingly employed. Our analysis follows four regulatory steps that were taken by the government to safeguard the food chain: the establishment of maximum permissible levels for radioactive levels in food; the adoption of guidelines on how to monitor these levels; the restriction of the distribution and consumption of excessively contaminated food and, finally, where and when possible, the lifting of these restrictions. This article discusses how the Food and Drug Administration has come to adopt informal guidance (agency advice that influences regulated entities but does not carry the force and effect of law) as its primary method of policymaking, as opposed to more formalized procedures like notice-and-comment rulemaking or case-specific adjudication. Using major developments in administrative law and modifications to FDA's regulatory regime as milestones, the article traces how and why FDA's use of informal guidance to fulfill its statutory mandate has changed over the past century. Along the way, the article identifies important doctrinal questions that persist today, namely (1) whether informal advisory opinions bind FDA and (2) the degree of judicial deference guidance documents should receive under the Supreme Court's decisions in Chevron and Mead. The article attempts to resolve these doctrinal ambiguities. It then undertakes a normative analysis of FDA's increasing reliance on informal guidance, and conclude that

  16. Calculation of releases of radioactive materials in gaseous and liquid effluents from pressurized water reactors (PWR-GALE Code). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekaran, T.; Lee, J.Y.; Willis, C.A.

    1985-04-01

    This report revises the original issuance of NUREG-0017, ''Calculation of Releases of Radioactive Materials in Gaseous and Liquid Effluents from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR-GALE-Code)'' (April 1976), to incorporate more recent operating data now available as well as the results of a number of in-plant measurement programs at operating pressurized water reactors. The PWR-GALE Code is a computerized mathematical model for calculating the releases of radioactive material in gaseous and liquid effluents (i.e., the gaseous and liquid source terms). The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses the PWR-GALE Code to determine conformance with the requirements of Appendix I to 10 CFR Part 50.

  17. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972

    SciTech Connect

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

  18. Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides During Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    VAN DEN AVYLE,JAMES A.; MALGAARD,DAVID; MOLECKE,MARTIN; PAL,UDAY B.; WILLIAMSON,RODNEY L.; ZHIDKOV,VASILY V.

    1999-06-15

    The Research Objectives of this project are to characterize and optimize the use of molten slags to melt decontaminate radioactive stainless steel scrap metal. The major focus is on optimizing the electroslag remelting (ESR) process, a widely used industrial process for stainless steels and other alloys, which can produce high quality ingots directly suitable for forging, rolling, and parts fabrication. It is our goal to have a melting process ready for a DOE D and D demonstration at the end of the third year of EMSP sponsorship, and this technology could be applied to effective stainless steel scrap recycle for internal DOE applications. It also has potential international applications. The technical approach has several elements: (1) characterize the thermodynamics and kinetics of slag/metal/contaminate reactions by models and experiments, (2) determine the capacity of slags for radioactive containment, (3) characterize the minimum levels of residual slags and contaminates in processed metal, and (4) create an experimental and model-based database on achievable levels of decontamination to support recycle applications. Much of the experimental work on this project is necessarily focused on reactions of slags with surrogate compounds which behave similar to radioactive transuranic and actinide species. This work is being conducted at three locations. At Boston University, Prof. Uday Pal's group conducts fundamental studies on electrochemical and thermochemical reactions among slags, metal, and surrogate contaminate compounds. The purpose of this work is to develop a detailed understanding of reactions in slags through small laboratory scale experiments and modeling. At Sandia, this fundamental information is applied to the design of electroslag melting experiments with surrogates to produce and characterize metal ingots. In addition, ESR furnace conditions are characterized, and both thermodynamic and ESR process models are utilized to optimize the process. To

  19. Absence of internal radiation contamination by radioactive cesium among children affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Nomura, Shuhei; Morita, Tomohiro; Sugimoto, Amina; Gilmour, Stuart; Kami, Masahiro; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic internal radiation contamination accounts for a substantial fraction of long-term cumulative radiation exposure among residents in radiation-contaminated areas. However, little information is available on ongoing chronic internal radiation contamination among residents near the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Using a whole body counter, internal radiation contamination levels among elementary and middle school students who commute to 22 schools located within Minamisoma city were assessed between May and July 2013 (26 to 28 mo after the disaster). Of 3,299 elementary and middle school students in the city, 3,255 individuals (98%) were screened through school health check-ups. Not a single student was detected with internal radiation contamination due to radioactive cesium. The study found no risk of chronic internal radiation exposure among residents near the crippled nuclear power plant. Current food inspection by local governments, volunteers, and farmers has been functioning well within Fukushima prefecture. However, food management by screening suspected contamination along with whole body counter screening are key public health interventions and should be continued to avoid further internal radiation exposure in radiation-contaminated areas.

  20. Channel structures in aerobic biofilms of fixed-film reactors treating contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed Central

    Massol-Deyá, A A; Whallon, J; Hickey, R F; Tiedje, J M

    1995-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, confocal scanning laser microscopy, and fatty acid methyl ester profiles were used to study the development, organization, and structure of aerobic multispecies biofilm communities in granular activated-carbon (GAC) fluidized-bed reactors treating petroleum-contaminated groundwaters. The sequential development of biofilm structure was studied in a laboratory reactor fed toluene-amended groundwater and colonized by the indigenous aquifer populations. During the early stages of colonization, microcolonies were observed primarily in crevices and other regions sheltered from hydraulic shear forces. Eventually, these microcolonies grew over the entire surface of the GAC. This growth led to the development of discrete discontinuous multilayer biofilm structures. Cell-free channel-like structures of variable sizes were observed to interconnect the surface film with the deep inner layers. These interconnections appeared to increase the biological surface area per unit volume ratio, which may facilitate transport of substrates into and waste products out of deep regions of the biofilm at rates greater than possible by diffusion alone. These architectural features were also observed in biofilms from four field-scale GAC reactors that were in commercial operation treating petroleum-contaminated groundwaters. These shared features suggest that formation of cell-free channel structures and their maintenance may be a general microbial strategy to deal with the problem of limiting diffusive transport in thick biofilms typical of fluidized-bed reactors. PMID:7574613

  1. Radioactive contamination and radionuclide migration in ground water. January 1970-May 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-05-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of groundwater with radionuclides and their subsequent migration. Monitoring surveys of existing sites with actual or potential radioactive groundwater contamination are included. Transport and migration models for radionuclides in groundwater are discussed. Natural radiation and accidental releases are considered in addition to anthropogenic sources of radioactive pollution such as waste storage and disposal. Contributions to radioactive pollution from uranium mining and processing is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 209 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  2. Radioactive contamination in the Arctic--sources, dose assessment and potential risks.

    PubMed

    Strand, P; Howard, B J; Aarkrog, A; Balonov, M; Tsaturov, Y; Bewers, J M; Salo, A; Sickel, M; Bergman, R; Rissanen, K

    2002-01-01

    Arctic residents, whose diets comprise a large proportion of traditional terrestrial and freshwater foodstuffs, have received the highest radiation exposures to artificial radionuclides in the Arctic. Doses to members of both the average population and selected indigenous population groups in the Arctic depend on the rates of consumption of locally-derived terrestrial and freshwater foodstuffs, including reindeer/caribou meat, freshwater fish, goat cheese, berries, mushrooms and lamb. The vulnerability of arctic populations, especially indigenous peoples, to radiocaesium deposition is much greater than for temperate populations due to the importance of terrestrial, semi-natural exposure pathways where there is high radiocaesium transfer and a long ecological half-life for this radionuclide. In contrast, arctic residents with diets largely comprising marine foodstuffs have received comparatively low radiation exposures because of the lower levels of contamination of marine organisms. Using arctic-specific information, the predicted collective dose is five times higher than that estimated by UNSCEAR for temperate areas. The greatest threats to human health and the environment posed by human and industrial activities in the Arctic are associated with the potential for accidents in the civilian and military nuclear sectors. Of most concern are the consequences of potential accidents in nuclear power plant reactors, during the handling and storage of nuclear weapons, in the decommissioning of nuclear submarines and in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel from vessels. It is important to foster a close association between risk assessment and practical programmes for the purposes of improving monitoring, formulating response strategies and implementing action plans.

  3. Radioactive waste shipments to Hanford retrievable storage from Westinghouse Advanced Reactors and Nuclear Fuels Divisions, Cheswick, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.; Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Dicenso, K.D.; DeLorenzo, D.S.

    1994-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Sits in southeastern Washington State is to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Approximately 5.7 percent of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to WIPP was generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division (WARD) and the Westinghouse Nuclear Fuels Division (WNFD) in Cheswick, Pennsylvania and shipped to the Hanford Sits for storage. This report characterizes these radioactive solid wastes using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews.

  4. Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides during Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Avyle, James A.; Melgaard, David; Molecke, Martin; Shelmidine, Greg J.; Pal, Uday; Bychkov, Sergie I.

    1999-12-31

    Metal waste generated from domestic nuclear operations for defense and commercial applications has led to a growing stockpile of radioactively contaminated scrap metal, much of which is stainless steel. This steel contains large quantities of strategic elements such as nickel and chromium and constitutes a valuable domestic resource [1]. A significant fraction of this material cannot be efficiently surface decontaminated, and burial of this material would be wasteful and expensive, since long term monitoring would be necessary in order to minimize environmental risk. Melt decontamination of this material would maintain the chemical pedigree of the stainless steel, allowing its controlled reuse within the nuclear community. This research addresses the melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel by electroslag remelting (ESR). ESR is industrially used for the production of specialty steels and superalloys to remove a variety of contaminates and to improve metal chemistry. Correctly applied, it could maintain the specified chemistry and mechanical properties of the original material while capturing the radioactive transuranic elements in a stable slag phase. The ESR process also produces a high quality metal ingot free of porosity that can be directly forged or rolled into final shapes. The goal of this project was to optimize a melt decontamination process through a basic understanding of the factors which govern the partitioning of various radionuclides between the metal, slag, and gas phases. Radionuclides which are captured by a slag phase may be stabilized by promoting the formation of synthetic minerals within a leach resistant matrix. This research program included three segments. At Boston University, Prof. Uday Pal and his group conducted research to develop a fundamental understanding of thermochemical and electrochemical behaviors of slag/metal/radionuclide surrogate systems. This work combined experimental characterization and

  5. Deployment of Smart 3D Subsurface Contaminant Characterization at the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.; Heiser, J.; Kalb, P.; Milian, L.; Newson, C.; Lilimpakas, M.; Daniels, T.

    2002-02-26

    The Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) Historical Site Assessment (BNL 1999) identified contamination inside the Below Grade Ducts (BGD) resulting from the deposition of fission and activation products from the pile on the inner carbon steel liner during reactor operations. Due to partial flooding of the BGD since shutdown, some of this contamination may have leaked out of the ducts into the surrounding soils. The baseline remediation plan for cleanup of contaminated soils beneath the BGD involves complete removal of the ducts, followed by surveying the underlying and surrounding soils, then removing soil that has been contaminated above cleanup goals. Alternatively, if soil contamination around and beneath the BGD is either non-existent/minimal (below cleanup goals) or is very localized and can be ''surgically removed'' at a reasonable cost, the BGD can be decontaminated and left in place. The focus of this Department of Energy Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (DOE ASTD) project was to determine the extent (location, type, and level) of soil contamination surrounding the BGD and to present this data to the stakeholders as part of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA) process. A suite of innovative characterization tools was used to complete the characterization of the soil surrounding the BGD in a cost-effective and timely fashion and in a manner acceptable to the stakeholders. The tools consisted of a tracer gas leak detection system that was used to define the gaseous leak paths out of the BGD and guide soil characterization studies, a small-footprint Geoprobe to reach areas surrounding the BGD that were difficult to access, two novel, field-deployed, radiological analysis systems (ISOCS and BetaScint) and a three-dimensional (3D) visualization system to facilitate data analysis/interpretation. All of the technologies performed as well or better than expected and the characterization could not have been completed in the same time or at

  6. Determination of Columbia River flow times from Pasco, Washington using radioactive tracers introduced by the Hanford reactors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Jack L.; Perkins, R.W.; Haushild, W.L.

    1966-01-01

    Radioactive tracers introduced into the Columbia River in cooling water from the Hanford reactors were used to measure flow times downstream from Pasco, Washington, as far as Astoria, Oregon. The use of two tracer methods was investigated. One method used the decay of a steady release of Na24 (15-hour half-life) to determine flow times to various downstream locations, and flow times were also determined from the time required for peak concentration of instantaneous releases of I131 (8-day half-life) to reach these locations. Flow times determined from the simultaneous use of the two methods agreed closely. The measured flow times for the 224 miles from Pasco to Vancouver, Washington, ranged from 14.6 to 3.6 days, respectively, for discharges of 108,000 and 630,000 ft3/sec at Vancouver, Washington. A graphic relation for estimating flow times at discharges other than those measured and for several locations between Pasco and Vancouver was prepared from the data of tests made at four river discharges. Some limited data are also presented on the characteristics of dispersion of I131 in the Columbia River. (Keywords: Radioactivity; time of flow; Columbia River.)

  7. Simulation of Radioactive Corrosion Product in Primary Cooling System of Japanese Sodium-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matuo, Youichirou; Miyahara, Shinya; Izumi, Yoshinobu

    Radioactive Corrosion Product (CP) is a main cause of personal radiation exposure during maintenance with no breached fuel in fast breeder reactor (FBR) plants. The most important CP is 54Mn and 60Co. In order to establish techniques of radiation dose estimation for radiation workers in radiation-controlled areas of the FBR, the PSYCHE (Program SYstem for Corrosion Hazard Evaluation) code was developed. We add the Particle Model to the conventional PSYCHE analytical model. In this paper, we performed calculation of CP transfer in JOYO using an improved calculation code in which the Particle Model was added to the PSYCHE. The C/E (calculated / experimentally observed) value for CP deposition was improved through use of this improved PSYCHE incorporating the Particle Model. Moreover, among the percentage of total radioactive deposition accounted for by CP in particle form, 54Mn was estimated to constitute approximately 20 % and 60Co approximately 40 % in the cold-leg region. These calculation results are consistent with the measured results for the actual cold-leg piping in the JOYO.

  8. Calculation of detection efficiency of the fiber-optic sensor to measure radioactive contamination using MCNP simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Hanyoung; Lee, Arim; Kim, Rinah; Park, Chan Hee; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS) was developed to measure gamma rays from the radionuclides frequently found in radioactively contaminated soil. The sensing probe of the FORS was made of an inorganic (Lu,Y)2SiO5:Ce (LYSO:Ce) scintillator, a mixture of epoxy resin and hardener and a plastic fiber. The FORS was applied to measure gamma rays from Cs-137 source (1.1 μCi) in a disk shape. Also, MCNP simulation was performed for the same geometry as that in the experimental setup. Comparison between measurements by the FORS and MCNP simulation showed that the detection efficiency of the fiber-optic sensor was about 19.2%. The FORS is expected to be useful in measuring gamma rays from the radioactive soil at nuclear facility site.

  9. Heterogeneity of (90)Sr radioactive contamination at the head part of the East Ural radioactive trace (EURT).

    PubMed

    Modorov, M; Seleznev, A; Mikhailovskaya, L

    2017-02-01

    1: We measured (90)Sr concentrations and beta particle flux density (BPFD) in 44 soil samples collected from four soil profiles across a central transect on the head of the East Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT). The relationship between BPFD and (90)Sr concentration of each soil sample can be characterised by a linear regression model; (90)Sr concentration in the upper 12 cm soil layer can thus be assessed by measuring BPFD in the soil surface. 2: The BPFD on the soil surface was measured at 969 points at seven sites with linear dimensions ranging from 140 × 20 m to 140 × 320 m. The correspondence of (90)Sr concentration in the 12 cm soil layer with its BPFD value was calculated for each of these seven sites. Eighty (80) % of (90)Sr concentration measurements in the 12 cm soil layer in each model site differed by a factor of 2.0-5. The variability of (90)Sr concentration increased significantly in the 12 cm upper soil layer over territories with visual features of landscape disturbance (pits, trenches). The ratio of maximum to minimum concentration of (90)Sr varied from 6.1 to 6.6 in the 12 cm soil layer over territories without visual features of anthropogenic soil disturbance. 3: The (90)Sr concentration was measured in the skeletons of 34 juvenile Microtus oeconomus individuals weighing less than 12.5 g and trapped at the four model sites in July. The assessment of (90)Sr concentration in the 12 cm soil layer was conducted for each point where an animal was trapped. The relationship between (90)Sr concentration in soil and in the skeleton was characterised by a linear regression model with a determination coefficient of 0.51. 4: The concentration ratio for (90)Sr from soil to skeleton (CRskeleton-soil) was 2.0 ± 0.1 for M. oeconomus over the territory of the EURT, which is consistent with the minimum value of the same CRskeleton-soil for M. oeconomus from the Chernobyl area (Chesser et al., 2000).

  10. Sediment transfer in coastal catchments exposed to typhoons: lessons learnt from catchments contaminated with Fukushima radioactive fallout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Laceby, J. Patrick; Onda, Yuichi; Lefèvre, Irène

    2016-04-01

    Several coastal catchments located in Northeastern Japan received significant radioactive fallout following the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011, with initial 137Cs activities exceeding 100 kBq m-2. Although radiocesium poses a considerable health risk for local populations, it also provides a relatively straightforward tracer to investigate sediment transfers in catchments exposed to spring floods and heavy typhoons in late summer and early fall. This study focused on two catchments (the Niida and Mano Rivers) covering a surface area of 450 km² that drain the main radioactive plume. A database of radiocesium activities measured in potential source samples (n=260) was used to model radiocesium dilution in 342 sediment deposit samples collected at 38 locations during 9 different sampling campaigns conducted every 6 months from Nov. 2011 to Nov. 2015. The dilution of the initial radiocesium contamination in sediment was individually calculated for each of the 342 samples using a distribution model. Results show that the proportion of heavily contaminated sediment increased from 27% to 39% after the occurrence of typhoons in 2013 (with rainfall amount exceeding 100 mm in 48 hours) and from 29% to 45% after the 2015 spring floods, illustrating the occurrence of soil erosion and resuspension of contaminated material stored in the river channel. In contrast, the occurrence of a very strong typhoon in September 2015 (up to 450 mm in 48h) led to the dilution and the flush of the contamination to the Pacific Ocean, with the proportion of heavily contaminated material decreasing from 45 to 21%. This case study in catchments impacted by the Fukushima accident illustrates their high reactivity to both human activities and rainfall. These results will improve our understanding of sediment transfers in similar coastal mountainous environments frequently exposed to heavy rainfall.

  11. [Disposal of radioactive contaminated waste from Ga-68-PET - calculation of a clearance level for Ge-68].

    PubMed

    Solle, Alexander; Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli

    2017-03-01

    Ga-68-labeled radiotracers, particularly used for the detection of neuroendocrine tumors by means of Ga-68-DOTA-TATE or -DOTA-TOC or for the diagnosis of prostate cancer by means of Ga-68-labeled antigens (Ga 68-PSMA), become increasingly important. In addition to the high sensitivity and specificity of these radiopharmaceuticals, the short-lived radionuclide Ga-68 offers almost ideal nuclear characteristics for use in PET. Ga-68 is obtained from a germanium-gallium-generator system, so that the availability of Ga-68-labeled radiotracers is independent of an on-site-cyclotron regardless of the short half-life of Ga-68 of about 68minutes. Regarding the disposal of the radioactively contaminated waste from the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical, the eluted Ga-68 has to be considered to be additionally contaminated with its parent nuclide Ge-68. Due to this production-related impurity in combination with the short half-life of Ga-68, the radioactive waste has to be considered to be contaminated with Ge-68 and Ga-68 in radioactive equilibrium (hereafter referred to as Ge-68+). As there are no clearance levels for Ge-68+ given in the German Radiation Protection Ordinance, this work presents a method to calculate the missing value basing on a recommendation of the German Radiation Protection Commission in combination with simple geometric models of practical radiation protection. Regarding the relevant exposure scenarios, a limit value for the unrestricted clearance of Ge-68+ of 0.4 Bq/g was determined.

  12. Radioactivity and foods

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and contrast two relationships between radiation and food--on the one hand, beneficial preservation of food by controlled exposure to ionizing radiation; and, on the other, contamination of food by accidental incorporation of radioactive nuclides within the food itself. In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation is used to destroy microorganisms and insects or prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undersirable changes or induced radioactivity is produced in the irradiated food. An altogether different situation is presented by exposure of food animals and farming areas to radioactive materials, as occurred after the major Soviet nuclear reactor accident at Chenobyl. This article furnishes the basic information needed to understand the nature of food contamination associated with that event and describes the work of international organizations seeking to establish appropriate safe limits for levels of radioactivity in foods.

  13. Air radioactivity levels following the Fukushima reactor accident measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, France.

    PubMed

    Loaiza, P; Brudanin, V; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J-L; Stekl, I; Warot, G; Zampaolo, M

    2012-12-01

    The radioactivity levels in the air of the radionuclides released by the Fukushima accident were measured at the Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane, in the South-East of France, during the period 25 March-18 April 2011. Air-filters from the ventilation system exposed for one or two days were measured using low-background gamma-ray spectrometry. In this paper we present the activity concentrations obtained for the radionuclides (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (95)Nb, (95)Zr, (106)Ru, (140)Ba/La and (103)Ru. The activity concentration of (131)I was of the order of 100 μBq/m(3), more than 100 times higher than the activities of other fission products. The highest activities of (131)I were measured as a first peak on 30 March and a second peak on 3-4 April. The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs varied from 5 to 30 μBq/m(3). The highest activity concentration recorded for Cs corresponded to the same period as for (131)I, with a peak on 2-3 April. The results of the radioactivity concentration levels in grass and mushrooms exposed to the air in the Modane region were also measured. Activity concentrations of (131)I of about 100 mBq/m(2) were found in grass.

  14. Fukushima Daiichi reactor source term attribution using cesium isotope ratios from contaminated environmental samples

    DOE PAGES

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.; Delmore, James E.

    2016-01-18

    Source term attribution of environmental contamination following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) disaster is complicated by a large number of possible similar emission source terms (e.g. FDNPP reactor cores 1–3 and spent fuel ponds 1–4). Cesium isotopic analyses can be utilized to discriminate between environmental contamination from different FDNPP source terms and, if samples are sufficiently temporally resolved, potentially provide insights into the extent of reactor core damage at a given time. Rice, soil, mushroom, and soybean samples taken 100–250 km from the FDNPP site were dissolved using microwave digestion. Radiocesium was extracted and purified using two sequentialmore » ammonium molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile columns, following which 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios were measured using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Results were compared with data reported previously from locations to the northwest of FDNPP and 30 km to the south of FDNPP. 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios from samples 100–250 km to the southwest of the FDNPP site show a consistent value of 0.376 ± 0.008. 135Cs/137Cs versus 134Cs/137Cs correlation plots suggest that radiocesium to the southwest is derived from a mixture of FDNPP reactor cores 1, 2, and 3. Conclusions from the cesium isotopic data are in agreement with those derived independently based upon the event chronology combined with meteorological conditions at the time of the disaster. In conclusion, cesium isotopic analyses provide a powerful tool for source term discrimination of environmental radiocesium contamination at the FDNPP site. For higher precision source term attribution and forensic determination of the FDNPP core conditions based upon cesium, analyses of a larger number of samples from locations to the north and south of the FDNPP site (particularly time-resolved air filter samples) are needed. Published in 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain

  15. Distribution of radioactive Cesium in trees and effect of decontamination of forest contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Iijima, K.; Funaki, H.; Tokizawa, T.; Nakayama, S.

    2013-07-01

    In decontamination pilot projects conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), many different techniques were tested to determine their applicability to remediate areas evacuated after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident following the Great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011. In addition to buildings, roads and farmland, the forest adjacent to living areas was one of the main decontamination targets. The projects evaluated the radioactive contamination of trees and the effectiveness of decontaminating a highly contaminated evergreen forest. This forest was located 1.3 km southwest of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and is dominated by Japanese cedar trees and fir trees. As the first step, three Japanese cedar trees and three fir trees were cut down and the distributions of radioactive cesium (Cs) were measured in each. The total concentrations of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in the leaves and branches were about 1 MBq/kg for both cedar and fir trees, and were appreciably higher than in the bark for cedar. The concentrations in the outer part of the trunks (under the bark) were lower, on the order of 10 kBq/kg, and those in the core of the trunks were lower than 1 kBq/kg for both kinds of trees. The observation that the Cs concentrations are higher in the outer part of trees, is compatible with the assumption that radio-Cs was mostly adsorbed on the surface of trees and partly penetrated into the trunks through the bark. Evolution of air dose rates in a 100 x 60 m pasture adjacent to the forest was monitored during decontamination of the forest and of the pasture itself. The dose rates in the pasture decreased drastically after stripping contaminated topsoil from the pasture and decreased slightly more after stripping contaminated topsoil of the forest floor and pruning the trees. Cutting down and removing 84 trees in the outermost area (10- m width) of the forest also slightly decreased these dose rates. After decontamination, the

  16. Radioactively contaminated electric arc furnace dust as an addition to the immobilization mortar in low- and medium-activity repositories.

    PubMed

    Castellote, Marta; Menéndez, Esperanza; Andrade, Carmen; Zuloaga, Pablo; Navarro, Mariano; Ordóñez, Manuel

    2004-05-15

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), generated by the steel-making industry, is in itself an intrinsic hazardous waste; however, the case may also be that scrap used in the process is accidentally contaminated by radioactive elements such as cesium. In this case the resulting EAFD is to be handled as radioactive waste, being duly confined in low- and medium-activity repositories (LMAR). What this paper studies is the reliability of using this radioactive EAFD as an addition in the immobilization mortar of the containers of the LMAR, that is, from the point of view of the durability. Different mixes of mortar containing different percentages of EAFD have been subjected to flexural and compressive strength, initial and final setting time, XRD study, total porosity and pore size distribution, determination of the chloride diffusion coefficient, dimensional stability tests, hydration heat, workability of the fresh mix, and leaching behavior. What is deduced from the results is that for the conditions used in this research, (cement + sand) can be replaced by EAFD upto a ratio [EAFD/(cement + EAFD)] of 46% in the immobilization mortar of LMAR, apparently without any loss in the long-term durability properties of the mortar.

  17. IN-SITU, LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James S. Durham; Stephen W.S. McKeever; Mark S. Akselrod

    2002-10-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measurable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, and {sup 99}Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm{sup 3}) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y but is unsuitable for measuring {sup 99}Tc in soil. The second objective was to construct a prototype sensor (dosimeter and fiber optic channel). There were three success criteria for this milestone: (1) Perform measurements with the sensor for both gamma and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 10% or less; (2) Demonstrate the ability of the sensor to discriminate between gamma and beta radiation; and (3) Obtain similar or relatable results for differing lengths of fiber optic cable. These milestones were met. The sensor was able to measure gamma radiation repeatedly with a standard deviation of 3.15% and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 2.85%. Data is presented that demonstrates that an end cap can be used to discriminate between beta plus gamma radiation using beta radiation from a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source, and gamma radiation alone. It is shown that some amount of attenuation occurs in longer fiber optic cables, but it is unclear if the attenuation is due to poor alignment of the dosimeter and the cable. This issue will be investigated further when

  18. IN-SITU, LONG-TERM MONITORING SYSTEM FOR RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James S. Durham; Stephen W.S. McKeever; Mark S. Akselrod

    2002-10-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the project entitled ''In-situ, Long-term Monitoring System for Radioactive Contaminants.'' Phase one of this effort included four objectives, each with specific success criteria. The first objective was to produce dosimetry grade fibers and rods of aluminum oxide. The success criterion for this milestone was the production of aluminum oxide rods and fibers that have a minimum measureable dose (MMD) of 100 mrem or less. This milestone was completed and the MMD for the rods was measured to be 1.53 mrem. Based on the MMD, the ability of the sensor to measure {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, and {sup 99}Tc was evaluated. It was determined that the sensor can measure the release limit of these radionuclides (50 pCi/cm{sup 3}) in 150 h, 200 h, and 54,000 h, respectively. The monitor is adequate for measuring {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y but is unsuitable for measuring {sup 99}Tc in soil. The second objective was to construct a prototype sensor (dosimeter and fiber optic channel). There were three success criteria for this milestone: (1) Perform measurements with the sensor for both gamma and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 10% or less; (2) Demonstrate the ability of the sensor to discriminate between gamma and beta radiation; and (3) Obtain similar or relatable results for differing lengths of fiber optic cable. These milestones were met. The sensor was able to measure gamma radiation repeatedly with a standard deviation of 3.15% and beta radiation with a standard deviation of 2.85%. Data is presented that demonstrates that an end cap can be used to discriminate between beta plus gamma and gamma radiation. It is shown that some amount of attenuation occurs in longer fiber optic cables, but it is unclear if the attenuation is due to poor alignment of the dosimeter and the cable. This issue will be investigated further when more dosimeters are available so that the dosimeters can be permanently

  19. Treatment of arsenic contaminated water in a laboratory scale up-flow bio-column reactor.

    PubMed

    Mondal, P; Majumder, C B; Mohanty, B

    2008-05-01

    The present paper describes the observations on the treatment of arsenic contaminated synthetic industrial effluent in a bio-column reactor. Ralstonia eutropha MTCC 2487 has been immobilized on the granular activated carbon (GAC) bed in the column reactor. The synthetic water sample containing As(T) (As(III):As(V)=1:1), Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn at the initial concentrations of 25, 10, 2, 5, 10 ppm, respectively, was used. Concentrations of all the elements have been found to be reduced below their permissible limits in the treated water. The significant effect of empty bed contact time (EBCT) and bed height on the arsenic removal was observed in the initial stage. However, after some time of operation (approximately 3-4 days) no such effect was observed. Removal of As(III) and As(V) was almost similar after approximately 2 days of operation. However, at the initial stage As(V) removal was slightly more than that of As(III). In absence of washing, after approximately 4-5 days of operation, the bio-column reactor was observed to act as a GAC column reactor based on physico-chemical adsorption. Like arsenic, the percent removals of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn also attained minimum after approximately 1 day and increased significantly to the optimum value within 3-4 days of operation. Dissolved oxygen (DO) has been found to decrease along with the increasing bed height from the bottom. The pH of the solution in the reactor has increased slightly and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) has decreased with the time of operation.

  20. Criteria determining the selection of slags for the melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel by electroslag remelting

    SciTech Connect

    Buckentin, J.M.R.; Damkroger, B.K.; Shelmidine, G.J.; Atteridge, D.G.

    1997-03-01

    Electroslag remelting is an excellent process choice for the melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated metals. ESR furnaces are easily enclosed and do not make use of refractories which could complicate thermochemical interactions between molten metal and slag. A variety of cleaning mechanisms are active during melting; radionuclides may be partitioned to the slag by means of thermochemical reaction, electrochemical reaction, or mechanical entrapment. At the completion of melting, the slag is removed from the furnace in solid form. The electroslag process as a whole is greatly affected by the chemical and physical properties of the slag used. When used as a melt decontamination scheme, the ESR process may be optimized by selection of the slag. In this research, stainless steel bars were coated with non-radioactive surrogate elements in order to simulate surface contamination. These bars were electroslag remelted using slags of various chemistries. The slags investigated were ternary mixtures of calcium fluoride, calcium oxide, and alumina. The final chemistries of the stainless steel ingots were compared with those predicted by the use of a Free Energy Minimization Modeling technique. Modeling also provided insight into the chemical mechanisms by which certain elements are captured by a slag. Slag selection was also shown to have an impact on the electrical efficiency of the process as well as the surface quality of the ingots produced.

  1. Evaluation of the radioactive contamination in fungi genus Boletus in the region of Europe and Yunnan Province in China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Apanel, Anna; Wang, Yuanzhong; Pankavec, Sviatlana

    2015-10-01

    Numerous species of wild-grown mushrooms are among the most vulnerable organisms for contamination with radiocesium released from a radioactive fallout. A comparison was made on radiocesium as well as the natural gamma ray-emitting radionuclide ((40)K) activity concentrations in the fruiting bodies of several valued edible Boletus mushrooms collected from the region of Europe and Yunnan Province in China. Data available for the first time for Boletus edulis collected in Yunnan, China, showed a very weak contamination with (137)Cs. Radiocesium concentration activity of B. edulis samples that were collected between 2011 and 2014 in Yunnan ranged from 5.2 ± 1.7 to 10 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) dry matter for caps and from 4.7 ± 1.3 to 5.5 ± 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry matter for stipes. The mushrooms Boletus badius, B. edulis, Boletus impolitus, Boletus luridus, Boletus pinophilus, and Boletus reticulatus collected from the European locations between 1995 and 2010 showed two to four orders of magnitude greater radioactivity from (137)Cs compared to B. edulis from Yunnan. The nuclide (40)K in B. badius was equally distributed between the caps and stipes, while for B. edulis, B. impolitus, B. luridus, B. pinophilus, and B. reticulatus, the caps were richer, and for each mushroom, activity concentration seemed to be more or less species-specific.

  2. Cesium distribution and phases in proxy experiments on the incineration of radioactively contaminated waste from the Fukushima area.

    PubMed

    Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Kakuta, Yoshitada; Kawano, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    After the March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake and Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant accident, incineration was initially adopted as an effective technique for the treatment of post-disaster wastes. Accordingly, considerable amounts of radioactively contaminated residues were immediately generated through incineration. The level of radioactivity associated with radiocesium in the incineration ash residues (bottom ash and fly ash) became significantly high (several thousand to 100,000 Bq/kg) as a result of this treatment. In order to understand the modes of occurrence of radiocesium, bottom ash products were synthesized through combusting of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with stable Cs salts in a pilot incinerator. Microscopic and microanalytical (SEM-EDX) techniques were applied and the following Cs categories were identified: low and high concentrations in the matrix glass, low-level partitioning into some newly-formed silicate minerals, partitioning into metal-sulfide compounds, and occurring in newly-formed Cs-rich minerals. These categories that are essentially silicate-bound are the most dominant forms in large and medium size bottom ash particles. It is expected that these achievements provide solutions to the immobilization of radiocesium in the incineration ash products contaminated by Fukushima nuclear accident.

