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Sample records for radioactivity 137cs 90sr

  1. Radioactive contamination of the Adriatic Sea by 90Sr and 137Cs.

    PubMed

    Franić, Z; Bauman, A

    1993-02-01

    Results of systematic long-term measurements of 90Sr and 137Cs in surface seawater, performed at four locations along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea, are summarized. Observed trends in annual mean activity concentrations are discussed. 90Sr and 137Cs fallout activities affect seawater activity, the coefficient of correlation between 90Sr fallout activity and 90Sr seawater activity being 0.72. No significant variations of 90Sr mean residence time in the sea-mixed layer on different locations were found. From 1978-1985, the 137Cs:90Sr activity ratio in seawater was 1.52 +/- 0.40. In May 1986, as the consequence of the Chernobyl nuclear accident, this radio increased to 92.4 +/- 58.2.

  2. Marine radioactivity in the Arctic: a retrospect of environmental studies in Greenland waters with emphasis on transport of 90Sr and 137Cs with the East Greenland Current.

    PubMed

    Aarkrog, A; Dahlgaard, H; Nielsen, S P

    1999-09-30

    The waters around Greenland have received radioactive contamination from three major sources: Global fallout, discharges from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant Sellafield in the UK, and the Chernobyl accident in the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The global fallout peaked in the early 1960s. The radiologically most important radionuclides from this source are 90Sr and 137Cs. The input of global fallout to arctic waters was direct deposition from the atmosphere and indirect delivery through river run off and advection from the Atlantic Ocean via the north-east Atlantic current system. The waterborne discharges from Sellafield which were at their peak between 1974 and 1981 contributed primarily 137Cs, although some 90Sr was also discharged. The Chernobyl accident in 1986 was characterised by its substantial atmospheric release of radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs). Other sources may, however, also have contributed to the radioactivity in the Greenland waters. Examples include La Hague, France, and radioactive discharges to the great Siberian rivers (Ob, Yenisey and Lena) from nuclear activities in the Former Soviet Union or the local fallout from the Novaya Zemlya nuclear weapons test site. Dumping of nuclear waste in the Kara and Barents Seas may be another, although minor source. From measurements in Greenland waters carried out since 1962 the transport of radionuclides with the East Greenland Current is calculated and compared with the estimated inputs of 90Sr and 137Cs to the Arctic Ocean. This study focus on 90Sr and 137Cs because the longest time series are available for these two radionuclides.

  3. Multifunctional flexible free-standing titanate nanobelt membranes as efficient sorbents for the removal of radioactive 90Sr2+ and 137Cs+ ions and oils

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Tao; Zhao, Zhiwei; Shen, Congcong; Li, Jiaxing; Tan, Xiaoli; Zeb, Akif; Wang, Xiangke; Xu, An-Wu

    2016-01-01

    For the increasing attention focused on saving endangered environments, there is a growing need for developing membrane materials able to perform complex functions such as removing radioactive pollutants and oil spills from water. A major challenge is the scalable fabrication of membranes with good mechanical and thermal stability, superior resistance to radiation, and excellent recyclability. In this study, we constructed a multifunctional flexible free-standing sodium titanate nanobelt (Na-TNB) membrane that was assembled as advanced radiation-tainted water treatment and oil uptake. We compared the adsorption behavior of 137Cs+ and 90Sr2+ on Na-TNB membranes under various environmental conditions. The maximum adsorption coefficient value (Kd) for Sr2+ reaches 107 mL g−1. The structural collapse of the exchange materials were confirmed by XRD, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy as well as Raman analysis. The adsorption mechanism of Na-TNB membrane is clarified by forming a stable solid with the radioactive cations permanently trapped inside. Besides, the engineered multilayer membrane is exceptionally capable in selectively and rapidly adsorbing oils up to 23 times the adsorbent weight when coated with a thin layer of hydrophobic molecules. This multifunctional membrane has exceptional potential as a suitable material for next generation water treatment and separation technologies. PMID:26865116

  4. Multifunctional flexible free-standing titanate nanobelt membranes as efficient sorbents for the removal of radioactive 90Sr2+ and 137Cs+ ions and oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Tao; Zhao, Zhiwei; Shen, Congcong; Li, Jiaxing; Tan, Xiaoli; Zeb, Akif; Wang, Xiangke; Xu, An-Wu

    2016-02-01

    For the increasing attention focused on saving endangered environments, there is a growing need for developing membrane materials able to perform complex functions such as removing radioactive pollutants and oil spills from water. A major challenge is the scalable fabrication of membranes with good mechanical and thermal stability, superior resistance to radiation, and excellent recyclability. In this study, we constructed a multifunctional flexible free-standing sodium titanate nanobelt (Na-TNB) membrane that was assembled as advanced radiation-tainted water treatment and oil uptake. We compared the adsorption behavior of 137Cs+ and 90Sr2+ on Na-TNB membranes under various environmental conditions. The maximum adsorption coefficient value (Kd) for Sr2+ reaches 107 mL g-1. The structural collapse of the exchange materials were confirmed by XRD, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy as well as Raman analysis. The adsorption mechanism of Na-TNB membrane is clarified by forming a stable solid with the radioactive cations permanently trapped inside. Besides, the engineered multilayer membrane is exceptionally capable in selectively and rapidly adsorbing oils up to 23 times the adsorbent weight when coated with a thin layer of hydrophobic molecules. This multifunctional membrane has exceptional potential as a suitable material for next generation water treatment and separation technologies.

  5. Assessment of 137Cs and 90Sr Fluxes in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, Gennady; Usiagina, Irina; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Ilin, Gennadii

    2014-05-01

    On the basis of published and own data the annual balance of radionuclide income/outcome was assessed for 137Cs and 90Sr in the Barents Sea for the period from 1950s to the presnt. The scheme of the isotope balance calculation in the Barents Sea included the following processes:atmospheric fallout; river run-off; liquid radioactive wastes releases, income from the Norwegian and the White Seas; outflow to the adjacent areas through the Novaya Zemlya straits and the transects Svalbard-Franz Josef Land and Franz Josef Land-Novaya Zemlya; radioactive decay. According to the multiyear dynamics, the inflow of 137Cs and 90Sr to the Barents Sea was significantly preconditioned by currents from the Norwegian Sea. Three peaks of 137Cs and 90Sr isotope concentrations were registered for the surface waters on the western border of the Barents Sea. The first one was observed in the mid-1960s and was conditioned by testing of nuclear weapons. The increase of isotope concentrations in 1975 and 1980 was preconditioned by the discharge of atomic waste by the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant. Nowadays, after the sewage disposal plant was built, the annual discharge of nuclear waste from Sellafield plant is low. The Norwegian Sea was a major source of 137Cs and 90Sr isotope income into the Barents Sea for the period of 1960-2014. Currently, the transborder transfer of 90Sr and 137Cs from the Norwegian Sea into the Barents Sea constitutes about 99% of income for each element. Atmospheric precipitation had a major impact in the 1950-1960s after the testing of the nuclear weapons, and in 1986 after the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station. In 1963, the atmospheric precipitation of 137Cs reached 1050 TBq; and that of 90Sr, 630 TBq. In 1986, a significant amount of 137Cs inflow (up to 1010 TBq/year) was registered. The 137Cs isotope income exceeded the 90Sr income in the 1960s-1980s, and equal amounts penetrated into the Barents Sea from the Norwegian Sea in the 1990s. Before

  6. Accumulation and distribution of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the body of the wild boar (Sus scrofa) found on the territory with radioactive contamination.

    PubMed

    Gulakov, Andrey Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    We studied the concentration and distribution of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the bodies of 188 wild boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758) taken near the Chernobyl site. Of these, 111 animals were taken in the Alienation Zone, 41 animals were taken in the Permanent Control Zone and 36 animals were taken in the Periodic Control Zone. The samples included muscle and bone (rib) tissues and samples of heart, liver, lungs, kidneys, spleen, genitals and skin. The weight of the samples was 0.5 kg fresh weigh. The average concentration of (137)Cs in the muscles of the wild boar found in the Alienation Zone was 46 ± 10 kBq/kg, in the Permanent Control Zone - 13 ± 3.0 kBq/kg and in the Periodic Control Zone - 0.6 ± 0.1 kBq/kg. The largest concentration of (137)Cs was detected in the muscle tissue and kidneys taken animals. In some samples of muscle tissue it reached more than 660 kBq/kg. The (137)Cs concentrations were also high in heart and spleen up 64.3 kBq/kg and 67.5 kBq/kg - animals from the Alienation Zone and 10.3-10.6 kBq/kg - animals from the Permanent Control zone. The lowest concentration of (137)Cs was found in the lungs and skin of animals. The analyses of (90)Sr concentration in the organs and tissues of the wild boar showed that (90)Sr was concentrated mainly in the bone tissue. The average level of (90)Sr concentration in bone was 17.6 kBq/kg fresh weight animals from the Alienation Zone and 13.47 kBg/kg - animals from the Permanent Control zone. In muscle tissues and organs contained (90)Sr - 30.0-110.0 Bq/kg in the Alienation Zone and 11.0-30.0 Bq/kg in the Permanent Control zone.

  7. Long-term behavior of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in the environment: Case studies in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Corcho-Alvarado, J A; Balsiger, B; Sahli, H; Astner, M; Byrde, F; Röllin, S; Holzer, R; Mosimann, N; Wüthrich, S; Jakob, A; Burger, M

    2016-08-01

    We present long-term records of the (137)Cs and (90)Sr activity concentrations in soil, grass and milk from two lowland and two alpine pastures of Switzerland. The data is used for better understanding the long-term behavior of these radionuclides in the environment. Transfer factors between compartments are used as qualitative indicators of the magnitude of transfer and as a way to compare different elements (e.g. Cs and Sr) in similar conditions. The long-term behavior was quantified by means of the effective half-life which integrates all processes that cause a decrease of activity in a given medium such as leaching, fixation, erosion and radioactive decay. Our study shows that (90)Sr is more likely transferred from alpine soil to grass than (137)Cs. This is explained by a stronger fixation of Cs in the soils. We observed higher transfers of (90)Sr to grass in soils with lower Ca concentrations, and vice versa. In contrast, the transfer of (137)Cs to grass was not affected by the variations of the K content in the soil. We provide evidence that shows that (137)Cs, after intake by dairy cattle, is more likely transferred to milk than (90)Sr. However, as the (90)Sr and Ca transfers to milk are influenced by parameters/processes that were not taken into account in our study, our result cannot be entirely validated. The effective half-lives of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in soil, grass and milk corresponded with previous estimates in alpine soils. We have found that processes other than radioactive decay are responsible for a major decrease of the (90)Sr activity in soil. For (137)Cs, on the other hand, radioactive decay is among the most relevant process. Our data shows to be of interest in studying the trends of behavior of radionuclides in alpine regions.

  8. Modification of the (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (60)Co transfer to wheat plantlets by NH4(+) fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Guillén, J; Muñoz-Muñoz, G; Baeza, A; Salas, A; Mocanu, N

    2017-03-01

    Inorganic fertilizers are used as agricultural countermeasures intended to inhibit the soil to plant transfer of radionuclides after a radioactive fallout. Two NH4(+) fertilizers, diammonium phosphate (DAP) and NPK, were applied to soil contaminated with a mixture of radionuclides to analyze whether they modify the transfer of (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (60)Co and stable elements (K, Na, Ca, and Mg) to wheat plantlets grown under controlled laboratory conditions. DAP introduced NH4(+) in the soil, which can increase (137)Cs transfer, while NPK also introduced K(+), which can decrease it. The application of DAP increased the accumulation of (137)Cs in wheat plantlets with increasing application rate, so did the (137)Cs/K in plantlets. Regarding the NPK application, the (137)Cs increased in all treatments, but at maximum rate, the available K introduced by the fertilizer was probably able to partially satisfy the nutritional requirements of the wheat plantlet and the (137)Cs decreased relative to the recommended rate. The (137)Cs/K ratio in plantlet decreased with increasing NPK rates. The transfer of (90)Sr increased with increasing DAP rate and only at the maximum NPK rate. The (60)Co transfer only increased at the maximum application rates for DAP and NPK. These modifications should be considered when using these fertilizers as agricultural countermeasures.

  9. Determination of distribution coefficient of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in soil from AERE, Savar

    SciTech Connect

    Mollah, A.S.; Ullah, S.M.

    1998-12-31

    The sorption characteristics of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr on soil matrix have been studied by the batch technique. The sorption coefficients (K{sub d}) and retardation factor (R{sub f}) have been determined for these radionuclides on soil matrices collected from a number of locations in and around the proposed site for shallow land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) campus, Savar. The K{sub d} values varied from 1,278 to 2,156 ml/g for {sup 137}Cs and from 350 to 640 ml/g for {sup 90}Sr. The retardation factors varied from 1,709 to 3,072 for {sup 137}Cs and from 409 to 903 for {sub 90}Sr. The results obtained indicated that the AERE soils have good sorption capacity for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr radionuclides. These data could be used in radionuclides transport and safety assessment models.

  10. [Radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in the benthos near the nuclear submarine "Komsomolets"].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A P; Shmelev, I P; Demidov, A M; Efimov, B V; Shubko, V M

    1999-01-01

    We have analyzed the content of radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs in the benthofauna and deposits near the nuclear submarine "Komsomolets." Analysis was performed on the basis of the materials of the 31st (1993) and 36th (1995) voyages of R/V "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" in correspondence with the system of monitoring the state of the abiotic and biotic situation near the nuclear submarine "Komsomolets" (Norwegian Sea). Whereas during the 33rd voyage of this vessel (1994) the content of these elements in the benthic animals at stations located close to the submarine somewhat exceeded the background level of radioactivity (Kuznetsov et al., 1996), no such excess was found during the 31st and 36th voyages. Meanwhile, radioactive cobalt (60Co) was found in representatives of three groups of animals during the 31st voyage at two stations located near the submarine.

  11. [The optimization of the soil acidity of agrocenosis contaminated 137Cs and 90Sr: threshold parameters].

    PubMed

    Putiatin, Iu V; Seraia, T M

    2005-01-01

    During the field researches were determined the differences between agrochemical optimum of the acidity of the Sod-podzol loamy sand soil, which provides high productivity of the crops and the pH-value, which provides the minimal accumulation of 137Cs and of 90Sr by the biomass (the ecological optimum). On the average for the majority of the agricultural plants the minimal accumulations of 137Cs and of 90Sr are noticed under pHKCl 6.7, which is higher than agrochemical optimum on 0.7. The efficiency of liming under the discrimination of 137Cs and of 90Sr is much higher in soils with low values of pH. On the average, in crop rotation due to decreasing of the acidity in the soil from 4.9 to 5.9 pHKCl, the crop yield has grown on 9%, 137Cs contents has decreased on 16.7%, 90Sr--on 23.7%. The further decreasing of the soil acidity (from 5.9 to 6.8 pHKCl) was poorly effective: the productivity didn't change essentially. The transfer of 137Cs decreased on 8.9% and of 90Sr on 8.4%.

  12. Temporal variations of 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations and the 137Cs/90Sr activity ratio in marine brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria longissima, collected in coastal areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Morita, Takami; Fujimoto, Ken; Kasai, Hiromi; Yamada, Haruya; Nishiuchi, Kou

    2010-05-01

    The anthropogenic radionuclides, 90Sr and 137Cs, were measured in two marine algal species, wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) and edible kelp (Laminaria longissima), collected in four coastal areas of Japan during 1998-2008. Although 90Sr and 137Cs could be detected at all sampling sites, the concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were at low levels and those in some samples were below the detection limit. These low concentrations and the small variation of both concentrations and the 137Cs/90Sr activity ratio indicate that the source of 90Sr and 137Cs detected in this study originated from the global fallout deposition following atmospheric nuclear-bomb tests in the past. There were no significant differences in both concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in wakame seaweed among three sampling sites. Although wakame seaweed is extensively distributed in southern and central Japan, it does not occur in northern areas and so edible kelp was monitored. The concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in edible kelp were significantly different from those in wakame seaweed in some sampling sites. These differences could be due to the difference in the concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in the surrounding seawater or the difference in species. The combined data with data from the previous report and the preexisting database showed that wakame seaweed incorporated 137Cs through a different pathway from that of 90Sr. The combined data also suggested that wakame seaweed responded differently to the source of 137Cs.

  13. Uptake and distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in salix viminalis plants.

    PubMed

    von Firck, Y; Rosén, K; Sennerby-Forsse, L

    2002-01-01

    Agricultural areas in middle and northern parts of Sweden were contaminated with radionuclides after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Alternative crops in these areas are biomass plantations with fast-growing Salix clones for energy purposes. The uptake and internal distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in Salix viminalis were studied. Plants were grown in microplots under field conditions. The soils in the experimental site had been contaminated in 1961 with 35.7 and 13.4 MBq m(-2) of 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. The experiment was carried out during three years. The plots were fertilised with 60 kg N ha(-1) and three treatments of K, consisting of 0, 80 and 240 kg K ha(-1) during the first two years. The activity concentration of 137Cs in the different plant parts varied between 140 and 20,000 Bq kg(-1) and was ranked in the following order: lowest in stems < cuttings < leaves < roots. The fine roots (0-1 mm) had the highest 137Cs activity concentration. One-year-old stems had higher 137Cs activity concentrations than two-year-old stems. The activity concentration of 137Cs in the plants was significantly affected by K-supply and was higher in the 0 kg K treatment than in the 80 or 240kg K treatment. Leaves contained more 90Sr than stems and cuttings.

  14. Inventory and vertical migration of 90Sr fallout and 137Cs/90Sr ratio in Spanish mainland soils.

    PubMed

    Herranz, M; Romero, L M; Idoeta, R; Olondo, C; Valiño, F; Legarda, F

    2011-11-01

    In this paper the inventory of (90)Sr in 34 points distributed along the Spanish peninsular territory is presented. Obtained values range between 173 Bq/m(2) and 2047 Bq/m(2). From these data set and those (137)Cs data obtained in a previous work the (137)Cs/(90)Sr activity ratio has been established, laying this value between 0.9 and 3.6. Also the migration depth of both radionuclides has been analysed obtaining for (137)Cs an average value 57% lower than that obtained for (90)Sr. Additionally, this paper presents the results obtained in 11 sampling points in which the activity vertical profile has been measured. These profiles have been analysed to state the behaviour of strontium in soils and after, by using a convective-diffusive model, the parameters of the model which governs the vertical migration of (90)Sr in the soil, v (apparent convection velocity) and D (apparent diffusion coefficient) have been evaluated. Mean values obtained are 0.20 cm/year and 3.67 cm(2)/year, respectively.

  15. The "AQUASCOPE" simplified model for predicting 89,90Sr, 131I, and 134,137Cs in surface waters after a large-scale radioactive fallout.

    PubMed

    Smith, J T; Belova, N V; Bulgakov, A A; Comans, R N J; Konoplev, A V; Kudelsky, A V; Madruga, M J; Voitsekhovitch, O V; Zibold, G

    2005-12-01

    Simplified dynamic models have been developed for predicting the concentrations of radiocesium, radiostrontium, and I in surface waters and freshwater fish following a large-scale radioactive fallout. The models are intended to give averaged estimates for radionuclides in water bodies and in fish for all times after a radioactive fallout event. The models are parameterized using empirical data collected for many lakes and rivers in Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, UK, Finland, Italy, The Netherlands, and Germany. These measurements span a long time period after fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and following the Chernobyl accident. The models thus developed were tested against independent measurements from the Kiev Reservoir and Chernobyl Cooling Pond (Ukraine) and the Sozh River (Belarus) after the Chernobyl accident, from Lake Uruskul (Russia), following the Kyshtym accident in 1957, and from Haweswater Reservoir (UK), following atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. The AQUASCOPE models (implemented in EXCEL spreadsheets) and model documentation are available free of charge from the corresponding author.

  16. 137Cs and 90Sr behavioural regularities in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Styro, D; Bumeliene, Z; Lukinskiene, M; Morkuniene, R

    2001-01-01

    Variations in 137Cs concentrations were investigated over the period 1986-1997 in the southeastern part of the Baltic Sea, following the Chernobyl power plant accident. The rate of "self-cleaning" was demonstrated to be very slow, the average concentration of 137Cs in 1996 being almost the same as that measured directly after the accident, in 1986. Measurements of both 137Cs and 90Sr concentrations generally revealed homogeneous distributions in this region of the Baltic Sea, though patchy distributions did develop under some hydrometeorological conditions. Specifically, the 137Cs concentration distribution became heterogeneous with values varying in the range 60-92 Bq/m3 under south-southwesterly wind conditions whilst the 90Sr concentration distribution developed similar characteristics with values ranging from 15 to 64 Bq/m3 under east-southeasterly wind conditions. In addition, in coastal waters, over extensive periods of north-northwesterly winds in 1995, 137Cs concentrations increased to values 1.5-2 times the overall average concentration, which was registered in 1986 and 1996. These data therefore reveal a continuing significant pollution of the waters of the Baltic Sea resulting from the Chernobyl power plant accident, a pollution compounded by the slow rate of radionuclide self-cleaning and significant probability of sudden regional concentration increase.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF 90SR AND 137CS PENETRATION INTO REINFORCED CONCRETE (EXTENT OF 'DEEPENING') UNDER NATURAL ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    When assessing the feasibility of remediation following the detonation of a radiological dispersion device or improvised nuclear device in a large city, several issues should be considered including the levels and characteristics of the radioactive contamination, the availability of resources required for decontamination, and the planned future use of the city's structures and buildings. Currently, little is known about radionuclide penetration into construction materials in an urban environment. Knowledge in this area would be useful when considering costs of a thorough decontamination of buildings, artificial structures, and roads in an affected urban environment. Pripyat, a city substantially contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in April 1986, may provide some answers. The main objective of this study was to assess the depth of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs penetration into reinforced concrete structures in a highly contaminated urban environment under natural weather conditions. Thirteen reinforced concrete core samples were obtained from external surfaces of a contaminated building in Pripyat. The concrete cores were drilled to obtain sample layers of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 mm. Both {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were detected in the entire 0-50 mm profile of the reinforced cores sampled. In most of the cores, over 90% of the total {sup 137}Cs inventory and 70% of the total {sup 90}Sr inventory was found in the first 0-5 mm layer of the reinforced concrete. {sup 90}Sr had penetrated markedly deeper into the reinforced concrete structures than {sup 137}Cs.

  18. Assessment of (90)sr and (137)cs penetration into reinforced concrete (extent of "deepening") under natural atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Farfán, Eduardo B; Gaschak, Sergey P; Maksymenko, Andrey M; Donnelly, Elizabeth H; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Jannik, G Tim; Marra, James C

    2011-09-01

    When assessing the feasibility of remediation following the detonation of a radiological dispersion device or improvised nuclear device in a large city, several issues should be considered, including the levels and characteristics of the radioactive contamination, the availability of resources required for decontamination and the planned future use of the city's structures and buildings. Currently, little is known about radionuclide penetration into construction materials in an urban environment. Knowledge in this area would be useful when considering costs of a thorough decontamination of buildings, artificial structures and roads in an affected urban environment. Pripyat, a city substantially contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in April 1986, may provide some answers. The main objective of this study was to assess the depth of (90)Sr and (137)Cs penetration into reinforced concrete structures in a highly contaminated urban environment under natural weather conditions. Thirteen reinforced concrete core samples were obtained from external surfaces of a contaminated building in Pripyat. The concrete cores were drilled to obtain sample layers of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-30, 30-40 and 40-50 mm. Both (90)Sr and (137)Cs were detected in the entire 0-50 mm profile of the reinforced cores sampled. In most of the cores, over 90% of the total (137)Cs inventory and 70% of the total (90)Sr inventory was found in the first 0-5 mm layer of the reinforced concrete. Strontium-90 ((90)Sr) had penetrated markedly deeper into the reinforced concrete structures than (137)Cs.

  19. Transfer, pathways, enrichment, and discharge of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the pulp industry

    SciTech Connect

    Krosshavn, M.; Skipperud, L.; Lien, H.N.; Salbu, B.

    1996-09-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides are transferred from terrestrial ecosystems via the forest industry to coastal sea water. The material processed, i.e., wood, fresh water, and bark, have low levels of radionuclides, but large amounts of raw materials are processed annually. Thus the annual flux of radionuclides is substantial. The purpose of this investigation was to study transfer, redistribution, enrichment, and discharges of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in pulp industry employing the sulphate process. {sup 137}Cs was highly enriched in the recovering process for sodium, while {sup 90}Sr was enriched in the recovering system for calcium compared to concentration levels in raw materials. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in bark were almost ten times the concentration level in conifer wood. No {sup 137}Cs or {sup 90}Sr could be identified in atmospheric discharges from the combustion processes. The products contained very low levels of these radionuclides. Only 5% of the annual input of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were found in the products. Discharges of radionuclides from this particular pulp production plant is nearly 40% of the annual {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr input. The contribution of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr to coastal seawater is probably of minor importance providing that wood or fresh water from highly contaminated areas are not utilized. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. [137Cs and 90Sr accumulation in birch wood (Betula pendula Roth.) growing in regions with different soil conditions].

    PubMed

    Perevolotskiĭ, A N; Bulavik, I M; Perevolotskaia, T V; Paskrobko, L A; Andrush, S N

    2005-01-01

    The studies of 137Cs and 90Sr accumulation characteristics by birch wood (Betula pendula Roth.) growing in different edaphic conditions. Were conducted was stated that the increase in soil fertility from trophotops A to D results in 5-fold 137Cs transfer factor decrease and 2-fold decrease of 90Sr. Soil humidity increase for each grade of trophic net results happens the increase of 137Cs transfer factors to wood and decrease for 90Sr. Total activity of 37Cs and 90Sr in birch wood plantation depends on plantation productivity and on radionuclide transfer factors depending on different plantation conditions. In the most prevailing edaphotops (B2, B3, C2 and C3) birch wood accumulates 0.6-1.2% of 137Cs and 13-19% of 90Sr from total activity of radionuclides in biogeocenosis.

  1. Discharge of 137Cs and 90Sr by Finnish rivers to the Baltic Sea in 1986-1996.

    PubMed

    Saxén, R; Ilus, E

    2001-01-01

    The total amounts of 137Cs and 90Sr transported from Finland by rivers into the Gulf of Finland, Gulf of Bothnia and Archipelago Sea since 1986 were estimated. The estimates were based on long-term monitoring of 137Cs and 90Sr in river and other surface waters and on the statistics of water discharges from Finnish rivers to the above sub-areas of the Baltic Sea. The total amounts of 137Cs and 90Sr removed from Finland into the Baltic Sea during 1986-1996 were estimated to be 65 and 10 TBq, respectively. The results show that, although the deposition of 137Cs was much higher than that of 90Sr after the Chernobyl accident, the amount of 137Cs removed from Finland is only six times as high as that of 90Sr. This emphasizes the importance of 90Sr while considering radiation doses from surface waters and 137Cs while estimating doses via pathways from catchment soil, lake sediments and biota after a fallout situation.

  2. Uncertainties in dose coefficients from ingestion of 131I, 137Cs, and 90Sr.

    PubMed

    Apostoaei, A Iulian; Miller, Laurence F

    2004-05-01

    Quantification of uncertainties in doses from intakes of radionuclides is important in risk assessments and epidemiologic studies of individuals exposed to radiation. In this study, the uncertainties in the doses per unit intake (i.e., dose coefficients) for ingestion of 131I, 137Cs, and 90Sr by healthy individuals have been determined. Age-dependent thyroid dose coefficients were derived for 131I. The analysis for 131I uses recent measurements of thyroid volume obtained by ultrasonography, which indicate a thyroid mass lower than that previously obtained using autopsy measurements. The coefficients for 137Cs are determined using the relationship between the biological half-lives and the amount of potassium in the human body. The most recent International Commission on Radiological Protection biokinetic model was employed to determine the uncertainties for 90Sr. For 137Cs and 90Sr, the dose coefficients represent exposure in adulthood and they were determined for all organs of radiological importance. The uncertainty in the estimated dose coefficients represent state of knowledge estimates for a reference individual, and they are described by lognormal distributions with a specified geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD). The estimated geometric means vary only slightly from the dose coefficients reported by ICRP publications. The largest uncertainty is observed in the dose coefficients for bone surface (GSD = 2.6), and red bone marrow (GSD = 2.4) in the case of ingestion of 90Sr. For most other organs, the uncertainty in the 90Sr dose coefficients is characterized by a GSD of 1.8 (or less for some organs). For 131I, the uncertainty in the thyroid dose coefficients is well represented by a GSD of 1.7 for both sexes and all ages other than infants for whom a GSD of 1.8 is more appropriate. The lowest uncertainties are obtained for the dose coefficients from ingestion of 137Cs (GSD = 1.24 for males; 1.4 for females). A dominant source of

  3. Impact of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) plantings on long term (137)Cs and (90)Sr recycling from a waste burial site in the Chernobyl Red Forest.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Yves; Colle, Claude; Yoschenko, Vasyl; Levchuk, Svjatoslav; Van Hees, May; Hurtevent, Pierre; Kashparov, Valery

    2009-12-01

    Plantings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) on a waste burial site in the Chernobyl Red Forest was shown to greatly influence the long term redistribution of radioactivity contained in sub-surfaces trenches. After 15 years of growth, aboveground biomass of the average tree growing on waste trench no.22 had accumulated 1.7 times more (137)Cs than that of trees growing off the trench, and 5.4 times more (90)Sr. At the scale of the trench and according to an average tree density of 3300 trees/ha for the study zone, tree contamination would correspond to 0.024% of the (137)Cs and 2.52% of the (90)Sr contained in the buried waste material. A quantitative description of the radionuclide cycling showed a potential for trees to annually extract up to 0.82% of the (90)Sr pool in the trench and 0.0038% of the (137)Cs. A preferential (90)Sr uptake from the deep soil is envisioned while pine roots would take up (137)Cs mostly from less contaminated shallow soil layers. The current upward flux of (90)Sr through vegetation appeared at least equal to downward loss in waste material leaching as reported by Dewiere et al. (2004, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 74, 139-150). Using a prospective calculation model, we estimated that maximum (90)Sr cycling can be expected to occur at 40 years post-planting, resulting in 12% of the current (90)Sr content in the trench transferred to surface soils through biomass turnover and 7% stored in tree biomass. These results are preliminary, although based on accurate methodology. A more integrated ecosystem study leading to the coupling between biological and geochemical models of radionuclide cycling within the Red Forest seems opportune. Such a study would help in the adequate management of that new forest and the waste trenches upon which they reside.

  4. Reassessment of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, and (134)Cs in the Coast off Japan Derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Castrillejo, Maxi; Casacuberta, Núria; Breier, Crystaline F; Pike, Steven M; Masqué, Pere; Buesseler, Ken O

    2016-01-05

    The years following the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident, the distribution of (90)Sr in seawater in the coast off Japan has received limited attention. However, (90)Sr is a major contaminant in waters accumulated within the nuclear facility and in the storage tanks. Seawater samples collected off the FDNPP in September 2013 showed radioactive levels significantly higher than pre-Fukushima levels within 6 km off the FDNPP. These samples, with up to 8.9 ± 0.4 Bq·m(-3) for (90)Sr, 124 ± 3 Bq·m(-3) for (137)Cs, and 54 ± 1 Bq·m(-3) for (134)Cs, appear to be influenced by ongoing releases from the FDNPP, with a characteristic (137)Cs/(90)Sr activity ratio of 3.5 ± 0.2. Beach surface water and groundwater collected in Sendai Bay had (137)Cs concentrations of up to 43 ± 1 Bq·m(-3), while (90)Sr was close to pre-Fukushima levels (1-2 Bq·m(-3)). These samples appear to be influenced by freshwater inputs carrying a (137)Cs/(90)Sr activity ratio closer to that of the FDNPP fallout deposited on land in the spring of 2011. Ongoing inputs of (90)Sr from FDNPP releases would be on the order of 2.3-8.5 GBq·d(-1) in September 2013, likely exceeding river inputs by 2-3 orders of magnitude. These results strongly suggest that a continuous surveillance of artificial radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean is still required.

  5. Mass spectrometry for the determination of fission products 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr: A review of methodology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Xuemei; Long, Kaiming; Hu, Sheng; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-05-01

    The radioactive fission products 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr have been released into the environment by human activities such as nuclear weapon tests, nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear power plant accidents. Monitoring of these radionuclides is important for dose assessment. Moreover, the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic ratio can be used as an important long-term fingerprint for radioactive source identification as it varies with weapon, reactor and fuel types. In recent years, mass spectrometry has become a powerful method for the determination of 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr in environmental samples. Mass spectrometry is characterized by the high sensitivity and low detection limit and the relatively shorter sample preparation and analysis times compared with radiometric methods. However, the mass spectrometric determination of radiocesium and 90Sr is affected by the peak tailings of the stable nuclides 133Cs and 88Sr, respectively, and the related isobaric and polyatomic interferences. Chemical separation and optimization of the mass spectrometry instrumental setup are strongly needed prior to the mass spectrometry detection. In this paper, we have reviewed the published works about the determination of 135Cs, 137Cs and 90Sr by mass spectrometry. The mass spectrometric techniques we cover are resonance ionization mass spectrometry (RIMS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For each technique, the principles or strategies used for the analysis of these radionuclides are discussed; these included the abundance sensitivity, ways to suppress the interference signals, and the instrumental setup. In particular, the chemical procedures for eliminating the interferences are also summarized. To date, triple quadrupole ICP-MS (ICP-QQQ) showed great ability for the analysis of these radionuclides and the detection limits were as low as 0.01 pg/mL levels. Finally, some investigations on the

  6. 90Sr, 137Cs and (239,240)Pu concentration surface water time series in the Pacific and Indian Oceans--WOMARS results.

    PubMed

    Povinec, Pavel P; Aarkrog, Asker; Buesseler, Ken O; Delfanti, Roberta; Hirose, Katsumi; Hong, Gi Hoon; Ito, Toshimichi; Livingston, Hugh D; Nies, Hartmut; Noshkin, Victor E; Shima, Shigeki; Togawa, Orihiko

    2005-01-01

    Under an IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Project "Worldwide Marine Radioactivity Studies (WOMARS)" 90Sr, 137Cs and (239,240)Pu concentration surface water time series in the Pacific and Indian Oceans have been investigated. The Pacific and Indian Oceans were divided into 17 latitudinal boxes according to ocean circulation, global fallout patterns and the location of nuclear weapons test sites. The present levels and time trends in radionuclide concentrations in surface water for each box were studied and the corresponding effective half-lives were estimated. For the year 2000, the estimated average 90Sr, 137Cs and (239,240)Pu concentrations in surface waters of the Pacific and Indian Oceans varied from 0.1 to 1.5 mBq/L, 0.1 to 2.8 mBq/L, and 0.1 to 5.2 microBq/L, respectively. The mean effective half-lives for 90Sr and 137Cs in surface water were 12+/-1 years for the North, 20+/-1 years for the South and 21+/-2 years for the Equatorial Pacific. For (239,240)Pu the corresponding mean effective half-lives were 7+/-1 years for the North, 12+/-4 years for the South and 10+/-2 years for the Equatorial Pacific. For the Indian Ocean the mean effective half-lives of 137Cs and (239,240)Pu were 21+/-2 years and 9+/-1 years, respectively. There is evidence that fallout removal rates before 1970 were faster than those observed during recent decades. The estimated surface water concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs and (239,240)Pu in latitudinal belts of the Pacific and Indian Oceans for the year 2000 may be used as the average levels so that any new contribution from nuclear facilities, nuclear weapons test sites, radioactive waste dumping sites and from possible nuclear accidents can be identified.

  7. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for 137Cs and 90Sr on proton and deuteron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Otsu, H.; Sakurai, H.; Ahn, D. S.; Aikawa, M.; Doornenbal, P.; Fukuda, N.; Isobe, T.; Kawakami, S.; Koyama, S.; Kubo, T.; Kubono, S.; Lorusso, G.; Maeda, Y.; Makinaga, A.; Momiyama, S.; Nakano, K.; Niikura, M.; Shiga, Y.; Söderström, P.-A.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H.; Takeuchi, S.; Taniuchi, R.; Watanabe, Ya.; Watanabe, Yu.; Yamasaki, H.; Yoshida, K.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied spallation reactions for the fission products 137Cs and 90Sr for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The spallation cross sections on the proton and deuteron were obtained in inverse kinematics for the first time using secondary beams of 137Cs and 90Sr at 185 MeV/nucleon at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The target dependence has been investigated systematically, and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter spallation products. The experimental data are compared with the PHITS calculation, which includes cascade and evaporation processes. Our results suggest that both proton- and deuteron-induced spallation reactions are promising mechanisms for the transmutation of radioactive fission products.

  8. Effect of selective sorptive agents on leachability of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.

    1998-06-01

    Decades ago it was established that illite effectively improves {sup 137}Cs leach resistance. Subsequently, illite has become a standard ingredient used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in grouts developed to stabilize {sup 137}Cs. Adding illite improves {sup 137}Cs leach resistance by three orders of magnitude, and increasing the illite concentration can add another order of magnitude improvement. Adding crystalline silicotitanate, a selective sorptive agent developed more recently for {sup 137}Cs, not only improves {sup 137}Cs leach resistance by an order-of-magnitude over that obtained using illite but also improves {sup 85}Sr leach resistance by two orders of magnitude.

  9. Sedimentary fluxes of 90Sr, 137Cs, 239,240Pu and 210Pb in the East Sea (Sea of Japan).

    PubMed

    Hong, G H; Lee, S H; Kim, S H; Chung, C S; Baskaran, M

    1999-09-30

    Sediment cores collected from the deep basins of the East Sea (Sea of Japan) provide an ongoing and historical record of artificial radionuclides contamination into one of the most highly publicized radioactive waste dumping areas in the world ocean. The depth distributions of 90Sr, 137Cs and 239,240Pu in sediment cores were investigated with the aid of 210Pb-derived sediment accumulation and mixing rates in the deep basins of the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Five box core samples were collected from the northern Yamato Ridge, Korea Plateau, Ulleung and Japan Basins below 1000-m depth. Sediment inventories of 137Cs and 239,240Pu are inversely correlated with water depth and linearly correlated with sediment accumulation rates. The inventories of these nuclides are linearly correlated with the accumulation rates of organic carbon in sediments. The 238Pu/239,240Pu activity ratios in sediments are 0.036 +/- 0.009 suggesting that most of the Pu to the study area is derived from the global fallout. The activity ratios of 239,240Pu/137Cs, and 90Sr/137Cs in bottom sediments are much lower than those of global fallout due to the differences of particle affinity and biological uptake of these nuclides. Sediment inventories of 90Sr and 137Cs constitute < 4% of the anticipated inventories from the global fallout, while those of 239,240Pu constitute 30-150% of the anticipated inventories from the global fallout. The residence time of the dissolved 239,240Pu in the study area is estimated to be 200-400 years based on the sediment inventory and/or sediment accumulation rate, and water column inventory.

  10. 137Cs(90Sr) and Pu isotopes in the Pacific Ocean sources & trends

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.F., Millies-Lacrox, J.C.; Hong, G.H.

    1996-11-01

    The main source of artificial radioactivity in the world`s oceans can be attributed to worldwide fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Measurements of selected artificial radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean were first conducted in the 1960`s where it was observed that fallout radioactivity had penetrated the deep ocean. Extensive studies carried out during the 1973-74 GEOSECS provided the first comprehensive data on the lateral and vertical distributions of {sup 9O}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and Pu isotopes in the Pacific on a basin wide scale. Estimates of radionuclide inventories in excess of amounts predicted to be delivered by global fallout alone were attributed to close-in fallout and tropospheric inputs from early U.S. tests conducted on Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Equatorial Pacific. In general, levels of fallout radionuclides (including {sup 9O}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and Pu isotopes) in the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean have decreased considerably over the past 4 decades and are now much more homogeneously distributed. Resuspension and the subsequent deposition of fallout radionuclides from previously deposited debris on land has become an important source term for the surface ocean. This can be clearly seen in measurements of fallout radionuclides in mineral aerosols over the Korean Peninsula (Yellow dust events). Radionuclides may also be transported from land to sea in river runoff-these transport mechanisms are more important in the Pacific Ocean where large quantities of river water and suspended sands/fluvial sediments reach the coastal zone. Another unique source of artificial radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean is derived from the slow resolubilization and transport of radionuclides deposited in contaminated lagoon and slope sediments near U.S. and French test sites. Although there is a small but significant flux of artificial radionuclides depositing on the sea floor, > 80% of the total 239, {sup 240}Pu inventory and > 95% of the total {sup

  11. Ageing impact on the transfer factor of (137)Cs and (90)Sr to lettuce and winter wheat.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Abdul Ghani, Basem

    2016-11-01

    The study focuses on long-term (extending from 1 to 10 years) lysimeter experiments of the transfer factor of (137)Cs and (90)Sr to lettuce and winter wheat crops. Transfer factors (Fvs) were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg(-1)). Fvs of (137)Cs to lettuce decreased significantly with ageing; geometric means for the 1(st), 2(nd) and 10(th) year contaminated soil were 0.114, 0.030 and 0.013, respectively. However, a significant decline of Fvs for (137)Cs was only seen between the 1(st) and 2(nd) year for both wheat compartments (straw and grains) which disappeared thereafter. The dynamic of (137)Cs Fvs may be explained according to the distribution coefficient experiment (Kd) which had a value of 3600 L kg(-1) showing a high affinity of the clay minerals for caesium. Desorption data revealed that Cs fixation enhanced with ageing. The mechanism involved may be an initial sorption of caesium species to the surface soil particles followed by progressive irreversible fixation to the interlayer of the porous clay minerals. Fvs of (90)Sr were high and showed trivial variation for both crops for the time course studied. Sorption of Sr(2+) species to the clay mineral may be the governing process, which was supported by high desorption percentage (ranged 77%) with low Kd, i.e. 10 L kg(-1). In general, higher Fvs of (137)Cs and (90)Sr for lettuce was observed in comparison to winter wheat. The diversity of plant species and root systems would play essential roles for such behaviours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of the linear accelerator for incinerating the fission products of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, H; Mizoo, N; Steinberg, M

    1980-07-01

    Transmutation of fission products /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr using the neutron produced by high energy proton collision with heavy nuclei were investigated. Because of the small thermal neutron cross section for (n,..gamma..) reaction of /sup 137/Cs (0.1 barn), a high neutron flux of 10/sup 17/ n/cm/sup 2/ sec is required to transmute /sup 137/Cs at a rate ten times faster than the natural decay. This range of high flux is attainable in the spallation reaction of high energy proton beam interact with liquid Pb target. The neutronic calculation by using NMTC, HIST3D, EPR, TAPEMAKER and ANISN codes indicates that the spallation neutron can transmute 222 kg /sup 137/Cs and 155 kg /sup 90/Sr fission products per year (at a rate of 10 and 30 times faster than their natural decay rate) by running a 300 mA, 1.5 GeV proton beam. Thus, if we transmute these fission products, just after a burning cycle, this accelerator can transmute these fission products produced in five or six 1000 MWe power plants.

  13. Reconstruction and forecast of doses due to ingestion of 137Cs and 90Sr after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Kravets, A P; Pavlenko, Yu A

    2008-04-01

    The assessment doses due to ingestion of (137)Cs and (90)Sr for the population suffering from the Chernobyl accident was performed on the basis of the new mechanistic ecological model for assessment of radiological consequences of agricultural lands contamination (EMARC). The EMARC model allows estimation of internal doses based on ecological factors influencing the contamination of foodstuff, for the post-accidental years in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The EMARC model allows estimation of all quantities required in radiation hygiene practice. For example, the proposed analytical method may be used for both retrospective dose reconstruction and prospective estimates of annual dose and integrated "life-time" dose, for different age intervals. According to the EMARC model, estimated reference "life-time" doses for adults are between 7 and 269 microSv kBq(-1) m(2) for (137)Cs, and between 25 and 235 microSv kBq(-1) m(2) for (90)Sr. Maximal doses were estimated for persons who were 3, 9 and 11 years old, at the time of the accident and these doses exceed those for adults by a factors of 1, 5 for (90)Sr, and 1.4 for (137)Cs.

  14. Transfer factor of (90)Sr and (137)Cs to lettuce and winter wheat at different growth stage applications.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul

    2015-12-01

    The effect of clay soil contamination time on the transfer factors (Fvs) of (137)Cs and (90)Sr was investigated in four different growth stages of winter wheat and lettuce crops. The experiment was performed in an open field using lysimeters. The Fvs were the ratio of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides in crops to those in soil, both as dry weight (Bq kg(-1)). Significant difference of log-Fvs was evaluated using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Basically, Fvs of (90)Sr were higher than those of (137)Cs, despite of the application stage or crop' variety. Higher Fvs for both radionuclides were observed for lettuce in comparison to winter wheat. Fvs of (90)Sr showed comparable trends for both crops with enhanced Fvs obtained when contamination occurred in early stages, i.e. 1.20 for lettuce and 0.88 and 0.02 for winter wheat, straw and grains, respectively. Despite the fluctuation noted in the pattern of Fvs for (137)Cs, soil contaminated at the second stage gave the highest Fvs for lettuce and grains, with geometric means of 0.21 and 0.01, respectively. However, wheat-straw showed remarkable increase in Fv for the latest contamination (ripening stage), about 0.06. It could be concluded that soil contamination at early growth stages would represent high radiological risk for the scenarios studied with an exception to (137)Cs in winter wheat-straw which reflected greater hazard at the latest application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd on proton and deuteron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He; Otsu, Hideaki; Sakurai, Hiroyoshi; Ahn, DeukSoon; Aikawa, Masayuki; Ando, Takashi; Araki, Shouhei; Chen, Sidong; Chiga, Nobuyuki; Doornenbal, Pieter; Fukuda, Naoki; Isobe, Tadaaki; Kawakami, Shunsuke; Kawase, Shoichiro; Kin, Tadahiro; Kondo, Yosuke; Koyama, Shupei; Kubono, Shigeru; Maeda, Yukie; Makinaga, Ayano; Matsushita, Masafumi; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro; Michimasa, Shinichiro; Momiyama, Satoru; Nagamine, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakano, Keita; Niikura, Megumi; Ozaki, Tomoyuki; Saito, Atsumi; Saito, Takeshi; Shiga, Yoshiaki; Shikata, Mizuki; Shimizu, Yohei; Shimoura, Susumu; Sumikama, Toshiyuki; Söderström, Pär-Anders; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Taniuchi, Ryo; Togano, Yasuhiro; Tsubota, Junichi; Uesaka, Meiko; Watanabe, Yasushi; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Wimmer, Kathrin; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Koichi

    2017-09-01

    Spallation reactions for the long-lived fission products 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd have been studied for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The cross sections on the proton- and deuteron-induced spallation were obtained in inverse kinematics at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Both the target and energy dependences of cross sections have been investigated systematically. and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter fragments. The experimental data are compared with the SPACS semi-empirical parameterization and the PHITS calculations including both the intra-nuclear cascade and evaporation processes.

  16. Do Chernobyl-like contaminations with (137)Cs and (90)Sr affect the microbial community, the fungal biomass and the composition of soil organic matter in soil?

    PubMed

    Niedrée, Bastian; Berns, Anne E; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

    2013-04-01

    (137)Cs and (90)Sr are the main radionuclides responsible for contamination of agricultural soils due to core melts in nuclear power plants such as Chernobyl or Fukushima. The present study focused on effects of Chernobyl-like contaminations on the bacterial and fungal community structure, the fungal biomass and the formation of soil organic matter in native and in sterilized and reinoculated soils. 2% wheat straw [m/m] was applied to a typical agricultural soil, artificially contaminated with (137)Cs and (90)Sr, and it was then incubated in microcosms for three months at 20 °C and 50% of the water-holding capacity. The development of the microbial communities was monitored with 16S and 18S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The quantification of the ergosterol content was used as a proxy for changes in the fungal biomass. Changes in the soil organic matter were determined using the (13)C cross polarization/magic angle spinning nuclear magnet resonance technique ((13)C-CP/MAS NMR). Slight but significant population shifts in the DGGE gel patterns could be related to the applied radionuclides. However, radiation-induced impacts could not be seen in either the chemical composition of the soil organic matter or in the development of the fungal biomass. Impacts caused by sterilization and reinoculation prevailed in the microcosms of the present study. Contaminations with (137)Cs or (90)Sr up to 50-fold that of the hotspots occurring in Chernobyl led to minor changes in soil microbial functions suggesting a strong resilience of natural soils with respect to radioactive contamination.

  17. Accumulation and transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr in the plants of the forest ecosystem near the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Lukšienė, B; Marčiulionienė, D; Gudelienė, I; Schönhofer, F

    2013-02-01

    The radioecological state of the forest ecosystem in the vicinity of the Ignalina Power Plant prior to decommissioning was analysed with specific emphasis on (137)Cs and (90)Sr activity concentrations in plant species growing in two reference sampling sites (Tilze and Grikiniskes). In the period of 1996-2008 the mean contamination of plants with (137)Cs was from 45 to 119 Bq/kg and with (90)Sr - from 3 to 42 Bq/kg. Measured (137)Cs TF values for soil-root transfer mainly ranged between 1.0-1.4, except for Calamagrostis arundinacea which had a TF value of 0.1. On average, the (137)Cs TF value from root to shoot was 1.7 fold higher than for soil to root transfer. (90)Sr TF values (soil-root) were in the range of 1.2-1.8 but for Calluna vulgaris it was 0.2. The mean root to shoot TF value for (90)Sr was 7.7 fold higher. These results indicate the higher (90)Sr bioavailability than that of (137)Cs in the forested area. The Grikiniskes reference site is located nearby the Ignalina NPP, specifically the heated water outlet channel, which results in altered microclimatic conditions. These specific microclimatic conditions result in relationships between (137)Cs TF (soil-root) values and pH, moisture and organic matter content in the soil at Grikiniskes which appear to be different to those at the Tilze reference sampling site.

  18. Plutonium, 137Cs and 90Sr in selected invertebrates from some areas around Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Mietelski, Jerzy W; Maksimova, Svetlana; Szwałko, Przemysław; Wnuk, Katarzyna; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Błazej, Sylwia; Gaca, Paweł; Tomankiewicz, Ewa; Orlov, Olexandr

    2010-06-01

    Results are presented for (137)Cs, (90)Sr and plutonium activity concentrations in more than 20 samples of terrestrial invertebrates, including species of beetles, ants, spiders and millipedes, collected in the highly contaminated area of the Chernobyl exclusion zone. The majority of samples were collected in Belarus, with some also collected in the Ukraine. Three other samples were collected in an area of lower contamination. Results show that seven samples exceed an activity concentration of 100 kBq/kg (ash weight--a.w.) for (137)Cs. The maximum activity concentration for this isotope was 1.52+/-0.08 MBq/kg (a.w.) determined in ants (Formica cynerea). Seven results for (90)Sr exceeded 100 kBq/kg (a.w.), mostly for millipedes. Relatively high plutonium activity concentrations were found in some ants and earth-boring dung beetles. Analyses of activity ratios showed differences in transfer of radionuclides between species. To reveal the correlation structure of the multivariate data set, the Partial Least-Squares method (PLS) was used. Results of the PLS model suggest that high radiocesium activity concentrations in animal bodies can be expected mainly for relatively small creatures living on the litter surface. In contrast, high strontium activity concentrations can be expected for creatures which conduct their lives within litter, having mixed trophic habits and a moderate lifespan. No clear conclusions could be made for plutonium. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Prognosis of dynamics and risk of exceeding permissible levels of 137Cs and 90Sr contents in fish in the Kiev Reservoir at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Homutinin, Iu V; Kashparov, V A; Kuz'menko, A V; Pavliuchenko, V V

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the radionuclide specific activity measurements made on 832 samples of fish in 2009-2011 and taking into account literature data, the parameters of the stochastic model have been derived to describe the 137Cs and 90Sr contents in typical commercial fish species in the Kiev Reservoir at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident, including: statistical variability, seasonal changes and monotonous long-term trends. At any fixed moment of the year the standard deviations of logarithms of the 137Cs and 90Sr specific activities in carnivorous and benthophage fish species do not reliably differ, making up at average 0.4. The maximum vari- ation of the 137Cs specific activity (a four-fold decrease from April to November) was observed in pike. The obtained values of the ecological half-life periods for 137Cs and 90Sr (1.3-14 years) in fish of the Kiev reservoir in 2002-2012 were significantly lower than both the radioactive decay periods and the estimates of the IAEA Chernobyl Forum. Based on the obtained model parameters, the dynamics of the 137Cs and 90Sr specific ac- tivities in main commercial fish of the Kiev reservoir has been described and the risk of exceeding the permis- sible levels of these radionuclides in fish at the late phase of the Chernobyl accident has been estimated. Now the risk of catching fish with the specific activities of 137Cs and 90Sr above the permissible levels (150 Bq/kg and 35 Bq/kg, respectively) does not exceed 10% (except perch in the spring spawning period that is banned for fishing in Ukraine). Corresponding risks for roach, white bream and rudd are less than 0.1%.

  20. Migration of (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (239+240)Pu in Mediterranean forests: influence of bioavailability and association with organic acids in soil.

    PubMed

    Guillén, J; Baeza, A; Corbacho, J A; Muñoz-Muñoz, J G

    2015-06-01

    The understanding of downward migration of anthropogenic radionuclides in soil is a key factor in the assessment of their environmental behavior. There are several factors that can affect this process, such as the radionuclide source, their chemical form, soil and environmental characteristics, etc. Two Mediterranean pinewood ecosystems in Spain, which were affected mainly by global fallout, were selected to assess the migration of (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (239+240)Pu. Using auxiliary modeling (diffusion-convection equation and compartmental model), it followed from field observations that the migration velocities of (90)Sr and (239+240)Pu were similar and higher than that of (137)Cs. The downward migration of radionuclides can be considered a consequence of their association with soil particles. A sequential speciation procedure also confirmed that (90)Sr was the most bioavailable radionuclide followed by (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs. Although this can explain the different velocity of (90)Sr and (137)Cs, bioavailability could not explain by itself the similar velocities of (239+240)Pu and (90)Sr. The presence of organic acids in the soil can also influence the migration of radionuclides attached to them, which decreased in the order: (239+240)Pu > (90)Sr > (137)Cs. Thus, the joint consideration of bioavailable and humic + fulvic acid fractions can explain the observed differences in the downward velocities.

  1. Atmospheric deposition and riverine load of (90)Sr and (137)Cs to the Gulf of Gdańsk (southern Baltic Sea) in the period 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    In the period 2005-2011 total atmospheric fallout and the riverine input to the Gulf of Gdańsk was 1168.8 GBq of (90)Sr and 424.1 GBq (137)Cs. The major source of both radionuclides to the Gulf of Gdańsk is the Vistula river; its contribution reached 99.7% in the case of (90)Sr and 95.8% regarding (137)Cs. The atmospheric load of (137)Cs, 18.1 GBq, was nearly 4 times bigger than in the case of (90)Sr (3.75 GBq). In the period 2005-2010, the average annual atmospheric load were at the levels 2-3 GBq for (137)Cs and 0.4-0.6 GBq for (90)Sr, while in 2011, due to the Fukuchima Dai-ichi power plant break down, an increase of annual atmospheric loads was noted to 5.3 GBq of (137)Cs and to 0.87 GBq of (90)Sr. The additional loads did not have an increasing effect on the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in seawater of the Gulf of Gdańsk, where mean activity concentrations in seawater were equal to 31.1 Bq m(-3) and 7.6 Bq m(-3) in the case of (137)Cs and (90)Sr respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Observed half-lives of 3H, 90Sr and 137Cs in hydrosphere in the Vltava River basin (Bohemia).

    PubMed

    Hanslík, Eduard; Jedináková-Krízová, Vera; Ivanovová, Diana; Kalinová, Eva; Sedlárová, Barbora; Simonek, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    A near field study was set up to follow the effects of the Temelin nuclear power plant construction. Reference levels of artificial radionuclides were monitored in the Vltava River upper course and its tributaries in the period 1990-2001. Monitoring continued even after the waste water release startup during the pilot operation in 2002. The assessment of the (90)Sr and (137)Cs concentrations histories in ground water, river bottom sediments and fish showed a decreasing trend. This trend was not influenced by the nuclear power plant pilot operation. In the case of tritium, trend of increasing concentration had been already observed since the pilot operation startup. The monitoring of changes in concentrations of artificial and natural radionuclides in influenced and uninfluenced profiles will be maintained to assess the possible influence of the operation of the Temelin nuclear power plant.

  3. References to Studies of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239+240Pu in the Pacific Ocean a Bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.

    2001-02-01

    This report contains a listing of publications known to this author on reported concentrations, reviews and discussions of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239+240}Pu in seawater, sediment and the biota from parts of the North and South Pacific Ocean. Each reference has been assigned an accession number consisting of the first three letters of the first author's last name followed by the first letter of the first name, the year of the publication and an assigned number. Studies in both the coastal areas and the open ocean are included as well as those providing data within lagoons of coral atolls. Some references to the radionuclides in the Indian Ocean are also provided.

  4. A preliminary study for the development of reference material using oyster for determination of (137)Cs, (90)Sr and plutonium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Han; Oh, Jung-Suk; Lee, Jong-Man; Lee, Kyung-Bum; Park, Tae-Soon; Lee, Min-Kie; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Jong-Ki

    2016-03-01

    A new reference material for the determination of (137)Cs, (90)Sr and Pu isotopes ((238)Pu and (239,240)Pu) is being developed using dried oyster matrix by Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). The oyster was collected from Tongyoung harbour, southern part of Korea and the artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs, (90)Sr, (238)Pu and (239,240)Pu) were spiked into the material. After pretreatment and processing, the material was tested for homogeneity and massic activities were determined by measuring (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (238)Pu and (239,240)Pu. The reference value and extended uncertainty for those isotopes will be reported later. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Transfer kinetics and coefficients of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs from forage contaminated by Chernobyl fallout to milk of cows

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbri, S.; Sogni, R.; Lusardi, E.

    1994-04-01

    A experiment was conducted to study kinetics, transfer coefficients, and biological half-lives of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs from feed to milk. A cow was fed a diet containing alfalfa hay contaminated by Chernobyl fallout for 14.5 wk. The time-dependent activity in milk was approximated by a two-compartment model with fast biological half-lives of 2, 0.9, and 1 d and slow biological half-lives of 36.9, 8.7, and 12.4 d for {sup 90}Sr, {sup 134}Cs, and {sup 137}Cs respectively. The transfer coefficients determined in the experiment were 0.0008 d L{sup -1} for {sup 90}Sr, 0.0029 d L{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs, and 0.0031 d L{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs. The biological elimination phases of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs were described by a two-compartment model while a one-compartment model was proposed for {sup 90}Sr. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Modeling the migration of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs in the subsurface from the Chernobyl NPP Unit-4 Shelter

    SciTech Connect

    Kivva, S.L.; Stelya, O.B.; Proskura, N.I.

    1997-12-31

    The Shelter constructed above the destroyed Unit-4 of the Chernobyl NPP contains 20 MCi of nuclear fuel. More than 1,000 m{sup 3} of intermediate-level radioactive water is disposed in its basement. The purpose of this work was to simulate migration of the radionuclides {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from the Shelter into the subsurface environment to evaluate their migration rate and migration paths. A mathematical model accounting for the coupled transport of water and radionuclides in variably saturated media was used. The lack of suitable experimental and field studies excluded the possibility of complete validating the model. Results of the simulations will be useful for future field studies.

  7. Ingestion doses in Finland due to (90)Sr, (134)Cs, and (137)Cs from nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Rantavaara, A

    2008-11-01

    (90)Sr and (137)Cs in domestic foodstuffs and water have been analysed in Finland since the early 1960s, and (134)Cs since 1986. Using data on radionuclide deposition levels, agricultural production, and the processing and consumption of foodstuffs, the average intake and radiation dose from the ingestion of these radionuclides have been assessed. The estimated committed effective dose from the ingestion of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, and (134)Cs in food and water for the period 1960-2005 is 2.2 mSv, and for the period since the Chernobyl accident in 1986 it is 1.3 mSv.

  8. [Dependences of 137Cs and 90Sr concentration ratios in fish on the potassium and calcium concentrations in the freshwater reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Khomutinin, Iu V; Kashparov, V A; Kuz'menko, A V

    2011-01-01

    Activities of 137Cs and 90Sr, concentrations of the potassium and calcium ions in water and accumulation of the radionuclides in the organisms of various freshwater fish have been measured in the stagnant and semistagnant water reservoirs of Ukraine contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. On the basis of the numerous experimental data for different regions the statistical parameters were derived describing the dependencies of the 137Cs and 90Sr concentration ratios in the muscle tissue of various fish species on the potassium and calcium concentrations in water, respectively.

  9. Estimations of direct release rate of 137Cs and 90Sr to the ocean from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant for five-and-a-half years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Tateda, Yutaka

    2017-04-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. Additional release pathways by river input and runoff from 1F NPP site with precipitation and were also effective for coastal zone in the specific periods before starting direct release on March 26 2011. Direct release from 1F NPP site is dominant one year after the accident. We estimated the direct release rate of 137Cs and 90Sr for more than five-and-a-half years after the accident by the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). Direct release rate of 137Cs were estimated for five-and-a-half years after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities adjacent to the 1F NPP site(at 5,6 discharge and south discharge). Directly release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be the order of magnitude of 1014 Bq/day and decreased exponentially with time to be the order of magnitude of 109 Bq/day by the end of September 2016. Estimated direct release rate have exponentially reduced with constant rate since November 2011. Apparent half-life of direct release rate was estimated to be 346 days. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.7±0.7 PBq for five and a half years. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. Simulated 137Cs activity affected off coast in the Fukushima prefecture. We used the measured 137Cs activities by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) for the estimation of direct release. The sea water samples were corrected from the coast. The averaged 137Cs activities from November 2013 to June 2016 were 391 and 383 Bq/m3 at 5,6 discharge and south discharge, respectively. The averaged 137Cs activities measured by the

  10. 137Cs and 90Sr in live and dead reindeer lichens (genera Cladonia) from the "Kraton-3" underground nuclear explosion site.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Mishine, A; Kaduka, M; Basalaeva, L; Brown, J; Andersson, K G

    2007-01-01

    The contents of 137Cs and 90Sr have been determined in 29 samples of live and dead reindeer lichens (genera Cladonia) collected at the "Kraton-3" underground nuclear explosion site (65.9 degrees N 112.3 degrees E, event year--1978) in Yakutia, Russia in 2002. The area contamination was within the range of 0.36-700 and 0.13-770 kBq m(-2) for 137Cs and 90Sr, respectively. The dead organisms were on average much more contaminated than the live ones. Vertical fractionation of the live lichen carpet demonstrated maximal activity concentrations of both radionuclides in the lower older section of the plants, while for the dead lichens the maximal activity concentrations of 137Cs were detected in the upper part. The vertical distribution of 90Sr was more or less homogeneous in the cushions of dead lichens. Elevated levels of 137Cs and 90Sr activity concentrations were also detected in the re-establishing young lichens growing over the residua of some dead lichens.

  11. Evaluation of improved techniques for the removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from process wastewater and groundwater: Chabazite zeolite baseline study

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Taylor, P.A.; McTaggart, D.R.; Burgess, M.W.; Guo, B.

    1995-04-01

    Standard waste treatment procedures for the removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from contaminated groundwater and process wastewaters generate large volumes of secondary contaminated wastes. Several new sorbent materials, ion exchangers, and other processes hold the promise of treating large volumes of contaminated water while minimizing the generation of secondary low-level radioactive wastes. As part of the Efficient Separations/Processes-Integrated Program (ESPIP), these new treatment techniques will be compared with standard processes to define their effectiveness for the removal of radioactive strontium (Sr) and cesium (Cs), as well as to gauge the quantity of secondary radioactive waste generated by the new processes. This report summarizes the efforts made to design standardized testing procedures to evaluate the sorption characteristics of a baseline wastewater treatment technique. Definition of the experimental procedures, as well as a summary of the benchmark sorption technique, will provide the framework with which to compare newly evolving treatment technologies. Accomplishments include selecting the feed strewn to the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory as representative of the prototypical contaminated wastewater of many DOE sites. Samples from the PWTP feed stream were collected and analyzed for metals, anions, total Sr and Cs, radioactive Sr and Cs, alkalinity, pH, and density. The cumulative sample data were used to formulate a simulant that will be used as a standard waste surrogate for comparative testing of selected treatment methods.

  12. METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS 90SR AND 137CS IN-VIVO MEASUREMENTS OF SMALL ANIMALS AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA DEVELOPED FOR THE CONDITIONS OF THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To perform in vivo simultaneous measurements of the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content in the bodies of animals living in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ), an appropriate method and equipment were developed and installed in a mobile gamma beta spectrometry laboratory. This technique was designed for animals of relatively small sizes (up to 50 g). The {sup 90}Sr content is measured by a beta spectrometer with a 0.1 mm thick scintillation plastic detector. The spectrum processing takes into account the fact that the measured object is 'thick-layered' and contains a comparable quantity of {sup 137}Cs, which is a characteristic condition of the ChEZ. The {sup 137}Cs content is measured by a NaI scintillation detector that is part of the combined gamma beta spectrometry system. For environmental research performed in the ChEZ, the advantages of this method and equipment (rapid measurements, capability to measure live animals directly in their habitat, and the capability of simultaneous {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs measurements) far outweigh the existing limitations (considerations must be made for background radiation and the animal size, skeletal shape and body mass). The accuracy of these in vivo measurements is shown to be consistent with standard spectrometric and radiochemical methods. Apart from the in vivo measurements, the proposed methodology, after a very simple upgrade that is also described in the article, works even more accurately with samples of other media, such as soil and plants.

  13. Method for simultaneous 90Sr and 137Cs in-vivo measurements of small animals and other environmental media developed for the conditions of the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Gaschak, Sergey P; Zheltonozhsky, Viktor A; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    To perform in vivo simultaneous measurements of the 90Sr and 137Cs content in the bodies of animals living in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ), an appropriate method and equipment were developed and installed in a mobile gamma beta spectrometry laboratory. This technique was designed for animals of relatively small sizes (up to 50 g). The 90Sr content is measured by a beta spectrometer with a 0.1-mm-thick scintillation plastic detector. The spectrum processing takes into account the fact that the measured object is "thick-layered" and contains a comparable quantity of 137Cs, which is a characteristic condition of the ChEZ. The 137Cs content is measured by a NaI scintillation detector that is part of the combined gamma beta spectrometry system. For environmental research performed in the ChEZ, the advantages of this method and equipment (rapid measurements, capability to measure live animals directly in their habitat, and the capability of simultaneous 90Sr and 137Cs measurements) far outweigh the existing limitations (considerations must be made for background radiation and the animal size, skeletal shape, and body mass). The accuracy of these in vivo measurements is shown to be consistent with standard spectrometric and radiochemical methods. Apart from the in vivo measurements, the proposed methodology, after a very simple upgrade that is also described in this paper, works even more accurately with samples of other media, such as soil and plants.

  14. Areal distribution of /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 90/Sr in streambed gravels of White Oak Creek Watershed, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Cerling, T.E.; Spalding, B.P.

    1981-01-01

    The concentrations of /sup 90/Sr, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 137/Cs in streambed gravels from contaminated drainages in White Oak Creek Watershed were determined. Methods to determine the relative contributions of various sources to the total discharge from the watershed were developed. Principal sources of /sup 90/Sr were: ORNL plant effluents (50%), leaching from solid waste disposal area (SWDA) 4 (30%), and leaching from SWDA 5 (10%). Minor sources included SWDA 3, the Molten Salt Reactor Facility, and intermediate-level liquid waste pit 1 with each representing 4% or less of the total basin discharge. The cooling water effluent from the High-Flux Isotope Reactor was the dominant source of /sup 60/Co contamination in the watershed. ORNL plant effluents accounted for almost all the /sup 137/Cs discharge from White Oak Creek basin. Downstream radionuclide concentrations were constant until significant dilution by other tributaries occurred. Any future activities giving rise to additional contamination can now be identified. Distribution coefficients between streambed gravels and streamwater for /sup 85/Sr, /sup 60/Co, and /sup 137/Cs were 50, 560, and 8460 ml/g, respectively. An abridged radiochemical fractionation developed for /sup 90/Sr was found to be as accurate and precise for these samples as the standard /sup 90/Sr method above levels of 2 dpm/g. (ERB)

  15. Evaluation of distribution coefficients and concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in the Techa River and the Miass River.

    PubMed

    Shishkina, E A; Pryakhin, E A; Popova, I Ya; Osipov, D I; Tikhova, Yu; Andreyev, S S; Shaposhnikova, I A; Egoreichenkov, E A; Styazhkina, E V; Deryabina, L V; Tryapitsina, G A; Melnikov, V; Rudolfsen, G; Teien, H-C; Sneve, M K; Akleyev, A V

    2016-07-01

    Empirical data on the behavior of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are needed for radioecological modeling, which is commonly used for predicting transfer of radionuclides, estimating doses, and assessing possible adverse effects on species and communities. Preliminary studies of radioecological parameters including distribution coefficients and concentration ratios, for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were not in full agreement with the default values used in the ERICA Tool and the RESRAD BIOTA codes. The unique radiation situation in the Techa River, which was contaminated by long-lived radionuclides ((90)Sr and (137)Cs) in the middle of the last century allows improved knowledge about these parameters for river systems. Therefore, the study was focused on the evaluation of radioecological parameters (distribution coefficients and concentration ratios for (90)Sr and (137)Cs) for the Techa River and the Miass River, which is assumed as a comparison waterbody. To achieve the aim the current contamination of biotic and abiotic components of the river ecosystems was studied; distribution coefficients for (90)Sr and (137)Cs were calculated; concentration ratios of (90)Sr and (137)Cs for three fish species (roach, perch and pike), gastropods and filamentous algae were evaluated. Study results were then compared with default values available for use in the well-known computer codes ERICA Tool and RESRAD BIOTA (when site-specific data are not available). We show that the concentration ratios of (137)Cs in whole fish bodies depend on the predominant type of nutrition (carnivores and phytophagous). The results presented here are useful in the context of improving of tools for assessing concentrations of radionuclides in biota, which could rely on a wider range of ecosystem information compared with the process limited the current versions of ERICA and RESRAD codes. Further, the concentration ratios of (90)Sr are species-specific and strongly dependent on Ca(2+) concentration in

  16. FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS OF 90SR AND 137CS CONCENTRATIONS IN AN ECOSYSTEM OF THE 'RED FOREST' AREA IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Caldwell, E.

    2011-10-01

    In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone: the 'Red Forest' site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m{sup 2} were characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants) and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values were close to a logarithmically normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or 'hot spots,' including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometrical mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometrical means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution.

  17. Frequency distributions of 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations in an ecosystem of the "Red Forest" area in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Gaschak, Sergey P; Makliuk, Yulia A; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Chizhevsky, Igor; Caldwell, Eric F; Jannik, G Timothy; Farfán, Eduardo B

    2011-10-01

    In the most highly contaminated region of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, the "Red Forest" site, the accumulation of the major dose-affecting radionuclides (90Sr and 137Cs) within the components of an ecological system encompassing 3,000 m(2) was characterized. The sampled components included soils (top 0-10 cm depth), Molina caerulea (blue moor grass), Camponotus vagus (carpenter ants), and Pelobates fuscus (spade-footed toad). In a comparison among the components of this ecosystem, the 90Sr and 137Cs concentrations measured in 40 separate grids exhibited significant differences, while the frequency distribution of the values was close to a logarithmically-normal leptokurtic distribution with a significant right-side skew. While it is important to identify localized areas of high contamination or "hot spots," including these values in the arithmetic mean may overestimate the exposure risk. In component sample sets that exhibited logarithmically normal distribution, the geometric mean more accurately characterizes a site. Ideally, risk assessment is most confidently achieved when the arithmetic and geometric means are most similar, meaning the distribution approaches normal. Through bioaccumulation, the highest concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs were measured in the blue moor grass and spade-footed toad. These components also possessed distribution parameters that shifted toward a normal distribution.

  18. [The transfer of 90Sr and of 137Cs radionuclides in the chain of soil-fodder-animal products in the area contaminated as a consequence of the Chernobyl AES accident].

    PubMed

    Spirin, E V; Aleksakhin, R M; Kalmykov, M V; Ageets, V Iu; Averin, V S; Lazarev, N M; Cavellin, G D; Biesold, H

    2006-01-01

    The database on 137Cs and or 90Sr transfer factors in the soil-fodder-animal products chain compiled in the framework of the project "Radioecological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident" under the French-German Initiative was analyzed. The 137Cs transfer factors were determined into 10 fodder types for farm animals. The 137Cs and 90Sr transfer from daily diet to milk is practically independent from milk yield and season and is about 0.83% and 0.16%. 137Cs transfer factor into beef (adult animals) is about to 2.4% from the daily uptake with fodder per 1 kg meat.

  19. Effect of chemical pollution on forms of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in arctic soil studied by sequential extraction.

    PubMed

    Puhakainen, M; Riekkinen, I; Heikkinen, T; Jaakkola, T; Steinnes, E; Rissanen, K; Suomela, M; Thørring, H

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the forms of 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu occurring in different soil horizons using sequential extraction of samples taken from four sites located along a pollution gradient from the copper-nickel smelter at Monchegorsk in the Kola Peninsula, Russia, and from a reference site in Finnish Lapland in 1997. A selective sequential-leaching procedure was employed using a modification of the method of Tessier, Cambell and Bisson ((1979). Analytical Chemistry, 51, 844-851). For 137Cs the organic (O) and uppermost mineral (E1) layer were studied, for 90Sr and 239,240Pu only the uppermost organic layer (Of). The fraction of 137Cs occurring in readily exchangeable form in the organic layer was about 50% at the reference site and decreased as a function of pollution, being 15% at the most polluted site in the Kola Peninsula. There was a clear positive correlation in the O layer between the distance from the smelter and the percentage of 137Cs extracted in the readily exchangeable fraction (Spearman correlation rsp = 0.7805, p = 0.0001), whereas in the E1 layer no correlation was evident. The distribution of 90Sr in the Of layer was similar at all sites, with the highest amounts occurring in exchangeable form and bound to organic matter, whereas stable Sr showed a somewhat different distribution with the highest amount in the oxide fraction. Most of the 239,240Pu was bound to organic matter. Chemical pollution affected the exchangeable fraction of 239,240Pu, which was about 1% at the most polluted site and 4-6% at the other sites.

  20. /sup 137/Cs radioactive dating of Lake Ontario sediment cores

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.E.; Breeden, J.; Komisarcik, K.; Porter, R.; Czuczwa, J.; Kaminski, R.; McVeety, B.D.

    1987-12-01

    The distribution of /sup 137/Cs in sediment cores from Lake Ontario provides estimates of the sediment accumulation rates. Geochronology with /sup 210/Pb dating and distribution of Ambrosia (ragweed) pollen compare well with /sup 137/Cs dating. These methods can determine with precision, changes in sedimentation occurring over the past 100 years or so. Typical sedimentation rates of 0.18-0.36 cm/yr were measured. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Input of 137Cs and 90Sr into plants from the surface of soil aggregates and the intraped space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokin, A. D.; Torshin, S. P.; Bebneva, Yu. M.; Gadzhiagaeva, R. A.; Zolotareva, Yu. I.; Umer, M. I.

    2014-12-01

    Soil aggregates with different localization of radionuclides—(a) only on the aggregate surface, (b) only in the intraped space, and (c) uniformly distributed throughout the aggregate volume—have been obtained under laboratory conditions, which has allowed separately assessing the roles of different aggregate parts in the uptake of radionuclides by plant roots and the reaggregation rate of the soil material. The uptake rate of the radionuclides localized on the surface of soil aggregates, especially 137Cs, by plants manifold exceeds their uptake observed at the localization of pollutants throughout the aggregate volume or only in their intraped material. The input rate of radionuclides into plants decreases with time. For 137Cs, this decrease is due to the strengthening of the sorption fixation of the radionuclide (about 15%) and the reaggregation of the soil material (85%). Under natural conditions, at a depth of 10 cm in the dark gray forest soil of a forest belt, aggregates 7-10 mm in size are subjected to 40-75% destruction and reaggregation on the average within a year, which corresponds, with consideration for the statistical dispersion of the initial data, to the aggregate lifetime of 1.5 to 3 years.

  2. A study of nuclear structure for 244Cm, 241Am, 238Pu, 210Po, 147Pm, 137Cs, 90Sr and 63Ni nuclei used in nuclear battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artun, Ozan

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we intend to extend the nuclear data of 244Cm, 241Am, 238Pu, 210Po, 147Pm, 137Cs, 90Sr and 63Ni nuclei used in nuclear battery technology, because, these nuclei are quite important for space investigations in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and for microelectronic technologies in betavoltaic batteries. Therefore, the nuclear structure properties of nuclei such as separation energies, neutron skin thicknesses, proton, charge and neutron density distributions as a function of radius, the root mean square (rms) proton, charge and neutron radii, binding energies per particle, have been investigated by Hartree-Fock with eight different Skyrme forces. The obtained results have been compared with the experimental data in literature and relativistic mean field theory (RMFT) results.

  3. Measurement of natural and 137Cs radioactivity concentrations at Izmit Bay (Marmara Sea), Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öksüz, I.; Güray, R. T.; Özkan, N.; Yalçin, C.; Ergül, H. A.; Aksan, S.

    2016-03-01

    In order to determine the radioactivity level at Izmit Bay Marmara Sea, marine sediment samples were collected from five different locations. The radioactivity concentrations of naturally occurring 238U, 232Th and 40K isotopes and also that of an artificial isotope 137Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Preliminary results show that the radioactivity concentrations of 238U and 232Th isotopes are lower than the average worldwide values while the radioactivity concentrations of the 40K are higher than the average worldwide value. A small amount of 137Cs contamination, which might be caused by the Chernobyl accident, was also detected.

  4. [The estimation of 90Sr and 137Cs excretion parameters from the organism of wild and laboratory small mammals in vivo, after natural contamination of them in the Chernobyl zone].

    PubMed

    Makliuk, Iu A; Gashchak, S P; Maksimenko, A M; Bondar'kov, M D

    2007-01-01

    In the course of laboratory experiment, parameters of 90Sr and 137Cs excretion were estimated in individuals of bank vole Clethrionomys glareolus, captured at one of the most contaminated sites of the Chernobyl zone. The animals were kept under laboratory conditions using "clean" feed during 50 days. The similar investigation was carried out with laboratory mice Mus musculus (Big Blue line) during a longer period (184 days). The measurements of 90Sr content in the animals' body were in vivo carried out, using a specially designed beta-spectrometer with appropriate software, and 137Cs one--by the gamma-spectrometer. During the experiment, the animals had lost less 0.4% of activity due to physical decay of radionuclides. The organism was depurated mainly through biological excretion. In accordance with parameters of one-component exponential decay equation, 99.3% of 137Cs initial content in vole was excreted with half-life period of 2.18 days, and mice--4.4 days (99%). 90Sr excretion had longer half-life period: 11.7 days (56%) in voles, and 49.9 days (87%) in laboratory mice. The rest radionuclides amount of given model was considered as non-excreted from the organism during the observation period. It was determined on the example of voles that 90Sr and 137Cs loss in males was faster than in females, and among females more intensive excretion was in lactating females. 137Cs excretion from the body of bank vole is mainly with urine (74.7%), whereas 90Sr one--with feces and urine in approximately equal amounts. Due to the birth of babies and consequent feeding female lose appreciably less amount of radionuclides body burden than at daily loss with urine and feces.

  5. Evaluation of improved technologies for the removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from process wastewater and groundwater: FY 1995 status

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.T.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Burgess, M.W.; McTaggart, D.R.; Taylor, P.A.; Guo, B.

    1996-03-01

    A number of new sorbents are currently being developed for the removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from contaminated, caustic low-level liquid waste (LLLW). These sorbents are potentially promising for use in the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and process wastewater containing the two radionuclides. The goal of this subtask is to evaluate the new sorbents to determine whether their associated treatment technology is more selective for the decontamination of wastewater streams than that of currently available processes. Activities during fiscal year 1995 have included completing the characterization of the standard treatment technology, ion exchange on chabazite zeolite. Strontium and cesium sorption on sodium-modified zeolite was observed in the presence of elevated concentrations of wastewater components: sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. The most significant loss of nuclide sorption was noted in the first 0- to 4-meq/L addition of the cations to a wastewater simulant. Radionuclide sorption on the pretreated zeolite was also determined under dynamic flow conditions. Resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin, which was developed at the Savannah River Site, was selected as the first new sorbent to be evaluated for wastewater treatment. Nuclide sorption on this resin was greater when the resin had been washed with ultrapure water and air dried prior to use.

  6. Activity concentration measurements of 137Cs, 90Sr and 40K in a wild food matrix reference material (Wild Berries) CCRI(II)-S8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wätjen, U.; Altzitzogloa, T.; Ceccatelli, A.; Dikmen, H.; Ferreux, L.; Frechou, C.; García, L.; Gündogdu, G.; Kis-Benedek, G.; La Rosa, J.; Luca, A.; Moreno, Y.; Oropesa, P.; Pierre, S.; Schmiedel, M.; Spasova, Y.; Szücs, L.; Vasile, M.; Wershofen, H.; Yücel, Ü.

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the CCRI approved a supplementary comparison to be organized by the IRMM as pilot laboratory for the activity concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr and 40K in a matrix material of dried bilberries. The organization of this comparison and the material and measurement methods used are described. The supplementary comparison reference values (SCRV) for each of the three radionuclides are given together with the degrees of equivalence of each participating laboratory with the SCRV for the specific radionuclide. The results of this supplementary comparison allow the participating NMIs/designated institutes to declare calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) for the given radionuclides in a similar type of food matrix, an important aspect given the relatively few supplementary comparisons for activity in matrix materials organized so far. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. [The agronomical and radiological estimation of application of different kinds and dozes of organic fertilizers at improvement waterless valley types meadows contamination 137Cs and 90Sr].

    PubMed

    Podoliak, A G; Bogdevich, I M; Timofeev, S F; Grebeshchekova, N V

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of agronomical, economic and radiological estimations of results of long-term researches with organic fertilizers (peat, sapropel, manure, mixes manure and peat) it is established, that is effective at improvement of the waterless meadows on sod-podsolic sandy soils contaminated by radionuclides to bring in 40-60 t/ha mixes manure and peat or covering the manure, on a background liming and mineral fertilizers (level of profitability--4.8-8.7%), providing reception of the maximal increase of a crop (6.0-7.5 t/ha of hay) and decrease to 10 times of size of transfer factors of 137Cs and to 3.0 times 90Sr in a crop of long-term cereal herbs (size of the prevented collective doze, deltaD - 0.0060-0.0065 man-Sv per one year; cost of the prevented collective doze, deltaepsilon--11500-13000 $ on 1 man-Sv annually. The application of 40 and 60 t/ga of peat and sapropel in the pure state on a background liming and mineral fertilizers is not expedient, as cost of additional production does not cover total expenses for their entering (level of profitability--20-32.0%), the and cost of the prevented collective doze exceeds 20000 $ US per 1 man-Sv annually.

  8. Radioactive contamination of cistern waters along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea by [sup 90]Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Franic, Z.; Lokobauer, N.; Marovic, G. . Radiation Protection Unit)

    1999-07-01

    Measurements of radioactive contamination of water samples from cisterns collecting rainwater containing fission products from roofs and other surfaces have been carried out along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic sea since 1968. An exponential decline of radioactivity followed the nuclear moratorium. After the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, higher levels of [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr were detected again, with cistern waters being the only environmental samples in Croatia in which elevated [sup 90]Sr activities persisted for several years. For the pre-Chernobyl period, the observed mean residence time of [sup 90]Sr in cistern waters, estimated to be 6.2 [+-] 1.9 y, was similar to that calculated for fallout. Contrary, for the post-Chernobyl time, observed [sup 90]Sr mean residence time was calculated to be considerably shorter, reflecting the tropospheric mean residence time. The annual dose for the critical adult population received from [sup 90]Sr and [sup 137]Cs by drinking cistern water was estimated to be very small, in the 1990's less than few [micro]Sv y[sup [minus]1].

  9. Numerical Modeling of 90Sr and 137Cs Transport from a Spill in the B-Cell of the 324 Building, Hanford Site 300 Area

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Bacon, Diana H.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2012-03-19

    To characterize the extent of contamination under the 324 Building, a pit was excavated on the north side of the building in 2010 by Washington Closure Hanford LLC (WCH). Horizontal closed-end steel access pipes were installed under the foundation of the building from this pit and were used for measuring temperatures and exposure rates under the B-Cell. The deployed sensors measured elevated temperatures of up to 61 C (142 F) and exposure rates of up to 8,900 R/hr. WCH suspended deactivation of the facility because it recognized that building safety systems and additional characterization data might be needed for remediation of the contaminated material. The characterization work included additional field sampling, laboratory measurements, and numerical flow and transport modeling. Laboratory measurements of sediment physical, hydraulic, and geochemical properties were performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and others. Geochemical modeling and subsurface flow and transport modeling also were performed by PNNL to evaluate the possible extent of contamination in the unsaturated sand and gravel sediments underlying the building. Historical records suggest that the concentrated 137Cs- and 90Sr-bearing liquid wastes that were spilled in B-Cell were likely from a glass-waste repository testing program associated with the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG). Incomplete estimates of the aqueous chemical composition (no anion data provided) of the FRG waste solutions were entered into a geochemical speciation model and were charge balanced with nitrate to estimate waste composition. Additional geochemical modeling was performed to evaluate reactions of the waste stream with the concrete foundation of the building prior to the stream entering the subsurface.

  10. Measurement of natural and {sup 137}Cs radioactivity concentrations at Izmit Bay (Marmara Sea), Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Öksüz, İ. Güray, R. T. Özkan, N. Yalçin, C.; Ergül, H. A. Aksan, S.

    2016-03-25

    In order to determine the radioactivity level at Izmit Bay Marmara Sea, marine sediment samples were collected from five different locations. The radioactivity concentrations of naturally occurring {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K isotopes and also that of an artificial isotope {sup 137}Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectroscopy. Preliminary results show that the radioactivity concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th isotopes are lower than the average worldwide values while the radioactivity concentrations of the {sup 40}K are higher than the average worldwide value. A small amount of {sup 137}Cs contamination, which might be caused by the Chernobyl accident, was also detected.

  11. Ultra-trace determination of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu by triple quadruple collision/reaction cell-ICP-MS/MS: Establishing a baseline for global fallout in Qatar soil and sediments.

    PubMed

    Amr, Mohamed A; Helal, Abdul-Fattah I; Al-Kinani, Athab T; Balakrishnan, Perumal

    2016-03-01

    The development of practical, fast, and reliable methods for the ultra-trace determination of anthropogenic radionuclides (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu by triple quadruple collision/reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CRC-ICP-MS/MS) were investigated in term of its accuracy and precision for producing reliable results. The radionuclides were extracted from 1 kg of the environmental soil samples by concentrated nitric and hydrochloric acids. The leachate solutions were measured directly by triple quadrupole CRC-ICP-MS/MS. For quality assurance, a chemical separation of the concerned radionuclides was conducted and then measured by single quadrupole-ICP-MS. The developed methods were next applied to measure the anthropogenic radionuclides (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu in soil samples collected throughout the State of Qatar. The average concentrations of (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu were 0.606 fg/g (3.364 Bq/kg), 0.619 fg/g (2.038 Bq/kg), 0.034 fg/g (0.0195 Bq/kg), 65.59 fg/g (0.150 Bq/kg), and 12.06 fg/g (0.103 Bq/kg), respectively.

  12. The presence of natural radioactivity and 137Cs in the South China Sea bordering peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Amin, Y M; Mahat, R H; Nor, R M; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Takleef, Ghazwa Hatem; Bradley, D A

    2013-10-01

    The presence of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs has been investigated in fresh media obtained from South China Sea locations off the coast of peninsular Malaysia. The media include seafood, sea water and sediment. The samples were collected some weeks prior to the devastating 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and associated tsunami, the occurrence of which precipitated the Fukushima incident. All samples showed the presence of naturally occurring (226)Ra, (228)Ra and primordial (40)K, all at typically prevailing levels. The concentrations of natural radioactivity in molluscs were found to be greater than that of other marine life studied herein, the total activity ranging from 337 to 393 Bq kg(-1) dry weight. The total activity in sea water ranged from 15 to 88 Bq l(-1). Sediment samples obtained at deep sea locations more than 20 km offshore further revealed the presence of (137)Cs. The activity of (137)Cs varied from ND to 0.5 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, the activity increasing with offshore distance and depth. The activity concentrations presented herein should be considered useful in assessing the impact of any future radiological contamination to the marine environment.

  13. A comparison of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in localized evergreen and deciduous plant species

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, R.C.; Schlapper, G.A.; McLain, M.E.; Pitt, W.W.

    1996-06-01

    A vegetation study at the Comanche Steam Electric Station (CPSES) in Texas was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The CPSES is a commercial nuclear power plant. The CPSES environmental monitoring program collects broadleaf vegetation samples as per the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Broadleaf trees are scarce in the area because of local climate, soils, and geology. The dominate tree is an evergreen juniper. Few broadleaves are available during winter for sampling. This study compared the environmental {sup 137}C s radioactivity between broadleaf and evergreen foliage. The study`s objective was to determine if {sup 137}C s radioactivity is statistically the same in the deciduous and evergreen vegetation. Radioactivity from the same statistical population could allow the sampling program to collect evergreen (junipers) foliage. Broadleaf and evergreen tree leaf samples were collected on and off the CPSES area. Gamma-ray spectrometry was performed on the samples to measure {sup 137}Cs radioactivity. The means of the {sup 137}Cs concentrations in broadleaf and evergreen foliage samples were found to be statistically the same and therefore from the same population. This study`s conclusion is that evergreen leaves from juniper trees can be used to supplement and/or substitute for the broadleaf samples currently collected. This change in foliage collection, if approved by the NRC, would allow the CPSES to better satisfy its environmental sampling regulatory requirements.

  14. Long-term variation (1986-1998) of post-Chernobyl 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu and (239,240)Pu concentrations in air, depositions to ground, resuspension factors and resuspension rates in south Germany.

    PubMed

    Rosner, G; Winkler, R

    2001-06-12

    Annual mean concentrations in air and annual total (wet plus dry) depositions to ground of 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu and (239,240)Pu decreased at Neuherberg, south Germany, in the period from July 1986 (i.e. after the end of the initial deposition phase from Chernobyl) to 1998 as follows: 90Sr from 0.77 to 0.05 microBq m(-3), and from 0.82 (1988) to 0.28 Bq m(-2) year(-1); 137Cs from 133 to 2.8 microBq m(-3), and from 116 to 3.8 Bq m(-2) year(-1); 238Pu from 0.95 to 0.063 nBq m(-3), and from 1.0 to 0.23 mBq m(-2) year(-1); (239,240)Pu from 8.1 to 0.53 nBq m(-3), and from 6.4 to 2.1 mBq m(-2) year(-1). The values for the non-caesium radionuclides are compared to the few available data from other stations. After an initial phase which is characterised for a given radionuclide by the varying ratio of the Chernobyl-derived inventory to the earlier, weapons fallout-derived inventory, the time courses of concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu and (239,240)Pu in air become more or less parallel (from about 1990), despite the considerable differences in the physico-chemical properties of these elements. By contrast, the time series of radionuclide deposition rates show until about 1994 less similarity among each other and with the respective concentration series in air. From 1994, concentrations in air and depositions to ground become nearly constant, or decrease very slowly. At the end of the observation period, resuspension factors between 1.4 x 10(-10) m(-1) and 1.0 x 10(-11) m(-1) are observed for the various nuclides. The time courses of specific activities (Bq g(-1)) as well as the time courses of radionuclide ratios show characteristic differences between air and deposition. The data will be useful in predicting the post-accident behaviour of radionuclides a long time after a large-scale contamination event.

  15. Distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) in rice fractions during polishing and cooking.

    PubMed

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Okunishi, Tomoya; Hagiwara, Shoji; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Hamamatsu, Shioka

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the distribution of cesium-134 ((134)Cs) and cesium-137 ((137)Cs) during polishing and cooking of rice to obtain their processing factors (Pf) and food processing retention factors (Fr) to make the information available for an adequate understanding of radioactive Cs dynamics. Polishing brown rice resulted in a decreased radioactive Cs concentration of the polished rice, but the bran and germ (outer layers) exhibited higher concentrations than brown rice. The Pf values for 100% polished rice and outer layers ranged from 0.47 to 0.48 and 6.5 to 7.8, respectively. The Fr values for 100% polished rice and outer layers were 0.43 and 0.58 to 0.60, respectively. The distribution of radioactive Cs in polished rice and outer layers was estimated at approximately 40 and 60%, respectively. On the other hand, cooked rice showed significantly lower levels of radioactive Cs than polished rice, and transfer of radioactive Cs into wash water was observed. The Pf and Fr values for cooked rice were 0.28 and 0.65 to 0.66, respectively. From these results, we can calculate that if the radioactive Cs concentration in brown rice is 100 Bq/kg, the concentrations of Cs in polished rice and cooked rice will be 47 to 48 Bq/kg and 13 Bq/kg, respectively.

  16. Study of influence of plastic scintillators thicknesses to detect Beta particles and Gamma radiation by means of spectral analysis of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y and {sup 137}Cs sources

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, Jose Patricio Nahuel; Filho, Tufic Madi; Pereira, Maria da Conceicao Costa; Santos, Brianna B. dos; Correa, Eduardo de L.; Santos, Lucas Rodrigues dos; Lopes, Anderson Figueredo; Silva, Alexandre F.P. da; Santos, Diogo F. dos; Camilo, Douglas de S.; Purgato, Rafael T.; Aredes, Vitor O.G.

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - IPEN, offers post-graduate programs, namely: Nuclear Technology - Applications (TNA), Nuclear Technology - Materials (TNM), Nuclear Technology - Reactors (TNR). The Institute programs mission is to form expert technicians, physicists and engineers with a strong knowledge in their discipline to work in the nuclear area. The course: 'Theoretical Fundamentals and Practices of the Instrumentation used in Nuclear Data Acquisition' covers the use of laboratory nuclear instrumentation and the accomplishment of experiments to obtain nuclear parameters. One of these experimental exercises is object of this work: 'Study of influence of plastic scintillators to detect Beta particles and Gamma radiation by means of spectral analysis of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 90}Y and {sup 137}Cs sources'. The use of scintillators plastic for the detection has the advantage of low cost, high mechanical strength, is not hygroscopic and can be manufactured in large volumes. This work aims to present the analysis of relative efficiency of detection of plastic scintillators of various thicknesses for beta particles and gamma radiation by the spectrum of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. Due to lack of resolution of the detectors plastic scintillators we worked with relative efficiency. The evaluation was done by reading deposited energy, using the software MAESTRO, for each detector thickness. For beta particles was observed an ideal thickness around 3 mm and the better photon efficiency was observed with increasing the thickness of the detector. The present experiment does not intend to establish a new technique for this subject: it solely aims student's practical exercises in nuclear properties of elements and detectors being part of the nuclear experimental course. (authors)

  17. Microsphere zeolite materials derived from coal fly ash cenospheres as precursors to mineral-like aluminosilicate hosts for 135,137Cs and 90Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereshchagina, Tatiana A.; Vereshchagin, Sergei N.; Shishkina, Nina N.; Vasilieva, Nataly G.; Solovyov, Leonid A.; Anshits, Alexander G.

    2013-06-01

    Hollow microsphere zeolite materials with a bilayered zeolite/glass crystalline shell bearing NaP1 zeolite were synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of coal fly ash cenospheres (Si/Al = 2.7) in an alkaline medium. Cs+ and/or Sr2+ forms of zeolitized cenospheres with the different Cs+ and/or Sr2+ loading were prepared by the ion exchange from nitrate solutions. The resulted (Cs,Na)P1, (Sr,Na)P1 and (Cs,Sr,Na)P1 bearing microsphere zeolites were converted to glass ceramics by heating at 900-1000 °C. The differential scanning calorimetry and quantitative phase analysis were used to monitor the solid-phase transformation of the initial and ion exchanged zeolite materials. It was established that the final solidified forms of Cs+ and/or Sr2+ are glass-crystalline ceramic materials based on pollucite-nepheline, Sr-feldspar-nepheline and Sr-feldspar-pollucite composites including ˜60 wt.% of the major host phases (pollucite, Sr-feldspar) and 10-20 wt.% of glass. The 137Cs leaching rate of 4.1 × 10-7 g cm-2 day-1 was determined for the pollucite glass-ceramic according to Russian State Standard (GOST) No. 52126 P-2003 (7 day, 25 °C, distilled water).

  18. Porous three-dimensional graphene foam/Prussian blue composite for efficient removal of radioactive (137)Cs.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung-Chan; Haldorai, Yuvaraj; Lee, Go-Woon; Hwang, Seung-Kyu; Han, Young-Kyu; Roh, Changhyun; Huh, Yun Suk

    2015-12-16

    In this study, a simple one-step hydrothermal reaction is developed to prepare composite based on Prussian blue (PB)/reduced graphene oxide foam (RGOF) for efficient removal of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) from contaminated water. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy show that cubic PB nanoparticles are decorated on the RGO surface. Owing to the combined benefits of RGOF and PB, the composite shows excellent removal efficiency (99.5%) of (137)Cs from the contaminated water. The maximum adsorption capacity is calculated to be 18.67 mg/g. An adsorption isotherm fit-well the Langmuir model with a linear regression correlation value of 0.97. This type of composite is believed to hold great promise for the clean-up of (137)Cs from contaminated water around nuclear plants and/or after nuclear accidents.

  19. Porous three-dimensional graphene foam/Prussian blue composite for efficient removal of radioactive 137Cs

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung-Chan; Haldorai, Yuvaraj; Lee, Go-Woon; Hwang, Seung-Kyu; Han, Young-Kyu; Roh, Changhyun; Huh, Yun Suk

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a simple one-step hydrothermal reaction is developed to prepare composite based on Prussian blue (PB)/reduced graphene oxide foam (RGOF) for efficient removal of radioactive cesium (137Cs) from contaminated water. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy show that cubic PB nanoparticles are decorated on the RGO surface. Owing to the combined benefits of RGOF and PB, the composite shows excellent removal efficiency (99.5%) of 137Cs from the contaminated water. The maximum adsorption capacity is calculated to be 18.67 mg/g. An adsorption isotherm fit-well the Langmuir model with a linear regression correlation value of 0.97. This type of composite is believed to hold great promise for the clean-up of 137Cs from contaminated water around nuclear plants and/or after nuclear accidents. PMID:26670798

  20. Assessment of natural radioactivity and (137)Cs in some coastal areas of the Saudi Arabian gulf.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghamdi, H; Al-Muqrin, A; El-Sharkawy, A

    2016-03-15

    The levels of natural radioactivity have been investigated in some Saudi Arabian Gulf coastal areas. Sampling sites were chosen according to the presence of nearby non-nuclear industrial activities such as, the two main water desalination plants in Al Khobar and Al Jubail, and Maaden phosphate complex in Ras Al Khair, to ensure that effluents discharges into the Arabian Gulf didn't enhance radioactivity in seawater and shore sediments. Seawater samples were analyzed for radium isotopes (Ra-226 & Ra-228) and measured by gamma spectrometry using high purity germanium detector, after radiochemical separation of the isotopes by co-precipitation with MnO2. Shore sediment samples were analyzed for (226)Ra, (228)Ra ((232)Th), (4)°K and (137)Cs using gamma sepectrometry. A small variation was observed in the activity concentrations of the investigated radioisotopes, and the activity levels were comparable to those reported in literature. Quality assurance and methods validation were established through the efficiency calibration of the detectors, the estimation of uncertainties, the use of blanks, the analysis of standard reference materials and the intercomparison and proficiency tests. Radiological hazards were assessed, and the annual effective dose had an average value of 0.02 mSv. On the basis of the current results, we may conclude that any radiological hazards to the public visiting these shores are not expected.

  1. A comparison of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in localized evergreen and deciduous plant species

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    A vegetation study at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES) near Glen Rose, Texas was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The CPSES is a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by Texas Utilities Electric of Dallas, Texas. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) requires the CPSES to routinely sample broadleaf vegetation in place of milk samples. Few commercial dairies exist in the vicinity. Broadleaf tree species are scarce because the climate and local limestone geology have produced a dry rolling hill topography. An evergreen juniper is the dominant tree species. Few broadleaves during the winter season have hindered year-round sampling. This study compares the environmental {sup 137}Cs concentrations between broadleaf and evergreen foliage at CPSES. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations from each vegetation location were also compared to the foliage {sup 137}Cs concentrations. The study`s objective was to determine if the deciduous and evergreen vegetation {sup 137}Cs concentrations are statistically the same.

  2. [Distribution of 137Cs, 90Sr and their chemical analogues in the components of an above-ground part of a pine in a quasi-equilibrium condition].

    PubMed

    Mamikhin, S V; Manakhov, D V; Shcheglov, A I

    2014-01-01

    The additional study of the distribution of radioactive isotopes of caesium and strontium and their chemical analogues in the above-ground components of pine in the remote from the accident period was carried out. The results of the research confirmed the existence of analogy in the distribution of these elements on the components of this type of wood vegetation in the quasi-equilibrium (relatively radionuclides) condition. Also shown is the selective possibility of using the data on the ash content of the components of forest stands of pine and oak as an information analogue.

  3. One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Uematsu, M.; Misumi, K.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H.

    2013-08-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways: direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities adjacent to the accident site. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 137Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured 137Cs activities not only adjacent to the accident site, but also in a wide area in the model domain, therefore this implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. Employment of improved nudging data by JCOPE2 improved both the offshore transport result and the reproducibility of 137Cs activities 30 km offshore. On the other hand, simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition into the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of deposition into the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited into the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model

  4. One-year, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs radioactivity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Uematsu, M.; Misumi, K.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Hayami, H.

    2013-04-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. A 1 yr, regional-scale simulation of 137Cs activity in the ocean offshore of Fukushima was carried out, the sources of radioactivity being direct release, atmospheric deposition, and the inflow of 137Cs deposited on the ocean by atmospheric deposition outside the domain of the model. Direct releases of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were estimated for 1 yr after the accident by comparing simulated results and measured activities. The estimated total amounts of directly released 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs were 11.1 ± 2.2 PBq, 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq, and 3.6 ± 0.7 PBq, respectively. The contributions of each source were estimated by analysis of 131I/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs activity ratios and comparisons between simulated results and measured activities of 137Cs. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with measured activities close to the accident site, a result that implies that the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a~lack of measurements of deposition onto the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Measured 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to the inflow of 137Cs deposited onto the ocean outside the domain of the model were in good agreement with measured activities in the open ocean within the model domain after June 2012. The contribution of inflow increased with time and was dominant (more than 99%) by the end of

  5. The effective and environmental half-life of 137Cs at Coral Islands at the former US nuclear test site.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Conrado, Cynthia L; Bogen, Kenneth T; Stoker, A Carol

    2003-01-01

    The United States (US) conducted nuclear weapons testing from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Based on previous detailed dose assessments for Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap, and Utirik Atolls over a period of 28 years, cesium-137 (137Cs) at Bikini Atoll contributes about 85-89% of the total estimated dose through the terrestrial food chain as a result of uptake of 137Cs by food crops. The estimated integral 30, 50, and 70-year doses were based on the radiological decay of 137Cs (30-year half-life) and other radionuclides. However, there is a continuing inventory of 137Cs and 90Sr in the fresh water portion of the groundwater at all contaminated atolls even though the turnover rate of the fresh groundwater is about 5 years. This is evidence that a portion of the soluble fraction of 137Cs and 90Sr inventory in the soil is lost by transport to groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the lens, resulting in loss of 137Cs from the soil column and root zone of the plants. This loss is in addition to that caused by radioactive decay. The effective rate of loss was determined by two methods: (1) indirectly, from time-dependent studies of the 137Cs concentration in leaves of Pisonia grandis, Guettarda specosia, Tournefortia argentea (also called Messerschmidia), Scaevola taccada, and fruit from Pandanus and coconut trees (Cocos nucifera L.), and (2) more directly, by evaluating the 137Cs/90Sr ratios at Bikini Atoll. The mean (and its lower and upper 95% confidence limits) for effective half-life and for environmental-loss half-life (ELH) based on all the trees studied on Rongelap, Bikini, and Enewetak Atolls are 8.5 years (8.0 years, 9.8 years), and 12 years (11 years, 15 years), respectively. The ELH based on the 137Cs/90Sr ratios in soil in 1987 relative to the 137Cs/90Sr ratios at the time of deposition in 1954 is less than 17 years. The magnitude of the decrease below 17 years depends on the ELH for 90Sr

  6. Curing time effect on the fraction of {sup 137}Cs from immobilized radioactive evaporator sludge by cement

    SciTech Connect

    Dimovic, Slavko; Plecas, Ilija

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Traditional methods of processing evaporator concentrates from NPP are evaporation and cementation. These methods allow to transform a liquid radioactive waste into the rather inert form, suitable for a final disposal. To assess the safety for disposal of radioactive mortar-waste composition, the leaching of {sup 137}Cs from immobilized radioactive evaporator concentrate into a surrounding fluid has been studied. Leaching tests were carried out in accordance with a method recommended by IAEA. Curing conditions and curing time prior to commencing the leaching test are critically important in leach studies since the extent of hydration of the cement materials determines how much hydration product develops and whether it is available to block the pore network, thereby reducing leaching. Incremental leaching rates Rn(cm/d) of {sup 137}Cs from evaporator concentrates after 180 days were measured. The results presented in this paper are examples of results obtained in a 20-year concrete testing project which will influence the design of the engineer trenches system for future central Serbian radioactive waste storing center. (authors)

  7. Evaluation of the possibility to use the plant-microbe interaction to stimulate radioactive 137Cs accumulation by plants in a contaminated farm field in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Djedidi, Salem; Terasaki, Akimi; Aung, Han Phyo; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Yamaya, Hiroko; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Meunchang, Phatchayaphon; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments in a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, Fukushima were conducted to assess the effectiveness of the plant-microbe interaction on removal of radiocesium. Before plowing, 93.3% of radiocesium was found in the top 5 cm layer (5,718 Bq kg DW(-1)). After plowing, Cs radioactivity in the 0-15 cm layer ranged from 2,037 to 3,277 Bq kg DW(-1). Based on sequential extraction, the percentage of available radiocesium (water soluble + exchangeable) was fewer than 10% of the total radioactive Cs. The transfer of (137)Cs was investigated in three agricultural crops; komatsuna (four cultivars), Indian mustard and buckwheat, inoculated with a Bacillus or an Azospirillum strains. Except for komatsuna Nikko and Indian mustard, inoculation with both strains resulted in an increase of biomass production by the tested plants. The highest (137)Cs radioactivity concentration in above-ground parts was found in Bacillus-inoculated komatsuna Nikko (121 Bq kg DW(-1)), accompanied with the highest (137)Cs TF (0.092). Furthermore, komatsuna Nikko-Bacillus and Indian mustard-Azospirillum associations gave the highest (137)Cs removal, 131.5 and 113.8 Bq m(-2), respectively. Despite the beneficial effect of inoculation, concentrations of (137)Cs and its transfer to the tested plants were not very high; consequently, removal of (137)Cs from soil would be very slow.

  8. Real-time {sup 90}Sr Counter

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Naomi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Kodama, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Tabata, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi; Han, Soorim

    2015-07-01

    Radioisotopes have been emitted around Japan due to a nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in March 2011. A problem is the contaminated water including the atomic nucleus which relatively has a long half- life time and soluble such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs. Internal exposures by {sup 90}Sr are more dangerous than {sup 137}Cs's because Sr has effective half-life time of 18 years and property of accumulation in a born. We have developed real-time {sup 90}Sr counter which is sensitive beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 2.28 MeV from {sup 90}Sr and insensitive of beta-ray of maximum kinematic energy of 1.17 MeV and gamma-ray from {sup 90}Sr by Cherenkov detection. This counter composes of Cerenkov counter, trigger scintillation counter and veto counter. Silica aerogel for Cherenkov counter can obtain refractive index between 1.017 and 1.049 easily. And wavelength shifting fiber (WLSF) is used as a light guide for extending effective area and producing lower cost. A mechanism of the identification of {sup 90}Sr is explained in following. In case of {sup 90}Sr, when the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray from {sup 90}Sr, aerogel emits the Cherenkov light and WLSF reacts and read the Cherenkov light. On the other hand, in case of {sup 137}Cs, the trigger counter reacts on the beta-ray, aerogel stops the beta- ray and Cherenkov light is not emitted. Therefore, aerogel has a function as a radiator and shielding material. the gamma-ray is not reacted on the lower density detector. Cosmic rays would be also reacted by the veto counter. A prototype counter whose the effective area is 30 cm x 10 cm was obtained (2.0±1.2){sup 3} of mis-identification as {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr. Detection limit in the surface contamination inspection depends on measurement time and effective area mainly. The sensitivity of wide range, 10{sup -2} - 10{sup 4} Bq/cm{sup 2}, is obtained by adjustment of detection level in circuit of this counter. A lower

  9. Gamma spectrometry efficiency calibration using Monte Carlo methods to measure radioactivity of 137Cs in food samples.

    PubMed

    Alrefae, T

    2014-12-01

    A simple method of efficiency calibration for gamma spectrometry was performed. This method, which focused on measuring the radioactivity of (137)Cs in food samples, was based on Monte Carlo simulations available in the free-of-charge toolkit GEANT4. Experimentally, the efficiency values of a high-purity germanium detector were calculated for three reference materials representing three different food items. These efficiency values were compared with their counterparts produced by a computer code that simulated experimental conditions. Interestingly, the output of the simulation code was in acceptable agreement with the experimental findings, thus validating the proposed method. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A gamma-ray detector for in-situ measurement of 137Cs radioactivity in snowfields and glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunphy, Philip P.; Dibb, Jack E.; Chupp, Edward L.

    1994-12-01

    The rate of snow deposition at various cold regions on the earth is an important quantity for glaciological and climatological studies. Radioactive debris from above-ground tests of nuclear weapons (mainly 1954-1970) and from the Chernobyl accident (1986) have been deposited on glaciers and snowfields, where they can be used as time and depth markers to determine the subsequent accumulation of snow. We discuss a technique to locate these markers that has been used just recently — in-situ measurement of γ-rays from 137Cs. These γ-rays, which are associated with radioactive fallout, have a distinctive depth profile and serve as markers of the historical nuclear events. The γ-ray measurement involves lowering a scintillation detector down a borehole in the snow or ice and recording the response to the 137Cs γ-rays as a function of depth. The in-situ measurement can be done relatively quickly and can replace sample retrieval, or it can be used to decide which ice or snow samples should be transported for later analysis in the laboratory. The feasibility of in-situ γ-ray measurement has been demonstrated at sites in the French Alps and Greenland. We report on a portable detector system that is being developed for use in Antarctica. It is based, as much as possible, on inexpensive, commercially available detectors and electronics. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed. The problems involved with making these measurements in a harsh environment and the steps taken to deal with them are also presented.

  11. Distribution and possible dietary intake of radioactive 137Cs, 40K and 226Ra with the pantropical mushroom Macrocybe gigantea in SW China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Zalewska, Tamara; Apanel, Anna; Wang, Yuanzhong; Wiejak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There is scarcity of data on contamination with radiocesium 134/137Cs of edible mushrooms from the Southwestern Asia. This study aimed to get insight into activity concentration of artificial nuclides 134/137Cs and natural 40K and 226Ra in mushrooms from Yunnan province, which is major producer in China. The specimens of pantropical mushroom Macrocybe gigantea were collected from the wild and from a farm across Yunnan land in 2012-2013 and analyzed using gamma spectrometry with hyperpure germanium coaxial detector (HPGe). M. gigantea showed low activity concentrations of 137Cs (median value for dehydrated caps was 4.5 Bq kg(-1) and 5.4 Bq kg(-1) for stipes) while 134Cs was not detected. Natural radionuclide 40K showed 2-3 orders of magnitude greater activity concentration compared to artificial 137Cs in M. gigantea. The activity concentrations of 226Ra from uranium and radium decay series for most of the consignments of M. gigantea examined were below the method's limit of detection. The nominal effective dose equivalent for the Yunnan people from the dietary intake of 137Cs was assessed to be below 0.01 μSv per annum on the average, and that from 40K to be below 0.1 μSv per annum. Data available for the first time on activity concentrations of 137Cs in wild-grown saprobic mushroom from this region of Asia suggest low pollution with radiocesium from fallout there. Hence, the likely health risks from intake of 137Cs from cooked M. gigantea are in practice of mushrooms absent for human consumers there. Because of abundance of mushrooms in Yunnan and high significance of the region as producer and exporter a wider study using many species is necessary to fill a gap on possible radioactive contamination and risk to mushroom consumers.

  12. Estimation of the Adriatic Sea water turnover time using fallout 90Sr as a radioactive tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franić, Zdenko

    2005-08-01

    Systematic, long-term measurements, starting in 1963, of 90Sr activity concentrations in sea water have been performed at four locations (cities of Rovinj, Rijeka, Split and Dubrovnik) along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea. In addition, fallout samples were collected in the city of Zadar. 90Sr activity concentrations are in good correlation with the fallout activity, the coefficient of correlation being 0.72. After the nuclear moratorium on atmospheric nuclear bomb tests in 1960s, 90Sr activity concentrations in sea water exponentially dropped from 14.8 ± 2.4 Bq m -3 in 1963 to 2.0 ± 0.3 Bq m -3 in 2003. In the same period, the total annual 90Sr land surface deposit in Zadar fell by three orders of magnitude, from 713.3 Bq m -2 in 1963 to 0.4 Bq m -2 in 2003. Using strontium sea water and fallout data, a mathematical model was developed to describe the rate of change of 90Sr activity concentrations in the Adriatic Sea water and estimate its mean residence time in the Adriatic. By fitting the experimental data to a theoretically predicted curve, the mean residence time of 90Sr in the Adriatic Sea water was estimated to be approximately 3.4 ± 0.4 years, standard deviation being calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. As in physical oceanography 90Sr can be used as effective radioactive tracer of water mass transport, this value also reflects the upper limit for turnover time of the Adriatic Sea water. The turnover time of 3.4 years for the Adriatic Sea water is in reasonable agreement with the value which was estimated, by studying water flows through the Strait of Otranto, to be on the order of 1 year.

  13. Using Radioactive Fallout Cesium (137Cs) to Distinguish Sediment Sources in an Agricultural Watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Radioactive fallout Cesium (Cs-137) has been used for quantifying sources of accumulating sediment in water bodies and to determine the rates and pattern of soil erosion. The objectives of this research are to use Cs-137 as a tracer to determine patterns of soil erosion and deposition of eroding soi...

  14. Levels of sup 137 Cs and natural radioactivity in Saudi Arabian soil

    SciTech Connect

    Abulfarai, W.; Abdul-Majid, S. )

    1991-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, there was concern about contamination from the radioactive plume reaching Saudi Arabia. Cesium-137 concentration in the soil was measured to determine the degree of contamination from the accident. The concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 214}Bi, and {sup 228}Ac were determined as well. Bismuth-214 is a member of the {sup 238}U series, while {sup 228}Ac is from the {sup 238}Th series. Each of these isotopes emits several well-resolved photons of relatively high intensity per disintegration.

  15. Apparatus development for measurement of (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Okashiro, Yasuharu; Kai, Hiroaki; Fujii, Syuuji; Mishima, Atsushi; Matsubara, Takahide; Yoshida, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    We developed an apparatus containing a NaI(Tl) scintillator to measure the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity of soil contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The unfolding method with the least-squares technique was used to determine the radioactivity. Detector responses for each radionuclide in soil were calculated with EGS5 code for the unfolding method. The radionuclides that were measured were (40)K, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (214)Bi, and (228)Ac. The measured spectrum agreed well with the spectrum calculated from the response matrix and measured radioactivities. The unfolding method allows us to use the NaI(Tl) scintillator despite the overlap of peaks.

  16. Heterogeneity of (90)Sr radioactive contamination at the head part of the East Ural radioactive trace (EURT).

    PubMed

    Modorov, M; Seleznev, A; Mikhailovskaya, L

    2017-02-01

    1: We measured (90)Sr concentrations and beta particle flux density (BPFD) in 44 soil samples collected from four soil profiles across a central transect on the head of the East Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT). The relationship between BPFD and (90)Sr concentration of each soil sample can be characterised by a linear regression model; (90)Sr concentration in the upper 12 cm soil layer can thus be assessed by measuring BPFD in the soil surface. 2: The BPFD on the soil surface was measured at 969 points at seven sites with linear dimensions ranging from 140 × 20 m to 140 × 320 m. The correspondence of (90)Sr concentration in the 12 cm soil layer with its BPFD value was calculated for each of these seven sites. Eighty (80) % of (90)Sr concentration measurements in the 12 cm soil layer in each model site differed by a factor of 2.0-5. The variability of (90)Sr concentration increased significantly in the 12 cm upper soil layer over territories with visual features of landscape disturbance (pits, trenches). The ratio of maximum to minimum concentration of (90)Sr varied from 6.1 to 6.6 in the 12 cm soil layer over territories without visual features of anthropogenic soil disturbance. 3: The (90)Sr concentration was measured in the skeletons of 34 juvenile Microtus oeconomus individuals weighing less than 12.5 g and trapped at the four model sites in July. The assessment of (90)Sr concentration in the 12 cm soil layer was conducted for each point where an animal was trapped. The relationship between (90)Sr concentration in soil and in the skeleton was characterised by a linear regression model with a determination coefficient of 0.51. 4: The concentration ratio for (90)Sr from soil to skeleton (CRskeleton-soil) was 2.0 ± 0.1 for M. oeconomus over the territory of the EURT, which is consistent with the minimum value of the same CRskeleton-soil for M. oeconomus from the Chernobyl area (Chesser et al., 2000). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Separation of 90Sr from radioactive waste matrices--microwave versus fusion decomposition.

    PubMed

    Jäggi, M; Eikenberg, J

    2009-05-01

    Radioactive waste (slurry) from a detention pond deriving from two research reactors and several inactive and active drain outlets at the Paul Scherrer Institute are the basis for the current (90)Sr investigation. For decomposition, a microwave method was applied, where 1g of dry-ashed slurry was partially dissolved (HNO(3) (65%)/H(2)O(2) (30%); v:v=8:2). In this slurry we obtained an (90)Sr activity of 5.3+/-0.2 Bq/g in solution. In a second run, we applied a borate-fusion (Li metaborate/Li tetraborate (80:20 w/w%) dissolving 1g of dry-ashed "Si-free" slurry at 1100 degrees C in a muffle furnace. We achieved an (90)Sr activity of (7.8+/-0.3)Bq/g, yet observing BaSO(4) precipitation during the chromatographical separation of Sr. An alkali fusion using Na(2)CO(3) was done using the Bunsen burner and the muffle furnace for 20 min at 1000 degrees C, in combination. During formation of the hot glass, the surplus of Na(2)CO(3), produced Na(2)SO(4) and BaCO(3) in solid form. The hot glass was dissolved in deionised water, removing thus the SO(4)(2-) ions. Dissolving the residue directly in HNO(3), solves Ba as Ba(NO(3))(2) and thus we achieved over 80% of the (133)Ba activity in the solution, as measured by gamma-spectrometry. (85)Sr tracer of 88.0%+/-3.3% was recovered, yielding on average in (7.4+/-0.3)Bq/g of (90)Sr activity. The increase of 2.1-2.5 Bq/g of (90)Sr activity achieved with the alkali fusion, and the Li metaborate/Li tetraborate 80:20 w/w% fusion, respectively, clearly shows that some Sr must have been present as SrSO(4) in the slurry.

  18. Determination of 89Sr and 90Sr in highly radioactive water from a nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojanowski, Ryszard; Radecki, Zbigniew; Duniec, Szymon

    1994-01-01

    The main criterion in assaying strontium radionuclides is to obtain radiochemically pure strontium sources for beta-particle counting. Nuclear power plant waters contain both 89Sr and 90Sr accompanied by many beta-particle and gamma-ray emitting fission and neutron-activation products. The latter activities can sometimes exceed those of strontium by a factor of 10 7. Efficient purification procedures must be used to remove these products, preferably at an initial stage of analysis to reduce the radiation risk to personnel. A method has been developed in which a water sample is passed through a prefilter installed on top of an ion-exchange column filled with Dowex-50 resin in H + form. This prefilter is impregnated with ferrocyanides and manganese dioxide and retains most of the interfering radionuclides while the underlying cation-exchanger takes up strontium ions. A few additional purification steps result in a strontium salt that is free from other radioactivity.

  19. (137)Cs distributions in soil and trees in forest ecosystems after the radioactive fallout - Comparison study between southern Finland and Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Pumpanen, Jukka; Ohashi, Mizue; Endo, Izuki; Hari, Pertti; Bäck, Jaana; Kulmala, Markku; Ohte, Nobuhito

    2016-09-01

    The nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima released large amounts of (137)Cs radionuclides into the atmosphere which spread over large forest areas. We compared the (137)Cs concentration distribution in different parts of two coniferous forest ecosystems (needle litter, stems and at different depths in the soil) over short and long term periods in Finland and Japan. We also estimated the change in (137)Cs activity concentrations in needle and soil between 1995 and 2013 in Southern Finland based on the back-calculated (137)Cs activity concentrations. We hypothesized that if the (137)Cs activity concentrations measured in 1995 and 2013 showed a similar decline in concentration, the (137)Cs activity concentration in the ecosystem was already stable in 1995. But if not, the (137)Cs activity concentrations were still changing in 2013. Our results showed that the vertical distribution of the (137)Cs fallout in the soil was similar in Hyytiälä and Fukushima. The highest (137)Cs concentrations were observed in the uppermost surface layers of the soil, and they decreased exponentially deeper in the soil. We also observed that (137)Cs activity concentrations estimated from the samples in 1995 and 2013 in Finland showed different behavior in the surface soil layers compared to the deep soil layer. These results suggested that the (137)Cs nuclei were still mobile in the surface soil layers 27 years after the accident. Our results further indicated that, in the aboveground parts of the trees, the (137)Cs concentrations were much closer to steady-state when compared to those of the surface soil layers based on the estimated declining rates of (137)Cs concentration activity in needles which were similar in 1995 and 2013. Despite its mobility and active role in the metabolism of trees, the (137)Cs remains in the structure of the trees for decades, and there is not much exchange of (137)Cs between the heartwood and surface layers of the stem.

  20. Distribution of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs Plus(137)Cs) in a contaminated Japanese soybean cultivar during the preparation of tofu, natto, and nimame (Boiled Soybean).

    PubMed

    Hachinohe, Mayumi; Kimura, Keitarou; Kubo, Yuji; Tanji, Katsuo; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Hagiwara, Shoji; Nei, Daisuke; Kameya, Hiromi; Nakagawa, Rikio; Matsukura, Ushio; Todoriki, Setsuko; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the fate of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) during the production of tofu, natto, and nimame (boiled soybean) from a contaminated Japanese soybean cultivar harvested in FY2011. Tofu, natto, and nimame were made from soybean grains containing radioactive cesium (240 to 340 Bq/kg [dry weight]), and the radioactive cesium in the processed soybean foods and in by-product fractions such as okara, broth, and waste water was measured with a germanium semiconductor detector. The processing factor is the ratio of radioactive cesium concentration of a product before and after processing. For tofu, natto, nimame, and for the by-product okara, processing factors were 0.12, 0.40, 0.20, and 0.18, respectively; this suggested that these three soybean foods and okara, used mainly as an animal feed, can be considered safe for human and animal consumption according to the standard limit for radioactive cesium of soybean grains. Furthermore, the ratio of radioactive cesium concentrations in the cotyledon, hypocotyl, and seed coat portions of the soybean grain was found to be approximately 1:1:0.4.

  1. Measurement of intrinsic radioactive backgrounds from the 137Cs and U/Th chains in CsI(Tl) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shu-Kui; Yue, Qian; Lin, Shin-Ted; Li, Yuan-Jing; Tang, Chang-Jian; Wong Tsz-King, Henry; Xing, Hao-Yang; Yang, Chao-Wen; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Jing-Jun

    2015-04-01

    The inorganic CsI(Tl) crystal scintillator is a candidate anti-compton detector for the China Dark matter Experiment. Studying the intrinsic radiopurity of the CsI(Tl) crystal is an issue of major importance. The timing, energy and spatial correlations, as well as the capability of pulse shape discrimination provide powerful methods for the measurement of intrinsic radiopurities. The experimental design, detector performance and event-selection algorithms are described. A total of 359×3 kg-days data from three prototypes of CsI(Tl) crystals were taken at China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL), which offers a good shielding environment. The contamination levels of internal isotopes from 137Cs, 232Th and 238U series, as well as the upper bounds of 235U series are reported. Identification of the whole α peaks from U/Th decay chains and derivation of those corresponding quenching factors are achieved. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275107, 11175099)

  2. Characteristic of pollution with groundwater inflow (90)Sr natural waters and terrestrial ecosystems near a radioactive waste storage.

    PubMed

    Lavrentyeva, G V

    2014-09-01

    The studies were conducted in the territory contaminated by (90)Sr with groundwater inflow as a result of leakage from the near-surface trench-type radioactive waste storage. The vertical soil (90)Sr distribution up to the depth of 2-3 m is analyzed. The area of radioactive contamination to be calculated with a value which exceeds the minimum significant activity 1 kBq/kg for the tested soil layers: the contaminated area for the 0-5 cm soil layer amounted to 1800 ± 85 m(2), for the 5-10 cm soil layer amounted to 300 ± 12 m(2), for the 10-15 cm soil layer amounted to 180 ± 10 m(2). It is found that (90)Sr accumulation proceeds in a natural sorption geochemical barrier of the marshy terrace near flood plain. The exposure doses for terrestrial mollusks Bradybaena fruticum are presented. The excess (90)Sr interference level was registered both in the ground and surface water during winter and summer low-water periods and autumn heavy rains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of the depth of localized radioactive contamination by 137Cs and 60Co in sand with principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jamie C; Mellor, Matthew; Joyce, Malcolm J

    2011-10-01

    A method to determine the depth of buried localized radioactive contamination nonintrusively and nondestructively using principal component analysis is described. The γ-ray spectra from two radionuclides, cesium-137 and cobalt-60, have been analyzed to derive the two principal components that change most significantly as a result of varying the depth of the sources in a bespoke sand-filled phantom. The relationship between depth (d) and the angle (θ) between the first two principal component coefficients has been derived for both cases, viz. d(Φ) = x + y log(e) Φ where x and y are constants dependent on the shielding material and the γ-ray energy spectrum of the radioactivity in question, and φ is a function of θ. The technique enables the depth of a localized radioactive source to be determined nonintrusively in the range 5 to 50 mm with an accuracy of ±1 mm.