  3. Evaluation of vegetables in Tsukuba for contamination with radioactive materials from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomonori; Mori, Yutaro; Takada, Kenta; Sato, Eisuke; Takahashi, Hideki; Sekiguchi, Takao; Yoshimura, Yousuke; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Takeji

    2013-10-01

    A large amount of radioactive material was released into the atmosphere after the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Tohoku earthquake on 11 March 2011, and traces of these materials were detected in Tsukuba. Because radioactive materials can adhere to vegetables, the authors made a qualitative evaluation of vegetables in Tsukuba, estimated internal exposure dose based on quantitative measurement results, and investigated several decontamination methods. Qualitative analysis of vegetable contamination was done by autoradiography. Quantitative analysis was done using a high-purity germanium detector. To assess decontamination, two methods were tested: one with running water and the other with boiling water. In addition, boiled soup stock was measured. In the qualitative evaluation by autoradiography, radioactive materials were not uniformly distributed but adhered to vegetables in clumps and hot spots. In the quantitative evaluation to measure contamination of outer and inner leaves of sanchu lettuce, it was observed that the concentration of I was 8,031.35 ± 764.79 Bq kg in the outer leaves and 115.28 ± 20.63 Bq kg in the inner leaves. In addition, the concentration of Cs was 1,371.93 ± 366.45 Bq kg in the outer leaves and 9.68 ± 15.03 Bq kg in the inner leaves. This suggests that one can greatly reduce internal exposure dose by removing the outer leaves if one has to eat vegetables just after a nuclear accident. In the decontamination assessment, a decontamination efficiency of up to 70% was achieved by boiling vegetables for 20 min.

  4. Status of Activities on Rehabilitation Of Radioactively Contaminated Facilities and the Site of Russian Research Center ''Kurchatov Institute''

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, V. G.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Melkov, E. S; Ryazantsev, E. P.; Dikarev, V. S.; Gorodetsky, G. G.; Zverkov, Yu. A.; Kuznetsov, V. V.; Kuznetsova, T. I.

    2003-02-25

    This paper describes the program, the status, and the course of activities on rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated facilities and the territory of temporary radioactive waste (radwaste) disposal at the Russian Research Center ''Kurchatov Institute'' (RRC KI) in Moscow as performed in 2001-2002. The accumulation of significant amounts of radwaste at RRC KI territory is shown to be the inevitable result of Institute's activity performed in the days of former USSR nuclear weapons project and multiple initial nuclear power projects (performed from 1950's to early 1970's). A characterization of RRC KI temporary radwaste disposal site is given. Described is the system of radiation control and monitoring as implemented on this site. A potential hazard of adverse impacts on the environment and population of the nearby housing area is noted, which is due to possible spread of the radioactive plume by subsoil waters. A description of the concept and project of the RRC KI temporary radwaste disposal site is presented. Specific nature of the activities planned and performed stems from the nearness of housing area. This paper describes main stages of the planned activities for rehabilitation, their expected terms and sources of funding, as well as current status of the project advancement. Outlined are the problems faced in the performance and planning of works. The latter include: diagnostics of the concrete-grouted repositories, dust-suppression technologies, packaging of the fragmented ILW and HLW, soil clean-up, radioactive plume spread prevention, broad radiation monitoring of the work zone and environment in the performance of rehabilitation works. Noted is the intention of RRC KI to establish cooperation with foreign, first of all, the U.S. partners for the solution of problems mentioned above.

  5. Development of a New Thermal HF Plasma Reactor for the Destruction of Radioactive Organic Halogen Liquid Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Bournonville, B.; Meillot, E.; Girold, C.

    2006-07-01

    A newly patented process employing thermal plasma for destruction of radioactive organic halogen liquid wastes is proposed. This studied safe system can destroy a great variety of wastes, even mixed together, using plasma torch as high temperature source. At the exit of the process, only non-toxic products are formed as atmospheric gases, liquid water and halogen sodium salt. The process has been built with the help of thermodynamic and kinetic simulations. A good atomic stoichiometry is necessary for avoiding the formation of solid carbon (soot) or toxic COCl{sub 2}. That why liquid water is added to the waste in the plasma flow. Then, an introduction of air cools and dilutes the formed gases and adds oxidant agent achieving oxidation of explosive H{sub 2} and toxic CO. Due to the high concentration of hydrochloric acid, an efficient wet treatment using soda traps it. Subsequently, the exhaust gases are only composed of Ar, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. In the first experimental step, pure organic molecules, mixed or not, without halogen have been destroyed. The experimental results show that all the compounds have been completely destroyed and only CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O have been formed without formation of any toxic compound or soot. After these encouraging results, chlorinated compounds as dichloromethane or chloroform have been destroyed by the process. In this case, the results are close to the previous one with an important formation of hydrochloric acid, as expected, which was well trapped by the soda to respect the French norm of rejection. A specific parameter study has been done with dichloromethane for optimising the operating condition to experimentally observe the influence of different parameters of the process as the stoichiometry ratio between waste and water, the air addition flow, the waste flow. The final aim of this study is to develop a clean process for treatment of radioactive organic halogen compounds. A small scale reactor

  6. Extended Monitoring of Radioactive Fallout from the Fukushima Reactor Incident in a Variety of Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Keenan; Norman, Eric; Smith, Al; Angell, Christopher; Chodash, Perry; Lo, Boris; Hurley, Donna; Chan, Yuen-Dat

    2013-04-01

    We have observed fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactor accident in March of 2011 in samples of rainwater and a variety of air filters collected in the San Francisco Bay area and Northern California. Gamma ray spectra measured from the rain samples showed clear evidence of fission products - 131,132I, 132Te, and 134,137Cs. The activity levels measured for these isotopes were very low and posed no health risk to the public or environment. Additional testing was performed upon these rainwater samples in 2012 to also investigate the presence of 90Sr-which was not detected and a detection limit was determined. Also presented will be a separate set of gamma ray measurements of Fukushima fallout that has been tracked on a variety of media-rainwater, air filters, and automobile filters; throughout 2011 and 2012.

  7. In flight calcination of radioactive-waste simulant in a thermal plasma flow reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.R.; Manrique, M.; Pirzada, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    This investigation studied the inflight calcination kinetics of nuclear waste stimulant using a thermal plasma reactor. A series of experiments were performed to determine the conversion of insoluble aluminum compounds to the soluble compounds and the decomposition of complex organic and nitrite compounds present in the stimulant waste. Thermodynamic calculations based on free energy minimization were performed to establish a theoretical basis for this investigation. A kinetic model to describe the conversion of gibsite to sodium aluminate has been proposed. The products of the calcination were characterized using XRD, Gas Chromatography, and chemical analysis by ICP. The results of this investigation indicated 85% gibsite conversion to sodium aluminate, 90% of nitrate decomposition, 52% TOC decomposition and 90% conversion of chromium to soluble compounds. A process is identified for inflight calcination of wastes. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Environmental Assessment and FONSI Proposed Decontamination and Disassembly of the Argonne Thermal Source Reactor (ATSR) at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1998-07-15

    The purpose of this project is to protect human health and the environment from risks associated with the contaminated surplus ATSR. The proposed action is needed because the ATSR, a former experimental reactor, contains residual radioactivity and hazardous materials.

  9. Digital Autoradiography as a novel complementary technique for the investigation of radioactive contamination in nuclear facilities under dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Haudebourg, Raphael; Fichet, Pascal; Goutelard, Florence

    2015-07-01

    The detection (location and quantification) of nuclear facilities to be dismantled possible contamination with low-range particles emitters ({sup 3}H, other low-energy β emitters, a emitters) remains a tedious and expensive task. Indeed, usual remote counters show a too low sensitivity to these non-penetrating radiations, while conventional wipe tests are irrelevant for fixed radioactivity evaluation. The only method to accurately measure activity levels consists in sampling and running advanced laboratory analyses (spectroscopy, liquid scintillation counting, pyrolysis...). Such measurements generally induce sample preparation, waste production (destructive analyses, solvents), nuclear material transportation, long durations, and significant labor mobilization. Therefore, the search for the limitation of their number and cost easily conflicts with the necessity to perform a dense screening for sampling (to maximize the representativeness of the samples), in installations of thousands of square meters (floors, wells, ceilings), plus furniture, pipes, and other wastes. To overcome this contradiction, Digital Autoradiography (D. A.) was re-routed from bio molecular research to radiological mapping of nuclear installations under dismantling and to waste and sample analysis. After in-situ exposure to the possibly-contaminated areas to investigate, commercial reusable radiosensitive phosphor screens (of a few 100 cm{sup 2}) were scanned in the proper laboratory device and sharp quantitative images of the radioactivity could be obtained. The implementation of geostatistical tools in the data processing software enabled the exhaustive characterization of concrete floors at a rate of 2 weeks / 100 m{sup 2}, at lowest costs. Various samples such as drilled cores, or tank and wood pieces, were also successfully evaluated with this method, for decisive results. Thanks to the accurate location of potential contamination spots, this approach ensures relevant and representative

  10. Effects on residential property values of proximity to a site contaminated with radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, B.A.; Olshansky, S.J.; Segel, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    An issue often raised by the public regarding projects that involve hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites is whether distance from these sites affects residential property values. Previous research has studied changes in the housing market in communities near Three Mile Island after the 1979 accident and legal precedents of compensation for loss of property value because of proximity to hazardous areas. However, this research has not addressed effects on residential property values of proximity specifically to hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites. The effects of the proximity of residence to such a site in West Chicago, Illinois - used for many years for disposal of thorium waste from processing ores - were investigated in this study. Single-family residence sales located within about 0.4 km of the West Chicago site were compared with residence sales located between 0.4 km and 1.6 km from the site. Trends in average annual selling prices were analyzed both before and after publicity appeared about the existence of the radioactive material at the site. Results indiate that older residences (built before 1950) located within about 0.4 km of the disposal site experienced a prolonged depression in selling prices after the publicity, in comparison with older residences located farther from the site and with all transactions on newer residences. These results confirm to some extent public perceptions and potentially raise legal issues associated with property values. Suggestions are provided for mitigative measures to alleviate these issues. 22 references, 1 figure.

  11. Preconstruction radioactivity levels in the vicinity of the proposed Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    Routine samples of ground water, river water, and bottom sediment were collected from the Clinch River in 1983 in the preconstruction-construction phase of the CRBRP environmental radiological monitoring program. The water samples analyzed for iodine-131 yielded only a slight indication of the presence of I-131 at levels below the nominal lower limit of detection of 0.5 pCi/L. The only significant radioisotopes identified in sediment samples were /sup 137/Cs, /sup 60/Co, and the naturally occurring /sup 40/K. The results for /sup 137/Cs vary from 2.2 to 10.1 pCi/g (dry weight), while the results for /sup 60/Co range from 0.35 to 1.2 pCi/g (dry weight). With the exception of tritium, no significant radioactivity was detected in ground or surface water at the CRBRP site. Tritium concentrations ranging from 12,667 to 12,823 pCi/L were found in samples of surface water taken from the Clinch River below Melton Hill Dam while samples taken at the dam exhibited tritium levels from 28 to 942 pCi/L. These elevated tritium levels in the Clinch River below Melton Hill Dam are attributable to DOE operations at Oak Ridge. The external gamma radiation levels measured at the CRBRP site averaged 17.4 +- 3.2 mR/quarter for 1983. This is consistent with levels measured at TVA's nonoperating nuclear power plant construction sites. 3 figures, 8 tables.

  12. Mixed region reactors for in situ treatment of DNAPL contaminated low permeability media

    SciTech Connect

    West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    Fine-textured soils and sediments contaminated by dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) present a significant environmental restoration challenge. An emerging approach to rapid in situ treatment within low permeability media involves the use of soil mixing to create mixed region reactors wherein biological or physical/chemical treatment processes can be employed. In cohesive soils, mixing breaks up the original soil structure and produces soil aggregates or clods separated by interaggregate void spaces. These void spaces create preferential flow paths for more efficient extraction of contaminants from the soil matrix or more rapid diffusion of treatment agents into the soil aggregates. This enhancement technology has been most successfully used with vapor stripping. However, other technologies can also be coupled with soil mixing including chemical degradation, biodegradation and solidification. The application of this technology to DNAPL-contaminated low permeability media appears promising but requires further experiments and models that can simulate the movement of DNAPLs in mixed regions. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Chemical and toxicological characterization of slurry reactor biotreatment of explosives-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Vass, A.A.; Ho, C.H.

    1998-08-01

    Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil in the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP) soil slurry bioreactor (SSBR) eliminated detectable TNT but left trace levels of residual monoamino and diamino metabolites under some reactor operating conditions. The reduction of solvent-extractable bacterial mutagenicity in the TNT-contaminated soil was substantial and was similar to that achieved by static pile composts at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA) field demonstration. Aquatic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia from TNT in the leachates of TNT-contaminated soil was eliminated in the leachates of JAAP SSBR product soil. The toxicity of soil product leachates to Ceriodaphnia dubia was reasonably predicted using the specific toxicities of the components detected, weighted by their leachate concentrations. In samples where TNT metabolites were observed in the soil product and its leachates, this method determined that the contribution to predicted toxicity values was dominated by trace amounts of the diamino-metabolites, which are very toxic to ceriodaphnia dubia. When the SSBR operating conditions reduced the concentrations of TNT metabolites in the product soils and their leachates to undetectable concentrations, the main contributors to predicted aquatic toxicity values appeared to be molasses residues, potassium, and bicarbonate. Potassium and bicarbonate are beneficial or benign to the environment, and molasses residues are substantially degraded in the environment. Exotoxins, pathogenic bacteria, inorganic particles, ammonia, and dissolved metals did not appear to be important to soil product toxicity.

  14. Radioactive contamination of nest materials of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus due to the Fukushima nuclear accident: The significance in the first year.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Shin; Kasahara, Satoe; Morimoto, Gen; Mikami, Osamu K; Watanabe, Mamoru; Ueda, Keisuke

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident contaminated large areas of eastern and northeastern Japan, releasing vast amounts of radiation. Here we investigated radioactive contamination of the nest materials of the Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus from the breeding season of 2011 directly after the accident to the next breeding season of 2012 at two sites. In Tokyo (222 km southwest of the plant), ambient dose rates in the nestboxes were lower than those in Ibaraki (175 km southwest of the plant), where the levels of 2011 were higher than those of 2012. Further, the amount of radioactive Cs in each nest increased with the increase in nest weight, with a higher increment at Ibaraki than at Tokyo. These data suggested higher nest contamination levels in the breeding season directly after a nuclear accident than in later seasons, and an increment of nest contamination levels via nest materials of birds.

  15. Using a bank of predatory fish samples for bioindication of radioactive contamination of aquatic food chains in the area affected by the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Kryshev, I I; Ryabov, I N; Sazykina, T G

    1993-11-01

    From the analysis of experimental data on radioactive contamination of various fish, it is suggested that predatory fish specimens can be used as bioindicators of radionuclide accumulation in reservoir food chains of the Chernobyl emergency area. The increased content of cesium radionuclides were detected in the muscle tissue of predatory fish collected in various regions of the Chernobyl emergency area. In most of the water bodies studied, maximum contamination levels of predatory fish by radionuclides of cesium occurred in 1987-1988, whereas in 'nonpredatory' fish the concentration of cesium was maximum, as a rule, in the first year following the accident. The exposure doses of fish of various ecological groups and ages are estimated. The exposure doses of various population groups, using fish from contaminated water bodies, are also estimated. When forming the environmental data bank for the Chernobyl accident zone it is suggested that perch, pike-perch and pike be used as bioindicators of radioactive contamination of food chains.

  16. Simultaneous Bioreduction of Multiple Oxidized Contaminants Using a Membrane Biofilm Reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Haixiang; Lin, Hua; Xu, Xiaoyin; Jiang, Minmin; Chang, Chein-Chi; Xia, Siqing

    2017-02-01

      This study tests a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) to investigate simultaneous bioreduction of selected oxidized contaminants, including nitrate (-N), sulfate (), bromate (), chromate (Cr(VI)) and para-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB). The experiments demonstrate that MBfR can achieve high performance for contaminants bioreduction to harmless or immobile forms in 240 days, with a maximum reduction fluxes of 0.901 g -N/m2·d, 1.573 g /m2·d, 0.009 g /m2·d, 0.022 g Cr(VI)/m2·d, and 0.043 g p-CNB/m2·d. Increasing H2 pressure and decreasing influent surface loading enhanced removal efficiency of the reactor. Flux analysis indicates that nitrate and sulfate reductions competed more strongly than , Cr(VI) and p-CNB reduction. The average H2 utilization rate, H2 flux, and H2 utilization efficiency of the reactor were 0.026 to 0.052 mg H2/cm3·d, 0.024 to 0.046 mg H2/cm2·d, and 97.5% to 99.3% (nearly 100%). Results show the hydrogen-based MBfR may be suitable for removing multiple oxidized contaminants in drinking water or groundwater.

  17. Fukushima Daiichi reactor source term attribution using cesium isotope ratios from contaminated environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.; Delmore, James E.

    2016-01-18

    Source term attribution of environmental contamination following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) disaster is complicated by a large number of possible similar emission source terms (e.g. FDNPP reactor cores 1–3 and spent fuel ponds 1–4). Cesium isotopic analyses can be utilized to discriminate between environmental contamination from different FDNPP source terms and, if samples are sufficiently temporally resolved, potentially provide insights into the extent of reactor core damage at a given time. Rice, soil, mushroom, and soybean samples taken 100–250 km from the FDNPP site were dissolved using microwave digestion. Radiocesium was extracted and purified using two sequential ammonium molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile columns, following which 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios were measured using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Results were compared with data reported previously from locations to the northwest of FDNPP and 30 km to the south of FDNPP. 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios from samples 100–250 km to the southwest of the FDNPP site show a consistent value of 0.376 ± 0.008. 135Cs/137Cs versus 134Cs/137Cs correlation plots suggest that radiocesium to the southwest is derived from a mixture of FDNPP reactor cores 1, 2, and 3. Conclusions from the cesium isotopic data are in agreement with those derived independently based upon the event chronology combined with meteorological conditions at the time of the disaster. In conclusion, cesium isotopic analyses provide a powerful tool for source term discrimination of environmental radiocesium contamination at the FDNPP site. For higher precision source term attribution and forensic determination of the FDNPP core conditions based upon cesium, analyses of a larger number of samples from locations to the north and south of the FDNPP site (particularly time-resolved air filter samples) are needed

  18. Air Monitoring Leads to Discovery of New Contamination at Radioactive Waste Disposal Site (Area G) at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Kraig, D.H.; Conrad, R.C.

    1999-06-08

    Air monitoring at Area G, the low-level radioactive waste disposal area at Los Alamos National Laboratory, revealed increased air concentrations of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am at one location along the north boundary. This air monitoring location is a couple of meters north of a dirt road used to access the easternmost part of Area G. Air concentrations of {sup 238}Pu were essentially unaffected, which was puzzling because the {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu are present in the local, slightly contaminated soils. Air concentrations of these radionuclides increased about a factor of ten in early 1995 and remained at those levels until the first quarter of 1996. During the spring of 1996 air concentrations again increased by a factor of about ten. No other radionuclides were elevated and no other Area G stations showed elevations of these radionuclides. After several formal meetings didn't provide an adequate cause for the elevations, a gamma survey was performed and showed a small area of significant contamination just south of the monitor location. We found in February, 1995, a trench for a water line had been dug within a meter of so of the air stations. Then, during early 1996, the dirt road was rerouted such that its new path was directly over the unknown contamination. It appears that the trenching brought contaminated material to the surface and caused the first rise in air concentrations and then the rerouting of the road over the contamination caused the second rise, during 1996. We also found that during 1976 and 1977 contaminated soils from the clean-up of an old processing facility had been spread over the filled pits in the vicinity of the air monitors. These soils were very low in 238Pu which explains why we saw very little {sup 238}Pu in the increased air concentrations. A layer of gravel and sand was spread over the contaminated area. Although air concentrations of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am dropped considerably, the y have not returned to pre-1995 levels.

  19. Mineralogical and geomicrobial examination of soil contamination by radioactive Cs due to 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Junji; Nomura, Nao; Matsushita, Shin; Kudo, Hisaaki; Fukuhara, Haruo; Matsuoka, Shiro; Matsumoto, Jinko

    Soil contamination by radioactive Cs from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated. Absorption and desorption experiments of Cs were conducted for several phyllosillicates (kaolinite, sericite, montmorillonite, vermiculite, chrysotile and biotite), zeolite and solid organic matter (dead and green leaves). The results confirmed the characteristic sorption and desorption of Cs by these materials. The 2:1 type phyllosilicate, especially, vermiculite and montmorillonite absorbed Cs well. Heated vermiculite for agricultural use and weathered montmorillonite also adsorbed Cs. Leaves also absorbed Cs considerably but easily desorbed it. In summary, the relative capacity and strength of different materials for sorption of Cs followed the order: zeolite (clinoptilolite) > 2:1 type clay mineral > 1:1 type clay mineral > dead and green leaves. Culture experiments using bacteria of both naturally living on dead leaves in Iitate village, Fukushima Pref. and bacterial strains of Bacillus subtillis, Rhodococus erythropolis, Streptomyces aomiensis and Actinomycetospora chlora were carried out. Non-radioactive 1% Cs solution (CsCl) was added to the culture media. Two types of strong or considerable bacterial uptakes of Cs were found in bacterial cells. One is that Cs was contained mainly as globules inside bacteria and the other is that Cs was absorbed in the whole bacterial cells. The globules consisted mainly of Cs and P. Based on all these results, future diffusion and re-circulation behavior of Cs in the surface environment was discussed.

  20. Radioactive contamination of cistern waters along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea by [sup 90]Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Franic, Z.; Lokobauer, N.; Marovic, G. . Radiation Protection Unit)

    1999-07-01

    Measurements of radioactive contamination of water samples from cisterns collecting rainwater containing fission products from roofs and other surfaces have been carried out along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic sea since 1968. An exponential decline of radioactivity followed the nuclear moratorium. After the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, higher levels of [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr were detected again, with cistern waters being the only environmental samples in Croatia in which elevated [sup 90]Sr activities persisted for several years. For the pre-Chernobyl period, the observed mean residence time of [sup 90]Sr in cistern waters, estimated to be 6.2 [+-] 1.9 y, was similar to that calculated for fallout. Contrary, for the post-Chernobyl time, observed [sup 90]Sr mean residence time was calculated to be considerably shorter, reflecting the tropospheric mean residence time. The annual dose for the critical adult population received from [sup 90]Sr and [sup 137]Cs by drinking cistern water was estimated to be very small, in the 1990's less than few [micro]Sv y[sup [minus]1].

  1. Protection of the infant thyroid from radioactive contamination by the administration of stable iodide. An experimental evaluation in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Noteboom, J L; Hummel, W A; Broerse, J J; de Vijlder, J J; Vulsma, T; van Bekkum, D W

    1997-06-01

    Protection of the thyroid from radioactive contamination by the administration of stable iodide was investigated in chimpanzees aged 2 to 98 weeks. The uptake of iodide in the thyroid was measured with 123I-. The animals were subjected to a control measurement first, and subsequently the thyroid uptake of 123I- was determined twice; once at the start and once at the end of 11 days of ingestion of 0.5, 1.5 or 5.0 mg of stable iodide per kg body weight per day. The three doses of iodide reduced the control thyroid iodide uptake of 10 to 30% to lower than 1% when ingested 1 h before exposure to the tracer and to 2-4% when ingested 20 h before exposure. In the latter experiments 0.5 mg iodide/kg was less effective than doses of 1.5 mg/kg or higher. The physiological state of the thyroid of control infant chimpanzees does not differ from that of human infants. Incidentally, an increased level of TSH was found during the ingestion of iodide, but with unaltered thyroxine levels. Therefore, it is concluded that a daily dose of 1.5 mg stable iodide/kg body weight and higher offers optimal protection of the thyroid against exposure to radioactive iodine in infants and that, when used during 10 days, it leaves the thyroid unaffected.

  2. Radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources in the former uranium mining and milling sites of Mailuu Suu (Kyrgyzstan).

    PubMed

    Corcho Alvarado, J A; Balsiger, B; Röllin, S; Jakob, A; Burger, M

    2014-12-01

    An assessment of the radioactive and chemical contamination of the water resources at the former uranium mines and processing sites of Mailuu-Suu, in Kyrgyzstan, was carried out. A large number of water samples were collected from the drinking water distribution system (DWDS), rivers, shallow aquifers and drainage water from the mine tailings. Radionuclides and trace metal contents in water from the DWDS were low in general, but were extremely high for Fe, Al and Mn. These elements were associated with the particle fractions in the water and strongly correlated with high turbidity levels. Overall, these results suggest that water from the DWDS does not represent a serious radiological hazard to the Mailuu Suu population. However, due to the high turbidities and contents of some elements, this water is not good quality drinking water. Water from artesian and dug wells were characterized by elevated levels of U (up to 10 μg/L) and some trace elements (e.g. As, Se, Cr, V and F) and anions (e.g. Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-)). In two artesian wells, the WHO guideline value of 10 μg/L for As in water was exceeded. As the artesian wells are used as a source of drinking water by a large number of households, special care should be taken in order to stay within the WHO recommended guidelines. Drainage water from the mine tailings was as expected highly contaminated with many chemicals (e.g. As) and radioactive contaminants (e.g. U). The concentrations of U were more than 200 times the WHO guideline value of 30 μg/L for U in drinking water. A large variation in (234)U/(238)U isotopic ratios in water was observed, with values near equilibrium at the mine tailings and far from equilibrium outside this area (reaching ratios of 2.3 in the artesian well). This result highlights the potential use of this ratio as an indicator of the origin of U contamination in Mailuu Suu.

  3. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: VITRIFICATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED BY HAZARDOUS AND/OR RADIOACTIVE WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A performance summary of an advanced multifuel-capable combustion and melting system (CMS) for the vitrification of hazardous wastes is presented. Vortex Corporation has evaluated its patented CMS for use in the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclid...

  4. The psychological impact of a dual-disaster caused by earthquakes and radioactive contamination in Ichinoseki after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The psychological impact of dual-disasters (earthquakes and a nuclear accident), on affected communities is unknown. This study investigated the impact of a dual-disaster (earthquakes and radioactive contamination) on the prevalence of psychological distress in a landlocked city within the Tohoku area, Japan. Methods A cross-sectional mail-in survey with a random sample of inhabitants from Ichinoseki city was conducted eleven months after the disasters, and data from 902 respondents were analyzed by logistic regression models, with multiple imputation methodology. The K6 was used to determine psychological distress. Results The estimated prevalence of psychological distress was 48.0 percent. House damage due to earthquakes and anxiety about radioactive contamination were significantly associated with psychological distress (p < 0.05), while an interactive effect between house damage and anxiety about radioactive contamination was not significant. Being female, middle-to-low educational status and unemployed were additional risk factors for psychological distress. Conclusions This dual-disaster was associated with a moderate prevalence of psychological distress in the area. The impact of the earthquake and radioactive contamination appeared additive. PMID:24885053

  5. Removal of radioactive cesium (134Cs plus 137Cs) from low-level contaminated water by charcoal and broiler litter biochar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various charcoals (used in food processing and water treatment) and broiler litter biochar were examined for ability to adsorb water-soluble low-level radioactive cesium (ca. 200-250 Bq/kg) extracted from contaminated wheat bran. Among the materials tested, steam activated broiler litter biochar was...

  6. Demonstration of an Ultra-Short Channel Metal Monolith Catalytic Reactor for Trace Contaminant Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L; Carter, R. N.; Roychoudhury, S.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly (TCCS) design is based upon proven, highly reliable technology. However, because its core unit operations rely upon expendable activated charcoal and an indirectly heated high temperature catalyst, annual logistics mass, crew time, and power consumption requirements are significant. To address this situation, a unique catalytic reactor design has been developed which is suitable for retrofit into the TCCS's high temperature catalytic oxidizer (HTCO) assembly. The unique design, which employs a metallic, ultra-short channel length monolith (USCM) catalyst substrate, was tested in a flight-like TCCS HTCO assembly to investigate its performance characteristics. Test results indicate that retrofitting the TCCS with a USCM-based catalytic reactor is feasible and that it may provide significant reductions in logistics mass, crew time, and power consumption. Savings indicated by test results are up to 81% for annual logistics, 56% for crew time, and 77% for startup transient duration. In addition, its demonstrated ability to operate in a power saving mode provides up to a 43% savings in average power consumption. A summary of the USCM demonstration test objectives, approach, results, and specific benefits to the TCCS's process economics are presented,

  7. Ground distribution patterns of selected radioactive, chemical, and physical contaminants from dispersion of U mill tailings.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S A; Whicker, F W; Simon, S L

    1990-03-01

    Ground concentrations of 226Ra and total alpha activity as a function of soil depth and distance from an acidic U mill tailings pile were measured, as well as soil pH, sulfate, chloride, and conductivity. Contamination decreased with increasing soil depth and distance from the source. Most of the measured parameters were indistinguishable from background after a distance of 3.3 km from the tailings impoundment. The highest concentrations of all contaminants were contained in the particles less than 0.045 mm in diameter at the soil surface (0-0.6 cm). This fraction represents only 4% to 10% of the total soil mass. Surface soil particles greater than 2.0 mm contained higher concentrations of all contaminants than the intermediate-size (0.045-2.0 mm) fraction. Aggregate formation of the greater than 2.0-mm fraction from small particles or preferential erosion and transport of the tailings sand fractions were proposed as possible explanations. The significant correlations between various measurements were soil 226Ra vs. total alpha activity, sulfate concentration, and conductivity. The latter two parameters are indicative of sulfuric acid leached tailings. The sulfate concentration appeared to be a sensitive and easily measured indicator of tailings contamination and migration into the soil profile. Furthermore, sulfate may be used to delineate acidic U tailings from other sources of contamination (U ore dust, yellowcake, naturally elevated U and Ra) in the environment. Actual site measurements for surface 226Ra concentration were approximately twice the MILDOS computer code prediction.

  8. ON-SITE ENGINEERING REPORT OF THE SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR PILOT-SCALE TESTING ON CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of pilot-scale bioslurry treatment on creosote-contaminated soil was evaluated. Five reactors containing 66 L of slurry (30% soil by weight), were operated in parallel. The soil was a sandy soil with minor gravel content. The pilot-scale phase utilized an inoculum...

  9. Measurement of the axial distribution of radioactivity in the auxiliary charcoal bed of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.F.; Buckner, M.; Buchanan, M.

    1999-07-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory commenced operation in 1964 and was shut down in 1969. It was fueled with {sup 233}UF{sub 4} in a carrier salt of LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ZrF{sub 4}, and it operated at 1,200 F. After it was shut down, the fuel was heated annually to 200 C to recombine fluorine (with the fuel) released due to radiation-induced reactions in the fuel salt. However, a competing reaction oxidized uranium to UF{sub 6}, which was released (along with F{sub 2}) from the fuel and trapped in one of four charcoal filters in the auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). One of the tasks for decommissioning of the MSRE requires that at least 90% of the estimated 3 kg of {sup 233}U, and radioactive decay products, in this filter be removed, and one of the proposed methods is to vacuum the charcoal above a specified axial position in the filter. This requires that the axial distribution of activity in the filter be measured in a 60 rad/h radiation field to determine where this penetration can be made. To accomplish this, the shielded detector with a pinhole collimator, and with a laser positioning capability, was remotely translated to various axial positions to accomplish these measurements. Activities in the steel screen, and various regions of the charcoal bed, are estimated, and uncertainties in these estimates are generally {lt}1%. Results from this analysis are used for continued operational decisions for decommissioning of the MSRE.

  10. Fernald`s dilemma: Do we recycle the radioactively contaminated metals, or do we bury them?

    SciTech Connect

    Yuracko, K.L.; Hadley, S.W.; Perlack, R.D.

    1996-06-01

    During the past five years, a number of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded efforts have demonstrated the technical efficacy of converting various forms of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) into useable products. From the development of large accelerator shielding blocks, to the construction of low level waste containers, technology has been applied to this fabrication process in a safe and stakeholder supported manner. The potential health and safety risks to both workers and the public have been addressed. The question remains; can products be fabricated from RSM in a cost efficient and market competitive manner? This paper presents a methodology for use within DOE to evaluate the costs and benefits of recycling and reusing some RSM, rather than disposing of this RSM in an approved burial site. This life cycle decision methodology, developed by both the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and DOE Fernald is the focus of the following analysis.

  11. Contamination of the Northern Oceans from Releases of Radioactivity from the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Leo S.

    1999-06-04

    During the Cold War the handling of Soviet military nuclear wastes was a classified topic--kept secret to hide the status and readiness of Soviet military forces. Following the end of the Cold War information about the handling of nuclear wastes by agencies of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) became available. The US Government response to the disclosure of disposal of radioactive wastes into the Arctic Ocean and into rivers that drain into the Arctic Ocean was the finding of the Arctic Nuclear Waste Assessment Program (ANWAP) in the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Projects were aided by ANWAP to study the behavior, transport, and fate of radionuclides in the Arctic Ocean. One of the research teams, the Risk Assessment Integration Group (RAIG) assessed the potential risks to humans and to the environment, particularly in the US Alaskan Arctic.