  4. Dynamics of radioactive cesium (134Cs and 137Cs) during the milling of contaminated Japanese wheat cultivars and during the cooking of udon noodles made from wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Keitarou; Kameya, Hiromi; Nei, Daisuke; Kakihara, Yoshiteru; Hagiwara, Shoji; Okadome, Hiroshi; Tanji, Katsuo; Todoriki, Setsuko; Matsukura, Ushio; Kawamoto, Ghinichi

    2012-10-01

    The fate of radioactive cesium ((134)Cs plus (137)Cs) during the milling of contaminated Japanese wheat cultivars harvested in FY2011, and during the cooking of Japanese udon noodles made from the wheat flour, was investigated. Grain samples containing various radioactive cesium concentrations (36.6 to 772 Bq/kg [dry weight]) were milled using a laboratory-scale test mill to produce eight fractions: three break flours (1B, 2B, and 3B), three reduction flours (1M, 2M, and 3M), bran, and shorts. The concentrations of radioactive cesium were found to be highest in the bran fractions of all the samples tested, with 2.3- to 2.5-fold higher values than that of the whole grain. Shorts contained radioactive cesium levels similar to that of the whole grain. In contrast, radioactive cesium concentrations in other fractions were found to be less than half the concentration in whole grain. The average processing factor (PF) value calculated for patent flour (0.401 ± 0.048), made from the mixture of 1B, 2B, 1M, and 2M for human consumption, or for low-grade flour (0.467 ± 0.045), made from the mixture of 3B and 3M, was found to be less than 0.5; whereas the average PF value (2.07 ± 0.232) for feed bran (mixture of bran and shorts), which has been used mainly as livestock feed in Japan, was over 2.0. Boiling udon noodles (made from patent flour) resulted in a substantial reduction (>70 % of initial amount) of radioactive cesium. Moreover, radioactive cesium was reduced further (<10 % of the initial amount) in the subsequent rinsing process, and the PF value of boiled noodles was recorded as 0.194. These results demonstrated that patent flour containing radioactive cesium can be made safe for human consumption by adopting the standard limit for radioactive cesium in wheat grain and that radioactive cesium in udon noodles is substantially reduced by cooking.

  5. Radioactive caesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in mushrooms of the genus Boletus from the Reggio Emilia in Italy and Pomerania in Poland.

    PubMed

    Cocchi, Luigi; Kluza, Karolina; Zalewska, Tamara; Apanel, Anna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-12-01

    Activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were determined in mushrooms of the Boletus species B. aereus, B. reticulatus, B. appendiculatus, B. calopus, B. edulis, B. erythropus, B. fechtneri, B. pinophilus, B. pseudoregius, B. rhodopurpureus, B. rhodoxanthus collected in the Reggio Emilia, Italy, in 1993 and 1994 and in B. edulis collected in Pomerania in northern Poland in the period from 1995-2015. Boletus edulis from the Reggio Emilia showed presence of (137)Cs at 330 ± 220 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1993 and at 370 ± 180 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1994. In B. edulis sampled in the Reggio Emilia in 1993 and 1994, the pre-Chernobyl (137)Cs from global fallout amounted to 39-46 % of the total activity concentrations of isotope (137)Cs. B. edulis from Pomerania contained (137)Cs in caps at 270 ± 15 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1995, and in whole fruiting bodies it was found to be 470 ± 9 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 2015. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs determined in fruiting bodies of B. edulis from Pomerania fluctuated but persisted over the period from 1995 to 2015, while the maximum activity concentrations were well below the tolerance limit of 600 Bq kg(-1) fresh product.

  6. Specific features of the recent accumulation of 137Cs in tree roots of forest ecosystems within the zone of radioactive contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Ol'ga; Klyashtorin, Alexey; Popova, Evgenia

    2015-04-01

    Despite numerous studies of the accumulation of technogenic radionuclides in the root systems, no clear regularities of this process have been established. The tendencies found in the works of Russian and foreign researchers are rather discrepant. Some authors argue that the accumulation of radionuclides in the roots is more pronounced than that in the aboveground parts of the plants (Skovorodnikova, 2005; Romantseva, 2012; Sennerby et al., 1994; Mamikhin, 2002; Fircks et al., 2002}. Other works attest to a higher accumulation of radionuclides in the aboveground pars (Juznic et al., 1990; Chibowski, 2000; Zhianski et al., 2005), which is also typical of the stable isotopes of these elements, including 133Cs (Dong Jin Kang, YongJin Seo, Tsukasa Saito et al,2012). It is also stated that the accumulation of radionuclides in the aboveground and underground parts of plants may differ in dependence on the soil-ecological conditions and other factors (Kozhakhanov et al., 2011; Grabovskyi et al., 2013). The aim of our study was to evaluate the accumulation of 137Cs in the root systems of arboreal plants in forest ecosystems within the near zone of the Chernobyl fallout on the plots with similar soil and phytocenotic features. Pine and birch stands were studied within the 30-km-wide exclusion zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in Ukraine in 1992-1993, when the density of the radioactive contamination of the upper (0-20 cm) layer with 137Cs reached 2153.8 kBq/m2), and in Bryansk oblast of Russia in 2013-2014, when the density of contamination varied from 1458.4 kBq/m2 (pine stand) to 2578.3 kBq/m2 (birch stand). The tree layer in these ecosystems was dominated by Pinus sylvestris (L.) and Betula pendula (Roth.), respectively. Quercus robur (L.), Picea abies (L.), and Sorbus aucuparia (L.) were also present. The specific activity of 137Cs was measured in the samples from the aboveground parts of model trees and their roots differentiated by size (0-3, 3-10, 10

  7. Radioactive artificial (137)Cs and natural (40)K activity in 21 edible mushrooms of the genus Boletus species from SW China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Zalewska, Tamara

    2017-03-01

    This study, for the first time, presents the results of activity concentration determinations for (137)Cs and (40)K in a high number (21 species, 87 composite samples, and 807 fruiting bodies) of mushrooms of the genus Boletus from across Yunnan in 2011-2014 and Sichuan (Boletus tomentipes) using high-resolution high-purity germanium detector. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs demonstrated some variability and range from <4.4 to 83 ± 3 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in caps and from <3.8 to 37 ± 3 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in stipes, and of (40)K, respectively, from 420 ± 41 to 1300 ± 110 and from 520 ± 61 to 1300 ± 140 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. No significant variations were observed regarding (137)Cs and (40)K activity concentrations among the same Boletus species from different sampling sites. No activity concentrations from (134)Cs were detected in any mushrooms. Internal dose rates estimated were from intake of 1 kg of mushrooms per annum for (137)Cs range for species and regions from around <0.0031 to 0.047 ± 0.003 μSv, while those for (40)K were from around 0.22 ± 0.04 to 1.2 ± 0.1 μSv. The overall intake of (137)Cs was low since low contamination was found in Boletus species.

  8. Rapid measurement of 89,90Sr radioactivity in rinse water.

    PubMed

    Masashi, Takada; Hiroko, Enomoto; Toshikazu, Suzuki

    2013-03-01

    Rapid measurement of radioactivity from Sr in aqueous solutions is performed using a technique combining a strontium rad disk and a picobeta spectrometer. Identification of Sr radionuclides is accomplished in as little as 90 min in a radiation-tainted solution that contains more highly radioactive cesium. It is possible to perform triage by assessing skin exposure doses in this short time. This simple technique could be used in mobile laboratories. Sr having 1 Bq radioactivities are measured in 10 kBq Cs in aqueous solution. The radioactivity contained in rinse water used to decontaminate the feet of workers who stepped into highly contaminated water in the basement of the turbine building of Unit 3 at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was measured. The amount of Sr radioactivity in rinse water using the authors' rapid measurement technique (0.29 Bq mL) and a traditional method agree well, with 3.6% difference. Based on this agreement, this technique is confirmed to be useful for rapid measurement of Sr radioactivities.

  9. Identification of 90Sr/40K Based on Cherenkov Detector for Recovery from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Han, Soorim; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Kaneko, Naomi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Tabata, Makoto

    Although five years have passed since the Fukushima nuclear accident of 2011, the local fisheries have yet to recover from its effects. One reason for this situation is the difficulty of measuring the radioactivity owing to 90Sr in seafood. After the accident, the radioactivity due to Cs isotopes in samples was measured with precision, which facilitated the enforcement of the maximum concentration of Cs radioisotopes in food at 100 Bq/kg, as defined by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan. However, 90Sr is more dangerous than Cs isotopes because it has an effective half-life of 18 years and accumulates in the bone. The radioactivity owing to 90Sr in a sample is difficult to measure because the beta rays from 137Cs or 40K also contribute to the signal. When measured based on the endpoint pulse height as determined by a conventional survey meter, the beta ray signal from 90Y (daughter of 90Sr) cannot be differentiated from the beta rays from other sources. To overcome this difficulty, in this study, we develop a Cherenkov detector based on a silica aerogel with a refractive index of 1.034 that can identify beta rays from 90Y within a background of beta rays from 137Cs and 40K. This instrument involves a detector that is sensitive to beta rays from 90Sr but less sensitive to radiation from other sources. This detector comprises a trigger counter that uses scintillating fibers, an aerogel Cherenkov counter with wavelength-shifting fibers, and a veto counter to suppress cosmic rays. We characterize the detector using a 90Sr source, 137Cs source, and pure potassium chloride reagent of 16.6 Bq/g, where the radioactivity of natural 40K is estimated to be 31.7 Bq/g. The following results are obtained: the absolute detection efficiency for 90Sr, 137Cs, and 40K is [2.24 ± 0.01 (stat) ± 0.44 (sys)] × 10-3 Bq-1 s-1, [1.27 ± 0.08 (stat) ± 0.25 (sys)] × 10-6 Bq-1 s-1, and [5.05 ± 2.40 (stat) ± 0.15 (sys)] × 10-5 Bq-1 s-1, respectively. To aid in the

  10. Effect of Potassium on Uptake of 137Cs in Food Crops Grown on Coral Soils: Annual Crops at Bikini Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, E R; Robinson, W

    2002-02-01

    In 1954 a radioactive plume from the thermonuclear device code named BRAVO contaminated the principal residential islands, Eneu and Bikini, of Bikini Atoll (11{sup o} 36 minutes N; 165{sup o} 22 minutes E), now part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The resulting soil radioactivity diminished greatly over the three decades before the studies discussed below began. By that time the shorter-lived isotopes had all but disappeared, but strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), and cesium-137, ({sup 137}Cs) were reduced by only one half-life. Minute amounts of the long-lived isotopes, plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), were present in soil, but were found to be inconsequential in the food chain of humans and land animals. Rather, extensive studies demonstrated that the major concern for human health was {sup 137}Cs in the terrestrial food chain (Robison et al., 1983; Robison et al., 1997). The following papers document results from several studies between 1986 and 1997 aimed at minimizing the {sup 137}Cs content of annual food crops. The existing literature on radiocesium in soils and plant uptake is largely a consequence of two events: the worldwide fallout of 1952-58, and the fallout from Chernobyl. The resulting studies have, for the most part, dealt either with soils containing some amount of silicate clays and often with appreciable K, or with the short-term development of plants in nutrient cultures.

  11. Field demonstration of in situ treatment of buried low-level radioactive solid waste with caustic soda and soda ash to immobilize /sup 90/Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.

    1984-02-01

    A low-level radioactive solid waste disposal trench was injected on four occasions with solutions of caustic soda, soda ash, caustic soda, and lime/soda ash, respectively. Because investigations had indicated that /sup 90/Sr could be coprecipitated with soil calcium carbonate by treatment with soda ash, this demonstration was undertaken as a test of its technical feasibility. After concentrations of /sup 90/Sr and water hardness decreased within the intratrench monitoring wells; one well at the foot of the trench decreased from over 100 to a persistent level of less than 10 kBq of /sup 90/Sr per liter. Recharge of /sup 90/Sr from the trench to a sump immediately below was reduced by about 90%. Water hardness and /sup 90/Sr concentrations were strongly correlated through time within each monitoring well, indicating that /sup 90/Sr behaved as a tracer for soil calcium and magnesium. The disappearance of /sup 90/Sr from the trench water, therefore, was an in situ water softening. Soil samples retrieved from the trench indicated that as much as 98% of the total /sup 90/Sr was present as a coprecipitate with calcium carbonate. The hydrologic characterization of this trench indicated an average void space of 41% and an average trench-wall hydraulic conductivity of 3.4 x 10/sup -7/ m/s. Sampling of the trench's discharge contamination plume indicated that it had resulted from a combination of subsurface seepage and bathtub overflow during infrequent periods of intense precipitation. A generic assessment of soda ash treatment indicated that treatment would be most effective for soils of high cation exchange capacity with either low (< 20%) or high (> 80%) basic cation saturation of that cation exchange capacity.

  12. Long term behavior of radioactive plume of TEPCO FNPP1 released 134Cs and 137Cs in the North Pacific Ocean through the end of 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Michio; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Hamajima, Yasunori; Kumamoto, Yuichiro

    2015-04-01

    134Cs and 137Cs, hereafter radiocaesium, were released to the North Pacific Ocean by two major likely pathways, direct discharge from the Fukushima NPP1 accident site and atmospheric deposition off Honshu Islands of Japan, east and northeast of the site. High density observations of 134Cs and 137Cs in the surface water were carried out by 17 cruises of cargo ships and several research vessel cruises since March 2011 till March 2012. Thereafter we and our collaborators continue to collect seawater samples in 2013 and 2014 in the North Pacific Ocean. We also conduct to measure radiocaesium in coastal waters at Tomioka and Hasaki, Japan through the end of 2014. TEPCO and Japanese government also continue to monitor radiocaesium in seawaters close to the site. In this presentation, we present long term behavior of TEPCO FNPP1 released radiocaesium in the coastal region and the North Pacific Ocean based on the observations and model simulations during the period from just after the accident to summer in 2014. In the coastal region very close to TEPCO FNPP1 site, the data show peak ocean discharges in early April 2011, one month after the earthquake and a factor of 1000 decrease in the month following. The 137Cs activity through the end of September 2014 remain higher than expected, ca. 1000 Bq m-3, implying continued releases from the reactors. Since directly discharged radiocaesium were transported dominantly southward along the coastline of northeastern Honshu, the 137Cs activities in coastal seawater collected at Tomioka and Hasaki were still one or two order of magnitude higher, several to 100 Bq m-3, rather than pre-Fukushima level in summer 2014. In the North Pacific Ocean main body of radiocaesium surface plume of which activity exceed 10 Bq m-3 had been travelling along 40 °N, and reached International Date Line on March 2012 one year after the accident. A feature was that the radiocaesium plume was confined along 40 °N when the plume reached International

  13. [Radioactivity for 137Cs, 125I, 131I, 59Fe, y 57Co windows from foods included in the basic alimentary basket and in the water, consumed in the state of Carabobo, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Torres, Annabell; Tovar, María; Malpica, Oscar; Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    One of the input ways of radionucleids into the organism is through food intake. The aim of the present study is to measure the radioactivity levels in food and water samples within energy windows corresponding to 137Cs, 125I, 131I, 59Fe, and 57Co. Samples were taken from local and imported food belonging to the venezuelan basic alimentary basket and included: beef meat, hen egg, chicken bone, tomato, black bean, rice, powder milk from local dealers or imported from Italy and New Zeeland, potable water from the Valencia city aqueduct and bottled water from local sources or imported from Portugal. Radioactivity was measured with a well type Nal (TI) scintillation counter. Analyzed foods and water presented levels lower than the minimal detectable activity for 137Cs, 131I, 59Fe, 57Co, but it was detected in the Valencia city aqueduct water and in bottled water imported from Portugal, levels greater than the minimal detectable activity for the 125I energy window. These results strongly suggest the need of repeated multienergy windows monitoring of radioactivity of basic alimentary basket foods and potable water.

  14. {sup 137}Cs concentration among children in areas contaminated with radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident: Mogilev and Gomel oblasts, Belarus

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Fujimura, Kingo; Shibata, Yoshisada; Okajima, Shunzo; Yamashita, Shunichi; Namba, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Naokata; Izumi, Motomori; Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1994-09-01

    The level of radiation exposure in children in Belarus caused by the Chernobyl accident was investigated on the basis of whole body {sup 137}Cs count. The subjects were 10,062 children (4,762 boys and 5,300 girls) in Mogilev and Gomel, Belarus, who received Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project health examinations from May 1991 to December 1992 and who were 5-16 y old at the time of examination. The median whole body {sup 137}Cs count per body weight varied from 21-48 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} and from 28-126 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} in Mogilev oblast and Gomel oblast, respectively. (The {open_quotes}oblast{close_quotes} is the largest administrative district constituting the country. Belarus consists of 6 oblasts). Corresponding annual effective dose equivalents were all less than the public dose limit of 1 mSv y{sup {minus}1}, but the observed levels in the children were considerably higher than the average level of 2.3 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} reported in the past for the former Soviet Union. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Fukushima 137Cs at the base of planktonic food webs off Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Z.; Fisher, N. S.; Gobler, C. J.; Buesseler, K. O.; George, J. A.; Breier, C. F.; Nishikawa, J.

    2015-12-01

    The potential bioaccumulation of 137Cs in marine food webs off Japan became a concern following the release of radioactive contaminants from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant into the coastal ocean. Previous studies suggest that 137Cs activities increase with trophic level in pelagic food webs, however, the bioaccumulation of 137Cs from seawater to primary producers, to zooplankton has not been evaluated in the field. Since phytoplankton are frequently the largest component of suspended particulate matter (SPM) we used SPM concentrations and particle-associated 137Cs to understand bioaccumulation of 137Cs in through trophic pathways in the field. We determined particle-associated 137Cs for samples collected at 20 m depth from six stations off Japan three months after the initial release from the Fukushima nuclear power plant. At 20 m SPM ranged from 0.65 to 1.60 mg L-1 and rapidly declined with depth. The ratios of particulate organic carbon to chlorophyll a suggested that phytoplankton comprised much of the SPM in these samples. 137Cs activities on particles accounted for on average 0.04% of the total 137Cs in seawater samples, and measured concentration factors of 137Cs on small suspended particles were comparatively low (∼102). However, when 137Cs in crustacean zooplankton was derived based only on modeling dietary 137Cs uptake, we found predicted and measured 137Cs concentrations in good agreement. We therefore postulate the possibility that the dietary route of 137Cs bioaccumulation (i.e., phytoplankton ingestion) could be largely responsible for the measured levels in the copepod-dominated (%) zooplankton assemblages in Japanese coastal waters. Finally, our data did not support the notion that zooplankton grazing on phytoplankton results in a biomagnification of 137Cs.

  16. Temporal variation of post-accident atmospheric (137)Cs in an evacuated area of Fukushima Prefecture: Size-dependent behaviors of (137)Cs-bearing particles.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Shinya; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Ueda, Shinji; Tokonami, Shinji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2016-12-01

    The concentrations of (137)Cs in the air, which were divided into coarse (>1.1 μm ϕ) and fine (<1.1 μm ϕ) fractions of particulate matter (PM), were measured from October 2012 to December 2014 in an area evacuated after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Total atmospheric (137)Cs concentrations showed a clear seasonal variation, with high concentrations during summer and autumn related to the dominant easterly wind blowing from the highly radioactivity contaminated area. This seasonal peak was dominated by (137)Cs in the coarse PM fraction. The (137)Cs specific activity (massic (137)Cs concentration) in the coarse PM was also found to increase significantly in summer, whereas that in the fine PM showed no variability during the year. These results show that coarse and fine (137)Cs-bearing PM have different origins and behaviors in the resuspension process. The seasonal variation in atmospheric (137)Cs concentration was well correlated with the mean (137)Cs surface contamination (deposition density) around the observation site weighted by the frequency of wind direction, indicating that the atmospheric (137)Cs concentration in the observation site was explained by the distribution of the (137)Cs surface contamination and the frequency of different wind directions. We introduced a resuspension factor corrected for wind direction, consisting of the ratio of the atmospheric (137)Cs concentration to the weighted mean (137)Cs surface contamination, which evaluated the intensity of resuspension better than the conventional resuspension factor. This ratio ranged from 5.7 × 10(-11) to 8.6 × 10(-10) m(-1) and gradually decreased during the study period.

  17. Resuspension: decadal monitoring time series of the anthropogenic radioactivity deposition in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yasuhito; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi; Miyao, Takashi; Nemoto, Kazuhiro; Tomita, Masatoshi; Fujikawa, Takashi

    2003-12-01

    Monthly atmospheric depositions of (90)Sr and (137)Cs have been observed at the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Tsukuba, Japan. This study reports temporal trends and levels of (90)Sr and (137)Cs depositions in the 1990s. Although the current (90)Sr and (137)Cs concentrations declined dramatically, they have been found continuously in the deposition samples throughout the 1990s. During this period, the annual (90)Sr ((137)Cs) deposits at MRI ranged from 70-180 (140-350) mBq/m(2)/year. With a sufficiently long time series, the decreasing trend of the deposition evidently differs from the past stratospheric fallout; it is far slower. Thus, reservoirs other than the stratosphere provide small amounts of (90)Sr and (137)Cs to the atmosphere. A simple calculation clearly refutes the significance of the ocean as a potential source of airborne anthropogenic radioactivity. We will demonstrate that these radionuclides in the deposited materials originate from resuspension processes (soil dust suspension processes). The temporal trends of the time series monitoring reveal differences from those in the UNSCEAR Report 2000, which were predicted by a model that disregarded resuspension. The specific activity of (90)Sr ((137)Cs) in the annual depositions exhibited a 10-year (20-year) half-life. Those data were comparable with values reported in the literature for the half-residence time (HRT) of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in Japanese surface soils. They were also comparable to those calculated from nationwide data of (90)Sr and (137)Cs concentrations in the surface soil (0-10 cm) obtained from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Environmental Radiation Database (the MEXT Database). Regarding the activity ratio of (137)Cs/(90)Sr, the Japanese nationwide surface soil data collected during the 1990s in the MEXT Database (median: 5.3, n = 584) did not accord with that in the deposition samples (average: 2.1, n = 82) at MRI. This supports our previous

  18. 137Cs contained in books printed during the 1960s in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobashi, A

    2001-09-01

    Radioactivity values of 137Cs in printed pages and covers of hardbound books issued during the 1960s in Japan were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry. The result showed that the main source of 137Cs present in the books was rice straw used to make the backing board of covers. The 1965 peak of 137Cs content of the book was explained by the variation of 137Cs content of rice straw with the harvest year and a change of the kind of board.

  19. The preliminary results of the measurements of environmental levels of 40K and 137Cs in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBrecque, J. J.; Rosales, P. A.; Carias, O.

    1992-02-01

    The study of the beta-particle radioactivity in air and 90Sr in rainwater collected at Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, IVIC, that began in 1959 in conjunction with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was discontinued in 1963. But after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in the USSR, work on the radioactive contamination in Venezuela has been renewed. Initially the measurement of 134Cs and 137Cs in imported foodstuffs, such as milk powders and meats were undertaken, and these have now been extended to measurements of environmental levels of 40K and 137Cs in soils, sea sediments and foodstuffs. The data present herein are the only readily available data on radioactive contamination in the environment in Venezuela since 1963. The measurements were performed with a simple Nal(Tl) detector and two single channel analyzers as well as with a 25% efficient hyper-pure germanium semiconductor coupled to a multichannel analyzer system. Finally, these results can be used as baseline values (environmental background) in case of a nuclear accident in the region, as well as to screen imported foodstuff which is suspected to be contaminated.

  20. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1974.

    PubMed

    Aarkrog, A; Lippert, J

    1975-07-01

    Measurements of fall-out radioactivity in Greenland in 1974 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Caesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90Sr and 137Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1974. Three Greenlanders were measured by wholebody counting.

  1. Environmental radioactivity in Greenland in 1976.

    PubMed

    Aarkrog, A; Lippert, J

    1977-07-01

    Measurements of fall-out radioactivity in Greenland in 1976 are reported. Strontium-90 (and Caesium-137 in most cases) was determined in samples of precipitation, sea water, vegetation, animals, and drinking water. Estimates are given of the mean contents of 90Sr and 137Cs in the human diet in Greenland in 1976.

  2. Reconstruction of 137Cs activity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Hayami, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2014-05-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the ocean by the comparison model simulations and observed data. We employed a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model to investigate the oceanic contamination. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for more than 2 years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 3.0 x 1010 Bq day-1 by the end of September 2013. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of dose rate and air activity of 137Cs over the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Observed 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition in the ocean helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Although there is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011, observed data of

  3. [Radioactive contamination of cistern waters along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea].

    PubMed

    Franić, Z; Maracić, M; Bauman, A

    1992-12-01

    Measurements of radioactive contamination of cistern waters with 90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs have been carried out along the Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea. An exponential decline of radioactivity followed the moratorium on nuclear tests. After the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, high radioactivity levels were detected again. The pre-Chernobyl and the post-Chernobyl mean residence times of 90Sr in cistern waters reflect the mechanism by which strontium was released to the atmosphere (atmospheric nuclear weapon tests conducted in the stratosphere or explosions in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor releasing radioactive material to the troposphere). For the pre-Chernobyl period, the mean residence time of 90Sr in cistern waters was similar to that calculated for fallout, being approximately 10 years. The post-Chernobyl 137Cs/90Sr activity ratio has been decreasing, but it has not yet reached the pre-Chernobyl values (approximately 1.6). The time-dependent 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio reflects the Chernobyl reactor inventory of these radionuclides. The annual dose for the critical adult population received from 90Sr, 134Cs and 137Cs by consumption of cistern water was estimated to be a few percentages of the dose from natural background radiation.

  4. 137Cs in soil and fallout around Zagreb (Croatia) at the time of the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Šoštarić, Marko; Petrinec, Branko; Babić, Dinko

    2013-12-01

    This paper addresses the noticeable increase of 137Cs activity concentrations in soil and fallout in the area surrounding Zagreb (Croatia) that occurred at the time of the 2011 Fukushima accident. This topic is important for public health as 137Cs is highly toxic due to its long half-life of radioactive decay and chemical similarity to potassium. 137Cs concentrations in fallout were much greater than in soil, but remained present longer in the latter. While being detectable in our measurements, 137Cs did not spread through the food chain in amounts exceeding the maximum allowed level of radioactive food contamination. However, more thorough and consistent measurements need to be done in order to establish the precise activity trends of 137Cs in Zagreb soil and fallout.

  5. 90Sr and 89Sr in seawater off Japan as a consequence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casacuberta, N.; Masqué, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2013-06-01

    The impact of the earthquake and tsunami on the east coast of Japan on 11 March 2011 caused a loss of power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (NPP) that resulted in one of the most important releases of artificial radioactivity into the environment. Although several works were devoted to evaluating the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides, the impact of the discharges to the ocean has been less investigated. Here we evaluate the distribution of Fukushima-derived 90Sr (n = 57) and 89Sr (n = 19) throughout waters 30-600 km offshore in June 2011. Concentrations of 90Sr and 89Sr in both surface waters and shallow profiles ranged from 0.8 ± 0.2 to 85 ± 3 Bq m-3 and from 19 ± 6 to 265 ± 74 Bq m-3, respectively. Because of its short half-life, all measured 89Sr was due to the accident, while the 90Sr concentrations can be compared to the background levels in the Pacific Ocean of about 1.2 Bq m-3. Fukushima-derived radiostrontium was mainly detected north of Kuroshio Current, as this was acting as a southern boundary for transport. The highest activities were associated with near-shore eddies, and larger inventories were found in the closest stations to Fukushima NPP. The data evidence a major influence of direct liquid discharges of radiostrontium compared to the atmospheric deposition. Existing 137Cs data reported from the same samples allowed us to establish a 90Sr / 137Cs ratio of 0.0256 ± 0.0006 in seawater off Fukushima, being significantly different than that of the global atmospheric fallout (i.e., 0.63) and may be used in future studies to track waters coming from the east coast of Japan. Liquid discharges of 90Sr to the ocean were estimated, resulting in an inventory of 53 ± 1 TBq of 90Sr in the inshore study area in June 2011 and total releases of 90Sr ranging from 90 to 900 TBq, depending upon the reported estimates of 137Cs releases that are considered.

  6. 90Sr and 89Sr in seawater off Japan as a consequence of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casacuberta, N.; Masqué, P.; Garcia-Orellana, J.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Buesseler, K. O.

    2013-02-01

    The impact of the earthquake and tsunami in the east coast of Japan in 11 March 2011 caused a loss of power at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) that resulted in one of the most important releases of artificial radioactivity to the environment. Although several works were devoted to evaluate the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides, the impact of the discharges to the ocean has been less investigated. Here we evaluate the distribution of Fukushima-derived 90Sr and 89Sr throughout waters 30-600 km offshore in June 2011. Concentrations of 90Sr and 89Sr in both surface waters and shallow profiles ranged from 0.8 ± 0.2 to 85 ± 3 Bq m-3 and from 19 ± 6 to 265 ± 74 Bq m-3, respectively. Because of its short half-life, all measured 89Sr was due to the accident, while the 90Sr concentrations can be compared to the background levels in the Pacific Ocean of about 1.2 Bq m-3. Fukushima-derived radiostrontium was mainly detected north of Kuroshio Current, as this was acting as a southern boundary for transport. The highest activities were associated with near-shore eddies, and larger inventories were found in the closest stations to Fukushima NPP. The data evidences a major influence of direct liquid discharges of radiostrontium compared to the atmospheric deposition. Existing 137Cs data reported from the same samples allowed us establishing a 90Sr/137Cs ratio of 0.0256 ± 0.0006 in seawater off Fukushima, being significantly different than that of the global atmospheric fallout (i.e. 0.63) and may be used in future studies to track waters coming from the east coast of Japan. Liquid discharges of 90Sr to the ocean were estimated, resulting in an inventory of 53 ± 1 TBq of 90Sr in the inshore study area in June 2011 and total releases of 90Sr ranging from 90 to 900 TBq, depending upon the reported estimates of 137Cs releases that are considered.

  7. Behavior of 137Cs concentrations in the North Pacific in an ocean general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2003-08-01

    We have carried out a first simulation of the spatial distributions and the temporal variations of 137Cs concentrations in the North Pacific in off line calculations by using archived output of an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) developed by the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Artificial radionuclides including 137Cs are introduced into ocean surface due to global fallout originating from the large-scale atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in 1961-1962. The distribution of radioactive deposition used as forcing for this simulation is estimated from global precipitation data and observed values of annual deposition of radionuclides at the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) in Japan. 137Cs originating from global fallout have been transported into the ocean interior by advection and diffusion, and the 137Cs concentrations reduced by radioactive decay. We assess the skill of the model calculations by comparing simulated values of 137Cs in seawater with the observed values included in the database compiled by MRI because 137Cs is one of the most useful tracers regarding water motion in the ocean. The vertical and horizontal distributions of the calculated 137Cs concentrations were in good agreement with those of the observed 137Cs concentrations, except in the deep layer.

  8. (90)Sr in fish from the southern Baltic Sea, coastal lagoons and freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Tamara; Saniewski, Michał; Suplińska, Maria; Rubel, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Activity concentrations of radioactive (90)Sr were studied in four fish species: herring, flounder, sprat and cod caught in the southern Baltic Sea in two periods: 2005-2009 and 2013-2014. The study included also perch from the coastal lagoons - Vistula Lagoon and Szczcin Lagoon and a freshwater lake - Żarnowieckie Lake as well as additional lake species: pike and bream. (90)Sr activity concentrations were compared in relation to species and to particular tissue: muscle, whole fish (eviscerated) and bones. In 2014, in the Baltic, the maximal (90)Sr concentrations were found in fishbones: herring - 0.39 Bq kg(-1) w.w., cod - 0.48 Bq kg(-1) w.w., and flounder - 0.54 Bq kg(-1) w.w. In the whole fish the maximal concentrations were found in flounder - 0.16 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and cod - 0.15 Bq kg(-1) w.w., while in herring - 0.022 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and sprat - 0.026 Bq kg(-1) w.w. they stayed at lower level. Relatively high (90)Sr concentrations were detected in whole fish from freshwater Lake Żarnowieckie: perch - 0.054 Bq kg(-1) w.w., pike - 0.062 Bq kg(-1) w.w. and bream - 0.140 Bq kg(-1) w.w. Concentration ratio (CR) determined for particular fish tissues and for whole eviscerated fish in relation to (90)Sr concentrations in seawater and lake water were showing significant variability unlike the corresponding (137)Cs concentration ratios which are stable and specific for fish species. The study corroborates with the conviction of the growing role of (90)Sr in the overall radioactivity in the southern Baltic Sea as compared to (137)Cs.

  9. Factors controlling the spatiotemporal variation of (137)Cs in seabed sediment off the Fukushima coast: implications from numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Misumi, Kazuhiro; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Aoyama, Michio; Kobayashi, Takuya; Hirose, Katsumi

    2014-10-01

    We used numerical simulations to investigate major controls on spatiotemporal variations of (137)Cs activities in seabed sediments off the Fukushima coast during the first year after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The numerical model we used includes (137)Cs transfer between bottom water and sediment by adsorption and desorption, and radioactive decay. The model successfully reproduced major features of the observed spatiotemporal variations of (137)Cs activities in sediments. The spatial pattern of (137)Cs in sediments, which mainly reflected the history of (137)Cs activities in bottom water overlying the sediments and the sediment particle size distribution, became established during the first several months after the accident. The simulated temporal persistence of the (137)Cs activity in the sediments was due to adsorption of (137)Cs onto the sediment mineral fraction having a long desorption timescale of (137)Cs. The simulated total (137)Cs inventory in sediments integrated over the offshore area, where most of the monitoring stations were located, was on the order of 10(13) Bq; this value is consistent with a previous estimate based on observed data. Taking into account (137)Cs activities in sediments in both the coastal area and in the vicinity of the power plant, the simulated total inventory of (137)Cs in sediments off the Fukushima coast increased to a value on the order of 10(14) Bq.

  10. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration in marine sediments at Amvrakikos Gulf, western of Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsabaris, C; Patiris, D L; Fillis-Tsirakis, E; Kapsimalis, V; Pilakouta, M; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present work is the study of (137)Cs migration in sediment column taking into account the sedimentation rate in the Amvrakikos Gulf, at the western part of Greece. Marine core sediments were collected and the measurements were performed using the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry method. The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration, as part of anthropogenic marine radioactivity, provided averaged sedimentation rate by identifying the depths of activity concentrations due to the Chernobyl accident and the nuclear tests signals. Furthermore, (137)Cs measurements were reproduced using the proposed one-dimensional diffusion-advection model which provides mainly as an output, the sedimentation rate and the average diffusivity of (137)Cs in the sediment column. The proposed model estimates the temporal variation of (137)Cs activity concentration from 1987 (one year after the Chernobyl accident) till today (2014).

  11. Removal of radioactive cesium (134Cs plus 137Cs) from low-level contaminated water by charcoal and broiler litter biochar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various charcoals (used in food processing and water treatment) and broiler litter biochar were examined for ability to adsorb water-soluble low-level radioactive cesium (ca. 200-250 Bq/kg) extracted from contaminated wheat bran. Among the materials tested, steam activated broiler litter biochar was...

  12. Contribution of radioactive (137)Cs discharge by suspended sediment, coarse organic matter, and dissolved fraction from a headwater catchment in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, Sho; Onda, Yuichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Abe, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) migration from headwaters in forested areas provides important information, as the output from forest streams subsequently enters various land-use areas and downstream rivers. Thus, it is important to determine the composition of (137)Cs fluxes (dissolved fraction, suspended sediment, or coarse organic matter) that migrate through a headwater stream. In this study, the (137)Cs discharge by suspended sediment and coarse organic matter from a forest headwater catchment was monitored. The (137)Cs concentrations in suspended sediment and coarse organic matter, such as leaves and branches, and the amounts of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were measured at stream sites in three headwater catchments in Yamakiya District, located ∼35 km northwest of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) from August 2012 to September 2013, following the earthquake and tsunami disaster. Suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were sampled at intervals of approximately 1-2 months. The (137)Cs concentrations of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were 2.4-49 kBq/kg and 0.85-14 kBq/kg, respectively. The (137)Cs concentrations of the suspended sediment were closely correlated with the average deposition density of the catchment. The annual proportions of contribution of (137)Cs discharge by suspended sediment, coarse organic matter, and dissolved fraction were 96-99%, 0.0092-0.069%, and 0.73-3.7%, respectively. The total annual (137)Cs discharge from the catchment was 0.02-0.3% of the deposition.

  13. Computational modeling of 137Cs contaminant transfer associated with sediment transport in Abukuma River.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, T; Nabi, M; Shimizu, Y; Kimura, I

    2015-01-01

    A numerical model capable of simulating the transfer of (137)Cs in rivers associated with transport of fine sediment is presented. The accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) released radionuclides into the atmosphere, and after fallout several radionuclides in them, such as radiocesium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs) and radioiodine ((131)I) were adsorbed on surface soil particles around FDNPP and transported by surface water. To understand the transport and deposition of the radioactive contaminant along with surface soil particles and its flux to the ocean, we modeled the transport of the (137)Cs contaminant by computing the water flow and the associated washload and suspended load transport. We have developed a two-dimensional model to simulate the plane flow structure, sediment transport and associated (137)Cs contaminant transport in rivers by combining a shallow water flow model and an advection-diffusion equation for the transport of sediment. The proposed model has been applied to the lower reach of Abukuma River, which is the main river in the highly contaminated area around FDNPP. The numerical results indicate that most (137)Cs supplied from the upstream river reach with washload would directly reach to Pacific Ocean. In contrast, washload-oriented (137)Cs supplied from the upstream river basin has a limited role in the radioactive contamination in the river. The results also suggest that the proposed framework of computational model can be a potential tool for understanding the sediment-oriented (137)Cs behavior in rivers.

  14. Spatial pattern of 137Cs in soils in a mixed deciduous forest in Fukushima, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, M.; Yamada, T.; Takahara, T.; Okuda, T.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of 137Cs contamination was studied in a forest floor of Fukushima region, c.a. 40 km NW of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) focusing on downwards flow from forest canopy via stemflow and throughfall which play major role in determining spatial contamination of 137Cs after the FNDP accident. Setting a study plot (400 m2) in a secondary mixed deciduous forest, dominated by Quercus crispula and Abies firma in canopy layer in August and November 2014, we sampled the souk from surface to 5 cm in depth of soils and measured 137Cs in every 2 m grids and at tree stem bases. The total estimated activity of 137Cs in soil within the study plot was approximately 210 kBq/m2, but showed large spatial heterogeneity showing 30 times of difference between the lowest and highest activities. The activity decreased with increasing distances from tree stem bases. High activity around tree stem bases was presumably due to the stemflow containing 137Cs seeped into soil only around tree stem bases that raised radioactivity in soil locally in the areas. Relatively low activity away from trees (outside canopies) may be due to small effects of stemflow and throughfall. Activity of 137Cs around bases of deciduous broadleaf trees increased with increasing the tree size. Because larger trees have higher potentials to capture larger amount of 137Cs on the tree surface, cumulative activity of 137Cs included in stemflow may increase with increasing the tree size. However evergreen coniferous tree species (Abies firma) did not show such a pattern relating to the tree size. The difference is assumed to be affected by phenological characteristics as the accident happened in winter and deciduous broadleaf trees did not have leaves and 137Cs deposited on tree bodies, while evergreen coniferous tree had leaves and 137Cs was intercepted by the canopies.

  15. Cross equator transport of 137Cs from North Pacific Ocean to South Pacific Ocean ( BEAGLE2003 cruises)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, M.; Fukasawa, M.; Hirose, K.; Hamajima, Y.; Kawano, T.; Povinec, P. P.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    The anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc, 129I and some transuranics are important tracers of transport and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. 137Cs, with a half-life of 30 years, a major fission product present in a dissolved form in seawater, is a good tracer of oceanic circulation at a time scale of several decades. At WOCE P6 line along 30°S during the BEAGLE cruise in 2003, surface seawater (around 80 L) was collected a few meters below the ocean surface by a pumping system. Water column samples (from 5 to 20 L) were collected using a Rosette multisampling system and Niskin bottles. 137Cs was separated from seawater samples using ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) and analysed for 137Cs in low-level HPGe gamma-ray spectrometers. Results allowed to draw a detailed picture of the distribution of 137Cs in the South Pacific Ocean along P6 line. A 137Cs depth section was depicted from about 160 samples. 137Cs concentrations in the subsurface layers ranged from 0.07 ± 0.04 Bq m -3 to 1.85 ± 0.145 Bq m -3, high in the Tasman Sea and very low in the eastern region where upwelling occurs. Water column inventories of 137Cs from surface to 1000 dbar depth ranged from 270 ± 104 to 1048 ± 127 Bq m -2. It was concluded that the source of higher 137Cs concentration and inventories in the Tasman Sea was 137Cs deposited in the mid latitude of the North Pacific Ocean and transported across the equator during four decades.

  16. The fate of 137Cs in coniferous forests following the application of wood-ash.

    PubMed

    Högbom, L; Nohrstedt, H O

    2001-12-03

    In the future, it may become common practice in Swedish forestry to recycle wood-ash, a waste product of the combustion of bio-fuel. As a consequence of the Chernobyl radioactive fallout in 1986, large areas of central Sweden were contaminated. Application of recycled wood-ash, originating from contaminated areas, to a previously uncontaminated forest, risks an increase in the concentration of radioactive 137Cs. We measured 137Cs radioactivity in different parts of coniferous forests in seven field experiments. Measurements of radioactivity were made 5-8 years after an application of wood-ash equivalent to 3000 kg ha(-1). The sites, in a north-south transect across Sweden, have a background radioactivity ranging from 0 to 40 kBq m(-2), the higher levels are mainly a result of the Chernobyl fall-out. Depending on its origin, the radioactivity of the applied wood-ash ranged from 0.0 to 4.8 kBq kg(-1), corresponding to 0.0-1.44 kBq m(-2). In autumn 1999, samples were taken from the soil, field vegetation, needles and twigs and the levels of 137Cs determined. In addition, soil samples were analysed for extractable K. The highest 137Cs concentration was found in the soil. At six of the seven sites there were no statistically significant effects of wood-ash application on 137Cs activity. This was despite the fact that the wood-ash had, in one case, added the same amount of radioactivity as the background. However, at one site with intermediate 137Cs deposition (10-20 kBq m(-2)), there was a statistically significant decrease in 137Cs radioactivity in the soil, needles and twigs from the plots treated with wood-ash. The decrease in radioactivity was partly due to the fact that one of the main constituents of wood-ash is K, which is antagonistic to 137Cs. Based on our results, it appears that application of wood-ash containing 137Cs does not necessarily increase the 137Cs radioactivity in plants and soil. However, some of the observed effects could be a result of the low

  17. Long-term transport and dispersion of 137Cs released into ocean off Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chang; Qiao, Fangli; Wang, Guansuo; Xia, Changshui; Jung, KyungTae

    2014-05-01

    In the following days after the Fukushima nuclear accident which happened in 11th March 2011, significant amounts of radioactive materials (131I, 134Cs and 137Cs) had been leaking into the terrestrial and marine environments. The radionuclides model was used to study the distribution of the 137Cs in the Pacific and the Indian Ocean released from the Fukushima accident. The simulation on the distribution of 137Cs agrees well with the the observed profiles in the 9th November 2011, which proved the validaty of the model. In the first year of our model run, the 137Cs is carried eastward by the Kuroshio and its extension, spreading southward and northword meanwhile. Four or five years after the accident, the 137Cs reaches the US coast with the surface waters of the Pacific Ocean; its concentration is no higher than 3 Bq/m3. Ten years after the accident, all the North Pacific Ocean is labeled with the 137Cs from the Fukushima. The concentration is less than 1 Bq/m3 at that time. Thirty years after the accident, the concentration of 137Cs in both the Pacific and the Indian Ocean is below 0.1 Bq/m3. Since the spreading path of 137Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident is just the migration route of the Pacific tuna, a kind of fish inhabit the western and eastern North Pacific, it may cause radioactive contamination to the fish. In the offshore seas of China, the 137Cs from Fukushima nuclear accident is very low (<0.2 Bq/m3) .

  18. Environmental 90Sr measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Cecil, L.D.; Feldstein, H.; Hershkowitz, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Vogt, S.

    1997-01-01

    90Sr (T1/2 = 28.5 years) is a long-lived radionuclide produced in nuclear fission. Fast radiochemical detection of 90Sr in environmental samples is not feasible using current analytical methods. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of 90Sr were made with the Rehovot 14UD Pelletron accelerator at a terminal voltage of 11 or 12 MV using our standard detection system. Injection of hydride ions (SrH3-) was chosen owing to high beam intensity and low Coulomb explosion effects. 90Sr ions were identified and discriminated from isobaric 90Zr by measuring time of flight, total energy and three independent energy-loss signals in an ionization chamber. A reference sample and a ground-water sample were successfully measured. The detection limit determined for a laboratory blank by the residual counts in the 90Sr region is 90Sr/Sr = 3 ?? 10-13, corresponding in practice to (2-4) ?? 10790Sr atoms or about 0.5-1 pCi/L in environmental water samples.

  19. A biokinetic model for {sup 137}Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    An improved biokinetic model for {sup 137}Cs in humans was developed based on an analysis of data obtained from individuals internally contaminated during an accident in Goiania, Brazil, and other data. Seventeen children (ten girls and seven boys 1-10 y old), ten adolescents (four females and six males), and thirty adults, (fifteen females and fifteen males) contaminated in the accident in Goiania contributed to this study. {sup 137}Cs retention was determined through periodic measurements in a whole-body counter. In addition to the data on {sup 137}Cs retention from these individuals, data from a study on the metabolism of {sup 137}Cs in immature, adult, and aged Beagle dogs and data from the literature were used in the formulation of the {sup 137}Cs biokinetic model presented. Mathematically, the retention of cesium is described by three exponential terms, and the retention model is based on a step function of body weight. When the ICRP Publication 56 model for cesium was compared to the model suggested in this paper, it was determined that the ICRP model predicts lower effective doses in 5-y-old children and higher effective doses in infants, adolescents, and adults.

  20. (137)Cs concentrations in Atlantic and western Antarctic surface waters: results of the 7th Ukrainian Antarctic Expedition, 2002.

    PubMed

    Gulin, S B; Stokozov, N A

    2005-01-01

    The latitudinal distribution of (137)Cs in the Atlantic--western Antarctic surface waters was studied during the 7th Ukrainian Antarctic Expedition in January--May 2002. The (137)Cs concentrations have also been measured in the upper ice of the coastal glacier Woozle Hill located near the Ukrainian Antarctic station "Akademik Vernadsky" (western Antarctica, 65 degrees 15' S-64 degrees 16' W). Comparison of these data with results of previous same-route expeditions SWEDARP (Swedish Antarctic Research Expedition, 1988/1989) and the French R/V "Jeanne d'Arc" (1992/1993), has shown practically parallel changes of (137)Cs surface concentrations between 40 degrees N and 20 degrees S, pointing to decrease of (137)Cs radioactivity at these latitudes with an apparent half-life of 10--15 years (12.5+/-2.1 years on average). This suggests that decrease of (137)Cs surface concentration within this latitude band is controlled, besides the radioactive decay of (137)Cs (half-life=30 years), by vertical mixing of the upper water masses. South of 20 degrees S, the (137)Cs concentrations in surface water have decreased more rapidly because of the influence of the less contaminated Antarctic waters. At 50--60 degrees S and near the Antarctic coast, the (137)Cs activity in 2002 was similar to those measured during the SWEDARP and "Jeanne d'Arc" expeditions, suggesting an additional input of (137)Cs to these waters from the melted ice from the adjacent glaciers.

  1. Transfer of 137Cs in tea and other foods to man after the chernobyl accident in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çetiner, M. A.; Özmen, A.

    1995-07-01

    The transfer fraction of 137Cs to man from ingestion of radioactively contaminated tea has been calculated. A transfer of 32% was calculated using the ( a, T1, T2) parameters of the 137Cs retention function recommended in ICRP-30. An alternate method using the 40K body burden yielded a transfer fraction of 33.6%.

  2. 137Cs dynamics in the forest of Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident in March 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, I.; Ohte, N.; Iseda, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Hirose, A.; Tanoi, K.

    2013-12-01

    The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the earthquake and Tsunami in March 11th 2011, caused large amount of radioactive Cesium (137Cs) emission into the environment. In the region of Fukushima Prefecture, forest dominates more than 70 % of the land area. River water from the forest area is used for food production and also for drinking water. Thus, it is important to understand the dynamics of 137Cs deposited in the forest to predict how the radioactive Cs diffuse and discharge from the forest catchments. We measured 137Cs concentration of the tree body, litter fall, throughfall, and stemflow, in order to clarify how 137Cs deposited on the above ground biomass of the forest are transported to the forest floor. We set forest site at the upstream part of Kami-Oguni River catchment, northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. Three plots (2 deciduous stands and 1 Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation stand) were set in the forest site. Quercus serrata and C. japonica, which are representative tree species, were chosen at each plot and concentration of 137Cs on the bark, sapwood and heartwood were measured every 2 m from the ground to tree top. From each plot, 137Cs concentration of leaf litter was measured among species. Water samples of throughfall and stemflow were filtered and 137Cs concentration in suspended matter was measured. 137Cs was deposited on the bark of Q. serrata at high concentration (9-18 kBq/kg) but there were no clear relationship between tree height and concentration. 137Cs concentration of the sapwood (41 Bq/kg) was relatively higher than that of the heartwood (5 Bq/kg). It was suggested that 137Cs may be absorbed from bark and/or root. The concentration of 137Cs deposited in leaf litter varied from non-detected level to above 30 kBq/kg. The concentration was higher at evergreen tree than deciduous tree. It is considered that the litter of evergreen tree was derived from leaves on the tree canopy at the time of the

  3. Evaluation of Chlorella as a Decorporation Agent to Enhance the Elimination of Radioactive Strontium from Body

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Kazuma; Fukuda, Tadahisa; Han, Jaegab; Kitamura, Yoji; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Odani, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Background Release of radionuclides, such as 137Cs and 90Sr, into the atmosphere and the ocean presents an important problem because internal exposure to 137Cs and 90Sr could be very harmful to humans. Chlorella has been reported to be effective in enhancing the excretion of heavy metals; thus, we hypothesized that Chlorella could also enhance the elimination of 137Cs or 90Sr from the body. We evaluated the potential of Chlorella as a decorporation agent in vitro and in vivo, using 85Sr instead of 90Sr. Methods In vitro experiments of adsorption of 137Cs and 85Sr to Chlorella were performed under wide pH conditions. The maximum sorption capacity of Chlorella to strontium was estimated using the Langmuir model. A 85Sr solution was orally administrated to mice pretreated with Chlorella. At 48 h after 85Sr administration, the biodistribution of radioactivity was determined. Results In the in vitro experiments, although 85Sr barely adsorbed to Chlorella at low pH, the 85Sr adsorption ratio to Chlorella increased with increasing pH. The maximum sorption capacity of Chlorella to strontium was 9.06 mg / g. 137Cs barely adsorbed to Chlorella under any pH conditions. In the biodistribution experiments, bone accumulation of radioactivity after 85Sr administration was significantly decreased in the Chlorella pretreatment group compared with the non-treatment control group. Conclusions In conclusion, these results indicated that Chlorella could inhibit the absorption of 90Sr into the blood and enhance the elimination of 90Sr from the body through adsorption in intestine. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism and the components of Chlorella needed for adsorption to strontium and could promote the development of more effective decorporation agents. PMID:26828430

  4. Reactive barriers for 137Cs retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krumhansl, James L.; Brady, Patrick V.; Anderson, Howard L.

    2001-02-01

    137Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of 137Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half-life of 137Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if 137Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with 135Cs (half-life 2.3×10 6 years) in addition to 137Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention, Cs desorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO 3 and LiCl washes. Washed clays were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F-Ill were similar; 0.017% to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12% to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were Cs-doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt (˜0.33 wt.% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artifical reactive barriers.

  5. Investigations of natural and artificial radioactive isotopes in seawater and sediments in the Yellow Sea and adjacent southeast area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peiquan; Yu, Yinting

    1992-12-01

    Investigations of natural and artificial radioisotopes including90Sr,137Cs, gross β and U carried out in the Yellow Sea and adjacent southeast area in 1963, 1964, 1975 and 1978 showed that radioactive pollution by90Sr and137Cs from atmospheric fallout had gradually decreased with time due to the cessation of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the 70s. The distributions of natural and artificial radioactive isotopes (U, Ra, Th,40K and137Cs) in sediments southwest of Jizhou Island were uniform. The more uniform may be related to the soluble species of U[Uo2(Co3)4] in the seawater. The high value of Th at stations 3 and 6 was related to the sandy clay sediment; the low value at station 8 was related to sandy sediment. The content of137Cs in the eddy area being less than about half of that in the China inshore area showed that the source of137Cs may be insufficient orthat the conditions for enriching137Cs in the circulation eddy area were not favorable.

  6. Distributions of (137)Cs and (210)Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Aleksiayenak, Yu V; Frontasyeva, M V; Florek, M; Sykora, I; Holy, K; Masarik, J; Brestakova, L; Jeskovsky, M; Steinnes, E; Faanhof, A; Ramatlhape, K I

    2013-03-01

    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for (137)Cs and (210)Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of (137)Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). "Hot spots" were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of (137)Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of (137)Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the (210)Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of (210)Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from (210)Pb and (137)Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high (137)Cs exposure in the latter country.

  7. Atmospheric deposition of cosmogenic 7Be and 137Cs from fallout of the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Papastefanou, C; Ioannidou, A; Stoulos, S; Manolopoulou, M

    1995-08-18

    Atmospheric (tropospheric) depositional fluxes of the naturally occurring 7Be of cosmogenic origin and 137Cs from fallout of the Chernobyl accident were measured over a 7-year period (January 1987-December 1993) at Thessaloniki, Greece (40 degrees 38' N, 22 degrees 58' E). The annual total deposition fluxes of 7Be varied between 854 Bq/m2 (1987) and 1242 Bq/m2 (1992), showing a minimum in the years 1988-89. The annual total deposition fluxes of 137Cs varied between 183 Bq/m2 (1987) and 16.4 Bq/m2 (1992), showing a significant decrease as expected for natural removal and radioactive decay and no new releases from nuclear facilities or weapons testing. The annual average total deposition velocity for 7Be was from 0.3 cm/s (1988) up to 0.8 cm/s (1991), while for 137Cs the corresponding values were much higher, hence 137Cs was associated with larger atmospheric particles. High 7Be concentrations in air were related to the very little solar activity (1987-88 and 1993-94), while low 7Be concentrations in air related to the high solar activity (1989-91). Maximum 137Cs concentrations in air were registered during the spring 1991 and 1992, reflecting some stratospheric inputs. An unusual highly elevated value of 137Cs concentration in air, reaching 0.25 mBq/m3, was observed during the summer 1990.

  8. Sediment and (137)Cs behaviors in the Ogaki Dam Reservoir during a heavy rainfall event.

    PubMed

    Kurikami, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Akihiro; Yokuda, Satoru Thomas; Onishi, Yasuo

    2014-11-01

    We performed a simulation of sediment and (137)Cs behaviors in the Ogaki Dam Reservoir, one of the main irrigation reservoirs in the Fukushima prefecture, Japan, during a heavy rainfall event occurred in 2013. The one-dimensional river and reservoir simulation scheme TODAM, Time-dependent One-dimensional Degradation and Migration, was applied for calculating the time dependent migration of sediment and (137)Cs in dissolved and sediment-sorbed forms in the reservoir. Continuous observational data achieved in the upper rivers were used as the input boundary conditions for the simulation. The simulation results were compared with the continuous data achieved in the lower river and we confirmed the predicted values of sediment and (137)Cs in sediment-sorbed form at the exit of reservoir satisfactorily reproduced the observational data. We also performed sediment and (137)Cs behavioral simulation by changing the water level of the reservoir, because such a dam operation could control the quantities of sediment and (137)Cs discharge from and/or deposition in the reservoir. The simulation clarified that the reservoir played an important role to delay and buffer the movement of radioactive cesium in heavy rainfall events and the buffer effect of the reservoir depended on particle sizes of suspended sediment and the water level. It was also understood that silt deposition was the main source of the bed contamination (except for the initial fallout impact), while clay was the main carrier of (137)Cs to the lower river at a later stage of rainfall events.

  9. Ecological half-lives of 137Cs in fishes from the Savannah River Site.

    PubMed

    Paller, M H; Littrell, J W; Peters, E L

    1999-10-01

    Ecological half-lives (Te's) were estimated for 137Cs in largemouth bass, sunfishes, and bullheads from two reservoirs and three streams on the Savannah River Site, a nuclear weapons material production facility in South Carolina. Ecological half-life is the time required for a given contaminant concentration to decrease by 50% as a result of physical, chemical, and/or biological processes that remove it from an ecosystem or render it biologically unavailable. Te's were estimated from whole-fish 137Cs concentrations in samples collected during 1972-1996, following radionuclide releases that occurred primarily during the 1960's and early 1970's. Te's ranged from 3.2 to 16.7 y, and all were shorter than expected from the half-life for radioactive decay (Tp = 30.2 y) alone. Fish taxa from the same locations differed in mean 137Cs concentrations (highest in largemouth bass and lowest in sunfishes) but, in most cases, exhibited similar 137Cs Te's. Rates of 137Cs removal in fishes were strongly correlated with rates of 137Cs removal in water. The shortest Te's occurred in the upper portions of the streams. Te's in lower portions of the streams were longer, as were Te's in one of the reservoirs. Te's in the second reservoir, which had a much shorter water residence time, were nearly comparable to those in the upper portions of the streams until 1991. At that time, 137Cs concentrations in fishes began to increase following drainage and refilling of the reservoir, which apparently resuspended 137Cs buried in the sediments.

  10. Development and demonstration of solvent extraction processes for the separation of radionuclides from acidic radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.D.; Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Todd, T.A.; Wood, D.J.

    1999-06-01

    The presence of long-lived radionuclides presents a challenge to the management of radioactive wastes. Immobilization of these radionuclides must be accomplished prior to long-term, permanent disposal. Separation of the radionuclides from the waste solutions has the potential of significantly decreasing the costs associated with the immobilization and disposal of the radioactive waste by minimizing waste volumes. Several solvent extraction processes have been developed and demonstrated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for the separation of transuranic element (TRUs), {sup 90}Sr, and/or {sup 137}Cs from acidic radioactive waste solutions. The Transuranic Extraction (TRUEX) and phosphine oxide (POR) processes for the separation of TRUs, the Strontium Extraction (SREX) process for the separation of {sup 90}Sr, the chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (ChCoDiC) process for the separation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, and a universal solvent extraction process for the simultaneous separation of TRUs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs have all been demonstrated in centrifugal contactors using actual radioactive waste solutions. This article summarizes the most recent results of each of the flowsheet demonstrations and allows for comparison of the technologies. The successful demonstration of these solvent extraction processes indicates that they are all viable for the treatment of acidic radioactive waste solutions.

  11. Reactive barriers for {sup 137}Cs retention

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

    2000-05-19

    {sup 137}Cs was dispersed globally by cold war activities and, more recently, by the Chernobyl accident. Engineered extraction of {sup 137}Cs from soils and groundwaters is exceedingly difficult. Because the half life of {sup 137}Cs is only 30.2 years, remediation might be more effective (and less costly) if {sup 137}Cs bioavailability could be demonstrably limited for even a few decades by use of a reactive barrier. Essentially permanent isolation must be demonstrated in those few settings where high nuclear level wastes contaminated the environment with {sup 135}Cs (half life 2.3x10{sup 6} years) in addition to {sup 137}Cs. Clays are potentially a low-cost barrier to Cs movement, though their long-term effectiveness remains untested. To identify optimal clays for Cs retention Cs resorption was measured for five common clays: Wyoming Montmorillonite (SWy-1), Georgia Kaolinites (KGa-1 and KGa-2), Fithian Illite (F-Ill), and K-Metabentonite (K-Mbt). Exchange sites were pre-saturated with 0.16 M CsCl for 14 days and readily exchangeable Cs was removed by a series of LiNO{sub 3} and LiCl washes. Washed clay were then placed into dialysis bags and the Cs release to the deionized water outside the bags measured. Release rates from 75 to 139 days for SWy-1, K-Mbt and F- 111 were similar; 0.017 to 0.021% sorbed Cs released per day. Both kaolinites released Cs more rapidly (0.12 to 0.05% of the sorbed Cs per day). In a second set of experiments, clays were doped for 110 days and subjected to an extreme and prolonged rinsing process. All the clays exhibited some capacity for irreversible Cs uptake so most soils have some limited ability to act as a natural barrier to Cs migration. However, the residual loading was greatest on K-Mbt ({approximately} 0.33 wt% Cs). Thus, this clay would be the optimal material for constructing artificial reactive barriers.

  12. [The features of radioactive contamination of small birds in Chernobyl zone in 2003-2005].

    PubMed

    Gashchak, S P; Makliuk, Iu A; Maksimenko, A M; Maksimenko, V M; Martynenko, V I; Chizhevskiĭ, I V; Bondar'kov, M D; Mousseau, T A

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of small birds (484 individuals, 44 species) was investigated in the Chernobyl zone (Ukraine) in 2003-2005. Values variation of 90Sr and of 137Cs activity concentration reached 3-4 orders of magnitude even in one site, and maximum values amounted to hundreds Bq/g at the central plots of the zone. The biggest contamination is appropriate to birds in breeding season and to settled species, whilst migrants are the "cleanest". Change of contamination within a year reflects seasonal and short-term changes in birds diet and in behaviour. During breeding season females have higher activity concentration of 90Sr, while on 137Cs accumulation sexual differences are absent. In other seasons radioactive contamination of male and female does not differ if they live in similar conditions and have similar migratory behavior. Young birds during fledging and just after, as a rule, have higher levels of 90Sr contamination than adults, and actually do not differ on 137Cs accumulation. On a set of own and published data, it was assumed, that in small birds the half-life period of 137Cs extraction amounts to 1-2 days, and 90Sr- 5-10 days, and dynamic equilibrium of the radionuclides turnover in organism is reached over 4-7 and 17-34 days, respectively, after the birds arrival on the contaminated site. Among 44 studied species, those who search invertebrates in soil top layer or forest litter (thrushes). have noticeably higher accumulation of 90Sr and of 137Cs. Specific differences of radionuclides accumulation for the rest birds were not revealed due to small sample sizes of the species.

  13. Use of 129I and 137Cs in soils for the estimation of 131I deposition in Belarus as a result of the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Mironov, V; Kudrjashov, V; Yiou, F; Raisbeck, G M

    2002-01-01

    Using radioactivity measurements for 131I and 137Cs and nuclear activation analysis (NAA) or accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for 129I, ratios of 131I/137Cs and 129I/137Cs have been determined in soils from Belarus. We find that the pre-Chernobyl ratio of 129I/137Cs in Belarus is significantly larger than expected from nuclear weapons fallout. For the Chernobyl accident, our results support the hypothesis that there was relatively little fractionation of iodine and caesium during migration and deposition of the radioactive cloud. For sites having 137Cs > 300 Bq/kg, 129I can potentially give more reliable retroactive estimates of Chernobyl 131I deposition. However, our results suggest that 137Cs can also give reasonably good (+/-50%) estimates for 131I in Belarus.

  14. Levels of 137Cs and 40K in edible parts of some vegetables consumed in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Badran, H M; Sharshar, T; Elnimer, T

    2003-01-01

    The concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K in some Egyptian foodstuffs have been measured. The results of this study can be considered as a first step towards calculating the baseline levels of radioactivity in foodstuffs in Egypt. Furthermore, the data presented herein can be used as a reference level for future food radioactivity monitoring after the possible operation of the planned nuclear power plants, as well as to screen imported foodstuffs that are suspected of being contaminated. The overall intake of (137)Cs is quite low and no significant radionuclide contamination was found. The highest contents of (137)Cs and (40)K among the tested foodstuffs were in Jew's mallow and roquette. Calculations were also made to determine the potential dose to an individual consuming vegetables.

  15. [The forecasting of vertical distribution of 37Cs and 90Sr in the forest soils of the Republic of Belarus].

    PubMed

    Perevolotskiĭ, A N; Perevolotskaia, T V

    2012-01-01

    The study analyzes the distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in the vertical profile of soil of forest biogeocenoses with different modes of moisture and species composition of woody vegetation on the "long" trail of radioactive fallout in the Republic of Belarus. The parameters of radionuclide migration are calculated for the two component quasi-diffusion equation, also based on this equation, pollution of root zone soil layers is predicted, as well as semi-refined periods and the contribution of migration in this process are defined. The intensity of radionuclide migration in the vertical profile of forest soils is found to increase with the change of the soil moisture regime from automorphic to hydromorphic.

  16. [Regularities of changes in 137Cs content in milk in the long term after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident].

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S V; Pakhomov, A Iu; Pasternak, A D; Goriainov, V A; Fesenko, G A; Panov, A V

    2004-01-01

    Regularities of changes in 137Cs content in cattle milk in the long term after the Chernobyl accident have been analyzed. Contamination levels of haylands and pastures, soil properties, specific features of agricultural production and time after the fallout play a crucial role in 137Cs concentration changes in animal products. Trends have been studied that reflect the influence of these factors and their significance assessed. The half-life periods of 137Cs decay in milk vary over the period of 1994 to 2000 between 7.1 and 14.8 years and approach similar periods calculated for the long term after global radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons tests.

  17. Numerical modeling of the releases of (90)SR from Fukushima to the ocean: an evaluation of the source term.

    PubMed

    Periáñez, R; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Byung-Il, Min; Casacuberta, N; Masqué, P

    2013-01-01

    A numerical model consisting of a 3D advection/diffusion equation, including uptake/release reactions between water and sediments described in a dynamic way, has been applied to simulate the marine releases of (90)Sr from the Fukushima power plant after the March 2011 tsunami. This is a relevant issue since (90)Sr releases are still occurring. The model used here had been successfully applied to simulate (137)Cs releases. Assuming that the temporal trend of (90)Sr releases was the same as for (137)Cs during the four months after the accident simulated here, the source term could be evaluated, resulting in a total release of 80 TBq of (90)Sr until the end of June, which is in the lower range of previous estimates. Computed vertical profiles of (90)Sr in the water column have been compared with measured ones. The (90)Sr inventories within the model domain have also been calculated for the water column and for bed sediments. Maximum dissolved inventory (obtained for April 10th, 2011) within the model domain results in about 58 TBq. Inventories in bed sediments are 3 orders of magnitude lower than in the water column due to the low reactivity of this radionuclide. (90)Sr/(137)Cs ratios in the ocean have also been calculated and compared with measured values, showing both spatial and temporal variations.

  18. Stontium-90 contamination in vegetation from radioactive waste seepage areas at ORNL, and theoretical calculations of /sup 90/Sr accumulation by deer

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Lomax, R.D.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes data obtained during a preliminary characterization of /sup 90/Sr levels in browse vegetation from the vicinity of seeps adjacent to ORNL solid waste storage areas (SWSA) where deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were suspected to accumulate /sup 90/Sr through the food chain. The highest strontium concentrations in plant samples were found at seeps associated with SWSA-5. Strontium-90 concentrations in honeysuckle and/or blackberry shoots from two seeps in SWSA-5 averaged 39 and 19 nCi/g dry weight (DW), respectively. The maximum concentration observed was 90 nCi/g DW. Strontium-90 concentrations in honeysuckle and blackberry shoots averaged 7.4 nCi/g DW in a study area south of SWSA-4, and averaged 1.0 nCi/g DW in fescue grass from a seepage area located on SWSA-4. A simple model (based on metabolic data for mule deer) has been used to describe the theoretical accumulation of /sup 90/Sr in bone of whitetail deer following ingestion of contaminated vegetation. These model calculations suggest that if 30 pCi /sup 90/Sr/g deer bone is to be the accepted screening level for retaining deer killed on the reservation, then 5-pCi /sup 90/Sr/g DW vegetation should be considered as a possible action level in making decisions about the need for remedial measures, because unrestricted access and full utilization of vegetation contaminated with <5 pCi/g DW results in calculated steady-state (maximum) /sup 90/Sr bone concentrations of <30 pCi/g in a 45-kg buck.

  19. Radioactive contamination of the Techa River, the Urals.

    PubMed

    Trapeznikov, A V; Pozolotina, V N; Chebotina MYa; Chukanov, V N; Trapeznikova, V N; Kulikov, N V; Nielsen, S P; Aarkrog, A

    1993-11-01

    The Techa River in the Urals was contaminated with high-level radioactive waste from the MAJAK nuclear installation around 1950. The total discharge to the river amounted to 100 PBq with 90Sr and 137Cs contributing approximately 10 PBq each. This study has shown that the river presently contains approximately 0.3 TBq 90Sr, > 6 TBq 137Cs, and approximately 8 GBq 239,240Pu. The estimates were made for the part of the river starting 50 km from the point of discharge and ending 240 km downstream at the confluence with the Iset River. Radioactivity was measured only in the upper 0.10-m sediments layer. The external dose rates from the contamination range from 0.1-30 microGy h-1. The activity concentrations decrease exponentially or by power functions with distance.

  20. Porous Alumina Silicate Matrix Gubka for Solidification of {sup 137}Cs Strip Product

    SciTech Connect

    Aloy, Albert; Strelnikov, Alexander; Essimantovskiy, Vyacheslav

    2007-07-01

    Separated liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) fractions, in particular, about 100 liters of a {sup 137}Cs strip product with activity up to {approx} 100 Ci/l (3.7 TBq/l) have been produced during the development and testing of partitioning technology and temporarily stored at V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) (Saint-Petersburg, Russia). The bench-scale experimental unit designed for operation in the hot cell was developed for {sup 137}Cs strip product solidification using an alumina silicate porous inorganic material (PIM) called Gubka. Conditions of saturation, drying, and calcinations of the salts into Gubka pores were optimized, and the operations under a remote control regime were executed during tests using a simulated strip product doped with {sup 137}Cs. The volume reduction coefficients were equal by a factor of 3.2-3.9 and a {sup 137}Cs discharge into an off-gas system was not detected. {sup 137}Cs leach rates from Gubka blocks after calcination at 800 deg. C were 1.0-1.5.10{sup -3} g/m{sup 2}.per day. (authors)

  1. Monitoring 137Cs and 134Cs at marine coasts in Indonesia between 2011 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Suseno, Heny; Prihatiningsih, Wahyu Retno

    2014-11-15

    Environmental samples (seawater, sediments and biota) were collected along the eastern and western Indonesian coasts between 2011 and 2013 to anticipate the possible impacts of the Fukushima radioactive releases in Indonesia. On the eastern coasts (south and north Sulawesi), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.32 Bq m(-3) and 0.10-1.03 Bq kg(-1), respectively. On the western coasts (West Sumatra, Bangka Island, North Java, South Java and Madura island), the (137)Cs concentrations in the seawater and sediments were 0.12-0.66 Bq m(-3) and 0.19-1.64 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In general, the (137)Cs concentrations in the fish from several Indonesian coasts were 137)Cs concentrations in mollusk, crab and prawn were 10.65-38.78, 4.02 and 6.16 mBq kg(-1), respectively. (134)Cs was not detected in the seawater, sediments or biota. Thus, it was concluded that (137)Cs on the eastern and western Indonesian coasts originated from global fallout.

  2. Relationship between the {sup 137}Cs whole-body counting results and soil and food contamination in farms near Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Sato, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2000-01-01

    The authors measured the radioactivity in the soil and child food samples from farms near Mogilev (56--270 GBq km{sup {minus}2} {sup 137}Cs), Gomel (36--810 GBq km{sup {minus}2} {sup 137}Cs), and Klincy (59--270 GBq km{sup {minus}2} {sup 137}Cs), who had whole-body {sup 137}Cs counting results measured as part of a health examination in the Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project. Soil contamination on the family farm seems to be the main source of human contamination because most of the people in the area live on small farms and they and their domestic animals eat crops from the farms. A clear correlation was found between the children's whole-body {sup 137}Cs counting results and the radioactivity in their food (correlation coefficient: 0.76; confidence level of correlation: 3.2 x 10{sup {minus}9}). There were also significant correlations between the whole-body {sup 137}Cs counting results and both the radioactivity of the soil samples (correlation coefficient: 0.22; confidence level of correlation: 0.0107) and the average contamination level of their current residence (correlation coefficient: 0.20; confidence level of correlation: 0.0174).

  3. 137Cs re-sampling as a method for soil erosion assessment in Alpine grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bissig, Nicole; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Over the past decades, radioactive fallout 137Cs has been used as a tracer to provide information on soil erosion and sedimentation rates. However, the method may produce relatively large uncertainties in Alpine grasslands. The latter difficulties are caused by a combination of (i) the heterogeneous distribution of atmospheric 137Cs Chernobyl fallout, (ii) the partly snow covered ground in Alpine areas during the fallout event in April 1986, which results in inhomogeneous 137Cs distribution during snow melt and (iii) uncertainties in finding undisturbed references sites in the geomorphological and anthropogenic highly active slopes of the Alps. To overcome these difficulties, our aim is to replace the classical 137Cs approach, where an undisturbed reference site is compared to erosional sites, with a re-sampling approach, where we re-sample sites which have already been measured for 137Cs inventories in the past. Thus, we use temporal instead of spatial reference. The study area is located in the Central Swiss Alps in the Urseren Valley. Potential erosional sites have been sampled in 2007 and re-sampled in 2012. Two different grassland types were investigated: hayfield (2 sites) and pasture without dwarf shrubs (3 sites). For each site, 4 to 9 sampling points have been defined, and at each point two soil samples have been collected. To reduce the random error, the two soil samples were bulked prior to gamma-analysis. 137Cs inventories of the two sampling years were calculated and used to assess recent soil erosion in the experimental sites. Our results show that within the 5 years measurable soil erosion and deposition processes have occurred within the sites, as indicated by the relevant difference between the 137Cs inventories of 2007 and 2012. 64% of the sites exhibit a decrease in 137Cs inventories, 20% of the sites an increase, and the remaining 16% no significant difference. In particular, hayfield sites have been affected by erosion processes, mostly due to

  4. [Transport processes of Fukushima derived radioactivity in the Pacific Ocean].

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Before the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant 1 (FNPP1) accident, environmental (137)Cs was already detectable originating from nuclear weapon tests conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s. In the western North Pacific Ocean, (90)Sr and (137)Cs activities in surface water were 10-100 Bqm(-3) in the late 1950s and early 1960s, then this parameter decreased gradually; (137)Cs activity in surface water subsequently decreased to around a few Bq m(-3). After the FNPP1 accident, (137)Cs and (134)Cs were released into the North Pacific Ocean by two pathways, direct discharge from the Fukushima NPP1 accident site and atmospheric deposition off Honshu Islands of Japan, east and northeast of the site. High-density observations of (137)Cs and (134)Cs in the surface water were carried out by 17 VOS cruises and several research vessel cruises between April 2011 and March 2012. The main body of radioactive surface plume of which activity exceeded 10 Bqm(-3) traveled along 40°N, and reached the International Date Line in March 2012, 1 year after the accident. The radioactive plume was confined along 40°N when the plume reached the International Date Line. Zonal speed of the radioactive plume was estimated to be about 8 cm s(-1), which is consistent with zonal speeds derived by Argo floats at the region.

  5. Using Atmospheric (137)Cs Measurements and Hysplit to Confirm Chernobyl as a Source of (137)Cs in Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    USING ATMOSPHERIC 137CS MEASUREMENTS AND HYSPLIT TO CONFIRM CHERNOBYL AS A SOURCE OF 137CS IN EUROPE Erik L. Swanberg1 and Steven G. Hoffert2...Veridian Systems1, Autometric2 Sponsored by Defense Threat Reduction Agency Contract No. DTRA01-99-C-0031 ABSTRACT The Chernobyl ...this 137Cs is the ground contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. The PIDC routinely uses HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated

  6. GIS supported calculations of (137)Cs deposition in Sweden based on precipitation data.

    PubMed

    Almgren, Sara; Nilsson, Elisabeth; Erlandsson, Bengt; Isaksson, Mats

    2006-09-15

    It is of interest to know the spatial variation and the amount of (137)Cs e.g. in case of an accident with a radioactive discharge. In this study, the spatial distribution of the quarterly (137)Cs deposition over Sweden due to nuclear weapons fallout (NWF) during the period 1962-1966 was determined by relating the measured deposition density at a reference site to the amount of precipitation. Measured quarterly values of (137)Cs deposition density per unit precipitation at three reference sites and quarterly precipitation at 62 weather stations distributed over Sweden were used in the calculations. The reference sites were assumed to represent areas with different quarterly mean precipitation. The extent of these areas was determined from the distribution of the mean measured precipitation between 1961 and 1990 and varied according to seasonal variations in the mean precipitation pattern. Deposition maps were created by interpolation within a geographical information system (GIS). Both integrated (total) and cumulative (decay corrected) deposition densities were calculated. The lowest levels of NWF (137)Cs deposition density were noted in north-eastern and eastern parts of Sweden and the highest levels in the western parts of Sweden. Furthermore the deposition density of (137)Cs, resulting from the Chernobyl accident was determined for an area in western Sweden based on precipitation data. The highest levels of Chernobyl (137)Cs in western Sweden were found in the western parts of the area along the coast and the lowest in the east. The sum of the deposition densities from NWF and Chernobyl in western Sweden was then compared to the total activity measured in soil samples at 27 locations. Comparisons between the predicted values of this study show a good agreement with measured values and other studies.

  7. Long-term decline of 137Cs concentration in honey in the second decade after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Panatto, Donatella; Gasparini, Roberto; Lai, Piero; Rovatti, Paola; Gallelli, Giovanni

    2007-08-15

    In the years 2001-2004 the (137)Cs activity was investigated in a total of 336 samples of different varieties of honey harvested in the Liguria Region of Northern Italy. Our purpose was to define (a) residual radioactive contamination following the Chernobyl accident and (137)Cs long-term decline, (b) correlation between (137)Cs activity and different honey varieties, and (c) correlation between (137)Cs activity and the prevailing geomorphological configuration in the collection areas. The mean (137)Cs specific activity was 4.33+/-5.04 S.D. Bq/kg. Chestnut honey showed higher levels of radioactive contamination, which were ascribed to the extensive, superficial and deep, root apparatus of the tree. Honey samples from acidic argillite soils, which withhold radionuclides after deposition and slowly release them to plants, also showed higher (137)Cs activity. Long-term decline was calculated at 456 days, a value lower than those published from different food sources in the years following the accident. The rate of long-term decline decreases with time.

  8. [Using 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) to trace the impact of soil erosion on soil organic carbon at a slope farmland in the black soil region].

    PubMed

    Fang, Hai-Yan; Sheng, Mei-Ling; Sun, Li-Ying; Cai, Qiang-Guo

    2013-07-01

    Soil cores were collected from a 28.5 hm2 slope farmland in the black soil region of Northeast China. Based on the sampled data of 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC, the potentials of applying 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) for assessing SOC redistribution were evaluated, aimed to approach the impact of soil erosion on soil organic carbon (SOC) in black soil region. At both planar and vertical directions, the 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC in the farmland had similar distribution patterns. Although there were large planar variations in the 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) areal activities and the SOC stock as affected by soil erosion and deposition, the 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC had similar changing trends over the landscape. Two depth distribution profiles were also used to study the relations of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) with SOC. At eroded site, the radioactivities of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) and the SOC mass fraction did not show large variations in 0-25 cm soil layer, but decreased sharply below 25 cm. For the deposition sample, the radioactivities of 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) in 0-100 cm soil increased firstly and then decreased. The SOC mass fraction also had similar depth distribution pattern in this soil layer. The 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) presented positive linear correlations with the SOC, indicating that 137Cs, 210Pb(ex) and SOC moved with the same physical mechanism in the farmland, and fallout 137Cs and 210Pb(ex) could be used to study spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of SOC in the black soil region under the condition of soil erosion.

  9. Is 137Cs Dating Becoming Obsolete in North America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexler, J. Z.; Fuller, C.; Salas, A.

    2016-12-01

    Dating of wetland sediments and peat is routinely carried out using 137Cs and 210Pb analysis. Unlike 210Pb, 137Cs is an anthropogenic radionuclide with a history of fallout from nuclear weapons testing. 137Cs is used as a single time marker; its peak is coincident with the height of atmospheric nuclear testing in 1963/4. During its use in the 1970s-90s, 137Cs peaks were usually highly distinct in wetland sediments (e.g., see 137Cs peaks from Louisiana marshes in Feijtel et al., 1988). This enabled its use as a check for dates assigned to a profile by 210Pb and other methods. However, recently, the efficacy of 137Cs dating in North America has deteriorated. In this presentation, we will provide specific examples of 137Cs as well as 210Pb dating in wetland sediments/peats we collected between 2005 and 2015 in Maine, California, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Washington. Two main reasons exist for this decline. First, 137Cs activities in our recent cores are 30-40 % of the original activities in 1963/4 due to decay of the original 137Cs in situ (half-life = 30.17 years) and no major new sources. This manifests in lower signal to noise ratio, with some peaks barely recognizable above the noise. Second, 137Cs peaks are much less distinct due to 137Cs migration through time independent of substrate (or sediment) particles. Migration of peaks has resulted in estimated accretion rates being systematically lower or higher than those derived from 210Pb dating. These issues with 137Cs dating have important implications because 137Cs is used with 210Pb dating or even alone to determine rates of recent wetland carbon accumulation. Such rates are required to enter wetland restoration projects into carbon markets and to document IPCC mandated reductions in carbon pollution. Our analysis shows that, although dating by 137Cs alone has always been highly tenuous, now it is especially contraindicated and should be disallowed for the purposes of carbon accounting.

  10. Distribution of oceanic 137Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant simulated numerically by a regional ocean model.

    PubMed

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2012-09-01

    Radioactive materials were released to the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant as a result of the reactor accident after the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011. The measured (137)Cs concentration in a seawater sample near the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant site reached 68 kBq L(-1) (6.8 × 10(4)Bq L(-1)) on 6 April. The two major likely pathways from the accident site to the ocean existed: direct release of high radioactive liquid wastes to the ocean and the deposition of airborne radioactivity to the ocean surface. By analysis of the (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio, we determined that direct release from the site contributed more to the measured (137)Cs concentration than atmospheric deposition did. We then used a regional ocean model to simulate the (137)Cs concentrations resulting from the direct release to the ocean off Fukushima and found that from March 26 to the end of May the total amount of (137)Cs directly released was 3.5 ± 0.7 PBq ((3.5 ± 0.7) × 10(15)Bq). The simulated temporal change in (137)Cs concentrations near the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant site agreed well with observations. Our simulation results showed that (1) the released (137)Cs advected southward along the coast during the simulation period; (2) the eastward-flowing Kuroshio and its extension transported (137)C during May 2011; and (3) (137)Cs concentrations decreased to less than 10 BqL(-1) by the end of May 2011 in the whole simulation domain as a result of oceanic advection and diffusion. We compared the total amount and concentration of (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors to the ocean with the (137)Cs released to the ocean by global fallout. Even though the measured (137)Cs concentration from the Fukushima accident was the highest recorded, the total released amount of (137)Cs was not very large. Therefore, the effect of (137)Cs released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors on concentration in the whole North

  11. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizae does not improve 137Cs uptake in crops grown in the Chernobyl region.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Mårtensson, A; Rosén, K

    2013-12-01

    Methods for cleaning up radioactive contaminated soils are urgently needed. In this study we investigated whether the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can improve (137)Cs uptake by crops. Barley, cucumber, perennial ryegrass, and sunflower were inoculated with AM fungi and grown in low-level radionuclide contaminated soils in a field experiment 70 km southwest of Chernobyl, Ukraine, during two successive years (2009-2010). Roots of barley, cucumber and sunflower plants were slightly or moderately infected with AM fungus and root infection frequency was negatively or non-correlated with (137)Cs uptake by plants. Roots of ryegrass were moderately infected with AM fungus and infection frequency was moderately correlated with (137)Cs uptake by ryegrass. The application of AM fungi to soil in situ did not enhance radionuclide plant uptake or biomass. The responsiveness of host plants and AM fungus combination to (137)Cs uptake varied depending on the soil, although mycorrhization of soil in the field was conditional and did not facilitate the uptake of radiocesium. The total amount of (137)Cs uptake by plants growing on inoculated soil was equal to amounts in plant cultivated on non-inoculated soil. Thus, the use of AM fungi in situ for bioremediation of soil contaminated with a low concentration of (137)Cs could not be recommended.

  12. 137Cs in the western South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2007-09-01

    The 137Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea (two stations) Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean by gamma spectrometry using a low background Ge detector. The 137Cs activities ranged from 1.4 to 2.3 Bq m(-3) over the depth interval 0-250 m and decreased exponentially from the subsurface to 1000 m depth. The distribution profiles of 137Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. There was a remarkable difference for the vertical profiles of 137Cs activity between the East Caroline Basin station in this study and the GEOSECS (Geochemical Ocean Sections Study) station at the same latitude in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean; the 137Cs inventory over the depth interval 100-1000 m increased from 400+/-30 Bq m(-2) to 560+/-30 Bq m(-2) during the period from 1973 to 1992. The total 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850+/-70 Bq m(-2) in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270+/-90 Bq m(-2) in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137Cs inventories were 1.9-4.5 times (2.9+/-0.7 on average) and 1.7-4.3 times (3.1+/-0.7 on average) higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude and that of the estimated 137Cs deposition density in 10 degrees latitude by 10 degrees longitude grid data obtained by Aoyama et al. [Aoyama M, Hirose K, Igarashi Y. Re-construction and updating our understanding on the global weapons tests 137Cs fallout. J Environ Monit 2006;8:431-438], respectively. The possible processes for higher 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout may be attributable to the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137Cs from

  13. Plutonium, (137)Cs and uranium isotopes in Mongolian surface soils.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Kikawada, Y; Igarashi, Y; Fujiwara, H; Jugder, D; Matsumoto, Y; Oi, T; Nomura, M

    2017-01-01

    Plutonium ((238)Pu and (239,240)Pu), (137)Cs and plutonium activity ratios ((238)Pu/(239,240)Pu) as did uranium isotope ratio ((235)U/(238)U) were measured in surface soil samples collected in southeast Mongolia. The (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs concentrations in Mongolian surface soils (<53 μm of particle size) ranged from 0.42 ± 0.03 to 3.53 ± 0.09 mBq g(-1) and from 11.6 ± 0.7 to 102 ± 1 mBq g(-1), respectively. The (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu activity ratios in the surface soils (0.013-0.06) coincided with that of global fallout. The (235)U/(238)U atom ratios in the surface soil show the natural one. There was a good correlation between the (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs concentrations in the surface soils. We introduce the migration depth to have better understanding of migration behaviors of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface soil. We found a difference of the migration behavior between (239,240)Pu and (137)Cs from (137)Cs/(239,240)Pu - (137)Cs plots for the Mongolian and Tsukuba surface soils; plutonium in surface soil is migrated easier than (137)Cs.

  14. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    SciTech Connect

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G.

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Numerical simulation of 137Cs and (239,240)Pu concentrations by an ocean general circulation model.

    PubMed

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2003-01-01

    We simulated the spatial distributions and the temporal variations of 137Cs and (239,240)Pu concentrations in the ocean by using the ocean general circulation model which was developed by National Center of Atmospheric Research. These nuclides are introduced into seawaters from global fallout due to atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The distribution of radioactive deposition on the world ocean is estimated from global precipitation data and observed values of annual deposition of radionuclides at the Meteorological Research Institute in Japan and several observed points in New Zealand. Radionuclides from global fallout have been transported by advection, diffusion and scavenging, and this concentration reduces by radioactive decay in the ocean. We verified the results of the model calculations by comparing simulated values of 137Cs and (239,240)Pu in seawater with the observed values included in the Historical Artificial Radionuclides in the HAM database, which has been constructed by the Meteorological Research Institute. The vertical distributions of the calculated 137Cs concentrations were in good agreement and are in good agreement with the observed profiles in the 1960s up to 250 m, in the 1970s up to 500 m, in the 1980s up to 750 m and in the 1990s up to 750 m. However, the calculated 137Cs concentrations were underestimated compared with the observed 137Cs at the deeper layer. This may suggest other transport processes of 137Cs to deep waters. The horizontal distributions of 137Cs concentrations in surface water could be simulated. A numerical tracer release experiment was performed to explain the horizontal distribution pattern. A maximum (239,240)Pu concentration layer occurs at an intermediate depth for both observed and calculated values, which is formed by particle scavenging. The horizontal distributions of the calculated (239,240)Pu concentrations in surface water could be simulated by considering the scavenging effect.

  16. Secondary radioactive contamination of the Black Sea after Chernobyl accident: recent levels, pathways and trends.

    PubMed

    Gulin, S B; Mirzoyeva, N Yu; Egorov, V N; Polikarpov, G G; Sidorov, I G; Proskurnin, V Yu

    2013-10-01

    The recent radionuclide measurements have showed that concentrations of the Chernobyl-derived (137)Cs and (90)Sr in the surface Black Sea waters are still relatively high, reaching 56 and 32 Bq m(-3), respectively. This is comparable or even exceeds the pre-Chernobyl levels (∼16 Bq (137)Cs and 22 Bq (90)Sr per m(3) as the basin-wide average values). The measurements have revealed that the Black Sea continues to receive Chernobyl radionuclides, particularly (90)Sr, by the runoff from the Dnieper River. An additional source of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found in the area adjacent to the Kerch Strait that connects the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. This may be caused by the inflow of the contaminated Dnieper waters, which come to this area through the North-Crimean Canal. The long-term monitoring of (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentration in the Black Sea surface waters and in the benthic brown seaweed Cystoseira sp., in comparison with the earlier published sediment records of the radionuclides, have showed signs of a secondary radioactive contamination, which has started to increase since the late 1990's. This may be the result of the combined effect of a higher input of radionuclides from the rivers in 1995-1999 due to an increased runoff; and a slow transport of the particulate bound radionuclides from the watersheds followed by their desorption in seawater from the riverine suspended matter and remobilization from the sediments adjacent to the river mouths.

  17. PLANTS AS BIO-MONITORS FOR 137CS, 238PU, 239, 240PU AND 40K AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, E.; Duff, M.; Ferguson, C.

    2010-12-16

    The nuclear fuel cycle generates a considerable amount of radioactive waste, which often includes nuclear fission products, such as strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) and cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), and actinides such as uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu). When released into the environment, large quantities of these radionuclides can present considerable problems to man and biota due to their radioactive nature and, in some cases as with the actinides, their chemical toxicity. Radionuclides are expected to decay at a known rate. Yet, research has shown the rate of elimination from an ecosystem to differ from the decay rate due to physical, chemical and biological processes that remove the contaminant or reduce its biological availability. Knowledge regarding the rate by which a contaminant is eliminated from an ecosystem (ecological half-life) is important for evaluating the duration and potential severity of risk. To better understand a contaminants impact on an environment, consideration should be given to plants. As primary producers, they represent an important mode of contamination transfer from sediments and soils into the food chain. Contaminants that are chemically and/or physically sequestered in a media are less likely to be bio-available to plants and therefore an ecosystem.

  18. Vertical distribution and temporal dynamics of dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in soil water after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, Sho; Onda, Yuichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Hada, Manami; Pun, Ishwar

    2017-11-01

    Radiocesium ((137)Cs) migration from headwater forested areas to downstream rivers has been investigated in many studies since the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, which was triggered by a catastrophic earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011. The accident resulted in the release of a huge amount of radioactivity and its subsequent deposition in the environment. A large part of the radiocesium released has been shown to remain in the forest. The dissolved (137)Cs concentration and its temporal dynamics in river water, stream water, and groundwater have been reported, but reports of dissolved (137)Cs concentration in soil water remain sparse. In this study, soil water was sampled, and the dissolved (137)Cs concentrations were measured at five locations with different land-use types (mature/young cedar forest, broadleaf forest, meadow land, and pasture land) in Yamakiya District, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from July 2011 to October 2012. Soil water samples were collected by suction lysimeters installed at three different depths at each site. Dissolved (137)Cs concentrations were analyzed using a germanium gamma ray detector. The dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in soil water were high, with a maximum value of 2.5 Bq/L in July 2011, and declined to less than 0.32 Bq/L by 2012. The declining trend of dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in soil water was fitted to a two-component exponential model. The rate of decline in dissolved (137)Cs concentrations in soil water (k1) showed a good correlation with the radiocesium interception potential (RIP) of topsoil (0-5 cm) at the same site. Accounting for the difference of (137)Cs deposition density, we found that normalized dissolved (137)Cs concentrations of soil water in forest (mature/young cedar forest and broadleaf forest) were higher than those in grassland (meadow land and pasture land). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Life-long accumulation of 137Cs and 40K in the vertebral column of a cow.

    PubMed

    Pichl, Elke; Rabitsch, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the accumulation of (137)Cs and (40)K in all the tissues and organs of an adult slaughtered Austrian "mountain pasture cow". In this paper we present measured (137)Cs- and (40)K-activity concentrations in different tissues of the vertebral bodies, in their other bony components and in all the vertebrae forming the vertebral column. Data are also given for activity concentrations of adherent tissues, and for activities of both the components and the whole vertebral column. The dairy cow was born in a highly contaminated region of Styria, Austria, at the time of the radioactive fallout following the Chernobyl accident. Both radionuclides were incorporated during life-long ingestion and their accumulation in all the vertebrae up to the day of slaughtering was determined by high-purity germanium detectors. Our results show considerable variations of (137)Cs- and (40)K-activity concentrations in the components of a certain vertebra, within vertebrae of a particular region, and between vertebrae of different regions of the vertebral column. Particularly, the courses of (137)Cs- and (40)K-activity concentrations in trabecular bone, cortical bone and intervertebral discs of thoracic vertebral bodies are subdivided by a strong drop into two sections. Mean values of (137)Cs-concentration in vertebral bodies of these subsections vary by a factor 4. Compared with corresponding quantities for the skeleton, total mass, as well as total (137)Cs- and (40)K-activities of the whole vertebral column came to 14%, and approximately 38% for each (137)Cs and (40)K, respectively.

  20. 137Cs activity concentration in mosses in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; Belvedere, A.; D'Agostino, M.; Marguccio, S.

    2017-05-01

    Many studies carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 showed that mosses are suitable bioindicators of the radioactive fall-out, given their long life expectancy. 137Cs activity concentration was measured through HPGe gamma spectrometry in different mosses (Hypnum Cupressiforme, Hypnum Andoi, Homalothecium Sericeum, Philonotis Fontana), collected, in 2008 and 2015, from four sampling sites in the Calabria region, south of Italy. Experimental specific activities allowed us to determine the effective and the biological half-time of 137Cs for the investigated plants. The effective half-time was found in the range from (4.2 ± 1.1) to (7.4 ± 1.8) years; the biological half-time varied from (4.9 ± 1.3) to (9.9 ± 2.4) years. Data reported in this article provide useful information on the environmental risk of the studied area and can be further used for a radiological mapping.

  1. Replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Brian; Vetter, Richard J

    2009-02-01

    Self-shielded 137Cs irradiators have been used for many years to irradiate blood products to prevent graft vs. host disease and to irradiate cells and small animals in research. A report by the National Academy of Sciences recommends that careful consideration be given to replacement of 137Cs irradiators with x-ray irradiators. Several manufacturers and users of x-ray irradiators were contacted to determine costs of replacing and maintaining 137Cs irradiators with x-ray units and to assess users' experience with x-ray irradiators. Purchase costs of x-ray units are similar to 137Cs irradiators, but maintenance costs are significantly higher if annual service contracts are used. Performance of the two irradiator types appears to be equivalent, but in some cases x-ray irradiations may need to be performed in multiple configurations to achieve adequate uniformity in dose. No literature reports were found that evaluated the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays; therefore, a careful study should be conducted to determine the biological effectiveness of x rays vs. 137Cs gamma rays for biological responses relevant to transfusion medicine and immunological research. Throughput may be problematic for large transfusion medicine programs, and back-up plans may be necessary in case the x-ray unit needs to be taken out of service for extended maintenance. Disposition of a 137Cs irradiator will add to the cost of replacement with an x-ray unit, but disposal may be possible through the U.S. Department of Energy's Off-Site Source Recovery Program.

  2. Behaviour of oceanic 137Cs following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident for four years simulated numerically by a regional ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torn, M. S.; Koven, C. D.; Riley, W. J.; Zhu, B.; Hicks Pries, C.; Phillips, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition.We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the regional ocean for four years by numerical model, such as a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model. Direct release rate of 137Cs were estimated for four years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly release was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. Decrease rate were quite small after 2013. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be the order of magnitude of 1010 Bq/day by the end of March 2015. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. There is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011. Observed data of marine biota should reflect the history of 137Cs activity in this early period. We reconstructed the history of 137Cs activity in this early period by considering atmospheric deposition, river input, rain water runoff from the 1F NPP site. The comparisons between simulated 137Cs activity of marine biota by a dynamic biological compartment and observed data also suggest that simulated 137Cs activity attributable to atmospheric deposition was underestimated in this early period. The

  3. Behaviour of oceanic 137Cs following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident for four years simulated numerically by a regional ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, D.; Tsubono, T.; Aoyama, M.; Misumi, K.; Tateda, Y.

    2015-12-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition.We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the regional ocean for four years by numerical model, such as a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model. Direct release rate of 137Cs were estimated for four years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly release was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. Decrease rate were quite small after 2013. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be the order of magnitude of 1010 Bq/day by the end of March 2015. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable. There is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011. Observed data of marine biota should reflect the history of 137Cs activity in this early period. We reconstructed the history of 137Cs activity in this early period by considering atmospheric deposition, river input, rain water runoff from the 1F NPP site. The comparisons between simulated 137Cs activity of marine biota by a dynamic biological compartment and observed data also suggest that simulated 137Cs activity attributable to atmospheric deposition was underestimated in this early period. The

  4. Spatial distribution of fallout 137Cs in the coastal marine environment of India.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Gothankar, S S; Sartandel, S; Pote, M B; Hemalatha, P; Rajan, M P; Vidyasagar, D; Indumati, S P; Shrivastava, R; Puranik, V D

    2012-11-01

    The data on the fallout (137)Cs in the coastal marine environment assume significance in view of massive expansion of nuclear power plants in the Asia-Pacific region and to fulfill the benchmark study required to evaluate the possible impact of the Fukushima radioactive releases in the Asia-Pacific region. Measurements of (137)Cs in sea water, along with salinity and temperature, were carried out at 30 locations covering the coastal area of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. For the present study the Indian coastal area is divided in three different regions. The (137)Cs concentration in sea water of the entire Indian coastal region varies from 0.30 to 1.25 Bq m(-3). The data obtained in the present study was compared with the North Indian Ocean data and it was observed that there is a 33% decrease in the Arabian Sea (region I), 50% in the high rainfall coastal area (region II) and 24% in the Bay of Bengal (region III).

  5. 137Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M; Johanson, K J

    2009-07-01

    The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity in peat soil profiles and (137)Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of (137)Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23,000 Bq m(-2). In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of (137)Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site (137)Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr(-1) at the open bog site and the migration centre of (137)Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr(-1) and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest (137)Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq(-1) DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg(-1) DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq(-1) DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. (137)Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m(2)kg(-1) DM at the low pine site.

  6. Integration of Earth Observation Satellite Data and Real Time 137Cs Measurements in the Greek Marine Environment to GIS for Advances in Radiological Remote Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrokefalou, Georgia; Florou, Heleny; Sykioti, Olga; Parcharidis, Issaak

    2016-08-01

    In the present study an innovative tool is explored in terms of the radiological remote control. The levels of radionuclides in the marine environment, especially the soluble ones, are associated with other physical parameters. For this purpose, sea parameters such as sea surface temperature and ocean colour issued from satellite and field measurements have been utilized, in order to investigate potential relations with 137Cs activity concentrations. Such potential relations are expected to lead to an innovative tool based on remote sensing data and in situ 137Cs measurements for the remote radioactivity detection of the Greek marine ecosystem both for routine control and emergency recordings. Here, the first findings on the spatial correlations of 137Cs measurements with MODIS L3 ocean data in the Aegean Sea are presented, whereas temporal correlations of 137Cs measurements with MODIS L2 ocean and POSEIDON buoy data in Souda Bay area (Crete island) are also shown.

  7. Evaluation of the activity concentrations of (137) Cs and (40)K in some Chanterelle mushrooms from Poland and China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zalewska, Tamara; Apanel, Anna; Drewnowska, Małgorzata; Kluza, Karolina

    2016-10-01

    The activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K in mushrooms of the genus Cantharellus (Cantharellus cibarius, Cantharellus tubaeformis, and Cantharellus minor) collected across Poland from 1997 to 2013 and in Yunnan province of China in 2013 were determined using gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector, respectively. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs in C. cibarius from the places in Poland varied from 64 ± 3 to 1600 ± 47 Bq kg(-1) db in 1997-2004 and 4.2 ± 1.2 to 1400 ± 15 Bq kg(-1) db in 2006-2013. In the Chinese Cantharellus mushrooms, the activity level of (137)Cs was very low, i.e., at a range <1.2 to 1.2 ± 0.6 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. The natural radionuclide (40)K was at similar activity level in C. cibarius collected across Poland and in China, and fluctuations in levels of (40)K over the years and locations in Poland were small. In C. cibarius from diverse sites in Poland, content of (137)Cs highly fluctuated in 1998-2013 but no clear downward trend was visible (Fig. 1). Published activity levels of (137)Cs in fruitbodies of Cantharellus such Cantharellus californicus, Cantharellus cascadensis, C. cibarius, Cantharellus cinnabarius, Cantharellus formosus, Cantharellus iuteocomus, Cantharellus lutescens, Cantharellus minor, Cantharellus pallens [current name C. cibarius], Cantharellus subalbidus, Cantharellus subpruinosus, and C. tubaeformis collected worldwide were compared. In the Polish cuisine, mushrooms of the genus Cantharellus are blanched before frying or pickling, and this kind of treatment, and additionally also pickling, both very efficiently remove alkali elements (and radioactivity from (134/137)Cs) from flesh of the species.

  8. Accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in tropical plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjos, R. M.; Carvalho, C.; Mosquera, B.; Veiga, R.; Sanches, N.; Bastos, J.; Macario, K.

    2007-02-01

    The accumulation and distribution of 40K and 137Cs in several tropical plant species were studied through measurements of gamma-ray spectra, focusing on establishing the suitability of using radiocesium to trace the plant uptake of nutrients such as potassium.

  9. Fallout 137Cs in reindeer herders in Arctic Norway.

    PubMed

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Thørring, Håvard

    2015-03-03

    Reindeer herders in the Arctic were among the most heavily exposed populations to the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s, due to high transfer of radionuclides in the lichens-reindeer-human food chain. Annual studies of (137)Cs in reindeer herders in Kautokeino, Norway, were initiated in 1965 to monitor radiation doses and follow environmental (137)Cs behavior. The (137)Cs concentrations declined from the peak in 1965 with effective half-times of 6-8 years, only interrupted by a temporary doubling in levels from 1986 to 1987 due to the Chernobyl fallout. During the period of 1950-2010 an average herder received an integrated effective dose from incorporated (137)Cs of about 18 mSv. This dose represents an insignificant increase in the risk for developing cancer. Health studies even show a significantly lower cancer incidence among Sámis and reindeer herders in northern Norway compared to other populations in the same area.

  10. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls Affected by U.S. Nuclear Testing:All Exposure Pathways, Remedial Measures, and Environmental Loss of 137Cs

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F

    2009-04-20

    Rongelap Atoll (Robison et al., 1994; Simon et al., 1997), and Utrok Island at Utrok Atoll (Robison, et al., 1999) indicate that about 95-99% of the total estimated dose to people who may return to live at the atolls today (Utrok Island is populated) is the result of exposure to {sup 137}Cs. External gamma exposure from {sup 137}Cs in the soil accounts for about 10 to 15% of the total dose and {sup 137}Cs ingested during consumption of local food crops such as drinking coconut meat and fluid (Cocos nucifera L.), copra meat and milk, Pandanus fruit, and breadfruit accounts for about 85 to 90%. The other 1 to 2% of the estimated dose is from {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. The {sup 90}Sr exposure is primarily through the food chain while the exposure to {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 241}Am is primarily via the inhalation pathway as a result of breathing re-suspended soil particles.

  11. Radionuclide export and elimination by coyotes at two radioactive waste disposal areas in southeastern Idaho.

    PubMed

    Arthur, W J; Markham, O D

    1982-10-01

    Coyote fecal samples were collected near a radioactive waste leaching pond and a solid radioactive waste disposal facility and analyzed for radioactivity. Elevated concentrations of 137Cs, 90Sr and 238Pu in the samples from the liquid radioactive waste leaching area were attributed to coyotes ingesting contaminated pond water and/or small mammals. Elevated 241Am concentrations in coyote fecal samples collected around the solid radioactive waste disposal facility were due to ingestion of contaminated small mammals. Assumptions relative to the coyote use of these areas permitted an estimate of the maximum quantity of radioactivity exported and eliminated around the facilities. An annual total of 7.2, 31.4 and 1.8 microCi (90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm and 244Cm) was eliminated by coyotes within a 6.3 km radius of the solid radioactive waste disposal facility, liquid waste leaching pond, and control area, respectively. These quantities of radioactivity eliminated by coyotes were similar or less than quantities transported by other mechanisms such as waterfowl and vegetative uptake of radioactivity. Coyotes are a mode of radionuclide transport from the two radioactive waste disposal areas; however, due to the low radionuclide concentrations and low yearly radionuclide inventories in coyote fecal samples, it is doubtful that any significant environmental consequences occur as a result of this transport mechanism.

  12. Epiphytic fruticose lichens as biomonitors for retrospective evaluation of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio in Fukushima fallout.

    PubMed

    Ramzaev, V; Barkovsky, A; Gromov, A; Ivanov, S; Kaduka, M

    2014-12-01

    In 2011-2013, sampling of epiphytic fruticose lichens of the genera Usnea, Bryoria and Alectoria was carried out on Sakhalin and Kuril Islands (the Sakhalin region, Russia) to investigate contamination of these organisms with the Fukushima-derived (134)Cs and (137)Cs. Activities of the radionuclides were determined in all 56 samples of lichens taken for the analysis. After correction for radioactive decay (on 15 March 2011), the activity concentrations ranged from 2.1 Bq kg(-1) (d.w.) to 52 Bq kg(-1) for (134)Cs and from 2.3 Bq kg(-1) to 52 Bq kg(-1) for (137)Cs. Cesium-134 and (137)Cs activities for the whole set of lichens (n = 56) were strongly positively correlated; Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated as 0.991 (P < 0.01). The activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in Usnea lichens from the Sakhalin and Kunashir islands declined with a factor of three in the period from 2011 to 2013. The average biological half-time for both cesium radionuclides in lichens of the genus Usnea is estimated as 1.3 y. The mean of 0.99 ± 0.10 and median of 0.99 were calculated for the decay corrected (134)Cs/(137)Cs activities ratios in the lichens (n = 56). The radionuclides ratio in the lichens did not depend on location of sampling site, species and the time that had passed after the Fukushima accident. The regression analysis has shown the background pre-Fukushima level of (137)Cs of 0.4 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), whereas the ratio between the Fukushima-borne (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the lichens was estimated as 1.04. The (134)Cs/(137)Cs activities ratio in lichens from the Sakhalin region is consistent with the ratios reported by others for the heavy contaminated areas on Honshu Island in Japan following the Fukushima accident. The activity concentrations of natural (7)Be in lichens from the Sakhalin region varied between 100 Bq kg(-1) and 600 Bq kg(-1); the activity concentrations did not exhibit temporal variations during a 2y

  13. Desorption of 137Cs from Brachythecium mildeanum moss using acid solutions with pH 4.60-6.50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čučulović, Ana; Veselinović, Dragan

    2015-12-01

    The desorption of 137Cs from the moss Brachythecium mildeanum (Schimp.) was performed using the following solutions: H2SO4 ( I), HNO3 ( II), H2SO4 + HNO3 ( III) with pH values of 4.60, 5.15, and 5.75, respectively, as well as distilled water (D) with pH 6.50. After five successive desorptions, each lasting 24 h, 20.5-37.6% 137Cs was desorbed from the moss using these solutions, while 30.7% of the starting content was desorbed using distilled water. The first desorption removed the highest percent of the original content of 137Cs in the moss (11.3-18.4%). This was determined by measuring 137Cs activity. If the current results are compared with those obtained earlier it may be concluded that 137Cs desorption from mosses is not species-dependent. The obtained results indicate the necessity of investigating the influence of acid rain, or rather, of H+ ions, on desorption of other ions from biological systems, i.e., the role of H+ ions in spreading other polluting compounds and thus producing secondary environmental pollution. From the results of this study it follows that acid rain will lead, through H+ ion action, to a similar increasing pollution of fallout waters with other ionic compounds which may not be present in the water before the contact with the plants and thus enable the pollution spreading. In the investigated system, the replacement of H+ ions from acid rains by more dangerous radioactive ions occured, increasing the concentration of the radioactive ions in the water, which demonstrates that the same process takes place in fallout water.

  14. Estimation of average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors by using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, T.; Sato, S.; Yamamoto, A.

    2012-07-01

    Average burnup of damaged fuels loaded in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors is estimated, using the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method for measured radioactivities of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in contaminated soils within the range of 100 km from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants. As a result, the measured {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio from the contaminated soil is 0.996{+-}0.07 as of March 11, 2011. Based on the {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio method, the estimated burnup of damaged fuels is approximately 17.2{+-}1.5 [GWd/tHM]. It is noted that the numerical results of various calculation codes (SRAC2006/PIJ, SCALE6.0/TRITON, and MVP-BURN) are almost the same evaluation values of {sup 134}Cs/ {sup 137}Cs ratio with same evaluated nuclear data library (ENDF-B/VII.0). The void fraction effect in depletion calculation has a major impact on {sup 134}Cs/{sup 137}Cs ratio compared with the differences between JENDL-4.0 and ENDF-B/VII.0. (authors)

  15. Long-term decrease of atmospheric test {sup 137}Cs in the soil-prairie plant-milk pathway in southern Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Schuller, P. Ellies, A.; Handl, J.

    1998-07-01

    The time dependency of nuclear test {sup 137}Cs in soil, prairie plants, and milk was observed on pastures of seven dairy farms in the 10th Region, Chile, from 1982 to 1997, without any appreciable deposition of radioactive fallout after 1983. Whereas the {sup 137}Cs concentration in the soil decreased at a rate close to that of the radionuclide`s physical decay during the whole observation period, the rate of decrease of the {sup 137}Cs concentration in the prairie plants and in the milk, having been very rapid between 1982--1990, became slower between 1991--1997. The effective half-lives of the concentration in plants were found to be 5.6 y and 12 y during the first and second observation periods, respectively. Similar half-lives of 5.5 y and 13 y were found for the concentration decline in milk during each period. These data clearly demonstrate a reduction in the long-term decrease of the {sup 137}Cs plant uptake, and consequently in the decrease of the {sup 137}Cs concentration in milk, resulting from a decline of {sup 137}Cs availability for prairie plants in the Hapludand soils over the whole 15-y observation period.

  16. Modeling of 137Cs migration in soils using an 80-year soil archive: role of fertilizers and agricultural amendments.

    PubMed

    Monna, F; van Oort, F; Hubert, P; Dominik, J; Bolte, J; Loizeau, J-L; Labanowski, J; Lamri, J; Petit, C; Le Roux, G; Chateau, C

    2009-01-01

    An 80-year soil archive, the 42-plot experimental design at the INRA in Versailles (France), is used here to study long-term contamination by 137Cs atmospheric deposition and the fate of this radioisotope when associated with various agricultural practices: fallow land, KCl, NH4(NO3), superphosphate fertilizers, horse manure and lime amendments. The pertinence of a simple box model, where radiocaesium is supposed to move downward by convectional mechanisms, is checked using samples from control plots which had been neither amended, nor cultivated since 1928. This simple model presents the advantage of depending on only two parameters: alpha, a proportional factor allowing the historical atmospheric 137Cs fluxes to be reconstructed locally, and k, an annual loss coefficient from the plow horizon. Another pseudo-unknown is however necessary to run the model: the shape of historical 137Cs deposition, but this function can be easily computed by merging several curves previously established by other surveys. A loss of approximately 1.5% per year from the plow horizon, combined with appropriate fluxes, provides good concordance between simulated and measured values. In the 0-25cm horizon, the residence half time is found to be approximately 18yr (including both migration and radioactive decay). Migration rate constants are also calculated for some plots receiving continuous long-term agricultural treatments. Comparison with the control plots reveals significant influence of amendments on 137Cs mobility in these soils developed from a unique genoform.

  17. Thirty years after Chernobyl: Long-term determination of (137)Cs effective half-life in the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum.

    PubMed

    Savino, F; Pugliese, M; Quarto, M; Adamo, P; Loffredo, F; De Cicco, F; Roca, V

    2017-04-05

    It has been widely shown that nuclear fallout includes substances, which accumulate in organisms such as crustaceans, fish, mushrooms and lichens, helping to evaluate the activity concentration of contaminants accumulated on a long time. In this context, radiocaesium deposited in soil following the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986 is known to have remained persistently available for plant uptake in many areas of Europe. Studies on the lichen Stereocaulon vesuvianum show the plant's high capacity to retain radionuclides from the substrate and the air. After the Chernobyl accident, starting from September 1986, at the Radioactivity Laboratory (LaRa) of the University of Naples Federico II, four monitoring campaigns to evaluate the activity concentration of four isotopes of the two elements caesium and ruthenium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs, (103)Ru and (106)Ru) were carried out until 1999. This study allowed the effective half-life of (134)Cs and (137)Cs to be estimated. Twenty-eight years after the accident, in December 2014, a further sampling was carried out; only (137)Cs was revealed beyond the detection limits, measuring activity concentrations ranging from 20 to 40 Bq/kg, while the other radionuclides were no longer observed due to their shorter half-life. The last sampling allowed more precise determination of the effective half-life of (137)Cs (6.2 ± 0.1 year), due to the larger dataset on a large time period.

  18. [Effect of soil microflora on 137Cs transition to plants].

    PubMed

    Pareniuk, O Yu; Shavanova, K E; Ilienko, V V; Tytova, L V; Levchuk, S E; Gudkov, I N

    2015-01-01

    The impact of certain types of microorganisms on 137Cs transfer from the substrate into the plant was analyzed in the experiment on artificial mediums. It was found that certain types of microorganisms could either reduce or increase the ratio of 137Cs transfer from the substrate to the plant. It is shown that this property is independent of the localization of the microorganism on the surface of the root, for all the analyzed bacteria belonging to the rhizospheric group. Azotobacter chroococcum UKM B-6003 stimulated the radionuclide transfer to plants up to 1.5 times, while the best bacteria for reducing its accumulation is Burkholderia sp IMER-B1 -53 - 1.3 times in comparison with the control. It was shown that the strain Bacillus megaterium UKM B-5724 from the collection of the Institute of Microbiology and Virology of NASU has a high ability to accumulate radionuclides.

  19. The effect of radioactive waste storage in Andreev Bay on contamination of the Barents Sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, G. G.; Ilyin, G. V.; Usyagina, I. S.; Moiseev, D. V.; Dahle, Salve; Kasatkina, N. E.; Valuyskaya, D. A.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of temporary radioactive waste storage on the ecological status of the sea and biota in the littoral of Andreev and Malaya Andreev bays and near the shore of Motovskii Gulf (including the mouth part of the Zapadnaya Litsa Bay) was analyzed. The littoral sediments contaminated by the 137Cs, 90Sr, 238Pu, and 239,240Pu isotopes are located in the zones of constant groundwater discharge on the shores of Andreev and Malaya Andreev bays. The littoral slopes and bottom depressions of the bays accumulate finely dispersed terrigenous material and 137Cs. The investigations have shown that the storage does not exert a significant adverse effect on the radioactive conditions and the status of the sea ecosystems beyond Andreev Bay.

  20. Assessment of the genotoxicity of 137Cs radiation using Vicia-micronucleus, Tradescantia-micronucleus and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation bioassays.

    PubMed

    Minouflet, Marion; Ayrault, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Cotelle, Sylvie; Ferard, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    Since the middle of the 20th century, ionizing radiations from radioactive isotopes including 137Cs have been investigated to determine their genotoxic impact on living organisms. The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of three plant bioassays to assess DNA damage induced by low doses of 137Cs: Vicia-micronucleus test (Vicia-MCN), Tradescantia-micronucleus test (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia-stamen-hair mutation test (Trad-SH) were used. Vicia faba (broad bean) and Tradescantia clone 4430 (spiderwort) were exposed to 137Cs according to different scenarios: external and internal (contamination) irradiations. Experiments were conducted with various levels of radioactivity in solution or in soil, using solid or liquid 137Cs sources. The three bioassays showed different sensitivities to the treatments. Trad-MCN appeared to be the most sensitive test (significative response from 1.5 kBq/200 ml after 30 h of contamination). Moreover, at comparable doses, internal irradiations led to larger effects for the three bioassays. These bioassays are effective tests for assessing the genotoxic effects of radioactive 137Cs pollution.

  1. A (137)Cs erosion model with moving boundary.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chuan; Ji, Hongbing

    2015-12-01

    A novel quantitative model of the relationship between diffused concentration changes and erosion rates using assessment of soil losses was developed. It derived from the analysis of surface soil (137)Cs flux variation under persistent erosion effect and based on the principle of geochemistry kinetics moving boundary. The new moving boundary model improves the basic simplified transport model (Zhang et al., 2008), and mainly applies to uniform rainfall areas which show a long-time soil erosion. The simulation results for this kind of erosion show under a long-time soil erosion, the influence of (137)Cs concentration will decrease exponentially with increasing depth. Using the new model fit to the measured (137)Cs depth distribution data in Zunyi site, Guizhou Province, China which has typical uniform rainfall provided a good fit with R(2) = 0.92. To compare the soil erosion rates calculated by the simple transport model and the new model, we take the Kaixian reference profile as example. The soil losses estimated by the previous simplified transport model are greater than those estimated by the new moving boundary model, which is consistent with our expectations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Curing time effect on the fraction of {sup 137}Cs from cement-ion exchange resins-bentonite clay composition

    SciTech Connect

    Plecas, Ilija; Dimovic, Slavko

    2007-07-01

    To assess the safety of disposal of radioactive waste material in cement, curing conditions and time of leaching radionuclides {sup 137}Cs have been studied. Leaching tests in cement-ion exchange resins-bentonite matrix, were carried out in accordance with a method recommended by IAEA. Curing conditions and curing time prior to commencing the leaching test are critically important in leach studies since the extent of hydration of the cement materials determines how much hydration product develops and whether it is available to block the pore network, thereby reducing leaching. Incremental leaching rates R{sub n}(cm/d) of {sup 137}Cs from cement ion exchange resins-bentonite matrix after 180 days were measured. The results presented in this paper are examples of results obtained in a 20-year concrete testing project which will influence the design of the engineer trenches system for future central Serbian radioactive waste storing center. (authors)

  3. [Migration of industrial radionuclides in soils and benthal deposits at the coastal margins of the temporary waste storage facility (TWSF) of the Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and its influence on the possible contamination of the sea offshore waters].

    PubMed

    Filonova, A A; Seregin, V A

    2014-01-01

    For obtaining the integral information about the current radiation situation in the sea offshore waters of the temporary waste storage facility (TWSF) of the Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management "SevRAO" in the Andreeva Bay and in the settle Gremikha with a purpose of a comprehensive assessment of its condition there was performed radiation-ecological monitoring of the adjacent sea offshore waters of the TWSF. It was shown that in the territory of industrial sites of the TWSF as a result of industrial activity there are localized areas of pollution by man-made radionuclides. As a result of leaching of radionuclides by tidal stream, snowmelt and rainwater radioactive contamination extends beyond the territory of the sanitary protection zone and to the coastal sea offshore waters. To confirm the coastal pollution of the sea offshore waters the levels of mobility of 90Sr and 137Cs in environmental chains and bond strength of them with the soil and benthal deposits were clarified by determining with the method of detection of the forms of the presence of radionuclides in these media. There was established a high mobility of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils and benthal deposits (desorption coefficient (Kd) of 137Cs and 90Sr (in soils - 0.56 and 0.98), in the sediments - 0.82). The migration of radionuclides in environmental chains can lead to the contamination of the environment, including the sea offshore waters.

  4. Modeling of leachable 137Cs in throughfall and stemflow for Japanese forest canopies after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Loffredo, Nicolas; Onda, Yuichi; Kawamori, Ayumi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2014-09-15

    The Fukushima accident dispersed significant amounts of radioactive cesium (Cs) in the landscape. Our research investigated, from June 2011 to November 2013, the mobility of leachable Cs in forests canopies. In particular, (137)Cs and (134)Cs activity concentrations were measured in rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow in broad-leaf and cedar forests in an area located 40 km from the power plant. Leachable (137)Cs loss was modeled by a double exponential (DE) model. This model could not reproduce the variation in activity concentration observed. In order to refine the DE model, the main physical measurable parameters (rainfall intensity, wind velocity, and snowfall occurrence) were assessed, and rainfall was identified as the dominant factor controlling observed variation. A corrective factor was then developed to incorporate rainfall intensity in an improved DE model. With the original DE model, we estimated total (137)Cs loss by leaching from canopies to be 72 ± 4%, 67 ± 4%, and 48 ± 2% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. In contrast, with the improved DE model, the total (137)Cs loss by leaching was estimated to be 34 ± 2%, 34 ± 2%, and 16 ± 1% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. The improved DE model corresponds better to observed data in literature. Understanding (137)Cs and (134)Cs forest dynamics is important for forecasting future contamination of forest soils around the FDNPP. It also provides a basis for understanding forest transfers in future potential nuclear disasters.

  5. Vertical distribution of 137Cs in alluvial soils of the Lokna River floodplain (Tula oblast) long after the Chernobyl accident and its simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamikhin, S. V.; Golosov, V. N.; Paramonova, T. A.; Shamshurina, E. N.; Ivanov, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Profiles of vertical 137Cs distribution in alluvial meadow soils on the low and medium levels of the Lokna River floodplain (central part of the Plavsk radioactive spot in Tula oblast) 28 years after the Chernobyl fallout have been studied. A significant increase in the 137Cs pool is revealed on the low floodplain areas compared to the soils of interfluves due to the accumulation of alluvium, which hampers the reduction of the total radionuclide pool in alluvial soils because of radioactive decay. The rate of alluvium accumulation in the soil on the medium floodplain level is lower by three times on average. An imitation prognostic model has been developed, which considers the flooding and climatic conditions in the region under study. Numerical experiments have quantitatively confirmed the deciding role of low-mobile forms in the migration of maximum 137Cs content along the soil profile in the absence of manifested erosion-accumulation processes.

  6. Accuracy of field spectrometry in estimating 137Cs contamination in high altitude alpine soils.

    PubMed

    Agnesod, G; Lazzaron, R; Operti, C; Zappa, C

    2001-01-01

    In situ gamma ray spectrometry is an attractive method for providing information on the concentrations of radionuclides in the soil. This method requires separate knowledge of the soil density and of the radioactivity distribution relative to soil depth. In-field gamma spectrometry measurements were performed together with sampling of the soil at the same site for subsequent gamma spectrometry analysis in the laboratory. Results of 137Cs concentration were compared in order to: (i) verify the effectiveness of in situ gamma spectrometry in averaging local inhomogeneties in the soil; and (ii) quantify the sensitivity of the gamma ray spectrometry soil radioactivity evaluation with respect to the variability of the depth profiles obtained from a single site sampling. The site of study is a high altitude pasture, in the Alpine environment.

  7. Estimation Of 137Cs Using Atmospheric Dispersion Models After A Nuclear Reactor Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simsek, V.; Kindap, T.; Unal, A.; Pozzoli, L.; Karaca, M.

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear energy will continue to have an important role in the production of electricity in the world as the need of energy grows up. But the safety of power plants will always be a question mark for people because of the accidents happened in the past. Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident which happened in 26 April 1986 was the biggest nuclear accident ever. Because of explosion and fire large quantities of radioactive material was released to the atmosphere. The release of the radioactive particles because of accident affected not only its region but the entire Northern hemisphere. But much of the radioactive material was spread over west USSR and Europe. There are many studies about distribution of radioactive particles and the deposition of radionuclides all over Europe. But this was not true for Turkey especially for the deposition of radionuclides released after Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and the radiation doses received by people. The aim of this study is to determine the radiation doses received by people living in Turkish territory after Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident and use this method in case of an emergency. For this purpose The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model was used to simulate meteorological conditions after the accident. The results of WRF which were for the 12 days after accident were used as input data for the HYSPLIT model. NOAA-ARL's (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Air Resources Laboratory) dispersion model HYSPLIT was used to simulate the 137Cs distrubition. The deposition values of 137Cs in our domain after Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Accident were between 1.2E-37 Bq/m2 and 3.5E+08 Bq/m2. The results showed that Turkey was affected because of the accident especially the Black Sea Region. And the doses were calculated by using GENII-LIN which is multipurpose health physics code.

  8. Initial spread of 137Cs from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant over the Japan continental shelf: a study using a high-resolution, global-coastal nested ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Z.; Chen, C.; Beardsley, R.; Lin, H.; Ji, R.; Sasaki, J.; Lin, J.

    2013-08-01

    The 11 March 2011 tsunami triggered by the M9 and M7.9 earthquakes off the Tōhoku coast destroyed facilities at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) leading to a significant long-term flow of the radionuclide 137Cs into coastal waters. A high-resolution, global-coastal nested ocean model was first constructed to simulate the 11 March tsunami and coastal inundation. Based on the model's success in reproducing the observed tsunami and coastal inundation, model experiments were then conducted with differing grid resolution to assess the initial spread of 137Cs over the eastern shelf of Japan. The 137Cs was tracked as a conservative tracer (without radioactive decay) in the three-dimensional model flow field over the period of 26 March-31 August 2011. The results clearly show that for the same 137Cs discharge, the model-predicted spreading of 137Cs was sensitive not only to model resolution but also the FNPP seawall structure. A coarse-resolution (∼2 km) model simulation led to an overestimation of lateral diffusion and thus faster dispersion of 137Cs from the coast to the deep ocean, while advective processes played a more significant role when the model resolution at and around the FNPP was refined to ∼5 m. By resolving the pathways from the leaking source to the southern and northern discharge canals, the high-resolution model better predicted the 137Cs spreading in the inner shelf where in situ measurements were made at 30 km off the coast. The overestimation of 137Cs concentration near the coast is thought to be due to the omission of sedimentation and biogeochemical processes as well as uncertainties in the amount of 137Cs leaking from the source in the model. As a result, a biogeochemical module should be included in the model for more realistic simulations of the fate and spreading of 137Cs in the ocean.

  9. CHANGES IN 137 CS CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL AND VEGETATION ON THE FLOODPLAIN OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER OVER A 30 YEAR PERIOD

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.; Jannik, T.; Fledderman, P.

    2007-12-12

    {sup 137}Cs released during 1954-1974 from nuclear production reactors on the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy nuclear materials production site in South Carolina, contaminated a portion of the Savannah River floodplain known as Creek Plantation. {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations have been measured in Creek Plantation since 1974 making it possible to calculate effective half-lives for {sup 137}Cs in soil and vegetation and assess the spatial distribution of contaminants on the floodplain. Activity concentrations in soil and vegetation were higher near the center of the floodplain than near the edges as a result of frequent inundation coupled with the presence of low areas that trapped contaminated sediments. {sup 137}Cs activity was highest near the soil surface, but depth related differences diminished with time as a likely result of downward diffusion or leaching. Activity concentrations in vegetation were significantly related to concentrations in soil. The plant to soil concentration ratio (dry weight) averaged 0.49 and exhibited a slight but significant tendency to decrease with time. The effective half-lives for {sup 137}Cs in shallow (0-7.6 cm) soil and in vegetation were 14.9 (95% CI = 12.5-17.3) years and 11.6 (95% CI = 9.1-14.1) years, respectively, and rates of {sup 137}Cs removal from shallow soil and vegetation did not differ significantly among sampling locations. Potential health risks on the Creek Plantation floodplain have declined more rapidly than expected on the basis of radioactive decay alone because of the relatively short effective half-life of {sup 137}Cs.