  12. Estimation of contaminant transport in groundwater beneath radioactive waste disposal facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.C.; Tauxe, J.D.; Lee, D.W.

    1995-05-25

    Performance assessments are required for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives, consider human exposures from water, air, and inadvertent intruder pathways. Among these, the groundwater pathway analysis usually involves complex numerical simulations with results which are often difficult to verify and interpret. This paper presents a technique to identify and simplify the essential parts of the groundwater analysis. The transport process of radionuclides including infiltration of precipitation, leachate generation, and advection and dispersion in the groundwater is divided into several steps. For each step, a simple analytical model is constructed and refined to capture the dominant phenomena represented in the complex analysis included in a site-specific performance assessment. This step-wise approach provides a means for gaining insights into the transport process and obtaining reasonable estimates of relevant quantities for facility design and site evaluation.

  13. Fibre crops as alternative land use for radioactively contaminated arable land.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, H; Van Hees, M

    2005-01-01

    The transfer of radiocaesium, one of the most important and widespread contaminants following a nuclear accident, to the fibre crops hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as well as the distribution of radiocaesium during crop conversion were studied for sandy soil under greenhouse and lysimeters conditions. Soil parameters did not unequivoqually explain the transfer factors (TF) observed. TFs to flax stems ranged from 1.34 to 2.80x10(-3) m2 kg(-1). TFs to seeds are about a factor of 4 lower. During the retting process for separating the fibres from the straw, more than 95% of the activity was removed with the retting water. For hemp, the TF to the stem was about 0.6x10(-3) m2 kg(-1). For hemp, straw and fibres were mechanically separated and TF to straw was about 0.5x10(-3) m2 kg(-1) and to fibres 1.0x10(-3) m2 kg(-1). Generally, the TFs to the useable plant parts both for hemp and flax, are low enough to allow for the production of clean end-products (fibre, seed oil, biofuel) even on heavily contaminated land. Given the considerable decontamination during retting, contamination levels in flax fibres would only exceed the exemption limits for fibre use after production in extreme contamination scenarios (>12,300kBq m(-2)). Since hemp fibres are mechanically separated, use of hemp fibres is more restricted (contamination <740kBq m(-2)). Use of stems as biofuel is restricted to areas with contamination levels of <250 and 1050kBq m(-2) for flax and hemp, respectively. Use of seeds for edible oil production and flour is possible almost without restriction for flax but due to the high TFs to seed observed for hemp (up to 3x10(-3) m2 kg(-1)) consumption of hemp seed products should be considered with care.

  14. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{sup trademark} system

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Historically, this has been attempted using hand held survey instrumentation, surveying only the accessible exterior portions of pipe systems. Difficulty, or inability of measuring threshold surface contamination values, worker exposure, and physical access constraints have limited the effectiveness of this approach. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane.

  15. A new photocatalytic reactor for trace contaminant control: a water polishing system.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Martin, A; Kim, J; Van Hyfte, J; Rutherford, L A; Andrews, C

    2001-01-01

    In spacecraft water recovery systems there is a need to develop a postprocessor water polishing system to remove organic impurities to levels below 250 micrograms/L (ppb) with a minimum use of expendables. This article addresses the development of a photocatalytic process as a postprocessor water polishing system that is microgravity compatible, operates at room temperature, and requires only a minimal use of both oxygen gas (or air) and electrical power for low energy UV-A (315-400 nm) lamps. In the photocatalytic process, organic contaminants are degraded to benign end products on semiconductor surfaces, usually TiO2. Some challenging issues related to the use of TiO2 for the degradation of organic contaminants have been addressed. These include: i) efficient and stable catalytic material; ii) immobilization of the catalyst to produce a high surface area material that can be used in packed-bed reactors, iii) effective light penetration, iv) effective, microgravity-compatible, oxidant delivery; v) reduced pressure drop, and vi) minimum retention time. The research and development performed on this photocatalytic process is presented in detail. Grant numbers: NAS9-97182.

  16. Carbon isotopic evidence for biodegradation of organic contaminants in the shallow vadose zone of the radioactive waste management complex

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Mark E.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2003-09-04

    Waste material buried in drums in the shallow subsurface at the Radioactive Waste Management Facility (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contained significant amounts of organic compounds including lubricating oils and chlorinated solvents. CO{sub 2} concentrations in pore gas samples from monitoring wells in the vicinity of the disposal pits are 3 to 5 times higher than the concentrations in nearby background wells. The stable carbon isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C values) of CO{sub 2} from the disposal pits averaged 2.4. less than CO{sub 2} from the background wells, indicating that the elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations around the pits were derived from source materials with {delta}{sup 13}C values in the range of -24{per_thousand} to -29{per_thousand}. These {delta}{sup 13}C values are typical of lubricating oils, but higher than most solvents. The radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) contents of CO{sub 2} across most of the site were significantly elevated above modern concentrations due to reactor blocks buried in a subsurface vault at the site. However, several samples collected from the high-CO{sub 2} zone on the far side of the RWMC from the reactor blocks had very low {sup 14}C contents (less than 0.13 times modern), confirming production from lubricating oils manufactured from fossil hydrocarbons. The magnitude of the CO{sub 2} anomaly observed at the site is consistent with intrinsic biodegradation rates on the order of 0.5 to 3.0 metric tons of carbon per year.

  17. SimER: An advanced three-dimensional environmental risk assessment code for contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kwong, S.; Small, J.; Tahar, B.

    2007-07-01

    SimER (Simulations of Environmental Risks) is a powerful performance assessment code developed to undertake assessments of both contaminated land and radioactive waste disposal. The code can undertake both deterministic and probabilistic calculations, and is fully compatible with all available best practice guidance and regulatory requirements. SimER represents the first time-dependent performance assessment code capable of providing a detailed representation of system evolution that is designed specifically to address issues found across UK nuclear sites. The code adopts flexible input language with build-in unit checking to model the whole system (i.e. near-field, geosphere and biosphere) in a single code thus avoiding the need for any time consuming data transfer and the often laborious interface between the different codes. This greatly speeds up the assessment process and has major quality assurance advantages. SimER thus provides a cost-effective tool for undertaking projects involving risk assessment from contaminated land assessments through to full post-closure safety cases and other work supporting key site endpoint decisions. A Windows version (v1.0) of the code was first released in June 2004. The code has subsequently been subject to further testing and development. In particular, Viewers have been developed to provide users with visual information to assist the development of SimER models, and output can now be produced in a format that can be used by the FieldView software to view the results and produce animation from the SimER calculations. More recently a Linux version of the code has been produced to extend coverage to the commonly used platform bases and offer an improved operating environment for probabilistic assessments. Results from the verification of the SimER code for a sample of test cases for both contaminated land and waste disposal applications are presented. (authors)

  18. Computerized Mathematical Models of Spray Washout of Airborne Contaminants (Radioactivity) in Containment Vessels.

    SciTech Connect

    TAM, P. S.

    2003-05-23

    Version 01 Distribution is restricted to the United States Only. SPIRT predicts the washout of airborne contaminants in containment vessels under postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. SPIRT calculates iodine removal constants (lambdas) for post-LOCA containment spray systems. It evaluates the effect of the spectrum of drop sizes emitted by the spray nozzles, the effect of drop coalescence, and the precise solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation. STEAM-67 routines are included for calculating the properties of steam and water according to the 1967 ASME Steam Tables.

  19. Environmental radioactivity in the Arctic, Antarctic

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.

    1993-12-01

    This conference on radioactivity in the Arctic and Antarctic was held in Kirkenes, Norway and sponsored by the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Department of Radiation Physics, Sweden's University of Lund. Radioactivity in the Arctic is the result of both natural phenomena and human activities. Natural or background radioactivity is a result of the breakdown and erosion of rocks that contain naturally radioactive minerals. But the levels introduced by dumping, weapons testing, and industrial activities far exceed such natural levels. Conference delegates cited such contamination sources as: Chernobyl's nuclear reactor accident; Wastes from fuel reprocessing plants at Sellafield (UK) and La Hague (France); Weapons testing in and around Novaya Zemlya; Ocean dumping of reactors, waste containers, and liquid wastes; Runoff from watersheds containing soil and organic material contaminated by atmospheric fallout; Atmospheric fallout from decades of weapons tests by various nations; and, Accidents involving nuclear submarines. The potential for increased radioactive pollution is of great concern and these questions were addressed by several speakers.

  20. Suspected radioactive contamination: evaluation of 45 Israeli citizens potentially exposed to polonium-210 in London.

    PubMed

    Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Havkin, Ofra; Davidovitch, Nadav; Poles, Lion; Shapira, Chen

    2008-02-01

    The lethal poisoning of Alexander Litvinenco with the radioactive element polonium-210, and the risk that many civilians (including Israeli citizens) who were in the same location in London at the same time were exposed to radiation, was an unprecedented event in the western world. This was only the second known death due to 210Po, a natural alpha radiation-emitting element. A task team was created to handle the event. The team comprised representatives from the Ministry of Health's advisory committee for radiological events (which includes the Israel Defense Force, the Israeli Atomic Energy Commission and the Ministry of Environmental Protection), the Public Health Services Central District, and a public relations expert. Forty-seven people were located and underwent an epidemiological inquiry, and urine samples for detection of 210Po were sent abroad to a specialized laboratory. The radiotoxicological results were analyzed and evaluated by the expert team and follow-up recommendations were made. This unfamiliar and potentially stressful scenario was handled successfully by a multi-organizational multidisciplinary task team. The joint work of the task team was a real-life "exercise" simulating a radiological event in Israel. This team has recommended further evaluation of various vital missions in the event of any possible future radiological event, with special emphasis on a proactive communication approach to the media and the public.

  1. Handling and Treatment of Uranium Contaminated Combustible Radioactive Low Level Waste (LLW)

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzen, J,; Lindberg, M.; Luvstrand, J.

    2002-02-26

    Studsvik RadWaste in Sweden has many years of experience in handling of low-level radioactive waste, such as burnable waste for incineration and scrap metal for melting. In Erwin, TN, in the USA, Studsvik Inc also operates a THOR (pyrolysis) facility for treatment of various kinds of ion-exchange resins. The advantage of incineration of combustible waste as well as of ion-exchange resins by pyrolysis, is the vast volume reduction which minimizes the cost for final storage and results in an inert end-product which is feasible for safe final disposal. The amount of uranium in the incinerable waste has impact on the quality of the resulting ash. The quality improves with lower U-content. One way of reducing the Ucontent is leaching using a chemical process before and if necessary also after the incineration. Ranstad Mineral AB has been established in the 1960s to support the Swedish national program for uranium mining in southern Sweden. Ranstad Mineral works among others wit h chemical processes to reduce uranium content by leaching. During 1998-2000 about 150 tons/year have been processed. The goal was to reach uranium residues of less than 0.02% for disposal on the municipal waste disposal.

  2. Individual-dose distribution for the population in different regions with radioactive contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.; Kleshchenko, E.D.; Kushnereva, K.K.

    1995-09-01

    The reconstruction of individual doses as a result of the Chernobyl accident often relied on the method of EPR measurement from the enamel from extracted teeth. This method was used reliably, with individual confirmations of its indications being obtained. In determining the relatively small irradiation dose to the population, doubts arise because of the fact that the measured dose is often greater than the dose calculated by an indirect method---from external radiation fields at the location and the contents of radionuclides in foods. It is necessary, therefore, to perform an independent check of the results. In this paper, we describe one method for checking the reliability---comparing the measurements of the dose from several teeth in the same individual---in determining the dose from tooth enamel for the population of the Kamensk-Ural region of Sverdlovsk province. This group lived in the zone of passage for the eastern Ural radioactive wake in 1957. The error of the dose determination for different samples was different, since it depends on the mass and quality of the enamel obtained. The results presented show that the method of EPR dosimetry using the enamel of extracted teeth makes it possible to determine quite reliably the individual dose of external radiation from the background up to several Gy of the measurements. Our method compares measurements.

  3. Estimation of radioactive contamination of soils from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" technical areas of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T; Belykh, E; Geras'kin, S; Majstrenko, T

    2012-07-01

    In spite of the long history of the research, radioactive contamination of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan has not been adequately characterized. Our cartographic investigation has demonstrated highly variable radioactive contamination of the SNTS. The Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154, Co-60, and Am-241 activity concentrations in soil samples from the "Balapan" site were 42.6-17646, 96-18250, 1.05-11222, 0.6-4865, 0.23-4893, and 1.2-1037 Bq kg(-1), correspondingly. Cs-137 and Sr-90 activity concentrations in soil samples from the "Experimental field" site were varied from 87 up to 400 and from 94 up to 1000 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Activity concentrations of Co-60, Eu-152, and Eu-154 were lower than the minimum detectable activity of the method used. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (K-40, Ra-226, U-238, and Th-232) in the majority of soil samples from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" sites did not exceed typical for surrounding of the SNTS areas levels. Estimation of risks associated with radioactive contamination based on the IAEA clearance levels for a number of key radionuclides in solid materials shows that soils sampled from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" sites might be considered as radioactive wastes. Decrease in specific activity of soil from the sites studied up to safety levels due to Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154 radioactive decay and Am-241 accumulation-decay will occur not earlier than 100 years. In contrast, soils from the "Experimental field" and the "Balapan" sites (except 0.5-2.5 km distance from the "Chagan" explosion point) cannot be regarded as the radioactive wastes according safety norms valid in Russia and Kazakhstan.

  4. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Swarup; Mishra, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD) column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%), biochemical oxygen demand (BODT) (93.98%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (95.59%), total suspended solid (TSS) (95.98%), ammonia (80.68%), nitrite (79.71%), nitrate (71.16%), phosphorous (44.77%), total coliform (TC) (99.9%), and fecal coliform (FC) (99.9%) was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater.

  5. Treatment of Copper Contaminated Municipal Wastewater by Using UASB Reactor and Sand-Chemically Carbonized Rubber Wood Sawdust Column

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Swarup; Mishra, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and its posttreatment unit of sand-chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust (CCRWSD) column system for the treatment of a metal contaminated municipal wastewater was investigated. Copper ion contaminated municipal wastewater was introduced to a laboratory scale UASB reactor and the effluent from UASB reactor was then followed by treatment with sand-CCRWSD column system. The laboratory scale UASB reactor and column system were observed for a period of 121 days. After the posttreatment column the average removal of monitoring parameters such as copper ion concentration (91.37%), biochemical oxygen demand (BODT) (93.98%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (95.59%), total suspended solid (TSS) (95.98%), ammonia (80.68%), nitrite (79.71%), nitrate (71.16%), phosphorous (44.77%), total coliform (TC) (99.9%), and fecal coliform (FC) (99.9%) was measured. The characterization of the chemically carbonized rubber wood sawdust was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF), and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Overall the system was found to be an efficient and economical process for the treatment of copper contaminated municipal wastewater. PMID:26904681

  6. Radioactive contamination of bottom sediments in the upper reaches of the Techa river: analysis of the data obtained in 1950 and 1951.

    PubMed

    Mokrov, Yury G

    2003-10-01

    A stationary sorption model has been developed for re-evaluating and analysing archive data from 1950-1951 on the radioactive contamination of Techa river bottom sediments close to the site of liquid radioactive waste discharge. In general, good agreement was obtained between calculations and measurements, which substantiates further the assumptions and conclusions in two preceding articles, on the radionuclide composition of discharged liquid radioactive waste. Estimates on the effective liquid radioactive waste discharges given here are significantly different from those deduced in the 1950s, i.e. in summer 1950 and October 1951. The results are discussed in relation to the Techa River Dosimetry System 2000 (TRDS-2000) that has recently been presented to serve as a means for estimating doses to the Techa river residents. Parameter values describing the exponential decrease of bottom sediment contamination along the river due to short-lived radionuclides, such as (106)Ru, and (144)Ce, agree reasonably with those used in TRDS-2000. However, for other radionuclides, such as (95)Zr, (95)Nb, (91)Y, (90)Sr and (137)Cs, substantial differences are found. It is demonstrated that water flow rate, width of the river, and surface area of bottom sediments are important parameters which were not adequately taken into account in TRDS-2000. Also, the stirring-up of contaminated bottom sediments and their subsequent transport by the water flow are seen to be an important mechanism that governs the radionuclide transport downstream. This mechanism was not included in the TRDS-2000 model. It is concluded that the sorption model used in TRDS-2000 for the reconstruction of radioactive contamination of water and bottom sediments of the Techa river in 1949-1951, is subject to considerable errors. While the present paper is focussed on details of the dosimetric modelling, the implications for the Techa river dosimetry are major. They will be further elucidated in a forthcoming paper.

  7. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-3: Basis for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, A.; Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Woodberry, S.

    1994-09-01

    This study characterizes low-level radioactive waste types that may exceed Class C limits at light water reactors, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates radionuclide content and distribution within the waste. Waste types that may exceed Class C limits include metal components that become activated during operations, process wastes such as cartridge filters and decontamination resins, and activated metals from decommissioning activities. Operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants are reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of low-level waste exceeding Class C limits that is generated per fuel cycle, including amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste. Radionuclide content is calculated for specific activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste are used to estimate radionuclide content for process wastes. Volumes and activities are also estimated for decommissioning activated metals that exceed Class C limits. To estimate activation levels of decommissioning waste, six typical light water reactors are modeled and analyzed. This study does not consider concentration averaging.

  8. Distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs Plus(137)Cs) in a contaminated Japanese soybean cultivar during the preparation of tofu, natto, and nimame (Boiled Soybean).

    PubMed

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Kimura, Keitarou; Kubo, Yuji; Tanji, Katsuo; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Hagiwara, Shoji; Nei, Daisuke; Kameya, Hiromi; Nakagawa, Rikio; Matsukura, Ushio; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the fate of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) during the production of tofu, natto, and nimame (boiled soybean) from a contaminated Japanese soybean cultivar harvested in FY2011. Tofu, natto, and nimame were made from soybean grains containing radioactive cesium (240 to 340 Bq/kg [dry weight]), and the radioactive cesium in the processed soybean foods and in by-product fractions such as okara, broth, and waste water was measured with a germanium semiconductor detector. The processing factor is the ratio of radioactive cesium concentration of a product before and after processing. For tofu, natto, nimame, and for the by-product okara, processing factors were 0.12, 0.40, 0.20, and 0.18, respectively; this suggested that these three soybean foods and okara, used mainly as an animal feed, can be considered safe for human and animal consumption according to the standard limit for radioactive cesium of soybean grains. Furthermore, the ratio of radioactive cesium concentrations in the cotyledon, hypocotyl, and seed coat portions of the soybean grain was found to be approximately 1:1:0.4.

  9. RESRAD-BUILD: A computer model for analyzing the radiological doses resulting from the remediation and occupancy of buildings contaminated with radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.; LePoire, D.J.; Jones, L.G.

    1994-11-01

    The RESRAD-BUILD computer code is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by an individual who works or lives in a building contaminated with radioactive material. The transport of radioactive material inside the building from one compartment to another is calculated with an indoor air quality model. The air quality model considers the transport of radioactive dust particulates and radon progeny due to air exchange, deposition and resuspension, and radioactive decay and ingrowth. A single run of the RESRAD-BUILD code can model a building with up to: three compartments, 10 distinct source geometries, and 10 receptor locations. A shielding material can be specified between each source-receptor pair for external gamma dose calculations. Six exposure pathways are considered in the RESRAD-BUILD code: (1) external exposure directly from the source; (2) external exposure to materials deposited on the floor; (3) external exposure due to air submersion; (4) inhalation of airborne radioactive particulates; (5) inhalation of aerosol indoor radon progeny; and (6) inadvertent ingestion of radioactive material, either directly from the sources or from materials deposited on the surfaces of the building compartments. 4 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Technical support for the EPA cleanup rule on radioactively contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, H.B.; Newman, A.; Wolbarst, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a radiation site cleanup regulation for the protection of the public from radionuclide contamination at sites that are to be cleaned up and released for public use. The regulation will apply to sites under the control of Federal agencies, and to sites licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or NRC Agreement States. The agency is therefore conducting a comprehensive technical analysis aimed at developing information that will be used to support the rule. This presentation describes the regulation and the approach developed to determine how radiological health impacts and volumes of soil requiring remediation vary as functions of the possible cleanup dose or risk level.

  11. The Dnieper River Aquatic System Radioactive Contamination; Long-tern Natural Attenuation And Remediation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Laptev, Genadiy; Kanivets, Vladimir; Konoplev, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    Near 27 year passed after the Chernobyl Accident, and the experience gained to study radionuclide behavior in the aquatic systems and to mitigate water contamination are still pose of interest for scientists, society and regulatory austerities. There are different aspects of radionuclide transport in the environment were studied since the Chernobyl fallout in 1986 covered the river catchments, wetlands, river, lakes/reservoirs and reached the Black Sea. The monitoring time series data set and also data on the radionuclides behavior studies in the water bodies (river, lakes and the Black Sea) are available now in Ukraine and other affected countries. Its causation analyses, considering the main geochemical, physical and chemical and hydrological process, governing by radionuclide mobility and transport on the way from the initially contaminated catchments, through the river-reservoir hydrological system to the Black Sea can help in better understanding of the main factors governing be the radionuclide behavior in the environment. Radionuclide washout and its hydrological transport are determined speciation of radionuclides as well as soil types and hydrological mode and also geochemistry and landscape conditions at the affected areas. Mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are determined by ratio of radionuclide chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining rates of leaching, fixation/remobilization as well as sorption-desorption of mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). In many cases the natural attenuation processes governing by the above mentioned processes supported by water flow transportation and sedimentation played the key role in self-rehabilitation of the aquatic ecosystems. The models developed during post-Chernobyl decade and process parameters studies can help in monitoring and remediation programs planed for Fukusima Daichi affected watersheds areas as well. Some most important monitoring data

  12. Accumulation of radioactive corrosion products on steel surfaces of VVER type nuclear reactors. I. 110mAg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberg, Gábor; Baradlai, Pál; Varga, Kálmán; Myburg, Gerrit; Schunk, János; Tilky, Péter; Stoddart, Paul

    Formation, presence and deposition of corrosion product radionuclides (such as 60Co, 51Cr, 54Mn, 59Fe and/or 110mAg) in the primary circuits of water-cooled nuclear reactors (PWRs) throw many obstacles in the way of normal operation. During the course of the work presented in this series, accumulations of such radionuclides have been studied at austenitic stainless steel type 08X18H10T (GOST 5632-61) surfaces (this austenitic stainless steel corresponds to AISI 321). Comparative experiments have been performed on magnetite-covered carbon steel (both materials are frequently used in some Soviet VVER type PWRs). For these laboratory-scale investigations a combination of the in situ radiotracer `thin gap' method and voltammetry is considered to be a powerful tool due to its high sensitivity towards the detection of the submonolayer coverages of corrosion product radionuclides. An independent technique (XPS) is also used to characterize the depth distribution and chemical state of various contaminants in the passive layer formed on austenitic stainless steel. In the first part of the series the accumulation of 110mAg has been investigated. Potential dependent sorption of Ag + ions (cementation) is found to be the predominant process on austenitic steel, while in the case of magnetite-covered carbon steel the silver species are mainly depleted in the form of Ag 2O. The XPS depth profile of Ag gives an evidence about the embedding of metallic silver into the entire passive layer of the austenitic stainless steel studied.

  13. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Bolsunovsky, A; Dementyev, D

    2014-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011-2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg(-1)(131)I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg(-1)(134)Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg(-1)(137)Cs. An important finding was the detection of (134)Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2-2.6), suggesting the presence of "older", pre-Fukushima accident (137)Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two-three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident (137)Cs.

  14. Apparatus development for measurement of (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Okashiro, Yasuharu; Kai, Hiroaki; Fujii, Syuuji; Mishima, Atsushi; Matsubara, Takahide; Yoshida, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We developed an apparatus containing a NaI(Tl) scintillator to measure the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The unfolding method with the least-squares technique was used to determine the radioactivity. Detector responses for each radionuclide in soil were calculated with EGS5 code for the unfolding method. The radionuclides that were measured were (40)K, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (214)Bi, and (228)Ac. The measured spectrum agreed well with the spectrum calculated from the response matrix and measured radioactivities. The unfolding method allows us to use the NaI(Tl) scintillator despite the overlap of peaks.

  15. Survey of radiological contaminants in the near-shore environment at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Verst, S.P.; Albin, C.L.; Patton, G.W.; Blanton, M.L.; Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.; Antonio, E.J.

    1998-09-01

    Past operations at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor resulted in the release of radiological contaminants to the soil column, local groundwater, and ultimately to the near-shore environment of the Columbia River. In September 1997, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) and the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) initiated a special study of the near-shore vicinity at the Hanford Site`s retired 100-N Area reactor. Environmental samples were collected and analyzed for radiological contaminants ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, and gamma/ emitters), with both the WDOH and SESP analyzing a portion of the samples. Samples of river water, sediment, riverbank springs, periphyton, milfoil, flying insects, clam shells, and reed canary grass were collected. External exposure rates were also measured for the near-shore environment in the vicinity of the 100-N Area. In addition, samples were collected at background locations above Vernita Bridge.

  16. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, C.D.; Kendrick, D.T.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

    1997-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently in the process of decommissioning and dismantling many of its nuclear materials processing facilities that have been in use for several decades. Site managers throughout the DOE complex must employ the safest and most cost effective means to characterize, remediate and recycle or dispose of hundreds of miles of potentially contaminated piping and duct work. The DOE discovered that standard characterization methods were inadequate for its pipes, drains, and ducts because many of the systems are buried or encased. In response to the DOE`s need for a more specialized characterization technique, Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) developed the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system through a DOE Office of Science and Technology (OST) contract administered through the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The purpose of this report is to serve as a comprehensive overview of all phases of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} development project. The report is divided into 6 sections. Section 2 of the report provides an overview of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, including the operating principles of using an inverting membrane to tow sensors into pipes. The basic components of the characterization system are also described. Descriptions of the various deployment systems are given in Section 3 along with descriptions of the capabilities of the deployment systems. During the course of the development project 7 types of survey instruments were demonstrated with the Pipe Explorer{trademark} and are a part of the basic toolbox of instruments available for use with the system. These survey tools are described in Section 4 along with their typical performance specifications. The 4 demonstrations of the system are described chronologically in Section 5. The report concludes with a summary of the history, status, and future of the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system in Section 6.

  17. In situ vitrification: Immobilizing radioactive contaminants in place by melting soils into man-made rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, G.K.; Spalding, B.P. ); Tixier, J.S. )

    1992-01-01

    From 1951 to 1966 over 1 [times] 10[sup 6] Ci of Cs-137, Sr-90, and other radioisotopes in liquid wastes were disposed of in shallow seepage pits at ORNL. In situ methods to stabilize these sites are being investigated because of radiation exposure risks to personnel during excavation and removal activities. A field test at ORNL of In Situ Vitrification (ISV) was performed to evaluate its ability to resistance heating through graphite electrodes to melt contaminated soils in place. The resulting small lava lake cools and solidifies to a rock consisting of glassy and crystalline material. Volatile products released from the surface of the melt are collected and treated. The Sr-90 was incorporated into mineral phases and residual glass that form upon solidification. The Cs-137, however, is incompatible with the mineral structures and is concentrated into the small amount of residual glass that is trapped in the interstices between mineral grains. Leach tests were performed on samples of sludge, sludge + soil, crushed ISV rock, crushed ISV rock + soil, and low surface area fragments of ISV rock. First, sequential extractions with 0.1 N CaCl[sub 2] were used. Then, sequential treatments with 0.1 N HCl were used. Approximately 10% of the Sr-90 was released from the sludge, with or without soil, after CaCl[sub 2] was applied. Subsequent treatment with HCl released essentially all the Sr-90. The Sr-90 in the crushed ISV rock was resistant to cation exchange, with only 0.4% leached after treatment with CaCl[sub 2]. Treatment with HCl released only 4% of the total Sr-90 present in the crushed ISV rock. The low surface area fragments, more representative of expected field conditions, released 10 [times] less of the Sr-90 than the crushed ISV rock samples. The Cs-137 was not significantly leached from any of the samples of sludge or ISV rock.

  18. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 208 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains a minimum of 210 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: Measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Citations discuss radioactive monitoring, health hazards, and radiation dosimetry. Radiation contamination in the air, soil, vegetation, and food is examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Bioremediation of polychlorinated-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans contaminated soil using simulated compost-amended landfill reactors under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Wu, Jer-Horng; Lin, Shih-Chiang; Chang, Juu-En

    2016-07-15

    Compost-amended landfill reactors were developed to reduce polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in contaminated soils. By periodically recirculating leachate and suppling oxygen, the online monitoring of the oxidation reduction potential confirmed that the reactors were maintained under hypoxic conditions, with redox levels constantly fluctuating between -400 and +80mV. The subsequent reactor operation demonstrated that PCDD/F degradation in soil could be facilitated by amending compost originating from the cow manure and waste sludge and that the degradation might be affected by the availability of easily degradable substrates in the soil and compost. The pyrosequencing analysis of V4/V5 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes suggested that species richness of the soil microbial community was increased by a factor of 1.37-1.61. Although the bacterial community varied with the compost origin and changed markedly during reactor operation, it was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The aerotolerant anaerobic Sedimentibacter and Propionibacterium spp., and the uncultured Chloroflexi group could be temporarily induced to a high abundance by amending the cow manure compost; the bacterial growths were associated with the rapid degradation of PCDD/Fs. Overall, the novel bioremediation method for PCDD/F-contaminated soils using hypoxic conditions was effective, simple, energy saving, and thus easily practicable.

  4. Remediation of Water Contaminated with an Azo Dye: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Utilizing an Inexpensive Photocatalytic Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumpus, John A.; Tricker, Jennifer; Andrzejewski, Ken; Rhoads, Heather; Tatarko, Matthew

    1999-12-01

    The construction and use of an inexpensive photocatalytic reactor that utilizes titanium dioxide as the photocatalyst for wastewater treatment is described. In these experiments and in supplementary material, students are made aware that a variety of techniques have been developed to treat wastewaters, including those generated by the chemical industry. Water contaminated with the azo dye Congo Red was selected as an example of how one might treat contaminated water from a textile manufacturing facility. These experiments emphasize that, in addition to product development, chemists must also be concerned with waste treatment. A summary of the theory of titanium dioxide-mediated photocatalysis is provided. The phenomenon of photosensitization is also discussed. The usefulness of Congo Red is summarized and a brief history of this dye is given. In addition to being inexpensive, the photocatalytic reactor described is easy to construct and uses a readily available low-wattage fluorescent light. An important feature of this reactor is that the heat generated by the light source is readily dissipated by the water undergoing treatment. Thus no special cooling apparatus is required. One of the most important aspects of this work is that it provides a wide variety of continuing research suggestions that would be suitable and readily accomplished in undergraduate departments and high school laboratories; even those where budgetary priorities are a major concern. Use of this reactor would also enable students to design systems to treat "real-world" wastes, including some that are generated in instructional laboratories.

  5. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 1. Recommendations for technology developments with potential to significantly improve low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 1 provides an executive summary and a general introduction to the four-volume set, in addition to recommendations for research and development (R and D) for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) treatment. Generic, long-range, and/or high-risk programs identified and prioritized as needed R and D in the LLRW field include: (1) systems analysis to develop decision methodology; (2) alternative processes for dismantling, decontaminating, and decommissioning; (3) ion exchange; (4) incinerator technology; (5) disposal technology; (6) demonstration of advanced technologies; (7) technical assistance; (8) below regulatory concern materials; (9) mechanical treatment techniques; (10) monitoring and analysis procedures; (11) radical process improvements; (12) physical, chemical, thermal, and biological processes; (13) fundamental chemistry; (14) interim storage; (15) modeling; and (16) information transfer. The several areas are discussed in detail.

  6. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.

    1963-09-10

    A breeder reactor is described, including a mass of fissionable material that is less than critical with respect to unmoderated neutrons and greater than critical with respect to neutrons of average energies substantially greater than thermal, a coolant selected from sodium or sodium--potassium alloys, a control liquid selected from lead or lead--bismuth alloys, and means for varying the quantity of control liquid in the reactor. (AEC)

  7. Evaluation and Quantification of Uncertainty in the Modeling of Contaminant Transport and Exposure Assessment at a Radioactive Waste Disposal Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauxe, J.; Black, P.; Carilli, J.; Catlett, K.; Crowe, B.; Hooten, M.; Rawlinson, S.; Schuh, A.; Stockton, T.; Yucel, V.