  10. Effects of bark washing and epiphytic moss on (137)Cs activity concentration in bark and stemflow in Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Sato, Mamoru; Takase, Tsugiko; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko

    2017-07-25

    The effects of bark washing, and of epiphytic moss growing on the bark surfaces, on the (137)Cs activity concentrations in bark and stemflow samples were evaluated at two Japanese persimmon orchards located in Fukushima City and Date City, both approximately 60-65 km northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The means of (137)Cs in stemflow captured by 1 g of sphagnum placed on the main trunks of washed and unwashed trees, and on sites with moss and with no moss growing on bark of the non-washed trees in Date City, were 0.37 Bq, 1.08Bq, 0.77 Bq and 0.52 Bq respectively. The (137)Cs was significantly lower in the washed bark and in the absence of moss at p = 0.00031 and p = 0.0443 by t-test respectively. The (137)Cs in directly-collected stemflow on the main trunks was significantly higher for the unwashed tree at 6.0 Bq L(-1) compared with the washed tree at 1.1 Bq L(-1) (p = 0.017 by Tukey's test). The extraction rate of dissolved (137)Cs with deionized water was 7.3% even after stirring for 40 h. These results indicate that the moss acts as reservoir of (137)Cs, and that bark-washing decontamination can reduce the additional (137)Cs supply from moss in subsequent years following the radioactive fallout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Root endophytic bacteria of a (137)Cs and Mn accumulator plant, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, increase (137)Cs and Mn desorption in the soil.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Keiko; Nagata, Satoshi; Haruma, Toshikatsu; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Kozaki, Tamotsu; Watanabe, Naoko; Nanba, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    We found that root endophytes of (137)Cs accumulator plant produce siderophores, resulting in the desorption of (137)Cs from the contaminated soil collected at Fukushima, Japan. We selected an endemic Japanese deciduous tree, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides (Franch. et Sav), that accumulates high concentrations of (137)Cs and Mn. Root endophytic bacteria were isolated from E. sciadophylloides and microbial siderophore production was evaluated via chrome azurol S (CAS) Fe and CAS Al assays. Of the 463 strains that we isolated, 107 (23.1%) produced the siderophores. Using eight strains that showed high siderophore production in our assays, we examined desorption of (137)Cs, Mn, Fe and Al by the bacterial culture filtrates from (137)Cs-contaminated soil after decomposing the soil organic matter using hydrogen peroxide. We found (137)Cs and Mn desorption concomitant with Al and Fe desorption, as well as a decrease of pH. We also detected succinic acid, a well-known siderophore, in the bacterial culture filtrates of our two root endophytic bacteria. Our results strongly suggest that the root endophytic bacteria of E. sciadophylloides produce the siderophores that enhance (137)Cs and Mn desorption in the rhizosphere, making the resulting (137)Cs and Mn ions easier for E. sciadophylloides to absorb from the rhizosphere.

  12. Spatial variability of fallout-90Sr in soil and vegetation of an alpine pasture.

    PubMed

    Schimmack, W; Kracke, W; Sommer, M

    2003-01-01

    According to the soil-to-plant transfer concept generally used in dose assessment modeling, the plant uptake of a radionuclide should depend linearly on its concentration in the soil. In order to validate this concept for (90)Sr in a semi-natural ecosystem, plant and soil samples were taken at 100 plots of a 100 x 100 m(2) area within an alpine pasture near Berchtesgaden, Germany. At three plots, the vertical distribution of (90)Sr in the soil was determined in addition. A statistically significant correlation between the soil and plant concentration of (90)Sr was not detectable (Spearman correlation coefficient R=-0.116, p>0.05) within the range of the Sr-concentration covered (15-548 Bq kg(-1) dry soil and 17-253 Bq kg(-1) dry plant material). Thus, the prerequisite of the soil-to-plant transfer concept was not fulfilled for (90)Sr at this site. Organic carbon and total nitrogen were also determined in the soil samples. Both elements were highly correlated (R=0.912, p<0.001), their ratio being C/N=10.9+/-0.7. While C was positively correlated with the (90)Sr concentrations in the soil (R=0.342, p<0.001), negative correlations were observed for the plant concentrations (R=-0.286, p<0.01) and the concentration ratios (R=-0.444, p<0.001) of (90)Sr. These results are compared with those recently obtained for (137)Cs by Bunzl et al. (J Environ Radioactiv 48 (2000) 145).

  13. Measurements and Observations of 134Cs and 137Cs around a Nuclear Power Plant in Busan, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, H. Y.; Park, J. N.; Kim, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to know the change of representative species 134Cs and 137Cs of artificial radionuclides from the nuclear power station nearby for the last five years(2010~2014). The Kori Nuclear Power Plant, nuclear power facility located near Busan, is located in the south-east coast of Korea and about 21km north-east away from the Haeundae and about 25km south away from the Ulsan. An administrative district is Jangan-eup, Gijang-gun, Busan, Korea. A point was selected on the basis of the "Environmental Radiation Monitoring Plan around Nuclear Power Plants" and periodically samples were collected and analyzed. The samples were collected from the soils of the surface in the Wolnae area (NW, 1.7km). The soil samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometer with High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe) of 40% relative efficiency and were measured for 80,000 sec. As a results of soil analysis, 137Cs were detected in samples only selected in March 2013. The activity concentration of 137Cs founded in the soil sample was 0.513±0.052Bq/kg-dry. In the other hands, the concentration of 137Cs in the year 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2014 were below the minimum detectable activity (MDA). 40K, natural radionuclides which is widely present, was detected in the soil samples and other artificial radionuclides were not detected. The result of overall comparison of the environmental radioactivity survey around Kori Nuclear Power Plant for the last five years is that radioactivity levels are within average range. However, it is necessary to continue to carefully observe a fine change in regional or the monthly radiation concentration.

  14. Potential of largemouth bass as vectors of 137Cs dispersal.

    PubMed

    Paller, M H; Fletcher, D E; Jones, T; Dyer, S A; Isely, J J; Littrell, J W

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a radio telemetry study on the movements of potentially contaminated largemouth bass between Steel Creek, a restricted access (137)Cs contaminated stream on the Savannah River Site (located in South Carolina, USA), and the publicly accessible Savannah River. Largemouth bass were relatively mobile in lower Steel Creek and the portion of the Savannah River near Steel Creek, and there was considerable movement between these two habitats. Largemouth bass had home ranges of about 500 linear meters of shoreline in the Savannah River but sometimes moved long distances. Such movements occurred primarily during the spawning season, largely upstream, and increased when water levels were changing or elevated. However, approximately 90% of the largemouth bass observations were within 10 km of Steel Creek. The total quantity of (137)Cs transported into the Savannah River by largemouth bass was much less than transported by water and suspended sediments discharged from Steel Creek. We conclude that largemouth bass from the Savannah River Site are unlikely to be responsible for long distance dispersal of substantial radiological contamination in the Savannah River.

  15. The distribution of fallout {sup 137}Cs in Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, A.; Mora, P.

    1996-08-01

    Baseline levels of {sup 137}Cs on different sites throughout the Costa Rican territory are presented in this study from local and undisturbed soils. They are believed to represent the fallout input to the land surface. Seventy samples were collected from September 1991 to December 1993, and analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. The territory was divided in three regions, Caribbean, Pacific, and Central, based on meteorological and geographical conditions to study spatial distribution of cesium. The results show a higher activity in the Caribbean region perhaps due to the wind influence and higher rain precipitation throughout the year. No relevant time variation of the activity levels of reach location was found. The highest value of 17.6 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} of {sup 137}Cs is compared with it generalized derived limit, being only 1.97% of the generalized derived limit value. The mean country activity value ranges from 0.4 to 17.8 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} with an average of 3.7 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Sampling design and required sample size for evaluating contamination levels of (137)Cs in Japanese fir needles in a mixed deciduous forest stand in Fukushima, Japan.

    PubMed

    Oba, Yurika; Yamada, Toshihiro

    2017-05-01

    We estimated the sample size (the number of samples) required to evaluate the concentration of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in Japanese fir (Abies firma Sieb. & Zucc.), 5 years after the outbreak of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. We investigated the spatial structure of the contamination levels in this species growing in a mixed deciduous broadleaf and evergreen coniferous forest stand. We sampled 40 saplings with a tree height of 150 cm-250 cm in a Fukushima forest community. The results showed that: (1) there was no correlation between the (137)Cs concentration in needles and soil, and (2) the difference in the spatial distribution pattern of (137)Cs concentration between needles and soil suggest that the contribution of root uptake to (137)Cs in new needles of this species may be minor in the 5 years after the radionuclides were released into the atmosphere. The concentration of (137)Cs in needles showed a strong positive spatial autocorrelation in the distance class from 0 to 2.5 m, suggesting that the statistical analysis of data should consider spatial autocorrelation in the case of an assessment of the radioactive contamination of forest trees. According to our sample size analysis, a sample size of seven trees was required to determine the mean contamination level within an error in the means of no more than 10%. This required sample size may be feasible for most sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Paddy-field contamination with 134Cs and 137Cs due to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident and soil-to-rice transfer coefficients.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Shizuma, Kiyoshi

    2013-02-01

    The transfer coefficient (TF) from soil to rice plants of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the form of radioactive deposition from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 was investigated in three rice paddy fields in Minami-Soma City. Rice crops were planted in the following May and harvested at the end of September. Soil cores of 30-cm depth were sampled from rice-planted paddy fields to measure (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity at 5-cm intervals. (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity was also measured in rice ears (rice with chaff), straws and roots. The rice ears were subdivided into chaff, brown rice, polished rice and rice bran, and the (134)Cs and (137)Cs radioactivity concentration of each plant part was measured to calculate the respective TF from the soil. The TF of roots was highest at 0.48 ± 0.10 in the field where the (40)K concentration in the soil core was relatively low, in comparison with TF values of 0.31 and 0.38 in other fields. Similar trends could be found for the TF of whole rice plants, excluding roots. The TF of rice ears was relatively low at 0.019-0.026. The TF of chaff, rice bran, brown rice and polished rice was estimated to be 0.049, 0.10-0.16, 0.013-0.017 and 0.005-0.013, respectively.

  18. 137Cs inventory in semi-isolated basins of the western South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Wang, Z.

    2007-12-01

    The main introduction routes of 137Cs into the Pacific Ocean are worldwide global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and close-in fallout from U. S. tests conducted on the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. The objectives of this study are to measure the 137Cs activities in water columns of the western South Pacific Ocean and to discuss the processes controlling the 137Cs inventory. The 137Cs activities were determined for seawater samples from the East Caroline, Coral Sea, New Hebrides, South Fiji and Tasman Sea Basins of the western South Pacific Ocean. The 137Cs activities in surface waters ranged from 1.7 Bq m- 3 in the Tasman Sea Basin to 2.3 Bq m-3 in the East Caroline Basin. The latitudinal 137Cs distributions in surface waters showed the opposite trend to the expected deposition density from global fallout. The distribution profiles of 137Cs activity at these six western South Pacific Ocean stations did not differ from each other significantly. The total 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean ranged from 850 Bq m-2 in the Coral Sea Basin to 1270 Bq m-2 in the South Fiji Basin. Higher 137Cs inventories were observed at middle latitude stations in the subtropical gyre than at low latitude stations. The 137Cs inventories were 1.9 - 4.5 times higher than that of the expected deposition density of atmospheric global fallout at the same latitude. The possible sources of excess 137Cs inventories in the western South Pacific Ocean might be attributable to both the inter-hemisphere dispersion of the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing 137Cs from the northern stratosphere to the southern one and its subsequent deposition, and water- bearing transport of 137Cs from the North Pacific Ocean to the South Pacific.

  19. [Variability of enzyme systems in the coenopopulation of Taraxacum officinale s.l. from the zone of East-Ural- radioactive trace].

    PubMed

    Ul'ianova, E V; Pozolotina, V N

    2004-01-01

    Levels of soil contamination with 90Sr and 137Cs radionuclides on the plots within the zone of Eastern-Ural radioactive trace exceed values of the global level 4-240 times. We have carried out allozyme analysis of apomict species Taraxacum officinale s.l. from this zone. Zimogrammes were interpreted as allozyme phenotypes. In condition of chronic irradiation the plants had increased phenogenetic variability of majority enzymes systems and high frequency of rare morphs. Thus, in plant coenopopoulations situated in radioactive-polluted zone, genomic recombination processes show higher intensity. High enzymatic variability provides the material for natural selection and increase the adaptive potential of coenopopulations.

  20. The origin and dynamics of 137Cs discharge from a coniferous forest catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyléna, Torbjörn; Grip, Harald

    1997-05-01

    The turnover of radioactive caesium was studied experimentally and theoretically in a forested catchment that was covered by snow during the wet deposition of radioactive nuclides from the Chernobyl accident. The study spans from 1 week before to 8 years after the deposition event. A fraction of the catchment is covered by a mire (16010). From the edge of the mire a stream channel runs to the outlet of the catchment. Two phases of decreasing activity concentration in the stream water were found in addition to a positive influence of runoff on the activity concentration in the stream. The half-lives for 137CS in the stream water corresponding to the early and the later phase were estimated by non-linear regression to be 6.5 days and 4 years, respectively. During the first phase, which corresponded to the initial snow melt in 1986, 6.8% of the deposition was lost from the catchment, whereas the slow secondary loss during the following 8 years was 1.8%. The main contribution to the yearly discharge of 137Cs occurred during spring and autumn when the areal contribution to saturated surface runoff was highest. The remaining deposition in soil a few years after the fallout was significantly lower in the mire than in the surrounding forest. By using the calculated activity concentration of 137Cs in the stream water together with the remaining deposition in the different biotopes and information on stream flow for the catchment it was concluded that the loss originated from the mire. During the initial phase 44% of the deposition was lost from the mire, and during the following years the yearly loss was 30% from the fraction that constantly undergoes saturated surface runoff and 2% from the drier fractions of the mire. Until the end of the study it was not possible to demonstrate any loss from the recharge areas (podzol and cambisol soils), which means that physical decay will govern the decrease in activity in these areas.

  1. 137Cs in recent tsunami deposits - a potential tracer of selective tsunami sediment entrainment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiske, M.; Bahlburg, H.; Suckow, A.

    2012-12-01

    The tsunami of 27 February, 2010 affected a 600 km long stretch of the central Chilean coastline. We documented the tsunami deposits 4 months after the event in 2010 and two years later in 2012. The broad coastal plain at La Trinchera was inundated ca. 430 m inland and up to 8 m above sea level. A ca. 10 cm thick layer of tsunami sand was deposited on top of marsh sediments. A comparison of this layer in 2010 and 2012 reveals a change in the relative mineral composition and related grain size. In 2010 the layer consisted of 90-93% heavy minerals, 1-4% quartz, 2-3% organics and 1-3% feldspar. In 2012 the relative abundances changed to 63-76% heavy minerals, 10-12% quartz, 16-20% organics and 5-7% feldspar, as a result of the erosion of parts of the finer grained heavy minerals. Furthermore, the thickness decreased to ca. 8 cm. The concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs was recorded using high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. Especially in the northern hemisphere, 137Cs is a tracer for radioactive fallout emitted mainly during nuclear tests in the 1950s to 1960s, peaking around 1963, or nuclear bombing and accidents. In contrast, Cs-concentrations in the southern hemisphere are about four times lower (<1 Bq/kg). Generally, the Cs-signal in terrestrial sediments is higher compared to marine deposits due to Cs-dilution in sea water. For recent (younger than ca. 60 years) onshore tsunami sediments, a mixed Cs-signal is expected because a tsunami can entrain sediments from different depositional environments and different stratigraphic age levels. At La Trinchera, gamma-spectrometry revealed a 137Cs-content of 0.5 Bq/kg for the lower ca. 5 cm of the tsunami layer. The 137Cs-concentration of the upper 5 cm was below the detection limit of 0.1 Bq/kg. Even though the tsunami layer appears to be structureless, the Cs-content may help to distinguish between two distinctive depositional units within the layer. We suggest that the lower part represents reworked

  2. EVALUATION OF THE MIGRATION POTENTIAL FOR 60Co AND 137Cs AT THE MAINE YANKEE SITE.

    SciTech Connect

    FUHRMANN,M.SULLIVAN,T.

    2002-08-08

    The objective of this report is to discuss the degree of sorption and desorption of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co that may be associated with the granite bedrock and the ''popcorn'' cement drain system that underlie the Maine Yankee Containment Foundation. The purpose is to estimate how much retardation of these two radionuclides takes place in groundwater that flows in the near-field of the Containment Foundation, specifically with respect to contamination originating at the PAB Test Pit. Specific concerns revolve around the potential for the contamination originating near the PAB to create a radioactive dose to a hypothetical ''resident farmer'' using a well intercepting this water to exceed 4 millirems/yr.

  3. Uptake and elimination of 137Cs by climbing perch (Anabus testudineus).

    PubMed

    Malek, M A

    1999-12-01

    This work describes the uptake and retention/biological elimination of 137Cs by climbing perch (Anabus testudineus) under laboratory conditions. The accumulated 137Cs concentration in the whole body of the fish was measured at certain intervals up to 38 d. A significant accumulation of 137Cs was found, but a steady state accumulation of 137Cs was not achieved by the end of the experiment. The bioaccumulation factors and the distribution of the radionuclide in edible parts of the fish were determined. The effective half-life of 137Cs in the fish species was found to be approximately 147 d (average) for elderly and adult fishes and approximately 300 d for younger fishes. Accumulation of 137Cs in the edible parts of the fish was found to be approximately 77% of whole body accumulation.

  4. Beta Emitter Radionuclides (90Sr) Contamination in Animal Feed: Validation and Application of a Radiochemical Method by Ultra Low Level Liquid Scintillation Counting

    PubMed Central

    Iammarino, Marco; dell’Oro, Daniela; Bortone, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    90Sr is considered as a dangerous contaminant of agri-food supply chains due to its chemical affinity with Calcium, which makes its absorption in bones easy. 90Sr accumulation in raw materials and then in final products is particularly significant in relationship to its ability to transfer into animal source products. The radionuclides transfer (137Cs and 90Sr) from environment to forages and then to products of animal origin (milk, cow and pork meats) was studied and evaluated in different studies, which were carried out in contaminated areas, from Chernobyl disaster until today. In the present work, the development and validation of a radiochemical method for the detection of 90Sr in different types of animal feed, and the application of this technique for routinely control activities, are presented. Liquid scintillation counting was the employed analytical technique, since it is able to determine very low activity concentrations of 90Sr (<0.01 Bq Kg–1). All samples analysed showed a 90Sr contamination much higher than method detection limit (0.008 Bq kg–1). In particular, the highest mean activity concentration was registered in hay samples (2.93 Bq kg–1), followed by silage samples (2.07 Bq kg–1) and animal feeds (0.77 Bq kg–1). In fact, all samples were characterized by 90Sr activity concentrations much lower than reference limits. This notwithstanding, the necessity to monitor these levels was confirmed, especially considering that 90Sr is a possible carcinogen for human. PMID:27800378

  5. Beta Emitter Radionuclides ((90)Sr) Contamination in Animal Feed: Validation and Application of a Radiochemical Method by Ultra Low Level Liquid Scintillation Counting.

    PubMed

    Iammarino, Marco; dell'Oro, Daniela; Bortone, Nicola; Chiaravalle, Antonio Eugenio

    2015-02-03

    (90)Sr is considered as a dangerous contaminant of agri-food supply chains due to its chemical affinity with Calcium, which makes its absorption in bones easy. (90)Sr accumulation in raw materials and then in final products is particularly significant in relationship to its ability to transfer into animal source products. The radionuclides transfer ((137)Cs and (90)Sr) from environment to forages and then to products of animal origin (milk, cow and pork meats) was studied and evaluated in different studies, which were carried out in contaminated areas, from Chernobyl disaster until today. In the present work, the development and validation of a radiochemical method for the detection of (90)Sr in different types of animal feed, and the application of this technique for routinely control activities, are presented. Liquid scintillation counting was the employed analytical technique, since it is able to determine very low activity concentrations of (90)Sr (<0.01 Bq Kg(-1)). All samples analysed showed a (90)Sr contamination much higher than method detection limit (0.008 Bq kg(-1)). In particular, the highest mean activity concentration was registered in hay samples (2.93 Bq kg(-1)), followed by silage samples (2.07 Bq kg(-1)) and animal feeds (0.77 Bq kg(-1)). In fact, all samples were characterized by (90)Sr activity concentrations much lower than reference limits. This notwithstanding, the necessity to monitor these levels was confirmed, especially considering that (90)Sr is a possible carcinogen for human.

  6. Distribution and source of (129)I, (239)(,240)Pu, (137)Cs in the environment of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ežerinskis, Ž; Hou, X L; Druteikienė, R; Puzas, A; Šapolaitė, J; Gvozdaitė, R; Gudelis, A; Buivydas, Š; Remeikis, V

    2016-01-01

    Fifty five soil samples collected in the Lithuania teritory in 2011 and 2012 were analyzed for (129)I, (137)Cs and Pu isotopes in order to investigate the level and distribution of artificial radioactivity in Lithuania. The activity and atomic ratio of (238)Pu/((239,24)0)Pu, (129)I/(127)I and (131)I/(137)Cs were used to identify the origin of these radionuclides. The (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu and (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratios in the soil samples analyzed varied in the range of 0.02-0.18 and 0.18-0.24, respectively, suggesting the global fallout as the major source of Pu in Lithuania. The values of 10(-9) to 10(-6) for (129)I/(127)I atomic ratio revealed that the source of (129)I in Lithuania is global fallout in most cases though several sampling sites shows a possible impact of reprocessing releases. Estimated (129)I/(131)I ratio in soil samples from the southern part of Lithuania shows negligible input of the Chernobyl fallout. No correlation of the (137)Cs and Pu isotopes with (129)I was observed, indicating their different sources terms. Results demonstrate uneven distribution of these radionuclides in the Lithuanian territory and several sources of contamination i.e. Chernobyl accident, reprocessing releases and global fallout.

  7. Radioactivity measurements on migrating birds (Turdus philomelos) captured in the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain).

    PubMed

    Navarro, E; Roldán, C; Cervera, J; Ferrero, J L

    1998-01-19

    The radionuclides 137Cs, 134Cs and 90Sr have been measured in edible tissues and bones of migratory birds (song-thrushes, Turdus philomelos) from central and northern Europe and captured in the Comunidad Valenciana, Spain in the 1994 autumn-winter season. Eight years after the Chernobyl accident, extensive agricultural lands in Europe are still contaminated and this study shows that there was a transfer of radioactive isotopes to the captured migratory song-thrushes. The whole-body dose commitment to humans consuming these birds is estimated.

  8. Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1992-03-27

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of eastern Tennessee (USA). This area is characterized by deciduous forests dominated by hardwood and mixed mesophytic tree species. Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL, and contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory`s boundaries have been found to contain on the order of 10{sup {minus}12} to 10{sup {minus}6} Ci/g of {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Theoretical calculations indicate that nanocurie levels of {sup 90}Sr in bone can arise from relatively small amounts (1%) of contaminated browse vegetation in a deer`s diet. Measures that have been undertaken at ORNL to curtail the dispersal of radioactivity by animals are briefly reviewed.

  9. Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1992-03-27

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of eastern Tennessee (USA). This area is characterized by deciduous forests dominated by hardwood and mixed mesophytic tree species. Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL, and contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory's boundaries have been found to contain on the order of 10{sup {minus}12} to 10{sup {minus}6} Ci/g of {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Theoretical calculations indicate that nanocurie levels of {sup 90}Sr in bone can arise from relatively small amounts (1%) of contaminated browse vegetation in a deer's diet. Measures that have been undertaken at ORNL to curtail the dispersal of radioactivity by animals are briefly reviewed.

  10. Distribution of the 134Cs/137Cs ratio around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant using an unmanned helicopter radiation monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, T.; Nishizawa, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Many radioactive substances were released by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident occurred on March 11, 2011 in the atmosphere. A lot of short half-life nuclides which are 131I, 132Te (132I) and 133I, etc., in addition to longer half-lived nuclides such as 134Cs and 137Cs. The estimated release amount of these nuclides from the reactor 1st to 3rd unit is reported, but it's found to be quite different in the short half-lived nuclides by the reactor units. Because the radioactivity ratio of 134Cs and 137Cs was slight different between the reactor units, it can be considered that the valuable source is obtained by the measurement of 134Cs/137Cs ratio in the environment around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station at the present stage when the nuclides with short half-lives had already decayed. We have measured high-resolution gamma-ray spectrum using an unmanned helicopter equipped with LaBr3(Ce) detector in a 3-km range from the power station which was near to the release source of the radioactive cesium. Because the LaBr3(Ce) detector has high resolution of gamma rays, the discrimination of many nuclides is possible. In addition, there is extremely much number of the data provided by the distribution measurement with the unmanned helicopter. Because a new map was illustrated by the analysis of the 134Cs/137Cs ratio, we report the outline.

  11. REMOVAL OF 137Cs FROM DISSOLVED HANFORD TANK SALTCAKE BY TREATMENT WITH IONSIV IE-911

    SciTech Connect

    Rapko, Brian M.; Sinkov, Serguei I.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes the preparation of a 137Cs-depleted form of dissolved Hanford tank saltcake. A composite feed solution was treated with IONSIV{reg_sign} IE-911, which effectively reduced the concentration of 137Cs. This allowed for subsequent testing of waste immobilization without significant radiological hazard. Limited characterization of the initial feed solution and a more extensive characterization of the 137Cs-depleted material also are provided.

  12. 137Cs uptake with cafeteria food after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G. )

    1992-11-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium were measured in both the meals served at the cafeteria of a research center and in the employees eating there. The time-dependent means of monthly 137Cs activities in meals and people show a similar distribution pattern with highest values between March and July 1987, i.e., only 1 y after the accident. In meals, the highest activities were found when the menu consisted of pork, milk, or milk products. The 50-y cumulative effective dose calculated from the whole-body measurements is 0.21 mSv for male and 0.15 mSv for female employees. Cafeteria food contributed only a small share to this exposure.

  13. Recent 137Cs deposition in sediments of Admiralty Bay, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Christian J; Santos, Isaac R; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R; Schaefer, Carlos; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V

    2010-05-01

    Cesium-137, radium-226 and lead-210 profiles of a 25 cm sediment core give an indication of recent changes in land-ocean interactions at a polar coastal environment (Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica). The linear sedimentation accumulation rate at the study site calculated from the unsupported (210)Pb profile was 6.7 mm/year from 1965 to 2005. A 3.5-fold increase in (137)Cs concentrations was observed in the top layer of this sediment core. This sharp increase seems to indicate a recent redistribution of fallout radionuclides previously deposited on soil, vegetation and snow. These results imply enhanced land-ocean interactions at this site likely as a result of climate change. Because our results are based on a single core, additional investigations are needed to confirm our observations.

  14. Inferring the chemical form of 137Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring (137)Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees.

    PubMed

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato; Sugiura, Yuki

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of (137)Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the (137)Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ((137)Cs pre-accident N), and the amount of (137)Cs in the initial fallout itself ((137)Cs fallout) was determined ((137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout) at 66 sites. In addition, the (137)Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ((137)Cs male cone) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ((137)Cs 2011N) was determined at 82 sites ((137)Cs male cone/(137) Cs 2011N). Most of the sites with lower (137)Cs pre-accident N /(137)Cs fallout ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower (137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout and higher (137)Cs malecone/(137)Cs 2011N were found to be associated with higher proportions of (137)Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The influence of forest shelterbelts on 137Cs fallout in Chernobyl affected areas (Tula region, Russia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Maxim; Shamshurina, Eugeniya; Tatyana, Paramonova; Vladimir, Belyaev; Angelina, Gavruchenkova; Nikolai, Lugovoy; Konstantinov, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    The radioactive fallout after Chernobyl accident caused serious contamination by 137Cs along extensive area of East-European plain.Cs137 fall down on earth surface in two ways: gravitational - "dry" and rainfall - "wet" way. "Dry" fallout is a result of direct deposition of radionuclides from atmosphere with average speed of about 0.1-1 mm/sec. The fate of "dry fall"is far less than rainfall mechanism. Erupted water steam of reactor zone full of radioactive material enriched precipitation with 137Cs. Therefore, the derived spatial structure of contamination was under control of rainfall pattern in May-June 1986. On the areas affected by rainfall fallout was the Southern part of Tula region in Middle Russia. It got name as "Plava hot spot" by the town in the center of this area. Tula is a traditional rural region, the vast areas covered by chernozem soils are cultivated for centuries. During cultivation forest cover was reduced that urged growth of wind erosion and loss of soil fertility. Hence, in the middle of 20 the century large arrangements for creation of forest shelterbelts were conducted. High efficiency of shelterbelts made them a widely provided part of new human-transformed landscape. Usually shelterbelts are set as a regular network across main direction of winds in particular region. Such organization help to reduce speed of air steam in the lowest 20-30 m layer of atmosphere. In addition, shelterbelts are very good collectors of snow in winter time which increase total moisture of soil and its fertility. Represented investigation is conducted to find out any correlation between shelterbelts and fallout of radionuclides. If such correlation is significant, it has to be taken into account for further environmental surveys. Two shelterbelts on the interfluve positions were chosen for detailed examination. Both selected objects emerged before 1986 but have different width, floristic composition, orientation and type of construction. One of shelterbelts is

  16. Plutonium as a chronomarker in Australian and New Zealand sediments: a comparison with (137)Cs.

    PubMed

    Hancock, G J; Leslie, C; Everett, S E; Tims, S G; Brunskill, G J; Haese, R

    2011-10-01

    The construction of high resolution chronologies of sediment profiles corresponding to the last 50-100 years usually entails the measurement of fallout radionuclides (210)Pb and (137)Cs. The anthropogenic radionuclide, (137)Cs, originating from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing can provide an important "first appearance" horizon of known age (1954-1955), providing much-needed validation for the sometimes uncertain interpretations associated with (210)Pb geochronology. However, while (137)Cs usually provides a strong signal in sediment in the northern hemisphere, total fallout of (137)Cs in the southern hemisphere was only 25% that of the north and the low activities of (137)Cs seen in Australian and New Zealand sediments can make its horizon of first appearance somewhat arguable. Low (137)Cs fallout also limited the size of the 1963-1964 fallout peak, a peak that is usually seen in northern hemisphere sediment profiles but is often difficult to discern south of the equator. This paper shows examples of the use of nuclear weapons fallout Pu as a chronomarker in sediment cores from Australia (3 sites) and New Zealand (1 site). The Pu profiles of five cores are examined and compared with the corresponding (137)Cs profiles and (210)Pb geochronologies. We find that Pu has significant advantages over (137)Cs, including greater measurement sensitivity using alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometric techniques compared to (137)Cs measurements by gamma spectrometry. Moreover, Pu provides additional chronomarkers associated with changes in the Pu isotopic composition of fallout during the 1950s and 1960s. In particular, the (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratio shows distinct shifts in the early 1950s and the mid to late 1960s, providing important known-age horizons in southern hemisphere sediments. For estuarine and near-shore sediments Pu sometimes has another significant advantage over (137)Cs due to its enrichment in bottom sediment relative to (137)Cs resulting from the

  17. Trans-oceanic transport of 137Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident and impact of hypothetical Fukushima-like events of future nuclear plants in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wai, Ka-Ming; Yu, Peter K N

    2015-03-01

    A Lagrangian model was adopted to assess the potential impact of (137)Cs released from hypothetical Fukushima-like accidents occurring on three potential nuclear power plant sites in Southern China in the near future (planned within 10 years) in four different seasons. The maximum surface (0-500 m) (137)Cs air concentrations would be reached 10 Bq m(-3) near the source, comparable to the Fukushima case. In January, Southeast Asian countries would be mostly affected by the radioactive plume due to the effects of winter monsoon. In April, the impact would be mainly on Southern and Northern China. Debris of radioactive plume (~1 mBq m(-3)) would carry out long-range transport to North America. The area of influence would be the smallest in July due to the frequent and intense wet removal events by trough of low pressure and tropical cyclone. The maximum worst-case areas of influence were 2382000, 2327000, 517000 and 1395000 km(2) in January, April, July and October, respectively. Prior to the above calculations, the model was employed to simulate the trans-oceanic transport of (137)Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident. Observed and modeled (137)Cs concentrations were comparable. Sensitivity runs were performed to optimize the wet scavenging parameterization. The adoption of higher-resolution (1° × 1°) meteorological fields improved the prediction. The computed large-scale plume transport pattern over the Pacific Ocean was compared with that reported in the literature.

  18. Distribution of 137Cs in surface soil of Fraser's Hill, Pahang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakar, Ahmad Sanadi Abu; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) in an anthropogenic radionuclide originated from the fission of fissile materials. Nuclear weapons testing during the 1960s and the Chernobyl disaster introduced substantial amount of 137Cs into the atmosphere that are then eventually deposited back to earth's surface. Caesium-137 can be used as tracer to study soil movements since it adsorbs to soil particles. This paper aims to describe the distribution of 137Cs in surface soil of Fraser's Hill, Pahang, determine the levels of 137Cs here compared to other areas, and to check correlation of 137Cs levels to physical data. A series of sampling were carried out between February 2014 and August 2015. Soil samples were taken from 31 locations using soil scraper. The samples were then taken to the laboratory to be dried, homogenized, grinded and sieved. The activity concentration of 137Cs in the samples was determined using gamma spectroscopy. The activity concentration was found to be between 0.26 Bq/kg and 5.14 Bq/kg. Although this paper only studies surface soil, 137Cs is expected to be present within the soil body. Further study of 137Cs in the soil body can be used to predictive model for soil erosion.

  19. The extremely high 137Cs inventory in the Sulu Sea: a possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Zheng, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Large-volume seawater samples were collected in the Sulu and South China Seas and their (137)Cs activities were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using a low background type high-purity Ge detector. Vertical distributions of (137)Cs activity showed an exponential decrease in the South China Sea, whereas a subsurface maximum at 200m depth and monotonic decrease below 300m were observed in the Sulu Sea. A significant difference in intermediate water (137)Cs activities in the 500-2000m depth was observed between the Sulu and South China Seas, i.e., the (137)Cs activities in the Sulu Sea were remarkably higher than those in the South China Sea. The difference in the (137)Cs inventory below 500m was approximately 1200Bqm(-2) between the Sulu and South China Seas. The (137)Cs total inventory of 3200Bqm(-2) in the Sulu Sea was 5.7 times higher than that expected from global fallout. A possible mechanism controlling this extremely high (137)Cs total inventory may be inflows of the (137)Cs rich water masses through the Luzon Strait, lateral transport across the Mindoro Strait into the Sulu Sea, and then subduction into the deep layer in the basin.

  20. Concentrations of 137Cs in lynx (Lynx lynx) in relation to prey choice.

    PubMed

    Skuterud, Lavrans; Gaare, Eldar; Kvam, Tor; Hove, Knut; Steinnes, Eiliv

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of (137)Cs were determined in 747 lynxes killed in Norway during the period 1986-2001. Highly variable (137)Cs concentrations and aggregated transfer coefficient values were observed, probably caused by variable (137)Cs concentrations in prey and the lynx's extensive home ranges and roaming distances. Adult lynxes had higher (137)Cs concentrations than sub-adults, and lynxes killed in regions with extensive reindeer grazing areas were more contaminated than others. A model with (137)Cs deposition density, the year lynxes were killed, age, and extent of reindeer grazing area accounted for 50% of the variability in observed (137)Cs concentrations. The analyses were equivocal regarding the influence of stomach content on (137)Cs concentrations in lynx muscle, i.e., on the lynx's specialization in prey species. Gender was not significant. Information on caesium retention in lynx and better estimates of deposition densities in lynxes' home ranges are important for further elucidation of factors influencing (137)Cs contamination in lynxes.

  1. Behaviour of (137)Cs in forest humus detected across the territory of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Škrkal, Jan; Pilátová, Helena; Rulík, Petr; Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie; Holá, Marie

    2017-03-22

    The activity concentration of (137)Cs in samples of coniferous forest humus collected across the territory of the Czech Republic in 1995 and 2005 was analysed, and it was found significantly correlated with the surface deposition caused by the Chernobyl accident. The effective (12.8 y) and environmental (22.3 y) half-lives of radiocaesium in humus were calculated and compared with those in spruce bark. The impact of important forest stand factors, that is, precipitation, content of organic matter, age of trees and pH, on the behaviour of (137)Cs in humus was studied. It was observed that humus samples with a higher proportion of organic matter, higher pH(H2O) and pH(CaCl2) contained higher amounts of (137)Cs. Conversely, with the age of trees, the activity concentration of (137)Cs in humus is decreasing. Higher precipitation and humus acidity decrease the reduction rate of the (137)Cs in humus. These stand factors increase bioavailability of (137)Cs in humus. The transfer and retention of available (137)Cs in biomass of organisms living in humus for a long time can satisfactorily explain the longer residence time of (137)Cs in humus affected by the studied factors.

  2. Chernobyl 137Cs deposition in Austria: analysis of the spatial correlation of the deposition levels.

    PubMed

    Dubois, G; Bossew, P

    2003-01-01

    The semivariogram can provide a description of the spatial correlation of a variable that represents a continuous function of space co-ordinates. Therefore, it is not only useful to improve sampling strategies and validate the collected data, but it can also define the main parameters that are involved in most mapping algorithms. The spatial correlation may, however, change depending on the values of the variable, which is not without consequences on the quality of the maps of radioactive deposition. This work investigates the spatial correlation for different levels of 137Cs deposited in Austria. It is shown that low levels (< 5 kBq/m2) and high levels (> 40 kBq/m2) of radioactivity present less correlation in space than the mid-levels (5-40 kBq/m2). As a result, maps establishing the probabilities to be under or above a specific deposition threshold will have an uncertainty associated to the estimated values that is directly correlated to the different levels of radioactivity.

  3. [sup 137]Cs levels in deer following the Three Mile Island accident

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.W. )

    1993-06-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianus) tongues were assayed to assess whether or not significant widespread [sup 137]Cs contamination occurred in the vicinity of Three Mile Island Nuclear Station as a result of the 1979 accident. White-tailed deer tongues harvested from 10 Pennsylvania counties more than 88 km away from Three Mile Island had significantly higher [sup 137]Cs levels than deer tongues harvested from counties surrounding the nuclear plant. The mean deer tongue [sup 137]Cs levels found in Pennsylvania white-tailed deer were lower than [sup 137]Cs levels found in deer from other parts of the US sampled shortly after culmination of major atmospheric nuclear testing. These findings support the conclusions of previous studies suggesting that only minimal quantities of [sup 137]Cs escaped from the damaged Three Mile Island plant after the accident.

  4. 137Cs in the Ground Level Air and Deposition in the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiulionis, R.; Rozkov, A.

    2007-04-01

    Results of 137Cs activity concentration measurements in the ground level air and deposition at the station of the Institute of Physics situated 3.5 km from the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (Ignalina NPP), Lithuania, in 2002-2006 are analyzed. 137Cs atmospheric depositional fluxes are estimated, and particle deposition rates are calculated. Results on solubility in water of atmospheric aerosols - carriers of 137Cs - are discussed. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model of the global dispersion and deposition is used to explain increases in 137Cs activity concentration in the ground-level air and deposition in the Ignalina NPP region. Modelling results show that the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 Sarcophagus can be a source of 137Cs to the environment of the Ignalina NPP.

  5. 137Cs as a tracer of recent sedimentary processes in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahill, R.A.; Steele, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    To determine recent sediment movement, we measured the levels of 137Cs (an artificial radionuclide produced during nuclear weapons testing) of 118 southern Lake Michigan samples and 27 in Green Bay. These samples, taken from 286 grab samples of the upper 3 cm of sediment, were collected in 1975 as part of a systematic study of Lake Michigan sediment. 137Cs levels correlated well with concentrations of organic carbon, lead, and other anthropogenic trace metals in the sediment. 137Cs had a higher correlation with silt-sized than with clay-sized sediment (0.55 and 0.46, respectively). Atmospherically derived 137Cs and trace metals are being redistributed by sedimentary processes in Lake Michigan after being incorporated in suspended sediment. We determined a distribution pattern of 137Cs that represents areas of southern Lake Michigan where sediment deposition is occurring. ?? 1986 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  6. (137)Cs vertical distribution at the deep basins of the North and Central Aegean Sea, Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsabaris, C; Zervakis, V; Kaberi, H; Delfanti, R; Georgopoulos, D; Lampropoulou, M; Kalfas, C A

    2014-06-01

    Large volume seawater samples were collected for the determination of (137)Cs concentration along with depth in the deep basins of North and Central Aegean Sea. The vertical (137)Cs distribution showed maximum concentration at the bottom of the basins, while the minimum values corresponded to the intermediate layer, where Levantine water exists. The surface (137)Cs activity is found to lie between the two limits and is originated from the Black Sea waters. The typical oceanographic advection-diffusion balance model is modified to a diffusion-settling-decay balance model to better understand the vertical distribution and variation of the (137)Cs concentration in the deep basins. In addition, the diffusivity of each basin, as well as the settling speed of particulate (137)Cs is also estimated. The results are compared with theoretical approach as well as with previous data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Latitudinal variation and residence time of (137)Cs in Indian coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Sartandel, S J; Jha, S K; Tripathi, R M

    2015-11-15

    Anthropogenic (137)Cs activity concentration, in surface sea water along the western and eastern coast of India has been estimated using the in-situ pre-concentration approach. Activity levels of (137)Cs ranges from 0.09-1.30Bqm(-3) with an overall mean of 0.69±0.29Bqm(-3). Latitudinal variation and higher depletion in activity concentration of (137)Cs at few locations were observed. Temporal change of (137)Cs in sea water along Indian coast unveils a lower effective half-life of 13.8±0.7y in comparison to Asia Pacific regional sea water. The results prevailed that the spatial distribution confers no fresh input of (137)Cs in Indian coastal region.

  8. [137Cs vertical migration in boggy soils in the long term after the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Podvorko, G A; Sanzharova, N I; Spiridonov, S I; Konopleva, I V

    2004-01-01

    137Cs vertical migration in boggy soils has been studied 15 years after the Chernobyl accident. The rate of vertical migration of the radionuclide is shown to be dependent on the peculiarities of formation of peatbogs, their moistening regime and soil properties. 137Cs migration in a high-land peatbog is characterized by higher intensity then in lowland or transitional peatbogs. Differences in 137Cs vertical migration are to a large extent caused by the contents in soil of exhangeable and mobile radionuclide forms. The derived experimental data that describe 137Cs distribution over the profiles of peaty soils of different type are used for parameterization of two-component convective-diffusion model. Ecological and effective half-life periods of 137Cs content reduction in the soil root layer have been calculated. A long-term prediction is given of the dynamics of the radionuclide content in the root layer of peaty soils.

  9. Sources and pathways of 90Sr in the North Atlantic-Arctic region: present day and global warming.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yongqi; Drange, Helge; Johannessen, Ola M; Pettersson, Lasse H

    2009-05-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of the anthropogenic radionuclides (137)Cs and (90)Sr, originating from nuclear bomb testing, the Sellafield reprocessing plant in the Irish Sea (UK), and from the Ob and Yenisey river discharges to the Arctic Ocean, have been simulated using the global version of the Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM). The physical model is forced with daily atmospheric re-analysis fields for the period of 1948-1999. Comparison of the temporal evolution of the observed and the simulated concentrations of (90)Sr has been performed in the Kara Sea. The relative contributions of the different sources on the temporal and spatial distributions of the surface (90)Sr are quantified over the simulated period. It follows that the Ob river discharge dominated the surface (90)Sr over most of the Arctic Ocean and along the eastern and western coasts of Greenland before 1960. During the period of 1980-1990, the atmospheric fallout and the Ob river discharge were equally important for the (90)Sr distribution in the Arctic Ocean. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to explore the possible dispersion of accidental released (90)Sr from the Ob and Yenisey rivers under a global warming scenario (2 x CO(2)). The difference between the present-day and the global warming scenario runs indicates that more of the released (90)Sr from the Ob and Yenisey rivers is confined to the Arctic Ocean in the global warming run, particularly in the near coastal, non-European part of the Arctic Ocean.

  10. The Concept of Conversion Factors and Reference Crops for the Prediction of 137Cs Root Uptake: Field Verification in Post-Chernobyl Landscape, 30 Years after Nuclear Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komissarova, Olga; Paramonova, Tatiana

    2017-04-01

    One of the notable lessons obtained from nuclear accidents could be revealing the general features of 137Cs root uptake by agricultural crops for prediction the radionuclide accumulation in plants and its further distribution via food chains. Transfer factors (TFs) (the ratio of 137Cs activities in vegetation and in soil) have become a basis for such assessment when the characteristics of radioactive contamination, soil properties and phylogenetic features of different plant taxons important for root uptake are known. For the sake of simplicity the concept of conversion factor (CF) was accepted by IAEA (2006) to obtain unknown value of TF from the TF value of the reference crop cultivated on the same soil. Cereals were selected like reference group of agricultural crops. Presuming TF for cereals equal 1, CFs for tubers and fodder leguminous are 4, for grasses - 4.5, for leafy vegetables - 9, ets. To verify TFs and corresponding CFs values under environmental conditions of post-Chernobyl agricultural landscape the study in the area of Plavsky radioactive hotspot (Tula region, Russia) was conducted. Nowadays, after 30 years after the Chernobyl accident ( the first half-life period of 137Cs), arable chernozems of the territory are still polluted at the level 126-282 kBq/m2. The main crops of field rotation: wheat and barley (cereals), potatoes (tubers), soybean (leguminous), amaranth (non-leafy vegetables), rape ("other crops"), as well as galega-bromegrass mixture (cultivated species of grasses) and pasture grasses of semi-natural dry and wet meadows have been studied. Accumulation parameters of 137Cs in aboveground biomass, belowground biomass and edible parts of the plants were examined separately. Experimentally obtained 137Cs TFs in cereals are 0.24-0.32 for total biomass, 0.07-0.14 for aerial parts, 0.54-0.64 for roots and 0.01-0.02 for grain. Thus, (i) 137Cs transfer in grain of wheat and barley is insignificant and (ii) corresponding TFs values in both crops

  11. Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

  12. Comparative study of (137)Cs distribution in broilers and pheasants and possibilities for protection.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Branislava M; Vitorović, Gordana; Vićentijević, Mihajlo; Vitorović, Duško; Pantelić, Gordana; Lazarević-Macanović, Mirjana

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate distribution of (137)Cs in leg and breast meat of broilers and pheasants following single alimentary contamination and administration of two protectors (AFCF and clinoptilolite). The birds were administered a single dose of (137)CsCl, with an activity of 750 Bq. Protectors were given via gastric tube or mixed in the forage pellets. AFCF given via gastric tube decreased the (137)Cs concentration by a factor of 7.8 in broilers leg meat and 7.4 in broilers breast meat. When AFCF was mixed in pellets, the (137)Cs concentration was 19.5 times lower in broilers leg meat and 22.1 times lower in broilers breast meat, than in the control group. In pheasants, AFCF administered via gastric tube decreased the (137)Cs concentration by a factor of 12.4 in leg meat and by a factor of 13.7 in breast meat, respectively. In group 4, where pheasants were administered AFCF mixed in pellets, the (137)Cs concentration was 3.7 times lower in leg and breast meat, than in the control group. For comparison, clinoptilolite administered via gastric tube decreased the (137)Cs concentration 1.8 times in broilers leg meat and 2.0 times in breast meat, compared to the control group. In pheasants, (137)Cs concentration was 2.9 times lower in leg meat and 2.6 times lower in breast meat. Clinoptilolite mixed in the feed had relatively low efficiency of protection in broilers ((137)Cs concentration was 1.4 times lower in leg meat and 1.6 lower in breast meat). A similar trend was observed in pheasants ((137)Cs concentration was 1.6 lower in leg and breast meat).

  13. Temporal variation of 137Cs water column inventory in the North Pacific since the 1960s.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, M; Hirose, K

    2003-01-01

    The temporal variation of water column inventories of 137Cs in the North Pacific since the 1960s was examined based on the analysis of the 137Cs profiles in HAM database. 137Cs in seawater in the North Pacific have originated mainly from global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, which occurred in the early 1960s. In the 1960s, both the meridional distribution of 137Cs inventory in the North Pacific and that of fallout on land stations showed mid-latitude maximum. The region with higher deposition at land stations, however, was more northern than the latitudes where the 137Cs inventory in the North Pacific showed a maximum. The difference of the latitude where maximum 137Cs deposition/inventory was observed reflects the difference of the geographical distribution of the precipitation amount in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans followed by the different warm current systems in each ocean. A good positive relation between 137Cs inventory and annual precipitation amount was discovered in the ocean stations at the middle latitude in the North Pacific. The horizontal distribution of 137Cs inventories at the middle latitudes in the North Pacific is characterized as west-high and east-low in the early 1960s, which was basically controlled by the distribution of annual precipitation amount. Eastward advection, then, modified it to be less difference in 1966-1967 after the highest deposition periods in 1963-1965. In the 1970s and 1980s, increases of the 137Cs inventory at the lower latitude of 10-20 deg. N are found. Surface and subsurface southward transports are considered as the source of this increasing 137Cs inventory.

  14. Effects of radiocesium inventory on (137)Cs concentrations in river waters of Fukushima, Japan, under base-flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Shinya; Ueda, Shinji; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the behavior of nuclear accident-derived (137)Cs in river water under base-flow conditions, concentrations of dissolved and particulate (137)Cs were measured at 16 sampling points in seven rivers of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, in 2012 and 2013. The concentration of dissolved (137)Cs was significantly correlated with the mean (137)Cs inventory in the catchment area above each sampling point in both sampling years. These results suggest that the concentration of dissolved (137)Cs under base-flow conditions is primarily determined by the (137)Cs inventory of the catchment area above the sampling point. However, the concentration of particulate (137)Cs did not show a clear relationship with either the mean (137)Cs inventory or the dissolved (137)Cs concentration, thus indicating that particulate and dissolved forms do not effectively interact in rivers. To evaluate the contribution of the (137)Cs inventory within catchment areas, we analyzed relations between the (137)Cs concentration and the mean (137)Cs inventory over the area within certain flow path lengths that were traced along the river and slope above the sampling point. Coefficients of determination for dissolved (137)Cs concentrations were highest for the longest flow path, i.e., the whole catchment area, and lower for shorter flow paths. Coefficients of determination for particulate (137)Cs concentrations were only moderately high for the shortest flow path in 2012, whereas the values were quite low for all flow paths in 2013. These results suggest that dissolved (137)Cs can originate from a larger area of the catchment even under base-flow conditions; however, particulate (137)Cs did not show such behavior. The results also show that under base-flow conditions, dissolved and particulate (137)Cs behave independently during their transport from river catchments to the ocean.

  15. 137Cs vertical migration in a deciduous forest soil following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko

    2014-02-01

    The large amount of (137)Cs deposited on the forest floor because of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident represents a major potential long-term source for mobile (137)Cs. To investigate (137)Cs mobility in forest soils, we investigated the vertical migration of (137)Cs through seepage water, using a lysimetric method. The study was conducted in a deciduous forest soil over a period spanning 2 month to 2 y after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Our observations demonstrated that the major part of (137)Cs in the litter layer moved into the mineral soil within one year after the accident. On the other hand, the topsoil prevented migration of (137)Cs, and only 2% of (137)Cs in the leachate from litter and humus layer penetrated below a 10 cm depth. The annual migration below a 10 cm depth accounted for 0.1% of the total (137)Cs inventory. Therefore, the migration of (137)Cs by seepage water comprised only a very small part of the total (137)Cs inventory in the mineral soil, which was undetectable from the vertical distribution of (137)Cs in the soil profile. In the present and immediate future, most of the (137)Cs deposited on the forest floor will probably remain in the topsoil successively, although a small but certain amount of bioavailable (137)Cs exists in forest surface soil.

  16. Fallout volume and litter type affect (137)Cs concentration difference in litter between forest and stream environments.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masaru; Gomi, Takashi; Negishi, Junjiro N

    2016-11-01

    It is important to understand the changes in the (137)Cs concentration in litter through leaching when considering that (137)Cs is transferred from basal food resources to animals in forested streams. We found that the difference of (137)Cs activity concentration in litter between forest and stream was associated with both litter type and (137)Cs fallout volume around Fukushima, Japan. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in the litter of evergreen conifers tended to be greater than those in the litter of broad-leaved deciduous trees because of the absence of deciduous leaves during the fallout period in March 2011. Moreover, (137)Cs activity concentrations in forest litter were greater with respect to the (137)Cs fallout volume. The (137)Cs activity concentrations in stream litter were much lower than those in forest litter when those in forest litter were higher. The (137)Cs leaching patterns indicated that the differences in (137)Cs activity concentration between forest and stream litter could change with changes in both fallout volume and litter type. Because litter is an important basal food resource in the food webs of both forests and streams, the (137)Cs concentration gradient reflects to possible (137)Cs transfer from lower to higher trophic animals. Our findings will improve our understanding of the spatial heterogeneity and variability of (137)Cs concentrations in animals resident to the contaminated landscape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A simplified 137Cs transport model for estimating erosion rates in undisturbed soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinbao; Long, Yi; He, Xiubin; Fu, Jiexiong; Zhang, Yunqi

    2008-08-01

    (137)Cs is an artificial radionuclide with a half-life of 30.12 years which released into the environment as a result of atmospheric testing of thermo-nuclear weapons primarily during the period of 1950s-1970s with the maximum rate of (137)Cs fallout from atmosphere in 1963. (137)Cs fallout is strongly and rapidly adsorbed by fine particles in the surface horizons of the soil, when it falls down on the ground mostly with precipitation. Its subsequent redistribution is associated with movements of the soil or sediment particles. The (137)Cs nuclide tracing technique has been used for assessment of soil losses for both undisturbed and cultivated soils. For undisturbed soils, a simple profile-shape model was developed in 1990 to describe the (137)Cs depth distribution in profile, where the maximum (137)Cs occurs in the surface horizon and it exponentially decreases with depth. The model implied that the total (137)Cs fallout amount deposited on the earth surface in 1963 and the (137)Cs profile shape has not changed with time. The model has been widely used for assessment of soil losses on undisturbed land. However, temporal variations of (137)Cs depth distribution in undisturbed soils after its deposition on the ground due to downward transport processes are not considered in the previous simple profile-shape model. Thus, the soil losses are overestimated by the model. On the base of the erosion assessment model developed by Walling, D.E., He, Q. [1999. Improved models for estimating soil erosion rates from cesium-137 measurements. Journal of Environmental Quality 28, 611-622], we discuss the (137)Cs transport process in the eroded soil profile and make some simplification to the model, develop a method to estimate the soil erosion rate more expediently. To compare the soil erosion rates calculated by the simple profile-shape model and the simple transport model, the soil losses related to different (137)Cs loss proportions of the reference inventory at the Kaixian

  18. Characterization of the Natural Organic Matter (NOM) in groundwater contaminated with (60)Co and (137)Cs using ultrafiltration, Solid Phase Extraction and fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Caron, François; Siemann, Stefan; Riopel, Rémi

    2014-12-01

    Spot samples of shallow groundwaters have been taken between the years 2004 and 2010 near a site formerly used for the dispersal of radioactive liquid wastes. Three sampling points, one clean (upstream), and two downstream of the contamination source, were processed by ultrafiltration (5000 Da cut-off) and Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) to determine the association of selected artificial radionuclides ((60)Co, (137)Cs) with Natural Organic Matter (NOM). The last two sampling episodes (2008 and 2010) also benefited from fluorescence analysis to determine the major character of the NOM. The fluorescence signals are reported as humic-like, fulvic-like and protein-like, which are used to characterize the different NOM types. The NOM from the clean site comprised mostly fine material, whereas the colloidal content (retained by ultrafiltration) was higher (e.g., 15-40% of the Total Organic Carbon - TOC). Most of the 137Cs was present in the colloidal fraction, whereas (60)Co was found in the filtered fraction. Fluorescence analysis, on the other hand, indicated a contrasting behavior between the clean and contaminated sites, with a dominance of protein-like material, a feature usually associated with human impacts. Finally, SPE removed almost quantitatively the protein-like material (>90%), whereas it removed a much smaller fraction of the (137)Cs (<28%). This finding indicates that the (137)Cs preferential binding occurs with a fraction other than the protein-like NOM, likely the fulvic-like or humic-like portion.

  19. Development of synthetic environmental radioactivity reference materials.

    PubMed

    Harms, Arvic; Gilligan, Chris

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, a novel way of developing synthetic environmental radioactivity reference materials via the sol-gel process is described. Two solid reference materials (both having a SiO(2) matrix) were synthesised by hydrolysing a liquid mixture of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), ethanol and standardised mixed radionuclide solutions. The certified values, which were in the Bqg(-1) range, for the radionuclides in the material were determined by NPL and compared with results from measurements made by 36 organisations from 17 countries using a 'consensus' approach. The measurements were made within two wider test exercises (the NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercises 2009 and 2010). Certified activity concentration values were obtained for (60)Co, (133)Ba, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (152)Eu, (154)Eu and (241)Am and indicative values were obtained for (55)Fe and (90)Sr.

  20. Evaluation of DNA damage induced by Auger electrons from (137)Cs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ritsuko; Hattori, Yuya; Kai, Takeshi

    2016-11-01

    To understand the biological effect of external and internal exposure from (137)Cs, DNA damage spectrum induced by directly emitted electrons (γ-rays, internal conversion electrons, Auger electrons) from (137)Cs was compared with that induced by (137)Cs γ-rays. Monte Carlo track simulation method was used to calculate the microscopic energy deposition pattern in liquid water. Simulation was performed for the two simple target systems in microscale. Radiation sources were placed inside for one system and outside for another system. To simulate the energy deposition by directly emitted electrons from (137)Cs placed inside the system, the multiple ejections of electrons after internal conversion were considered. In the target systems, induction process of DNA damage was modeled and simulated for both direct energy deposition and the water radical reaction on the DNA. The yield and spatial distribution of simple and complex DNA damage including strand breaks and base lesions were calculated for irradiation by electrons and γ-rays from (137)Cs. The simulation showed that the significant difference in DNA damage spectrum was not caused by directly ejected electrons and γ-rays from (137)Cs. The result supports the existing perception that the biological effects by internal and external exposure by (137)Cs are equivalent.

  1. Activities and geochronology of (137)Cs in lake sediments resulting from sediment resuspension.

    PubMed

    Matisoff, Gerald

    2017-02-01

    In lakes with a large surface area to watershed ratio (137)Cs delivery is primarily by direct atmospheric fallout to the lake surface, where its activity in the sediments has been used to estimate the exposure to organisms and sediment mass deposition rates. Comparison of (137)Cs in the historical atmospheric fallout record with (137)Cs activity profiles in sediment cores reveals that although the general features of a maxima in the fallout deposition can be matched to activity peaks in the core, the general shape of the (137)Cs profile is not an exact replica of the fallout history. Instead, the sediment reflects post-depositional processes such as resuspension, bioturbation, partitioning of (137)Cs between the sediment solids and the pore fluids, and molecular diffusion of (137)Cs through the pore fluids. Presented here is a model that couples these processes to a system time averaging (STA) model that accounts for the time history of (137)Cs fallout and the particle residence time in the water column or in the 'active' surface sediment subject to resuspension. Sediment profiles are examined by comparing reasonable ranges of each of the coefficients of each of these major processes and by applying the model to cores collected from two large, shallow lakes, Lake Erie (USA/Canada) and Lake Winnipeg (Canada). The results indicate that the STA model with molecular diffusion and sediment resuspension best describes the data from these large, shallow lakes.

  2. An E5 transition in the 137Cs decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, K.; McCutchan, E. A.; Zhu, S.; Lister, C. J.; Merchan, E.; Shearman, R.

    2013-10-01

    The beta decay of 137Cs is mainly to the Jπ = 11/2- 661.66 keV isomeric excited state in 137Ba and is usually followed by emission of a single gamma ray as the nucleus relaxes to the Jπ = 3/2+ ground state. It is a well-known standard γ-ray calibration reference. There is only one intermediate state, with Jπ = 1/2+ at 283.50 keV. The γ-ray decay branch to this level has never been observed. The transition must be of E5 or M6 multipolarity. The phase space limitation hinders this decay and a ~10-8 branch can be anticipated from the few known E5 decay matrix elements. The use of the Gammasphere detector array at Argonne National Lab allows a search for these rare events by selection of an optimal detector opening angle for coincidences, chosen to minimize the effects of Compton cross-scattering in the array. In this manner the E5 cascade transition was observed and the branching ratio measured. Rigorous E5 transitions are only known in four other cases to date, so this measurement adds significantly to the body of knowledge surrounding E5 matrix elements. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Grant No. DE-FG02-94ER40848 and Contracts No. DE-AC02-98CH10946 and DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  3. Spatial distributions of 137Cs in surface soil in Jing-Jin-Ji Region, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ye; Yan, Dong; Zhang, Qing; Zhan, Jinyan; Hu, Hongxia

    2012-11-01

    Artificial Radiocaesium ((137)Cs) has been widely deposited over global soils. In this study, we measured (137)Cs activity concentrations in the soil samples taken from Jing-Jin-Ji Region, North China, during 2007-2008. The surface soil (0-20 cm) samples were collected from 452 sites in this region. The activity concentration of (137)Cs in the samples was measured using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCOM-100). The main findings are as following. (1) The activity concentration of (137)Cs in surface soils in the region of study fluctuates within 0.3±0.1 to 12.9±0.4 Bq/kg with mean value of 3.7 Bq/kg. Compared to other regions located at roughly the same latitude, the (137)Cs activity is relatively low. The results indicate that there are no new inputs of the radionuclides into the area at that time and the data obtained could serve as baseline levels of (137)Cs in Jing-Jin-Ji Region. (2) Considering land use types, surface soil in woodland mostly shows high (137)Cs activities with rare natural erosion and anthropogenic activities, and the surface soil with relatively low (137)Cs activities appears in the areas of intensive anthropogenic activities, especially in the cities, river banks, reservoirs and the strongly eroded areas. The findings suggest that the varying distribution of (137)Cs activities in surface soil corresponds with land use types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavior of 131I and 137Cs in environments released from the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, T.; Mahara, Y.; Kubota, T.; Igarashi, T.

    2011-12-01

    The devastating tsunami that caused by the great earthquake (M = 9.0) off the coast of northeastern Honshu on 11 March 2011 destroyed large coastal areas of Tohoku and north Kanto, Japan. Radionuclides, including 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs, were released into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Daiichi plants. Concentration of levels of 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, released from the Fukushima Daiichi plant were investigated in the soil and precipitation. The concentrations of 131I and 137Cs in the soil from the surface to 1 cm depth in Ibaraki Prefecture were 9360-13,400 Bq/kg and 720-3250 Bq/kg, respectively. The concentration of 137Cs at this soil observation site originating from the Fukushima plant was 8.4 to 21 times that found locally after the Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion. Most of the 134Cs and 137Cs from rainwater were trapped by the surface soil and sand to a depth of 1 cm, whereas only about 30% of the 131I was collected by the surface soil, suggesting that 131I would move deeper than 137Cs and 134Cs. The 131I in the rainwater was in the anion exchangeable form, and all of it could be collected by anion exchangeable mechanisms, whereas 30% of the 131I that had passed through the soil could not be trapped by the anion exchange resin, suggesting that the chemical form of this 30% was in a changeable, organic-bound form. The 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs that were absorbed on soil were difficult to be dissolved into water. As the half-life of 131I is short and 137Cs is strongly adsorbed on the surface soil and sand, these radionuclides would be unlikely to reach the groundwater before completely decaying; contamination of groundwater with 131I and 137Cs supplied from rainwater to the surface soil is therefore exceedingly unlikely. As the 137Cs is likely to migrate only 0.6 cm in 10 years, people living in the Fukushima and Kanto areas will be exposed to radiation from 137Cs in the surface soil and sand. For protection, surface soils and sands

  5. Birds as objects in bioindication of radioactive pollution.

    PubMed

    Krivolutski, D A; Lebedeva, N V; Shuktomova, I I

    1999-01-01

    This article is a review the recent results of research in the accumulation of natural and artificial radionuclides in birds from Russia (Adigea, Krasnodar, Rostov, Astrahan and Moscow regions, Novaya Zemlya isles), Ukraine, Vietnam, Poland, Ethiophia and Mongolia after global precipitation and local pollution, such as in the East-Urals radioactive region and radioactive zones after the Chernobyl accident. Resident birds reflect local level of radionuclide contamination. The 90Sr concentration in the food of the Pied Flycatcher had a tendency to increase in dependent of age. The Common Jay and the Mallard were the most contaminated with 137Cs in the Bryansk region. The total content of various radio-isotopes of plutonium in bird bones from Southwest Russia were hundred and thousand times more, than in Mongolia. Activity levels in specimens from Ethiopia bear record to Ethiopia can notbe a "pure" control site in radioecological research and radioactive background since it does not significantly differ from Turkmenia and Mongolia.