    2002-12-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in the United States (U.S.) is a highly regulated undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), itself a large generator of such wastes, requires a substantial amount of analysis and assessment before permitting disposal of LLW at its facilities. One of the requirements that must be met in assessing the performance of a disposal site and technology is that a Performance Assessment (PA) demonstrate "reasonable expectation" that certain performance objectives, such as dose to a hypothetical future receptor, not be exceeded. The phrase "reasonable expectation" implies recognition of uncertainty in the assessment process. In order for this uncertainty to be quantified and communicated to decision makers, the PA computer model must accept probabilistic (uncertain) input (parameter values) and produce results which reflect that uncertainty as it is propagated through the model calculations. The GoldSim modeling software was selected for the task due to its unique facility with both probabilistic analysis and radioactive contaminant transport. Probabilistic model parameters range from water content and other physical properties of alluvium to the activity of radionuclides disposed to the amount of time a future resident might be expected to spend tending a garden. Although these parameters govern processes which are defined in isolation as rather simple differential equations, the complex interaction of couple processes makes for a highly nonlinear system with often unanticipated results. The decision maker has the difficult job of evaluating the uncertainty of modeling results in the context of granting permission for LLW disposal. This job also involves the evaluation of alternatives, such as the selection of disposal technologies. Various scenarios can be evaluated in the model, so that the effects of, for example, using a thicker soil cap over the waste cell can be assessed. This ability to evaluate mitigation

  8. Preferential removal and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated fly ash with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Sakita, Shogo; Simion, Cristian

    2014-08-30

    In this work, the capability of nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension in removing and/or immobilizing stable ((133)Cs) and radioactive cesium species ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in contaminated fly ash was investigated. After a first methanol and second water washing yielded only 45% of (133)Cs removal. While, after a first methanol washing, the second solvent with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension yielded simultaneous enhanced removal and immobilization about 99% of (133)Cs. SEM-EDS analysis revealed that the mass percent of detectable (133)Cs on the fly ash surface recorded a 100% decrease. When real radioactive cesium contaminated fly ash (containing an initial 14,040Bqkg(-1)(134)Cs and (137)Cs cumulated concentration) obtained from burning wastes from Fukushima were reduced to 3583Bqkg(-1) after treatment with nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension. Elution test conducted on the treated fly ash gave 100BqL(-1) total (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in eluted solution. Furthermore, both ash content and eluted solution concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were much lower than the Japanese Ministry of the Environment regulatory limit of 8000Bqkg(-1) and 150BqL(-1) respectively. The results of this study suggest that the nanometallic Ca/CaO methanol suspension is a highly potential amendment for the remediation of radioactive cesium-contaminated fly ash.

  9. Dynamics of radioactive cesium (134Cs and 137Cs) during the milling of contaminated Japanese wheat cultivars and during the cooking of udon noodles made from wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Keitarou; Kameya, Hiromi; Nei, Daisuke; Kakihara, Yoshiteru; Hagiwara, Shoji; Okadome, Hiroshi; Tanji, Katsuo; Todoriki, Setsuko; Matsukura, Ushio; Kawamoto, Ghinichi

    2012-10-01

    The fate of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) during the milling of contaminated Japanese wheat cultivars harvested in FY2011, and during the cooking of Japanese udon noodles made from the wheat flour, was investigated. Grain samples containing various radioactive cesium concentrations (36.6 to 772 Bq/kg [dry weight]) were milled using a laboratory-scale test mill to produce eight fractions: three break flours (1B, 2B, and 3B), three reduction flours (1M, 2M, and 3M), bran, and shorts. The concentrations of radioactive cesium were found to be highest in the bran fractions of all the samples tested, with 2.3- to 2.5-fold higher values than that of the whole grain. Shorts contained radioactive cesium levels similar to that of the whole grain. In contrast, radioactive cesium concentrations in other fractions were found to be less than half the concentration in whole grain. The average processing factor (PF) value calculated for patent flour (0.401 ± 0.048), made from the mixture of 1B, 2B, 1M, and 2M for human consumption, or for low-grade flour (0.467 ± 0.045), made from the mixture of 3B and 3M, was found to be less than 0.5; whereas the average PF value (2.07 ± 0.232) for feed bran (mixture of bran and shorts), which has been used mainly as livestock feed in Japan, was over 2.0. Boiling udon noodles (made from patent flour) resulted in a substantial reduction (>70 % of initial amount) of radioactive cesium. Moreover, radioactive cesium was reduced further (<10 % of the initial amount) in the subsequent rinsing process, and the PF value of boiled noodles was recorded as 0.194. These results demonstrated that patent flour containing radioactive cesium can be made safe for human consumption by adopting the standard limit for radioactive cesium in wheat grain and that radioactive cesium in udon noodles is substantially reduced by cooking.

  10. Opportunities for Cost Effective Disposal of Radioactively Contaminated Solid Waste on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, TN - 13045

    SciTech Connect

    DeMonia, Brian; Dunning, Don; Hampshire John

    2013-07-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for the release of non-real property, including solid waste, containing low levels of residual radioactive materials are specified in DOE Order 458.1 and associated guidance. Authorized limits have been approved under the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5, predecessor to DOE Order 458.1, to permit disposal of solid waste containing low levels of residual radioactive materials at solid waste landfills located within the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Specifically, volumetric concentration limits for disposal of solid waste at Industrial Landfill V and at Construction/Demolition Landfill VII were established in 2003 and 2007, respectively, based on the requirements in effect at that time, which included: an evaluation to ensure that radiation doses to the public would not exceed 25 mrem/year and would be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), with a goal of a few mrem/year or less (in fact, these authorized limits actually were derived to meet a dose constraint of 1 mrem/year); an evaluation of compliance with groundwater protection requirements; and reasonable assurance that the proposed disposal is not likely to result in a future requirement for remediation of the landfill. Prior to approval as DOE authorized limits, these volumetric concentration limits were coordinated with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and documented in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the TDEC Division of Radiological Health and the TDEC Division of Solid Waste Management. These limits apply to the disposal of soil and debris waste generated from construction, maintenance, environmental restoration, and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. The approved site-specific authorized limits were incorporated in the URS/CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) waste profile system that authorizes disposal of special wastes at either of the RCRA Subtitle D landfills. However, a

  11. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Roman, W.G.

    1961-06-27

    A pressurized water reactor in which automatic control is achieved by varying the average density of the liquid moderator-cooiant is patented. Density is controlled by the temperature and power level of the reactor ftself. This control can be effected by the use of either plate, pellet, or tubular fuel elements. The fuel elements are disposed between upper and lower coolant plenum chambers and are designed to permit unrestricted coolant flow. The control chamber has an inlet opening communicating with the lower coolant plenum chamber and a restricted vapor vent communicating with the upper coolant plenum chamber. Thus, a variation in temperature of the fuel elements will cause a variation in the average moderator density in the chamber which directly affects the power level of the reactor.

  12. An improved SOIL*EX{trademark} process for the removal of hazardous and radioactive contaminants from soils, sludges and other materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, R.R.; Bonnema, B.E.; Navratil, J.D.; Falconer, K.L.; Van Vliet, J.A.; Diel, B.N.

    1995-12-31

    Rust`s patented SOIL*EX process is designed to remove hazardous and radioactive contaminants from soils, sludges and a matrix of other materials while destroying volatile organic compounds often associated with contaminated soil and debris. The process is comprised of three major process operations. The first operation involves the dissolution of contaminants that are chemically or mechanically bonded to the solid phase. The second process operation involves separation of the solid phase from the dissolution solution (mother liquor), which contains the dissolved contaminants. The final operation concentrates and removes the contaminants from the mother liquor. A pilot-scale SOIL*EX system was constructed at Rust`s Clemson Technical Center for a Proof-of-Process demonstration. The demonstration program included the design, fabrication, and operation of pilot scale and demonstration equipment and systems. The pilot plant, an accurate scaled-down version of a proposed full-scale treatment system, was operated for five months to demonstrate the efficiency of the overall process. The pilot plant test program focused on demonstrating that the SOIL*EX process would remove and concentrate the contaminants and destroy volatile organic compounds. The pilot plant processed nearly 20 tons of soils and sludges, and test results indicated that all contaminants of concern were removed. Additionally, Rust completed numerous bench scale tests to optimize the chemistry. This paper discusses the pilot plant test criteria and results along with the salient design features of the SOIL*EX system and planned improvements.

  13. REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Spitzer, L. Jr.

    1961-10-01

    Thermonuclear reactors, methods, and apparatus are described for controlling and confining high temperature plasma. Main axial confining coils in combination with helical windings provide a rotational transform that avoids the necessity of a figure-eight shaped reactor tube. The helical windings provide a multipolar helical magnetic field transverse to the axis of the main axial confining coils so as to improve the effectiveness of the confining field by counteracting the tendency of the more central lines of force in the stellarator tube to exchange positions with the magnetic lines of force nearer the walls of the tube. (AEC)

  14. Final report: survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at environmental restoration sites, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, K.A.; Mitchell, M.M.; Jean, D.; Byrd, C.S.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at Sandia`s Environmental Restoration (ER) sites. Radiological characterization was performed as a prerequisite to beginning the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action process. The removal of radioactive surface contamination was performed in order to reduce potential impacts to human health and the environment. The predominant radiological contaminant of concern was depleted uranium (DU). Between October 1993 and November 1996 scanning surface radiation surveys, using gamma scintillometers, were conducted at 65 sites covering approximately 908 acres. A total of 9,518 radiation anomalies were detected at 38 sites. Cleanup activities were conducted between October 1994 and November 1996. A total of 9,122 anomalies were removed and 2,072 waste drums were generated. The majority of anomalies not removed were associated with a site that has subsurface contamination beyond the scope of this project. Verification soil samples (1,008 total samples) were collected from anomalies during cleanup activities and confirm that the soil concentration achieved in the field were far below the target cleanup level of 230 pCi/g of U-238 (the primary constituent of DU) in the soil. Cleanup was completed at 21 sites and no further radiological action is required. Seventeen sites were not completed since cleanup activities wee precluded by ongoing site activity or were beyond the original project scope.

  15. Attitude of a group of Belgian stakeholders towards proposed agricultural countermeasures after a radioactive contamination: synthesis of the discussions within the Belgian EC-FARMING group.

    PubMed

    Vandecasteele, C M; Hardeman, F; Pauwels, O; Bernaerts, M; Carlé, B; Sombré, L

    2005-01-01

    In the case of radioactive contamination of the environment with an impact on the food chain, the remediation strategy will not only be based on scientific knowledge and technical experience, but will also be dictated by peculiarities of the country. These characteristics include the agro-industrial structure, the local and international economical contexts and the political configuration including the distribution of responsibilities and competencies. This paper identifies and illustrates the most relevant characteristics of the Belgian agricultural system and political environment; it also describes the past experience with food chain contamination, which is expected to influence the attitude of Belgian stakeholders, who would be involved in the setting up of countermeasure strategies for maintaining agricultural production and food safety. The picture drawn explains why several countermeasures aiming to reduce the contamination in food products, although scientifically sound and technically feasible, are hardly acceptable or even not acceptable at all, to the stakeholders.

  16. Modelling dispersal of radioactive contaminants in Arctic waters as a result of potential recovery operations on the dumped submarine K-27.

    PubMed

    Karcher, M; Hosseini, A; Schnur, R; Kauker, F; Brown, J E; Dowdall, M; Strand, P

    2017-03-15

    Of the wide variety of dumped objects containing radioactive materials in the Arctic seas, the submarine K-27 constitutes a major risk due to the large amount of highly enriched uranium onboard and its location in shallow waters. As the matter of potential operations involving raising of the submarine have entered the public arena, a priori assessment of the contamination in the Arctic marine environment that could result after a possible accident during such operations is a matter of some interest. The dispersion of contaminants within the Arctic has been assessed using a large scale hydrodynamic model for a series of plausible accident scenarios and locations under different oceanographic regimes. Results indicate that, depending primarily on the nature of a release (i.e. instantaneous or continuous), large areas of the Arctic marine environment will exhibit contamination to varying degrees.

  17. Remediation of dinitrotoluene contaminated soils from former ammunition plants: soil washing efficiency and effective process monitoring in bioslurry reactors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Daprato, R C; Nishino, S F; Spain, J C; Hughes, J B

    2001-10-12

    A pilot-scale bioslurry system was used to test the treatment of soils highly contaminated with 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT). The treatment scheme involved a soil-washing process followed by two sequential aerobic slurry reactors augmented with 2,4-DNT- and 2,6-DNT-mineralizing bacteria. Test soils were obtained from two former army ammunition plants, the Volunteer Army Ammunition Plant (VAAP, Chattanooga, TN) and the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP, Baraboo, WI). Soil washing was used to minimize operational problems in slurry reactors associated with large particulates. The Eimco slurry reactors were operated in a draw-and-fill mode for 3 months and were monitored for the biodegradation of 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT, nitrite production, NaOH consumption, and oxygen uptake rate. Results show that soil washing was very effective for the removal of sands and the recovery of soil fines containing 2,4-DNT and 2,6-DNT. Bioslurry reactors offered rapid and nearly complete degradation of both DNT isomers, but require real time monitoring to avoid long lag periods upon refeeding. Results found a significant discrepancy between the measured DNT concentrations and calculated DNT concentrations in the slurry reactors because of solids profiles in the slurry reactors and the presence of floating crystal of DNTs. Based on the actual amount of dinitrotoluene degradation, nitrite release, NaOH consumption, and oxygen uptake were close to the theoretical stoichiometric coefficients of complete DNT mineralization. Such stoichiometric relationships were not achieved if the calculation was based on the measured DNT concentrations due to the heterogeneity of DNT in the reactor. Results indicate that nitrite release, NaOH consumption, and oxygen uptake rates provide a fast assessment of 2,4-DNT degradation and microbial activity in a slurry reactor, but could not be extended to a second reactor in series where the degradation of a much lower concentration

  18. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident fallout: measurement and consequences. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the consequences of radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. Coverage includes transfrontier radioactive contamination, deposition of radioactive pollutants from the atmosphere, and radionuclide concentrations in ground-level air and soil contamination, and in vegetation and food. Monthly radioactive monitoring in different countries, possible health hazards caused by the radiation, and estimates of radiation doses to the population from the fallout are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 209 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Protection of the maternal and fetal thyroid from radioactive contamination by the administration of stable iodide during pregnancy. An experimental evaluation in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Noteboom, J L; Hummel, W A; Broerse, J J; de Vijlder, J J; Vulsma, T; Jansen, J T; van Bekkum, D W

    1997-06-01

    The safety and efficacy of the administration of stable iodide to protect the fetal thyroid from exposure to radioactive iodide were investigated in chimpanzees in weeks 19 to 21 of pregnancy. The mean 24-h uptake of iodide in the fetal thyroid, determined with 123I-, was 1.8%. Administration of stable potassium iodide (KI), 0.65, 1.95 or 6.5 mg per kg body weight, 1 h before tracer injection reduced the fetal uptake satisfactorily. Only the higher doses were effective after 20 h. Excess iodide may impair a child's thyroid status. However, adverse effects were not found during the 11 days the animals ingested these doses. Tracer concentrations in the amniotic fluid were 30- to 130-fold lower than in the urine. The dose to the fetus from radioactivity in the maternal bladder was estimated by computer simulation. The potential increment of the risk from this dose during the ingestion of stable iodide is smaller than the reduction of risk achieved by inhibiting the uptake of radioactive iodide by the fetal thyroid. The conclusion of the experiments is that stable iodide can be used safely and effectively to protect the fetal thyroid against contamination with radioactive iodine.

  20. Leukemia in the proximity of a German boiling-water nuclear reactor: evidence of population exposure by chromosome studies and environmental radioactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz-Feuerhake, I; Dannheim, B; Heimers, A; Oberheitmann, B; Schröder, H; Ziggel, H

    1997-01-01

    Exceptional elevation of children's leukemia appearing 5 years after the 1983 startup of the Krümmel nuclear power plant, accompanied by a significant increase of adult leukemia cases, led to investigations of radiation exposures of the population living near the plant. The rate of dicentric chromosomes in peripheral lymphocytes of seven parents of children with leukemia and in 14 other inhabitants near the plant was significantly elevated and indicated ongoing exposures over the years of its operation. These findings led to the hypothesis that chronic reactor leakages had occurred. This assumption is support by identification of artificial radioactivity in air, rainwater, soil and vegetation by the environmental monitoring program at the nuclear power plant. Calculations of the corresponding source terms show that emissions must have been well above authorized annual limits. Bone marrow doses supposedly result primarily through incorporation of bone-seeking beta- and alpha-emitters. PMID:9467072

  1. Dose reconstruction by EPR spectroscopy of tooth enamel: application to the population of Zaborie village exposed to high radioactive contamination after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Ivannikov, A I; Gaillard-Lecanu, E; Trompier, F; Stepanenko, V F; Skvortsov, V G; Borysheva, N B; Tikunov, D D; Petin, D V

    2004-02-01

    Individual irradiation doses were determined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of the tooth enamel of the inhabitants of Zaborie, the most contaminated inhabited settlement not evacuated after the Chernobyl accident. Dose determination was performed using a specially developed automatic spectrum processing procedure. Spectrum processing was carried out in different operating modes, and average results were taken in order to reduce the contribution of uncertainty in dose determination caused by spectrum processing. The absorbed doses determined in enamel were corrected to take into account the contribution of natural background radiation and to determine the individual excess dose due to radioactive contamination of the territory. Individual excess doses are compared to calculated individualized doses to teeth, estimated using the local radioactive contamination levels, dose rates, and information concerning individual behavior. The individual excess doses measured by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and the calculated individualized doses are fully independent. Mean square variation between results of two methods was found to be 34 mGy, which is consistent with error estimation for both methods. This result can validate both the methodology of signal processing presented here when using electron paramagnetic resonance dosimetry of tooth enamel for low doses and the methodology of individualized dose calculation.

  2. Single-Pass Flow-Through Test Elucidation of Weathering Behavior and Evaluation of Contaminant Release Models for Hanford Tank Residual Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Buck, Edgar C.; Neiner, Doinita; Geiszler, Keith N.

    2013-01-01

    Contaminant release models are required to evaluate and predict long-term environmental impacts of even residual amounts of high-level radioactive waste after cleanup and closure of radioactively contaminated sites such as the DOE’s Hanford Site. More realistic and representative models have been developed for release of uranium, technetium, and chromium from Hanford Site tanks C-202, C-203, and C-103 residual wastes using data collected with a single-pass flow-through test (SPFT) method. These revised models indicate that contaminant release concentrations from these residual wastes will be considerably lower than previous estimates based on batch experiments. For uranium, a thermodynamic solubility model provides an effective description of uranium release, which can account for differences in pore fluid chemistry contacting the waste that could occur through time and as a result of different closure scenarios. Under certain circumstances in the SPFT experiments various calcium rich precipitates (calcium phosphates and calcite) form on the surfaces of the waste particles, inhibiting dissolution of the underlying uranium phases in the waste. This behavior was not observed in previous batch experiments. For both technetium and chromium, empirical release models were developed. In the case of technetium, release from all three wastes was modeled using an equilibrium Kd model. For chromium release, a constant concentration model was applied for all three wastes.

  3. Contamination of the transformer oil of power transformers and shunting reactors by metal-containing colloidal particles

    SciTech Connect

    L'vov, S. Yu.; Komarov, V. B.; Bondareva, V. N.; Seliverstov, A. F.; Lyut'ko, E. O.; L'vov, Yu. N.; Ershov, B. G.

    2011-05-15

    The results of a measurement of the contamination of the oil in 66 transformers by metal-containing colloidal particles, formed as a result of the interaction of the oil with the structural materials (the copper of the windings, the iron of the tank and core etc.), and also the results of measurements of the optical turbidity of the oil in 136 transformers when they were examined at the Power Engineering Research and Development Center Company are presented. Methods of determining the concentration of copper and iron in transformer oil are considered. The limiting values of the optical turbidity factors, the copper and iron content are determined. These can serve as a basis for taking decisions on whether to replace the silica gel of the filters for continuously purifying the oil of power transformers and the shunting reactors in addition to the standardized oil contamination factors, namely, the dielectric loss tangent and the acidity number of the oil.

  4. ReCLAIM v2.0: a spreadsheet tool for calculating doses and soil/water radionuclide screening levels for assessment of radioactively contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Willans, S M; Galais, N C M; Lennon, C P; Trivedi, D P

    2007-03-01

    This note describes an electronic spreadsheet tool called ReCLAIM v2.0, developed by Nexia Solutions Ltd. The tool calculates doses to exposure groups for assessment of radioactively contaminated land including UK Nuclear Licensed sites on an individual exposure pathway basis and on a multiple exposure pathway basis constituting various specifiable scenarios. It also calculates soil/water screening levels of individual radionuclides with reference to selected exposure pathways and a dose target, and considers radionuclide additivity. Subject to agreement with a ReCLAIM disclaimer, the tool, with accompanying documentation (User Guide and Verification Report), can be downloaded without cost from the website (www.nexiasolutions.com/reclaim).

  5. Understanding Contamination; Twenty Years of Simulating Radiological Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Emily Snyder; John Drake; Ryan James

    2012-02-01

    A wide variety of simulated contamination methods have been developed by researchers to reproducibly test radiological decontamination methods. Some twenty years ago a method of non-radioactive contamination simulation was proposed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) that mimicked the character of radioactive cesium and zirconium contamination on stainless steel. It involved baking the contamination into the surface of the stainless steel in order to 'fix' it into a tenacious, tightly bound oxide layer. This type of contamination was particularly applicable to nuclear processing facilities (and nuclear reactors) where oxide growth and exchange of radioactive materials within the oxide layer became the predominant model for material/contaminant interaction. Additional simulation methods and their empirically derived basis (from a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility) are discussed. In the last ten years the INL, working with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), has continued to develop contamination simulation methodologies. The most notable of these newer methodologies was developed to compare the efficacy of different decontamination technologies against radiological dispersal device (RDD, 'dirty bomb') type of contamination. There are many different scenarios for how RDD contamination may be spread, but the most commonly used one at the INL involves the dispersal of an aqueous solution containing radioactive Cs-137. This method was chosen during the DARPA projects and has continued through the NHSRC series of decontamination trials and also gives a tenacious 'fixed' contamination. Much has been learned about the interaction of cesium contamination with building materials, particularly concrete, throughout these tests. The effects of porosity, cation-exchange capacity of the material and the amount of dirt and debris on the surface are very important factors. The interaction of the

  6. Role of the reactor configuration in the biological detoxification of a dump site-polychlorobiphenyl-contaminated soil in lab-scale slurry phase conditions.

    PubMed

    Fava, F; Di Gioia, D; Marchetti, L

    2000-02-01

    The biotreatability of a xenobiotic contaminated soil is frequently determined through a bioslurry treatment usually performed in lab-scale shaken baffled flasks. In this study, a 3-1 unconventional stirred tank reactor was developed and tested in the slurry-phase treatment of a soil heavily contaminated by polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) derived from an Italian dump site, in the absence and in the presence of biphenyl and of the exogenous PCB aerobically dechlorinating co-culture ECO3. The data obtained were compared with those obtained on the same soil in experiments performed in parallel in 3-1 baffled shaken flask reactors. Considerably higher PCB removal and soil detoxification yields (determined through the Lepidium sativum germination test and the Collembola mortality test) were attained in the stirred tank reactors, which generally displayed a higher slurry-phase homogeneity and a higher availability of biphenyl- and chlorobenzoic acid-degrading bacteria compared to the corresponding shaken flask reactors. Moreover, enhanced soil PCB biodegradation and detoxification yields were observed when the developed reactor was supplemented with biphenyl and the exogenous ECO3 bacteria. In conclusion, the results of the soil biotreatability experiments commonly performed in bioslurry lab-scale reactors are significantly influenced by the reactor configuration; the use of the unconventional stirred tank reactor system developed in this work is recommended.

  7. Bioremediation of chlorobenzene-contaminated ground water in an in situ reactor mediated by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Carsten; Alfreider, Albin; Lorbeer, Helmut; Hoffmann, Doreen; Wuensche, Lothar; Babel, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    New in situ reactive barrier technologies were tested nearby a local aquifer in Bitterfeld, Saxonia-Anhalt, Germany, which is polluted mainly by chlorobenzene (CB), in concentrations up to 450 microM. A reactor filled with original aquifer sediment was designed for the microbiological remediation of the ground water by indigenous bacterial communities. Two remediation variants were examined: (a) the degradation of CB under anoxic conditions in the presence of nitrate; (b) the degradation of CB under mixed electron acceptor conditions (oxygen+nitrate) using hydrogen peroxide as the oxygen-releasing compound. Under anoxic conditions, no definite degradation of CB was observed. Adding hydrogen peroxide (2.94 mM) and nitrate (2 mM) led to the disappearance of CB (ca. 150 microM) in the lower part of the reactor, accompanied by a strong increase of the number of cultivable aerobic CB degrading bacteria in reactor water and sediment samples, indicating that CB was degraded mainly by productive bacterial metabolism. Several aerobic CB degrading bacteria, mostly belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus, were isolated from reactor water and sediments. In laboratory experiments with reactor water, oxygen was rapidly released by hydrogen peroxide, whereas biotic-induced decomposition reactions of hydrogen peroxide were almost four times faster than abiotic-induced decomposition reactions. A clear chemical degradation of CB mediated by hydrogen peroxide was not observed. CB was also completely degraded in the reactor after reducing the hydrogen peroxide concentration to 880 microM. The CB degradation completely collapsed after reducing the hydrogen peroxide concentration to 440 microM. In the following, the hydrogen peroxide concentrations were increased again (to 880 microM, 2.94 mM, and 880 microM, respectively), but the oxygen demand for CB degradation was higher than observed before, indicating a shift in the bacterial population. During the whole experiment

  8. Radiation protection: an analysis of thyroid blocking. [Effectiveness of KI in reducing radioactive uptake following potential reactor accident

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, D C; Blond, R M

    1980-01-01

    An analysis was performed to provide guidance to policymakers concerning the effectiveness of potassium iodide (KI) as a thyroid blocking agent in potential reactor accident situations, the distance to which (or area within which) it should be distributed, and its relative effectiveness compared to other available protective measures. The analysis was performed using the Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) consequence model. Four categories of accidents were addressed: gap activity release accident (GAP), GAP without containment isolation, core melt with a melt-through release, and core melt with an atmospheric release. Cost-benefit ratios (US $/thyroid nodule prevented) are given assuming that no other protective measures are taken. Uncertainties due to health effects parameters, accident probabilities, and costs are assessed. The effects of other potential protective measures, such as evacuation and sheltering, and the impact on children (critical population) are evaluated. Finally, risk-benefit considerations are briefly discussed.

  9. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 4. Proceedings of the workshop on research and development needs for treatment of low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Godbee, H.W.; Frederick, E.J.; Jolley, R.L.; Kibbey, A.H.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. As part of this program, a workshop was conducted for determining research and development needs in LLRW treatment. Volume 4, the proceedings of this workshop, includes the formal presentations and both panel and general discussions dealing with such issues as disposal, compaction, and the ''below regulatory concern'' philosophy. Summaries of individual workshops dealing with specific aspects of LLRW treatment are also presented in this volume.

  10. Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  11. Evaluation of the possibility to use the plant-microbe interaction to stimulate radioactive 137Cs accumulation by plants in a contaminated farm field in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Djedidi, Salem; Terasaki, Akimi; Aung, Han Phyo; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Yamaya, Hiroko; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Meunchang, Phatchayaphon; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments in a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, Fukushima were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the plant-microbe interaction on removal of radiocesium. Before plowing, 93.3% of radiocesium was found in the top 5 cm layer (5,718 Bq kg DW(-1)). After plowing, Cs radioactivity in the 0-15 cm layer ranged from 2,037 to 3,277 Bq kg DW(-1). Based on sequential extraction, the percentage of available radiocesium (water soluble + exchangeable) was fewer than 10% of the total radioactive Cs. The transfer of (137)Cs was investigated in three agricultural crops; komatsuna (four cultivars), Indian mustard and buckwheat, inoculated with a Bacillus or an Azospirillum strains. Except for komatsuna Nikko and Indian mustard, inoculation with both strains resulted in an increase of biomass production by the tested plants. The highest (137)Cs radioactivity concentration in above-ground parts was found in Bacillus-inoculated komatsuna Nikko (121 Bq kg DW(-1)), accompanied with the highest (137)Cs TF (0.092). Furthermore, komatsuna Nikko-Bacillus and Indian mustard-Azospirillum associations gave the highest (137)Cs removal, 131.5 and 113.8 Bq m(-2), respectively. Despite the beneficial effect of inoculation, concentrations of (137)Cs and its transfer to the tested plants were not very high; consequently, removal of (137)Cs from soil would be very slow.

  12. Radioactivity and food

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E. )

    1990-03-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references.

  13. Photolytic treatment of atrazine-contaminated water: products, kinetics, and reactor design.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuejun; Chen, Daniel; Li, Kuyen; Wang, Bin; Hopper, Jack

    2007-08-01

    This study investigates the products, kinetics, and reactor design of atrazine photolysis under 254-nm ultraviolet-C (UVC) irradiation. With an initial atrazine concentration of 60 microg/L (60 ppbm), only two products remain in detectable levels. Up to 77% of decomposed atrazine becomes hydroxyatrazine, the major product. Both atrazine and hydroxyatrazine photodecompose following the first-order rate equation, but the hydroxyatrazine photodecomposition rate is significantly slower than that of atrazine. For atrazine photodecomposition, the rate constant is proportional to the square of UVC output, but inversely proportional to the reactor volume. For a photochemical reactor design, a series of equations are proposed to calculate the needed UVC output power, water treatment capacity, and atrazine outlet concentration.

  14. Results of EPR dosimetry for population in the vicinity of the most contaminating radioactive fallout trace after the first nuclear test in the Semipalatinsk test site.

    PubMed

    Ivannikov, Alexander; Zhumadilov, Kassym; Tieliewuhan, Eldana; Jiao, Ling; Zharlyganova, Dinara; Apsalikov, Kazbek N; Berekenova, Gulnara; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Toyoda, Shin; Miyazawa, Chuzou; Skvortsov, Valeriy; Stepanenko, Valeriy; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2006-02-01

    The method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for tooth enamel is applied to individual radiation dose determination to residents of two villages (Dolon and Mostik) in the vicinity of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan. These villages are located near the central axis of the radioactive fallout trace of the most contaminating surface nuclear test conducted in 1949. It is found that excess doses obtained by subtraction of natural background dose from dose absorbed in enamel range up to 440 mGy to residents of Dolon, whose enamel was formed before 1949, and do not exceed 120 mGy to younger residents. To residents of Mostik, excess doses do not exceed 100 mGy regardless of age except for one resident with an extremely high dose of 1.25 Gy. These results are in agreement with the pattern of radioactive contamination of the territory after the nuclear test of 1949 except one case of extremely high dose, which should be additionally investigated.

  15. A Comparison of Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactor Performance for Spacecraft Cabin Trace Contaminant Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Scott, Joseph P.; Reinermann, Dana N.

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a maturing process technology that shows potential for spacecraft life support system application. Incorporating PCO into a spacecraft cabin atmosphere revitalization system requires an understanding of basic performance, particularly with regard to partial oxidation product production. Four PCO reactor design concepts have been evaluated for their effectiveness for mineralizing key trace volatile organic com-pounds (VOC) typically observed in crewed spacecraft cabin atmospheres. Mineralization efficiency and selectivity for partial oxidation products are compared for the reactor design concepts. The role of PCO in a spacecraft s life support system architecture is discussed.

  16. New regulations for radiation protection for work involving radioactive fallout emitted by the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP accident--disposal of contaminated soil and wastes.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2014-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant that accompanied the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, released a large amount of radioactive material. To rehabilitate the contaminated areas, the government of Japan decided to carry out decontamination work and manage the waste resulting from decontamination. In the summer of 2013, the Ministry of the Environment planned to begin a full-scale process for waste disposal of contaminated soil and wastes removed as part of the decontamination work. The existing regulations were not developed to address such a large amount of contaminated wastes. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), therefore, had to amend the existing regulations for waste disposal workers. The amendment of the general regulation targeted the areas where the existing exposure situation overlaps the planned exposure situation. The MHLW established the demarcation lines between the two regulations to be applied in each situation. The amendment was also intended to establish provisions for the operation of waste disposal facilities that handle large amounts of contaminated materials. Deliberation concerning the regulation was conducted when the facilities were under design; hence, necessary adjustments should be made as needed during the operation of the facilities.

  17. PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN A CONTAMINATED VADOSE ZONE: A STABLE AND RADIOACTIVE CARBON ISOTOPE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analyses of soil gas compositions and stable and radioactive carbon isotopes in the vadose zone above an alluvial aquifer were conducted at an organic solvent disposal site in southeast Phoenix, AZ. The study investigated the source and movement of carbon dioxide above a plume of...

  18. Influence of the arrival of radioactive industrially contaminated North Sea water upon the radiation conditions in the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Vakulovskii, S.M.; Nikitin, A.I.; Chumichev, V.B.

    1987-08-01

    The authors present and evaluate data from a four-year period of monitoring the movement of radioactive effluents from the radiochemical plants of Western Europe from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea and determine the concentrations at various regions along this pathway for cesium 134 and 137 and strontium 90 isotopes.

  19. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 2. Treatment, storage, disposal, and transportation technologies and constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Jolley, R.L.; Dole, L.R.; Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.; Oyen, L.C.; Robinson, S.M.; Rodgers, B.R.; Tucker, R.F. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 2 discusses the definition, forms, and sources of LLRW; regulatory constraints affecting treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal; current technologies used for treatment, packaging, storage, transportation, and disposal; and the development of a matrix relating treatment technology to the LLRW stream as an aid for choosing methods for treating the waste. Detailed discussions are presented for most LLRW treatment methods, such as aqueous processes (e.g., filtration, ion exchange); dewatering (e.g., evaporation, centrifugation); sorting/segregation; mechanical treatment (e.g., shredding, baling, compaction); thermal processes (e.g., incineration, vitrification); solidification (e.g., cement, asphalt); and biological treatment.

  20. Feasibility of Biodegrading TNT-Contaminated Soils in a Slurry Reactor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    degradation are obtained from the 1-L reactors (Sec. 3.2.3). Measurements were also made for oxygen uptake rate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN...precipitation of the phosphate with iron in the soil. As a result, assays developed on the ion chromatograph for phosphate, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate

  1. Thermal Catalytic Oxidation of Airborne Contaminants by a Reactor Using Ultra-Short Channel Length, Monolithic Catalyst Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.; Tomes, K. M.; Tatara, J. D.