  6. Suitability of 239+240Pu and 137Cs as tracers for soil erosion assessment in mountain grasslands.

    PubMed

    Alewell, Christine; Meusburger, Katrin; Juretzko, Gregor; Mabit, Lionel; Ketterer, Michael E

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides have been distributed globally due to nuclear weapons testing, nuclear accidents, nuclear weapons fabrication, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. While the negative consequences of this radioactive contamination are self-evident, the ubiquitous fallout radionuclides (FRNs) distribution form the basis for the use as tracers in ecological studies, namely for soil erosion assessment. Soil erosion is a major threat to mountain ecosystems worldwide. We compare the suitability of the anthropogenic FRNs, 137Cs and 239+240Pu as soil erosion tracers in two alpine valleys of Switzerland (Urseren Valley, Canton Uri, Central Swiss Alps and Val Piora, Ticino, Southern Alps). We sampled reference and potentially erosive sites in transects along both valleys. 137Cs measurements of soil samples were performed with a Li-drifted Germanium detector and 239+240Pu with ICP-MS. Our data indicates a heterogeneous deposition of the 137Cs, since most of the fallout origins from the Chernobyl April/May 1986 accident, when large parts of the European Alps were still snow-covered. In contrast, 239+240Pu fallout originated mainly from 1950s to 1960s atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, resulting in a more homogenous distribution and thus seems to be a more suitable tracer in mountainous grasslands. Soil erosion assessment using 239+240Pu as a tracer pointed to a huge dynamic and high heterogeneity of erosive processes (between sedimentation of 1.9 and 7 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.2-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) in the Urseren Valley and sedimentation of 0.4-20.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and erosion of 0.1-16.4 t ha(-1) yr(-1) at Val Piora). Our study represents a novel and successful application of 239+240Pu as a tracer of soil erosion in a mountain environment. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Toxicodynamic modeling of 137Cs to estimate white-tailed deer background levels for the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Karen F; Novak, James M; Bobryk, Christopher W; Blas, Susan A

    2014-04-01

    determine if the herds are following predicted radioactive decay rates like the SRS or if the variability is due to those points described above. Using mean yearly values, the ecological half-life for (137)Cs body burdens for SRS white-tailed deer was determined to be 28.79 years--very close to the 30.2 years physical half-life.

  8. Measurement of 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K activities of Wheat and Corn Products in Ilam Province – Iran and Resultant Annual Ingestion Radiation Dose

    PubMed Central

    CHANGIZI, Vahid; SHAFIEI, Elham; ZAREH, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Background: Natural background radiation is the main source of human exposure to radioactive material. Soils naturally have radioactive mineral contents. The aim of this study is to determine natural (238 U, 232 Th, 40 K) and artificial (137 Cs) radioactivity levels in wheat and corn fields of Eilam province. Methods: HPGe detector was used to measure the concentration activity of 238 U and 232 Th series, 40 K and 137 Cs in wheat and corn samples taken from different regions of Eilam province, in Iran. Results: In wheat and corn samples, the average activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs were found to be 1, 67, 0.5, 91.73, 0.01 and 0.81, 0.85, 101.52, 0.07 Bq/kg (dry weight), respectively. H ex and H in in the present work are lower than 1. The average value of H ex was found to be 0.02 and 0.025 and average value of H in to be found 0.025 and 0.027 in wheat fields samples and corn samples in Eilam provinces, respectively. The obtained values of AGDE are 30.49 mSv/yr for wheat filed samples and 37.89 mSv/yr for corn samples; the AEDE rate values are 5.28 mSv/yr in wheat filed samples and this average value was found to be 6.13 mSv/yr in corn samples in Eilam. Transfer factors (TFs) of long lived radionuclide such as 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K from soils to corn and wheat plants have been studied by radiotracer experiments. Conclusion: The natural radioactivity levels in Eilam province are not at the range of high risk of morbidity and are under international standards. PMID:26056646

  9. (90)Sr in King Bolete Boletus edulis and certain other mushrooms consumed in Europe and China.

    PubMed

    Saniewski, Michał; Zalewska, Tamara; Krasińska, Grażyna; Szylke, Natalia; Wang, Yuanzhong; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    The (90)Sr activity concentrations released from a radioactive fallout have been determined in a range of samples of mushrooms collected in Poland, Belarus, China, and Sweden in 1996-2013. Measurement of (90)Sr in pooled samples of mushrooms was carried out with radiochemical procedure aimed to pre-isolate the analyte from the fungal materials before it was determined using the Low-Level Beta Counter. Interestingly, the Purple Bolete Imperator rhodopurpureus collected from Yunnan in south-western China in 2012 showed (90)Sr activity concentration at around 10 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass, which was greater when compared to other mushrooms in this study. The King Bolete Boletus edulis from China showed the (90)Sr activity in caps at around 1.5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass (whole fruiting bodies) in 2012 and for specimens from Poland activity was well lower than 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass in 1998-2010. A sample of Sarcodonimbricatus collected in 1998 from the north-eastern region of Poland impacted by Chernobyl fallout showed (90)Sr in caps at around 5 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Concentration of (90)Sr in Bay Bolete Royoporus (Xerocomus or Boletus) badius from affected region of Gomel in Belarus was in 2010 at 2.1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. In several other species from Poland (90)Sr was at <0.5 to around 1.0 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. Activity concentrations of (90)Sr in popular B. edulis and some other mushrooms collected from wild in Poland were very low (<1 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass), and values noted showed on persistence of this type of radioactivity in mushrooms over time passing from nuclear weapons tests and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant catastrophe.

  10. Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    1995-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of eastern Tennessee (USA). Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL. Contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory's boundaries have been found to contain {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs on the order of 10{sup -2}-10{sup 4} Bqg{sup -1} and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Animals that are capable of flight and animals with behavior patterns or developmental life stages involving contact with sediments in radioactive ponds, like benthic invertebrates, present the greatest potential for dispersal of radioactivity. The emigration of frogs and turtles from waste ponds also presents a potential for dispersal of radioactivity but over distances < 5 km. Mud-dauber wasps (Hymenoptera) and swallows (Hirundinidae) may transport radioactive mud for nest building, but also over relatively short distances (0.2-1 km). Movement by small mammals is limited by several factors, including physical barriers and smaller home ranges. Larger animals, like white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), are potential vectors of radioactivity due to their greater body size, longer life expectancy, and larger home range. Larger animals contain greater amounts of total radioactivity than smaller animals, but tissue concentrations of {sup 137}Cs generally decline with body size.

  11. Late biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Boecker, B.B.

    1994-11-01

    The toxicity of intravenously administered {sup 137}CsCl in the Beagle dog was investigated as part of the ITRI program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited fission product radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Also, large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and additonal cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. The intravenous route of exposure was chosen because it was known that after intravenous injection, inhalation, or ingestion, internally deposited {sup 137}CsCl is rapidly adsorbed and distributed throughout the body, exposing the whole body to beta and gamma radiation, and because of the reduced radiation protection problems associated with high-level exposure via injection compared to these other routes.

  12. High spatial resolution observations of 137Cs in northern Britain and Ireland from airborne geophysical survey.

    PubMed

    Scheib, Cathy; Beamish, David

    2010-09-01

    This study reports the (137)Cs data derived from three regional and national scale High Resolution Airborne Resource and Environmental Surveys (HiRES) in northern Britain and Ireland. The detailed spatial resolution, combined with the large areas these surveys collectively cover, gives insight into large-scale deposition patterns and possible subsequent re-distribution of (137)Cs on a level that was previously not possible. The largest survey area considered covers the whole of Northern Ireland. All three data sets display some clustering of higher (137)Cs activities on high ground together with regional scale NNW-SSE and NW-SE banding features. We interpret these as representing a series of rainfall interceptions of the repeated passage of the Chernobyl plume. Our observations, obtained at 200 m flight line intervals, appear to provide significant detail in relation to existing knowledge of large scale along-wind deposition of (137)Cs.

  13. Relations of fine-root morphology on (137)Cs uptake by fourteen Brassica species.

    PubMed

    Aung, Han Phyo; Aye, Yi Swe; Mensah, Akwasi Dwira; Omari, Richard Ansong; Djedidi, Salem; Oikawa, Yosei; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2015-12-01

    Fourteen Brassica species consisting of seven leafy vegetables and seven root vegetables were examined for (137)Cs uptake differences in relation to their fine-root morphological characters. A pot experiment was conducted from November 2014 to February 2015 in a Phytroton using a contaminated soil of Fukushima prefecture. Leafy vegetables showed bigger root diameters, larger root surface area and larger root volume. Consequently, leafy vegetables had higher (137)Cs uptake compared to root vegetables. Among the three fine-root parameters, only root surface area was observed as a significant contributing factor to higher (137)Cs uptake in terms of transfer factor (TF, dry weight basis). Kakina exhibited higher (137)Cs TF value (0.20) followed by Chinese cabbage (0.18) and mizuna (0.17). Lower TF values were observed in turnip (0.059), rutabaga (Kitanoshou) (0.062) and radish (Ha daikon) (0.064). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Age-dependent accumulation of (137)Cs by pike Esox lucius in the Yenisei River.

    PubMed

    Zotina, T A; Trofimova, E A; Dementyev, D V; Bolsunovsky, A Ya

    2016-05-01

    Age-dependent accumulation of (137)Cs in the muscles and bodies of the pike Esox lucius (aged two to seven years) inhabiting a section of the Yenisei River polluted with artificial radionuclides has been studied. The content of (137)Cs in muscles varied from 0.5 to 7.0 Bq/kg of fresh weight. The maximum content of the radionuclide has been found in juveniles. The content of (137)Cs in pike muscles and body decreased considerably with age. The high content of (137)Cs in the muscles of juveniles is probably a consequence of their higher intensity of feeding as compared to older individuals, which is due to the intense growth of juveniles.

  15. The limitations of using 137Cs for estimating soil redistribution in semi-arid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Adrian

    1999-08-01

    The 137Cs technique for estimating net (ca. 30 years) soil flux has been used successfully in many environments. Its widespread use is probably because the 137Cs technique overcomes many of the problems of monitoring soil erosion and deposition (flux) over the medium-term (5 to 50 years) and at the hillslope scale. In this respect, the technique probably offers the greatest potential for measuring net soil flux in semi-arid environments where soil flux monitoring difficulties are compounded by considerable spatial and temporal variability of the controlling factors. However, there remain uncertainties in the underlying assumptions of the technique and difficulties in satisfying these assumptions, especially in semi-arid areas. Several key assumptions of the 137Cs technique for measuring net soil flux in semi-arid areas were investigated using data from southwest Niger. Samples were obtained along a toposequence typical of the region and at nested grid nodes stratified using geomorphological information for geostatistical estimation at unsampled locations providing complete coverage of the study area. The pervasive occurrence of dust made it difficult to identify an undisturbed site. A first approximation of the reference 137Cs inventory (2066±125 Bq m -2) was provided by modelling the 137Cs profile at an unvegetated site. Despite little evidence in the literature on problems of identifying a reference inventory, especially those suffering from wind erosion, it is likely that similar problems occur in other semi-arid areas. Problems with the preferential transport of 137Cs were identified by expressing the 137Cs concentration as a proportion of the weight in each grain-size fraction. However, it was partially accounted for in the calibration relationship by reducing (by a factor of 10) the 137Cs concentration of soil samples from the plateau. It is likely that workers in other semi-arid regions have similar problems of preferential transport of 137Cs and the method

  16. Levels and trends of radioactive contaminants in the Greenland environment.

    PubMed

    Dahlgaard, Henning; Eriksson, Mats; Nielsen, Sven P; Joensen, Hans Pauli

    2004-09-20

    Levels of radioactive contaminants in various Greenland environments have been assessed during 1999-2001. The source of 137Cs, 90Sr and (239,240)Pu in terrestrial and fresh water environments is mainly global fallout. In addition, the Chernobyl accident gave a small contribution of 137Cs. Reindeer and lamb contain the largest observed 137Cs concentrations in the terrestrial environment--up to 80 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight have been observed in reindeer. Due to special environmental conditions, 137Cs is transferred to landlocked Arctic char with extremely high efficiency in South Greenland leading to concentrations up to 100 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight. In these cases very long ecological half-lives are seen. Concentrations of 99Tc, 137Cs and 90Sr in seawater and in marine biota decrease in the order North-East Greenland and the coastal East Greenland current > South-West Greenland > Central West Greenland and North-West Greenland > Irmiger Sea-Faroe Islands. The general large-scale oceanic circulation combined with European coastal discharges and previous contamination of the Arctic Ocean causes this. As the same tendency is seen for the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) DDT and PCB in marine biota, it is suggested that long-distance oceanic transport by coastal currents is a significant pathway also for POPs in the Greenland marine environment. The peak 99Tc discharge from Sellafield 1994-1995 has only been slightly visible in the present survey year 2000. The concentrations are expected to increase in the future, especially in East Greenland. The Bylot Sound at the Thule Airbase (Pituffik) in North-West Greenland was contaminated with plutonium and enriched uranium in a weapons accident in 1968. Biological activity has mixed accident plutonium efficiently into the new sediments resulting in continued high surface sediment concentrations three decades after the accident. Transfer of plutonium to benthic biota is low--and lower than observed in the Irish Sea. This is

  17. Long-term retention of (137)Cs in three forest soil types with different soil properties.

    PubMed

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharová, Julie; Holá, Marie; Pilátová, Helena; Rulík, Petr

    2016-07-01

    Current (137)Cs activity concentrations were studied at three localities in individual soil horizons of Stagnosol, Arenic Podzol and Haplic Cambisol soil units in soil blocks with dimensions of 20 × 20 × 40 cm situated below pine canopies (n = 3) and spruce canopies (n = 3), and below small canopy gaps, at least 15 × 15 m in area (n = 3 + 3), which have probably endured since 1986. The main zone of (137)Cs accumulation in all the localities was found to be in the organic horizons (H and F). No significant transport and accumulation of (137)Cs into illuvial soil horizons (Bm, Bs or Bhs, Bv and Bv/IIC) was found. The estimated current total (137)Cs activity concentrations in the soil blocks 40 cm in depth were only slightly higher below the coniferous canopy than they were below nearby canopy gaps. The inventory of (137)Cs in the soils was found to be in accordance with the estimated (137)Cs inputs from the Chernobyl fallout and from global fallout. The low amounts of (137)Cs found accumulated in the aboveground biomass (mosses, grasses, needles) did not substantially bias the studied radiocaesium balance in the soils. The vertical migration rate of (137)Cs in soils (cm/year) had a tendency to be higher below canopies than below canopy gaps and below pine canopies than below spruce canopies. We expected the current (137)Cs activity concentrations in the individual soil horizons to be related to the studied soil parameters: pH (H2O), pH (CaCl2), content of organic matter and mineral portion and portion of humic and fulvic acid contents (Q4/6). However, this was not confirmed. Similarly, we observed a weak tendency toward higher (137)Cs activity in soils below the canopy than in soils below canopy gaps. The available gaps used in our study may have been too small, and they may have been affected by an accumulation of litter and humus containing (137)Cs from the surrounding plots situated below neighbouring canopies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  18. Detection of 137Cs in the Andes Mountains near Santiago, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, R.; Morales, J. R.; Silva, L. Da; Donoso, S.; Godoy, S.; Mera, E.

    2012-02-01

    The presence of 137Cs was detected in soil samples from thi rteen sites along parallel 33°,3S at altitudes in the range from 900 to 1800 masl along the Maipo River canyon, near Santiago, the Chilean capital city. Gamma spectros copic analyses performed to the samples allowed identification of radionuclides emitted in the decay processes of the natural precursors 238U, 239Th together with primordial 40K. Concentrations of 137Cs relative to 40K showed significant variations.

  19. Plutonium and 137Cs in surface water of the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Aoyama, M; Fukasawa, M; Kim, C S; Komura, K; Povinec, P P; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2007-08-01

    The present plutonium and 137Cs concentrations in South Pacific Ocean surface waters were determined. The water samples were collected in the South Pacific mid-latitude region (32.5 degrees S) during the BEAGLE expedition conducted in 2003-04 by JAMSTEC. 239,240Pu concentrations in surface seawater of the South Pacific were in the range of 0.5 to 4.1 mBq m(-3), whereas 137Cs concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 1.7 Bq m(-3). The observed 239,240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in the South Pacific were almost of the same level as those in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. The surface 239,240Pu in the South Pacific subtropical gyre showed larger spatial variations than 137Cs, as it may be affected by physical and biogeochemical processes. The 239,240Pu/137Cs activity ratios, which reflect biogeochemical processes in seawater, were generally smaller than that observed in global fallout, except for the most eastern station. The 239,240Pu/137Cs ratios in the South Pacific tend to be higher than that in the North Pacific. The relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters such as salinity and nutrients were examined. The 137Cs concentrations in the western South Pacific (the Tasman Sea) and the eastern South Pacific were negatively correlated with the phosphate concentration, whereas there is no correlation between the 137Cs and nutrients concentrations in the South Pacific subtropical gyre. The mutual relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters are important for better understanding of transport processes of anthropogenic radionuclides and their fate in the South Pacific.

  20. Accumulation and translocation peculiarities of (137)Cs and (40)K in the soil--plant system.

    PubMed

    Marčiulionienė, Danutė; Lukšienė, Benedikta; Jefanova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Long-term investigations (1996-2008) were conducted into the (137)Cs and (40)K in the soil of forests, swamps and meadows in different regions of Lithuania, as well as in the plants growing in these media. The (137)Cs and (40)K activity concentrations, the (137)Cs/(40)K activity concentration ratio and accumulation, and translocation in the system, i.e. from the soil to plant roots to above-ground plant part of these radionuclides, were evaluated after gamma-spectrometric measurements using a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Based on the obtained data, it can be asserted that in the tested plant species, the (137)Cs and (40)K accumulation, the transfer from soil to roots and translocation within the plants depend on the plant species and environmental ecological conditions. The (137)Cs/(40)K activity concentration ratios in the same plant species in different regions of Lithuania are different and this ratio depends on the biotope (forest, swamp or meadow) in which the plant grows and on the location of the growing region. Based on the determined trends of statistically reliable inverse dependence between the activity concentrations in both soil and plants, it can be stated that the exchange of (137)Cs and (40)K in plants and soil is different. Different accumulations and translocations of investigated radionuclides in the same plant species indicate diverse biological metabolism of (137)Cs and its chemical analogue (40)K in plants. A competitive relationship exists between (137)Cs and (40)K in plants as well as in the soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling of 137Cs generated from Nuclear Spent Fuel under Hypothetic Accidental Condition in the BNPP Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongkuk; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Yook, Daesik; Kim, Sung Il; Lee, Byung Soo

    2016-04-01

    of surface conditions were selected, including city area, hedge area, cut grass, and desert area. Four cases of simulations were performed under the same conditions except for surface the roughness factor. The results indicated that relatively high concentrations were found at the high surface roughness near the origin of the source point. The city area contained approximately four times 137Cs concentration than that of desert area. The atmospheric dispersion of 137Cs was affected by the surface condition in the proximal area. Moreover, movement of the radioactive material had a tendency to be dispersed in a relatively wide range in the desert areas compared to in the higher surface roughness areas. The results of these study offer useful information for developing environmental radiation monitoring systems (ERMSs) and evacuation plan under unexpected emergency condition for the BNPP and can be used to assess the environmental effects of new nuclear power plant. This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Nuclear Safety Foundation(KORSAFe), granted financial resource from the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission(NSSC), Republic of Korea (No. 1503003).

  2. Pu and 137Cs in the Yangtze River estuary sediments: distribution and source identification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyong; Zheng, Jian; Pan, Shaoming; Dong, Wei; Yamada, Masatoshi; Aono, Tatsuo; Guo, Qiuju

    2011-03-01

    Pu isotopes and (137)Cs were analyzed using sector field ICP-MS and γ spectrometry, respectively, in surface sediment and core sediment samples from the Yangtze River estuary. (239+240)Pu activity and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios (>0.18) shows a generally increasing trend from land to sea and from north to south in the estuary. This spatial distribution pattern indicates that the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) source Pu transported by ocean currents was intensively scavenged into the suspended sediment under favorable conditions, and mixed with riverine sediment as the water circulated in the estuary. This process is the main control for the distribution of Pu in the estuary. Moreover, Pu is also an important indicator for monitoring the changes of environmental radioactivity in the estuary as the river basin is currently the site of extensive human activities and the sea level is rising because of global climate changes. For core sediment samples the maximum peak of (239+240)Pu activity was observed at a depth of 172 cm. The sedimentation rate was estimated on the basis of the Pu maximum deposition peak in 1963-1964 to be 4.1 cm/a. The contributions of the PPG close-in fallout Pu (44%) and the riverine Pu (45%) in Yangtze River estuary sediments are equally important for the total Pu deposition in the estuary, which challenges the current hypothesis that the riverine Pu input was the major source of Pu budget in this area.

  3. Mortality of the harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex owyheei) after exposure to /sup 137/Cs gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gano, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    Harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex owyheei Cole, irradiated with 3.5 kR to 268 kR of /sup 137/Cs gamma radiation, were maintained at simulated summer (27/sup 0/C) and winter (7/sup 0/C) temperature regimes. After thirty days, the cool series was warmed to 27/sup 0/C and observed for mortality along with the warm series.Though mortality was delayed in the cool series, each series reached 50% mortality at similar rates. Because the harvester ant is extremely tolerant to radiation and experimental rates used far exceed possible environmental exposure, it is unlikely that ant colonies dwelling among low-level nuclear waste storage sites will be deleteriously affected by radiation. This species has the capability of tunneling to a depth well within the range of some buried waste. Since these harvester ants are potential transporters of buried waste, they should be considered as a biotic factor in radioactive waste management operations in semi-arid regions.

  4. Mortality of the harvester ant (Pogonomyrmex owyheei) after exposure to /sup 137/Cs gamma radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gano, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    Harvester ants, Pogonomyrmex owyheei Cole, irradiated with 3.5 kR to 268 kR of /sup 137/Cs gamma radiation, were maintained at simulated summer (27/sup 0/C) and winter (7/sup 0/C) temperature regimes. After thirty days, the cool series was warmed to 27/sup 0/C and observed for mortality along with the warm series. Though mortality was delayed in the cool series, each series reached 50% mortality at similar rates. Because the harvester ant is extremely tolerant to radiation and experimental rates used far exceed possible environmental exposure, it is unlikely that ant colonies dwelling among low-level nuclear waste storage sites will be deleteriously affected by radiation. This species has the capability of tunneling to a depth well within the range of some buried waste. Since these harvester ants are potential transporters of buried waste, they should be considered as a biotic factor in radioactive waste management operations in semi-arid regions.

  5. Level and origin of 129I and 137Cs in lichen samples (Cladonia alpestris) in central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Guzmán, J M; López-Gutiérrez, J M; Holm, E; Pinto-Gómez, A R

    2011-02-01

    Lichen is a symbiosis between algae and fungi. They have for decades been used as bioindicators for atmospheric deposition of heavy metals, organic compounds and radioactive elements. Especially the species Cladonia alpestris and Cladonia rangiferina are important for the food chain lichen-reindeer-man. The concentration of (129)I was determined in lichen samples (Cladonia alpestris) contaminated by fallout from atmospheric nuclear tests explosions and the Chernobyl accident. The samples were collected at Lake Rogen District (62.3°N, 12.4°E) in central Sweden in the periods 1961-1975 and 1987-1998, and analysed with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at CNA (Seville) to study its distribution in different layers. Data on the (137)Cs activity measured previously were also included in this study. The (129)I concentration ranged from (0.95 ± 0.13) × 10(8) at g(-1) in 1961 in the uppermost layer to (14.2 ± 0.5) × 10(8) at g(-1) in 1987 in deepest layer. The (129)I/(137)Cs atom ratio ranged between 0.12 and 0.27 for lichen samples collected in the period 1961-1975, indicating weapons tests fallout. For lichen samples collected between 1987 and 1998 the behaviour of (137)Cs concentrations reflected Chernobyl fallout. The concentrations of the two radionuclides followed each other quite well in the profile, reflecting the same origin for both. From the point of view of the spatial distribution in the lichen, it appears that (129)I was predominantly accumulated in the lowest layer, the opposite to (137)Cs for which the highest amounts were detected systematically in the topmost layer of lichen. This vertical distribution is important for radioecology because lichen is the initial link in the food chain lichen-reindeer-man, and reindeer only graze the upper parts of lichen carpets. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radioactive status of seawater in the northwest Pacific more than one year after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Wu; He, Jianhua; Wang, Fenfen; Wen, Yu; Li, Yiliang; Huang, Jiang; Yu, Xingguang

    2015-01-01

    To understand the impact of Fukushima Nuclear Accident(FNA), eight cruises were performed from 2011-2014. This paper reports the seawater monitoring results of the third cruise, which was conducted in May-June 2012.The northwest Pacific was clearly influenced even more than one year after FNA. However, compared to the monitoring results of the first and second cruises, which were performed in 2011, the seawater radioactivity of the third cruise decreased greatly. The highest value and the highest average of 137Cs and 134Cs were found in the 200 m layer, which suggested that 137Cs and 134Cs were most likely transported to a depth of 200 m or deeper. At 21.50°N, 125.00°E, 134Cs was found at a depth of 200 m, which is 430 km away from the southernmost point of Taiwan Island. The formation and subduction of Subtropical Mode Water is the most reasonable explanation for this process. The coastal water of China was not impacted by the radioactive pollutants released from the FNA. The radiation increments from 137Cs, 134Cs and 90Sr are only one-thousandth to one-millionth of the screening rate (10 μGy/h) according to the estimation using ERICA tools.

  7. Radioactive status of seawater in the northwest Pacific more than one year after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Men, Wu; He, Jianhua; Wang, Fenfen; Wen, Yu; Li, Yiliang; Huang, Jiang; Yu, Xingguang

    2015-01-01

    To understand the impact of Fukushima Nuclear Accident(FNA), eight cruises were performed from 2011-2014. This paper reports the seawater monitoring results of the third cruise, which was conducted in May-June 2012.The northwest Pacific was clearly influenced even more than one year after FNA. However, compared to the monitoring results of the first and second cruises, which were performed in 2011, the seawater radioactivity of the third cruise decreased greatly. The highest value and the highest average of 137Cs and 134Cs were found in the 200 m layer, which suggested that 137Cs and 134Cs were most likely transported to a depth of 200 m or deeper. At 21.50°N, 125.00°E, 134Cs was found at a depth of 200 m, which is 430 km away from the southernmost point of Taiwan Island. The formation and subduction of Subtropical Mode Water is the most reasonable explanation for this process. The coastal water of China was not impacted by the radioactive pollutants released from the FNA. The radiation increments from 137Cs, 134Cs and 90Sr are only one-thousandth to one-millionth of the screening rate (10 μGy/h) according to the estimation using ERICA tools. PMID:25582087

  8. 137Cs distribution among annual rings of different tree species contaminated after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Soukhova, N V; Fesenko, S V; Klein, D; Spiridonov, S I; Sanzharova, N I; Badot, P M

    2003-01-01

    The distributions of 137Cs among annual rings of Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula at four experimental sites located in the most contaminated areas in the Russian territory after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 were studied. Trees of different ages were sampled from four forest sites with different tree compositions and soil properties. The data analysis shows that 137Cs is very mobile in wood and the 1986 rings do not show the highest contamination. The difference between pine and birch in the pattern of radial 137Cs distribution can be satisfactorily explained by the difference in radial ray composition. 137Cs radial distribution in the wood can be described as the sum of two exponential functions for both species. The function parameters are height, age and species dependent. The distribution of 137Cs in birch wood reveals much more pronounced dependence on site characteristics and/or the age of trees than pines. The data obtained can be used to assess 137Cs content in wood.

  9. (137)Cs trapped by biomass within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Akio; Niisoe, Tamon; Harada, Kouji H; Fujii, Yukiko; Adachi, Ayumu; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Hirohiko

    2013-09-03

    Analysis of (137)Cs trapped in biomass in highly contaminated zones is crucial in predicting the long-term fate of (137)Cs following the explosion at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. We surveyed forest 20-50 km from the plant in July and September 2011 to evaluate (137)Cs trapped in biomass within 20 km of the plant. We determined the ambient dose rate and collected forest soils and twigs at 150 sampling points. Removability from the canopy was evaluated by washing leaves and branches with water and organic solvents. The biomass of the forest canopy was then calculated. (137)Cs fallout was simulated with an atmospheric transport model. The modeled dose rate agreed with observations (n = 24) (r = 0.62; p < 0.01). Washing experiments demonstrated that unremovable portions accounted for 53.9 ± 6.4% of (137)Cs trapped by deciduous canopy (n = 4) and 59.3 ± 13.8% of (137)Cs trapped by evergreen canopy (n = 10). In total, it was estimated that 74.5 × 10(12) Bq was trapped by canopy in the forest within the no-go zone, with 44.2 × 10(12) Bq allocated to unremovable portions, and that 0.86% of the total release was trapped in biomass as of September 2011.

  10. The use of tree bark as long term biomonitor of (137)Cs deposition.

    PubMed

    Cosma, Constantin; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Incze, Reka; Kovacs, Tibor; Žunić, Zora S

    2016-03-01

    Airborne (137)Cs originated from the nuclear tests in the atmosphere and from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster was retained by the trees biomass and nowadays it can still be found in various concentrations in tree barks from Romania and other European countries. This study brings the first results of (137)Cs presence in tree bark from Romania on different considerations: (i) data dispersion in spruce and oak bark from NW, SW and central Romania, and the spatial variability of (137)Cs within oak and spruce bark from a natural protected forest area from Balvanyos area (Covasna County), known to be highly affected by the Chernobyl nuclear release; (ii) comparison of (137)Cs content in different tree bark species (oak, spruce, poplar and cherry); (iii) differences in (137)Cs concentrations with the bark depth layers and around the tree trunk; and (iv) comparison of mean (137)Cs values in spruce/oak bark from Romania with data from other European countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radioactivity in food crops

    SciTech Connect

    Drury, J.S.; Baldauf, M.F.; Daniel, E.W.; Fore, C.S.; Uziel, M.S.

    1983-05-01

    Published levels of radioactivity in food crops from 21 countries and 4 island chains of Oceania are listed. The tabulation includes more than 3000 examples of 100 different crops. Data are arranged alphabetically by food crop and geographical origin. The sampling date, nuclide measured, mean radioactivity, range of radioactivities, sample basis, number of samples analyzed, and bibliographic citation are given for each entry, when available. Analyses were reported most frequently for /sup 137/Cs, /sup 40/K, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra, plutonium, uranium, total alpha, and total beta, but a few authors also reported data for /sup 241/Am, /sup 7/Be, /sup 60/Co, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 3/H, /sup 131/I, /sup 54/Mn, /sup 95/Nb, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 210/Po, /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 228/Th, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 95/Zr. Based on the reported data it appears that radioactivity from alpha emitters in food crops is usually low, on the order of 0.1 Bq.g/sup -1/ (wet weight) or less. Reported values of beta radiation in a given crop generally appear to be several orders of magnitude greater than those of alpha emitters. The most striking aspect of the data is the great range of radioactivity reported for a given nuclide in similar food crops with different geographical origins.

  12. The transfer of (137)Cs, Pu isotopes and (90)Sr to bird, bat and ground-dwelling small mammal species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Beresford, N A; Gaschak, S; Maksimenko, Andrey; Wood, M D

    2016-03-01

    Protected species are the focus of many radiological environmental assessments. However, the lack of radioecological data for many protected species presents a significant international challenge. Furthermore, there are legislative restrictions on destructive sampling of protected species to obtain such data. Where data are not available, extrapolations are often made from 'similar' species but there has been little attempt to validate this approach. In this paper we present what, to our knowledge, is the first study purposefully designed to test the hypothesis that radioecological data for unprotected species can be used to estimate conservative radioecolgical parameters for protected species; conservatism being necessary to ensure that there is no significant impact. The study was conducted in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Consequently, we are able to present data for Pu isotopes in terrestrial wildlife. There has been limited research on Pu transfer to terrestrial wildlife which contrasts with the need to assess radiation exposure of wildlife to Pu isotopes around many nuclear facilities internationally. Our results provide overall support for the hypothesis that data for unprotected species can be used to adequately assess the impacts for ionising radiation on protected species. This is demonstrated for a range of mammalian and avian species. However, we identify one case, the shrew, for which data from other ground-dwelling small mammals would not lead to an appropriately conservative assessment of radiation impact. This indicates the need to further test our hypothesis across a range of species and ecosystems, and/or ensure adequate conservatism within assessments. The data presented are of value to those trying to more accurately estimate the radiation dose to wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, helping to reduce the considerable uncertainty in studies reporting dose-effect relationships for wildlife. A video abstract for this paper is available from: http://bit.ly/1JesKPc.

  13. Distribution of sup 137 Cs, sup 90 Sr, sup 238 Pu, sup 239 Pu, sup 241 Am and sup 244 Cm in Pond B, Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Whicker, F.W. ); Pinder, J.E. III; Bowling, J.W. ); Alberts, J.J. . Marine Inst.); Brisbin, I.L. Jr. )

    1989-05-01

    The gradual senescence of present-day operating nuclear facilities, and resultant contamination of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, emphasize the importance of understanding the behavior of radionuclides in the environment. Observations and deductions concerning mechanisms of radionuclide transport can contribute significantly to knowledge of fundamental ecological processes. This study emphasized the ecosystem-level distribution of several long-lived radionuclides in an abandoned reactor cooling impoundment after a twenty year period of chemical and biological equilibration. 90 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Interception of the Fukushima reactor accident-derived 137Cs, 134Cs and 131I by coniferous forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Gomi, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of the surrounding forests. In this study, we analyzed fallout 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I in rainwater, throughfall, and stemflow in coniferous forest plantations immediately after the accident. We show selective fractionation of the deposited radionuclides by the forest canopy and contrasting transfer of radiocesium and 131I from the canopy to the forest floor in association with precipitation. More than 60% of the total deposited radiocesium remained in the canopy after 5 month of the initial fallout, while marked penetration of the initially deposited 131I through the canopy was observed. The half-lives of 137Cs absorbed in the cypress and cedar canopies were calculated as 620 days and 890 days, respectively for the period of 0-160 days. The transfer of the deposited radiocesium from the canopy to the forest floor was slow compared with that of the spruce forest affected by fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident.

  15. MUD: a Model to investigate the migration of 137Cs in the Urban environment and Drainage and sewage treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    A model is presented for the migration of 137Cs in the urban environment, including the drainage systems and the sewage treatment plants, with flexibility to be adapted to different configurations common in urban areas. The dynamics of 137Cs is simulated both under natural evolution and in case of forced decontamination, which can have a direct impact on the radioactivity going to sewers. The model assesses the activity concentrated in sewage sludge and that discharged with the treated or untreated effluent to the receiving watercourse. Tests made for two post-Chernobyl contamination scenarios in Sweden show differences between model predictions and observed results within the range of the experimental uncertainties. An uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the main model parameters indicates that some parameters may have a significant influence on the results of the model. Moreover, the model uncertainty is driven by a few parameters; therefore, additional research could be necessary into these parameters, aiming at simplifying the model without losing its predictive power.

  16. Geoinformational modelling of the land use of Polesye and Opolje landscapes in Bryansk region (Russia) under conditions of 137Cs radionuclides contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenko, Christina; Linnik, Vitaliy; Volkova, Nadezhda

    2015-04-01

    Significant part of Russian Federation was contaminated by 137Cs radionuclides due to Chernobyl disaster in 1986. South-western part of Bryansk region has suffered the most. Study area (the central part of Bryansk region, Polesye and high plains landscapes) is situated outside the officially specified zone of contamination with contamination levels under 1 Ci / km2. Nevertheless, such contamination levels (which are 20 times greater than levels of global fallout) require particular attention as it may contain a threat of the land use and the health of population, living within the territory. Radioactive contamination within the model area was formed as a result of a "dry" deposition from the atmosphere. Consequently, the initial contamination of soil by isotopes 137Cs, unlike the western part of the Bryansk region, was spread relatively equally. The main part of 137Cs (up to 90%) in natural landscapes is contained in the top 5 cm of soil, which itself creates danger of biogeochemical migration from soil to plants. In agricultural landscapes under cultivation 137Cs is uniformly spread within a 20 cm layer of soil and can also come from soil to plants grown in the fields. The area of radioactive contamination that was formed during the period of deposition (late April - early May 1986), is exposed to the processes of secondary redistribution. It is influenced by several factors as topography, vegetation type, proportion of arable soils, soil humidity, soil texture etc. In the presented study there was evaluated the impact of these factors on the secondary redistribution of 137Cs. Sustainable development of agricultural production in the contaminated territories requires managing a number of measures to reduce radiation risks to the population. Regarding this point the greatest threat may be represented by milk production, as well as picking berries and mushrooms. Planning of the sustainable use of the territory requires an evaluation of contamination levels within

  17. Biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The toxicity of intravenously administered {sup 137}CsCl in the beagle dog was investigated as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. The intravenous route of exposure was chosen for simplicity and accuracy because it was known that after intravenous injection, inhalation or ingestion, internally deposited {sup 137}CsCl is rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the body, exposing the whole body to {beta}-particle and {gamma} radiations. Fifty-four dogs were injected intravenously with {sup 137}Cs to provide one group of six dogs with mean initial body burdens of 141 MBq {sup 137}Cs/kg body mass and four groups of 12 dogs each with mean initial body burdens of 104, 72, 52 and 36 MBq {sup 137}Cs/kg. Twelve dogs were injected with isotonic saline as study controls. Because the number of study controls dogs was small, data from an additional 49 control dogs from other studies at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute that were performed over a similar span of years were also used. There was a significant, dose-dependent decrease in survival of the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs. Eleven {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs, including all six in the highest initial body burden group, died within 81 days after injection, primarily due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia. An additional 25 dogs had transient hematological dyscrasia but survived for long times. All {sup 137}Cs-injected male dogs had marked damage to the germinal epithelium of the testicular seminiferous tubules with azoospermia in the long-term survivors. benign and malignant neoplasms occurred in a variety of organs in {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs, rather than in a single target organ. When individual organs were considered, the incidence of malignant neoplasms was increased in the liver and in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses of the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs. 34 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Effects of chronic 137Cs ingestion on barrier properties of jejunal epithelium in rats.

    PubMed

    Dublineau, I; Grison, S; Grandcolas, L; Baudelin, C; Paquet, F; Voisin, P; Aigueperse, J; Gourmelon, P

    2007-05-15

    Environmental contamination by 137Cs is of particular public health interest because of the various sources of fallout originating from nuclear weapons, radiological source disruptions, and the Chernobyl disaster. This dispersion may lead to a chronic ecosystem contamination and subsequent ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. The aim of this study was to thus determine the impact of a chronic ingestion of low-dose 137Cs on small intestine functions in rats. The animals received 150 Bq per day in drinking water over 3 mo. At these environmental doses, 137Cs contamination did not modify the crypt and villus architecture. In addition, epithelial integrity was maintained following the chronic ingestion of 137Cs, as demonstrated by histological analyses (no breakdown of the surface mucosa) and electrical transepithelial parameters (no change in potential difference and tissue conductance). Furthermore, cesium contamination seemed to induce contradictory effects on the apoptosis pathway, with an increase in the gene expression of Fas/FasL and a decrease in the apoptotic cell number present in intestinal mucosa. No marked inflammation was observed following chronic ingestion of 137Cs, as indicated by neutrophil infiltration and gene expression of cytokines and chemokines. Results indicated no imbalance in the Th1/Th2 response induced by cesium at low doses. Finally, evaluation of the functionality of the jejunal epithelium in rats contaminated chronically with 137Cs did not demonstrate changes in the maximal response to carbachol, nor in the cholinergic sensitivity of rat jejunal epithelium. In conclusion, this study shows that chronic ingestion of 137Cs over 3 mo at postaccidental doses exerts few biological effects on the epithelium of rat jejunum with regard to morphology, inflammation status, apoptosis/proliferation processes, and secretory functions.

  19. AFCF and clinoptilolite use in reduction of (137)Cs deposition in several days' contaminated broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Mitrovic, B; Vitorovic, G; Vitorovic, D; Dakovic, A; Stojanovic, M

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the binding efficiency of AFCF and clinoptilolite, mixed to the feed and administered orally using gastric tube to chronically (137)Cs alimentary contaminated broiler chicks. Seventy-five male Hybro broiler chicks, between 35 and 47 days of age were divided into five groups (15 birds per group) reared in cages (five birds in a cage) and fed a standard diet. Every day during 13 days of the experimental period all chicks received orally 1 ml CsCl water solution with activity of 1310 Bq ml(-1)(137)Cs (gastric tube). Group 1 was the control group and received no binders. The experimental groups received the binders. Group 2 received 0.2 g of AFCF in the form of water solution (gastric tube); group 3 received 0.2% AFCF in the feed; group 4 received 2g clinoptilolite in the form of water suspension (gastric tube) and group 5 received 2% clinoptilolite in the feed. Five chicks from each group were sacrificed on days 4, 10 and 13 of the experimental period. Using gamma spectrometric methods specific activity of (137)Cs was determined in the samples of breast meat, liver and gizzard. The results obtained showed that administering binders to the chronically contaminated broiler chicks significantly (p<0.01) reduced (137)Cs transfer and deposition in breast meat, liver and gizzard. Decreasing deposition of (137)Cs in breast meat and internal organs increased with time of contamination and binders' administration. With AFCF as a cesium binder, on day 13 of measuring the (137)Cs activity in breast meat was 80-83% lower than that in the control group, 89% in liver and 83-84% in gizzard. Natural clinoptilolite demonstrated lower binding efficiency. On day 13 of measuring the (137)Cs activity in breast meat was 53-69% lower than that in the control group, 67-60% in liver and 59-71% in gizzard.

  20. Spatial uncertainty of the 137Cs reference inventory for Australian soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Adrian; Hancock, Gary; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A.; Loughran, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Soil erosion threatens the productivity of agricultural land, reduces the soil's ability to store water, promotes losses of nutrients, organic matter and soil biota and increases the amount of dust carried by wind. It is difficult to measure directly, particularly over time periods with sufficient duration to represent its variability. The caesium-137 (137Cs) technique estimates net soil redistribution by the combined effect of wind, water and tillage erosion. Used with a single sampling campaign, the 137Cs technique provides retrospective estimates for a given location on medium-term (30-40 years) erosion or deposition rates. In 1990 a national reconnaissance survey of soil erosion in Australia was performed using 137Cs. The aim here is to use the results of that national inventory to establish with spatial uncertainty a preliminary baseline map of the 137Cs reference inventory for Australia to subsequently estimate net (mid 1950s to early 1990s) soil redistribution for Australia. We used an indicator co-simulation between 141 samples of the 137Cs reference inventory and gridded mean annual (1954-1990) rainfall and compared the results with a deterministic method using rainfall and latitude. The former produced a baseline map which reconstructed the spatial data with less bias and smaller uncertainty than the latter. The Australian 137Cs reference inventory map can be improved over time with additional samples and the improved map used for subsequent soil redistribution assessments. Where sufficient data exist the geostatistical method may provide similarly reliable 137Cs reference inventory estimates at unsampled locations around the world.

  1. Evaluation on the environmental radioactivity in Shanghai city during the normal operational condition of Qinshan nuclear power station.

    PubMed

    Lu, Heqing; Wang, Qiang

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of environmental radioactivity in Shanghai from the operation of Qinshan Nuclear Power Station (QNPS). The levels of terrestrial gamma radiation and radioactivities in the drinking water, main food and soils in the Jinshan area where is only 38 km far away from the QNPS were continuously measured in the past 19 y. Both the levels of terrestrial gamma radiation and the radioactivities in the samples were on the normal background levels. No significant changes were found before and after the running of QNPS. The annual public exposure to the terrestrial gamma radiation was estimated to be ∼0.1 mSv, and the annual exposure from intakes of (90)Sr and (137)Cs in food was ∼0.5 μSv. In the past 19 y, no significant impact on the environmental radioactivity in Shanghai was observed due to the operation of QNPS.

  2. [137Cs profile distribution character and its implication for soil erosion on Karst slopes of northwest Guangxi].

    PubMed

    Feng, Teng; Chen, Hong-song; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Yun-peng; Wang, Ke-lin

    2011-03-01

    This paper studied the profile distribution characters of 137Cs and soil organic carbon (SOC) on the Karst slopes and in the fissures in typical peak-cluster depression in Northwest Guangxi, aimed to approach the applicability of 137Cs method on Karst slopes and the implication of 37Cs for the characteristics of slope soil erosion. In all test profiles, there was a significant correlation between 137Cs and SOC, indicating that both of them might have the same loss pathway. On the slopes under secondary forests, 137Cs mainly existed within the depth 0-24 cm. On the upper middle and middle slope sites, 137Cs had an exponential decrease with depth, indicating no or slight surface erosion; while on the foot slope site, the distribution pattern of 137Cs indicated severer erosion. On the slopes with cultivated lands, 137Cs distributed uniformly within the plough layer. In the upper middle and middle slopes profiles, 137Cs mainly existed in the depth around 15 cm and far less than the background value, indicating severe soil erosion; while in foot slope profiles, 137Cs was aggraded to the depth 45 cm. A discontinuous distribution of 137Cs in the profiles was detected on the foot slopes under secondary forests, on the upper middle and foot slopes of cultivated lands, and in the fissures, indicating that the soil particles on Karst slopes had a trend of losing with rainwater to the underground, but the loss quantity was negligible, compared with surface erosion.

  3. Variation in airborne 137Cs peak levels with altitude from high-altitude locations across Europe after the arrival of Fukushima-labeled air masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Olivier; Bieringer, Jacqueline; Dalheimer, Axel; Estier, Sybille; Evrard, Olivier; Penev, Ilia; Ringer, Wolfgang; Schlosser, Clemens; Steinkopff, Thomas; Tositti, Laura; de Vismes-Ott, Anne

    2015-04-01

    level were transported until Europe at rather high altitudes. This is consistent with 137Cs activity levels and 133Xe observations performed at the tropopause level thanks to aircraft samples over Germany and Switzerland (Estier and Steinmann). This also validates dispersion model computation according to which the Fukushima-labeled air masses were transported to Europe above 5500 m a.s.l. Conclusions : High altitude locations are on 'sentry duty' for radioactive monitoring and cross-border spreading of a contaminated plume. In this sense they can provide useful information on the vertical spreading of radionuclides, reveal arrival times over a given region and make it possible to explain ground deposition levels as a result of interactions of cloud droplets or rain drops with aerosols at high altitude. Beside non-homogeneities encountered on the European scale at lowland locations, this study shows that 137Cs peak activity levels regularly decreased between about 3500 m and less than 1000 m a.s.l. In addition field measurements confirm that air masses travelled at high altitude and that the 137Cs peaks were due to air masses coming from high tropospheric levels. This study also highlights the need to reinforce high-altitude aerosol sampling during emergency situations. This will make it possible to specify the dispersion conditions for modeling purposes and help explaining simulation and observation discrepancies.

  4. Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation at radioactive-waste disposal Area G during the 1994 growing season

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Biggs, J.B.; Bennett, K.D.

    1995-07-01

    Overstory (pinon pine) and understory (grass and forb) vegetation samples were collected within and around selected points at Area G-a low-level radioactive solid-waste disposal facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory-for the analysis of tritium ({sup 3}H), strontium ({sup 90}Sr), plutonium ({sup 238} Pu and {sup 239}Pu), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), americium ({sup 241}Am), and total uranium. In general, most vegetation samples collected within and around Area G contained radionuclide levels in higher concentrations than vegetation collected from background areas. Tritium, in particular, was detected as high as 5,800 pCi/mL in overstory vegetation collected outside the fence just west of the tritium shafts; this suggests that tritium is migrating from this waste repository through subsurface pathways. Also, understory vegetation collected north of the transuranic (TRU) pads (outside the fence of Area G) contained the highest values of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am, and may be a result of surface holding, storage, or disposal activities.

  5. Bioconcentration of fallout sup 137 Cs by fungi and red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi)

    SciTech Connect

    Mihok, S.; Schwartz, B.; Wiewel, A.M. )

    1989-12-01

    Cesium-137 and 40K concentrations were measured in vegetation and in red-backed voles (Clethrionomys gapperi) in southeastern Manitoba, Canada, following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Voles from wet coniferous habitats contained concentrations of {sup 137}Cs twenty- to fiftyfold higher than voles from deciduous habitats. Maximum {sup 137}Cs values were observed in autumn. Voles captured in a spruce bog at this time contained an average body burden of about 11 Bq. Concentrations in vegetation samples were similar to those found by other researchers. Overall, there was only minimal evidence of contamination attributable to Chernobyl in either vegetation or voles. The primary source of {sup 137}Cs in voles appeared to be dietary, particularly mushrooms that contained up to 74 Bq g-1 ash. Based on physiological constraints, mushrooms were the only plausible source of {sup 137}Cs in autumn diets. Elevated values at other times in coniferous areas may have been related to the consumption of epiphytic lichens. These findings suggest that fungi, or the animals that consume them, can serve as sensitive indicators of {sup 137}Cs contamination in the environment.

  6. Accuracy of post-bomb 137Cs and 14C in dating fluvial deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, L.L.; Webb, R.H.; Enzel, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The accuracy and precision of 137Cs and 14C for dating post-1950 alluvial deposits were evaluated for deposits from known floods on two rivers in Arizona. The presence of 137Cs reliably indicates that deposition occurred after intensive above-ground nuclear testing was initiated around 1950. There was a positive correlation between the measured level of 137Cs activity and the clay content of the sediments, although 137Cs was detected even in sandy flood sediments with low clay content. 137Cs is a valuable dating tool in arid environments where organic materials for 14C or tree-ring dating are scarce and observational records are limited. The 14C activity measured in different types of fine organic detritus yielded dates within 1 to 8 yr of a 1980 flood deposit, and the accuracy was species-dependent. However, undifferentiated mixtures of fine organic materials from several post-bomb deposits of various ages repeatedly yielded dates between 1958 and 1962, and detrital charcoal yielded a date range of 1676-1939. In semiarid environments, the residence time of most types of organic debris precludes accurate annual resolution of post-bomb 14C dates. ?? 1992.

  7. Prussian Blue decorporation of {sup 137}Cs in beagles of different ages

    SciTech Connect

    Melo, D.R.; Lundgren, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    A 6-wk study was conducted using immature (4.7 mo), young adult (2.4 y), and aged (13.5 y) male beagles to determine the modifying effect of age on the effectiveness of Prussian Blue decorporation therapy for the removal of injected {sup 137}Cs. Whole-body clearance rates for injected {sup 137}Cs decreased with increasing age in the dogs. Treatment with Prussian Blue changed the ratio of fecal to urinary {sup 137}Cs excretion from 0.8 in untreated dogs to 2.2 in treated animals. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations in tissues of untreated and Prussian Blue-treated dogs at the end of the 6-wk study were similar, with the greatest concentrations in the skeletal muscle tissue, spleen, and kidneys. There was a lower concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the livers of the treated dogs. The reductions in the average total whole-body doses resulting from Prussian Blue treatment during the course of this study were 51% in the immature, 31% in the young adult, and 38% in the aged dogs. Because of the differences in the intake of Prussian Blue by the dogs in the different groups relative to their body weight, it is unclear as to the relative effectiveness of Prussian Blue in dogs of different ages. 33 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  8. Transport of North Pacific 137Cs labeled waters to the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Levy, I.; Gastaud, J.; Eriksson, M.; Osvath, I.; Aoyama, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Komura, K.

    2011-04-01

    During the reoccupation of the WOCE transect A10 at 30°S by the BEAGLE2003 cruise, the SHOTS project partners collected a large number of samples for the analysis of isotopic tracers. 137Cs was mostly deposited on the oceans surface during the late 1950s and early 1960s, after the atmospheric detonation of large nuclear devices, which mostly occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. The development of advanced radioanalytical and counting techniques allowed to obtain, for the first time in this region, a zonal section of 137Cs water concentrations, where little information existed before, thus constituting an important benchmark for further studies. 137Cs concentrations in the upper waters (0-1000 m) of the south-eastern Atlantic Ocean are similar to those observed in the south-western Indian Ocean, suggesting transport of 137Cs labeled waters by the Agulhas current to the Benguela Current region. In contrast, bomb radiocarbon data do not show this feature, indicating the usefulness of 137Cs as a radiotracer of water mass transport from the Indian to the South Atlantic Ocean.

  9. Seasonal 7Be and 137Cs activities in surface air before and after the Chernobyl event.

    PubMed

    Kulan, A

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations of cosmogenic (7)Be (T(1/2)=53.4 days) and anthropogenic (137)Cs (T(1/2)=30 years) activities in surface air (aerosols) have been extracted from a long data record (1972-2000) at high latitude (56 degrees N-68 degrees N, Sweden). Normalization to weekly average values was used to control long-term trends so that cyclical trends could be investigated. Enhanced (7)Be activity was observed in spring and summer seasons and likely relates to the seasonal thinning of the tropopause. Variations in the (137)Cs activity record seem to reflect how the isotope was injected in the atmosphere (stratospheric from bomb tests and tropospheric from the Chernobyl accident) and subsequent transport mechanisms. Accordingly, until 1986, the surface air (137)Cs activity was strongly related to nuclear weapons test fallout and exhibits temporal fluctuations resembling the (7)Be. Conversely, since 1986 the Chernobyl-produced (137)Cs dominates the long-term record that shows annual cycles that are strongly controlled by atmospheric boundary layer conditions. Additionally, short-term data within the post-Chernobyl period suggest subtle intrusion of air masses rich in (137)Cs that may occur throughout the year, and differences resulting from spatial occurrence at these latitudes. This is an important observation that may have to do with year-to-year variation and calls for caution when interpreting short-term data records.

  10. Characterization and Application of Superlig 620 Solid Phase Extraction Resin for Automated Process Monitoring of 90Sr

    SciTech Connect

    Devol, Timothy A.; Clements, John P.; Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Egorov, Oleg; Grate, Jay W.

    2009-11-30

    Characterization of SuperLig® 620 solid phase extraction resin was performed in order to develop an automated on-line process monitor for 90Sr. The main focus was on strontium separation from barium, with the goal of developing an automated separation process for 90Sr in high-level wastes. High-level waste contains significant 137Cs activity, of which 137mBa is of great concern as an interference to the quantification of strontium. In addition barium, yttrium and plutonium were studied as potential interferences to strontium uptake and detection. A number of complexants were studied in a series of batch Kd experiments, as SuperLig® 620 was not previously known to elute strontium in typical mineral acids. The optimal separation was found using a 2M nitric acid load solution with a strontium elution step of ~0.49M ammonium citrate and a barium elution step of ~1.8M ammonium citrate. 90Sr quantification of Hanford high-level tank waste was performed on a sequential injection analysis microfluidics system coupled to a flow-cell detector. The results of the on-line procedure are compared to standard radiochemical techniques in this paper.

  11. Levels of 137Cs in muddy sediments on the seabed in the Bay of Cadiz (Spain). Part II. Model of vertical migration of (137)Cs.

    PubMed

    Ligero, R A; Barrera, M; Casas-Ruiz, M

    2005-01-01

    This second part of the study reports the development of a model to describe the vertical migration of the artificial radioisotope (137)Cs in the sediment column on the seabed of the Bay of Cadiz. The application of the model provides an overall picture of the process of sedimentation in the Inner Bay of Cadiz. The spatial distribution of the rate of sedimentation enables us to study the sources of sediments and the means by which the sediments have been transported. A method has been derived from the rate of sedimentation to perform the dating of the layers of sediment. The model describes the behaviour of (137)Cs in the area under study, taking into account the time of residence in the zones that are the source of accumulation, the origin of the sedimentary material, together with the diffusion of the radionuclide in the sediment of the seabed.

  12. Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I measured after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

    2012-11-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe), also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0-13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1-24.2 days during April and May 2011. The removal time of 131I is longer due to the aerosol production from gaseous 131I, thus the removal time for 137Cs serves as a better estimate for aerosol lifetime. The removal time of 131I is of interest for semi-volatile species. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension) that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0-13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of fresh AM aerosols directly emitted from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean lifetimes of AM aerosols

  13. Multifractal analysis of the 137Cs fallout pattern in Austria resulting from the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Pausch, G; Bossew, P; Hofmann, W; Steger, F

    1998-06-01

    The cumulative deposition of the 137Cs fallout in Austria resulting from the passage of the Chernobyl cloud has been investigated by applying correlation dimension and hyperbolic frequency distribution methods. For the analysis, a total of 1,881 deposition values were used, which were collected by the Federal Environmental Agency of Austria and the Federal Ministry of Health, representing all available measurements of 137Cs in soil made in Austria after the Chernobyl accident. From these data a hyperbolic exponent for the frequency distribution of 4.0 and a set of fractal correlation dimensions, which decrease from 1.426 +/- 0.022 (for the whole network) to 0.706 +/- 0.047 (for 137Cs values > or = 100 kBq m(-2)), were derived, thus confirming that the fallout pattern can be described as a multifractal.

  14. Clinical and hematological aspects of sup 137 Cs: The Goiania radiation accident

    SciTech Connect

    Brandao-Mello, C.E.; Oliveira, A.R.; Valverde, N.J.; Farina, R.; Cordeiro, J.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Fifty persons involved in the {sup 137}Cs accident in Goiania showed symptoms of whole-body and local acute irradiation and also external or internal contamination mainly due to ingestion or absorption of {sup 137}Cs. Fourteen of the 50 developed severe bone marrow depression characterized by neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Eight of these 14 received GM-CSF intravenously. None were submitted to bone marrow transplantation. Four of the 14 died due to hemorrhage and infection. For those with significant internal contamination evaluated by in-vitro and in-vivo assays, Prussian Blue was administered with doses ranging from 1.5 to 10 g d-1. Besides Prussian Blue, other measures were taken to increase decorporation of {sup 137}Cs, including administration of diuretics, water overload, and ergometric exercises. From 50 to 100 persons are being followed in a medical protocol.

  15. Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

    2012-04-01

    Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 475±30 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as

  16. Uptake of Carrier-free 137Cs by Ramalina reticulata 1

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Raymond; Overstreet, Roy

    1968-01-01

    The uptake of carrier-free 137Cs by Ramalina reticulata Kremp. does not appear to be directly linked to metabolism. The results indicate the presence of a barrier to entry of 137Cs. The barrier is stabilized by Ca ions. Removal of Ca by pretreatment of the tissue in monovalent salt solutions increases the uptake of 137Cs. Uptake under anaerobiosis is also greater than normal, but in this case, Ca displaced from the barrier membrane is not lost from the tissue and normal permeability is rapidly re-established when aerobic conditions are restored. Under anaerobiosis Ca2+ increases damage to the respiratory mechanism presumably by increasing retention of toxic products. PMID:16656927

  17. Model simulations on the long-term dispersal of 137Cs released into the Pacific Ocean off Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Erik; Schwarzkopf, Franziska U.; Lübbecke, Joke F.; Böning, Claus W.

    2012-09-01

    A sequence of global ocean circulation models, with horizontal mesh sizes of 0.5°, 0.25° and 0.1°, are used to estimate the long-term dispersion by ocean currents and mesoscale eddies of a slowly decaying tracer (half-life of 30 years, comparable to that of 137Cs) from the local waters off the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants. The tracer was continuously injected into the coastal waters over some weeks; its subsequent spreading and dilution in the Pacific Ocean was then simulated for 10 years. The simulations do not include any data assimilation, and thus, do not account for the actual state of the local ocean currents during the release of highly contaminated water from the damaged plants in March-April 2011. An ensemble differing in initial current distributions illustrates their importance for the tracer patterns evolving during the first months, but suggests a minor relevance for the large-scale tracer distributions after 2-3 years. By then the tracer cloud has penetrated to depths of more than 400 m, spanning the western and central North Pacific between 25°N and 55°N, leading to a rapid dilution of concentrations. The rate of dilution declines in the following years, while the main tracer patch propagates eastward across the Pacific Ocean, reaching the coastal waters of North America after about 5-6 years. Tentatively assuming a value of 10 PBq for the net 137Cs input during the first weeks after the Fukushima incident, the simulation suggests a rapid dilution of peak radioactivity values to about 10 Bq m-3 during the first two years, followed by a gradual decline to 1-2 Bq m-3 over the next 4-7 years. The total peak radioactivity levels would then still be about twice the pre-Fukushima values.

  18. Determination of the activity concentration levels of the artificial radionuclide137Cs in soil samples collected from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Daar, Eman

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to establish the first baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the determination of the activity concentrations levels of man-made radiation in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. All the samples were collected before the most recent accident in Japan, “the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident”. The activity concentrations have been measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector situated in a low-background environment with a copper inner-plated passive lead shield. A radiological map showing the activity concentrations of 137Cs is presented in this work. The concentration wasfound to range from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg. The highest activity concentration of 137Cs was observed in sample no. 26 in North of Qatar. The mean value was found to be around 2.15 ± 0.27 Bq/kg. These values lie within the expected range relative to the countries in the region. It is expected that this contamination is mainly due to the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, but this conclusion cannot be confirmed because of the lack of data before this accident.

  19. Export of 134Cs and 137Cs in the Fukushima river systems at heavy rains by Typhoon Roke in September 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, S.; Kanamori, M.; Ochiai, S.; Tomihara, S.; Fukushi, K.; Yamamoto, M.

    2013-02-01

    Effects of a heavy rain event on radiocesium export were studied at stations on the Natsui River and the Same River in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan after Typhoon Roke during 21-22 September 2011, six months after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Radioactivity of 134Cs and 137Cs in river waters was 0.011-0.098 Bq L-1 at normal flow conditions during July-September in 2011, but it increased to 0.85 Bq L-1 in high flow conditions by heavy rains occurring with the typhoon. The particulate fractions of 134Cs and 137Cs were 21-56% in the normal flow condition, but were close to 100% after the typhoon. These results indicate that the pulse input of radiocesium associated with suspended particles from land to coastal ocean occurred by the heavy rain event. Export flux of 134Cs and 137Cs by the heavy rain accounts for 30-50% of annual radiocesium flux in 2011. Results show that rain events are one factor controlling the transport and dispersion of radiocesium in river watersheds and coastal marine environments.

  20. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia.

    PubMed

    Reistad, O; Dowdall, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Standring, W J F; Hustveit, S; Steenhuisen, F; Sørlie, A

    2008-07-01

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site is an interesting case study for decommissioning due to the extremely large amounts of radioactivity present at the site and the conditions under which it is stored; very little has been previously published in the scientific literature about this site. This paper complements the paper describing dose rates at Andreeva Bay which is published in this issue of Journal of Environmental Radioactivity by the same authors. This study presents new data related to the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in surface soils and measurements of alpha- and beta-particle fluxes taken at different areas around the site. Limited data on 60Co is also presented. The results of the study indicate that the main areas of site contamination are associated with the former spent nuclear fuel storage facility at Building 5, due to accidental discharges which began in 1982. Substantial contamination is also observed at the solid radioactive waste storage facilities, probably due to the ingress of water into these facilities. More than 240 samples were measured: maximum contamination levels were 1 x 10(6)Bq/kg (137)Cs (mean value 4.1 x 10(5)Bq/kg) and 4 x 10(6)Bq/kg (90)Sr (mean value 1.2 x1 0(5)Bq/kg). Localised patches of alpha and beta contamination were also observed throughout the site.