    2005-01-01

    Contaminated air, whether in a crewed spacecraft cabin or terrestrial work and living spaces, is a pervasive problem affecting human health, performance, and well being. The need for highly effective, economical air quality processes spans a wide range of terrestrial and space flight applications. Typically, air quality control processes rely on absorption-based processes. Most industrial packed-bed adsorption processes use activated carbon. Once saturated, the carbon is either dumped or regenerated. In either case, the dumped carbon and concentrated waste streams constitute a hazardous waste that must be handled safely while minimizing environmental impact. Thermal catalytic oxidation processes designed to address waste handling issues are moving to the forefront of cleaner air quality control and process gas decontamination processes. Careful consideration in designing the catalyst substrate and reactor can lead to more complete contaminant destruction and poisoning resistance. Maintenance improvements leading to reduced waste handling and process downtime can also be realized. Performance of a prototype thermal catalytic reaction based on ultra-short waste channel, monolith catalyst substrate design, under a variety of process flow and contaminant loading conditions, is discussed.

  2. Evaluation of a sequencing batch reactor sewage treatment rig for investigating the fate of radioactively labelled pharmaceuticals: Case study of propranolol.

    PubMed

    Popple, T; Williams, J B; May, E; Mills, G A; Oliver, R

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are frequently detected in the aquatic environment, and have potentially damaging effects. Effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are major sources of these substances. The use of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) STPs, involving cycling between aerobic and anoxic conditions to promote nitrification and denitrification, is increasing but these have yet to be understood in terms of removal of pharmaceutical residues. This study reports on the development of a laboratory rig to simulate a SBR. The rig was used to investigate the fate of radiolabelled propranolol. This is a commonly prescribed beta blocker, but with unresolved fate in STPs. The SBR rig (4.5 L) was operated on an 8 h batch cycle with settled sewage. Effective treatment was demonstrated, with clearly distinct treatment phases and evidence of nitrogen removal. Radiolabelled (14)C-propranolol was dosed into both single (closed) and continuous (flow-through) simulations over 13 SBR cycles. Radioactivity in CO2 off-gas, biomass and liquid was monitored, along with the characteristics of the sewage. This allowed apparent rate constants and coefficients for biodegradation and solid:water partitioning to be determined. Extrapolation from off-gas radioactivity measurements in the single dose 4-d study suggested that propranolol fell outside the definitions of being readily biodegradable (DegT50 = 9.1 d; 60% biodegradation at 12.0 d). During continuous dosing, 63-72% of propranolol was removed in the rig, but less than 4% of dose recovered as (14)CO2, suggesting that biodegradation was a minor process (Kbiol(M) L kg d(-1) = 22-49) and that adsorption onto solids dominated, giving rise to accumulations within biomass during the 17 d solid retention time in the SBR. Estimations of adsorption isotherm coefficients were different depending on which of three generally accepted denominators representing sorption sites was used (mixed liquor suspended solids, reactor COD or mass of waste

  3. Radioactive Iodine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Phone Home » Radioactive Iodine Leer en Español Radioactive Iodine Iodine is essential for proper function of the ... that takes up and holds onto iodine. Radioactive Iodine FAQs WHAT IS RADIOACTIVE IODINE (RAI)? Iodine, in ...

  4. A continuous stirred hydrogen-based polyvinyl chloride membrane biofilm reactor for the treatment of nitrate contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Xia, Siqing; Zhang, YanHao; Zhong, FoHua

    2009-12-01

    A continuous stirred hydrogen-based polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) was investigated to remove nitrate from the drinking water. The reactor was operated over 100 days, and the result showed that the average nitrate denitrification rate of 1.2 g NO(3)(-)-N/m(2) d and the total nitrogen (TN) removal of 95.1% were achieved with the influent nitrate concentration of 50 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L and the hydrogen pressure of 0.05 MPa. Under the same conditions, the average rate of hydrogen utilization by biofilm was 0.031 mg H(2)/cm(2) d, which was sufficient to remove 50 mg NO(3)(-)-N/L from the contaminated water with the effluent nitrate and nitrite concentrations below drinking water limit values. The average hydrogen utilization efficiency was achieved as high as 99.5%. Flux analysis demonstrated that, compared to sulfate reduction, nitrate reduction competed more strongly for hydrogen electron, and obtained more electrons in high influent nitrate loading.

  5. Impact of the Former Salaspils Nuclear Reactor on the Surrounding Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riekstina, D.; Berzins, J.; Krasta, T.; Kizane, G.; Rudzitis, J.

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents results of the long-term environment radioactivity monitoring in the vicinity of the decommissioned Salaspils Nuclear Reactor. Data include Cs-137 contamination levels of soils, H-3 concentration in ground waters, as well as gross beta activity of sewage and rainwater drainage of SNR. Special attention is devoted to the radioactive pollution of water due to leakage from the special wastewater basin detected in December 2014.

  6. Assessment of derived emission limits for radioactive effluents resulted from the decommissioning activities of the VVR-S nuclear research reactor.

    PubMed

    Tuca, C; Stochioiu, A; Sahagia, M; Gurau, D; Dragusin, M

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents complex studies on establishment of derived emission limits for potential radionuclides emitted as gaseous and liquid effluents, during the decommissioning activities (2nd and 3rd phases) of a nuclear research reactor, cooled and moderated with distilled water, type VVR-S, owned by the IFIN-HH. In the present paper there are described: the analysis methods and equipment used, the methodologies for calculating doses and the Derived Emission Limits (DEL), the experimentally measured activities of the representative radionuclides found in gaseous and liquid effluents resulted from decommissioning activities, as well as the effective derived limits of liquid and gaseous effluents, applying the calculation methodologies, specific to critical categories of exposed subjects. A constraint effective dose limit for a person from the critical group of 50 μSv/year was considered in calculations. From the comparison of the two series of values, measured released activities and DELs, there has been concluded that for the gaseous effluents they comply with the DELs, while in the case of liquid effluents they are higher and consequently they must be treated as liquid radioactive wastes.

  7. Bioremediation Of Groundwater Contaminated Wtih Gasoline Hydrocarbons And Oxygenates Using A Membrane-Based Reactor

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to operate a novel, field-scale, aerobic bioreactor and assess its performance in the ex situ treatment of groundwater contaminated with gasoline from a leaking underground storage tank in Pascoag, RI. The groundwater contained elevated concentrat...

  8. Bioremediation of diethylhexyl phthalate contaminated soil: a feasibility study in slurry- and solid-phase reactors.

    PubMed

    Di Gennaro, P; Collina, E; Franzetti, A; Lasagni, M; Luridiana, A; Pitea, D; Bestetti, G

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to verify the possibility of applying bioremediation as a treatment strategy on a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) manufacturing site in the north of Italy contaminated by diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) at a concentration of 5.51 mg/g of dry soil. Biodegradation kinetic experiments with DEHP contaminated soil samples were performed in both slurry- and solid-phase systems. The slurry-phase results showed that the cultural conditions, such as N and P concentrations and the addition of a selected DEHP degrading strain, increased the natural DEHP degradation rate. On the basis of these data, experiments to simulate bioventing on contaminated soil columns were performed. The DEHP concentration reached 0.63 mg/g of dry soil in 76 days (89% of degradation). A kinetic equation was developed to fit the experimental data and to predict the concentration of contaminant after treatment. The data obtained are encouraging for a future in situ application of the bioventing technology.

  9. Optimization of thermochemical, kinetic, and electrochemical factors governing partitioning of radionuclides during melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Avyle, J.A. van den

    1998-06-01

    'Melt decontamination of radioactive scrap metal could convert a disposal liability into a final product that would reduce the total volume of material necessary for burial and save substantial material costs. The goal of this project is to optimize a melt decontamination process through a basic understanding of the factors which govern the partitioning of various radionuclides between metal, slag, and gas phases. Radionuclides which are captured by a slag phase may be stabilized by promoting the formation of synthetic minerals within a leach resistant matrix. The main focus of this project is the application of electroslag remelting (ESR) toward cleanup of surface contaminated stainless steels. This report summarizes work accomplished after 9-months of a 3-year project. Activities are ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories and at Boston University.'

  10. Ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea in horizontal flow biofilm reactors treating ammonia-contaminated air at 10 °C.

    PubMed

    Gerrity, Seán; Clifford, Eoghan; Kennelly, Colm; Collins, Gavin

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of novel, Horizontal Flow Biofilm Reactor (HFBR) technology for the treatment of ammonia (NH3)-contaminated airstreams. Three laboratory-scale HFBRs were used for remediation of an NH3-containing airstream at 10 °C during a 90-d trial to test the efficacy of low-temperature treatment. Average ammonia removal efficiencies of 99.7 % were achieved at maximum loading rates of 4.8 g NH3 m(3) h(-1). Biological nitrification of ammonia to nitrite (NO2 (-)) and nitrate (NO3 (-)) was mediated by nitrifying bacterial and archaeal biofilm populations. Ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) were significantly more abundant than ammonia-oxidising archaea (AOA) vertically at each of seven sampling zones along the vertical HFBRs. Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira, were the two most dominant bacterial genera detected in the HFBRs, while an uncultured archaeal clone dominated the AOA community. The bacterial community composition across the three HFBRs was highly conserved, although variations occurred between HFBR zones and were driven by physicochemical variables. The study demonstrates the feasibility of HFBRs for the treatment of ammonia-contaminated airstreams at low temperatures; identifies key nitrifying microorganisms driving the removal process; and provides insights for process optimisation and control. The findings are significant for industrial applications of gas oxidation technology in temperate climates.

  11. [The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the growth of microscopic mycelial fungi isolated from habitats with different levels of radioactive contamination].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A E; Aslanidi, K B; Karpenko, Iu V; Belozerskaia, T A

    2005-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide ( 10(-9)-10(-1) M) on the mycelial growth of the fungi Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Mucor hiemalis, and Paecilomyces lilacinus has been studied. The growth of fungi isolated from habitats with a background level of radioactive contamination was stopped by H2O2 concentrations equal to 10(-3) and 10(-2) M, whereas the growth of fungi that were isolated from habitats with high levels of radioactive contamination was only arrested by 10(-1) M H2O2. The response of the different fungi to hydrogen peroxide was of three types: (1) a constant growth rate of fungal hyphae at H2O2 concentrations between 10(-9) and 10(-4) M and a decrease in this rate at 10(-3) M H2O2, (2) a gradual decrease in the growth rate as the H2O2 concentration was increased, and (3) an increase in the growth rate as the H2O2 concentration was increased from 10(-7) to 10(2)-5 M. The melanin-containing species A. alternata and C. cladosporioides exhibited all three types of growth response to hydrogen peroxide, whereas the light-pigmented species M. hiemalis and P. lilacinus showed only the first type of growth response. A concentration of hydrogen peroxide equal to 10(-1) M was found to be lethal to all of the fungi studied. The most resistant to hydrogen peroxide was found to be the strain A. alternata 56, isolated from the exclusion zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.

  12. Nuclear reactor accidents: Chernobyl, TMI, and windscale. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radiological consequences of nuclear reactor accidents. The citations cover specifically the Chernobyl reactor in the USSR, the Three Mile Island (TMI) reactor in the US, and the Windscale reactor in the UK. Included are detection and monitoring of the fallout; the resultant runoff into rivers, lakes, and the sea; the radiation effects on people; and the transfrontier radioactive contamination of the environment. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Nuclear reactor accidents: Chernobyl, TMI, and Windscale. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies and measurements of the radiological consequences of nuclear reactor accidents. The citations cover specifically the Chernobyl reactor in the USSR, the Three Mile Island (TMI) reactor in the US, and the Windscale reactor in the UK. Included are detection and monitoring of the fallout; the resultant runoff into rivers, lakes, and the sea; the radiation effects on people; and the transfrontier radioactive contamination of the environment. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Ground-water flow and contaminant transport at a radioactive-materials processing site, Wood River Junction, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, Barbara J.; Kipp, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    Liquid wastes from an enriched-uranium cold-scrap recovery plant at Wood River Junction, Rhode Island, were discharged to the environment through evaporation ponds and trenches from 1966 through 1980. Leakage from the ponds and trenches resulted in a plume of contaminated ground water extending northwestward to the Pawcatuck River through a highly permeable sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin.

  15. Digital modeling of radioactive and chemical waste transport in the aquifer underlying the Snake River Plain at the National Reactor Testing Station, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, J.B.

    1974-01-01

    Industrial and low-level radioactive liquid wastes at the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS) in Idaho have been disposed to the Snake River Plain aquifer since 1952. Monitoring studies have indicated that tritium and chloride have dispersed over a 15-square mile (39-square kilometer) area of the aquifer in low but detectable concentrations and have only migrated as far as 5 miles (8 kilometers) downgradient from discharge points. The movement of cationic waste solutes, particularly 90Sr and 137Cs, has been significantly retarded due to sorption phenomena, principally ion exchange. 137Cs has shown no detectable migration in the aquifer and 90Sr has migrated only about 1.5 miles (2 kilometers) from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) discharge well, and is detectable over an area of only 1.5 square miles ( 4 square kilometers) of the aquifer. Digital modeling techniques have been applied successfully to the analysis of the complex waste-transport system by utilizing numerical solution of the coupled equations of groundwater motion and mass transport. The model includes the effects of convective transport, flow divergence, two-dimensional hydraulic dispersion, radioactive decay, and reversible linear sorption. The hydraulic phase of the model uses the iterative, alternating direction, implicit finite-difference scheme to solve the groundwater flow equations, while the waste-transport phase uses a modified method of characteristics to solve the solute transport equations simulated by the model. The modeling results indicate that hydraulic dispersion (especially transverse) is a much more significant influence than previously suggested by earlier studies. The model has been used to estimate future waste migration patterns for varied assumed hydrological and waste conditions up through the year 2000. The hydraulic effects of recharge from the Big Lost River have an important (but not predominant) influence on the simulated future migration patterns. For the

  16. Impact of the deployment schedule of fast breeding reactors in the frame of French act for nuclear materials and radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Le Mer, J.; Garzenne, C.; Lemasson, D.

    2012-07-01

    In the frame of the French Act of June 28, 2006 on 'a sustainable management of nuclear materials and radioactive waste' EDF R and D assesses various research scenarios of transition between the actual French fleet and a Generation IV fleet with a closed fuel cycle where plutonium is multi-recycled. The basic scenarios simulate a deployment of 60 GWe of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) in two steps: one third from 2040 to 2050 and the rest from 2080 to 2100 (scenarios 2040). These research scenarios assume that SFR technology will be ready for industrial deployment in 2040. One of the many sensitivity analyses that EDF, as a nuclear power plant operator, must evaluate is the impact of a delay of SFR technology in terms of uranium consumptions, plutonium needs and fuel cycle utilities gauging. The sensitivity scenarios use the same assumptions as scenarios 2040 but they simulate a different transition phase: SFRs are deployed in one step between 2080 and 2110 (scenarios 2080). As the French Act states to conduct research on minor actinides (MA) management, we studied different options for 2040 and 2080 scenarios: no MA transmutation, americium transmutation in heterogeneous mode based on americium Bearing Blankets (AmBB) in SFRs and all MA transmutation in heterogeneous mode based on MA Bearing Blankets (MABB). Moreover, we studied multiple parameters that could impact the deployment of these reactors (SFR load factor, increase of the use of MOX in Light Water Reactors, increase of the cooling time in spent nuclear fuel storage...). Each scenario has been computed with the EDF R and D fuel cycle simulation code TIRELIRE-STRATEGIE and optimized to meet various fuel cycle constraints such as using the reprocessing facility with long period of constant capacity, keeping the temporary stored mass of plutonium and MA under imposed limits, recycling older assemblies first... These research scenarios show that the transition from the current PWR fleet to an equivalent

  17. An analysis of the radioactive contamination due to radon in a granite processing plant and its decontamination by ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dieguez-Elizondo, Pedro M; Gil-Lopez, Tomas; O'Donohoe, Paul G; Castejon-Navas, Juan; Galvez-Huerta, Miguel A

    2017-02-01

    This work focuses on studying concentration distribution of (222)Rn radioisotope in a granite processing plant. Using Computational Fluid Dynamic Techniques (CFD), the exposure of the workers to radiation was assessed and, in order to minimise this exposure, different decontamination scenarios using ventilation were analysed. Natural ventilation showed not sufficient to maintain radon concentration below acceptable limits, so a forced ventilation was used instead. Position of the granite blocks also revealed as a determining factor in the radioactive level distribution. Thus, a correct layout of the stored material and an adequate ventilation system can guarantee free of exposure to radiation zones within the studied workshop. This leads to a drastic fall in the exposure of the workers and consequently minimises their risk of developing aggressive illness like lung cancer.

  18. Radioactive Probes of the Supernova-contaminated Solar Nebula: Evidence that the Sun Was Born in a Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looney, Leslie W.; Tobin, John J.; Fields, Brian D.

    2006-12-01

    We construct a simple model for radioisotopic enrichment of the protosolar nebula by injection from a nearby supernova, based on the inverse square law for ejecta dispersion. In this parameter study, the presolar radioisotopic abundances (i.e., in solar masses) demand a nearby supernova: its distance D can be no larger than 66 times the radius of the protosolar nebula, at a 90% confidence level, assuming 1 Msolar of protosolar material. The relevant size of the nebula depends on its state of evolution at the time of radioactivity injection. In one scenario, a collection of low-mass stars, including our Sun, formed in a group or cluster with a high-mass star that ended its life as a supernova while our Sun was still a protostar, a starless core, or perhaps a diffuse cloud. Using recent observations of protostars to estimate the size of the protosolar nebula constrains the distance of the supernova to D~0.02-1.6 pc. This supernova distance limit is consistent with the scales of low-mass star formation around one or more massive stars, but it is closer than expected were the Sun formed in an isolated, solitary state. Consequently, if any presolar radioactivities originated via supernova injection, we must conclude that our Sun was a member of such a group or cluster that has since dispersed; thus, solar system formation should be understood in this context. The temporal choreography from supernova ejecta to meteorites is important, as the modeled timescale is <=1.8 Myr. Finally, the model does not distinguish between progenitor masses from 15 to 25 Msolar, although the 20 Msolar model is somewhat preferred.

  19. A comparative radiological assessment of five European biosphere systems in the context of potential contamination of well water from the hypothetical disposal of radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Olyslaegers, G; Zeevaert, T; Pinedo, P; Simon, I; Pröhl, G; Kowe, R; Chen, Q; Mobbs, S; Bergström, U; Hallberg, B; Katona, T; Eged, K; Kanyar, B

    2005-12-01

    In the framework of the BioMoSA project for the development of biosphere assessment models for radioactive waste disposal the Reference Biosphere Methodology developed in the IAEA programme BIOMASS was applied to five locations, situated in different European countries. Specific biosphere models were applied to assess the hypothetical contamination of a range of agricultural and environmental pathways and the dose to individuals, following contamination of well water. The results of these site-specific models developed by the different BioMoSA partners, and the individual normalised dose to the exposure groups were compared against each other. Ingestion of drinking water, fruit and vegetables were found to be among the most important pathways for almost all radionuclides. Stochastic calculations revealed that consumption habits, transfer factors, irrigation rates and distribution coefficients (Kd(s)) were the most important parameters that influence the end results. Variations in the confidence intervals were found to be higher for sorbing elements (e.g. (36)Cl, (237)Np, (99)Tc, (238)U, (129)I) than for mobile elements (e.g. (226)Ra, (79)Se, (135)Cs, (231)Pa, (239)Pu). The influence of daughter products, for which the distribution into the biosphere was calculated individually, was also shown to be important. This paper gives a brief overview of the deterministic and stochastic modelling results and the parameter sensitivity. A screening methodology was introduced to identify the most important pathways, simplify a generic biosphere tool and refine the existing models.

  20. Biological treatment of highly contaminated acid mine drainage in batch reactors: Long-term treatment and reactive mixture characterization.

    PubMed

    Neculita, Carmen M; Zagury, Gérald J

    2008-09-15

    Passive bioreactors involving sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are a practical alternative technology to treat acid mine drainage (AMD). Careful selection of the organic carbon source is important to ensure performance and long-term efficiency of the treatment. However, a rigorous and methodical characterization to predict the biodegradability of organic substrates by SRB still needs to be investigated. In the present study, four natural organic materials were thoroughly characterized to assess their ability to serve as substrates and to find a parameter that links organic carbon sources with their biodegradability. Three reactive mixtures were then comparatively evaluated for their performance to treat a highly contaminated AMD in long-term (152 days) batch experiments. All three mixtures were successful for sulphate reduction and metal (Fe, Ni, Cd, Zn, and Mn) removal (91.8-99.8%). Higher efficiencies were observed in the reactors with 30% (w/w) cellulosic wastes (maple wood chips and sawdust) which decreased sulphate concentrations from 5500 mg/L to <1mg/L, than in reactors with 2-3% cellulosic wastes, where final sulphate concentrations were in the range 2000-2750 mg/L. Organic material characterization indicated that higher C/N ratios, chemical oxygen demand (COD)/SO(4)(2-) ratios and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)/SO(4)(2-) ratios were associated with better sulphate-reducing conditions and metal removal. This work suggests that C/N and DOC/SO(4)(2-) ratios considered together are key parameters to assess the biodegradability of natural organic wastes under sulphate-reducing conditions.

  1. Assessing the treatment of acetaminophen-contaminated brewery wastewater by an anaerobic packed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Norhayati; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Yong, Ee Ling; Yuzir, Ali; Sallis, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The treatment of high-strength organic brewery wastewater with added acetaminophen (AAP) by an anaerobic digester was investigated. An anaerobic packed-bed reactor (APBR) was operated as a continuous process with an organic loading rate of 1.5-g COD per litre per day and a hydraulic retention time of three days. The results of steady-state analysis showed that the greatest APBR performances for removing COD and TOC were as high as 98 and 93%, respectively, even though the anaerobic digestibility after adding the different AAP concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 mg L(-1) into brewery wastewater can affect the efficiency of organic matter removal. The average CH4 production decreased from 81 to 72% is counterbalanced by the increased CO2 production from 11 to 20% before and after the injection of AAP, respectively. The empirical kinetic models for substrate utilisation and CH4 production were used to predict that, under unfavourable conditions, the performance of the APBR treatment process is able to remove COD with an efficiency of only 6.8%.

  2. Species peculiarities in damage to regulatory systems of murine rodents` liver cells in conditions of slight radioactive contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kudyasheva, A.G.; Shishkina, L.N.; Zagorskaya, N.G.

    1995-07-01

    Results are given from comparative analysis of the antioxidation activity (AOA) of lipids, composition of phospholipids, and activity of Krebs`-cycle and glycolysis enzymes in the liver of three species of murine rodents caught in the slightly contaminated zone of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Disruptions were found in individual links of the regulation of processes of peroxidation of lipids (POL), as well as depression and discoordination of dehydrogenation process. The sharpest shifts in biochemical and biophysical indices were noted in the more radiosensitive root vole.

  3. Radioactive Decay

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  4. Using geochemical fingerprinting to track the dispersion of radioactive contamination along coastal catchments of the Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, Hugo; Laceby, J. Patrick; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Caroline, Chartin; Lefèvre, Irène; Bonté, Philippe; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Several coastal catchments located in the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Power Plant were impacted contaminated fallout in March 2011. Following the accident, typhoons and snowmelt runoff events transfer radiocesium contamination through the coastal floodplains and ultimately to the Pacific Ocean. Therefore it is important to understand the location and relative contribution of different erosion sources in order to manage radiocesium transfer within these coastal catchments and the cumulative export of radiocesium to the Pacific Ocean. Here we present a sediment fingerprinting approach to determine the relative contributions of sediment from different soil types to sediment transported throughout two coastal riverine systems. The sediment fingerprinting technique presented utilizes differences in the elemental geochemistry of the distinct soil types to determine their relative contributions to sediment sampled in riverine systems. This research is important as it furthers our understanding of dominant erosion sources in the region which will help with ongoing decontamination and monitoring efforts pertaining to the management of fallout radiocesium migration in the region.

  5. Laccase-syringaldehyde-mediated degradation of trace organic contaminants in an enzymatic membrane reactor: Removal efficiency and effluent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Luong N; van de Merwe, Jason P; Hai, Faisal I; Leusch, Frederic D L; Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E; Roddick, Felicity; Magram, Saleh F; Nghiem, Long D

    2016-01-01

    Redox-mediators such as syringaldehyde (SA) can improve laccase-catalyzed degradation of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) but may increase effluent toxicity. The degradation performance of 14 phenolic and 17 non-phenolic TrOCs by a continuous flow enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) at different TrOC and SA loadings was assessed. A specific emphasis was placed on the investigation of the toxicity of the enzyme (laccase), SA, TrOCs and the treated effluent. Batch tests demonstrated significant individual and interactive toxicity of the laccase and SA preparations. Reduced removal of resistant TrOCs by the EMR was observed for dosages over 50μg/L. SA addition at a concentration of 10μM significantly improved TrOC removal, but no removal improvement was observed at the elevated SA concentrations of 50 and 100μM. The treated effluent showed significant toxicity at SA concentrations beyond 10μM, providing further evidence that higher dosage of SA must be avoided.

  6. Microlith-Based Catalytic Reactor for Air Quality and Trace Contaminant Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilekar, Saurabh; Hawley, Kyle; Junaedi, Christian; Crowder, Bruce; Prada, Julian; Mastanduno, Richard; Perry, Jay L.; Kayatin, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, gaseous compounds such as methane, carbon monoxide, and trace contaminants have posed challenges for maintaining clean air in enclosed spaces such as crewed spacecraft cabins as they are hazardous to humans and are often difficult to remove by conventional adsorption technology. Catalytic oxidizers have provided a reliable and robust means of disposing of even trace levels of these compounds by converting them into carbon dioxide and water. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) and NASA - Marshall (MSFC) have been developing, characterizing, and optimizing high temperature catalytic oxidizers (HTCO) based on PCI's patented Microlith® technology to meet the requirements of future extended human spaceflight explorations. Current efforts have focused on integrating the HTCO unit with a compact, simple recuperative heat exchanger to reduce the overall system size and weight while also reducing its energy requirements. Previous efforts relied on external heat exchangers to recover the waste heat and recycle it to the oxidizer to minimize the system's power requirements; however, these units contribute weight and volume burdens to the overall system. They also result in excess heat loss due to the separation of the HTCO and the heat recuperator, resulting in lower overall efficiency. Improvements in the recuperative efficiency and close coupling of HTCO and heat recuperator lead to reductions in system energy requirements and startup time. Results from testing HTCO units integrated with heat recuperators at a variety of scales for cabin air quality control and heat melt compactor applications are reported and their benefits over previous iterations of the HTCO and heat recuperator assembly are quantified in this paper.

  7. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  8. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  9. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  10. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  11. 10 CFR 835.603 - Radiological areas and radioactive material areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactivity area. The words “Caution, Airborne Radioactivity Area” or “Danger, Airborne Radioactivity Area” shall be posted at each airborne radioactivity area. (e) Contamination area. The words...

  12. A plan for the handling of externally contaminated livestock.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Dayton; Johnson, Thomas; Guo, Yuanqing; Brandl, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    Nuclear accidents and access to radiological weapons for terrorist organizations and countries with hostile intentions towards the United States are realistic scenarios in the current global landscape. A dispersion of radionuclides can result from a nuclear weapon detonation or from a nuclear accident occurring in facilities handling or using radioactive material, such as nuclear power reactors. Any target of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) or an attack with a nuclear weapon and the surrounding area of a reactor accident could be subject to a significant amount of fallout and radioactive contamination. Therefore, a nuclear event in close proximity to agricultural areas will cause significant concern regarding the contamination of food products. In order to respond quickly and effectively to a large amount of contaminated agricultural products, such as livestock, a prepared and effective plan for handling and processing of these products is necessary. A protocol outlining the evaluation of and procedures for handling and processing radioactively contaminated livestock is proposed, to ensure safe animal food production and economic stability in the livestock industry in the wake of such a nuclear or radiological event. An evaluation of the salvageability of the contaminated livestock is performed based on the degree of exposure, the cost of decontamination, expected demand for food products, and economic impact to the owner/producer. Important factors that impact the salvageability of affected livestock are listed and analyzed to support the decision process for handling contaminated animals.

  13. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  14. Radioactive contamination mapping of northeastern and eastern Japan by a car-borne survey system, Radi-Probe.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shingo; Shinomiya, Takayuki; Kitamura, Hisashi; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Imaseki, Hitoshi; Oikawa, Masakazu; Kodaira, Satoshi; Miyaushiro, Norihiro; Takashima, Yoshio; Uchihori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    We constructed a new car-borne survey system called Radi-Probe with a portable germanium gamma-ray spectrometer onboard a cargo truck, to identify radionuclides and quantify surface contamination from the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station. The system can quickly survey a large area and obtain ambient dose equivalent rates and gamma-ray energy spectra with good energy resolution. We also developed a new calibration method for the system to deal with an actual nuclear disaster, and quantitative surface deposition densities of radionuclides, such as (134)Cs and (137)Cs, and kerma rates of each radionuclide can be calculated. We carried out car-borne survey over northeastern and eastern Japan (Tohoku and Kanto regions of Honshu) from 25 September through 7 October 2012. We discuss results of the distribution of ambient dose equivalent rate H(∗)(10), (134)Cs and (137)Cs surface deposition densities, spatial variation of (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio, and the relationship between surface deposition densities of (134)Cs/(137)Cs and H(∗)(10). The ratio of (134)Cs/(137)Cs was nearly constant within our measurement precision, with average 1.06 ± 0.04 in northeastern and eastern Japan (decay-corrected to 11 March, 2011), although small variations from the average were observed.

  15. Radioactive contamination of arthropods from different trophic levels in hilly and mountainous areas after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sota; Hatakeyama, Kaho; Takahashi, Sentaro; Adati, Tarô

    2016-11-01

    In order to understand the influence of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident on the ecosystem in hilly and mountainous areas of Fukushima Prefecture, chronological changes in the levels of radiocesium in arthropod species were investigated. From 2012 to 2014, arthropods from different trophic levels were sampled and the air radiation dose rates at the sampling sites were analyzed. The air radiation dose rates showed a significant and constant reduction over the 2 years at the sampling sites in Fukushima. The median radiocesium concentration ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) detected in the rice grasshopper, Oxya yezoensis, and the Emma field cricket, Teleogryllus emma, dropped continuously to 0.080 and 0.078 Bq/g fresh weight, respectively, in 2014. In contrast, no significant reduction in radioactive contamination was observed in the Jorô spider, Nephila clavata, in which the level remained at 0.204 Bq/g in 2014. A significant positive correlation between radiocesium concentration and the air radiation dose rate was observed in the rice grasshopper, the Emma field cricket and the Jorô spider. The highest correlation coefficient (ρ = 0.946) was measured in the grasshopper.

  16. Radiocesium fallout in the grasslands on Sakhalin, Kunashir and Shikotan Islands due to Fukushima accident: the radioactive contamination of soil and plants in 2011.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Barkovsky, A; Goncharova, Yu; Gromov, A; Kaduka, M; Romanovich, I

    2013-04-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has resulted in radioactive contamination of environmental media and food in the Far East of Russia, particularly in the Sakhalin Region. To obtain the knowledge about the (134)Cs and (137)Cs spatial distribution in the Sakhalin Region, soil samples were collected at 31 representative grassland sites on Sakhalin, Kunashir and Shikotan islands (43.80°-46.40° N and 142.73°-146.84° E) in the middle of May and around the end of September to early October 2011. In the autumn, vegetation samples (mixed grass/forb crop and bamboo, Sasa sp.) were collected together with soil samples. Maximum measured activity concentrations (on dry weight) of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in soil were 30 Bq kg(-1) and 210 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Within soil profile, (134)Cs activity concentrations declined rapidly with depth. Although for both sampling occasions (in the spring and autumn) the radionuclide was completely retained in the upper 3-4 cm of soil, a deeper penetration of the contaminant into the ground was observed in the autumn. In contrast with (134)Cs, activity concentrations of (137)Cs demonstrated a broad range of the vertical distribution in soil; at most sites, the radionuclide was found down to a depth of 20 cm. This resulted from interfering the aged pre-accidental (137)Cs and the new Fukushima-borne (137)Cs. To calculate contribution of these sources to the inventory of (137)Cs, the (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio of 1:1 in Fukushima fallout (the reference date 15 March 2011) was used. The maximum deposition density of Fukushima-derived (137)Cs was found on Shikotan and Kunashir Islands with average density of 0.124 ± 0.018 kBq m(-2) and 0.086 ± 0.026 kBq m(-2), respectively. Sakhalin Island was less contaminated by Fukushima-derived (137)Cs of 0.021 ± 0.018 kBq m(-2). For the south of Sakhalin Island, the reference inventory of pre-Fukushima (137)Cs was calculated as 1.93 ± 0.25 kBq m(-2

  17. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  18. RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS FROM VARIOUS POTENTIAL NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Piet

    2010-11-01

    Five fuel cycle options, about which little is known compared to more commonly known options, have been studied in the past year for the United States Department of Energy. These fuel cycle options, and their features relative to uranium-fueled light water reactor (LWR)-based fuel cycles, include: • Advanced once-through reactor concepts (Advanced Once-Through, or AOT) – intended for high uranium utilization and long reactor operating life, use depleted uranium in some cases, and avoid or minimize used fuel reprocessing • Fission-fusion hybrid (FFH) reactor concepts – potential variations are intended for high uranium or thorium utilization, produce fissile material for use in power generating reactors, or transmute transuranic (TRU) and some radioactive fission product (FP) isotopes • High temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concepts - intended for high uranium utilization, high reactor thermal efficiencies; they have unique fuel designs • Molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, use on-line reprocessing of the used fuel, produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements, and avoid fuel assembly fabrication • Thorium/U-233 fueled LWR (Th/U-233) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, and produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements. These fuel cycle options could result in widely different types and amounts of used or spent fuels, spent reactor core materials, and waste streams from used fuel reprocessing, such as: • Highly radioactive, high-burnup used metal, oxide, or inert matrix U and/or Th fuels, clad in Zr, steel, or composite non-metal cladding or coatings • Spent radioactive-contaminated graphite, SiC, carbon-carbon-composite, metal, and Be reactor core materials • Li-Be-F salts containing U, TRU, Th, and fission products • Ranges of separated or un-separated activation

  19. Radioactive elements in stellar atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Gopka, Vira; Yushchenko, Alexander; Goriely, Stephane; Shavrina, Angelina; Kang, Young Woon

    2006-07-12

    The identification of lines of radioactive elements (Tc, Pm and elements with 83radioactive decay of Th and U in the upper levels of stellar atmospheres, contamination of stellar atmosphere by recent SN explosion, and spallation reactions.

  20. Radioactive contamination of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl exposed to Hanford effluents: Annual summaries, 1945--1972. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hanf, R.W.; Dirkes, R.L.; Duncan, J.P.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project (HEDR) is to estimate the potential radiation doses received by people living within the sphere of influence of the Hanford Site. A potential critical pathway for human radiation exposure is through the consumption of waterfowl that frequent onsite waste-water ponds or through eating of fish, shellfish, and waterfowl that reside in/on the Columbia River and its tributaries downstream of the reactors. This document summarizes information on fish, shellfish, and waterfowl radiation contamination for samples collected by Hanford monitoring personnel and offsite agencies for the period 1945 to 1972. Specific information includes the types of organisms sampled, the kinds of tissues and organs analyzed, the sampling locations, and the radionuclides reported. Some tissue concentrations are also included. We anticipate that these yearly summaries will be helpful to individuals and organizations interested in evaluating aquatic pathway information for locations impacted by Hanford operations and will be useful for planning the direction of future HEDR studies.

  1. AIR RADIOACTIVITY MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.

    1961-04-11

    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  2. Viewer Makes Radioactivity "Visible"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I.

    1983-01-01

    Battery operated viewer demonstrates feasibility of generating threedimensional visible light simulations of objects that emit X-ray or gamma rays. Ray paths are traced for two pinhold positions to show location of reconstructed image. Images formed by pinholes are converted to intensified visible-light images. Applications range from radioactivity contamination surveys to monitoring radioisotope absorption in tumors.

  3. Close deciphering of the sediment record of stable and radioactive contamination in the upper Seine estuary, over the last 50 years: a phosphogypsum legacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrel, A.; Boust, D.; Lesueur, P.; Deloffre, J.; Dillies, R.; Rozet, M.; Solier, L.; Dubrulle-Brunaud, C.; Cossonnet, C.; Thomas, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Seine estuary is the outlet of a huge catchment area (the Basin of Paris), into which fine sediments and anthropogenic elements and substances end in. In the upper Seine estuary, stable and radioactive contaminants come both from upstream and from local in the industrialized agglomeration of Rouen. It is particularly challenging to decipher the relative contribution of these two sources due to the lack of historical data for most of the contaminants of concern. The key issue was the collection of two sediment cores: (1) in a flood plain of the lower Seine River and (2) in an old careening basin of the Rouen harbour which was not dredged since many decades. These cores were carefully dated using artificial radionuclide (atmospheric fallout from Chernobyl and nuclear weapon tests - 137Cs - or discharges in the river - 238Pu) and signal processing techniques and an accurate model age was obtained, yielding a 50 years long sediment record. Major elements, 44 trace elements and 14 naturally-occurring radionuclides (235U, 238U and 232Th series) were measured by ICP-AES, ICP-MS and gamma-spectrometry. As some elements display no almost constant (Co, Cs, Ga, Ge, Hf, Nb, Rb, Sr, Ta, V) or continuous decreasing concentrations (Ag, As, Pb, Sb, Sn, W, Zn) since the early 60's, some others show much higher concentrations (Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Y and lanthanides, U and, to a lesser extent, Th series) from mid-60's to mid-80's, and only in the core collected in the Rouen harbour. Even if some minor contributions cannot be ruled out, it is likely that these huge excess concentrations (up to 50 times) are due to the phosphate fertilizer industry. In fact, between 1960 and 1984, the upper Seine estuary underwent big direct discharges of phosphogypsum (an acidic by-product of the process) from two plants located in the vicinity of the Rouen harbour, which peaked up to 1million tons per year in 1974. Cd and Bi are, from far, the most enriched stable elements (up to 300

  4. Decontaminating and Melt Recycling Tritium Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1995-04-03

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and several university and industrial partners are evaluating recycling radioactively contaminated stainless steel. The goal of this program is to recycle contaminated stainless steel scrap from US Department of Energy national defense facilities. There is a large quantity of stainless steel at the DOE Savannah River Site from retired heavy water moderated Nuclear material production reactors (for example heat exchangers and process water piping), that will be used in pilot studies of potential recycle processes. These parts are contaminated by fission products, activated species, and tritium generated by neutron irradiation of the primary reactor coolant, which is heavy (deuterated) water. This report reviews current understanding of tritium contamination of stainless steel and previous studies of decontaminating tritium exposed stainless steel. It also outlines stainless steel refining methods, and proposes recommendations based on this review.

  5. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. ); Dunbar, N.W. ); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. )

    1992-11-01

    A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr, with lesser amounts of [sup 6O]Co, [sup 241]Am, and [sup 239,240]Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the [sup 137]Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 241]Am, or [sup 239,240]Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500[degrees]C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1957-09-24

    Reactors of the type employing plates of natural uranium in a moderator are discussed wherein the plates are um-formly disposed in parallel relationship to each other thereby separating the moderator material into distinct and individual layers. Each plate has an uninterrupted sunface area substantially equal to the cross-sectional area of the active portion of the reactor, the particular size of the plates and the volume ratio of moderator to uranium required to sustain a chain reaction being determinable from the known purity of these materials and other characteristics such as the predictable neutron losses due to the formation of radioactive elements of extremely high neutron capture cross section.

  7. Impact of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on hemodialysis facilities: an evaluation of radioactive contaminants in water used for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Daigo; Kuno, Tsutomu; Sato, Sumihiko; Nitta, Kosaku; Akiba, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    Following the crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, radioactive substances ((131) I, (134) Cs, (137) Cs) were detected in tap water throughout eastern Japan. There is now concern that internal exposure to radioactive substances in the dialysate could pose a danger to hemodialysis patients. Radioactive substances were measured in three hemodialysis facilities before and after purification of tap water for use in hemodialysis. Radioactive iodine was detected at levels between 13 and 15 Bq/kg in tap water from the three facilities, but was not detected by reverse osmosis membrane at any of the facilities. We confirmed that the amount of radioactive substances in dialysate fell below the limit of detection (7-8 Bq/kg) by reverse osmosis membrane. It is now necessary to clarify the maximum safe level of radiation in dialysate for chronic hemodialysis patients.

  8. TA-2 water boiler reactor decommissioning (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.C.; Knoell, C.L.

    1986-12-01

    Removal of external structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from the TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor was performed as Phase I of reactor decommissioning. Six concrete structures were dismantled and 435 ft of contaminated underground piping was removed. Extensive soil contamination by /sup 137/Cs was encountered around structure TA-2-48 and in a suspected leach field near the stream flowing through Los Alamos Canyon. Efforts to remove all contaminated soil were hampered by infiltrating ground water and heavy rains. Methods, cleanup guidelines, and ALARA decisions used to successfully restore the area are described. The cost of the project was approximately $320K; 970 m/sup 3/ of low-level solid radioactive waste resulted from the cleanup operations.

  9. Beryllium Use in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-12-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) began operation in 1967. It makes use of a unique serpentine fuel core design and a beryllium reflector. Reactor control is achieved with rotating beryllium cylinders to which have been fastened plates of hafnium. Over time, the beryllium develops rather high helium content because of nuclear transmutations and begins to swell. The beryllium must be replaced at nominally 10-year intervals. Determination of when the replacement is made is by visual observation using a periscope to examine the beryllium surface for cracking and swelling. Disposition of the irradiated beryllium was once accomplished in the INL’s Radioactive Waste Management Complex, but that is no longer possible. Among contributing reasons are high levels of specific radioactive contaminants including transuranics. The INL is presently considering disposition pathways for this irradiated beryllium, but presently is storing it in the canal adjacent to the reactor. Numerous issues are associated with this situation including (1) Is there a need for ultra-low uranium material? (2) Is there a need to recover tritium from irradiated beryllium either because this is a strategic material resource or in preparation for disposal? (3) Is there a need to remove activation and fission products from irradiated beryllium? (4) Will there be enough material available to meet requirements for research reactors (fission and fusion)? In this paper will be discussed the present status of considerations on these issues.

  10. JACKETED FUEL ELEMENTS FOR GRAPHITE MODERATED REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.; Wigner, E.P.; Creutz, E.C.

    1959-05-12

    Fuel elements for a heterogeneous, fluid cooled, graphite moderated reactor are described. The fuel elements are comprised of a body of natural uranium hermetically sealed in a jacket of corrosion resistant material. The jacket, which may be aluminum or some other material which is non-fissionable and of a type having a low neutron capture cross-section, acts as a barrier between the fissioning isotope and the coolant or moderator or both. The jacket minimizes the tendency of the moderator and coolant to become radioactive and/or contaminated by fission fragments from the fissioning isotope.

  11. Microbial diversity in an in situ reactor system treating monochlorobenzene contaminated groundwater as revealed by 16S ribosomal DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Alfreider, Albin; Vogt, Carsten; Babel, Wolfgang

    2002-08-01

    A molecular approach based on the construction of 16S ribosomal DNA clone libraries was used to investigate the microbial diversity of an underground in situ reactor system filled with the original aquifer sediments. After chemical steady state was reached in the monochlorobenzene concentration between the original inflowing groundwater and the reactor outflow, samples from different reactor locations and from inflowing and outflowing groundwater were taken for DNA extraction. Small-subunit rRNA genes were PCR-amplified with primers specific for Bacteria, subsequently cloned and screened for variation by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). A total of 87 bacterial 16S rDNA genes were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The original groundwater was found to be dominated by a bacterial consortium affiliated with various members of the class of Proteobacteria, by phylotypes not affiliated with currently recognized bacterial phyla, and also by sporulating and non-sporulating sulfate-reducing bacteria. The most occurring clone types obtained from the sediment samples of the reactor were related to the beta-Proteobacteria, dominated by sequences almost identical to the widespread bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis, to low G+C gram-positive bacteria and to Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (formerly Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) within the gamma subclass of Proteobacteria in the upper reactor sector. Although bacterial phylotypes originating from the groundwater outflow of the reactors also grouped within different subdivisions of Proteobacteria and low G+C gram-positive bacteria, most of the 16S rDNA sequences were not associated with the sequence types observed in the reactor samples. Our results suggest that the different environments were inhabited by distinct microbial communities in respect to their taxonomic diversity, particular pronounced between sediment attached microbial communities from the reactor samples and free-living bacteria from the

  12. Fact Sheet: Environmental Pathway Models-Ground-Water Modeling in Support of Remedial Decision Making at Sites Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet was designed to be used by technical staff responsible for identifying and implementing flow and transport models to support cleanup decisions at hazardous and radioactive waste sites.

  13. POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  14. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    DOEpatents

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  15. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Idaho National Laboratory Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor Rods and Pellets Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Rods and Pellets waste stream (INEL103597TR2, Revision 2) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream consists of 24 containers with unirradiated fabricated rods and pellets composed of uranium oxide (UO2) and thorium oxide (ThO2) fuel in zirconium cladding. The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream requires an SA because the 229Th, 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U activity concentrations exceed the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  16. RECONSTRUCTION OF EXTERNAL DOSES TO OZYORSK RESIDENTS DUE TO ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES OF INERT RADIOACTIVE GASES FROM THE STACKS OF THE “MAYAK” PA REACTOR PLANT FROM 1948 TO 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Glagolenko, Y. V.; Drozhko, Evgeniy G.; Mokrov, Y.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Beregich, D. A.; Stukalov, Pavel M.; Ivanov, I. A.; Alexakhin, A. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2008-06-01

    The article provides the results of reconstruction of external doses to population due to atmospheric releases of inert radioactive gases of activation (41Ar) and fission origin (xenon and krypton isotopes) from the stacks of the “Mayak” PA industrial reactors from 1948 to 1989. Calculation of surface volumetric activities was performed using the RATCHET code. Dose estimate was obtained in a semi-infinite cloud approximation. It is demonstrated that more than 90% of external dose was accumulated from 1948 to 1956. It is established that, generally, the calculation results are in good agreement with archive instrument monitoring data on exposure dose rate and thermoluminescence dosimetry data. External effective doses to the residents of Ozyorsk obtained for different age groups of population with consideration of shielding properties of buildings and duration of time spent outdoors were estimated in the range from 16 to 23 mSv.

  17. Radioactivity in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, D.J.; Edson, R.

    1995-12-01

    Natural and man-made radioactivities in the environment have been extensively researched in the second half of this century. Recently, increased attention has been given to (1) radioactive waste willfully placed in the environment by discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants or by dumping at sea, and (2) radioactive materials lost due to accidents in terrestrial (civilian power) or marine (submarine propulsion) reactors. Increasing field measurements, and disclosures of dumping and accidents in the former Soviet Union, are adding greatly to the knowledge of environmental radioactivity. New, more powerful computers are having a double impact. They make possible Geographical Information Systems for geo-referencing and correlating multi-variable datasets. Furthermore, supercomputers enable global atmospheric, oceanographic and terrestrial circulation and transport models, which include physical, chemical and biological processes. We will review exemplary work on the sources, transport, disposition and impact of anthropogenic environmental radioactivity. Such work both provides new knowledge of environmental processes and furnishes the basis for deciding on potential remediation actions.

  18. Radioactivity in man: levels, effects and unknowns

    SciTech Connect

    Rundo, J.

    1980-01-01

    The report discusses the potential for significant human exposure to internal radiation. Sources of radiation considered include background radiation, fallout, reactor accidents, radioactive waste, and occupational exposure to various radioisotopes. (ACR)

  19. Solvent-free synthesis and application of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4] composite for dual separation and immobilization of stable and radioactive cesium in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Tetsuji; Simion, Cristian; Lee, Byeong Kyu

    2015-10-30

    This study assessed the synthesis and application of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO-based composite material for use as a separation and immobilizing treatment of dry soil contaminated by stable ((133)Cs) and radioactive cesium species ((134)Cs and (137)Cs). After grinding with nano-Fe/CaO, nano-Fe/Ca/CaO, and nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4], approximately 31, 25, and 22 wt% of magnetic fraction soil was separated. Their resultant (133)Cs immobilization values were about 78, 81, and 100%, respectively. When real radioactive cesium contaminated soil obtained from Fukushima was treated with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4], approximately 27.3 wt% of magnetic and 72.75% of non-magnetic soil fractions were separated. The highest amount of entrapped (134)Cs and (137)Cs was found in the lowest weight of the magnetically separated soil fraction (i.e., 80% in 27.3% of treated soil). Results show that (134)Cs and (137)Cs either in the magnetic or non-magnetic soil fractions was 100% immobilized. The morphology and mineral phases of the nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4] treated soil were characterized using SEM-EDS, EPMA, and XRD analysis. The EPMA and XRD patterns indicate that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on treated soil included Ca/PO4 associated crystalline complexes. These results suggest that simple grinding treatment with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO/[PO4] under dry conditions might be an extremely efficient separation and immobilization method for radioactive cesium contaminated soil.

  20. Supplying the nuclear arsenal: American production reactors, 1942--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, R.P.; Zenzen, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Although the history of commercial-power nuclear reactors is well known, the story of the government reactors that produce weapons-grade plutonium and tritium has been shrouded in secrecy. In the first detailed look at the origin and development of these production reactors, the authors describe a fifty-year government effort no less complex, expensive, and technologically demanding than the Polaris or Apollo programs--yet one about which most Americans know virtually nothing. The book describes the evolution of the early reactors, the atomic weapons establishment that surrounded them, and the sometimes bitter struggles between business and political constituencies for their share of 'nuclear pork.' They show how, since the 1980s, aging production reactors have increased the risk of radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and water table. And they describe how the Department of Energy mounted a massive effort to find the right design for a new generation of reactors, only to abandon that effort with the end of the Cold War. Today, all American production reactors remain closed. Due to short half-life, the nation's supply of tritium, crucial to modern weapons, is rapidly dwindling. As countries like Iraq and North Korea threaten to join the nuclear club, the authors contend, the United States needs to revitalize tritium production capacity in order to maintain a viable nuclear deterrent. Meanwhile, as slowly decaying artifacts of the Cold War, the closed production reactors at Hanford, Washington, and Savannah River, South Carolina, loom ominously over the landscape.

  1. Geology of the Arco-Big Southern Butte area, eastern Snake River Plain, and volcanic hazards to the radioactive waste management complex, and other waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Kork, John O.

    1978-01-01

    The Arco-Big Southern Butte area of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, includes a volcanic rift zone and more than 70 Holocene and late Quaternary basalt volcanoes. The Arco volcanic rift zone extends southeast for 50 km from Arco to about 10 km southeast of Big Southern Butte. The rift zone is the locus of extensional faults, graben, fissure basaltic volcanic vents, several rhyolite domes at Big Southern Butte, and a ferrolatite volcano at Cedar Butte. Limited radiometric age data and geological field criteria suggest that all volcanism in the area is younger than 700,000 years; at least 67 separate basaltic eruptions are estimated to have occurred within the last 200,000 years. The average volcanic recurrence interval for the Arco-Big Southern Butte area is approximately one eruption per 3,000 years. Radioactive waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory may be subject to potential volcanic hazards. The geologic history and inferred past volcanic events in the Arco-Big Southern Butte area provide a basis for assessing the volcanic hazard. It is recommended that a radiometric age-dating study be performed on rocks in cored drill holes to provide a more precise estimate of the eruption recurrence interval for the region surrounding and including the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. It is also recommended that several geophysical monitoring systems (dry tilt and seismic) be installed to provide adequate warning of future volcanic eruptions.

  2. Atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapor deposition reactor for 100 mm wafers, optimized for minimum contamination at low gas flow rates

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Venu E-mail: venuanand83@gmail.com; Shivashankar, S. A.; Nair, Aswathi R.; Mohan Rao, G.

    2015-08-31

    Gas discharge plasmas used for thinfilm deposition by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) must be devoid of contaminants, like dust or active species which disturb the intended chemical reaction. In atmospheric pressure plasma systems employing an inert gas, the main source of such contamination is the residual air inside the system. To enable the construction of an atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) system with minimal contamination, we have carried out fluid dynamic simulation of the APP chamber into which an inert gas is injected at different mass flow rates. On the basis of the simulation results, we have designed and built a simple, scaled APP system, which is capable of holding a 100 mm substrate wafer, so that the presence of air (contamination) in the APP chamber is minimized with as low a flow rate of argon as possible. This is examined systematically by examining optical emission from the plasma as a function of inert gas flow rate. It is found that optical emission from the plasma shows the presence of atmospheric air, if the inlet argon flow rate is lowered below 300 sccm. That there is minimal contamination of the APP reactor built here, was verified by conducting an atmospheric pressure PECVD process under acetylene flow, combined with argon flow at 100 sccm and 500 sccm. The deposition of a polymer coating is confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the polymer coating contains only 5% of oxygen, which is comparable to the oxygen content in polymer deposits obtained in low-pressure PECVD systems.

  3. HIGH TEMPERATURE TREATMENT OF INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES - SIA RADON EXPERIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolev, I.A.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Lifanov, F.A.; Kobelev, A.P.; Popkov, V.N.; Polkanov, M.A.; Savkin, A.E.; Varlakov, A.P.; Karlin, S.V.; Stefanovsky, S.V.; Karlina, O.K.; Semenov, K.N.

    2003-02-27

    This review describes high temperature methods of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) treatment currently used at SIA Radon. Solid and liquid organic and mixed organic and inorganic wastes are subjected to plasma heating in a shaft furnace with formation of stable leach resistant slag suitable for disposal in near-surface repositories. Liquid inorganic radioactive waste is vitrified in a cold crucible based plant with borosilicate glass productivity up to 75 kg/h. Radioactive silts from settlers are heat-treated at 500-700 0C in electric furnace forming cake following by cake crushing, charging into 200 L barrels and soaking with cement grout. Various thermochemical technologies for decontamination of metallic, asphalt, and concrete surfaces, treatment of organic wastes (spent ion-exchange resins, polymers, medical and biological wastes), batch vitrification of incinerator ashes, calcines, spent inorganic sorbents, contaminated soil, treatment of carbon containing 14C nuclide, reactor graphite, lubricants have been developed and implemented.

  4. Contaminated sediment removal from a spent fuel storage canal

    SciTech Connect

    Geber, K R

    1993-01-01

    A leaking underground spent fuel transfer canal between a decommissioned reactor and a radiochemical separations building at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was found to contain RCRA-hazardous and radioactive sediment. Closure of the Part B RCRA permitted facility required the use of an underwater robotic vacuum and a filtration-containment system to separate and stabilize the contaminated sediment. This paper discusses the radiological controls established to maintain contamination and exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) during the sediment removal.

  5. Photocatalytic degradation of water contaminants in multiple photoreactors and evaluation of reaction kinetic constants independent of photon absorption, irradiance, reactor geometry, and hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Grčić, Ivana; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2013-12-03

    The literature on photocatalytic oxidation of water pollutants often reports reaction kinetic constants, which cannot be unraveled from photoreactor type and experimental conditions. This study addresses this challenging aspect by presenting a general and simple methodology for the evaluation of fundamental "intrinsic" reaction kinetic constants of photocatalytic degradation of water contaminants, which are independent of photoreactor type, catalyst concentration, irradiance levels, and hydrodynamics. The degradation of the model contaminant, oxalic acid (OA) on titanium dioxide (TiO2) aqueous suspensions, was monitored in two annular photoreactors (PR1 and PR2). The photoreactors with significantly different geometries were operated under different hydrodynamic regimes (turbulent batch mode and laminar flow-through recirculation mode), optical thicknesses, catalyst and OA concentrations, and photon irradiances. The local volumetric rate of photon absorption (LVRPA) was evaluated by the six-flux radiation absorption-scattering model (SFM). The SFM was further combined with a comprehensive kinetic model for the adsorption and photodecomposition of OA on TiO2 to determine local reaction rates and, after integration over the reactor volume, the intrinsic reaction kinetic constants. The model could determine the oxidation of OA in both PR1 and PR2 under a wide range of experimental conditions. This study demonstrates a more meaningful way for determining reaction kinetic constants of photocatalytic degradation of water contaminants.

  6. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released...

  7. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released...

  8. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released...

  9. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released...

  10. 10 CFR 50.34a - Design objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents-nuclear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radioactive material in effluents-nuclear power reactors. 50.34a Section 50.34a Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... objectives for equipment to control releases of radioactive material in effluents—nuclear power reactors. (a... nuclear power reactors to meet the requirements that radioactive material in effluents released...

  11. Thermochemical Processing of Radioactive Waste Using Powder Metal Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ojovan, M. I.; Sobolev, I. A.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Panteleev, V. I.; Karlina, O. K.; Klimov. V. L.

    2003-02-25

    Problematic radioactive wastes were generated during various activities of both industrial facilities and research institutions usually in relative small amounts. These can be spent ion exchange resins, inorganic absorbents, wastes from research nuclear reactors, irradiated graphite, mixed, organic or chlorine-containing radioactive waste, contaminated soils, un-burnable heavily surface-contaminated materials, etc. Conventional treatment methods encounter serious problems concerning processing efficiency of such waste, e.g. complete destruction of organic molecules and avoiding of possible emissions of radionuclides, heavy metals and chemically hazardous species. Some contaminations cannot be removed from surface using common decontamination methods. Conditioning of ash residues obtained after treatment of solid radioactive waste including ashes received from treating problematic wastes also is a complicated task. Moreover due to relative small volume of specific type radioactive waste the development of target treatment procedures and facilities to conduct technological processes and their deployment could be economically unexpedient and ecologically no justified. Thermochemical processing technologies are used for treating and conditioning problematic radioactive wastes. The thermochemical processing uses powdered metal fuels (PMF) that are specifically formulated for the waste composition and react chemically with the waste components. The composition of the PMF is designed in such a way as to minimize the release of hazardous components and radionuclides in the off gas and to confine the contaminants in the ash residue. The thermochemical procedures allow decomposition of organic matter and capturing hazardous radionuclides and chemical species simultaneously. A significant advantage of thermochemical processing is its autonomy. Thermochemical treatment technologies use the energy of exothermic reactions in the mixture of radioactive or hazardous waste with PMF

  12. Type B investigation of the iridium contamination event at the High Flux Isotope Reactor on September 7, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    On the title date, at ORNL, area radiation alarms sounded during a routine transfer of a shielding cask (containing 60 Ci{sup 192}Ir) from the HFIR pool side to a transport truck. Small amounts of Ir were released from the cask onto the reactor bay floor. The floor was cleaned, and the cask was shipped to a hot cell at Building 3047 on Oct. 3, 1993. The event was caused by rupture of one of the Ir target rods after it was loaded into the cask for normal transport operations; the rupture was the result of steam generation in the target rod soon after it was placed in the cask (water had entered the target rod through a tiny defect in a weld while it was in the reactor under pressure). While the target rods were in the reactor and reactor pool, there was sufficient cooling to prevent steam generation; when the target rod was loaded into the dry transport cask, the temperature increased enough to result in boiling of the trapped water and produced high enough pressure to result in rupture. The escaping steam ejected some of the Ir pellets. The event was reported as Occurrence Report Number ORO--MMES-X10HFIR-1993-0030, dated Sept. 8, 1993. Analysis indicated that the following conditions were probable causes: less than adequate welding procedures, practices, or techniques, material controls, or inspection methods, or combination thereof, could have led to weld defects, affecting the integrity of target rod IR-75; less than adequate secondary containment in the cask allowed Ir pellets to escape.

  13. Reactor operation safety information document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  14. Bioremediation of anthracene contaminated soil in bio-slurry phase reactor operated in periodic discontinuous batch mode.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, D; Venkata Mohan, S; Purushotham Reddy, B; Sarma, P N

    2008-05-01

    Bioremediation of soil-bound anthracene was studied in a series of bio-slurry phase reactors operated in periodic discontinuous/sequencing batch mode under anoxic-aerobic-anoxic microenvironment using native soil microflora. Five reactors were operated for a total cycle period of 144 h (6 days) at soil loading rate of 16.66 kg soil/m(3)/day at 30 +/- 2 degrees C temperature. The performance of the bioreactors was studied at various substrate loading rates (volumetric substrate loading rate (SLR), 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3g anthracene/kg soil/day) with and without bioaugmentation (domestic sewage inoculum; 2 x 10(6) CFU/g of soil). Control reactor (without microflora) showed negligible degradation of anthracene due to the absence of biological activity. The performance of the bio-slurry system with respect to anthracene degradation was found to depend on both substrate loading rate and bioaugmentation. Application of bioaugmentation showed positive influence on the rate of degradation of anthracene. Anthracene degradation data was analysed using different kinetic models to understand the mechanism of bioremediation process in the bio-slurry phase system. Variation in pH/oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), soil microflora and oxygen consumption rate correlated well with the substrate degradation pattern observed during soil slurry phase anthracene degradation.

  15. Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste facility: Two-phase flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils with application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Binning, P.; Celia, M.A.; Johnson, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously. The contaminant partitions between phases with an equilibrium distribution given by Henry`s Law or via kinetic mass transfer. The transport equations are solved using a Galerkin finite element method with reduced integration to lump the resultant matrices. The numerical model is applied to published experimental studies to examine the behavior of the air phase and associated contaminant movement under water infiltration. The model is also used to evaluate a hypothetical design for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The model has been developed in both one and two dimensions; documentation and computer codes are available for the one-dimensional flow and transport model.

  16. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source documents. Part 1. Open-literature abstracts for low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, M.K.; Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Volume 3, part 1 presents abstracts of the open literature relating to LLRW treatment methodologies. Some of these references pertain to treatment processes for hazardous wastes that may also be applicable to LLRW management. All abstracts have been limited to 21 lines (for brevity), but each abstract contains sufficient information to enable the reader to determine the potential usefulness of the source document and to locate each article. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author or organization, and indexed by keyword.

  17. Specific features of the recent accumulation of 137Cs in tree roots of forest ecosystems within the zone of radioactive contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Ol'ga; Klyashtorin, Alexey; Popova, Evgenia

    2015-04-01

    Despite numerous studies of the accumulation of technogenic radionuclides in the root systems, no clear regularities of this process have been established. The tendencies found in the works of Russian and foreign researchers are rather discrepant. Some authors argue that the accumulation of radionuclides in the roots is more pronounced than that in the aboveground parts of the plants (Skovorodnikova, 2005; Romantseva, 2012; Sennerby et al., 1994; Mamikhin, 2002; Fircks et al., 2002}. Other works attest to a higher accumulation of radionuclides in the aboveground pars (Juznic et al., 1990; Chibowski, 2000; Zhianski et al., 2005), which is also typical of the stable isotopes of these elements, including 133Cs (Dong Jin Kang, YongJin Seo, Tsukasa Saito et al,2012). It is also stated that the accumulation of radionuclides in the aboveground and underground parts of plants may differ in dependence on the soil-ecological conditions and other factors (Kozhakhanov et al., 2011; Grabovskyi et al., 2013). The aim of our study was to evaluate the accumulation of 137Cs in the root systems of arboreal plants in forest ecosystems within the near zone of the Chernobyl fallout on the plots with similar soil and phytocenotic features. Pine and birch stands were studied within the 30-km-wide exclusion zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Ukraine in 1992-1993, when the density of the radioactive contamination of the upper (0-20 cm) layer with 137Cs reached 2153.8 kBq/m2), and in Bryansk oblast of Russia in 2013-2014, when the density of contamination varied from 1458.4 kBq/m2 (pine stand) to 2578.3 kBq/m2 (birch stand). The tree layer in these ecosystems was dominated by Pinus sylvestris (L.) and Betula pendula (Roth.), respectively. Quercus robur (L.), Picea abies (L.), and Sorbus aucuparia (L.) were also present. The specific activity of 137Cs was measured in the samples from the aboveground parts of model trees and their roots differentiated by size (0-3, 3-10, 10

  18. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  19. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes.

  20. Behavior of autotrophic denitrification and heterotrophic denitrification in an intensified biofilm-electrode reactor for nitrate-contaminated drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingxin; Zhang, Baogang; Feng, Chuanping; Huang, Fangyuan; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Zhenya; Yang, Yingnan; Sugiura, Norio

    2012-03-01

    An intensified biofilm-electrode reactor (IBER) was developed to treat nitrate-contaminated drinking water. Different running conditions were conducted to investigate the behavior of autotrophic denitrification (AD) and heterotrophic denitrification (HD) in the IBER. In AD process, the nitrate nitrogen coulomb-reduction rate was used to evaluate the performance of the reactor. The maximum NO(3)(-)-N removal efficiency was 6.8% at the current of 60 mA, while nitrate nitrogen coulomb-reduction rate was 0.024 mg C(-1). The optimum conditions for HD process were C/N=0.8 and HRT=8h, under which complete NO(3)(-)-N removal and no NO(2)(-)-N accumulation were observed. With the cooperative effect of AD and HD in the heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification (HAD) process, large treatment capacity, high denitrification efficiency, and low nitrite and ammonia accumulation were achieved. The results proved that HAD process was superior to single AD and HD for nitrate removal in the IBER.

  1. Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Progress in Iraq - 13216

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Musawi, Fouad; Shamsaldin, Emad S.; Jasim, Hadi; Cochran, John R.

    2013-07-01

    Directorate (IDD) is responsible for decommissioning activities. The IDD and the RWTMD work together on decommissioning projects. The IDD has developed plans and has completed decommissioning of the GeoPilot Facility in Baghdad and the Active Metallurgical Testing Laboratory (LAMA) in Al-Tuwaitha. Given this experience, the IDD has initiated work on more dangerous facilities. Plans are being developed to characterize, decontaminate and decommission the Tamuz II Research Reactor. The Tammuz Reactor was destroyed by an Israeli air-strike in 1981 and the Tammuz II Reactor was destroyed during the First Gulf War in 1991. In addition to being responsible for managing the decommissioning wastes, the RWTMD is responsible for more than 950 disused sealed radioactive sources, contaminated debris from the first Gulf War and (approximately 900 tons) of naturally-occurring radioactive materials wastes from oil production in Iraq. The RWTMD has trained staff, rehabilitated the Building 39 Radioactive Waste Storage building, rehabilitated portions of the French-built Radioactive Waste Treatment Station, organized and secured thousands of drums of radioactive waste organized and secured the stores of disused sealed radioactive sources. Currently, the IDD and the RWTMD are finalizing plans for the decommissioning of the Tammuz II Research Reactor. (authors)

  2. Study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive wastes. Part 3: Preliminary feasibility screening study of space disposal of the actinide radioactive wastes with 1 percent and 0.1 percent fission product contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyland, R. E.; Wohl, M. L.; Finnegan, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted of the feasibility of space disposal of the actinide class of radioactive waste material. This waste was assumed to contain 1 and 0.1 percent residual fission products, since it may not be feasible to completely separate the actinides. The actinides are a small fraction of the total waste but they remain radioactive much longer than the other wastes and must be isolated from human encounter for tens of thousands of years. Results indicate that space disposal is promising but more study is required, particularly in the area of safety. The minimum cost of space transportation would increase the consumer electric utility bill by the order of 1 percent for earth escape and 3 percent for solar escape. The waste package in this phase of the study was designed for normal operating conditions only; the design of next phase of the study will include provisions for accident safety. The number of shuttle launches per year required to dispose of all U.S. generated actinide waste with 0.1 percent residual fission products varies between 3 and 15 in 1985 and between 25 and 110 by 2000. The lower values assume earth escape (solar orbit) and the higher values are for escape from the solar system.