  1. Prediction of spatial variation in global fallout of 137Cs using precipitation.

    PubMed

    Pálsson, S E; Howard, B J; Wright, S M

    2006-08-31

    Deposition from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests (termed global fallout) has been shown to be proportional to the rate of precipitation. Here we describe methods for using precipitation and radionuclide deposition information for a reference site to estimate global fallout at other locations. These methods have been used to estimate global fallout in Iceland, identified during the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP) by Wright et al. [Wright, S.M., Howard, B.J., Strand, P., Nylén, T., Sickel, M.A.K., 1999. Prediction of 137Cs deposition from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests within the Arctic. Environ Pollut 104, 131-143.] as one of the Arctic areas which received the highest global fallout, but where measurements of contamination were sparse, and difficult to obtain due to the remote and inaccessible terrain of much of the country. Measurements of global fallout 137Cs deposition have been made in Iceland at sites close to meteorological stations to ensure that precipitation data were of high quality. The AMAP modeling approach, based on measured precipitation and radionuclide deposition data, was applied using a reference monitoring station located close to Reykjavik. The availability of good precipitation data and locally based estimates of time dependent ratios of 137Cs deposition to precipitation during the fallout period gave a better correlation between predicted and measured 137Cs global fallout (r2=0.96) than that achieved using the much more heterogeneous set of data collected by AMAP over the whole of the Arctic. Having obtained satisfactory results with the model for a number of calibration sites alongside meteorological stations we then produced a map of estimated 137Cs deposition based on a model of estimated precipitation. This deposition map was then successfully validated (r2=0.85) for sites where 137Cs deposition was measured; the associated uncertainty in predictions was also estimated.

  2. Long-term box modelling of 137Cs in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Ortega, M.; Merino, J.; Masqué, P.

    2002-06-01

    Environmental radiotracers can be used to understand the underlying processes of the environment where they are found. Amongst others, 137Cs, which is a soluble element in sea water, is transported with water masses in the oceans. A numerical model, in which the Mediterranean Sea was divided into 40 boxes (10 regions of 4 layers each), was developed to better understand the distribution and behaviour of 137Cs in the Mediterranean Sea. It was run with a realistic source term, including global fallout, the Chernobyl accident, the nuclear industry and river runoff, and was used to predict 137Cs concentrations during the period 1954-1994. 137Cs surface water predicted concentrations ranged from 0 to 36 Bq·m -3. In most boxes the most prominent feature was the existence of two 137Cs predicted concentration maxima, corresponding to maximum air concentrations due to nuclear weapons fallout (1963) and the Chernobyl accident (1986). Maximum concentrations were predicted in surface waters in all regions, generally decreasing as mean water depth increased. Largest spatial concentration gradients were predicted during, and shortly after, the global fallout maxima. After the global fallout maximum was reached, predicted concentrations decreased, first rapidly and later on more slowly, reaching relatively low levels immediately before the Chernobyl accident. The maximum 137Cs predicted concentrations due to the Chernobyl accident in surface waters of each box showed widely different values because the deposition pattern was highly irregular. Levels reached values similar to those predicted immediately before the Chernobyl accident more rapidly than in the case of the global fallout maxima. In order to perform model validation, results were compared with annual mean values in each box and, in general, were found to be in good agreement. The main achievements of the model and its limitations are discussed.

  3. [Effect of soil radiation pollution on the plant content of 137Cs and biogenic elements].

    PubMed

    Gromova, V S

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the data of many years' studies of the effect of different soil radiation pollution levels on the plant accumulation of different types of 137Cs and potassium and phosphorus salts. With increased soil radiation levels, not only the plant content of 137Cs becomes higher, but that of potassium and phosphoric acid also changes. The amount of potassium is decreased in the topinambour and increased in the lentils, but only in its seeds; that of potassium and phosphoric acid is increased in all parts of rape.

  4. Accumulation and distributions of {sup 137}Cs in fresh water snail Pila ampullacea

    SciTech Connect

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-10-24

    Pila ampullacea are found in tropical freshwaters of Indonesia. This snail exhibit several characteristics of ideal indicator organisms in order to understand the bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs. Biokinetic experiment was performaced in aquaria system and under influenced of concentration K{sup +} in water. The result of experiment shown that Under difference K{sup +} concentration in water, Pila ampullacea have capability to accumulated {sup 137}Cs with CF value range 8.95 to 12.52 ml.g{sup −1}. Both uptake and depuration rate were influenced by concentration of K{sup +} in water.

  5. Effects of radioactive contamination on Scots pines in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, Stanislav; Oudalova, Alla; Dikareva, Nina; Spiridonov, Sergey; Hinton, Thomas; Chernonog, Elena; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

    2011-08-01

    A 6 year study of Scots pine populations inhabiting sites in the Bryansk region of Russia radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident is presented. In six study sites, (137)Cs activity concentrations and heavy metal content in soils, as well as (137)Cs, (90)Sr and heavy metal concentrations in cones were measured. Doses absorbed in reproduction organs of pine trees were calculated using a dosimetric model. The maximum annual dose absorbed at the most contaminated site was about 130 mGy. Occurrence of aberrant cells scored in the root meristem of germinated seeds collected from pine trees growing on radioactively contaminated territories for over 20 years significantly exceeded the reference levels during all 6 years of the study. The data suggest that cytogenetic effects occur in Scots pine populations due to the radioactive contamination. However, no consistent differences in reproductive ability were detected between the impacted and reference populations as measured by the frequency of abortive seeds. Even though the Scots pine populations have occupied radioactively contaminated territories for two decades, there were no clear indications of adaptation to the radiation, when measured by the number of aberrant cells in root meristems of seeds exposed to an additional acute dose of radiation.

  6. 239 + 240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in fish, cephalopods, crustaceans, shellfish, and algae collected around the Japanese coast in the early 1990s.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Aono, T; Hirano, S

    1999-10-01

    Marine organisms, i.e. fish, cephalopods, crustaceans, shellfish, and algae, were collected in the early 1990s along the Sea of Japan coast and the Japanese Pacific coast and analyzed for their 239 + 240Pu and 137Cs concentrations. The 239 + 240Pu concentrations in muscle of fish were below 0.4 mBq/kg wet wt. and the lowest among the analyzed marine organisms. Most 137Cs concentrations in muscle of fish ranged from 100 to 300 mBq/kg wet wt. Higher concentrations of 239 + 240Pu, ranging from 1.6 to 5.7 mBq/kg wet wt., were observed in viscera of cephalopods than in their muscle. The 239 + 240Pu concentrations in whole soft tissues of bivalves varied approximately one order of magnitude from 0.8 to 6.1 mBq/kg wet wt., while 137Cs concentrations had little variation, being approximately 60 mBq/kg wet wt. The 239 + 240Pu concentrations in algae had a wide variation, ranging from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt., and were higher than those of the other marine organisms. No statistically significant difference in mean concentrations of 239 + 240Pu was detected among the whole soft tissues of bivalves, viscera of cephalopods and crustaceans, and whole bodies of cephalopods and crustaceans within the 95% confidence limit. The mean concentrations of 137Cs became higher in the order, cephalopods and crustaceans and bivalves, algae, viscera of fish, muscles of fish. The mean concentrations of 239 + 240Pu were comparable for algae collected along the Japan Sea coast and the Pacific coast. Furthermore, the difference in mean concentrations of 137Cs in algae between the Japan Sea coast and the Pacific coast was not statistically significant within the 95% confidence limit. These results can be considered to indicate no definite influence from radioactive dumping into the Japan Sea by the former USSR and Russia with respect to radioactive pollution of marine organisms collected along the Japanese coast.

  7. A case study of soil erosion and sedimentation magnitudes in Morocco using 137-Cs & 210-Pbex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabit, L.,; Benmansour, M.,; Nouira, A.,

    2010-05-01

    Despite the severity of land degradation in Morocco, only limited data are available on the actual magnitude of soil erosion rates. Most of the previous research used conventional measurements. Since the mid 1990's only a few studies reported the use of the 137-Cs approach and, excess lead-210 (210-Pbex) as soil tracer in Morocco. The site under investigation is a one hectare agricultural field dominated by cereals under conventional tillage (plough depth ~ 16 cm) and semiarid climate located in Marchouch 68 km south east from Rabat (Morocco). In this field, 50 soil core samples were collected along 5 parallel transects. The initial 137-Cs and 210-Pb fallout were assessed through 12 core samples collected in an undisturbed pasture located 3 km from the field studied. After γ-spectrometry analysis, the areal activities of 137-Cs and 210-Pbex were converted into soil redistribution rates using the convertion model Mass Balance Model II (MBM II). Soil redistribution rates obtained from both isotopes were analyzed using geostatistic approach and a classical interpolation concept (Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW)). Maps of soil redistribution were established and a sediment budget for the whole field was calculated. For the reference site, the vertical distribution associated with both radionuclides was similar and concentrated in the top 10 cm with a clear exponential decrease with depth. The reference inventories values were estimated at 3305 Bq m-2 (n = 12; CV of 30%) and 1445 Bq m-2 (n = 12; CV of 18%) for 210-Pbex and 137-Cs, respectively. For the cultivated site, experimental variograms of soil redistribution rate calculated from the data provided by the 137-Cs and 210-Pbex results were fitted. Following the optimization of variographic parameters and the cross-validation analysis, the geostatistical study of the data set reported a very weak autocorrelation. So, a simple spatialisation of the data set using IDW2 was used to spatialise the soil redistribution

  8. [Specific Features of Radioactive Pollution of Soils of Catchment Areas of Lake Shablish (Distant Zone of the East Ural Radioactive Trace)].

    PubMed

    Deryagin, V V; Levina, S G; Sutyagin, A A; Parfilova, N S

    2015-01-01

    Specific features of 90Sr and 137Cs distribution and accumulation in soil cuts of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas of Lake Shablish located in a distant zone of the East Ural radioactive trace are considered. Some physical and chemical characteristics of the soils were defined. It is established that the signs typical for the lake ecosystems of distant East-Ural radioactive trace zone which underwent impact of technogenic influence are common for soils of catchment areas of Lake Shablish. The distinctions in some characteristic features of the specific activity of long-living radionuclides for the soils of superaqueous and eluvial positions of catchment areas connected with the character of the water regime of soils are shown.

  9. Seasonal variation of soil-to-plant transfer of K and fallout sup 134,137 Cs in peatland vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Bunzl, K.; Kracke, W. )

    1989-10-01

    For three plants from a peat bog (Trichophorum caespitosum, Molinia coerulea, Calluna vulgaris) the concentration of 137Cs, the ratio 137Cs:134Cs, and stable K was determined in intervals of about 14 d from June to November 1987. The results show that for two grasses, Trichophorum caespitosum and Molinia coerulea (which have only perennial roots but sprout every year while the old leaves wither), the concentration of 137Cs decreased considerably during the growing season (1800-240, respectively, 4000-320 Bq kg-1 dry weight). A remarkably similar behavior was observed for the seasonal variability of K and radiocesium in the two grass species, which resulted in a nearly constant ratio of 137Cs:K during the year. In contrast, for the evergreen plant Calluna vulgaris (heather) which was contaminated surficially by the Chernobyl fallout, the concentrations of K and 137Cs were rather constant during 1987 (leaves about 10,000; stems about 5000 Bq kg-1 dry weight), even though radiocesium was taken up by the leaves and transported within the plant. For the two grasses, the plant:soil concentration ratios (CR) were obtained separately for total 137Cs, 137Cs from the global fallout, and Chernobyl-derived 137Cs. The CR of 137Cs from the global fallout decreased for Trichophorum caespitosum from 1.9 in the spring to 0.08 in the autumn, and for Chernobyl-derived 137Cs from 1.4 to 0.2. For Molinia coerulea, a similar behavior was observed. Possible reasons for the seasonal variability of the CR values and the different behavior of 137Cs from the global fallout and from the Chernobyl debris are discussed.

  10. Direct determination of 90Sr and 147Pm in Chernobyl hot particles collected in Kiev using beta absorption method.

    PubMed

    Papp, Z; Bolyós, A; Dezsó, Z; Daróczy, S

    1997-12-01

    59 hot particles were collected in Kiev, Ukraine, in 1987. All but one were prepared from a moss carpet of 360 cm2 area. Radionuclide composition of the hot particles was investigated by gamma-spectrometry and beta absorption method. Pure beta emitters 90Sr and 147Pm were determined in 25 hot particles measuring the beta absorption curves of the hot particles with an end-window Geiger-Müller counter and decomposing the curves in order to obtain the contributions of 90Sr and 147Pm to the total beta counting rate. All but one of the hot particles were found to be the debris of the fuel. The activity ratio 90Sr:l44Ce was 0.052 in good agreement with theoretical calculations on core inventories. This means that strontium behaved as a nonvolatile element in the process of the formation of the hot particles investigated. The activity ratio 147Pm:144Ce was 0.078 which is half of the theoretical result. Although 147Pm is considered to be a refractory nuclide, it seems that significant part of 147Pm went to the homogeneous fraction of the general fallout. The surface density of hot particles (of higher than about 50 Bq activity) was about 1,600 m(-2) and that of the activities of the nuclides 90Sr, 106Ru, 134Cs, 137Cs, 144Ce and 147Pm as components of hot particles was 12.2, 54.3, 5.9, 9.7, 234 and 18.3 kBq m(-2) (activity values counted for 26 April 1986), respectively, in downtown Kiev city in 1987.

  11. 40K/137Cs discrimination ratios to the aboveground organs of tropical plants.

    PubMed

    Sanches, N; Anjos, R M; Mosquera, B

    2008-07-01

    In the present work, the accumulation of caesium and potassium in aboveground plant parts was studied in order to improve the understanding on the behaviour of monovalent cations in several compartments of tropical plants. We present the results for activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K, measured by gamma spectrometry, from five tropical plant species: guava (Psidium guajava), mango (Mangifera indica), papaya (Carica papaya), banana (Musa paradisíaca), and manioc (Manihot esculenta). Caesium and potassium have shown a high level of mobility within the plants, exhibiting the highest values of concentration in the growing parts (fruits, leaves, twigs, and barks) of the woody fruit and large herbaceous shrub (such as manioc) species. In contrast, the banana and papaya plants exhibited the lowest levels of (137)Cs and (40)K in their growing parts. However, a significant correlation between activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K was observed in these tropical plants. The (40)K/(137)Cs discrimination ratios were approximately equal to unity in different compartments of each individual plant, suggesting the possibility of using caesium to predict the behaviour of potassium in several tropical species.

  12. Fish pollution with anthropogenic 137Cs in the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Tamara; Suplińska, Maria

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on changes in (137)Cs activity concentrations in three fish species from the southern Baltic Sea: cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichtys flesus), in the period 2000-2010. During the study period a marked decline in cesium activity concentration in fish muscle tissue was observed, which reflected changes in radionuclide activity concentration in seawater. No statistically significant temporal trends were determined in changes of concentration factors (CF(fish/seawater)) calculated for the examined fish species. The analysis of (137)Cs activity as a function of ichthyological parameters revealed the lack of a relationship between radionuclide activity concentrations in herring muscle tissue and the fish age in an narrow age range (2-4 years). However, a reverse proportionality of total fish mass, as well as body length, against (137)Cs activity concentrations in muscles was well documented. The latter observation can be the direct result of the dilution effect related to the increase of fish body weight. (137)Cs activity concentration in muscle tissue of the five fish species forms a declining sequence: Gadus morhua, Platichthys flesus, Clupea harengus, Perca fluviatilis and Neogobius melanostomus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. (137)Cs, (40)K and (210)Po in marine mammals from the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, Tomasz; Góral, Marta; Szefer, Piotr; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Bojanowski, Ryszard

    2015-12-15

    This study provides information on baseline concentrations of the radionuclides Cesium-137, Potassium-40 and Polonium-210 in sea mammals from the Baltic Sea. The radionuclides were analyzed in the liver, kidney and muscle of harbor porpoises, striped dolphins, and gray and ringed seals from the Polish coast by γ- and α-spectrometry. Median (137)Cs activities were 14.8, 13.2 and 23.2 Bq kg(-1) w.w. in the liver, kidney and muscles, respectively. Activities of (40)K and (210)Po in the respective tissues were found to be 79.1, 79.8 and 111 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K and 58.1, 59.2 and 32.9 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Po. The measured (137)Cs concentrations were extraordinarily high in comparison to those reported in sea mammals from other locations. However, dose assessments did not imply health effects from (137)Cs exposure in Baltic Sea mammals. Correlations between (137)Cs tissue activities and reported sea water concentrations highlight the potential use of marine mammals for biomonitoring purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transfer coefficient of 137Cs from feed to cow milk in tropical region Kaiga, India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, R M; James, J P; Dileep, B N; Mulla, R M; Reji, T K; Ravi, P M; Hegde, A G; Sarkar, P K

    2012-04-01

    In the transport model for the prediction of the concentration of (137)Cs in milk, the transfer coefficient from feed to milk, F(m), is an important parameter. Site-specific transfer coefficient from feed to cow's milk, for (137)Cs in the Kaiga environment, a nuclear power station site in India, determined over a period of 10 y is presented in this paper. The value is determined from (137)Cs concentration in milk and grass samples of the Kaiga region and the result ranged from 6.43E-03 to 1.09E-02 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 8.0E-03 d l(-1). The result is compared with that for (40)K, determined concurrently at the same region and ranged from 3.06E-03 to 3.48E-03 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 3.26E-03 d l(-1). This parameter is quite useful in decision-making for implementing countermeasures during a large area contamination with (137)Cs in tropical areas like Kaiga.

  15. Effective and ecological half-lives of 137Cs in cow's milk in alpine agriculture.

    PubMed

    Lettner, Herbert; Hubmer, Alexander; Bossew, Peter; Strebl, Friederike; Steinhäusler, Friedrich

    2009-02-01

    In the mountainous "Hohe Tauern" region of Salzburg (Austria), milk samples have been collected in a long-term montitoring programme since 1988, at eight alpine sites used for extensive, seasonal stock farming. For this alpine environment with its acidic soils developed on silicate bedrock, high soil-to-plant transfer factors and long-lasting (137)Cs contamination levels in milk--the main product of seasonal agriculture at elevated altitudes--are characteristic features. The decrease in (137)Cs concentration in milk measured since 1988 turned out to be best described by one or two effective half-lives. For the period from 1993 to 2007, which can be modelled with one effective half-life for all sites, effective half-lives between 3.7 and 15.0 years (ecological half-lives: 4.3-29.9 years) were obtained. The effective half-life increases with mean altitude of the investigated graze pastures, probably due to reduced migration velocities of (137)Cs and low (137)Cs half-value depths of a few centimetres in the soil.

  16. Medical aspects of sup 137 Cs decorporation: The Goiania radiological accident

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, R.; Brandao-Mello, C.E.; Oliveira, A.R. )

    1991-01-01

    In September 1987, the Goiania radiological accident involving a source of {sup 137}Cs culminated in about 140 victims who presented internal and/or external contamination and/or external exposure to radiation and/or radiation burns. Internal contamination was verified through analysis of urine and fecal samples. Internal contamination was also evaluated by measurements performed at the whole-body counter installed in Goiania in November 1987. To enhance the decorporation of 137Cs, patients were treated with the following: (1) Prussian Blue, oral administration, in 46 patients; (2) diuretics, oral administration, in 17 patients; (3) induced perspiration, increasing {sup 137}Cs elimination. These procedures were done under rigorous clinical evaluation and considering the data from assay of excreta and data obtained from the whole-body counter. The doses of Prussian Blue exceeded about 6.5 times the dose previously indicated in the literature. It was the first time diuretics were used in humans to treat {sup 137}Cs internal contamination. The results of these procedures are discussed.

  17. Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs distributions and their relationship with sedimentological processes in Patras Harbour, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papaefthymiou, H; Papatheodorou, G; Moustakli, A; Christodoulou, D; Geraga, M

    2007-01-01

    Surficial and subsurficial sediment samples derived from gravity cores, selected from the harbour of Patras, Greece, were analyzed for grain size, water content, bulk density, specific gravity, organic carbon content and specific activities of natural radionuclides and (137)Cs. The specific activities of (232)Th, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs were measured radiometrically. The radionuclides (238)U and (232)Th were also analyzed using the INAA. The differences found between the specific activities of the natural radionuclides measured by the two methods are of no statistical significance. The sediment cores selection was based on a detailed bathymetric and marine seismic survey. Through the study of the detailed bathymetric map and the seismic profiles it was shown that ship traffic is highly influential to the harbour bathymetry. The granulometric and geotechnical properties of the sediments and therefore the specific activities of the natural radionuclides and (137)Cs seem to be controlled by the ship traffic. Relationship between radionuclide activity concentrations and granulometric/geotechnical parameters was defined after the treatment of all the analyses using R-mode factor analysis. The natural radionuclide activities are related to the fine fraction and bulk density of the sediments, while (137)Cs is mainly influenced by the organic carbon content. In addition, (238)U and (226)Ra seem to be in close relation with the heavy minerals fraction in coarse-grained sediments with high specific gravity.

  18. 90Sr in teeth of cattle abandoned in evacuation zone: Record of pollution from the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koarai, Kazuma; Kino, Yasushi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Chiba, Mirei; Osaka, Ken; Sasaki, Keiichi; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Oka, Toshitaka; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Shinoda, Hisashi

    2016-04-01

    Here we determined the 90Sr concentrations in the teeth of cattle abandoned in the evacuation area of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. 90Sr activity concentrations in the teeth varied from 6–831 mBq (g Ca)‑1 and exhibited a positive relationship with the degree of radioactive contamination that the cattle experienced. Even within an individual animal, the specific activity of 90Sr (Bq (g Sr)‑1) varied depending on the development stage of the teeth during the FNPP accident: teeth that were early in development exhibited high 90Sr specific activities, while teeth that were late in development exhibited low specific activities. These findings demonstrate that 90Sr is incorporated into the teeth during tooth development; thus, tooth 90Sr activity concentrations reflect environmental 90Sr levels during tooth formation. Assessment of 90Sr in teeth could provide useful information about internal exposure to 90Sr radiation and allow for the measurement of time-course changes in the degree of environmental 90Sr pollution.

  19. (90)Sr in teeth of cattle abandoned in evacuation zone: Record of pollution from the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Koarai, Kazuma; Kino, Yasushi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Chiba, Mirei; Osaka, Ken; Sasaki, Keiichi; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Oka, Toshitaka; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Shinoda, Hisashi

    2016-04-05

    Here we determined the (90)Sr concentrations in the teeth of cattle abandoned in the evacuation area of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. (90)Sr activity concentrations in the teeth varied from 6-831 mBq (g Ca)(-1) and exhibited a positive relationship with the degree of radioactive contamination that the cattle experienced. Even within an individual animal, the specific activity of (90)Sr (Bq (g Sr)(-1)) varied depending on the development stage of the teeth during the FNPP accident: teeth that were early in development exhibited high (90)Sr specific activities, while teeth that were late in development exhibited low specific activities. These findings demonstrate that (90)Sr is incorporated into the teeth during tooth development; thus, tooth (90)Sr activity concentrations reflect environmental (90)Sr levels during tooth formation. Assessment of (90)Sr in teeth could provide useful information about internal exposure to (90)Sr radiation and allow for the measurement of time-course changes in the degree of environmental (90)Sr pollution.

  20. 90Sr in teeth of cattle abandoned in evacuation zone: Record of pollution from the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Koarai, Kazuma; Kino, Yasushi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Chiba, Mirei; Osaka, Ken; Sasaki, Keiichi; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Oka, Toshitaka; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Shinoda, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Here we determined the 90Sr concentrations in the teeth of cattle abandoned in the evacuation area of the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. 90Sr activity concentrations in the teeth varied from 6–831 mBq (g Ca)−1 and exhibited a positive relationship with the degree of radioactive contamination that the cattle experienced. Even within an individual animal, the specific activity of 90Sr (Bq (g Sr)−1) varied depending on the development stage of the teeth during the FNPP accident: teeth that were early in development exhibited high 90Sr specific activities, while teeth that were late in development exhibited low specific activities. These findings demonstrate that 90Sr is incorporated into the teeth during tooth development; thus, tooth 90Sr activity concentrations reflect environmental 90Sr levels during tooth formation. Assessment of 90Sr in teeth could provide useful information about internal exposure to 90Sr radiation and allow for the measurement of time-course changes in the degree of environmental 90Sr pollution. PMID:27045764

  1. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific walrus and bearded seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Terry; Seagars, Dana; Jokela, Terry; Layton, David

    2008-06-01

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ((210)Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea during May 1996. The mean (137)Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg(-1) (n=5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg(-1) (n=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, (137)Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, (210)Po activity concentrations are more variable and appear to be higher level compared with mammal data from other regions. The mean (210)Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (n=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg(-1), respectively. This compares with (210)Po concentration values (n=2, wet weight) of 27, 207 and 68 Bq kg(-1) measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated concentration factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for (210)Po that those of (137)Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of (137)Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessment of risks of Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic.

  2. 7Be, 210Pb and 137Cs concentrations in cloud water.

    PubMed

    Bourcier, L; Masson, O; Laj, P; Paulat, P; Pichon, J-M; Chausse, P; Gurriaran, R; Sellegri, K

    2014-02-01

    Cloud water was sampled during 8 months, in 2008 and 2009, at the puy de Dome high-altitude atmospheric research station (France). The concentrations of (7)Be and (210)Pb, both naturally occurring radionuclides, and (137)Cs of anthropogenic origin, were determined. Those values are useful for a better knowledge of the aftermath cloud deposition and more generally for wet deposition assessment of radionuclides. This is of primary interest in case of a nuclear accident, especially considering (137)Cs deposition, both for high-altitude locations that are regularly embedded by clouds and also for lowlands where fog can occur. The (7)Be and (210)Pb average activity concentrations in cloud water found were 1.9±0.11 mBq m(-3) air and 140±10 μBq m(-3) air, respectively. For (137)Cs, the average concentration was 0.14±0.02 μBq m(-3) air. This very low-level is representative of the long term post-accidental background level. Indeed, for the studied period, the last accidental (137)Cs release was that of Chernobyl accident, in April 1986. To our knowledge this is the first data about (137)Cs reference level determination in cloud water. The comparison between cloud water and rain water concentrations showed a ratio cloud/rain ranging between 3.4 and 8.1, in agreement with previous studies performed on inorganic compounds. Scavenging efficiencies of aerosols by cloud droplets were also calculated with the additional aerosol concentrations routinely measured at the station and were quite low (0.13-0.40) compared to what has previously been observed for inorganic soluble ions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enviromental influences on the {sup 137}Cs kinetics of the yellow-bellied turtle (Trachemys Scripta)

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, E.L.; Brisbin, L.I. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    Assessments of ecological risk require accurate predictions of contaminant dynamics in natural populations. However, simple deterministic models that assume constant uptake rates and elimination fractions may compromise both their ecological realism and their general application to animals with variable metabolism or diets. In particular, the temperature-dependent model of metabolic rates characteristic of ectotherms may lead to significant differences between observed and predicted contaminant kinetics. We examined the influence of a seasonally variable thermal environment on predicting the uptake and annual cycling of contaminants by ectotherms, using a temperature-dependent model of {sup 137}Cs kinetics in free-living yellow-bellied turtles, Trachemys scripta. We compared predictions from this model with those of deterministics negative exponential and flexibly shaped Richards sigmoidal models. Concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in a population if this species in Pond B, a radionuclide-contaminated nuclear reactor cooling reservoir, and {sup 137}Cs uptake by the uncontaminated turtles held captive in Pond B for 4 yr confirmed both the pattern of uptake and the equilibrium concentrations predicted by the temperature-dependent model. Almost 90% of the variance on the predicted time-integrated {sup 137}Cs concentration was explainable by linear relationships with model paramaters. The model was also relatively insensitive to uncertainties in the estimates of ambient temperature, suggesting that adequate estimates of temperature-dependent ingestion and elimination may require relatively few measurements of ambient conditions at sites of interest. Analyses of Richards sigmoidal models of {sup 137}Cs uptake indicated significant differences from a negative exponential trajectory in the 1st yr after the turtles` release into Pond B. 76 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific Walrus and Bearded Seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Seagars, D J; Jokela, T; Layton, D

    2005-02-02

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea. The mean {sup 137}Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg{sup -1} (N= 5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg{sup -1} (N=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, {sup 137}Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, {sup 210}Po activity concentrations appear to be higher than those reported elsewhere but a larger variation. The mean {sup 210}Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (N=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. This compares with {sup 210}Po concentration values (N=2, wet weight) of 27, 207, and 68 Bq kg{sup -1} measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated bioaccumulation factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for {sup 210}Po that those of {sup 137}Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of {sup 137}Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessing health risks to Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic.

  5. Reducing the 137Cs-load in the organism of "Chernobyl" children with apple-pectin.

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, V B; Nesterenko, A V; Babenko, V I; Yerkovich, T V; Babenko, I V

    2004-01-10

    As a complement of standard radioprotective measures, apple-pectin preparations are given, especially in the Ukraine, to reduce the 137Cs uptake in the organism of children. The question has been raised: is oral pectin also useful when children receive radiologically clean food, or does this polysaccharide only act in binding 137Cs in the gut, blocking its intestinal absorption? In this case, pectin would be useless if radiologically clean food could be given. The study was a randomised, double blind placebo-controlled trial comparing the efficacy of a dry and milled apple-extract containing 15-16% pectin with a similar placebo-powder, in 64 children originating from the same group of contaminated villages of the Gomel oblast. The average 137Cs load was of about 30 Bq/kg bodyweight (BW). The trial was conducted during the simultaneous one-month stay in the sanatorium Silver Spring. In this clean radiological environment only radiologically "clean" food is given to the children. The average reduction of the 137Cs levels in children receiving oral pectin powder was 62.6%, the reduction with "clean" food and placebo was 13.9%, the difference being statistically significant (p <0.01). The reduction of the 137Cs load is medically relevant, as no child in the placebo group reached values below 20 Bq/kg BW (which is considered by Bandazhevsky as potentially associated with specific pathological tissue damages), with an average value of 25.8 +/- 0.8 Bq/kg. The highest value in the apple-pectin group was 15.4 Bq/kg, the average value being 11.3 +/- 0.6 Bq/kg BW.

  6. Gene Expression Response of Mice after a Single Dose of 137Cs as an Internal Emitter

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Sunirmal; Ghandhi, Shanaz A.; Weber, Waylon; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Melo, Dunstana; Guilmette, Raymond; Amundson, Sally A.

    2014-01-01

    Cesium-137 is a radionuclide of concern in fallout from reactor accidents or nuclear detonations. When ingested or inhaled, it can expose the entire body for an extended period of time, potentially contributing to serious health consequences ranging from acute radiation syndrome to increased cancer risks. To identify changes in gene expression that may be informative for detecting such exposure, and to begin examining the molecular responses involved, we have profiled global gene expression in blood of male C57BL/6 mice injected with 137CsCl. We extracted RNA from the blood of control or 137CsCl-injected mice at 2, 3, 5, 20 or 30 days after exposure. Gene expression was measured using Agilent Whole Mouse Genome Microarrays, and the data was analyzed using BRB-ArrayTools. Between 466–6,213 genes were differentially expressed, depending on the time after 137Cs administration. At early times (2–3 days), the majority of responsive genes were expressed above control levels, while at later times (20–30 days) most responding genes were expressed below control levels. Numerous genes were overexpressed by day 2 or 3, and then underexpressed by day 20 or 30, including many Tp53-regulated genes. The same pattern was seen among significantly enriched gene ontology categories, including those related to nucleotide binding, protein localization and modification, actin and the cytoskeleton, and in the integrin signaling canonical pathway. We compared the expression of several genes three days after 137CsCl injection and three days after an acute external gamma-ray exposure, and found that the internal exposure appeared to produce a more sustained response. Many common radiation-responsive genes are altered by internally administered 137Cs, but the gene expression pattern resulting from continued irradiation at a decreasing dose rate is extremely complex, and appears to involve a late reversal of much of the initial response. PMID:25162453

  7. Natural decrease of the intensity level of artificial radioactive isotopes in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, G. G.; Matishov, D. G.; Solatie, D.; Kasatkina, N. E.; Leppanen, A.

    2009-08-01

    The results of radioecological investigations carried out within the framework of the Russian-Finnish high-latitude expedition in 2007 are presented. The characteristics of the present-day accumulation level of the significant radioecological isotopes 137Cs, 90Sr and 239,240Pu in the Barents Sea are described. The comparative analysis is performed for the radiation pollution of the environment in the 1980s and 1990s and in the first decade of the 21st century. Natural purification processes in the marine environment are the main factors of the decrease in the intensity level of artificial radioactive isotopes. These processes include repeated dilution, nuclear decay, occlusion by sediments and suspended solid material, and accumulation by aquatic inhabitants. A stable decreasing trend is observed for the intensity level of artificial radioactive isotopes in the Barents Sea.

  8. IAEA-447: a new certified reference material for environmental radioactivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Shakhashiro, A; Tarjan, S; Ceccatelli, A; Kis-Benedek, G; Betti, M

    2012-08-01

    The environment program of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) includes activities to produce and certify reference materials for environmental radioactivity measurements. This paper describes methodologies applied in preparation and certification of the new IAEA-447 moss-soil certified reference material. In this work, the massic activities and associated standard uncertainties of (40)K, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (212)Pb, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, (226)Ra, (228)Ac, (234)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu, (241)Pu and (241)Am were established. Details of the analytical methods including radiochemical procedures were reported. Analytical challenges and lessons learned from the reported results in the worldwide IAEA proficiency test using this material was summarized and best analytical practices to improve the performance for environmental radioactivity determinations were recommended. IAEA-447 is an important reference material for quality control and method validation of gamma-ray spectrometry and radiochemical analytical procedures.

  9. Atmospheric removal times of the aerosol-bound radionuclides 137Cs and 131I during the months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident - a constraint for air quality and climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Wotawa, G.

    2012-05-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) and iodine-131 (131I) are radionuclides of particular concern during nuclear accidents, because they are emitted in large amounts and are of significant health impact. 137Cs and 131I attach to the ambient accumulation-mode (AM) aerosols and share their fate as the aerosols are removed from the atmosphere by scavenging within clouds, precipitation and dry deposition. Here, we estimate their removal times from the atmosphere using a unique high-precision global measurement data set collected over several months after the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. The noble gas xenon-133 (133Xe), also released during the accident, served as a passive tracer of air mass transport for determining the removal times of 137Cs and 131I via the decrease in the measured ratios 137Cs/133Xe and 131I/133Xe over time. After correction for radioactive decay, the 137Cs/133Xe ratios reflect the removal of aerosols by wet and dry deposition, whereas the 131I/133Xe ratios are also influenced by aerosol production from gaseous 131I. We find removal times for 137Cs of 10.0-13.9 days and for 131I of 17.1-24.2 days during April and May 2011. We discuss possible caveats (e.g. late emissions, resuspension) that can affect the results, and compare the 137Cs removal times with observation-based and modeled aerosol lifetimes. Our 137Cs removal time of 10.0-13.9 days should be representative of a "background" AM aerosol well mixed in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere troposphere. It is expected that the lifetime of this vertically mixed background aerosol is longer than the lifetime of AM aerosols originating from surface sources. However, the substantial difference to the mean lifetimes of AM aerosols obtained from aerosol models, typically in the range of 3-7 days, warrants further research on the cause of this discrepancy. Too short modeled AM aerosol lifetimes would have serious implications for air quality and climate model predictions.

  10. Simulations of the transport and deposition of 137Cs over Europe after the Chernobyl NPP accident: influence of varying emission-altitude and model horizontal and vertical resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangeliou, N.; Balkanski, Y.; Cozic, A.; Møller, A. P.

    2013-03-01

    The coupled model LMDzORINCA has been used to simulate the transport, wet and dry deposition of the radioactive tracer 137Cs after accidental releases. For that reason, two horizontal resolutions were deployed and used in the model, a regular grid of 2.5°×1.25°, and the same grid stretched over Europe to reach a resolution of 0.45°×0.51°. The vertical dimension is represented with two different resolutions, 19 and 39 levels, respectively, extending up to mesopause. Four different simulations are presented in this work; the first uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels assuming that the emissions took place at the surface (RG19L(S)), the second also uses the regular grid over 19 vertical levels but realistic source injection heights (RG19L); in the third resolution the grid is regular and the vertical resolution 39 vertical levels (RG39L) and finally, it is extended to the stretched grid with 19 vertical levels (Z19L). The best choice for the model validation was the Chernobyl accident which occurred in Ukraine (ex-USSR) on 26 May 1986. This accident has been widely studied since 1986, and a large database has been created containing measurements of atmospheric activity concentration and total cumulative deposition for 137Cs from most of the European countries. According to the results, the performance of the model to predict the transport and deposition of the radioactive tracer was efficient and accurate presenting low biases in activity concentrations and deposition inventories, despite the large uncertainties on the intensity of the source released. However, the best agreement with observations was obtained using the highest horizontal resolution of the model (Z19L run). The model managed to predict the radioactive contamination in most of the European regions (similar to Atlas), and also the arrival times of the radioactive fallout. As regards to the vertical resolution, the largest biases were obtained for the 39 layers run due to the increase of

  11. The influence of biotic and abiotic factors on (137)Cs accumulation in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP.

    PubMed

    Zarubina, N

    2016-09-01

    Levels of soil contamination with (137)Cs, the belonging of fungi to a certain ecological group, the localization depth of the main part of mycelium in soil are the primary factors influencing the value of (137)Cs specific activity in higher fungi after the accident at Chernobyl NPP. It has been found that the value of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi of one species could vary by more than 10 times during a vegetation period. A correlation between the changes of (137)Cs content in fungi during the vegetation period and the amount of precipitates during various periods preceding the collection of samples has not been determined. An assumption has been proposed stating dependence between peculiarities of mycelium growth during the vegetation period and the changes of (137)Cs specific activity in fungi.

  12. (137)Cs concentration in zooplankton and its relation to taxonomic composition in the western North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kaeriyama, Hideki; Watabe, Teruhisa; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2008-12-01

    To study the role of zooplankton in the transport of (137)Cs in the ocean, zooplankton samples were collected in October 2005 and June 2006 in the western North Pacific Ocean. The peak zooplankton biomass was observed in the surface layer, and gelatinous plankton was more abundant in October 2005 than in June 2006 reflecting exchange of water masses. The concentrations of (137)Cs in zooplankton varied from 11 to 24 mBq kg wet(-1) and were higher in October 2005 than in June 2006. The elevated abundance of gelatinous zooplankton probably led to higher concentration of (137)Cs in zooplankton in October 2005. Annual export fluxes of (137)Cs by ontogenetic vertical migrant copepods were estimated to be 0.8 and 0.6 mBq m(-2) year(-1) at 200 and 1000 m depths, respectively; this suggested that transport of (137)Cs by zooplankton may be no trivial pathway.

  13. [Prediction of 137Cs behaviour in the soil-plant system in the territory of Semipalatinsk test site].

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, S I; Mukusheva, M K; Gontarenko, I A; Fesenko, S V; Baranov, S A

    2005-01-01

    A mathematical model of 137Cs behaviour in the soil-plant system is presented. The model has been parameterized for the area adjacent to the testing area Ground Zero of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. The model describes the main processes responsible for the changes in 137Cs content in the soil solution and, thereby, dynamics of the radionuclide uptake by vegetation. The results are taken from predictive and retrospective calculations that reflect the dynamics of 137Cs distribution by species in soil after nuclear explosions. The importance of factors governing 137Cs accumulation in plants within the STS area is assessed. The analysis of sensitivity of the output model variable to changes in its parameters revealed that the key soil properties significantly influence the results of prediction of 137Cs content in plants.

  14. Constraints on the use of 137Cs as a time-marker to support CRS and SIT chronologies.

    PubMed

    Abril, J M

    2004-05-01

    CRS and SIT are two (210)Pb-based models widely used in the radiometric dating of recent sediments. (210)Pb chronologies should be validated using at least one independent tracer, such as (137)Cs. This paper demonstrates that simple methods based on the identification of (137)Cs fallout peaks cannot provide a definitive support for CRS and SIT chronologies. Two main arguments will support this assertion: Firstly, the (137)Cs time-marks cannot support a CRS or SIT chronology if the derived sedimentation rates cannot explain the whole (137)Cs activity profile without postulating mixing. Secondly, the support by the (137)Cs time-marks for a given CRS or SIT chronology cannot be considered as definitive if other dating models can equally explain the whole set of data, thereby producing a different chronology. Several case studies selected from the literature are used to support the present discussion.

  15. Vertical and lateral distribution of fallout (137)Cs and soil properties along representative toposequences of central Rif, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Mesrar, Haytam; Sadiki, Abdelhamid; Faleh, Ali; Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and quantify the relationships between current (137)Cs inventories and the soil properties and the physiographic characteristics. A total of 36 cores were taken in seven transects with different slopes, lithology and land use. The analysis focused on the (137)Cs mass activity as well as inventories and its relationship with soil properties as grain size and organic matter. The mass activity of (137)Cs and the inventories varied between 3.6 and 63.7 Bq kg(-1) and between 521.7 and 3304.4 Bq m(-2), respectively. At uncultivated soils, high concentrations of (137)Cs are located in the top 10 cm and decreased exponentially in depth. Cultivated soils record disturbed and heterogeneous (137)Cs profiles with values of mass activity and inventories up to 38.7 Bq kg(-1) and 2510.8 Bq m(-2), respectively. The (137)Cs inventories were significantly higher in uncultivated soils (mean: 2086.9 Bq m(-2)) compared to cultivated soils (mean: 1397.1 Bq m(-2)). The (137)Cs mass activity showed a significant positive correlation with organic matter, silt and clay, but it was negatively correlated with sand and pH respectively. High levels of (137)Cs were found at altitudes between 500 m and 640 m a.s.l, and at slopes from 8° to 11°, as well as in dense scrub land and Fersialitic soils. A principal component analysis showed that more than 86.7% of the variance in (137)Cs mass activity was explained by the organic matter content and the land use. The results of this study provide insights into the effects of soil properties and physiographic factors on the behaviour of (137)Cs in soils of Mediterranean environments of North Africa and strengthen the reliability of this radioisotope as an erosion tracer.

  16. Analysis of 50-y record of surface (137)Cs concentrations in the global ocean using the HAM-global database.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Yayoi; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated spatial and temporal variations in (137)Cs concentrations in the surface waters of the global ocean for the period from 1957 to 2005 using the "HAM database - a global version". Based on the 0.5-y average value of (137)Cs concentrations in the surface water in each sea area, we classified the temporal variations into four types. (1) In the North Pacific Ocean where there was high fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, the rates of decrease in the (137)Cs concentrations changed over the five decades: the rate of decrease from the 1950s to the 1970s was much faster than that after the 1970s, and the (137)Cs concentrations were almost constant after the 1990s. Latitudinal differences in (137)Cs concentrations in the North Pacific Ocean became small with time. (2) In the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans, the (137)Cs concentrations varied within a constant range in the 1970s and 1980s, suggesting the advection of (137)Cs from areas of high global fallout in the mid-latitudes of the North Pacific Ocean. (3) In the eastern South Pacific and Atlantic Oceans (south of 40 degrees S), the concentrations decreased exponentially over the five decades. (4) In the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans, including marginal seas, (137)Cs concentrations were strongly controlled by discharge from nuclear reprocessing plants after the late 1970s. The apparent half-residence times of (137)Cs in the surface waters of the global ocean from 1970 to 2005 ranged from 4.5 to 36.8 years. The apparent half-residence times were longer in the equatorial region and shorter in the higher latitudes. There was no notable difference between the latitudinal distributions of the apparent half-residence times in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. These results suggest that (137)Cs in the North Pacific Ocean is transported to the equatorial, South Pacific, and Indian Oceans by the oceanic circulation.

  17. Persistence of 137Cs in the litter layers of forest soil horizons of Mount IDA/Kazdagi, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, Özlem; Karakurt, Hidayet; Çakır, Rukiye; Çoban, Fatih; Büyükok, Emir; Akal, Cüneyt

    2015-01-01

    In 2010-2012, an extensive study was performed in forest sites of Mount IDA (Kazdagi)/Edremit 26 years after the Chernobyl accident. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in the forest soil layers (OL, OF + OH and A horizons) separately. Based on 341 surface soil samples and 118 soil profiles, activity concentrations of (137)Cs in OL horizons varied between 0.25 ± 0.14 and 70 ± 1 Bq kg(-1), while the ranges of (137)Cs activity concentrations in OF + OH and A horizons were 13 ± 1-555 ± 3 Bq kg(-1) and 2 ± 1-253 ± 2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Cesium-137 deposition in the study area was estimated to be in the range of 1-39 kBq m(-2) and a linear relationship between the deposition of (137)Cs and the altitude was observed. The distributions of (137)Cs activities in OL, OF + OH and A horizons throughout the region were mapped in detail. The highest (137)Cs activities were found in OF + OH horizons, with markedly lower (137)Cs activity in mineral horizons of soil profiles. It is observed that (137)Cs content of humus layer increases with the thickness of the humus layer for coniferous forest sites. The (137)Cs activity concentrations were higher than the recommended screening limits (150 Bq kg(-1)) at some of the investigated areas. The current activity concentration of top soil layers indicates that over many years since the initial deposition, (137)Cs activity is keeping still high in the organic horizons.

  18. Effects of arctic temperatures on distribution and retention of the nuclear waste radionuclides 241Am, 57Co, and 137Cs in the bioindicator bivalve Macoma balthica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchins, D.A.; Stupakoff, I.; Hook, S.; Luoma, S.N.; Fisher, N.S.

    1998-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in Arctic seas has made it important to understand the processes affecting the accumulation of radionuclides in food webs in coldwater ecosystems. We examined the effects of temperature on radionuclide assimilation and retention by the bioindicator bivalve Macoma balthica using three representative nuclear waste components, 241Am, 57Co, and 137Cs. Experiments were designed to determine the kinetics of processes that control uptake from food and water, as well as kinetic constants of loss. 137Cs was not accumulated in soft tissue from water during short exposures, and was rapidly lost from shell with no thermal dependence. No effects of temperature on 57Co assimilation or retention from food were observed. The only substantial effect of polar temperatures was that on the assimilation efficiency of 241Am from food, where 10% was assimilated at 2??C and 26% at 12??C. For all three radionuclides, body distributions were correlated with source, with most radioactivity obtained from water found in the shell and food in the soft tissues. These results suggest that in general Arctic conditions had relatively small effects on the biological processes which influence the bioaccumulation of radioactive wastes, and bivalve concentration factors may not be appreciably different between polar and temperate waters.

  19. Radiocaesium (137Cs) in marine mammals from Svalbard, the Barents Sea and the North Greenland Sea.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Magnus; Gwynn, Justin P; Dowdall, Mark; Kovacs, Kit M; Lydersen, Christian

    2006-06-15

    Specific activities of the anthropogenic radionuclide, 137Cs, were determined in marine mammals from Svalbard and the Barents and North Greenland Seas. Muscle samples were collected from 12 polar bears, 15 ringed seals, 10 hooded seals, 7 bearded seals, 14 harp seals, one walrus, one white whale and one blue whale in the period 2000-2003. The mean concentrations (+/-SD) of 137Cs were: 0.72+/-0.62 Bq/kg wet weight (w.w.) for polar bears; 0.49+/-0.07 Bq/kg w.w. for ringed seals; 0.25+/-0.10 Bq/kg w.w. for hooded seals; 0.22+/-0.11 Bq/kg w.w. for bearded seals; 0.36+/-0.13 Bq/kg w.w. for harp seals; 0.67 Bq/kg w.w. for the white whale sample; 0.24 Bq/kg w.w. for the blue whale; and below detection limit for the walrus. Significant differences in 137Cs specific activities between some of the species were found. Ringed seals had higher specific activities than the other seal species in the study. Bearded seals and hooded seals had similar values, which were both significantly lower than the harp seal values. The results in the present study are consistent with previous reported results, indicating low specific activities of 137Cs in Arctic marine mammals in the Barents Sea and Greenland Sea region during the last 20 years. The species specific differences found may be explained by varying diet or movement and distribution patterns between species. No age related patterns were found in specific activities for the two species (polar bears and hooded seals) for which sufficient data was available. Concentration factors (CF) of 137Cs from seawater were determined for polar bears, ringed, bearded, harp and hooded seals. Mean CF values ranged from 79+/-32 (SD) for bearded seals sampled in 2002 to 244+/-36 (SD) for ringed seals sampled in 2003 these CF values are higher than those reported for fish and benthic organisms in the literature, suggesting bioaccumulation of 137Cs in the marine ecosystem.

  20. Accumulation of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs in bottom sediments of some Finnish lakes.

    PubMed

    Ilus, Erkki; Saxén, Ritva

    2005-01-01

    The amount and vertical distribution of Chernobyl-derived 137Cs in the bottom sediments of some Finnish lakes were studied. Sediment and surface water samples were taken in 2000 and 2003 from 12 stations in nine lakes and the results were compared with those obtained in corresponding surveys carried out in 1969, 1978, 1988 and 1990. Each of the five deposition categories of Chernobyl fallout in Finland were represented. The depth profiles of 137Cs in the sediments showed considerable variety in the lakes studied. The peak values varied between 1.5 and 46 kBq kg(-1) dry wt. The size and shape of the peak did not always correlate with the amount of deposition in the area, but on the other hand, reflected differences in sedimentation processes in different lakes. In some of the lakes the peak still occurred in the uppermost (0-2 cm) sediment layer, but in an extreme case the peak occurred at a depth of 22-23 cm corresponding to a sedimentation rate of 16 mm year(-1) during the 14 years after the Chernobyl accident. The total amounts of 137Cs in sediments varied from 15 to 170 kBq m(-2) at the sampling stations studied. Since 1990, the amounts have continued to increase slightly in two lakes, but started to decrease in the other lakes. In most of the lakes, the total amounts of 137Cs in sediments were about 1.5-2 times higher than in local deposition. In two lakes, the ratio was below 1, but in one case 3.2. Compared with the total amounts of 137Cs at the same stations in the late 1960s and 1970s, the values were now at their highest, at about 60-fold. The most important factors affecting 137Cs values in sediments were the local amount of deposition and the type of the lake and the sediment, but in addition, there were a number of other factors to be considered.

  1. Biological effects of {sup 137}CsCl injected in beagle dogs of different dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikula, K.J.; Boecker, B.B.; Griffith, W.C.

    1996-11-01

    The toxicity of {sup 137}Cs in the beagle dog was investigated at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of programs to evaluate the biological effects of both radionuclides in atomic bomb fallout and internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. In the ITRI study, young adult dogs were exposed once by intravenous injection to a range of {sup 137}Cs concentrations; the results have recently been published. The purpose of the present report is to summarize the ANL study and to compare the results of the two studies. At ANL, 63 dogs in three age groups (15 juveniles, 142-151 days old; 38 young adults, 388-427 days old; and 10 middle-aged dogs, 1387-2060 days old) were given {sup 137}Cs intravenously at levels (61-162f MBq/kg) near those expected to be lethal within 30 days after injection. There were 17 control dogs from the same colony. Twenty-three of the dogs injected with {sup 137}Cs, including all middle-aged dogs, died within 52 days after injection due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia that led to fatal hemorrhage and/or septicemia. The other significant early effect was damage to the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules. The design of the ANL study revealed an age- and gender-related differential radiosensitivity for early effects. The middle-aged dogs died significantly earlier due to complications of hematological dyscrasia compared to the juvenile and young adult dogs, and the middle-aged females died significantly earlier than the middle-aged males. The most significant non-neoplastic late effects in the {sup 137}Cs-injected dogs from ANL and ITRI were atrophy of the germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules with azoospermia, and a significant dose-dependent decrease in survival. The survival of the ANL dogs was decreased more than that of the ITRI dogs at similar radiation doses from {sup 137}Cs. 19 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Baseline quantity of 131I, 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K in urinary excretions from Thai people and internal exposure dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peekhunthod, D.; Bangvirunrak, J.; Sansakon, S.; Nukultham, A.; Pukkhaw, T.

    2017-06-01

    Today, sealed and unsealed radioactive materials have been used in Thailand for various purposes such as medical, agricultural and industrial applications. There is a growing trend in the use of radioactive materials. Moreover, neighboring countries are planning to construct and operate nuclear power plants. In case of nuclear power plant accidents, radioactive releases in environment and intakes into human body by inhalation and ingestion causing long term health effects. This research aims to determine the radiation baseline quantity of interested relevant radionuclides such as 131I, 137Cs, 134Cs as well as a natural radionuclide, 40K in urine samples of Thai people by gamma spectrometry. Two types of detectors (NaI and HpGe detectors) are calibrated by mixed radionuclide standards of 109Cd, 57Co, 133Ba, 54Mn, 137Cs and 60Co, (energy range from 88 to 1,331 keV). 720 urine samples are collected over a 24 hour period from Thai volunteers with the age older than 18 years old, who lived in eight locations of Thailand. To reduce the effect of geometric difference, 30 ml of urine samples are prepared for counting measurement and efficiency determination. The radiation baseline quantity of 131I, 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K in 30 ml of urine samples are 0.37±0.09, 0.63±0.13, 0.39±0.08 and 7.84±1.63 Bq, respectively. Based on the assumption of intake (50% of the intake by ingestion and 50% of the intake by inhalation), internal dose for members of public are assessed. The committed dose equivalent due to an intake of 131I, 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K are 2.36E-03±1.66-03, 1.15E-01±8.61E-02, 1.16E-01±7.77E-02, 9.44E-01±3.56E-01 mSv per year, respectively.

  3. Behavior of (137)Cs in ponds in the vicinity of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Konoplev, Alexei; Wada, Toshihiro; Takase, Tsugiko; Byrnes, Ian; Carradine, Matthew; Nanba, Kenji

    2017-08-08

    (137)Cs activity concentration in the water of four ponds, Suzuuchi (SU), Funasawa (FS), Inkyozaka (IZ), and Kashiramori (KM), that are within 10 km of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant were observed from April 2015 to August 2016. (137)Cs inventories in soils surrounding SU, FS, IZ, and KM were 6.4, 2.9, 2.1, and 0.9 MBq m(-2), respectively. (137)Cs inventories in the bottom sediments of SU, FS, IZ, and KM were 13, 8.9, 1.6, and 1.1 MBq m(-2), respectively. Higher (137)Cs inventories in bottom sediment than those of soil in SU and FS suggest that (137)Cs was delivered to and accumulated in these ponds. Mean total (137)Cs activity concentrations in SU, FS, IZ, and KM were 41, 13, 9.5, and 1.4 Bq L(-1), respectively. Particulate (137)Cs concentration accounted for 71-90% of total (137)Cs in the water samples, on average. The mean distribution coefficient, Kd, in SU, FS, IZ, and KM was 1.3 × 10(5), 2.1 × 10(5), 1.7 × 10(5), and 6.2 × 10(5) L kg(-1), respectively. These Kd values were higher than the Kd values observed in the Chernobyl area by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Although no significant decreasing trends were found, dissolved (137)Cs activity concentration tended to be low during winter in all four ponds. Dissolved (137)Cs activity concentrations were proportional to K(+) and DOC concentrations in all the ponds. The results from principal component analysis performed for (137)Cs activity concentration and water chemistry data sets suggested that there were different mechanisms behind variability of dissolved (137)Cs activity concentrations for each pond. Continuous monitoring is required to reveal temporal trends in (137)Cs activity concentrations of these waters and controlling factors of such in closed water systems in Fukushima. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Collective doses to man from dumping of radioactive waste in the Arctic Seas.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, S P; Iosjpe, M; Strand, P

    1997-08-25

    A box model for the dispersion of radionuclides in the marine environment covering the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean has been constructed. Collective doses from ingestion pathways have been calculated from unit releases of the radionuclides 3H, 60Co, 63Ni, 90Sr, 129I, 137Cs, 239Pu and 241Am into a fjord on the east coast of NovayaZemlya. The results show that doses for the shorter-lived radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs) are derived mainly from seafood production in the Barents Sea. Doses from the longer-lived radionuclides (e.g. 239Pu) are delivered through marine produce further away from the Arctic Ocean. Collective doses were calculated for two release scenarios, both of which are based on information of the dumping of radioactive waste in the Barents and Kara Seas by the former Soviet Union and on preliminary information from the International Arctic Sea Assessment Programme. A worst-case scenario was assumed according to which all radionuclides in liquid and solid radioactive waste were available for dispersion in the marine environment at the time of dumping. Release of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel was assumed to take place by direct corrosion of the fuel ignoring the barriers that prevent direct contact between the fuel and the seawater. The second scenario selected assumed that releases of radionuclides from spent nuclear fuel do not occur until after failure of the protective barriers. All other liquid and solid radioactive waste was assumed to be available for dispersion at the time of discharge in both scenarios. The estimated collective dose for the worst-case scenario was about 9 manSv and that for the second scenario was about 3 manSv. In both cases, 137Cs is the radionuclide predicted to dominate the collective doses as well as the peak collective dose rates.

  5. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response.

    PubMed

    Bari, A; Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Syed, U-F; Roselan, A; Haines, D K; Roth, G; West, L; Arndt, M

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with (241)Am (alpha radioactivity), (90)Sr/(90)Y (beta radioactivity), and (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity.

  6. Determination of 137Cs in large volume seawater using Cu-hexacyanoferrate cartridge filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visetpotjanakit, S.; Tumnoi, Y.

    2017-06-01

    A simple method to determine 137Cs in seawater has been developed based on the use of a Cu-hexacyanoferrate scavenger. The Cu-hexacyanoferrate supported on cotton wound cartridge filter was used to absorb 137Cs from seawater by passing large volumes over the cartridge filters with flowrate of 240 L hr-1. Results from the Cu-hexacyanoferrate method were proved acceptable for accuracy with bias below ± 20 % i.e. - 9.16 to + 18.55 % when compared with the traditional ammonium molybdophosphate pre-concentration method. This developed method is cost-effective and less time consuming. In addition it can be easily performed at sampling fields.

  7. Implications of excess 210Pb and 137Cs in sediment cores from Mikawa Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xueqiang; Matsumoto, Eiji

    2009-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected from Mikawa Bay, Japan, and excess 210Pb and 137Cs were measured by gamma spectrometry. Sedimentation rates for the four cores were determined by 210Pb method. The sedimentation rate range is 0.10-0.70 g/(cm2 x year). The bio-mixing depth for each core is less than 7.0 cm, and was determined by the excess 210Pb profiles as well. Therefore, the bioturbation is slight. The 210Pb-derived dates coincided with the results from 137Cs geochronology. Acceleration in sedimentation rate due to environmental alteration has been found in cores A2.5 and 05AS8, representing two depocenters due to their topography. Evidence of the Tokai Flood in 2000 was found in core 05AS8 according to the profiles of both radioisotopes and trace metals.

  8. Ecological half-life of 137Cs in lichens in an alpine region.

    PubMed

    Machart, Peter; Hofmann, Werner; Türk, Roman; Steger, Ferdinand

    2007-01-01

    About 17 years after the Chernobyl accident, lichen samples were collected in an alpine region in Austria (Bad Gastein), which was heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. Measured 137Cs activity concentrations in selected lichens (Cetraria islandica, Cetraria cucullata, and Cladonia arbuscula) ranged from 100 to 1100 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, depending on lichen species and sampling site. Ecological half-lives for 137Cs in different lichen samples, obtained by comparison with earlier measurements of the same lichen species at the same site, ranged from 2 to 6 years, with average values between 3 and 4 years. Comparison with earlier studies indicated that ecological half-lives hardly changed during the last 10 years, suggesting that ecological clearance mechanisms (e.g. washout or soil transfer) did not vary substantially at the selected sampling area.

  9. Accumulation of /sup 137/Cs in commercial fish of the Belyarsk nuclear power station cooling supply

    SciTech Connect

    Trapeznikova, V.N.; Kulikov, N.V.; Trapeznikov, A.V.

    1984-07-01

    Results are presented of a comparative study of the accumulation of /sup 137/Cs in basic species of commercial fish of the Beloyarsk reservoir which is used as the cooling supply for the Beloyarsk nuclear power station. Possible reasons for interspecies differences in accumulation of the radionuclide are indicated, and the increased accumulation of /sup 137/Cs by free-living fish in the zone of heated water effluent from the station and the reduced accumulation of the emitter in carp, which are cultivated on artificial food in cages, are noted. Levels of the content of the radionuclide are compared in roach and farm carp from the cooling supplies of the Beloyarsk station and the Reftinsk power plant in the Urals.

  10. {sup 137}Cs content in the fruit bodies of various Tuber species

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzelli, R.; Lamma, A.; Zambonelli, A.; Serra, F.

    1996-12-01

    In this research, the concentration of {sup 137}Cs in the fruit bodies of the Tuber species T. magnatum Pico, T. borchii Vitt., T. aestivum Vitt., and T. excavatum Vitt. collected in three different regions of Italy was determined. The values obtained have been compared to the soil concentration of {sup 137}Cs, and the transfer factor was determined. The radiocesium content of the examined fruit bodies ranged from 2.5 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} to 33.3 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} fresh weight; the median transfer factor values of the four species ranged between 0.06 and 0.6. Our findings indicate that the radiocesium level in truffles from these regions of Italy is generally low, and, thus, their consumption is not of radiological concern. The results may suggest certain hypotheses as to the mechanisms involved in radiocesium uptake in these fungi. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications

    DOE PAGES

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.

    2015-11-02

    135Cs/137Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the 135Cs/137Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated 135Cs/137Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement withmore » values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. Furthermore, the differences in 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe.« less

  12. Effects of ageing and microbial component on chemical availability of (137)Cs in a long-term experimental site.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Weiliang; Rosén, Klas; Mårtensson, Anna

    2007-06-01

    A loamy soil contaminated with (137)CsCl 40 years ago was investigated by a sequential extraction technique to determine the effect of ageing on chemical availability of (137)Cs. The soil samples were sequentially extracted with H(2)O, NH(4)Ac, NH(2)OH x HCl, H(2)O(2), and HNO(3). Extractability of (137)Cs decreased in the order: HNO(3) > Residual > H(2)O(2) > NH(4)Ac > NH(2)OH x HCl > H(2)O. Only 0.94% in labile fractions (H(2)O and NH(4)Ac), while more than 96% was found in the strongly bound fraction (HNO(3) and residual). However, the activity percentage in labile fractions was increased to 1.34% after autoclaving treatment, while those in the other fractions did not significantly differ. This indicates that the microbial activity played a role in the (137)Cs retention. In the subsequent pot experiments with ryegrass and leek, specific activities in both plants were significantly higher in autoclaved soil than in non-autoclaved soil, and uptake of (137)Cs in the five cuts by ryegrass was 25% of the labile (137)Cs in the soil. In addition, a positive correlation was found between the amount of (137)Cs in labile fractions and that by plant uptake.

  13. (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic composition of environmental samples across Europe: Environmental transport and source term emission applications.