  3. Non-Destructive Measurements of the Characteristics of Radioactive Contamination of Near Surface Layers of Concrete and Ground with Collimated Spectrometric Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, V.N.; Danilovich, A.S.; Ignatov, S.M.; Volkovich, A.G.; Ivanov, O.P.; Stepanov, V.E.; Volkov, V.G.

    2006-07-01

    The remote radiometric method for estimation of the characteristics of concrete and ground contamination by gamma nuclides was investigated. The studies were carried out for possible realization of a method with two types of spectrometric detectors: 1) scintillator + PMT and 2) scintillator + photo diode. The measurements of Cs-137 contamination were considered, as most widespread gamma-contaminant. The mathematical model of the radiometric device was developed for studying of a method, optimization of device's parameters and search of all dependences necessary for method realization. The collimated radiometer with volume of the detector 20 cm{sup 3} has the limiting sensitivity - MMA = 0.5 {mu}Ci/m{sup 2} (19 kBq/m{sup 2}) at thickness of contaminated concrete layer 5 cm. The method can be realized for measurement of contamination of concrete and ground by other gamma radiating nuclides also. (authors)

  4. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.

    1996-08-13

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  5. Method for decontamination of radioactive metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for removing radioactive contaminants from metal surfaces by applying steam containing an inorganic acid and cerium IV. Cerium IV is applied to contaminated metal surfaces by introducing cerium IV in solution into a steam spray directed at contaminated metal surfaces. Cerium IV solution is converted to an essentially atomized or vapor phase by the steam.

  6. Strategy for Characterizing Transuranics and Technetium Contamination in Depleted UF{sub 6} Cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, J.R.

    2000-10-26

    This report summarizes results of a study performed to develop a strategy for characterization of low levels of radioactive contaminants [plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), americium (Am), and technetium (Tc)] in depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) cylinders at the gaseous diffusion plants in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Piketon, Ohio. In these gaseous diffusion plants, this radioactivity came from enriching recycled uranium (the so-called ''reactor returns'') from Savannah River, South Carolina, and Hanford, Washington, reactors. Results of this study will be used to support a request for proposals to design, build, and operate facilities to convert the DUF{sub 6} to more chemically stable forms. These facilities would need to be designed to handle any transuranic contaminants that might be present in order to (1) protect the workers' health and safety and (2) protect the public and the environment.

  7. DISMANTLING OF THE REACTOR BLOCK OF THE FRJ-1 RESEARCH REACTOR (MERLIN)

    SciTech Connect

    Stahn, B.; Matela, K.; Zehbe, C.; Poeppinghaus, J.; Cremer, J.

    2003-02-27

    This report describes the past procedure in dismantling the reactor block of the FRJ-1 research reactor (MERLIN). Furthermore, it gives an outlook on future activities up to the final removal of the reactor block. MERLIN is an abbreviation for Medium Energy Research Light Water Moderated Industrial Nuclear Reactor. The FRJ-1 (MERLIN) was shut down in 1985 and the fuel elements removed from the facility. After dismantling the coolant loops and removing the reactor tank internals with subsequent draining of the reactor tank water, the first activities for dismantling the reactor block were carried out in summer 2001. The relevant license was granted in late July 2001 by the licensing authority specifying 8 incidental provisions. After dismantling the reactor extension (gates of the thermal columns and steel platforms surrounding the reactor block), a heavy-load platform including a casing around the reactor block was constructed. Two ventilation systems with a volume flow of 10,000 and 2 ,000 m3/h will, moreover, serve to avoid a spread of contamination. The reactor block will be dismantled in three phases divided according to upper, central and bottom sections. Dismantling the upper section started in August 2002. This section as well as the bottom section can probably be completely measured for clearance. For this reason, the activities have so far been carried out manually using mechanical and thermal techniques. The central section will probably have to be largely disposed of as radioactive waste. This is the region of the former reactor core in which the experimental devices are also integrated. Most of this work will probably have to be carried out by remote handling. More than 80 % of the dismantled materials of the reactor block can probably be measured for clearance. For this purpose, a clearance measurement device was taken into operation in the FRJ-1. On this occasion, the limits of clearance measurement have become evident. For concrete, which constitutes

  8. Computed tomography of radioactive objects and materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicka, B. D.; Murphy, R. V.; Tosello, G.; Reynolds, P. W.; Romaniszyn, T.

    1990-12-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been performed on a number of radioactive objects and materials. Several unique technical problems are associated with CT of radioactive specimens. These include general safety considerations, techniques to reduce background-radiation effects on CT images and selection criteria for the CT source to permit object penetration and to reveal accurate values of material density. In the present paper, three groups of experiments will be described, for objects with low, medium and high levels of radioactivity. CT studies on radioactive specimens will be presented. They include the following: (1) examination of individual ceramic reactor-fuel (uranium dioxide) pellets, (2) examination of fuel samples from the Three Mile Island reactor, (3) examination of a CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uraniun: registered trademark) nuclear-fuel bundle which underwent a simulated loss-of-coolant accident resulting in high-temperature damage and (4) examination of a PWR nuclear-reactor fuel assembly.

  9. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  10. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  11. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  12. Dismantlement and Radioactive Waste Management of DPRK Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jooho, W.; Baldwin, G. T.

    2005-04-01

    One critical aspect of any denuclearization of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) involves dismantlement of its nuclear facilities and management of their associated radioactive wastes. The decommissioning problem for its two principal operational plutonium facilities at Yongbyun, the 5MWe nuclear reactor and the Radiochemical Laboratory reprocessing facility, alone present a formidable challenge. Dismantling those facilities will create radioactive waste in addition to existing inventories of spent fuel and reprocessing wastes. Negotiations with the DPRK, such as the Six Party Talks, need to appreciate the enormous scale of the radioactive waste management problem resulting from dismantlement. The two operating plutonium facilities, along with their legacy wastes, will result in anywhere from 50 to 100 metric tons of uranium spent fuel, as much as 500,000 liters of liquid high-level waste, as well as miscellaneous high-level waste sources from the Radiochemical Laboratory. A substantial quantity of intermediate-level waste will result from disposing 600 metric tons of graphite from the reactor, an undetermined quantity of chemical decladding liquid waste from reprocessing, and hundreds of tons of contaminated concrete and metal from facility dismantlement. Various facilities for dismantlement, decontamination, waste treatment and packaging, and storage will be needed. The shipment of spent fuel and liquid high level waste out of the DPRK is also likely to be required. Nuclear facility dismantlement and radioactive waste management in the DPRK are all the more difficult because of nuclear nonproliferation constraints, including the call by the United States for “complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement,” or “CVID.” It is desirable to accomplish dismantlement quickly, but many aspects of the radioactive waste management cannot be achieved without careful assessment, planning and preparation, sustained commitment, and long

  13. Bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of irrigation water contaminated with boron (B) using duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) in a batch reactor system.

    PubMed

    Türker, Onur Can; Yakar, Anıl; Gür, Nurcan

    2017-02-15

    The present study assesses ability of Lemna gibba L. using a batch reactor approach to bioaccumulation boron (B) from irrigation waters which were collected from a stream in largest borax reserve all over the world. The important note that bioaccumulation of B from irrigation water was first analyzed for first time in a risk assessment study using a Lemna species exposed to various B concentrations. Boron toxicity was evaluated through plant growth and biomass production during phytoremediation process. The result from the present experiment indicated that L. gibba was capable of removing 19-63% B from irrigation water depending upon contaminated level or initial concentration. We also found that B was removed from aqueous solution following pseudo second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model better fitted equilibrium obtained for B phytoremediation. Maximum B accumulation in L. gibba was determined as 2088mgkg(-1) at average inflow B concentration 17.39mgL(-1) at the end of the experiment. Conversely, maximum bioconcentration factor obtained at lowest inflow B concentrations were 232 for L. gibba. The present study suggested that L. gibba was very useful B accumulator, and thus L. gibba-based techniques could be a reasonable phytoremediation option to remove B directly from water sources contaminated with B.

  14. Effects of fluvial processes in different order river valleys on redistribution and storage of particle-bound radioactive caesium-137 in area of significant Chernobyl fallout and impact on linked rivers with lower contamination levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Golosov, Valentin; Shamshurina, Evgeniya; Ivanov, Maxim; Ivanova, Nadezhda; Bezukhov, Dmitry; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Evrard, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Detailed investigations of the post-fallout fate of radionuclide contamination represent an important task in terms of environmental quality assessment. In addition, particle-bound radionuclides such as the most widespread anthropogenic isotope caesium-137 can be used as tracers for quantitative assessment of different sediment redistribution processes. In landscapes of humid plains with agriculture-dominated land use the post-fallout redistribution of caesium-137 is primarily associated with fluvial activity of various scales in cascade systems starting from soil erosion on cultivated hillslopes through gully and small dry valley network into different order perennial streams and rivers. Our investigations in the so-called Plavsk hotspot (area of very high Chernobyl caesium-137 contamination within the Plava River basin, Tula Region, Central European Russia) has been continuing for more than 15 years by now, while the time passed since the Chernobyl disaster and associated radioactive fallout (1986) is almost 29 years. Detailed information on the fluvial sediment and associated caesium-137 redistribution has been obtained for case study sites of different size from individual cultivated slopes and small catchments of different size (2-180 km2) to the entire Plava River basin scale (1856 km2). It has been shown that most of the contaminated sediment over the time passed since the fallout has remained stored within the small dry valleys of the 1-4 Hortonian order and local reservoirs (>70%), while only about 5% reached the 5-6 order valleys (main tributaries of the Plava River) and storage of the Plava floodplain itself represents as low as 0.3% of the basin-scale total sediment production from eroded cultivated hillslopes. Nevertheless, it has been shown that contaminated sediment yield from the Plava River basin exerts significant influence on less polluted downstream-linked river system. Recent progress of the investigations involved sampling of 7 detailed depth

  15. Monitoring radioactive plumes by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Grasty, R.L.; Hovgaard, J.; Multala, J.

    1996-06-01

    Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys using large volume sodium-iodide detectors are routinely flown throughout the world for mineral exploration and geological mapping. Techniques have now been developed to detect and map man-made sources of radiation. In Canada, airborne gamma-rays surveys have been flown around nuclear reactors to map {sup 41}Ar plumes from nuclear reactors and to calculate the dose rate at ground level. In May 1986, the Finnish Geological survey aircraft flew through a radioactive plume from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. As the aircraft flew through the plume, the aircraft became increasingly contaminated. By measuring the final aircraft contamination, the activity of the plume could be separated from the contamination due to the aircraft. Within 1 h of encountering the plume, the aircraft activity was comparable to the maximum levels found in the plume. From an analysis of the gamma-ray spectra, the concentration of {sup 131}I and {sup 140}La within the plume were calculated as a function of time.

  16. Radiocesium in migratory aquatic game birds using contaminated U.S. Department of Energy reactor-cooling reservoirs: A long-term perspective.

    PubMed

    Kennamer, Robert A; Oldenkamp, Ricki E; Leaphart, James C; King, Joshua D; Bryan, A Lawrence; Beasley, James C

    2017-05-01

    Low-level releases of radiocesium into former nuclear reactor cooling-reservoirs on the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina, USA, dating primarily to the late 1950s and early 1960s, have allowed examination of long-term contaminant attenuation in biota occupying these habitats. Periodic collections of migratory game birds since the 1970s have documented (137)Cs (radiocesium) activity concentrations in birds of SRS reservoirs, including mainly Par Pond and Pond B. In this study, during 2014 and 2015 we released wild-caught American coots (Fulica americana) and ring-necked ducks (Aythya collaris) onto Pond B. We made lethal collections of these same birds with residence times ranging from 32 to 173 days to examine radiocesium uptake and estimate the rate of natural attenuation. The two species achieved asymptotic whole-body activity concentrations of radiocesium at different times, with ring-necked ducks requiring almost three times longer than the 30-35 days needed by coots. We estimated ecological half-life (Te) for Pond B coots over a 28-yr period as 16.8 yr (95% CI = 12.9-24.2 yr). Pond B coot Te was nearly four times longer than Te for coots at nearby Par Pond where radiocesium bioavailability had been constrained for decades by pumping of potassium-enriched river water into that reservoir. Te could not be estimated from long-term data for radiocesium in Pond B diving ducks, including ring-necked ducks, likely because of high variability in residence times of ducks on Pond B. Our results highlight the importance: (1) for risk managers to understand site-specific bio-geochemistry of radiocesium for successful implementation of countermeasures at contaminated sites and (2) of residence time as a critical determinant of observed radiocesium activity concentrations in highly mobile wildlife inhabiting contaminated habitats.

  17. Estimation of Internal Radiation Dose from both Immediate Releases and Continued Exposures to Contaminated Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-03-26

    A brief description is provided of the basic concepts related to 'internal dose' and how it differs from doses that result from radioactive materials and direct radiation outside of the body. The principles of radiation dose reconstruction, as applied to both internal and external doses, is discussed based upon a recent publication prepared by the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Finally, ideas are introduced related to residual radioactive contamination in the environment that has resulted from the releases from the damaged reactors and also to the management of wastes that may be generated in both regional cleanup and NPP decommissioning.

  18. A versatile salt evaporation reactor system for SOFC operando studies on anode contamination and degradation with impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurk, Gunnar; Holtappels, Peter; Figi, Renato; Wochele, Jörg; Wellinger, Marco; Braun, Artur; Graule, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    The dependence of the degradation kinetics in Ni-CGO (cerium-gadolinium oxide) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes upon salt evaporation is demonstrated operando with a custom built versatile reactor system. The system is based on evaporation and subsequent condensation of low concentration salt vapor aerosol mixtures representative of salt vapors typically present in biomass gasification processes. Fast changes in the charge transfer and ohmic resistance are observed in the anodes fuelled with a gas mixture containing a high KCl vapor concentration. Rapid condensation of salt vapors into the porous anode and partial delamination of the anode from the electrolyte surface because of salt deposits inside the porous anode is observed. The flexibility to produce vapor-aerosol mixtures with different concentrations and particle size distributions is proved, and suitability of these aerosols for anode testing in long term fuel cell test is evaluated.

  19. Method for storing radioactive combustible waste

    DOEpatents

    Godbee, H.W.; Lovelace, R.C.

    1973-10-01

    A method is described for preventing pressure buildup in sealed containers which contain radioactively contaminated combustible waste material by adding an oxide getter material to the container so as to chemically bind sorbed water and combustion product gases. (Official Gazette)

  20. Irradiation of members of the general public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident: Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornberg, Charlotte

    From 1990 to 1998, estimations of the effective dose due to irradiation from 137Cs and 134Cs were carried out for inhabitants in rural villages in the Bryansk region, Russia. The villages, situated about 180 km from the Chernobyl power plant received deposition of 137Cs in the range 0.9-2.7 MBq m-2 due to the accident in 1986. The body burden of 137,134Cs was estimated from measurements of the urinary concentration of caesium radionuclides, together with in vivo measurements using a portable detector. The external effective dose was estimated from measurements with thermoluminescent (TL)-dosemeters worn by the participants during one month each year. In a case study, the changes in biokinetics of 137Cs during pregnancy was investigated in a woman with an unintended intake of 137Cs via mushrooms grown in the area. During pregnancy the biological half-time of caesium was 54% of that before pregnancy. The ratio of the 137Cs concentration in breast milk (Bq L-1) to that in the mother's body (Bq kg-1) was 15% one month after the child was born. The body burden of 137Cs in the Russian individuals calculated from urine samples showed a good agreement with the body burden estimated from in vivo measurements in the same individuals. Normalisation of the caesium concentration in the urine samples by the use of potassium or creatinine excretion introduced systematic differences and a larger spread in the calculated values of the 137Cs body burden as compared with calculations without normalisation. The yearly effective dose to inhabitants in the Russian villages varied between 1.2 and 2.5 mSv as a mean for all villages between 1991 and 1998 and the internal effective dose was 30-50% of the total effective dose. The external effective dose decreased on average 15% per year, while the internal effective dose varied, depending to a great extent on the availability of mushrooms. The cumulated effective dose for a 70-year period after the accident was calculated to be 100 mSv assuming that the effective dose will decrease by only the physical decay of 137Cs (2% per year) after 1998. Individuals may receive considerably higher effective doses, up to 0.5 Sv during a life-time considering the large spread in dose values among individuals.

  1. Radiochemical analysis of the first plateout probe from the Fort St. Vrain high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Burnette, R.D.

    1982-06-01

    This report presents the analysis of radioactive elements on the first plateout probe from the Fort St. Vrain high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The plateout probe is a device which samples the primary coolant for condensible fission products. Circuit inventories of individual radionuclides are estimated from the probe analysis. The analysis shows that the radioactive contamination in the primary circuit is remarkable low, with activation product concentrations much greater than that of fission products. The analysis demonstrates that the concentrations of the key fission products I-131 and Sr-90 are far below the limits allowed by the technical specification.

  2. Innovative Use of Cr(VI) Plume Depictions and Pump-and-Treat Capture Analysis to Estimate Risks of Contaminant Discharge to Surface Water at Hanford Reactor Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Chuck W.; Hanson, James P.; Ivarson, Kristine A.; Tonkin, M.

    2015-01-14

    The Hanford Site nuclear reactor operations required large quantities of high-quality cooling water, which was treated with chemicals including sodium dichromate dihydrate for corrosion control. Cooling water leakage, as well as intentional discharge of cooling water to ground during upset conditions, produced extensive groundwater recharge mounds consisting largely of contaminated cooling water and resulted in wide distribution of hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) contamination in the unconfined aquifer. The 2013 Cr(VI) groundwater plumes in the 100 Areas cover approximately 6 km2 (1500 acres), primarily in the 100-HR-3 and 100-KR-4 groundwater operable units (OUs). The Columbia River is a groundwater discharge boundary; where the plumes are adjacent to the Columbia River there remains a potential to discharge Cr(VI) to the river at concentrations above water quality criteria. The pump-and-treat systems along the River Corridor are operating with two main goals: 1) protection of the Columbia River, and 2) recovery of contaminant mass. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the pump-and-treat systems was needed to determine if the Columbia River was protected from contamination, and also to determine where additional system modifications may be needed. In response to this need, a technique for assessing the river protection was developed which takes into consideration seasonal migration of the plume and hydraulic performance of the operating well fields. Groundwater contaminant plume maps are generated across the Hanford Site on an annual basis. The assessment technique overlays the annual plume and the capture efficiency maps for the various pump and treat systems. The river protection analysis technique was prepared for use at the Hanford site and is described in detail in M.J. Tonkin, 2013. Interpolated capture frequency maps, based on mapping dynamic water level observed in observation wells and derived water levels in the vicinity of extraction and injection wells

  3. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  4. Radioactive contamination in lichens collected from Trabzon and Rize in the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey, and a comparison with that of 1995.

    PubMed

    Yazici, K; Ertuğral, B; Damla, N; Apaydin, G

    2008-05-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, 14 lichen specimens collected from Trabzon and Rize in 1995 were used to detect the amount of the fallout radionuclides. In this paper, radioactivity levels in the same species from the same localities were re-detected to compare with those of 1995. According to the results of the two studies, the radioactivity levels that this paper found for 137Cs and 40K are significantly lower than those of 1995 (about 5.5-127 folds for 137Cs, 5-17 folds for 40K). The level of 212Pb was acceptably small. The highest activities of the lichen species are seen in the locality of Helvaci (Trabzon, 100 m) and Camlihemşin (Rize, 1850 m) while the activities are medium in Bozdoğan (Trabzon, 150 m), Kemaliye (Trabzon, 750 m) and Camlihemşin (Rize, 900 m). The activity values generally increase significantly depending on the altitudes. Since the measurements were performed 20 years after the Chernobyl accident in 1986, radionuclides of 134Cs having short half-life (2.062 y) have not been detected. All data was obtained with a coaxial high purity Ge detector of 15% relative efficiency and resolution 1.9 keV at the 1332 keV gamma of 60Co (Canberra, GC 1519 model).

  5. Integrated data base report - 1994: US spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Integrated Data Base Program has compiled historic data on inventories and characteristics of both commercial and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel and commercial and U.S. government-owned radioactive wastes. Except for transuranic wastes, inventories of these materials are reported as of December 31, 1994. Transuranic waste inventories are reported as of December 31, 1993. All spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste data reported are based on the most reliable information available from government sources, the open literature, technical reports, and direct contacts. The information forecasted is consistent with the latest DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of U.S. commercial nuclear power growth and the expected DOE-related and private industrial and institutional activities. The radioactive materials considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are spent nuclear fuel, high-level waste, transuranic waste, low-level waste, commercial uranium mill tailings, DOE Environmental Restoration Program contaminated environmental media, commercial reactor and fuel-cycle facility decommissioning wastes, and mixed (hazardous and radioactive) low-level waste. For most of these categories, current and projected inventories are given through the calendar-year 2030, and the radioactivity and thermal power are calculated based on reported or estimated isotopic compositions.

  6. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. RCT: 2.05 Contamination Control, Course #8770

    SciTech Connect

    Hillmer, Kurt T.

    2016-05-23

    This report focuses on the detection and control of radioactive contamination, which are an integral part of an aggressive ALARA program and provide an indication of the effectiveness of engineering controls and proper work practices in preventing the release of radioactive material. Radioactive contamination, if undetected or not properly controlled, can be spread and contaminate areas, equipment, personnel, and the environment.

  8. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    PubMed

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-01-29

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed.

  9. A radioactive metal processing industry perspective source.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A

    2006-11-01

    The current U.S. economic environment for the disposition of radioactive waste, including very-low-activity metals, is currently experiencing relatively low radioactive disposal costs and readily available disposal space. Despite the recent market increase in demand for recycled scrap metal commodities, there is still little change in the behavior of the nuclear industry (including radioactive waste processors and radioactive scrap metal recyclers) to pursue the recycling of potentially contaminated scrap metal. The relatively low cost of traditional radioactive waste disposal combined with the perceived risks associated with recycling of previously contaminated metals means that most U.S. radioactive facility managers and stakeholders will elect not to recycle. Current technology exists and precedence has been set for prescreening (by means of bulk radioactive assay techniques) scrap metal that is not contaminated and diverting it to industrial landfills for disposal. Other processes also allow some radiologically contaminated metals to be melted and recast into products with low, but acceptable, activity levels for restricted use in the nuclear industry. A new concept is being considered that would create a centralized licensed facility for the process and disposition of "very-low-activity" metals for "directed first use." The advantages to this type of approach would include a standardized method for licensing the clearance process.

  10. Radioactive contamination of the soil-plant cover at certain locations of Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin Island and Kamchatka Peninsula: Assessment of the Fukushima fallout.

    PubMed

    Mikhailovskaya, L N; Molchanova, I V; Pozolotina, V N; Zhuravlev, Yu N; Timofeeva, Ya O; Burdukovsky, M L

    2017-03-10

    The contamination densities of soil-plant cover at certain locations within the Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin Island and Kamchatka Peninsula attributable to (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu were 500-1390 Bq m(-2), 980-2300 Bq m(-2) and 37-74 Bq m(-2), respectively. These values do not exceed average global background levels, typical for mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The spatial distribution of radionuclides depends on the climatic conditions of the region. A positive dependence of the (90)Sr and (137)Cs contamination densities, as well as additional (137)Cs from NPP "Fukushima" in the soil, was determined based on the sum of annual atmospheric precipitation within the study areas. No trends in the spatial distribution of Pu isotopes were observed. The (137)Cs contribution from the "Fukushima" NPP constitutes 11-300 Bq m(-2) in the Primorsky Krai, Sakhalin Island and at the Kamchatka peninsula, i.e., 1-22% of the total amount of radionuclides in the soil. The contribution of this radionuclide to the contamination of moss-lichen vegetation ranged from 7 to 42%.

  11. Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning - Major Component Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2010-05-05

    experienced cladding failures as operational capabilities of the different designs were being established. In addition, numerous spills of heavy water occurred within the facility. Currently, radiation and radioactive contamination levels are low within HWCTR with most of the radioactivity contained within the reactor vessel. There are no known insults to the environment, however with the increasing deterioration of the facility, the possibility exists that contamination could spread outside the facility if it is not decommissioned. An interior panoramic view of the ground floor elevation taken in August 2009 is shown in Figure 2. The foreground shows the transfer coffin followed by the reactor vessel and control rod drive platform in the center. Behind the reactor vessel is the fuel pool. Above the ground level are the polar crane and the emergency deluge tank at the top of the dome. Note the considerable rust and degradation of the components and the interior of the containment building. Alternative studies have concluded that the most environmentally safe, cost effective option for final decommissioning is to remove the reactor vessel, steam generators, and all equipment above grade including the dome. Characterization studies along with transport models have concluded that the remaining below grade equipment that is left in place including the transfer coffin will not contribute any significant contamination to the environment in the future. The below grade space will be grouted in place. A concrete cover will be placed over the remaining footprint and the groundwater will be monitored for an indefinite period to ensure compliance with environmental regulations. The schedule for completion of decommissioning is late FY2011. This paper describes the concepts planned in order to remove the major components including the dome, the reactor vessel (RV), the two steam generators (SG), and relocating the transfer coffin (TC).

  12. Evaluation of the cause of unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Fukushima in 2013 using autoradiography and gamma-ray spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Murakami, Toshifumi; Fujiwara, Hideshi; Shinano, Takuro

    2016-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011, caused the release of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), contaminating eastern Japan, particularly in part of Fukushima Prefecture. In 2012 and 2014, the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice did not exceed regulatory levels in Minamisoma City, Fukushima. However, in 2013, some radiocaesium concentrations in brown rice exceeded regulatory levels. In this work, autoradiograms showed that high radioactivity was present as contaminated spots on the panicles of rice and in brown rice in 2013. We evaluate the contribution of direct contamination to the radiocaesium concentration in brown rice and discuss the origin of radiocaesium contamination in brown rice using the 134Cs/137Cs radioactivity ratio. Here, we show that the main cause of the unexplained radiocaesium contamination of brown rice in Minamisoma City in 2013 is the adherence of radioactive materials to the rice panicles, and these radioactive materials are associated with reactor units 2 or 3 of FDNPP. PMID:26843000

  13. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-29

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  14. Issues of natural radioactivity in phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Schnug, E.; Haneklaus, S.; Schnier, C.; Scholten, L.C.

    1996-12-31

    The fertilization of phosphorus (P) fertilizers is essential in agricultural production, but phosphates contain in dependence on their origin different amounts of trace elements. The problem of cadmium (Cd) loads and other heavy metals is well known. However, only a limited number of investigations examined the contamination of phosphates with the two heaviest metals, uranium (U) and thorium (Th), which are radioactive. Also potassium (K) is lightly radioactive. Measurements are done n the radioactivity content of phosphates, P fertilizers and soils. The radiation doses to workers and public as well as possible contamination of soils from phosphate rock or fertilizer caused by these elements or their daughter products is of interest with regard to radiation protection. The use of P fertilizers is necessary for a sustainable agriculture, but it involves radioactive contamination of soils. The consequences of the use of P fertilizers is discussed, also with regard to existing and proposed legislation. 11 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. 49 CFR 173.443 - Contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contamination control. 173.443 Section 173.443... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.443 Contamination control. (a) The level of non-fixed (removable) radioactive contamination on the external surfaces of each package offered...

  16. 49 CFR 176.715 - Contamination control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contamination control. 176.715 Section 176.715... Requirements for Radioactive Materials § 176.715 Contamination control. Each hold, compartment, or deck area... the removable (non-fixed) radioactive surface contamination is not greater than the limits...

  17. Radioactive waste storage issues

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Daniel E.

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  18. Biological half-life of radioactive cesium in Japanese rockfish Sebastes cheni contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Akira; Shigeoka, Yu; Arakawa, Hisayuki; Hirakawa, Naoto; Morioka, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Takuji

    2015-12-01

    Since the Fukushima accident in March 2011 the concentration of radioactive cesium in Japanese rockfish (Sebastes cheni) has been decreasing slower than other fish species. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the possibility of slow elimination rate (i.e., relatively longer Tb) as one of the reasons for the slow decrease in (137)Cs concentrations in Japanese rockfish (S. cheni). To do this, we reared twenty-three individuals of this species for a period of about 1 year, during which time we measured the (137)Cs concentrations and γ-ray spectra 14 times by using a high-efficiency NaI(Tl) scintillator. We then examined the relationship between the (137)Cs concentrations and the total length of each individual. We estimated the biological half-life (Tb, day) for each individual using the total number of (137)Cs counts in the energy region, and examined the effects of total length and (137)Cs concentration on Tb by generalized linear model (GLM). We also examined the effect of sex, total length, seawater temperature, and the (137)Cs concentration of seawater on temporal changes in the (137)Cs count reduction rate by GLM. There was no clear relationship between the corrected whole-body (137)Cs concentrations and the total length in females, however there was a significant positive correlation between these two variables in males. The difference between males and females may be attributable to variation in the degree of dilution because of variable growth of individuals, and suggests that the (137)Cs concentrations of small individuals may be greatly diluted because of faster growth. However, there was no significant difference in Tb between sexes. The mean Tb (±SD) in all individuals was 269 (±39) days; this Tb value is 2.7-5.4 times longer than past Tb values (marine fish: 50-100 days), and is thought to be one of the reasons for the slower decrease in (137)Cs concentrations in this species than other fish species on the coast of Fukushima. The GLM

  19. Study of radioactive contamination in silts and aerosols at Aldama City, Mexico, due to the operation of a yellow-cake processing plant.

    PubMed

    Montelongo, Michel Y; Herrera, Eduardo F; Ramirez, Elias; Carrillo, Jorge I; Campos, Alfredo; Gomez, Ramón; Montero, Maria E; Rodriguez, Luis M

    2015-08-01

    The city of Aldama, Chihuahua, Mexico is located 30 km NNE of Chihuahua city. Three high-volume collectors with PM10 heads were placed in specific locations in Aldama during the year 2011 to measure radioisotope concentrations in the air. The city area of 16 km² was divided into 64 squares of 500 × 500 m. At the vertices of the grid, silt samples were taken between January and June 2011, before the rains began. The concentrations of natural, cosmogenic, and anthropogenic radioactive isotopes were calculated in both filters and silts samples. The isotopes selected for the measurement were ²³⁸U, ²³²Th, (7)Be, ¹³⁷Cs, and ⁴⁰K. Measurements of PM10 and silts were performed during 2011, coinciding with the accident at Fukushima, Japan, on March 11. For this reason, we could see the ¹³⁷Cs in PM10 increase between April and July; with the arrival of the rains, the ¹³⁷Cs concentration began to decrease in the air. The concentration of PM10 measured by the equipment located at the Mexican Uranium plant (URAMEX, initials in Spanish) that was processing radioactive ores exceeded the standard values in February and March, when the air velocity increases. At City Hall, the concentration of PM10 surpassed the value of the standard between May and July. This increased concentration is likely due to increased automobile traffic because City Hall is located in the city center. At a private home, the concentration of PM10 surpassed the standard on several days during the year because the home is located on the outskirts of the city, where most of the streets are not paved. Due to the high concentrations of PM10, especially at the collection point located at the private home, it is necessary to start taking steps to mitigate their spread before they cause health problems in the younger population and in older adults.

  20. The existence state in the soil of radioactive cesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by imaging plate photograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke

    2013-04-01

    In the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the wide area in east Japan was polluted seriously with radioactive cesium. But, unlike Chernobyl, reactor core explosion did not occur in Fukushima. Therefore, it is thought that many radioactive nuclides emitted into the atmosphere were in the gas state and aerosol. However, when the imaging plate photographs of the surface soils in Fukushima was observed, many granular radionuclides existed. Then, in order to confirm a radioactive cesium of particle state, the treatment for the soils contaminated with radioactive cesium by using chemical operation was tried. Three type soils, that is, paddy soil, river sediment, and sea sand, were made applicable to research. The contaminated soil samples were collected in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefecture. Radioactivity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry with a high pure germanium (HPGe) detector. After the radioactively measurement, soils had been burned in oven for five hours in 500 degree Celsius. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to soil samples, and they were heated for three hours. These samples were divided into residue and elution by centrifugal separation, and then radioactivity of cesium contained in residue was measured. After chemical operations, 70% and 85% of radioactive cesium from river sediment and sea sand were extracted approximately into elution, respectively. In contrast, in the soil of the paddy field, only 30% of radioactive cesium was approximately eluted. When radiation image photograph of the residues of all three types of soils were taken and observed, the granular radioactive nuclides remained clearly in paddy soil and river sediment. In contrast, all the granular radioactive nuclides in sea sand disappeared after treatment. The results of above things that desorption of radioactive cesium depend on the kind of soil. Furthermore, it was suggested that there was radioactive cesium of

  1. Managing potentially radioactive scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    2002-11-19

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements published NCRP Report No. 141 on November 19, 2002. Contract DE-FG02-98CH10945 provided the sole support for this report titled ''Managing Potentially Radioactive Scrap Metal.'' Some preliminary work supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that led to an NCRP Letter Report provided some background information for this work. NCRP Report No. 141 provides recommendations on the methodologies and techniques available to the United States for disposing of radioactive, contaminated scrap metals.

  2. Radioactive materials in recycled metals

    SciTech Connect

    Lubenau, J.O.; Yusko, J.G.

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap-radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  3. Radioactive materials in recycled metals.