    PubMed

    Snow, Mathew S; Snyder, Darin C

    2016-01-01

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic analyses represent an important tool for studying the fate and transport of radiocesium in the environment; in this work the (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotopic composition in environmental samples taken from across Europe is reported. Surface soil and vegetation samples from western Russia, Ukraine, Austria, and Hungary show consistent aged thermal fission product (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios of 0.58 ± 0.01 (age corrected to 1/1/15), with the exception of one sample of soil-moss from Hungary which shows an elevated (135)Cs/(137)Cs ratio of 1.78 ± 0.12. With the exception of the outlier sample from Hungary, surface soil/vegetation data are in quantitative agreement with values previously reported for soils within the Chernobyl exclusion zone, suggesting that radiocesium at these locations is primarily composed of homogenous airborne deposition from Chernobyl. Seawater samples taken from the Irish Sea show (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios of 1.22 ± 0.11 (age corrected to 1/1/15), suggesting aged thermal fission product Cs discharged from Sellafield. The differences in (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios between Sellafield, Chernobyl, and global nuclear weapons testing fallout indicate that (135)Cs/(137)Cs isotope ratios can be utilized to discriminate between and track radiocesium transport from different nuclear production source terms, including major emission sources in Europe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs used to determine sediment accretion rates at selected northern European coastal wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.C.; DeLaune, R.D.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

    1996-05-01

    Sediment cores were collected form five coastal wetlands along the North Sea (England and Netherlands) and Baltic Sea (Poland). {sup 137}Cs dating was used to assess sediment accretion rates, including rates based on the {sup 137}Cs peak from the 1986 accident at Chernobyl. Peaks form the Chernobyl fallout were found in cores from the Oder and Vistula Rivers in Poland, from the Eastern Scheldt in the Netherlands, and in one of the two cores from Stiffkey Marsh, UK. No evidence of Chernobyl fallout was found in cores from Dengie Marsh, UK. The Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs peak serves as an excellent marker for short-term accretion rates because of its high activity. Vertical accretion rates (cm yr{sup {minus}1}) based on 1963 and 1986 peaks were similar at most sites; differences may be due to large inputs of sediment from storms or recent accumulation of organic matter. Large differences in sediment characteristics and accretion rates were found between samples from Poland and western Europe. Vertical accretion rates over the period 1963-1986 ranged from 0.26 to 0.85 cm{sup {minus}1} and from 0.30 to 1.90 cm yr{sup {minus}1} over the 1986-1991 period. Vertical accretion rates for the period these sites are in imminent danger of excessive flooding. The Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs peak will be especially useful for studies of short-term (i.e. very recent) sedimentation in the near future and for comparisons of sediment processes over different time scales. 33 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Decision support for the selection of reference sites using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bürge, Alexandra; Zehringer, Markus; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2017-08-01

    The classical approach of using 137Cs as a soil erosion tracer is based on the comparison between stable reference sites and sites affected by soil redistribution processes; it enables the derivation of soil erosion and deposition rates. The method is associated with potentially large sources of uncertainty with major parts of this uncertainty being associated with the selection of the reference sites. We propose a decision support tool to Check the Suitability of reference Sites (CheSS). Commonly, the variation among 137Cs inventories of spatial replicate reference samples is taken as the sole criterion to decide on the suitability of a reference inventory. Here we propose an extension of this procedure using a repeated sampling approach, in which the reference sites are resampled after a certain time period. Suitable reference sites are expected to present no significant temporal variation in their decay-corrected 137Cs depth profiles. Possible causes of variation are assessed by a decision tree. More specifically, the decision tree tests for (i) uncertainty connected to small-scale variability in 137Cs due to its heterogeneous initial fallout (such as in areas affected by the Chernobyl fallout), (ii) signs of erosion or deposition processes and (iii) artefacts due to the collection, preparation and measurement of the samples; (iv) finally, if none of the above can be assigned, this variation might be attributed to turbation processes (e.g. bioturbation, cryoturbation and mechanical turbation, such as avalanches or rockfalls). CheSS was exemplarily applied in one Swiss alpine valley where the apparent temporal variability called into question the suitability of the selected reference sites. In general we suggest the application of CheSS as a first step towards a comprehensible approach to test for the suitability of reference sites.

  16. (137)Cs contamination over Transylvania region (Romania) after Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Begy, R Cs; Simon, H; Vasilache, D; Kelemen, Sz; Cosma, C

    2017-12-01

    Following the radionuclide releases due to Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, various studies were completed by researchers all over the world in order to measure the surface contaminations by artificial radionuclides. The aim of this study was to evaluate (137)Cs surface contamination and to create an inventory distribution for Transylvania region (Romania) after the Chernobyl event using γ spectrometric measurements on soil samples collected from 153 locations. The results were compared to measured data from the Danube Delta and Moldova Republic, as well as to (137)Cs concentrations from the rest of Europe reported by literature. The (137)Cs surface concentrations in soil samples ranged between 0.4±0.1kBqm(-2) and 301.1±3.0kBqm(-2), having an average of 8.3±0.2kBqm(-2), with more elevated values in the mountain areas (18.3±0.6kBqm(-2)) compared to the hills and plains (2.6±0.1kBqm(-2)). Taking into consideration the cardinal regions, the northern and western regions received the least amount of (137)Cs (2.9±0.1kBqm(-2)), while the southern part received 16.3±0.6kBqm(-2). Sampling points with eastern slope exposure received the highest average (27.8±0.5kBqm(-2)), while southern, north-western and north-eastern ones received less than 8kBqm(-2). Two hotspots are reported at Iezer-Ighiel (72.7±5.9kBqm(-2)) and Tulgheș areas (51.5±0.6kBqm(-2)). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The inhibitory effects of potassium chloride versus potassium silicate application on (137)Cs uptake by rice.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Shigeto; Yoshioka, Kunio; Ota, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Sato, Makoto; Satou, Mutsuto

    2016-03-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company on 11 March 2011, potassium fertilizer was applied to agricultural fields in the southern Tohoku and northern Kanto regions of Japan to reduce the uptake of radiocesium by crops. In this study, we examined the effects of two types of potassium fertilizers, potassium chloride (a readily available potassium fertilizer) and potassium silicate (a slow-release potassium fertilizer), as well as a split application of potassium, on the accumulation of (137)Cs by rice plants in two pot experiments. The (137)Cs concentrations in the brown rice and in the above-ground plants were significantly lower after potassium chloride application than after potassium silicate application. The potassium ion (K(+)) concentrations in soil solutions sampled 9 and 21 d after transplanting were significantly higher for the potassium chloride application than for the potassium silicate application. The K(+) concentrations in soil solutions observed in the application of potassium silicate were similar to those in the treatment when no potassium was applied. This finding indicates that the application of potassium silicate did not sufficiently increase the available K(+) for rice plants in the soil, which led to a greater uptake of (137)Cs after the potassium silicate application than after the application of potassium chloride. The (137)Cs concentration in brown rice was higher in the split application of potassium fertilizer with the second application at the full heading stage than that without split application and the split application with the second application before heading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Combining radiometric images, 137Cs, geochemical and digital elevation data to quantify erosion dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, F.; Tourliere, B.; Bonte, P.; Perrin, J.; Bourdon, B.; Pili, E.

    2003-04-01

    In this study, gamma-spectroscopic airborne data, digital elevation data, together with river and sediment geochemical data have been combined to quantify chemical and physical erosion within a rather small watershed (150 km2). In addition, the 137Cs technique is applied to have a better understanding of present-day erosion and weathering processes. The Hyrome watershed, South-East Armorican Massif (France), mainly consists of brioverian micaschists. We have examined particularly how past and present physical and chemical erosion is distributed within the drainage basin. In order to enhance these merged effects all the data are combined by Hierarchy Ascending Classification (HAC - cluster analysis). The multivariable analysis sorts each individual data point into separate groups characterized by radiometry, geochemistry, slope and difference between altitude and base level affinities. HAC groups delineate zones used to select target sites inside the watershed. The radiometric airborne data clearly show that the plateau areas are depleted in K and U as a result of chemical erosion while Th is fairly constant. In contrast, the valleys are characterized by larger K and U concentrations reflecting the bedrock original composition. This probably indicates more recent incision and/or faster physical erosion. The 137Cs is used as a tracer of soil erosion because of its adsorption since 40 years on surface soil particles. Suitable undisturbed sites have been found for 137Cs measurements using a field-portable HP-Ge gamma detector and then on core samples. The 137Cs technique provides a quantitative estimation of erosion and weathering processes and a qualitative determination of origin, transport and accumulation zones from those pre-selected with HAC. This data will be used to establish how the present-day erosion and soil redistribution relate to the pattern of erosion visible by airborne gamma-spectrometry.

  19. Assessing soil redistribution in a complex karst catchment using fallout 137Cs and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, A.; López-Vicente, M.; Gaspar, L.; Machín, J.

    2013-08-01

    Caesium-137 derived from nuclear testing in the past century has been widely used as a sediment tracer of soil redistribution, providing information on medium term (40-50 years) erosion rates. To date, most studies have focused on individual fields of limited extent, but estimated rates and patterns of soil redistribution require upscaling to catchment level. An attempt to assess soil redistribution processes with strong geomorphic control on complex terrain, such as an internally drained karst catchment, is presented in this work. A comprehensive geomorphological survey of the Estanya Lake catchment (Spanish Pyrenees) enabled the main geomorphic elements to be identified with a grid resolution of 5 × 5 m, which was the basis for the terrain analyses. A detailed DEM was constructed and improved after field identification of the drainage system and point measures on gentle slopes with Total Topographic Station. A 100 × 100 m sampling grid was established to derive point data of 137Cs inventories across the catchment. Geostatistical interpolation of point samples of 137Cs inventories in soil was carried out to identify and assess the areas of sediment gain and loss by comparing with 137Cs reference inventories. Profile activity models were used to calibrate 137Cs data and to derive estimates of soil redistribution. GIS was used to provide spatially distributed erosion and deposition rates in the landscape for the whole catchment. The median values of soil erosion and deposition of 4.7 and 3.1 Mg ha- 1 year- 1, respectively, showed a large variability and reveal coupling between erosional and depositional forms in the catchment. The highest erosion and deposition rates were found in cultivated fields at the southern sector of the catchment. The spatial analysis of the results supports the importance of taking into account geomorphological features in karst catchments as relevant controlling factors in soil redistribution processes.

  20. [Modifying effect of incorporated 137Cs on the mechanism of adrenergic control of myocardial contraction].

    PubMed

    Lobanok, L M; Bulanova, K Ia; Gerasimovich, N V; Sineleva, M V; Miliutin, A A

    1994-01-01

    Incorporated 137Cs (absorbed dose of 0.26 Gy) causes decrease of myocardial's contractile function and inotropic response to beta-adrenagonists effect, isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity and beta-adrenoreceptors affinity. Adrenergic effects, mediated by alpha-adrenergic structures on heart contractile function, on the contrary, become stronger, that is due to the increase of the receptors' density on sarcolemma surface.

  1. Concentrations of (137)Cs in summer pasture plants that reindeer feed on in the reindeer management area of Finland.

    PubMed

    Anttila, Annukka; Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Rissanen, Kristiina; Ylipieti, Jarkko

    2011-07-01

    Samples of summer pasture plants that reindeer feed on were collected in order to study (137)Cs concentrations in different plant species and in species nested in certain site types, and to study the regional distribution of (137)Cs in the Finnish reindeer management area. Plant species were categorized by the site types of mineral soil forest (xeric heath forest and mesic heath forest) and peatland. A third category called 'other plant species' included plants with various site types, poorly determined species and species with poor statistics. The (137)Cs concentrations in different site types differed significantly. The mean (137)Cs concentrations of the whole reindeer management area in the xeric heath forest plant species was 44 ± 27 Bq/kg dw, in the mesic heath forest plant species 75 ± 59 Bq/kg dw and in the peatland plant species 219 ± 150 Bq/kg dw. The peatland species uptake (137)Cs more efficiently than plant species of mineral soil forests. A particularly efficient collector of (137)Cs was Trichophorum sp. It is suggested that Trichophorum sp. could be used as an indicator species for reindeer summer fodder plants. The highest concentrations of (137)Cs were found in Southern Lapland and the lowest in Northern Lapland. Today, the concentrations of (137)Cs in summer pasture plants that reindeer feed on in Finland are at such a level that there is no need to avoid any plant species. In the case of future nuclear fallout, reindeer grazing in peatlands would increase concentrations of (137)Cs in reindeer meat. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial distribution and vertical migration of (137)Cs in soils of Belgrade (Serbia) 25 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Petrović, Jelena; Ćujić, Mirjana; Đorđević, Milan; Dragović, Ranko; Gajić, Boško; Miljanić, Šćepan; Dragović, Snežana

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the specific activity of (137)Cs was determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in 72 surface soil samples and 11 soil profiles collected from the territory of Belgrade 25 years after the Chernobyl accident. Based on the data obtained the external effective gamma dose rates due to (137)Cs were assessed and geographically mapped. The influence of pedogenic factors (pH, specific electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, soil particle size and carbonate content) on the spatial and vertical distribution of (137)Cs in soil was estimated through Pearson correlations. The specific activity of (137)Cs in surface soil samples ranged from 1.00 to 180 Bq kg(-1), with a mean value of 29.9 Bq kg(-1), while in soil profiles they ranged from 0.90 to 58.0 Bq kg(-1), with a mean value of 15.3 Bq kg(-1). The mean external effective gamma dose at 1 m above the ground due to (137)Cs in the soil was calculated to be 1.96 nSv h(-1). Geographic mapping of the external effective gamma dose rates originating from (137)Cs revealed much higher dose rates in southern parts of Belgrade city and around the confluence of the Sava and Danube. Negative Pearson correlation coefficients were found between pH, cation exchange capacity and (137)Cs specific activity in surface soil. There were positive correlations between organic matter and (137)Cs specific activity in surface soil; and between specific electrical conductivity, organic matter, silt content and (137)Cs specific activity in soil profiles.

  3. Mapping of 137Cs deposition over eastern France 16 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Philippe; Pourcelot, Laurent; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Morello, Marcel

    2003-06-20

    We observed the relationship between present-day 137Cs surface activity and the rainfall in May 1986 to establish a relevant map of 137Cs deposition over eastern France. This study was performed in an area of the lower Rhône valley where clayey soils are assumed to trap caesium efficiently. Based on the rainwater/airborne activity ratio deduced from this relationship, we verified that present-day activities, measured in clayey soils of this type, are relatively representative of the initial depositions. The interlocked contaminated areas of the resulting map can be related to rainfall occurrences, as is the case for all countries affected by the Chernobyl fallout. This map can be reasonably compared with those obtained for countries bordering France in terms of both activity levels and extent of homogeneous activity areas. Lastly, we demonstrate that it would not be possible to produce a coherent map of initial fallout by extending the campaign over the whole of the eastern territory based on present-day soil activity measurements alone. Hence, only the relationship between 137Cs deposition and the rainfall of the first week of May 1986 can be used to construct a map depicting the Chernobyl fallout over eastern France.

  4. Correlation of /sup 137/Cs leachability from small-scale to large-scale waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Morcos, N.; Dayal, R.; Milian, L.; Weiss, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    A study correlating the leachability of /sup 137/Cs from small-scale to large-scale cement forms was performed. The waste forms consisted of (a) organic ion exchange resins incorporated in Portland I cement, with a waste-to-cement ratio of 0.6 and a water-to-cement ratio of 0.4 (as free water) and (b) boric acid waste (12% solution) incorporated in Portland III cement, with a waste-to-cement ratio of 0.7. /sup 137/Cs was added to both waste types prior to solidification. The sample dimensions varied from 1 in. x 1 in. to 22 in. x 22 in. (diameter x height). Leach data extending over a period of 260 days were obtained using a modified IAEA leach test. A method based on semi-infinite plane source diffusion model was applied to interpret the leach data. A derived mathematical expression allows prediction of the amount of /sup 137/Cs leached from the forms as a function of leaching time and waste form dimensions. A reasonably good agreement between the experimental and calculated data was obtained. 4 figures, 6 tables.

  5. Seasonal changes of (137)Cs in benthic plants from the southern Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Tamara

    (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined in samples of macrophytes Polysiphonia fucoides (red algae) and Zostera marina (vascular plant) collected during the entire vegetation season in the Gulf of Gdańsk in the southern Baltic Sea. The measurements showed considerable seasonality of (137)Cs activity in both species; an increase of cesium concentrations was observed from spring to autumn with maximal levels 49.1 ± 1.4 Bq kgd.w.(-1) (P. fucoides) and 14.5 ± 1.0 Bq kgd.w.(-1) (Z. marina) in late autumn. (137)Cs concentrations observed in a given season are the result of a number of processes, the intensity of which can differ depending on external environmental conditions. The effects of these processes can differ and their directions can frequently be opposite to one another. The examined macrophytobenthic plant species could serve as bioindicators of radionuclide pollution for monitoring purposes on condition that the samples of plants are taken within a strictly defined period of the year to give comparable results and to supply realistic information about pollution levels.

  6. Release, deposition and elimination of radiocesium ((137)Cs) in the terrestrial environment.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Khan, Ayesha Masood; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Akib, Shatirah; Balkhair, Khaled S; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu

    2014-12-01

    Radionuclide contamination in terrestrial ecosystems has reached a dangerous level. The major artificial radionuclide present in the environment is (137)Cs, which is released as a result of weapon production related to atomic projects, accidental explosions of nuclear power plants and other sources, such as reactors, evaporation ponds, liquid storage tanks, and burial grounds. The release of potentially hazardous radionuclides (radiocesium) in recent years has provided the opportunity to conduct multidisciplinary studies on their fate and transport. Radiocesium's high fission yield and ease of detection made it a prime candidate for early radio-ecological investigations. The facility setting provides a diverse background for the improved understanding of various factors that contribute toward the fate and transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystem. In this review, we summarize the significant environmental radiocesium transfer factors to determine the damaging effects of radiocesium on terrestrial ecosystem. It has been found that (137)Cs can trace the transport of other radionuclides that have a high affinity for binding to soil particles (silts and clays). Possible remedial methods are also discussed for contaminated terrestrial systems. This review will serve as a guideline for future studies of the fate and transport of (137)Cs in terrestrial environments in the wake of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant disaster in 2011.

  7. Determination and analysis of distribution coefficients of 137Cs in soils from Biscay (Spain).

    PubMed

    Elejalde, C; Herranz, M; Legarda, F; Romero, F

    2000-10-01

    The distribution coefficient of (137)Cs has been determined in 58 soils from 12 sampling points from Biscay by treating 10 g with 25 ml of an aqueous solution with an activity of 1765 Bq in the radionuclide, by shaking during 64 h and measuring the residual activity with a suitable detector. Soils were characterised by sampling depth, particle size analysis and the usual chemical parameters. Soils were thereafter treated to fix the chemical forms of (137)Cs speciation by successive extractions in order to determine fractions due to exchangeable, associated with carbonates, iron oxide and organic matter fractions, obtaining by difference the amount taken by the rest of the soil constituents. For this research, 16 soils from four points were selected from the previous samples. The greatest mean percentages of (137)Cs sorption were with the rest (69.93), exchangeable (13.17) and organic matter (12.54%) fractions. This paper includes also the calculation of partial distribution coefficients for chemical species as well as relations of distribution coefficients both among them and with soil parameters.

  8. Hindcast of 137Cs in the North Pacific Ocean from 1945 to 2013 by eddy-resolving ROMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

    2014-05-01

    We conducted the hindcast of 137Cs activity in the North Pacific Ocean from 1945 to 2013, before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F NPP) accident. We used the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) with high resolution (1/12°-1/4° in horizontal, 45 levels in vertical), of which domain was the North Pacific Ocean. This model employed the CORE normal year forcing data for a driving forcing and the 50 years averaged SODA data for boundary conditions. The reconstructed global fallout due to atmospheric nuclear weapons' tests and Chernobyl accident was employed for atmospheric input flux of 137Cs from 1945 to 2013. After the accident, the atmospheric deposition and direct release of 137Cs from 1F NPP were also employed for input condition. Five ensemble calculations of 137Cs activity were conducted by moving the start period of the input flux for one year. The simulated vertical distributions of 137Cs activity along 165°E represented the overall patterns of the observed 137Cs activity before (in 2002) and after (in 2012) the accident, in particular the high activity core of the 137Cs around North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water and Central Mode Water, indicating that this model can represent the subduction process and formation of the Mode Waters. The simulated 137Cs activity in the surface ranged from 0.75 to 2.Bq m-3 in the north of Kuroshio Extension in 2011 before the accident. The main body of high 137Cs activity water from 1F NPP was transported in the northern part of Kuroshio Extension after the accident. In Sep. 2012, 18 months after the accident, the main body of high 137Cs activity water (≥ 10 Bq m-3) was located at around 40°N, 150°E-160°W. The water over 10 Bq m-3 of 137Cs activity was not detected in surface layer, but in the layer of σθ=25.8-26.2 at two small areas (44°N, 180°W-165°W and 48°N, 160°W-140°W). This model simulation suggests that the main body of high 137Cs activity water from 1F NPP has never reached the

  9. Monitoring of radioactive contamination in Polish surface waters in 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Suplińska, M; Kardaś, M; Rubel, B; Fulara, A; Adamczyk, A

    The (90)Sr and (137)Cs contamination in Polish surface waters has been monitoring since 1994. Surface water samples from six lakes and the Vistula and Oder Rivers were collected in spring and autumn 2012 and 2013. The mean (90)Sr and (137)Cs concentrations were 3.92 ± 0.40 and 4.49 ± 2.00 mBq L(-1), respectively. Correlations were identified between the radionuclide concentrations and meteorological conditions and the original fallout distribution from the Chernobyl disaster. The annual average radionuclide concentrations were not significantly different from the concentrations found between 1994 and 2011. The (137)Cs and (90)Sr concentrations have been decreasing only slowly.

  10. Modeling (137)Cs bioaccumulation in the salmon-resident killer whale food web of the Northeastern Pacific following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Alava, Juan José; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2016-02-15

    To track the long term bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in marine organisms off the Pacific Northwest coast of Canada, we developed a time dependent bioaccumulation model for (137)Cs in a marine mammalian food web that included fish-eating resident killer whales. The model outcomes show that (137)Cs can be expected to gradually bioaccumulate in the food web over time as demonstrated by the increase of the apparent trophic magnification factor of (137)Cs, ranging from 0.76 after 1 month of exposure to 2.0 following 30 years of exposure. (137)Cs bioaccumulation is driven by relatively rapid dietary uptake rates, moderate depuration rates in lower trophic level organisms and slow elimination rates in high trophic level organisms. Model estimates of the (137)Cs activity in species of the food web, based on current measurements and forecasts of (137)Cs activities in oceanic waters and sediments off the Canadian Pacific Northwest, indicate that the long term (137)Cs activities in fish species including Pacific herring, wild Pacific salmon, sablefish and halibut will remain well below the current (137)Cs-Canada Action Level for consumption (1000 Bq/kg) following a nuclear emergency. Killer whales and Pacific salmon are expected to exhibit the largest long term (137)Cs activities and may be good sentinels for monitoring (137)Cs in the region. Assessment of the long term consequences of (137)Cs releases from the Fukushima aftermath should consider the extent of ecological magnification in addition to ocean dilution.

  11. Aging effect of 137Cs obtained from 137Cs in the Kanto loam layer from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident and in the Nishiyama loam layer from the Nagasaki A-bomb explosion.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tomoko; Mahara, Yasunori; Kubota, Takumi; Igarashi, Toshifumi

    2013-01-01

    We measured (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the surface soil of the Kanto loam in the eastern Tokyo metropolitan area and the Nishiyama loam in Nagasaki, Japan. The observed (137)Cs deposition in the Kanto loam from the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident ranged from 4.0 to 77 kBq m(-2), which corresponds to 0.3-5 times of that in the Nishiyama loam. The (137)Cs retardation factor in the Kanto loam obtained seven months after the Fukusima NPP accident and in the Nishiyama loam after 36 and 38 years from the detonation of the Pu atomic bomb (A-bomb) ranged from 180 to 260 and 2000 to 10,000, respectively. This difference in the retardation factors is attributed to an aging effect that corresponds to seven months and 36 to 38 years after the deposition of (137)Cs occurred on the soil minerals.

  12. Microdosimetric analysis confirms similar biological effectiveness of external exposure to gamma-rays and internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I.

    PubMed

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Manabe, Kentaro; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The risk of internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I is of great public concern after the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE, defined herein as effectiveness of internal exposure relative to the external exposure to γ-rays) is occasionally believed to be much greater than unity due to insufficient discussions on the difference of their microdosimetric profiles. We therefore performed a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation in ideally aligned cell systems to calculate the probability densities of absorbed doses in subcellular and intranuclear scales for internal exposures to electrons emitted from 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I, as well as the external exposure to 662 keV photons. The RBE due to the inhomogeneous radioactive isotope (RI) distribution in subcellular structures and the high ionization density around the particle trajectories was then derived from the calculated microdosimetric probability density. The RBE for the bystander effect was also estimated from the probability density, considering its non-linear dose response. The RBE due to the high ionization density and that for the bystander effect were very close to 1, because the microdosimetric probability densities were nearly identical between the internal exposures and the external exposure from the 662 keV photons. On the other hand, the RBE due to the RI inhomogeneity largely depended on the intranuclear RI concentration and cell size, but their maximum possible RBE was only 1.04 even under conservative assumptions. Thus, it can be concluded from the microdosimetric viewpoint that the risk from internal exposures to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I should be nearly equivalent to that of external exposure to γ-rays at the same absorbed dose level, as suggested in the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  13. Recent atmospheric lead deposition recorded in an ombrotrophic peat bog of Great Hinggan Mountains, Northeast China, from 210Pb and 137Cs dating.

    PubMed

    Bao, K; Xia, W; Lu, X; Wang, G

    2010-09-01

    Radioactive markers are useful in dating lead deposition patterns from industrialization in peat archive. Peat cores were collected in an ombrotrophic peat bog in the Great Hinggan Mountains in Northeast China in September 2008 and dated using (210)Pb and (137)Cs radiometric techniques. The mosses in both cores were examined systematically for dry bulk density, water and ash content. Lead also was measured using atomic emission spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-AES). Both patterned peat profiles were preserved well without evident anthropogenic disturbance. Unsupported (210)Pb and (137)Cs decreased with the depth in both of the two sample cores. The (210)Pb chronologies were established using the constant rate of supply model (CRS) and are in good agreement with the (137)Cs time marker. Recent atmospheric (210)Pb flux in Great Hinggan Mountains peat bog was estimated to be 337 Bq m(-2)y(-1), which is consistent with published data for the region. Lead deposition rate in this region was also derived from these two peat cores and ranged from 24.6 to 55.8 mg m(-2)y(-1) with a range of Pb concentration of 14-262 microg g(-1). The Pb deposition patterns were consistent with increasing industrialization over the last 135-170 y, with a peak of production and coal burning in the last 50 y in Northeast China. This work presents a first estimation of atmospheric Pb deposition rate in peatlands in China and suggests an increasing trend of environmental pollution due to anthropogenic contaminants in the atmosphere. More attention should be paid to current local pollution problems, and society should take actions to seek a balance between economic development and environmental protection.

  14. Microdosimetric Analysis Confirms Similar Biological Effectiveness of External Exposure to Gamma-Rays and Internal Exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Manabe, Kentaro; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The risk of internal exposure to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I is of great public concern after the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE, defined herein as effectiveness of internal exposure relative to the external exposure to γ-rays) is occasionally believed to be much greater than unity due to insufficient discussions on the difference of their microdosimetric profiles. We therefore performed a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation in ideally aligned cell systems to calculate the probability densities of absorbed doses in subcellular and intranuclear scales for internal exposures to electrons emitted from 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I, as well as the external exposure to 662 keV photons. The RBE due to the inhomogeneous radioactive isotope (RI) distribution in subcellular structures and the high ionization density around the particle trajectories was then derived from the calculated microdosimetric probability density. The RBE for the bystander effect was also estimated from the probability density, considering its non-linear dose response. The RBE due to the high ionization density and that for the bystander effect were very close to 1, because the microdosimetric probability densities were nearly identical between the internal exposures and the external exposure from the 662 keV photons. On the other hand, the RBE due to the RI inhomogeneity largely depended on the intranuclear RI concentration and cell size, but their maximum possible RBE was only 1.04 even under conservative assumptions. Thus, it can be concluded from the microdosimetric viewpoint that the risk from internal exposures to 137Cs, 134Cs, and 131I should be nearly equivalent to that of external exposure to γ-rays at the same absorbed dose level, as suggested in the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. PMID:24919099

  15. Pu, 137Cs and excess 210Pb in Russian Arctic sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskaran, M.; Asbill, Shaunna; Santschi, Peter; Brooks, James; Champ, Michael; Adkinson, Dan; Colmer, Matthew R.; Makeyev, Vyacheslav

    1996-05-01

    The activity ratios of Pu and radiocesium isotopes have been used to delineate the major sources (such as global and close-in (debris) fallout, nuclear fuel reprocessing and fabrication plant effluents) in the environment. We have measured 238Pu, 239,240Pu, 137Cs, and excess 210Pb concentrations in 107 surficial sediments as well as in 5 sediment cores collected in the summer months of 1993 and 1994 from the Ob and Yenisey Rivers (Russia) and the Kara sea. A comparison of the sediment core inventories of 239,240Pu and 137Cs, along with the 238Pu/ 239,240Pu activity ratios, with those expected from global fallout allows us to estimate the relative amounts, if any, of reactor-derived 238Pu and 239,240Pu from the dumped reactor sites in the study area. In surficial sediment samples collected in 1993 and 1994, the 239,240Pu concentrations varied between 4.2 and 856 mBq kg -1, with a mean of 239 mBq kg -1. In samples with a measurable 238Pu, the 238Pu/ 239,240Pu activity ratios varied between 0.010 and 0.069, with an average value of 0.035 ± 0.014. This range can be compared to the average 238Pu/ 239,240Pu activity ratio of 0.030 for the year 1993 from nuclear weapons testing and SNAP fallout obtained from soil studies, indicating very little (≤ 5%) additional sources of 238Pu to the sediments in the study area. The inventories of Pu in the 5 sediment cores from the study area varied between 2.67 ± 0.67 and 24.5 ± 2.2 Bq m -2 with a mean value of 8.83 Bq m -2. The 137Cs concentrations in the upper 3 cm of the sediments varied between below detection limit to 71.4 Bq kg -1, with a mean of 14.9 Bq kg -1. The 137Cs inventories in the 5 sediment cores varied between 156.7 ± 28.3 and 1600 ± 153.3 Bq m -2, with a mean value of 583.3 Bq m -2. The mean ratio of inventories of Pu to that of 137Cs, 0.015, is comparable to the values in other places in the Arctic region. There is a significant correlation between total organic carbon and concentrations of 137Cs, 239,240Pu

  16. Field Deployment of Illite Clay as an InSitu Method for Remediating 137Cs-Contaminated Wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    2003-01-29

    The research reported herein centered on a field deployment of the in situ remediation method with the goal of learning if the clay amendments reduce the biological availability of 137Cs in contaminated wetlands.

  17. Modification of (137)Cs transfer to rape (Brassica napus L.) phytomass under the influence of soil microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Pareniuk, O; Shavanova, K; Laceby, J P; Illienko, V; Tytova, L; Levchuk, S; Gudkov, I; Nanba, K

    2015-11-01

    After nuclear accidents, such as those experienced in Chernobyl and Fukushima, microorganisms may help purify contaminated soils by changing the mobility of radionuclides and their availability for plants by altering the physical and chemical properties of the substrate. Here, using model experiments with quartz sand as a substrate we investigate the influence of microorganisms on (137)Cs transfer from substrate to plants. The highest transition of (137)Cs from substrate to plants (50% increase compared to the control) was observed after Brassica napus L. seeds were inoculated by Azotobacter chroococcum. The best results for reducing the accumulation of (137)Cs radionuclides (30% less) were noted after the inoculation by Burkholderia sp.. Furthermore, Bacillus megaterium demonstrated an increased ability to accumulate (137)Cs. This research improves our prediction of the behavior of radionuclides in soil and may contribute towards new, microbiological countermeasures for soil remediation following nuclear accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement comparisons of radioactivity among European monitoring laboratories for the environment and food stuff.

    PubMed

    Wätjen, U; Spasova, Y; Altzitzoglou, T

    2008-01-01

    For more than 15 years, European Union (EU) laboratories monitoring environmental radioactivity have been obliged to participate in measurement comparisons organised by the European Commission. After a short review of comparisons conducted during the 1990s, the approach of IRMM organising these comparisons since 2003 is presented. It relies on the provision of comparison samples with reference values traceable to the International Reference System for radionuclides (SIR). The results of the most recent comparison, the determination of (40)K, (90)Sr and (137)Cs in milk powder, are presented. The influence of repetitive participation in measurement comparisons on laboratory performance is studied on the basis of data from more than 20 laboratories having participated in several exercises during the last 15 years.

  19. Activity levels of 137Cs and 40K in the skin and the cutaneous organs of a cow.

    PubMed

    Pichl, Elke; Rabitsch, Herbert

    2003-08-01

    We have performed an extensive study to determine the activity distributions of radiocesium (137Cs) and of the radioisotope 40K of potassium in the whole body of a cow. ICRP assumes that cesium and potassium are distributed homogeneously throughout the whole body of an organism. The current investigation measured concentrations of 137Cs and 40K in components of the skin, horns, and hooves of a cow. Activity levels of 137Cs were caused by the long-term ingestion following the Chernobyl fallout, whereas the naturally occurring potassium (40K) is an essential part of cow's normal diet. The cow was born at the time of the fallout following the Chernobyl accident and had ingested heavily contaminated forage during its entire lifetime. Activities of 137Cs and 40K were determined simultaneously by gamma spectrometry. All activities are related to the day of slaughter and include also corrections for self attenuation of photons caused by the different densities of the samples. Radionuclide concentrations in samples were corrected for moisture losses incurred during freezing and sample preparation. Surface contamination on the skin was estimated by rinsing it in heated water followed by removal of the epidermis and hair. In comparison with the activities of the components of the skin we observed a considerable amount of external contamination on the surface of the skin. But with respect to whole body countings of the animal this amount of external contamination appears to be negligible. It was found that activity ratios of 137Cs to 40K are greater than 1 in all measured components. The average activity concentrations of 137Cs and 40K in the common integument are 23.3 Bq kg(-1) and 13.3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The highest activity concentrations of 137Cs and 40K were measured in clean hair and hypodermis. Despite being its largest organ, the cow's skin contains probably less than 1% of the animal's whole body 137Cs activity.

  20. Influence of soil types and osmotic pressure on growth and (137)Cs accumulation in blackgram (Vigna mungo L.).

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea

    2017-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of soil types and osmotic levels on growth and (137)Cs accumulation in two blackgram varieties differing in salinity tolerance grown in Fukushima contaminated soils. The contamination levels of the sandy clay loam and clay soil were 1084 and 2046 Bq kg(-1) DW, respectively. The (137)Cs activity was higher in both plants grown on the sandy clay loam than on the clay soil regardless of soil (137)Cs activity concentration. No significant differences were observed in all measured growth parameters between the two varieties under optimal water conditions for both types of soil. However, the growth, leaf water contents and (137)Cs activity concentrations in both plants were lower in both soil types when there was water stress induced by addition of polyethylene glycol. Water stress-induced reduction in total leaf area and total biomass, in addition to leaf relative water content, were higher in salt sensitive 'Mut Pe Khaing To' than in salt tolerant 'U-Taung-2' plants for both soil types. Varietal difference in decreased (137)Cs uptake under water stress was statically significant in the sandy clay loam soil, however, it was not in the clay soil. The transfer of (137)Cs from soil to plants (i.e., root, stem and leaf) was higher for the sandy clay loam for both plants when compared with those of the clay soil. The decreased activity of (137)Cs in the above ground samples (leaf and stem) in both plants in response to osmotic stress suggested that plant available (137)Cs decreased when soil water is limited by osmotic stress.

  1. Time dependence of the {sup 137}Cs resuspension factor on the Romanian territory after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Mihaila, B.; Cuculeanu, V.

    1994-08-01

    On the basis of the radioactivity levels in aerosol and atmospheric deposition samples due to the Chernobyl accident, the resuspension factor of {sup 137}Cs as a four-parameter function has been inferred. The standard procedure to derive the dependence of resuspension on time assumes that the initial deposit is instantaneous. A simple method assuming a constant deposition rate over a fixed period has been proposed. Also, based on existing experimental data, an attempt was made to consider a realistic time dependence of the deposition rate to cope with the particular case of the Chernobyl accident. The differences between the two models are outlined. The Chernobyl direct deposit has been assumed to be the deposit measured between 30 April and 30 June 1986. The calculated values of the resuspension factor are consistent with the IAEA`s recommended model and depend on the rainfall that occurred in June 1986 and the site-specific disturbance conditions during the first 100 d following 1 July 1986 and only on artificial disturbance by humans and vehicles after that. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W L; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L

    2004-04-14

    Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 2070 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4% of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  3. Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W; Stone, E; Hamilton, T; Conrado, C

    2005-04-08

    Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 1970 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4 % of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  4. Aggregated Transfer Factors For Small Mammals Collected From the Exposed Sediments Of A 137 Cs Contaminated Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, Michael H.; Jannika, G. Timothy; Wike, Lynn D

    2005-10-04

    {sup 137}Cs transfer factors were computed for small mammals collected from the dried sediment areas of a partially drained, contaminated reservoir. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations were heterogeneous on small and large spatial scales, with a geometric mean of 253.1 Bq/kg dry weight. About 50% of the variance in cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus tissue {sup 137}Cs levels was explained by variation in soil {sup 137}Cs levels. Soil to animal transfer factors (whole body dry weight) averaged 6.0 for cotton rats and 1.2 for cotton mice Peromyscus gossypinus. These values are similar to {sup 137}Cs transfer factors for herbivorous, homeothermic animals from other contaminated ecosystems. Site-specific transfer factors can significantly affect the estimation of dose. In the RESRAD-BIOTA dose model, the default transfer factor for {sup 137}Cs in terrestrial animals is 110 resulting in an estimate of radiation dose to terrestrial biota that is 16 times more than the dose calculated with the actual measured transfer factor.

  5. Biomonitoring fallout 137Cs in resident and migratory fishes collected along the southern coast of India and assessment of dose.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohan Feroz; Wesley, Samuel Godwin

    2012-05-01

    The globally distributed fallout radionuclide (137)Cs was monitored in 25 resident and 22 migratory fish species collected from some regions of west and east coast of southern India to establish a baseline data. The samples were collected during June 2008 to June 2009. Higher level of (137)Cs was noted in planktivorous fishes and lower level in herbivores. A significant variation in (137)Cs was observed between fishes with different feeding habits and different migratory pattern. Oceanodromic migratory fishes displayed higher cesium levels than other migratory types. Similarly, migratory fishes displayed higher (137)Cs concentration compared to resident fishes. The overall range of (137)Cs varied from 0.06 to 0.3 Bq/kg in fishes. The biological concentration varied from 55 to 250. The average external dose rate to fishes was calculated to be 2.7 × 10(-7) μGy/h, while the internal dose rate varied from 8.50 × 10(-6) to 5.27 × 10(-5) μGy/h. The hazard quotient for fishes was found to be less than 1. The average intake of (137)Cs via fishes to the public was calculated to be 3.5 Bq/year and subsequently the committed effective dose was 0.05 μSv/year. The data obtained were less than global average and comparable to those of many regions.

  6. Long-term reduction in (137)Cs concentration in food crops on coral atolls resulting from potassium treatment.

    PubMed

    Robison, William L; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L

    2006-01-01

    Bikini Island was contaminated on March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S. nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ((137)Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing (137)Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces (137)Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that (137)Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 2070 kg ha(-1) lead to a (137)Cs concentration in drinking-coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4% of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of (137)Cs remains low 8-10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  7. 137Cs and 40K soil-to-plant relationship in a seminatural grassland of the Giulia Alps, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ciuffo, L E C; Belli, M; Pasquale, A; Menegon, S; Velasco, H R

    2002-08-05

    To examine the soil-to-plant transfer of 137Cs and 40K, we performed a study based on sampling of natural soil and plants from an alpine pasture site situated in the Giulia Alps, Italy, during July 1997. High 137Cs activity was present in the upper most soil layer, and decreased one order of magnitude at a depth of 10 cm. An opposite gradient was observed for 40K. Simultaneous sampling of soil and plant material was performed in order to analyse transfer factor (TF) values. In spite of homogeneous 137Cs activities in soil, grass samples showed a high variability. A negative correlation was detected between 40K- and 137Cs-activities in plants. TF values for 137Cs were highly variable, thus suggesting that this parameter would be independent of 137Cs soil activity. Lower variability was observed for 40K TFs values. Our results suggest that TFs are highly variable parameters that appear to be independent on radionuclide soil activity. Because soil and plant characteristics strongly affect TF values, caution is necessary when TF values are used as the sole parameter to predict radionuclide uptake by plants in semi-natural ecosystems.

  8. The usefulness of 137Cs as a tracer for soil erosion assessment: A critical reply to Parsons and Foster (2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabit, L.; Meusburger, K.; Fulajtar, E.; Alewell, C.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of geoscientists worldwide from different disciplines have recognized and have adopted the 137Cs method as an effective tracer to assess soil erosion rates during the last decades. The recent review of Parsons and Foster (2011) challenged the usefulness of this radioisotopic method primarily by questioning the assumption of the representativeness of the reference inventory and its conservative behavior and the 137Cs data conversion into soil erosion rates. While there are many studies published on 137Cs method, Parsons and Foster (2011) have not evaluated the full range of the existing literature. We present additional highly relevant studies, assessing and applying the 137Cs method successfully. While we agree that the applicability of the 137Cs method to assess soil erosion magnitude needs careful planning as well as expert knowledge, we highlight in our reply that if the method is based on suitable and statistically sound sampling, 137Cs is a very effective soil tracer to assess soil erosion magnitude.

  9. Long-term simulations of the 137Cs dispersion from the Fukushima accident in the world ocean.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masanao; Povinec, Pavel P

    2012-09-01

    The LAMER calculation code was used for simulation of the distribution of (137)Cs released after the Fukushima accident into the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The maximum (137)Cs concentration predicted for surface waters of the open NW Pacific Ocean in 2012 (21 Bq/m(3) at 38 °N, 164 °E) will be comparable to that observed during the early 1960s after atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The (137)Cs in surface waters of the Pacific Ocean will reach the US coast 4-5 y after the accident, however, the levels will be low (<3 Bq/m(3)). All the North Pacific Ocean will be labeled with Fukushima (137)Cs 10 y after the accident with concentrations below 1 Bq/m(3). Thirty years after the accident the (137)Cs levels in the Pacific and Indian Oceans will be below 0.1 Bq/m(3), i.e. undetectable on the present global fallout background. The effective dose commitment with ingestion of marine biota found in 2012 in the open NW Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 1.7 μSv/y, mostly delivered by (134,137)Cs. The estimated dose is by about a factor of 500 lower than the present dose limit for the public.

  10. Soft tissue tumors among beagles injected with 90Sr, 228Ra, OR 228Th.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, R D; Angus, W; Taylor, G N; Miller, S C

    1995-08-01

    The occurrence of soft-tissue tumors in beagles given 90Sr (88 dogs), 228Ra (76 dogs), or 228Th (81 dogs) as young adults and followed throughout their lifespans was compared with that of 133 control beagles given no radioactivity. For animals injected with 228Ra, tumors of the eye were more prominent (p < 0.05) than in the controls, and soft-tissue tumors of cavities in the head (excluding the brain, mouth, and eye) were more prominent in dogs given 90Sr than in the controls (p < 0.05). There was some indication that eye tumors in animals given about 0.56 kBq 228Th kg-1 were associated with their radionuclide exposure. For tumors at a few other locations, the relative occurrence was greater (p < 0.05) in the controls. These included malignant tumors of the testis and malignant plus benign tumors of the mammae and vagina in 228Th dogs; both malignant and malignant plus benign tumors of the mouth and testis, and malignant plus benign tumors of the mammae and vagina in 228Ra dogs; and malignant plus benign tumors of the mammae in 90Sr dogs (p > 0.05 by Odds Ratio Chi Square analysis but p < 0.05 by Fisher's Exact Test). Differences in relative occurrence between radioactive dogs and controls of all other tumor types that appeared in any of the animals (notably lymphosarcoma, lymph node tumors, leukemia, mast cell tumors, liver tumors, etc.) were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Intercurrent mortality, mainly from bone cancer, was higher in the radioactive dogs than in the controls. Mean survival was reduced in the dogs given 90Sr, 228Ra, or 228Th (13.17 +/- 2.64 y in controls, 10.95 +/- 4.06 y in 90Sr dogs, 9.07 +/- 3.61 y in 228Ra dogs, and 9.20 +/- 4.15 y in 228Th dogs). Attenuated lifespans could account, at least in part, for the relative paucity of soft-tissue tumors not induced by radiation among the groups of dogs given radioactivity and occurring near the end of life for control animals.

  11. The distribution of (137)Cs, K, Rb and Cs in plants in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland in eastern central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Vinichuk, M; Johanson, K J; Rydin, H; Rosén, K

    2010-02-01

    We record the distribution of (137)Cs, K, Rb and Cs within individual Sphagnum plants (down to 20cm depth) as well as (137)Cs in vascular plants growing on a peatland in eastern central Sweden. In Calluna vulgaris(137)Cs was mainly located within the green parts, whereas Andromeda polifolia, Eriophorum vaginatum and Vaccinium oxycoccos showed higher (137)Cs activity in roots. Carex rostrata and Menyanthes trifoliata showed variable distribution of (137)Cs within the plants. The patterns of (137)Cs activity concentration distribution as well as K, Rb and Cs concentrations within individual Sphagnum plants were rather similar and were usually highest in the capitula and/or in the subapical segments and lowest in the lower dead segments, which suggests continuous relocation of those elements to the actively growing apical part. The (137)Cs and K showed relatively weak correlations, especially in capitula and living green segments (0-10cm) of the plant (r=0.50). The strongest correlations were revealed between (137)Cs and Rb (r=0.89), and between (137)Cs and stable Cs (r=0.84). This suggests similarities between (137)Cs and Rb in uptake and relocation within the Sphagnum, but that (137)Cs differs from K.

  12. Spatiotemporal Variations of the 90Sr in the Southern Part of the Baltic Sea over the Period of 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Saniewski, Michał

    2013-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the most contaminated seas by the radioactive isotope of strontium in the world; therefore the activity of 90Sr is regularly controlled. Due to that fact, seawater samples for 90Sr determination were collected at 16 stations located in the southern Baltic Sea between 2005 and 2010. In this period average activity of 90Sr was 7.8 Bq m−3 and varied within the range from 3.0 Bq m−3 to 11.9 Bq m−3. Because the higher activity of 90Sr was measured in the Baltic Sea than in the North Sea and rivers, inflows from the North Sea and the riverine runoff decreased 90Sr activity in the Baltic Sea. The average 90Sr activity in the bottom water along the offshore profile was 18% lower than that in the surface water and it was caused by an inflow of salt water from the North Sea. In the Vistula River mouth the average activity of 90Sr in the surface water was about 15% lower than the average activity in the bottom waters. Coastal areas, relatively shallow with good mixing condition in the water column, were characterized by low variability in 90Sr activity. PMID:24324370

  13. Incidence of neoplasms in ages 0-19 Y in parts of Sweden with high {sup 137}Cs fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Tondel, M.; Flodin, U.; Skoeldestig, A.; Axelson, O.

    1996-12-01

    The incidence of neoplasms in childhood and adolescence in northern and central Sweden before and after the radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident was investigated in an ecologic study, 1978 to 1992. The study included all parishes in the six most contaminated counties classified after aerial mapping of ground radiation form {sup 137}Cs and investigated 746 cases of neoplasms in ages 0-19 y, diagnosed in the six counties. Incidence and relative risks of neoplasms were compared in areas with high, intermediate, and low contamination after versus before the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A continuous increase of brain tumor incidence in the ages 0-19 y during the period 1978-92 without clear relationship to the Chernobyl fallout was discovered. No clear relationship between the incidence of brain tumor and the exposure to varying levels of radiation from {sup 137}Cs was apparent. A some-what decreased relative risk of acute lymphatic leukemia appeared in areas with increased exposure. Other neoplasms showed no changes in incidence over time or with regard to exposure. Until now, there is no indication that the Chernobyl accident has affected the incidence of childhood and adolescence neoplasms in Sweden, but it is still too early for any final conclusion about the effect of this event. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of in vivo detection properties of 22Na, 65Zn, 86Rb, 109Cd and 137Cs in plant tissues using real-time radioisotope imaging system.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Hirose, Atsushi; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2014-02-21

    In plant research, radioisotope imaging provides useful information about physiological activities in various tissues and elemental transport between plant organs. To expand the usage of imaging techniques, a new system was developed to visualize beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays emitted from plant bodies. This real-time radioisotope imaging system (RRIS) visualizes radioactivity after conversion into light with a CsI(Tl) scintillator plate. Herein, the RRIS detection properties of the gamma-ray emitters (22)Na, (65)Zn, (86)Rb, (109)Cd and (137)Cs were evaluated in comparison with those of radioluminography (RLG) using an imaging plate. The lower quantitative detection limit (Bq mm(-2)) during a 15 min period ranged from 0.1 to 4, depending on the nuclide, similar to that of RLG. When the quantitative ability to detect radiation from various Arabidopsis tissues was analyzed, the quantitative capability in silique and the thick internode tended to be low. In an EGS5 simulation, beta particles were the greatest contributors to RRIS imaging of (22)Na, (86)Rb and (137)Cs, and low-energy x-rays contributed significantly to (65)Zn and (109)Cd detection. Thus, both self-absorption and air space between the sample and scintillator surface could impair quantitative RRIS imaging. Despite these issues, RRIS is suggested for quantitative time-course measurements of radionuclide motion within plants.

  15. Evaluation of in vivo detection properties of 22Na, 65Zn, 86Rb, 109Cd and 137Cs in plant tissues using real-time radioisotope imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.; Hirose, Atsushi; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2014-02-01

    In plant research, radioisotope imaging provides useful information about physiological activities in various tissues and elemental transport between plant organs. To expand the usage of imaging techniques, a new system was developed to visualize beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays emitted from plant bodies. This real-time radioisotope imaging system (RRIS) visualizes radioactivity after conversion into light with a CsI(Tl) scintillator plate. Herein, the RRIS detection properties of the gamma-ray emitters 22Na, 65Zn, 86Rb, 109Cd and 137Cs were evaluated in comparison with those of radioluminography (RLG) using an imaging plate. The lower quantitative detection limit (Bq mm-2) during a 15 min period ranged from 0.1 to 4, depending on the nuclide, similar to that of RLG. When the quantitative ability to detect radiation from various Arabidopsis tissues was analyzed, the quantitative capability in silique and the thick internode tended to be low. In an EGS5 simulation, beta particles were the greatest contributors to RRIS imaging of 22Na, 86Rb and 137Cs, and low-energy x-rays contributed significantly to 65Zn and 109Cd detection. Thus, both self-absorption and air space between the sample and scintillator surface could impair quantitative RRIS imaging. Despite these issues, RRIS is suggested for quantitative time-course measurements of radionuclide motion within plants.

  16. Bioavailability of trace contaminants ({sup 241}Am, {sup 57}Co, {sup 137}Cs) to a benthic bivalve from pore waters and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, C.; Stupakoff, I.; Fisher, N.S.

    1995-12-31

    Sediments are major repositories of contaminants in marine ecosystems and can serve as a source of some contaminants for benthic organisms. The authors used the clam Macoma balthica, a species employed in monitoring coastal contamination, to compare experimentally three uptake sources: overlying water, ingested surface sediment and anoxic pore water. They studied the bioavailability of selected radionuclides ({sup 241}Am, {sup 57}Co, {sup 137}Cs) representing a large range of particle reactivity. For comparison, the authors also used CH{sub 3} {sup 203}Hg, which is highly assimilated by marine organisms. Clams were exposed separately to contaminated overlying water, surface oxic sediment and anoxic sediment. Radioactivity in animals was determined at the end of the exposure period. {sup 137}CS, which is not particle reactive in seawater, was not bioaccumulated from any source. {sup 241}Am and {sup 57}Co concentration factors in clams obtained from overlying water were approximately an order of magnitude lower than that of CH{sub 3} {sup 203}Hg. Ingested oxidized sediment particles do not appear to be a significant source for these radionuclides. {sup 241}Am, {sup 57}Co and CH{sub 3} {sup 203}Hg were bioconcentrated from anoxic pore waters, but the highly particle-reactive {sup 241}Am was mostly adsorbed onto the clam`s shell. The bioconcentration of CH{sub 3} {sup 203}Hg from pore waters was, however, only one tenth of that from overlying water.

  17. Flow cytometric DNA analysis of ducks accumulating 137Cs on a reactor reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    George, L.S.; Dallas, C.E.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.; Evans, D.L. )

    1991-06-01

    The objective of this study was to detect red blood cell (rbc) DNA abnormalities in male, game-farm mallard ducks as they ranged freely and accumulated 137Cs (radiocesium) from an abandoned nuclear reactor cooling reservoir. Prior to release, the ducks were tamed to enable recapture at will. Flow cytometric measurements conducted at intervals during the first year of exposure yielded cell cycle percentages of DNA (G0/G1, S, G2 + M phases) of rbc, as well as coefficients of variation (CV) in the G0/G1 phase. DNA histograms of exposed ducks were compared with two sets of controls which were maintained 30 and 150 miles from the study site. 137Cs live wholebody burdens were also measured in these animals in a parallel kinetics study, and an approximate steady-state equilibrium was attained after about 8 months. DNA histograms from 2 of the 14 contaminated ducks revealed DNA aneuploid-like patterns after 9 months exposure. These two ducks were removed from the experiment at this time, and when sampled again 1 month later, one continued to exhibit DNA aneuploidy. None of the control DNA histograms demonstrated DNA aneuploid-like patterns. There were no significant differences in cell cycle percentages at any time point between control and exposed animals. A significant increase in CV was observed at 9 months exposure, but after removal of the two ducks with DNA aneuploidy, no significant difference was detected in the group monitored after 12 months exposure. An increased variation in the DNA and DNA aneuploidy could, therefore, be detected in duck rbc using flow cytometric analysis, with the onset of these effects being related to the attainment of maximal levels of 137Cs body burdens in the exposed animals.

  18. Freundlich and dual Langmuir isotherm models for predicting 137Cs binding on Savannah River Site soils.

    PubMed

    Goto, Momoko; Rosson, Robert; Wampler, J Marion; Elliott, W Crawford; Serkiz, Steven; Kahn, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Distribution of 137Cs and stable cesium between aqueous solution and near-surface soil samples from five locations at the Savannah River Site was measured in order to develop a predictive model for 137Cs uptake by the soils. Sorption of 137Cs in these soils appears to be mostly by hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite. Batch sorption studies with 4 d for equilibration were conducted at three cesium concentrations and at two backing electrolyte (NaNO3) concentrations. The soil-solution mixtures were pH-adjusted to evaluate the effects of pH on cesium sorption. Sorbed cesium was related to the equilibrium aqueous cesium concentrations by a Freundlich isotherm model. Model fits on logarithmic scales have a common slope of 0.60 +/- 0.03 for acidic mixtures and 0.69 +/- 0.04 for neutralized mixtures but have unique intercepts that are influenced by backing electrolyte concentration and pH. An ion-exchange model is proposed that pertains to all five soils and relates the Freundlich isotherms to the cation exchange capacity of soil and the aqueous concentrations of cesium, sodium, and a third ionic species that was hydrogen in the acidic mixtures and potassium in the neutralized mixtures. Model fits are consistent with Kd values in the entire range of 5-2,300 L kg(-1) determined for the five soil types. As an alternate model, dual Langmuir isotherms were fitted to the data. The results suggest cesium sorption by (1) relatively few interlayer-wedge sites, highly selective for cesium, and (2) much more abundant but less selective sites on internal and external planar surfaces.

  19. Spatial uncertainty of 137Cs-derived net (1950s-1990) soil redistribution for Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Adrian; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A.; Loughran, Robert

    2011-12-01

    The caesium-137 (137Cs) technique has been used successfully in many parts of the world to estimate net (ca. 30-50 years) soil redistribution by wind and water erosion and tillage activities. The point-based technique has hitherto been confined largely to individual fields and hillslopes, particularly in Australia. Its application here to the Australian continent (≈5 km grid) was achieved using geostatistics and nationally coordinated measurements (early 1990s) from ≈200 locations at the ≈1 km scale. A map of the 137Cs reference inventory for Australia has been previously established. Sequential indicator co-simulation of the 137Cs inventory and the Australian Soil Classification was used to estimate net (between mid-1950s and early 1990s) soil redistribution using the Australian Empirical Model. This geostatistical approach showed that nearly five times more soil was lost from cultivated land (-4.29 to +0.17 t ha-1 yr-1) than from uncultivated (-0.91 to +0.05 t ha-1 yr-1) land in Australia. This information on spatial uncertainty is essential for regional soil management to assess the risk to soil conservation. Soil erosion exceeding a tolerable threshold value (e.g., 0.5 t ha-1 yr-1) occurred over 16% of Australia, mainly in cultivated regions (median = -1.26 t ha-1 yr-1). Soil erosion estimates are neglected in carbon balances for greenhouse gas abatement and carbon accounting models. Reliable quantitative data on the recent extent and rates of soil erosion are needed to underpin the selection of effective soil conservation measures, to inform carbon balances and to understand regional soil function for sustainable agricultural systems.

  20. Performance of a Resistive Plate Chamber operated in avalanche mode under 137Cs irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbrescia, M.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, M.; Marangelli, B.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Gianini, G.; Ratti, S. P.; Vitulo, P.

    1997-02-01

    A 2 mm gas gap Resistive Plate Chamber with bakelite plates has been operated in avalanche mode with a 137Cs source. We report measurements of the efficiency for a cosmic ray detection and the charge developed in the gap, performed for two different gas mixtures: the first containing a high percentage of environmental friendly "freon" C 2H 2F 4; the second one having a high percentage of argon. We show that the freon-based mixture exhibits a wide full-efficiency plateau with low streamer probability, while the argon-based mixture allows a reduction in the detector power consumption.

  1. Transfer of 137Cs from Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout to different Swedish population groups.

    PubMed

    Rääf, C L; Hubbard, L; Falk, R; Agren, G; Vesanen, R

    2006-08-15

    Data from measurements on the body burden of (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (40)K in various Swedish populations between 1959 and 2001 has been compiled into a national database. The compilation is a co-operation between the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmö and Göteborg, the National Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI). In a previous study the effective ecological half time and the associated effective dose to various Swedish populations due to internal contamination of (134)Cs and (137)Cs have been assessed using the database. In this study values of human body burden have been combined with data on the local and regional ground deposition of fallout from nuclear weapons tests (only (137)Cs) and Chernobyl debris (both (134)Cs and (137)Cs), which have enabled estimates of the radioecological transfer in the studied populations. The assessment of the database shows that the transfer of radiocesium from Chernobyl fallout to humans varies considerably between various populations in Sweden. In terms of committed effective dose over a 70 y period from internal contamination per unit activity deposition, the general (predominantly urban) Swedish population obtains 20-30 microSv/kBq m(-2). Four categories of populations exhibit higher radioecological transfer than the general population; i.) reindeer herders ( approximately 700 microSv/kBq m(-2)), ii.) hunters in the counties dominated by forest vegetation ( approximately 100 microSv/kBq m(-2)), iii.) rural non-farming populations living in sub-arctic areas (40-150 microSv/kBq m(-2)), and iv.) farmers ( approximately 50 microSv/kBq m(-2)). Two important factors determine the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man; i.) dietary habits (intakes of foodstuff originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems), and ii.) inclination to follow the recommended food restriction by the authorities. The transfer to the general population is considerably lower

  2. In Situ Remediation of {sup 137}Cs Contaminated Wetlands Using Naturally Occurring Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.I.

    1999-08-11

    Cesium-137 has contaminated a large area of the wetlands on the Savannah River Site. Remediation of the contaminated wetlands is problematic because current techniques destroy the sensitive ecosystem and generate a higher dose to workers. To address this problem, we proposed a non-trusive, in situ technology to sequester 137Cs in sediments. One intention of this study was to provide information regarding a go/no go decision for future work. Since the proof-of-concept was successful and several minerals were identified as potential candidates for this technology, a go decision was made.

  3. Simulation and Measurement of Absorbed Dose from 137 Cs Gammas Using a Si Timepix Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffle, Nicholas; Pinsky, Lawrence; Empl, Anton; Semones, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The TimePix readout chip is a hybrid pixel detector with over 65k independent pixel elements. Each pixel contains its own circuitry for charge collection, counting logic, and readout. When coupled with a Silicon detector layer, the Timepix chip is capable of measuring the charge, and thus energy, deposited in the Silicon. Measurements using a NIST traceable 137Cs gamma source have been made at Johnson Space Center using such a Si Timepix detector, and this data is compared to simulations of energy deposition in the Si layer carried out using FLUKA.

  4. A first attempt to derive soil erosion rates from 137Cs airborne gamma measurements in two Alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Bucher, Benno; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers is currently one of the most promising and effective approach for evaluating soil erosion magnitudes in mountainous grasslands. Conventional assessment or measurement methods are laborious and constrained by the topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. The 137Cs (half-life = 30.2 years) is the most frequently used FRN to study soil redistribution. However the application of 137Cs in alpine grasslands is compromised by the high heterogeneity of the fallout due to the origin of 137Cs fallout in the Alps, which is linked to single rain events occurring just after the Chernobyl accident when most of the Alpine soils were still covered by snow. The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of the 137Cs distribution in two study areas in the Central Swiss Alps: the Ursern valley (Canton Uri), and the Piora valley (Canton Ticino). In June 2015, a helicopter equipped with a NaI gamma detector flew over the two study sites and screened the 137Cs activity of the top soil. The use of airborne gamma measurements is particularly efficient in case of higher 137Cs concentration in the soil. Due to their high altitude and high precipitation rates, the Swiss Alps are expected to be more contaminated by 137Cs fallout than other parts of Switzerland. The airborne gamma measurements have been related to several key parameters which characterize the areas, such as soil properties, slopes, expositions and land uses. The ground truthing of the airborne measurements (i.e. the 137Cs laboratory measurements of the soil samples collected at the same points) returned a good fit. The obtained results offer an overview of the 137Cs concentration in the study areas, which allowed us to identify suitable reference sites, and to analyse the relationship between the 137Cs distribution and the above cited parameters. The authors also derived a preliminary qualitative and a quantitative assessment of soil redistribution

  5. Spatial patterns of (137)Cs inventories and soil erosion from earth-banked terraces in the Yimeng Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunqi; Long, Yi; An, Juan; Yu, Xingxiu; Wang, Xiaoli

    2014-10-01

    The Yimeng Mountains is one of China's most susceptible regions to soil erosion. In this region, slopes are composed of granite- or gneiss-derived soils that are commonly cultivated using earth-banked terraces. Based on the (137)Cs measurement for nine reference cores, the present study analysed the spatial patterns of (137)Cs inventory and soil erosion using 105 sampling points in a seven-level earth-banked terrace system. The mean (137)Cs inventory, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and allowable error for the nine reference cores were 987 Bq m(-2), 71 Bq m(-2), 7%, and 6%, respectively, values that may reflect the heterogeneity of the initial (137)Cs fallout deposit. Within each terrace, the (137)Cs inventory generally increases from the rear edge to the front edge, accompanied by a decrease in the erosion rate. This results from planation by tillage and rainfall runoff during the development of the earth-banked terraces. Across the entire seven-level terrace system, (137)Cs inventories decrease from the highest terrace downwards, but increase in the lower terraces, whereas erosion rate displays the opposite trend. These trends are the result of the combined effects of the earth-bank segmented hillslope, the limited protection of the earth banks, and rainfall runoff in combination with tillage. The high coefficients of variation of (137)Cs inventories for the 21 sampling rows, with a mean value of 44%, demonstrate the combined effects of variations in original microtopography, anthropogenic disturbance, the incohesive soils weathered from underlying granite, and the warm climate. Although earth-banked terraces can reduce soil erosion to some extent, the estimated erosion rates for the study area are still very high.

  6. Potassium fertilization and (137)Cs transfer from soil to grass and barley in Sweden after the Chernobyl fallout.

    PubMed

    Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M

    2014-04-01

    Fertilization of soils contaminated by radionuclides with potassium (K) and its effect on (137)Cs transfer from soil to crops is well studied in field conditions; however experiments over many years are few. The effects of potassium fertilization on cesium-137 ((137)Cs) transfer to hay, pasture grass, and barley growing on organic rich soils and mineral sand and loam soils in a number of field experimental sites situated in different environments in Sweden are summarized and discussed. The basic experimental treatments were control (no K fertilizers were applied), 50, 100, and 200 kg K ha(-1). In the experiment, which lasted over 3-6 years, (137)Cs transfer factors in control treatments ranged between 0.0004 m(2) kg(-1) (barley grain on sand soil) and 0.07 m(2) kg(-1) (pasture grass on organic rich soil). Potassium application on soils with low clay content i.e. mineral sand and organic rich soils was eff