    PubMed

    Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap--radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  4. On-Site Oxy-Lance Size Reduction of South Texas Project Reactor Vessel Heads - 12324

    SciTech Connect

    Posivak, Edward; Keeney, Gilbert; Wheeler, Dean

    2012-07-01

    On-Site Oxy-Lance size reduction of mildly radioactive large components has been accomplished at other operating plants. On-Site Oxy-Lance size reduction of more radioactive components like Reactor Vessel Heads had previously been limited to decommissioning projects. Building on past decommissioning and site experience, subcontractors for South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) developed an innovative integrated system to control smoke, radioactive contamination, worker dose, and worker safety. STP's innovative, easy to use CEDM containment that provided oxy lance access, smoke control, and spatter/contamination control was the key to successful segmentation for cost-effective and ALARA packaging and transport for disposal. Relative to CEDM milling, STP oxy-lance segmentation saved approximately 40 person- REM accrued during 9,000 hours logged into the radiological controlled area (RCA) during more than 3,800 separate entries. Furthermore there were no personnel contamination events or respiratory uptakes of radioactive material during the course of the entire project. (authors)

  5. NEW MATERIALS DEVELOPED TO MEET REGULATORY AND TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, J.; Langton, C.; Musall, J.; Griffin, W.

    2012-01-18

    For the 2010 ANS Embedded Topical Meeting on Decommissioning, Decontamination and Reutilization and Technology, Savannah River National Laboratory's Mike Serrato reported initial information on the newly developed specialty grout materials necessary to satisfy all requirements associated with in-situ decommissioning of P-Reactor and R-Reactor at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. Since that report, both projects have been successfully completed and extensive test data on both fresh properties and cured properties has been gathered and analyzed for a total of almost 191,150 m{sup 3} (250,000 yd{sup 3}) of new materials placed. The focus of this paper is to describe the (1) special grout mix for filling the P-Reactor vessel (RV) and (2) the new flowable structural fill materials used to fill the below grade portions of the facilities. With a wealth of data now in hand, this paper also captures the test results and reports on the performance of these new materials. Both reactors were constructed and entered service in the early 1950s, producing weapons grade materials for the nation's defense nuclear program. R-Reactor was shut down in 1964 and the P-Reactor in 1991. In-situ decommissioning (ISD) was selected for both facilities and performed as Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensations and Liability Act actions (an early action for P-Reactor and a removal action for R-Reactor), beginning in October 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy concept for ISD is to physically stabilize and isolate intact, structurally robust facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of producing (reactor facilities), processing (isotope separation facilities), or storing radioactive materials. Funding for accelerated decommissioning was provided under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Decommissioning of both facilities was completed in September 2011. ISD objectives for these CERCLA actions included: (1) Prevent industrial worker

  6. The safe disposal of radioactive wastes

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, A. W.

    1956-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of the principles and problems involved in the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. The first part is devoted to a study of the basic facts of radioactivity and of nuclear fission, the characteristics of radioisotopes, the effects of ionizing radiations, and the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity for workers and for the general public. In the second part, the author describes the different types of radioactive waste—reactor wastes and wastes arising from the use of radioisotopes in hospitals and in industry—and discusses the application of the maximum permissible levels of radioactivity to their disposal and treatment, illustrating his discussion with an account of the methods practised at the principal atomic energy establishments. PMID:13374534

  7. The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation for heavy metals and radioactivity contamination on Holyrood-Lunas soil (acrisol species) in Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Johar, S; Embong, Z

    2015-11-01

    The optimisation of electrokinetic remediation of an alluvial soil, locally named as Holyrood-Lunas from Sri Gading Industrial Area, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia, had been conducted in this research. This particular soil was chosen due to its relatively high level of background radiation in a range between 139.2 and 539.4 nGy h(-1). As the background radiation is correlated to the amount of parent nuclides, (238)U and (232)Th, hence, a remediation technique, such as electrokinetic, is very useful in reducing these particular concentrations of heavy metal and radionuclides in soils. Several series of electrokinetics experiments were performed in laboratory scale in order to study the influence of certain electrokinetic parameters in soil. The concentration before (pre-electrokinetic) and after the experiment (post-electrokinetic) was determined via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis technique. The best electrokinetic parameter that contributed to the highest achievable concentration removal of heavy metals and radionuclides on each experimental series was incorporated into a final electrokinetic experiment. Here, High Pure Germanium (HPGe) was used for radioactivity elemental analysis. The XRF results suggested that the most optimised electrokinetic parameters for Cr, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, Th and U were 3.0 h, 90 volts, 22.0 cm, plate-shaped electrode by 8 × 8 cm and in 1-D configuration order whereas the selected optimised electrokinetic parameters gave very low reduction of (238)U and (232)Th at 0.23 ± 2.64 and 2.74 ± 23.78 ppm, respectively.

  8. A modeling study of contaminant transport resulting from flooding of Pit 9 at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, S.O.; Sondrup, A.J.

    1992-09-01

    A simulation study was conducted to determine if dissolved-phase transport due to flooding is a viable mechanism for explaining the presence of radionuclides in sedimentary interbeds below the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. In particular, the study focused on {sup 241}Am migration due to flooding of Pit 9 in 1969. A kinetically-controlled source term model was used to estimate the mass of {sup 241}Am that leached as a function of a variable surface infiltration rate. This mass release rate was then used in a numerical simulation of unsaturated flow and transport to estimate the advance due to flooding of the {sup 241}Am front down towards the 110 ft interbed. The simulation included the effect of fractures by superimposing them onto elements that represented the basalt matrix. For the base case, hydraulic and transport parameters were assigned using the best available data. The advance of the {sup 241}Am front due to flooding for this case was minimal, on the order of a few meters. This was due to the strong tendency for {sup 241}Am to sorb onto both basalts and sediments. In addition to the base case simulation, a parametric sensitivity study was conducted which tested the effect of sorption in the fractures, in the kinetic source term, and in the basalt matrix. Of these, the only case which resulted in significant transport was when there was no sorption in the basalt matrix. The indication being that other processes such as transport by radiocolloids or organic complexation may have contributed. However, caution is advised in interpreting these results due to approximations in the numerical method that was used incorporate fractures into the simulation. The approximations are a result of fracture apertures being significantly smaller than the elements over which they are superimposed. The sensitivity of the {sup 241}Am advance to the assumed hydraulic conductivity for the fractures was also tested.

  9. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  10. Dismantling Structures and Equipment of the MR Reactor and its Loop Facilities at the National Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' - 12051

    SciTech Connect

    Volkov, V.G.; Danilovich, A.S.; Zverkov, Yu. A.; Ivanov, O.P.; Kolyadin, V.I.; Lemus, A.V.; Muzrukova, V.D.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Semenov, S.G.; Fadin, S.Yu.; Shisha, A.D.; Chesnokov, A.V.

    2012-07-01

    In 2008 a design of decommissioning of research reactors MR and RFT has been developed in the National research Center 'Kurchatov institute'. The design has been approved by Russian State Authority in July 2009 year and has received the positive conclusion of ecological expertise. In 2009-2010 a preparation for decommissioning of reactors MR and RFT was spent. Within the frames of a preparation a characterization, sorting and removal of radioactive objects, including the irradiated fuel, from reactor storage facilities and pool have been executed. During carrying out of a preparation on removal of radioactive objects from reactor sluice pool water treating has been spent. For these purposes modular installation for clearing and processing of a liquid radioactive waste 'Aqua - Express' was used. As a result of works it was possible to lower volume activity of water on three orders in magnitude that has allowed improving essentially of radiating conditions in a reactor hall. Auxiliary systems of ventilation, energy and heat supplies, monitoring systems of radiating conditions of premises of the reactor and its loop-back installations are reconstructed. In 2011 the license for a decommissioning of the specified reactors has been received and there are begun dismantling works. Within the frames of works under the design the armature and pipelines are dismantled in a under floor space of a reactor hall where a moving and taking away pipelines of loop facilities and the first contour of the MR reactor were replaced. A dismantle of the main equipment of loop facility with the gas coolant has been spent. Technologies which were used on dismantle of the radioactive contaminated equipment are presented, the basic works on reconstruction of systems of maintenance of on the decommissioning works are described, the sequence of works on the decommissioning of reactors MR and RFT is shown. Dismantling works were carried out with application of means of a dust suppression that, in

  11. Expedition surveys of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian Far Eastern coastal areas and in the North Western Pacific in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Vjacheslav

    2013-04-01

    In accordance with decision of the Russian Federation Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) on assessment of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Sea of Japan and in Kurile-Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean, in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP, two expedition surveys were conducted in the Sea of Japan and in the North-Western Pacific (in the area adjacent to Kurile Islands and in the Kuroshio current selected area (coordinates 36°00'-39°33' n., 146°33'-150°00' e.): first survey April - May 2011, second survey August-September 2012. Both surveys were conducted under the Russian Geographical Society patronage. The results of measurements of Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90, Pu-239,240 and H-3 concentrations in the sea water samples and I-131, Cs-137 and Cs-134 concentrations in atmospheric aerosol samples are presented and discussed. The data received allowed to conclude that the levels of contamination by products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP observed in investigated water areas near the Russian Federation coast of the Sea of Japan and of the Kurile- Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean have no hazard. However, these expedition surveys revealed large-scale contamination by Cs-137 and Cs-134 of water areas of the North-Western Pacific in the investigated region of the Kuroshio current. The Cs-137 concentration in sea water at a distance about 400 km from accidental NPP in April-May, 2011 reached 30 Bq/m3, which approximately 20 times exceed preaccidental level, and it was found that water mass till more than 100 m below the surface was contaminated. For correct estimation of current and potential consequences of the "Fukushima-1" accident for the Far-Eastern water areas a special study is reasonable to perform of transport with marine currents of products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP.

  12. Environmental radioactivity study of Austrian and Bavarian forest ecosystems: Long- term behaviour of contamination of soil, vegetation and wild boar and its radioecological coherences.

    PubMed

    Kocadag, Maria; Exler, Veronika; Christopher, Burger-Scheidlin; Baumgartner, Andreas; Stietka, Michael; Landstetter, Claudia; Korner, Martin; Maringer, Franz Josef

    2017-03-18

    (137)Cs and (40)K in soil, vegetation and flesh of wild boar samples from Austrian and Bavarian regions were investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry and (90)Sr in bones of wild boar with Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) after radiochemical separation. The soil core profiles revealed that 70-97% of the soil caesium content is still accumulated in the 0-10cm soil depth. From all vegetation samples the mushrooms, particularly the bay boletus showed the highest (137)Cs contamination. The activity concentration of (137)Cs in muscle tissue of boar ranged from 14.9±1.5Bq/kg (Bavaria) to 4711±377Bq/kg (Lower Austria). In the bones of wild boars, (90)Sr activity concentration ranged from 1.4±0.2Bq/kg (Bavaria) to 70.3±10.5Bq/kg (Upper Austria).

  13. Stontium-90 contamination in vegetation from radioactive waste seepage areas at ORNL, and theoretical calculations of /sup 90/Sr accumulation by deer

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Lomax, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes data obtained during a preliminary characterization of /sup 90/Sr levels in browse vegetation from the vicinity of seeps adjacent to ORNL solid waste storage areas (SWSA) where deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were suspected to accumulate /sup 90/Sr through the food chain. The highest strontium concentrations in plant samples were found at seeps associated with SWSA-5. Strontium-90 concentrations in honeysuckle and/or blackberry shoots from two seeps in SWSA-5 averaged 39 and 19 nCi/g dry weight (DW), respectively. The maximum concentration observed was 90 nCi/g DW. Strontium-90 concentrations in honeysuckle and blackberry shoots averaged 7.4 nCi/g DW in a study area south of SWSA-4, and averaged 1.0 nCi/g DW in fescue grass from a seepage area located on SWSA-4. A simple model (based on metabolic data for mule deer) has been used to describe the theoretical accumulation of /sup 90/Sr in bone of whitetail deer following ingestion of contaminated vegetation. These model calculations suggest that if 30 pCi /sup 90/Sr/g deer bone is to be the accepted screening level for retaining deer killed on the reservation, then 5-pCi /sup 90/Sr/g DW vegetation should be considered as a possible action level in making decisions about the need for remedial measures, because unrestricted access and full utilization of vegetation contaminated with <5 pCi/g DW results in calculated steady-state (maximum) /sup 90/Sr bone concentrations of <30 pCi/g in a 45-kg buck.

  14. The experience in handling of lead-bismuth coolant contaminated by Polonium-210

    SciTech Connect

    Pankratov, D.V.; Gromov, B.F.; Solodjankin, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    During exploitation of lead-bismuth cooled reactors a wide experience in handling of radioactive coolant containing polonium has been gained. By 1990 total time of this reactor operation has reached approximately 60 reactor years.

  15. Efficient and compact mobile equipment based on the new RADEON-NWM technology to process liquid radioactive wastes resulted from the accidents of the nuclear installations

    SciTech Connect

    Martoyan, Gagik; Nalbandyan, Garik; Gagiyan, Lavrenti; Karamyan, Gagik; Brutyan, Gagik

    2013-07-01

    During the operation of nuclear reactors important volume of liquid and solid radioactive wastes are generated, which, in normal conditions, becomes processed by stationary equipment by different methods to minimize their volume and then sent to specially constructed storages. The cases of accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima showed that the localization of rejected big quantity of radioactive wastes is a prior problem for their further processing by stationary equipment. In this regard it is very important the processing of radioactive wastes on the contaminated areas to localize them by mobile equipment based on the efficient technologies. RADEONNWM new technology allows resolving this problem. This technology is compact, completely automated, which makes possible to assemble it on a standard 40-ft by 7-ft trailer driven by heavy-duty truck. The new technology is fully elaborated, the necessary tests are conducted. (authors)

  16. Medium-Sized Mammals around a Radioactive Liquid Waste Lagoon at Los Alamos National Laboratory: Uptake of Contaminants and Evaluation of Radio-Frequency Identification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie A. Hansen; Phil R. Fresquez; Rhonda J. Robinson; John D. Huchton; Teralene S. Foxx

    1999-11-01

    Use of a radioactive liquid waste lagoon by medium-sized mammals and levels of tritium, other selected radionuclides, and metals in biological tissues of the animals were documented at Technical Area 53 (TA-53) of Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1997 and 1998. Rock squirrel (Spermophilus variegates), raccoon (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), and bobcat (Lynx rufus) were captured at TA-53 and at a control site on the Santa Fe National Forest. Captured animals were anesthetized and marked with radio-frequency identification (RFD) tags and/or ear tags. We collected urine and hair samples for tritium and metals (aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, and thallium) analyses, respectively. In addition, muscle and bone samples from two rock squirrels collected from each of TA-53, perimeter, and regional background sites were tested for tritium, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and total uranium. Animals at TA-53 were monitored entering and leaving the lagoon area using a RFID monitor to read identification numbers from the RFID tags of marked animals and a separate camera system to photograph all animals passing through the monitor. Cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus spp.), rock squirrel, and raccoon were the species most frequently photographed going through the RFID monitor. Less than half of all marked animals in the lagoon area were detected using the lagoon. Male and female rock squirrels from the lagoon area had significantly higher tritium concentrations compared to rock squirrels from the control area. Metals tested were not significantly higher in rock squirrels from TA-53, although there was a trend toward increased levels of lead in some individuals at TA-53. Muscle and bone samples from squirrels in the lagoon area appeared to have higher levels of tritium, total uranium, and {sup 137}Cs than samples collected from perimeter and

  17. JANUS reactor d and d project.

    SciTech Connect

    Fellhauer, C. R.

    1998-02-16

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL-E) has recently completed the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the JANUS Reactor Facility located in Building 202. The 200 KW reactor operated from August 1963 to March 1992. The facility was used to study the effects of both high and low doses of fission neutrons in animals. There were two exposure rooms on opposite sides of the reactor and the reactor was therefore named after the two-faced Roman god. The High Dose Room was capable of specimen exposure at a dose rate of 3,600 rads per hour. During calendar year 1996 a detailed characterization of the facility was performed by ANL-E Health Physics personnel. ANL-E Analytical Services performed the required sample analysis. An Auditable Safety Analysis and an Environmental Assessment were completed. D and D plans, procedures and procurement documents were prepared and approved. A D and D subcontractor was selected and a firm, fixed price contract awarded for the field work and final survey effort. The D and D subcontractor was mobilized to ANL-E in January 1997. Electrical isolation of all reactor equipment and control panels was accomplished and the equipment removed. A total of 207,230 pounds (94,082 Kg) of lead shielding was removed, surveyed and sampled, and free-released for recycle. All primary and secondary piping was removed, size reduced and packaged for disposal or recycled as appropriate. The reactor vessel was removed, sized reduced and packaged as radioactive waste in April. The activated graphite block reflector was removed next, followed by the bioshield concrete and steel. All of this material was packaged as low level waste. Total low level radioactive waste generation was 4002.1 cubic feet (113.3 cubic meters). Mixed waste generation was 538 cubic feet (15.2 cubic meters). The Final Release Survey was completed in September. The project field work was completed in 38 weeks without any lost-time accidents, personnel contaminations or unplanned

  18. Radioactive and other environmental threats to the United States and the Arctic resulting from past Soviet activities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Earlier this year the Senate Intelligence Committee began to receive reports from environmental and nuclear scientists in Russia detailing the reckless nuclear waste disposal practices, nuclear accidents and the use of nuclear detonations. We found that information disturbing to say the least. Also troubling is the fact that 15 Chernobyl style RBMK nuclear power reactors continue to operate in the former Soviet Union today. These reactors lack a containment structure and they`re designed in such a way that nuclear reaction can actually increase when the reactor overheats. As scientists here at the University of Alaska have documented, polar air masses and prevailing weather patterns provide a pathway for radioactive contaminants from Eastern Europe and Western Russia, where many of these reactors are located. The threats presented by those potential radioactive risks are just a part of a larger Arctic pollution problem. Every day, industrial activities of the former Soviet Union continue to create pollutants. I think we should face up to the reality that in a country struggling for economic survival, environment protection isn`t necessarily the high priority. And that could be very troubling news for the Arctic in the future.

  19. Comparative analysis between radiation doses obtained by EPR dosimetry using tooth enamel and established analytical methods for the population of radioactively contaminated territories.

    PubMed

    Ivannikov, Alexander I; Skvortsov, Valeri G; Stepanenko, Valeri F; Zhumadilov, Kassym Sh

    2014-06-01

    A comparative analysis of radiation doses determined by tooth enamel electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and by an acknowledged analytical method is performed for individual doses and for average doses in population of some settlements of the Bryansk region (Russia), which have been contaminated after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The analysis is performed for doses in the range of 0-200 mGy for individuals and in the range of 0-50 mGy for the averaged populations. The method of orthogonal distance linear regression is used for the analysis. For both data sets the slopes of the regression line close to unity and the intercept close to zero are obtained, which indicates that doses determined by these two methods agree with each other. The root-mean-square difference between the results of EPR and analytical methods is estimated to be 35 mGy for individual doses and 15 mGy for averaged doses, which is consistent with uncertainty of these methods.

  20. Comparative analysis between radiation doses obtained by EPR dosimetry using tooth enamel and established analytical methods for the population of radioactively contaminated territories

    PubMed Central

    Ivannikov, Alexander I.; Skvortsov, Valeri G.; Stepanenko, Valeri F.; Zhumadilov, Kassym Sh.

    2014-01-01

    A comparative analysis of radiation doses determined by tooth enamel electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and by an acknowledged analytical method is performed for individual doses and for average doses in population of some settlements of the Bryansk region (Russia), which have been contaminated after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The analysis is performed for doses in the range of 0–200 mGy for individuals and in the range of 0–50 mGy for the averaged populations. The method of orthogonal distance linear regression is used for the analysis. For both data sets the slopes of the regression line close to unity and the intercept close to zero are obtained, which indicates that doses determined by these two methods agree with each other. The root-mean-square difference between the results of EPR and analytical methods is estimated to be 35 mGy for individual doses and 15 mGy for averaged doses, which is consistent with uncertainty of these methods. PMID:24771210

  1. Removal of hydrogen bubbles from nuclear reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, R. V.

    1980-01-01

    Method proposed for removing large hydrogen bubbles from nuclear environment uses, in its simplest form, hollow spheres of palladium or platinum. Methods would result in hydrogen bubble being reduced in size without letting more radioactivity outside reactor.

  2. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Lorenzo, D.K.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    1980-04-23

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  3. Canister arrangement for storing radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Lorenzo, Donald K.; Van Cleve, Jr., John E.

    1982-01-01

    The subject invention relates to a canister arrangement for jointly storing high level radioactive chemical waste and metallic waste resulting from the reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel elements. A cylindrical steel canister is provided with an elongated centrally disposed billet of the metallic waste and the chemical waste in vitreous form is disposed in the annulus surrounding the billet.

  4. Final Report: ISCORS Assessment of Radioactivity in Sewage Sludge: Radiological Survey Results and Analysis

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This final report, which underwent peer review and public comment, looks at the potential transport of radioactivity from sludge into the local environment.w much radioactive contamination comes from NRC and Agreement Stateli

  5. Decommissioning of the BR3 reactor: status and perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Noynaert, L.; Verstraeten, I.

    2007-07-01

    The BR3 plant at Mol in Belgium built at the end of the fifties was the first PWR plant built outside the USA. The reactor had a small net power output (10 MWe) but comprised all the loops and features of a commercial PWR plant. The BR3 plant was operated with the main objective of testing advanced PWR fuels under irradiation conditions similar to those encountered in large commercial PWR plants. The reactor was started in 1962 and shut down in 1987 after 25 years of continuous operation. Since 1989, SCK.CEN is decommissioning the BR3 PWR research reactor. The dismantling of the metallic components including reactor pressure vessel and internals is completed and extensively reported in the literature. The dismantling of auxiliary components and the decontamination of parts of the infrastructure are now going on. The decommissioning progress is continuously monitored and costs and strategy are regularly reassessed. The first part of the paper describes the main results and lessons learned from the reassessment exercises performed in 1994, 1999, 2004 and 2007. Impacts of changes in legal framework on the decommissioning costs will be addressed. These changes concern e.g. licensing aspects, clearance levels, waste management... The middle part of the paper discusses the management of activated and/or contaminated concrete. The costing exercise performed in 1995 highlighted that the management of activated and contaminated concrete is the second main cost item after the dismantling of the reactor pressure vessel and internals. Different possible solutions were studied. These are evacuation as radioactive waste with or without supercompaction, recycling this 'radioactive' grout or concrete for conditioning of radioactive waste e.g. conditioning of metallic waste. The paper will give the results of the cost-benefit analysis made to select the solution retained. The last part of the paper will discuss the end goal of the decommissioning of the BR3. In the final

  6. Radioactivity in the scrap metal industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses problems from the presence of radiation in scrap metal. The source of the radiation is typically radiography cameras, radiation therapy machines, radioactive gauge devices, transportation containers, or NORM scale on equipment from the minerals industry. Since 1983 there have been 46 reported cases of radioactive contamination of metal production facilities. The resulting decontamination, disposal, and downtime has cost some companies over 20 million dollars. The activity normally enters mills with the scrap feed metal. In the process of melting it can then contaminate the metal products, melt shop equipment, baghouse, employees, and environment. The paper discusses the sources of this contamination, the typical detection methods, the problems in detection, the issues of responsibility after detection, the health risks, and practical and regulatory differences between radioactivity from sources vs NORM.

  7. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  8. Overview of fusion reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.; Crocker, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Use of deuterium-tritium burning fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control, (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment, (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions, (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices, and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power.

  9. Radioactive decay.

    PubMed

    Groch, M W

    1998-01-01

    When a parent radionuclide decays to its daughter radionuclide by means of alpha, beta, or isomeric transition, the decay follows an exponential form, which is characterized by the decay constant lambda. The decay constant represents the probability per unit time that a single radioatom will decay. The decay equation can be used to provide a useful expression for radionuclide decay, the half-life, the time when 50% of the radioatoms present will have decayed. Radiotracer half-life has direct implications in nuclear imaging, radiation therapy, and radiation safety because radionuclide half-life affects the ability to evaluate tracer kinetics and create appropriate nuclear images and also affects organ, tumor, and whole-body radiation dose. The number of radioatoms present in a sample is equal to the activity, defined as the number of transitions per unit time, divided by the decay constant; the mass of radioatoms present in a sample can be calculated to determine the specific activity (activity per unit mass). The dynamic relationship between the number of parent and daughter atoms present over time may lead to radioactive equilibrium, which takes two forms--secular and transient--and has direct relevance to generator-produced radionuclides.

  10. International Cooperation to Address the Radioactive Legacy in States of the Former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Tompson, A F B

    2003-07-27

    The end of the Cold War allows a comprehensive assessment of the nature and extent of the residual contamination derivative from the atomic defense and nuclear power enterprise in the former Soviet Union. The size of the problem is considerable; some 6.3 x 10{sup 7} TBq (6.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}) of radioactive waste from the Soviet Union weapons and power complex was produced throughout all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The resulting contamination occurs at sites throughout the former Soviet Union where nuclear fuels were mined, milled, enriched, fabricated, and used in defense and power reactors. In addition, liquid radioactive wastes from nuclear reprocessing have been discharged to lakes, rivers, reservoirs and other surface impoundments; military and civilian naval reactor effluents were released to sea as well as stabilized on land. Finally, nuclear testing residuals from atmospheric and underground nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk and Novaya Zemlya test sites and peaceful nuclear tests conducted throughout the area of the former Soviet Union pose risks to human health and the environment. Through a program of international scientific exchange, cooperative approaches to address these threats provide former Soviet scientists with expertise and technologies developed in the United States, Europe, and elsewhere to design comprehensive and long term remedial solutions. The role of the international community to address these challenges is essential because the emerging states of the former Soviet Union share common nuclear residuals that cross newly established national borders. In addition, the widespread post-Soviet radioactive contamination hampers economic recovery and--in some cases--poses proliferation concerns. Also important is the widespread perception throughout these countries that the Soviet nuclear legacy poses a grave threat to the human population. A new paradigm of ''national security'' encompasses more than the historical activities of

  11. Radioactive Waste Incineration: Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diederich, A.R.; Akins, M.J.

    2008-07-01

    Incineration is generally accepted as a method of reducing the volume of radioactive waste. In some cases, the resulting ash may have high concentrations of materials such as Plutonium or Uranium that are valuable materials for recycling. Incineration can also be effective in treating waste that contains hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive contamination. Despite these advantages, the number of operating incinerators currently in the US currently appears to be small and potentially declining. This paper describes technical, regulatory, economic and political factors that affect the selection of incineration as a preferred method of treating radioactive waste. The history of incinerator use at commercial and DOE facilities is summarized, along with the factors that have affected each of the sectors, thus leading to the current set of active incinerator facilities. In summary: Incineration has had a long history of use in radioactive waste processing due to their ability to reduce the volume of the waste while destroying hazardous chemicals and biological material. However, combinations of technical, regulatory, economic and political factors have constrained the overall use of incineration. In both the Government and Private sectors, the trend is to have a limited number of larger incineration facilities that treat wastes from a multiple sites. Each of these sector is now served by only one or two incinerators. Increased use of incineration is not likely unless there is a change in the factors involved, such as a significant increase in the cost of disposal. Medical wastes with low levels of radioactive contamination are being treated effectively at small, local incineration facilities. No trend is expected in this group. (authors)

  12. Analysis of removal alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, M.B.

    1997-04-01

    This engineering study evaluates different alternatives for decontamination and decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR). Cooled and moderated with pressurized heavy water, this uranium-fueled nuclear reactor was designed to test fuel assemblies for heavy water power reactors. It was operated for this purpose from march of 1962 until December of 1964. Four alternatives studied in detail include: (1) dismantlement, in which all radioactive and hazardous contaminants would be removed, the containment dome dismantled and the property restored to a condition similar to its original preconstruction state; (2) partial dismantlement and interim safe storage, where radioactive equipment except for the reactor vessel and steam generators would be removed, along with hazardous materials, and the building sealed with remote monitoring equipment in place to permit limited inspections at five-year intervals; (3) conversion for beneficial reuse, in which most radioactive equipment and hazardous materials would be removed and the containment building converted to another use such as a storage facility for radioactive materials, and (4) entombment, which involves removing hazardous materials, filling the below-ground structure with concrete, removing the containment dome and pouring a concrete cap on the tomb. Also considered was safe storage, but this approach, which has, in effect, been followed for the past 30 years, did not warrant detailed evaluation. The four other alternatives were evaluate, taking into account factors such as potential effects on the environment, risks, effectiveness, ease of implementation and cost. The preferred alternative was determined to be dismantlement. This approach is recommended because it ranks highest in the comparative analysis, would serve as the best prototype for the site reactor decommissioning program and would be most compatible with site property reuse plans for the future.

  13. Melt processing of radioactive waste: A technical overview

    SciTech Connect

    Schlienger, M.E.; Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.

    1997-04-01

    Nuclear operations have resulted in the accumulation of large quantities of contaminated metallic waste which are stored at various DOE, DOD, and commercial sites under the control of DOE and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This waste will accumulate at an increasing rate as commercial nuclear reactors built in the 1950s reach the end of their projected lives, as existing nuclear powered ships become obsolete or unneeded, and as various weapons plants and fuel processing facilities, such as the gaseous diffusion plants, are dismantled, repaired, or modernized. For example, recent estimates of available Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) in the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex have suggested that as much as 700,000 tons of contaminated 304L stainless steel exist in the gaseous diffusion plants alone. Other high-value metals available in the DOE complex include copper, nickel, and zirconium. Melt processing for the decontamination of radioactive scrap metal has been the subject of much research. A major driving force for this research has been the possibility of reapplication of RSM, which is often very high-grade material containing large quantities of strategic elements. To date, several different single and multi-step melting processes have been proposed and evaluated for use as decontamination or recycling strategies. Each process offers a unique combination of strengths and weaknesses, and ultimately, no single melt processing scheme is optimum for all applications since processes must be evaluated based on the characteristics of the input feed stream and the desired output. This paper describes various melt decontamination processes and briefly reviews their application in developmental studies, full scale technical demonstrations, and industrial operations.

  14. 49 CFR 173.427 - Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and surface contaminated objects (SCO). 173.427 Section 173.427... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.427 Transport requirements for low specific activity (LSA) Class 7 (radioactive) materials and surface contaminated objects (SCO). (a) In addition...

  15. Lead-210 contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-12-31

    Nearly all scrap dealers, smelters and other recyclers routinely monitor for radioactivity in shipments entering their facility. These sensitive radiation gate monitors easily detect radium-226 and most other radioactive nuclides. However, the type of detector normally used, sodium iodide scintillation crystals, will not detect the low energy gamma radiation emitted by lead-210 and its progeny. Since lead-210 is a common radioactive contaminant in certain industries, contaminated scrap metal from these industries may avoid detection at the recycler. Lead-210 is a decay product of radon-222 which is produced in small concentrations with natural gas. As the natural gas liquids, particularly ethane and propane, are separated from the natural gas, the radon concentrates in the ethane/propane fraction. The natural gas industry, particularly gas processing facilities and industries using ethane and propane as feed stocks can be significantly contaminated with the radon decay products, especially lead-210, bismuth-210 and polonium-210. Unless the scrap metal is decontaminated before sending to the recycler, the lead-210 contaminated scrap may be processed, resulting in some degree of radioactive contamination of the recycling facilities. Methods of detecting the low energy gamma radiation associated with lead-210 include the pancake G-M detector and the thin crystal-thin window scintillation detector.

  16. Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Stretz, L.A.; Crippen, M.D.; Allen, C.R.

    1980-05-28

    A review is given of present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the US. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste.

  17. Prediction of stainless steel activation in experimental breeder reactor 2 (EBR-II) reflector and blanket subassemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Bunde, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    Stainless steel structural components in nuclear reactors become radioactive wastes when no longer useful. Prior to disposal, certain physical attributes must be analyzed. These attributes include structural integrity, chemical stability, and the radioactive material content among others. The focus of this work is the estimation of the radioactive material content of stainless steel wastes from a research reactor operated by Argonne National Laboratory.

  18. Robust technique using an imaging plate to detect environmental radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomonori; Mori, Yutaro; Takada, Kenta; Sato, Eisuke; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Sakae, Takeji

    2013-04-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was severely damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. Consequently, a large amount of radioactive material was accidentally released. Recently, the focus has been on quantification of environmental radioactive material. However, conventional techniques require complicated and expensive measurement equipment. In this research, the authors developed a simple method to detect environmental radioactive material with an imaging plate (IP). Two specific measurement subjects were targeted: measurements for the depth distribution of radioactive material in soil and surface contamination of a building roof. For the measurement of depth distribution of radioactive material in soil, the authors ascertained that the concentration of environmental radioactivity was highest at 5 cm below the surface, and it decreased with depth. For the measurement of surface contamination of the building roof, the authors created a contamination map of the building roof. The detector developed could contact the ground directly, and unlike other survey meters, it was not influenced by peripheral radioactivity. In this study, the authors verified the feasibility of measurement of environmental radioactivity with an IP. Although the measured values of the IP were relative, further work is planned to perform evaluations of absolute quantities of radioactive material.

  19. Technology applications for radioactive waste minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Devgun, J.S.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has achieved one of the most successful examples of waste minimization. The annual volume of low-level radioactive waste shipped for disposal per reactor has decreased to approximately one-fifth the volume about a decade ago. In addition, the curie content of the total waste shipped for disposal has decreased. This paper will discuss the regulatory drivers and economic factors for waste minimization and describe the application of technologies for achieving waste minimization for low-level radioactive waste with examples from the nuclear power industry.

  20. Radioactive decay data tables

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals.