Science.gov

Sample records for radiodiagnostic level caracteristicas

  1. Bisamide bisthiol compounds useful for making technetium radiodiagnostic renal agents

    DOEpatents

    Davison, Alan; Brenner, David; Lister-James, John; Jones, Alun G.

    1987-06-16

    A radiodiagnostic bisamido-bisthio ligand useful for producing Tc-labelled radiodiagnostic renal agents is described. The ligand forms a complex with the radionuclide .sup.99m Tc suitable for administration as a radiopharmaceutical to obtain images of the kidney for diagnosis of kidney disfunction.

  2. Technetium radiodiagnostic fatty acids derived from bisamide bisthiol ligands

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Alun G.; Lister-James, John; Davison, Alan

    1988-05-24

    A bisamide-bisthiol ligand containing fatty acid substituted thiol useful for producing Tc-labelled radiodiagnostic imaging agents is described. The ligand forms a complex with the radionuclide .sup.99m Tc suitable for administration as a radiopharmaceutical to obtain images of the heart for diagnosis of myocardial disfunction.

  3. Report of an image quality and dose audit according to directive 97/43/Euratom at Spanish private radiodiagnostics facilities.

    PubMed

    González, L; Vañó, E; Oliete, S; Manrique, J; Hernáez, J M; Lahuerta, J; Ruiz, J

    1999-02-01

    An audit of Spanish private medicine radiodiagnostics facilities has been carried out, based partly on Spanish legislation relating to European Directives on health protection against ionizing radiation risks in medical exposure. The study included an appraisal of infrastructure and equipment, and aspects of quality assurance and radiation protection, by means of data collected through surveys. Of the 51 centres audited, a sample of 24 X-ray rooms was chosen, then an external evaluation with regard to image quality and patient dose was performed, by an advisory board of radiologists and medical physicists. The methodology used was similar to that of the group of European Union experts in European dose evaluation and image quality trials. Chest, abdomen, lumbar spine and breast examinations were monitored. Doses were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters. A third of the X-ray rooms evaluated reached or exceeded dose reference values, and in a third of the cases the image quality left considerable room for improvement. Breast and chest examinations showed themselves to be the hardest to perform, not only as a result of exceeding the reference doses, but also due to failure to meet good image quality standards.

  4. Curcumin as the OO bidentate ligand in "2 + 1" complexes with the [M(CO)3]+ (M = Re, 99mTc) tricarbonyl core for radiodiagnostic applications.

    PubMed

    Sagnou, Marina; Benaki, Dimitra; Triantis, Charalampos; Tsotakos, Theodoros; Psycharis, Vassilis; Raptopoulou, Catherine P; Pirmettis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Minas; Pelecanou, Maria

    2011-02-21

    The synthesis and characterization of "2 + 1" complexes of the [M(CO)(3)](+) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) core with the β-diketones acetylacetone (complexes 2, 8) and curcumin (complexes 5, 10 and 6, 11) as bidentate OO ligands, and imidazole or isocyanocyclohexane as monodentate ligands is reported. The complexes were synthesized by reacting the [NEt(4)](2)[Re(CO)(3)Br(3)] precursor with the β-diketone to generate the intermediate aqua complex fac-Re(CO)(3)(OO)(H(2)O) that was isolated and characterized, followed by replacement of the labile water by the monodentate ligand. All complexes were characterized by mass spectrometry, NMR and IR spectroscopies, and elemental analysis. In the case of complex 2, bearing imidazole as the monodentate ligand, X-ray analysis was possible. The chemistry was successfully transferred at (99m)Tc tracer level. The curcumin complexes 5 and 6, as well as their intermediate aqua complex 4, that bear potential for radiopharmaceutical applications due to the wide spectrum of pharmacological activity of curcumin, were successfully tested for selective staining of β-amyloid plaques of Alzheimer's disease. The fact that the complexes maintain the affinity of the mother compound curcumin for β-amyloid plaques prompts for further exploration of their chemistry and biological properties as radioimaging probes.

  5. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  6. Determinacion de Caracteristicas Opticas del Telescopio OAN150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    En el Observatorio de Calar Alto, en Almería, España, está ubicado un telescopio de 15O-cms de diámetro -construído por REOSC- perteneciente al Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, con sede en Madrid, España. La infraestructura técnica del OAN ha sido tradicionalmente débil y actualmente se está haciendo un esfuerzo por fortalecerla. Existe una información muy limitada del telescopio en general; de su óptica en particular se conocían los valores de los parámetros principales pero sin saber si éstos corresponden a valores teóricos ó de construcción. Por ello se consideró necesario iniciar una investigación para conocer en detalle los valores reales de las componentes ópticas del telescopio, obteniéndose algunos resultados de interés. El primario del telescopio OANl5O es aproximadamente F/3 y el siste ma en su conjunto es F/8.2, con su sistema corrector de campo. En términos generales, la imagen es satisfactoria en todo el campo y, sin sistema corrector, la imagen axial también es buena. En un futuro muy cercano se piensa diseñar instrumentación adicional para este telescopio. Conocer con mayor precisión sus características puede ser de gran utilidad para tal fin, pues se efectúan los cálculos considerando conjuntamente al telescopio y al instrumento.

  7. [Case of the month. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis due to an iodinated contrast radiodiagnostic agent].

    PubMed

    Paquet, P; Vandenbossche, G; Nikkels, A F; Henry, F; Piérard, G E

    2009-12-01

    Iodinated contrast agents are frequently involved in delayed polymorphic adverse skin reactions. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis following administration of iodinated contrast agents is a rare but severe form of such reactions. The disease is characterized by the sudden occurrence of an erosive and pustular erythroderma with fever, leukocytosis and sometimes peripheral adenopathies and liver involvement. This condition is considered as an immunologic reaction, primarily involving T lymphocytes. The overall mortality reaches about 1%. Elucidating the differential diagnosis with other acute paroxysmal drug eruptions (toxic epidermal necrolysis, Steven-Johnson syndrome and drug hypersensitivity syndrome) is of paramount importance for establishing the adequate treatment of PEAG.

  8. Triglyceride level

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels may be due to: Low fat diet Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) Malabsorption syndrome (conditions in which the ... Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency High blood cholesterol levels Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Malabsorption Metabolism Nephrotic syndrome Protein in diet ...

  9. Let's Start Leveling about Leveling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasswell, Kath; Ford, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose a revised way of thinking about reading levels, one that promotes a wider and more flexible view of teacher decision making about the use of leveled texts in classrooms. They share five key principles to consider when looking at the use of instruction that involves matching leveled materials with readers.…

  10. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  11. Making a Laser Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Harry

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how to construct a laser level. This laser level can be made using a typical 4' (or shorter) bubble level and a small laser point. The laser unit is detachable, so the bubble level can also be used in the conventional way. However, the laser level works better than a simple bubble level. Making this inexpensive device is an…

  12. Drinking Levels Defined

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Drinking Levels Defined Moderate alcohol consumption: According to the "Dietary ... of drinking that brings blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels to 0.08 g/dL. This typically occurs ...

  13. Cognitive Levels Matching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Martin; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The Cognitive Levels Matching Project trains teachers to guide students' skill acquisition and problem-solving processes by assessing students' cognitive levels and adapting their teaching materials accordingly. (MLF)

  14. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  15. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Outlook (Prognosis) High cholesterol levels can lead to hardening of the arteries , also called atherosclerosis. This occurs ... and safe drinking Coronary heart disease Cushing syndrome Hardening of the arteries Hypothyroidism Overweight Stroke Triglyceride level ...

  16. Low magnesium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low magnesium level is a condition in which the amount of magnesium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical ... that convert or use energy ( metabolism ). When the level of magnesium in the body drops below normal, ...

  17. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  18. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, Albert P.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  19. The Traits of Effective Spanish Writing = Las caracteristicas de la buena escritura en espanol. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Will A.; Arrasmith, Dean G.

    This English-Spanish language report includes the rationale for creating an assessment model for Spanish writing, offering an overview of the components of high quality assessment for any subject area, particularly Spanish writing. It presents the characteristics of effective Spanish writing, rubrics for scoring student performance based on the…

  20. Liquid level sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid level sensing device comprising a load cell supporting a column or stack of segments freely resting on one another. The density of each element is substantially identical to that of the surrounding liquid. The elements are freely guided within a surrounding tube. As each element is exposed above the liquid level, its weight will be impressed through the column to the load cell, thereby providing a signal at the load cell directly proportional to the liquid level elevation.

  1. Levels of safety

    SciTech Connect

    Povyakalo, A.A.

    1996-07-01

    When speaking about danger of catastrophe, it is the first level of danger. Its absence is the first level of safety. When speaking about danger of danger of catastrophe, it is the second level of danger. Its absence is the second level of safety. The paper proposes the way to formalize these ideas and use formal models to construct the states-and-event scale for a given object. The proposed approach can be applied to objects of different nature. The states-and-events scale may be used for transformation of initial objectives state-and-transitions graph to reduce bad classes of states.

  2. Tiltmeter leveling mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.; Boro, Carl O.; Farris, Alvis

    2002-01-01

    A tiltmeter device having a pair of orthogonally disposed tilt sensors that are levelable within an inner housing containing the sensors. An outer housing can be rotated to level at least one of the sensor pair while the inner housing can be rotated to level the other sensor of the pair. The sensors are typically rotated up to about plus or minus 100 degrees. The device is effective for measuring tilts in a wide range of angles of inclination of wells and can be employed to level a platform containing a third sensor.

  3. Learning across Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    The theme of this year's Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) 2013 conference--"To see the world 'and' a grain of sand: Learning across levels of space, time and scale"--targets a provocative challenge for CSCL, namely that the interactions of collaborative learning be understood, supported and analysed at multiple levels. As the…

  4. TES Level 1B

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    TES Level 1B data files contain radiometric calibrated spectral radiances and their ... and some engineering data are also provided. A Level 1B data file contains data from a single TES orbit for one focal ... as the Aura orbit number at the time of the South Pole apex crossing. version id represents the version identification number, ...

  5. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  6. Definition of Virtual Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Bruce W.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an examination of graphical displays of solutions to time-dependent Schrodinger equation modeling a laser-excited three-level atom. It suggests that an energy level may be regarded as virtual when it is detuned from resonance by more than two Rabi frequencies. (Author/HM)

  7. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, Michael E.; Sullivan, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  8. Construal level and procrastination.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Sean M; Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov; Sherman, Steven J

    2008-12-01

    According to construal-level theory, events that are distant in time tend to be represented more abstractly than are events that are close in time. This mental association between level of abstractness and temporal distance is proposed to be a bidirectional relationship, such that level of representation of an event should also have effects on the time when the activity is performed. In the present studies, participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire via e-mail within 3 weeks. The questionnaire was designed to induce either an abstract or a concrete construal. Using a variety of manipulations of construal level, the studies supported the predictions of construal-level theory. Individuals were less likely to procrastinate performing the task when the questionnaire induced a more concrete construal. Furthermore, this effect did not depend on the attractiveness, importance, or perceived difficulty of the task.

  9. Levels at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    Operational procedures at U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations include periodic leveling checks to ensure that gages are accurately set to the established gage datum. Differential leveling techniques are used to determine elevations for reference marks, reference points, all gages, and the water surface. The techniques presented in this manual provide guidance on instruments and methods that ensure gaging-station levels are run to both a high precision and accuracy. Levels are run at gaging stations whenever differences in gage readings are unresolved, stations may have been damaged, or according to a pre-determined frequency. Engineer's levels, both optical levels and electronic digital levels, are commonly used for gaging-station levels. Collimation tests should be run at least once a week for any week that levels are run, and the absolute value of the collimation error cannot exceed 0.003 foot/100 feet (ft). An acceptable set of gaging-station levels consists of a minimum of two foresights, each from a different instrument height, taken on at least two independent reference marks, all reference points, all gages, and the water surface. The initial instrument height is determined from another independent reference mark, known as the origin, or base reference mark. The absolute value of the closure error of a leveling circuit must be less than or equal to ft, where n is the total number of instrument setups, and may not exceed |0.015| ft regardless of the number of instrument setups. Closure error for a leveling circuit is distributed by instrument setup and adjusted elevations are determined. Side shots in a level circuit are assessed by examining the differences between the adjusted first and second elevations for each objective point in the circuit. The absolute value of these differences must be less than or equal to 0.005 ft. Final elevations for objective points are determined by averaging the valid adjusted first and second elevations. If final elevations

  10. Global sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, B.C. )

    1991-04-15

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise appear to be in large part due to authors' using data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries, where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to postglacial rebound (PGR) from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling PGR by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1991) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. The value for mean sea level rise obtained from a global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 is 1.8 mm/yr {plus minus} 0.1. This result provides confidence that carefully selected long tide gauge records measure the same underlying trend of sea level and that many old tide gauge records are of very high quality.

  11. Sea level variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Bruce C.

    1992-01-01

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records range from about one to three mm per year. The scatter of the estimates appears to arise largely from the use of data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends, and the effects of large interdecadal and longer sea level variations on short (less than 50+ years) or sappy records. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to isostatic rebound from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling rebound by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1990) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. A global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 yields the global sea level rise value 1.8 mm/year +/- 0.1. Greenhouse warming scenarios commonly forecast an additional acceleration of global sea level in the next 5 or 6+ decades in the range 0.1-0.2 mm/yr2. Because of the large power at low frequencies in the sea level spectrum, very long tide gauge records (75 years minimum) have been examined for past apparent sea level acceleration. For the 80-year period 1905-1985, 23 essentially complete tide gauge records in 10 geographic groups are available for analysis. These yielded the apparent global acceleration -0.011 (+/- 0.012) mm/yr2. A larger, less uniform set of 37 records in the same 10 groups with 92 years average length covering the 141 years from 1850-1991 gave 0.001 (+/- 0.008) mm/yr2. Thus there is no evidence for an apparent acceleration in the past 100+ years that is significant either statistically, or in comparison to values associated with global warming. Unfortunately, the large interdecadal fluctuations of sea level severely affect

  12. Sea level change

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1995 Scientific Assessment, Chapter 7. Sea Level Change, presents a modest revision of the similar chapter in the 1990 Assessment. Principal conclusions on observed sea-level change and the principal terms in the sea-level equation (ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, ice sheets, and land hydrology), including our knowledge of the present-day (defined as the 20th Century) components of sea-level rise, and projections of these for the future, are presented here. Some of the interesting glaciological problems which are involved in these studies are discussed in more detail. The emphasis here is on trends over decades to a century, not on shorter variations nor on those of the geologic past. Unfortunately, some of the IPCC projections had not been agreed at the time of writing of this paper, and these projections will not be given here. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  13. High potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms. Tests that may be ordered include: Electrocardiogram (ECG) Potassium level Your provider will likely check your ... have danger signs, such as changes in an ECG . Emergency treatment may include: Calcium given into your ...

  14. Low potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... or vomiting Using too much laxative, which can cause diarrhea Chronic kidney disease Diuretic medicines (water pills), used to treat heart failure and high blood pressure Eating disorders (such as bulimia ) Low magnesium level Sweating

  15. Projecting future sea level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  16. Regional Screening Levels (RSLs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regional Screening Level RSL Home Page introduces risk assessors to Chemical Risk Assessment preliminary remediation goals PRG risk based concentration RBC and risk calculations for the assessment of human Health.

  17. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Ready to start a fitness program? Measure your fitness level with a few simple tests. ... 14, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/fitness/art-20046433 . Mayo Clinic ...

  18. Liquid level controller

    DOEpatents

    Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

    1975-07-15

    A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies. (auth)

  19. Contemporary sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  20. Liquid level sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Atul; Karekar, R.N.; Aiyer, R.C.

    2005-10-15

    The article reports an idea of using a simple, cantilever-type load cell with a rod as a level sensor for continuous liquid level measurements. The sensor is based on the principle of the Archimedes buoyancy principle. The density and geometry of the rod govern the choice of the load cell. The length of the rod is governed by the height of the tank. A series of cyclic tests have demonstrated a highly repeatable response of the sensor. The accuracy of this low-cost sensor is field tested and found to be {+-}0.5% of the full range, for a 10 m level of water in a tank, and is working reliably for the period of 18 months. The sensor range can be easily extended to lower and higher tank heights. The sensor is crowned by its easy installation and calibration.

  1. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  2. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, H.L.; Elford, R.W.; Shumak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Reflotron dry chemistry reflectance photometer was studied as a case-finding method in physicians' offices. A total of 713 adult patients had their risk factor profiles determined along with fingerprick blood cholesterol measurements. Blood cholesterol levels were classified into three categories, (<5.2 mmol/L), 51%; borderline high (5.2 to 6.1 mmol/L), 28%; and high (≥6.2 mmol/L), 21%. The physicians' predictions from clinical risk factor profiles of which patients had elevated serum cholesterol levels were inaccurate. PMID:21229051

  3. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kotz, Dennis M.; Hinz, William R.

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  4. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid level sensor having a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

  5. Liquid-level detector

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    Aliquid level sensor is described which has a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

  6. CERES Product Level Details

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-02-28

    ... as radiative broadband fluxes and their associated MODIS cloud properties. Level 3:  Data products are the radiative fluxes and cloud properties that are spatially averaged into uniform regional and zonal ... between average global net TOA flux imbalance and ocean heat storage). ...

  7. Implementing Modular A Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holding, Gordon

    This document, which is designed for curriculum managers at British further education (FE) colleges, presents basic information on the implementation and perceived benefits of the General Certificate of Education (GCE) modular A (Advanced) levels. The information was synthesized from a survey of 12 FE colleges that introduced the modular A levels…

  8. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  9. Vitamin B12 level

    MedlinePlus

    ... pg/mL are a possible sign of a vitamin B12 deficiency. People with this deficiency are likely to have ... level indicates a true B12 deficiency. Causes of vitamin B12 deficiency include: Not enough vitamin B12 in diet (rare, ...

  10. MISR Level 3 Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-04

    ... Defined as PAR irradiance absorbed by live vegetation divided by incident PAR irradiance. Summary of Level 2 LAND, FPARBestEstimate ... albedo may be highly variable for heterogeneous clouds, and attention must be given to the associated obscuration factors. Summary of ...

  11. Lassoing Levels of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniz, Eva Vera

    In early stages of writing, the writing process encourages "writing the way we talk," but in the end students are expected to write as academicians: a student must control his/her written level of language. For English speaking students, needing to belong to ingroups, and the casual attitude of American society both contribute to students'…

  12. SPACE: Intermediate Level Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    These modules were developed to assist teachers at the intermediate level to move away from extensive skill practice and toward more meaningful interdisciplinary learning. This packet, to be used by teachers in the summer Extended Learning Program, provides detailed thematic lesson plans matched to the Indiana Curriculum Proficiency Guide. The…

  13. Split-Level Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Kelly

    1997-01-01

    Presents photographs and the floor plan of a middle school whose split-level design separates "noisy" areas, such as the band room and gymnasium, from the academic wing. The design encourages teaming and flexibility through its classroom clustering and mobile partitions between classrooms. Additionally, all classrooms possess windows and…

  14. Current level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Cordon R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a DC signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference AC signal is applied. The unknown DC signal acts on the reference AC signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown DC current.

  15. Levels of Valence

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Vera; Sander, David; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    The distinction between the positive and the negative is fundamental in our emotional life. In appraisal theories, in particular in the component process model of emotion (Scherer, 1984, 2010), qualitatively different types of valence are proposed based on appraisals of (un)pleasantness, goal obstructiveness/conduciveness, low or high power, self-(in)congruence, and moral badness/goodness. This multifaceted conceptualization of valence is highly compatible with the frequent observation of mixed feelings in real life. However, it seems to contradict the one-dimensional conceptualization of valence often encountered in psychological theories, and the notion of valence as a common currency used to explain choice behavior. Here, we propose a framework to integrate the seemingly disparate conceptualizations of multifaceted valence and one-dimensional valence by suggesting that valence should be conceived at different levels, micro and macro. Micro-valences correspond to qualitatively different types of evaluations, potentially resulting in mixed feelings, whereas one-dimensional macro-valence corresponds to an integrative “common currency” to compare alternatives for choices. We propose that conceptualizing levels of valence may focus research attention on the mechanisms that relate valence at one level (micro) to valence at another level (macro), leading to new hypotheses, and addressing various concerns that have been raised about the valence concept, such as the valence-emotion relation. PMID:23717292

  16. Continuous fluid level detector

    SciTech Connect

    LeVert, F.E.

    1989-02-21

    A fluid level detector is described which consists of: a junctionless thermocouple cable consisting of two thermoelectric elements enclosed in a metallic sheath wherein a negative resistance temperature coefficient insulant is interpositioned between the thermoelectric elements and the inner surface of the metallic sheath thereby providing electrical insulation and thermal energy transfer between the thermoelectric elements; a metallic sheathed resistance heater, which is used to input thermal energy to the fluid level detector; an outer metallic cylindrical tube capable of being sealed on one end, into which the juctionless thermocouple cable and resistance heater are inserted and held in place by mechanically swaging or drawing, to reduce the outer diameter of the metallic cylindrical tube; separate means for supplying electric currents to the thermoelectric elements and to the resistance heater; and electronic and computing means for measuring the loop resistance of the thermoelectric elements with a temporary junction.

  17. Superiorization with level control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegielski, Andrzej; Al-Musallam, Fadhel

    2017-04-01

    The convex feasibility problem is to find a common point of a finite family of closed convex subsets. In many applications one requires something more, namely finding a common point of closed convex subsets which minimizes a continuous convex function. The latter requirement leads to an application of the superiorization methodology which is actually settled between methods for convex feasibility problem and the convex constrained minimization. Inspired by the superiorization idea we introduce a method which sequentially applies a long-step algorithm for a sequence of convex feasibility problems; the method employs quasi-nonexpansive operators as well as subgradient projections with level control and does not require evaluation of the metric projection. We replace a perturbation of the iterations (applied in the superiorization methodology) by a perturbation of the current level in minimizing the objective function. We consider the method in the Euclidean space in order to guarantee the strong convergence, although the method is well defined in a Hilbert space.

  18. Level sensing system

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, C.S.

    1989-01-10

    A system is described for sensing the level of a body of liquid in a container, the system comprising: (a) a shaft secured parallel to a vertical axis of the container, the shaft having therein a plurality of magnetic position responsive switches; (b) a reference elemental situated circumferentially about the shaft and secured at a fixed level thereto, the reference element having a magnetic axis co-directional with the axis of the shaft; and (c) a measuring and sensing element situated circumferentially about the shaft and vertically above the reference element but without securement thereto, the measuring element having a magnetic axis co-directional with the axis of the reference element, the axis having a polarity in repulsive relationship to the magnetic axis of the reference element, the sensing element having a negative buoyancy relative to the specific gravity of the liquid within the container.

  19. Level up Book Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGarde, Jennifer; Winner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Like all great ideas, Level Up Book Club grew out of a genuine need, the spontaneous firing of a few brain sparks, and the kind of luck that comes from being "in the right place at the right time." By mid-June 2011 the authors were already "bona fide" wonder twins--two educators who, although they'd never met, had stumbled upon each other through…

  20. Understanding Sea Level Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Today more than 100 million people worldwide live on coastlines within one meter of mean sea level; any short-term or long-term sea level change relative to vertical ground motion is of great societal and economic concern. As palm-environment and historical data have clearly indicated the existence and prevalence of such changes in the past, new scientific information regarding to the nature and causes and a prediction capability are of utmost importance for the future. The 10-20 cm global sea-level rise recorded over the last century has been broadly attributed to two effects: (1) the steric effect (thermal expansion and salinity-density compensation of sea water) following global climate; (2) mass-budget changes due to a number of competing geophysical and hydrological processes in the Earth-atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere system, including water exchange from polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers to the ocean, atmospheric water vapor and land hydrological variations, and anthropogenic effects such as water impoundment in artificial reservoirs and extraction of groundwater, all superimposed on the vertical motions of solid Earth due to tectonics, rebound of the mantle from past and present deglaciation, and other local ground motions. As remote-sensing tools, a number of space geodetic measurements of sea surface topography (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason), ice mass (e.g., ICESat), time-variable gravity (e.g. GRACE), and ground motions (SLR, VLBI, GPS, InSAR, Laser altimetry, etc.) become directly relevant. Understanding sea level changes "anywhere, anytime" in a well-defined terrestrial reference frame in terms of climate change and interactions among ice masses, oceans, and the solid Earth, and being able to predict them, emerge as one of the scientific challenges in the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG, 2003) conclusions.

  1. Liquid Level Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

  2. The Knowledge Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    precisely to realizing mental functions in physical systems. In the hands of Daniel Dennett (1978), a philosopher who has concerned himself rather...illustrated repeatedly by Dennett with the gross flow diagrams of AI programs. The intentional stance corresponds to the knowledge level. In...particular, Dennett takes the important step of jettisoning the major result-cum- assumption of the original doctrine, to wit, that the intentional is

  3. USACE Extreme Sea levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-14

    into Extreme Water Level Characterization 9 September 2013 Attendees: Heidi Moritz, Kate White, Jonathan Simm, Robert Nicholls, Peter Hawkes...adaptation. Robert Nicholls raised the question of how well do we feel that we understand the present extreme climate? We should start with this area...the peer-review and acceptance process for a journal paper. Robert suggested that most of the papers which are needed for an analysis today may be

  4. Binomial level densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuker, A. P.

    2001-08-01

    It is shown that nuclear level densities in a finite space are described by a continuous binomial function, determined by the first three moments of the Hamiltonian, and the dimensionality of the underlying vector space. Experimental values for 55Mn, 56Fe, and 60Ni are very well reproduced by the binomial form, which turns out to be almost perfectly approximated by Bethe's formula with backshift. A proof is given for which binomial densities reproduce the low moments of Hamiltonians of any rank: A strong form of the famous central limit result of Mon and French. Conditions under which the proof may be extended to the full spectrum are examined.

  5. System level electrochemical principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional electrochemical storage concepts are difficult to translate into high power, high voltage multikilowatt storage systems. The increased use of electronics, and the use of electrochemical couples that minimize the difficulties associated with the corrective measures to reduce the cell to cell capacity dispersion were adopted by battery technology. Actively cooled bipolar concepts are described which represent some attractive alternative system concepts. They are projected to have higher energy densities lower volumes than current concepts. They should be easier to scale from one capacity to another and have a closer cell to cell capacity balance. These newer storage system concepts are easier to manage since they are designed to be a fully integrated battery. These ideas are referred to as system level electrochemistry. The hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cells (RFC) is probably the best example of the integrated use of these principles.

  6. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Tshishiku, Eugene M.

    2011-08-09

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  7. Switch wear leveling

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-halogenated-1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylenes as potential estrogen receptor-targeted radiodiagnostic and radiotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Robert N; Tongcharoensirikul, Pakamas; Barnsley, Kelton; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Hughes, Alun; DeSombre, Eugene R

    2015-04-01

    A series of three 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylene derivatives was prepared and evaluated as potential estrogen receptor imaging agents. The compounds display high binding affinity compared to estradiol, with the 2-iodo and 2-bromo-derivatives expressing higher affinity than the parent 2-nonhalogenated derivative. Evaluation in immature female rats also indicate that the compounds were all full estrogenic agonists with potencies in the same order of activity (I∼Br>H). Computational analysis of the interactions between the ligands and ERα-LBD demonstrated positive contribution of halide to binding properties. In preparation for studies using the radiohalogenated analogs, the corresponding protected 2-(tributylstannyl) derivative was prepared and converted to the corresponding 2-iodo-product.

  9. Tissue-level cytoprotection.

    PubMed

    Hightower, L E; Brown; Renfro, J L; Perdrizet, G A; Rewinski, M; Guidon, P T; Mistry, T; House, S D

    2000-11-01

    In vitro and ex vivo tissue models provide a useful level of biological organization for cytoprotection studies positioned between cultured cells and intact animals. We have used 2 such models, primary tissue cultures of winter flounder renal secretory epithelium and ex vivo preparations of rat intestinal tissues, the latter to access the microcirculation of exposed mesentery tissues. Herein we discuss studies indicating that differentiated functions are altered in thermotolerant or cytoprotected tissues. These functions include transepithelial transport in renal epithelium and attachment and transmigration of leukocytes across vascular endothelium in response to mediators of inflammation. Evidence pointing to inflammation as a major venue for the heat shock response in vertebrates continues to mount. One such venue is wound healing. Heat shock proteins are induced early in wound responses, and some are released into the extracellular wound fluid where they appear to function as proinflammatory cytokines. However, within responding cells in the wound, heat shock proteins contribute to the acquisition of a state of cytoprotection that protects cells from the hostile environment of the wound, an environment created to destroy pathogens and essentially sterilize the wound. We propose that the cytoprotected state is an anti-inflammatory state that contributes to limiting the inflammatory response; that is, it serves as a brake on inflammation.

  10. Tissue-level cytoprotection

    PubMed Central

    Hightower, L.E.; Brown, M.A.; Renfro, J.L.; Perdrizet, G.A.; Rewinski, M.; Guidon, P.T.; Mistry, T.; House, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    In vitro and ex vivo tissue models provide a useful level of biological organization for cytoprotection studies positioned between cultured cells and intact animals. We have used 2 such models, primary tissue cultures of winter flounder renal secretory epithelium and ex vivo preparations of rat intestinal tissues, the latter to access the microcirculation of exposed mesentery tissues. Herein we discuss studies indicating that differentiated functions are altered in thermotolerant or cytoprotected tissues. These functions include transepithelial transport in renal epithelium and attachment and transmigration of leukocytes across vascular endothelium in response to mediators of inflammation. Evidence pointing to inflammation as a major venue for the heat shock response in vertebrates continues to mount. One such venue is wound healing. Heat shock proteins are induced early in wound responses, and some are released into the extracellular wound fluid where they appear to function as proinflammatory cytokines. However, within responding cells in the wound, heat shock proteins contribute to the acquisition of a state of cytoprotection that protects cells from the hostile environment of the wound, an environment created to destroy pathogens and essentially sterilize the wound. We propose that the cytoprotected state is an anti-inflammatory state that contributes to limiting the inflammatory response; that is, it serves as a brake on inflammation. PMID:11189445

  11. The CDF LEVEL3 trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, T.; Joshi, U.; Auchincloss, P.

    1989-04-01

    CDF is currently taking data at a luminosity of 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using a four level event filtering scheme. The fourth level, LEVEL3, uses ACP (Fermilab`s Advanced Computer Program) designed 32 bit VME based parallel processors (1) capable of executing algorithms written in FORTRAN. LEVEL3 currently rejects about 50% of the events.

  12. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  13. MISR Level 1A Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... MISR Level 1A Products Level 1A Engineering Data File Type 1 and Level 1A Navigation Data Processing ... Product Specification Rev K  (PDF). Transparent software rebuild with Irix 6.5.2 OS. F01_0007 (FM_ENG), ...

  14. Helium II level measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, D.; Hilton, D. K.; Zhang, T.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a survey of cryogenic liquid level measurement techniques applicable to superfluid helium (He II) is given. The survey includes both continuous and discrete measurement techniques. A number of different probes and controlling circuits for this purpose have been described in the literature. They fall into one of the following categories: capacitive liquid level gauges, superconducting wire liquid level gauges, thermodynamic (heat transfer-based) liquid level gauges, resistive gauges, ultrasound and transmission line-based level detectors. The present paper reviews these techniques and their suitability for He II service. In addition to these methods, techniques for measuring the total liquid volume and mass gauging are also discussed.

  15. Specified assurance level sampling procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Willner, O.

    1980-11-01

    In the nuclear industry design specifications for certain quality characteristics require that the final product be inspected by a sampling plan which can demonstrate product conformance to stated assurance levels. The Specified Assurance Level (SAL) Sampling Procedure has been developed to permit the direct selection of attribute sampling plans which can meet commonly used assurance levels. The SAL procedure contains sampling plans which yield the minimum sample size at stated assurance levels. The SAL procedure also provides sampling plans with acceptance numbers ranging from 0 to 10, thus, making available to the user a wide choice of plans all designed to comply with a stated assurance level.

  16. Liquid level measurement in high level nuclear waste slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, G.E.; Heckendorn, F.M.; Postles, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Accurate liquid level measurement has been a difficult problem to solve for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The nuclear waste sludge tends to plug or degrade most commercially available liquid-level measurement sensors. A liquid-level measurement system that meets demanding accuracy requirements for the DWPF has been developed. The system uses a pneumatic 1:1 pressure repeater as a sensor and a computerized error correction system. 2 figs.

  17. Economics and lighting level recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1992-04-01

    The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America develops light level recommendations for tasks where visual performance is important. The 1959 and 1972 recommendations for illumination levels were based on the principle of delivering a fixed level of performance as predicted by the visual performance models of the time. This same principle is being considered for future revisions to the recommendations. There is currently no explicit method for determining whether a given fixed performance level is in any sense optimal or best. Visual performance increases with lighting levels, but so do economic and environmental costs. These costs lessen the economic benefits of the improved visual performance. A formal method for including these factors in light level recommendations is to restate the problem in terms of net benefits (benefits minus costs). The resulting equations have well defined optima versus light level, and thus give an explicit estimate of what the best lighting levels are in terms of current visual performance models, and current economic conditions. A simple net-benefit procedure is described, and sample calculations are shown for two current visual performance models. Fixed performance levels do not provide economically optimal recommendations with either model. There are also differences between models, but they are less significant than the large differences between the principles of fixed performance levels and economic optimization.

  18. Late Pleistocene Sea Level Stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, R. M.; Lisiecki, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Sea level reconstructions have been created using wide variety of proxies and models. The accuracy of individual sea level reconstructions is limited by measurement, noise, local variations in salinity and temperature, and the assumptions particular to each reconstruction. To address these limitations, we have created a sea level stack (average) which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of sea level estimates by combining 5-7 sea level reconstructions over the last 800 kyr. Principal Component analysis (PCA) of seven sea level records from 0-430 kyr ago shows that 82% of the variance in these records is explained by their first principal component (i.e., the stack). Additionally, a stack of just the 5 longer records that extends to 800 kyr closely matches the timing and amplitude of our seven-record mean. We find that the mean sea level estimate for Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5e is 0-4 m above modern, and that the standard deviation of individual estimates is 11 m. Mean sea level estimates for MIS 11 are 12-16 m above modern with a standard deviation of 30 m. Due to the large variability between individual reconstructions, our sea level stack may provide more robust sea level estimates than any single technique.

  19. 47. MAIN WAREHOUSE SECOND LEVEL ADDITION Second level was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. MAIN WAREHOUSE - SECOND LEVEL ADDITION Second level was added in 1941. Note the variety of building materials used in the wall: cement, bricks and finally cement blocks, with wood topping the entire wall. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  20. 17. Interior of upper level (Turf Club level) of south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior of upper level (Turf Club level) of south and west additions to the Clubhouse. Camera pointed W. Stairs in foreground lead to the 'Gallery' room. Stairs in background lead to the 'Callahan' room. 'Broderick' room (not shown) is entered from south side of 'Gallery' room. (July 1993) - Longacres, Clubhouse & Additions, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  1. 2. TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL INTERIOR, SHOWING MEZZANINE LEVEL CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL INTERIOR, SHOWING MEZZANINE LEVEL CABLE RACK AT UPPER RIGHT. Looking north. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Comments About a Chameleon Theory: Level I/Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, John; Stankov, Lazar

    1982-01-01

    Jensen's ideas about two levels of intellectual abilities are criticized as being oversimplified. More than two levels of intellectual abilities and relationships between variables reflecting more than racial and socioeconomic status (SES) differences are suggested, arguing that Jensen's statements about race and SES differences are not properly…

  3. OVERVIEW OF FOURTH LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB (ROOFTOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF FOURTH LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB (ROOFTOP LEVEL OF BUILDING) SHOWING TOP OF MISSILE TUBE. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Developing new levels of edit

    SciTech Connect

    Prono, J.; DeLanoy, M.; Deupree, R.; Skiby, J.; Thompson, B.

    1998-07-01

    In 1985, the writing and editing group at Los Alamos National Laboratory established four levels of edit for technical reports. When a survey in 1994 showed that both authors and editors felt the levels were not meeting author needs, the authors set about revising them. Their goals were to simplify the editing process, focus editing on improving technical clarity, and ensure that value was added in editing. This paper describes the revision process and product -- three author-based levels of edit.

  5. Developing new levels of edit

    SciTech Connect

    Prono, J.K.

    1997-06-01

    Since 1985, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) staff have had four levels of edit to choose from for technical reports. When a CQI survey showed that both authors and editors felt the levels were not meeting author needs, LANL set about revising them. The goals were to simplify the editing process, focus editing on improving technical clarity, and ensure value added in editing. This paper describes the revision process and product--three author-based levels of edit.

  6. Low Light Level TV Techniques.

    PubMed

    Gildea, J

    1970-10-01

    As the science of low light level sensing becomes better understood, the demand for systems with this capability has increased considerably in recent years. Low light level television systems are part of these low light sensing devices in which interest has grown. Development of low light level TV systems has, in turn, stimulated technical advances in new tube types with improved performance, development of electronic techniques which enhance the over-all performance, and design techniques which make the system more versatile and adaptable. A general look at some of these developments and techniques gives insight into the versatility and adaptability of low light level TV.

  7. Two Sea-Level Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, C.

    2008-12-01

    "No place on the sandy ocean shores of the world has been shown to be eroding because of sea level rise." This statement appeared nearly 19 years ago in bold print at the top of the page in a brief article published in Shore and Beach (Galvin,1990). The term "sea level rise" was defined in 1990 as follows: "In this statement, "sea level rise" has the meaning that the average person on the street usually attaches to that term. That is, sea level is rising; not, as in some places like the Mississippi River delta, land level is sinking." While still a subject of controversy, it is now (2008) increasingly plausible (Tornqvist et al,2008) that damage from Hurricane Katrina was significantly worse on the Mississippi River delta because floodwaters exploited wetlands and levees whose elevations had been lowered by decades of compaction in the underlying soil. (1) "Sea level" commonly appears in the literature as "relative sea level rise", occurring that way in 711 publications between 1980 and 2009 (GeoRef database on 8 Sep 08). "Relative sea level rise" does not appear in the 2005 AGI Glossary. The nearest Glossary term is "relative change in sea level", but that term occurs in only 12 publications between 1980 and 2009. The Glossary defines this term in a sequence stratigraphy sense, which infers that "relative sea level rise" is the sum of bottom subsidence and eustatic sea level rise. In plain English, "relative sea level rise" means "water depth increase". For present day coastal environments, "relative sea level rise" is commonly used where eustatic sea level rise is less than subsidence, that is, where the magnitude of actual sea level rise is smaller than the magnitude of subsidence. In that situation, "relative sea level rise" misleads both the average person and the scientist who is not a coastal geologist. Thus, the first challenge is to abandon "relative sea level rise" in favor of "water depth increase", in order that the words accurately descibe what happens

  8. Caracteristicas de la Instruccion Programada como Tecnica de Ensenanza (Characteristics of Programed Instruction as a Teaching Technique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorrego, Maria Elena

    This discussion of programed instruction begins with the fundamental psychological aspects and learning theories behind this teaching method. Negative and positive reinforcement, conditioning, and their relationship to programed instruction are considered. Different types of programs, both linear and branching, are discussed; criticism of the…

  9. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la seccion de entrada mediante un mayor o menor aporte de corriente al puente. Como consecuencia, la seccion de entrada del paralelo, ya de por si mas voluminosa que lao del serie por el uso de grandes componentes magneticos (bobinas de filtro o de "alisamiento"), result a tambien mas complicada y costosa debido a la necesidad de ser implementada mediante rectificador controlado. Ademas, la regulacion que ofrece el rectificador es pobre, dada su baja frecuencia de conmutacion. En cambio, el circuito serie puede funcionar por encima de la resonancia manteniendo una secuencia de conmutacion sin riesgos de recuperacion inversa y con una corriente de salida practicamente sinusoidal, lo que permite un control de la potencia por variacion de frecuencia. Puesto que la tarea de regulacion se realiza desde el puente inversor, la regulacion resulta mucho mas eficaz y la seccion de entrada se puede implementar mediante un simple rectificador no controlado y un condensador de filtro. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  10. The Many Levels of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banchi, Heather; Bell, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Elementary teachers often struggle with how to design and implement inquiry instruction with their students. For many, just understanding what inquiry is can be difficult--let alone designing activities that support high levels of inquiry. In this article, the authors present a continuum by which to evaluate an activity's level of inquiry. Then,…

  11. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  12. MISR Level 3 Imagery Overview

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-06

    ... View Data  |  Download Data About this Web Site: Visualization of select parameters available in the MISR Level 3 ... that there are no images of variances/covariances on this web site, but the data are available in the Level 3 product.  Information ...

  13. Tethered float liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Daily, III, William Dean

    2016-09-06

    An apparatus for sensing the level of a liquid includes a float, a tether attached to the float, a pulley attached to the tether, a rotation sensor connected to the pulley that senses vertical movement of said float and senses the level of the liquid.

  14. Levels of Evaluation: Beyond Kirkpatrick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger; Keller, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Expands Kirkpatrick's four-level evaluation model (reaction, learning, behavior, results) to five levels: enabling/reaction, acquisition, application, organizational outputs, and societal outcomes. The expanded model enables consideration of the value and worth of training resources as well as the broader social consequences. (SK)

  15. Conversation at the Intermediate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlop, Ian

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the use of free conversation, especially with regard to vocabulary. Recommends group discussion in the FL, using, at the intermediate level, limited, familiar vocabulary. At a higher level, words from a special technical vocabulary may be introduced, aurally and visually. A teaching example ("Traffic") is given with thorough…

  16. Science Curriculum Guide, Level 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newark School District, DE.

    The third of four levels in a K-12 science curriculum is outlined. In Level 3 (grades 6-8), science areas include life science, earth science, and physical science (physics and chemistry). Conveniently listed are page locations for educational and instructional objectives, cross-referenced to science area (i.e., life science, animals, genetics)…

  17. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Use of blood levels to infer carcass levels of contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hensler, G.L.; Stout, William C.

    1982-01-01

    Inferences may be made about the carcass levels of a contaminant based on the contaminant level in blood samples. A method is given for comparing such populations that utilizes bivariate normal distributions and their principal axes, thereby avoiding a dilemma arising from the use of regression techniques. Confidence intervals and power calculations are given. Data from captive barn owls provide partial justification for the use of this method.

  19. Levelling of microprofiles in electrodeposition

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, K.G.

    1990-12-01

    This dissertation addresses current distribution phenomena in the smoothing of advancing and receding microprofiles during electrodeposition in the following areas: levelling in the presence of inhibitors, levelling in the presence of corrosive agents, and levelling caused by periodic current reversal. These phenomena are relevant to many commercial electrodeposition processes. Theoretical analysis of moving boundaries in electrodeposition is addressed, focusing on the levelling of microscopic surface contours. The literature relevant to the solution of current distribution problems is reviewed. Convection of inhibitors to the depth of trenches is evaluated using the finite element method, and characterized as a function of Reynolds number, notch angle, and depth. Secondary flows are shown to noticeably enhance transport into microscopic trenches only at high Peclet numbers, i.e. at very high flow velocities. The boundary element method (BEM) is used to analyze levelling caused by inhibitors consumed at the transport limiting rate during electrodeposition. It is predicted that (1) better levelling performance can be obtained if the microscopic surface waviness is oriented perpendicular to the convective flow, and (2) for surface roughness oriented parallel to the flow, there is an optimum boundary layer thickness, or flux of additive, which results in superior levelling performance. Profilometry and photomicrography is applied to obtain the current distribution, current efficiency and levelling performance on novel microprofiled electrodes for two orientations with respect to the fluid flow during nickel electrodeposition in the presence of coumarin. Slightly better levelling occurs in flows transverse to grooves, and the deposit thickness increases in the flow direction. It is concluded that coumarin acts by simultaneously lowering the current efficiency, and blocking metal deposition. 331 refs., 86 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Making A Precisely Level Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.; Walker, William H.; Cather, Jim; Burch, John B.; Clark, Keith M.; Johnston, Dwight; Henderson, David E.

    1989-01-01

    Floor-pouring procedure yields large surface level, smooth, and hard. Floor made of self-leveling, slow-curing epoxy with added black pigment. Epoxy poured to thickness no greater than 0.33 in. (0.84 cm) on concrete base. Base floor seasoned, reasonably smooth and level, and at least 4 in. (10cm) thick. Base rests on thermal barrier of gravel or cinders and contains no steel plates, dividers, or bridges to minimize thermal distortion. Metal retaining wall surrounds base.

  1. Optical Cryogenic Tank Level Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffell, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Cryogenic fluids play an important role in space transportation. Liquid oxygen and hydrogen are vital fuel components for liquid rocket engines. It is also difficult to accurately measure the liquid level in the cryogenic tanks containing the liquids. The current methods use thermocouple rakes, floats, or sonic meters to measure tank level. Thermocouples have problems examining the boundary between the boiling liquid and the gas inside the tanks. They are also slow to respond to temperature changes. Sonic meters need to be mounted inside the tank, but still above the liquid level. This causes problems for full tanks, or tanks that are being rotated to lie on their side.

  2. Evaluation at the Unit Level.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    RD-fli56 922 EVALUATION AT THE UNIT LEVEL(U) ARMYV WAR COLL CARLISLE i/i BARRACKS PA J F NAU 15 APR 85 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 5/9 N MENMhEEhE... EVALUATION AT THE UNIT LEVEL BY COLONEL JOHN F. NA!, JR., FA DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT 4: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. C) .4C.1...been cleared by the appropriate military service or government agency. Evaluation at the Unit Level An Individual Essay by Colonel John F. Nau, Jr

  3. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  4. Agricultural Production. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in agricultural production: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with agricultural production. SMAT materials…

  5. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  6. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Apr 3,2017 Keeping your ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  7. Occupational Values, Environments, and Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, S. D.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The Job Attitude Scale was administered to majors and captains and to upper-middle managers and lower-middle managers of industrial organizations. The results were discussed in view of job environment and job level. (Author)

  8. Processing TES Level-2 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poosti, Sassaneh; Akopyan, Sirvard; Sakurai, Regina; Yun, Hyejung; Saha, Pranjit; Strickland, Irina; Croft, Kevin; Smith, Weldon; Hoffman, Rodney; Koffend, John; Benenyan, Gerard; Nair, Hari; Sarkissian, Edwin; McDuffie, James; Monarrez, Ruth; Ho,David; Chan, Benny; Lampel, Michael

    2006-01-01

    TES Level 2 Subsystem is a set of computer programs that performs functions complementary to those of the program summarized in the immediately preceding article. TES Level-2 data pertain to retrieved species (or temperature) profiles, and errors thereof. Geolocation, quality, and other data (e.g., surface characteristics for nadir observations) are also included. The subsystem processes gridded meteorological information and extracts parameters that can be interpolated to the appropriate latitude, longitude, and pressure level based on the date and time. Radiances are simulated using the aforementioned meteorological information for initial guesses, and spectroscopic-parameter tables are generated. At each step of the retrieval, a nonlinear-least-squares- solving routine is run over multiple iterations, retrieving a subset of atmospheric constituents, and error analysis is performed. Scientific TES Level-2 data products are written in a format known as Hierarchical Data Format Earth Observing System 5 (HDF-EOS 5) for public distribution.

  9. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  10. Conservation Level and Category Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, C. Rayfield; Kulhavy, Raymond W.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that category recall is related to the quantity conservation of mass, weight, and volume. The predicted association between conservation level and category recall was observed. (JMB)

  11. Answering the Reading Level Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, Gerald P.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    To explain reading level clearly to parents of learning disabled children, teachers must focus on two broad areas: the differences between standardized tests, and the occasional mismatch between sequence of instruction and the test items, per se. (CL)

  12. Sea Level Rise in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. C.; Ho, C. R.; Cheng, Y. H.

    2012-04-01

    Most people, especially for Pacific Islanders, are aware of the sea level change which may caused by many factors, but no of them has deeper sensation of flooding than Tuvaluan. Tuvalu, a coral country, consists of nine low-lying islands in the central Pacific between the latitudes of 5 and 10 degrees south, has the average elevation of 2 meters (South Pacific Sea Level and Climate Monitoring Project, SPSLCMP report, 2006) up to sea level. Meanwhile, the maximum sea level recorded was 3.44m on February 28th 2006 that damaged Tuvaluan's property badly. Local people called the flooding water oozes up out of the ground "King Tide", that happened almost once or twice a year, which destroyed the plant, polluted their fresh water, and forced them to colonize to some other countries. The predictable but uncontrollable king tide had been observed for a long time by SPSLCMP, but some of the uncertainties which intensify the sea level rise need to be analyzed furthermore. In this study, a span of 18 years of tide gauge data accessed from Sea Level Fine Resolution Acoustic Measuring Equipment (SEAFRAME) are compared with the satellite altimeter data accessed from Archiving Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Data in Oceanography (AVISO). All above are processed under the limitation of same time and spatial range. The outcome revealed a 9.26cm difference between both. After the tide gauge data shifted to the same base as altimeter data, the results showed the unknown residuals are always positive under the circumstances of the sea level rise above 3.2m. Apart from uncertainties in observing, the residual reflected unknown contributions. Among the total case number of sea level rise above 3.2m is 23 times, 22 of which were recorded with oceanic warm eddy happened simultaneously. The unknown residual seems precisely matched with oceanic warm eddies and illustrates a clear future approach for Tuvaluan to care for.

  13. PELLISSIER H5 HYDROSTATIC LEVEL

    SciTech Connect

    Imfeld, Hans L.

    2003-05-01

    Conventional spirit leveling using double scale invar rods has been in use at SLAC for some time as the standard method of obtaining very precise height difference information. Typical accuracy of {+-} 100 {micro}m and better can routinely be achieved. Procedures and software have evolved to the point where the method is relatively fast and reliable. However, recent projects such as the Final Focus Test Beam have pushed the requested vertical positioning tolerances for alignment of quadrupoles to the 30 {mu}m level. It is apparent that conventional spirit leveling cannot achieve this level of accuracy. To meet the challenge, the alignment group contracted with Pellissier, Inc. to develop a portable hydrostatic leveling system. The H5 grew out of this development effort and is expected to provide the needed accuracy and ease of use required for such vertical positioning projects. The H5 hydrostatic level is a portable instrument that under ideal operating conditions will provide elevation differences with an accuracy of +/- 5 {mu}m over double leg closed loop surveys. The H5 incorporates several features that eliminate problems common with hydrostatic leveling, primarily errors due to thermal gradients along the fluid tube. It utilizes self-checking software and automatic water level detection to reduce observational errors. Design features also have made the instrument reasonably quick and easy to operate when used on a flat surface. The instrument can be adapted for use in a wide variety of environments by using support fixtures and brackets. The H5 is robust and operators require little training to become proficient in its use. It has been successfully employed on several projects including the FFTB project at SLAC, as well as the Green Bank Telescope project for the NRAO and the SSC project in Texas.

  14. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  15. Promoting system-level learning from project-level lessons

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, Amos A. de; Runhaar, Hens A.C.; Runhaar, Piety R.; Kolhoff, Arend J.; Driessen, Peter P.J.

    2012-02-15

    A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This 'indirect' learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, 'indirect' learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, 'indirect' learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better information dissemination.

  16. Space elevator systems level analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  17. Children's Communication of Basic Level and Subordinate Level Semantic Contrasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kossan, Nancy E.

    Developmental differences in preschool children's abilities to communicate about basic and subordinate level semantic contrasts were examined in a referential communication situation. Twenty-four three, four, and five-year-old children communicated with children of the same age and adults about pictures' referents. Speakers talked about one…

  18. Blooms's Six Cognitive Levels Represent Two Levels of Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Robert; Rosen, Gaye

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of two studies designed to investigate the presence of six cognitive levels of intellectual performance as predicted by Bloom's taxonomy. Results of both experiments revealed a performance dichotomy with synthesis and evaluation forming the superior category. Includes examples of the text items used and draws implications for…

  19. Differences between mean tide level and mean sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, P. L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the differences between mean tide level (MTL) and mean sea level (MSL) as demonstrated using information from a global tide gauge data set. The roles of the two main contributors to differences between MTL and MSL (the M4 harmonic of the M2 semidiurnal tide, and the combination of the diurnal tides K1 and O1) are described, with a particular focus on the spatial scales of variation in MTL-MSL due to each contributor. Findings from the tide gauge data set are contrasted with those from a state-of-the-art global tide model. The study is of interest within tidal science, but also has practical importance regarding the type of mean level used to define land survey datums. In addition, an appreciation of MTL-MSL difference is important in the use of the historical sea level data used in climate change research, with implications for some of the data stored in international databanks. Particular studies are made of how MTL and MSL might differ through the year, and if MTL is measured in daylight hours only, as has been the practice of some national geodetic agencies on occasions in the past.

  20. Abnormal insulin levels and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Proctor, C A

    1981-10-01

    Fifty patients with unexplained vertigo (36) or lightheadedness (14) are evaluated, all of whom had abnormal ENGs and normal audiograms. Five hour insulin glucose tolerance tests were performance on all patients, with insulin levels being obtained fasting and at one-half, one, two, and three hours. The results of this investigation were remarkable. Borderline or abnormal insulin levels were discovered in 82% of patients; 90% were found to have either an abnormal glucose tolerance test or at least borderline insulin levels. The response to treatment in these dizzy patients was also startling, with appropriate low carbohydrate diets improving the patient's symptoms in 90% of cases. It is, therefore, apparent that the earliest identification of carbohydrate imbalance with an insulin glucose tolerance test is extremely important in the work-up of the dizzy patients.

  1. Level indicator for pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-04-28

    A liquid-level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic-field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal-processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  2. Cut performance levels and testing.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Bill; Moreland, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    While the ISEA performance levels and general recommendations detailed above can help tp provide guidance when selecting hand protection products, the responsibility for testing products for specific end-user applications still rests with the end user. We can indicate, for example, that a medium-weight, uncoated Kevlar glove will typically have an ISEA cut rating of 3, but we cannot say the glove will provide the level of protection needed for the range of jobs on an automobile assembly line. Another Level 3 glove might be better suited to an application the require the worker to have an oil grip. As glove manufacturers, we know gloves. We do not know the details about every workplace. We therefore, must look to our customers to provide us the properties they need for hand protection products that will sufficiently protect their workers on the job.

  3. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  4. Level Set Strategy for SCFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouaknin, Gaddiel

    This thesis investigates the design of sharp in terface level set methods in the context of self-consistent field theory (SCFT) in polymer physics. SCFT computes the structure and energy of inhomogeneous self-assembling polymers at thermodynamic equilibrium. Level set methods are based on an implicit representation of free boundaries, which enable motions with arbitrary change in topology. In addition, recent advances on how to impose Robin boundary conditions enables the study of free boundary problems of interest in the community interested in self-assembly. We first present a computational framework, encoded on a forest of quad/oct-trees in a parallel environment. We then present results of imposing sharp Neumann boundary conditions as was first proposed by de Gennes, which enables SCFT computations of meaningful quantities at the boundary of irregular geometries. We then introduce the concept of functional level-set derivative in the context of SCFT and rigorously derive expressions for the change of energy of a diblock copolymer with respect to an enclosing shape. The level-set derivative is then used to embed SCFT into a variable shape simulator, where the internal structure and the enclosing shape are coupled together and evolve in tandem in order to reduce the energy of the diblock copolymer. Finally an algorithm for solving the inverse problem for directed self-assembly is presented.

  5. Level Sensor for Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, N. E.; Schroff, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Hot wire sensor combined with voltage-comparator circuit monitors liquid level in cryogenic-fluid storage tanks. Sensor circuit adaptable to different liquids and sensors. Constant-current source drives current through sensing probe and fixed resistor. Voltage comparator circuits interpret voltage drops to tell whether probe is immersed in liquid and is current in probe.

  6. Cultural Understanding: Spanish Level 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Reid

    The teacher's attention is focused on selected elements of Spanish culture which may be taught integrally with instructional materials found in the first-year Spanish texts "Entender y Hablar", "La Familia Fernandez", and "A-LM Spanish, Level One". Items are cross-referenced for 42 cultural concepts ranging from nicknames to streets, roads, and…

  7. Integrable matrix theory: Level statistics.

    PubMed

    Scaramazza, Jasen A; Shastry, B Sriram; Yuzbashyan, Emil A

    2016-09-01

    We study level statistics in ensembles of integrable N×N matrices linear in a real parameter x. The matrix H(x) is considered integrable if it has a prescribed number n>1 of linearly independent commuting partners H^{i}(x) (integrals of motion) [H(x),H^{i}(x)]=0, [H^{i}(x),H^{j}(x)]=0, for all x. In a recent work [Phys. Rev. E 93, 052114 (2016)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.93.052114], we developed a basis-independent construction of H(x) for any n from which we derived the probability density function, thereby determining how to choose a typical integrable matrix from the ensemble. Here, we find that typical integrable matrices have Poisson statistics in the N→∞ limit provided n scales at least as logN; otherwise, they exhibit level repulsion. Exceptions to the Poisson case occur at isolated coupling values x=x_{0} or when correlations are introduced between typically independent matrix parameters. However, level statistics cross over to Poisson at O(N^{-0.5}) deviations from these exceptions, indicating that non-Poissonian statistics characterize only subsets of measure zero in the parameter space. Furthermore, we present strong numerical evidence that ensembles of integrable matrices are stationary and ergodic with respect to nearest-neighbor level statistics.

  8. RPython high-level synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw; Linczuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The development of FPGA technology and the increasing complexity of applications in recent decades have forced compilers to move to higher abstraction levels. Compilers interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in High-Level Languages (HLLs) and translate it to Hardware Description Languages (HDLs). This paper presents a RPython based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler get the configuration parameters and map RPython program to VHDL. Then, VHDL code can be used to program FPGA chips. In comparison of other technologies usage, FPGAs have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of omitting the fetch-decode-execute operations of General Purpose Processors (GPUs), and introduce more parallel computation. This can be exploited by utilizing many resources at the same time. Creating parallel algorithms computed with FPGAs in pure HDL is difficult and time consuming. Implementation time can be greatly reduced with High-Level Synthesis compiler. This article describes design methodologies and tools, implementation and first results of created VHDL backend for RPython compiler.

  9. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine the…

  10. Sentence-Level Rewriting Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Fan; Litman, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Writers usually need iterations of revisions and edits during their writings. To better understand the process of rewriting, we need to know what has changed be-tween the revisions. Prior work mainly focuses on detecting corrections within sentences, which is at the level of words or phrases. This paper proposes to detect revision changes at the…

  11. Medical Assisting. Secondary Level Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Occupational and Career Education.

    This curriculum guide is intended to prepare students for entry-level employment in the health care industry. The two-year program, designed to be used in high schools in New York City, will prepare students to assist in various health career settings such as doctors' offices, hospital clinics, and group practice facilities. The curriculum guide,…

  12. Trainer Talk: Levels of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engin, Marion

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to present examples of trainer talk that scaffold trainee teachers' understanding of teaching in a post-observation feedback session. Previous research into scaffolding in a teacher training context describes scaffolding at a technique or strategy level, without describing how, in linguistic terms, the trainer can support and…

  13. Cryogenic liquid-level detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, J.

    1978-01-01

    Detector is designed for quick assembly, fast response, and good performance under vibratory stress. Its basic parallel-plate open configuration can be adapted to any length and allows its calibration scale factor to be predicted accurately. When compared with discrete level sensors, continuous reading sensor was found to be superior if there is sloshing, boiling, or other disturbance.

  14. Engineering at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Can engineering technology be taught at the elementary level? Designing and building trebuchets, catapults, solar cars, and mousetrap vehicles in a west central Florida elementary class was considered very unusual in recent years. After a review of current research on failing schools and poor curriculum, the author wondered what her school could…

  15. The Word Part Levels Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasao, Yosuke; Webb, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of English affixes plays a significant role in increasing knowledge of words. However, few attempts have been made to create a valid and reliable measure of affix knowledge. The Word Part Levels Test (WPLT) was developed to measure three aspects of affix knowledge: form (recognition of written affix forms), meaning (knowledge of affix…

  16. College Level Aviation Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Betty J.

    This document describes a college-level curriculum for airplane pilots that is expected to be available at Muskegon (Michigan) College of Business and Technology in fall 1990. The curriculum offers associate or bachelor degree, college credit for earned flight ratings, private license, transfer credit for other aviation college programs, the…

  17. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  18. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  19. System-Level Radiation Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Although system-level radiation hardening can enable the use of high-performance components and enhance the capabilities of a spacecraft, hardening techniques can be costly and can compromise the very performance designers sought from the high-performance components. Moreover, such techniques often result in a complicated design, especially if several complex commercial microcircuits are used, each posing its own hardening challenges. The latter risk is particularly acute for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf components since high-performance parts (e.g. double-data-rate synchronous dynamic random access memories - DDR SDRAMs) may require other high-performance commercial parts (e.g. processors) to support their operation. For these reasons, it is essential that system-level radiation hardening be a coordinated effort, from setting requirements through testing up to and including validation.

  20. Slush hydrogen liquid level system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, J. F.; Adams, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    A discrete capacitance liquid level system developed is specifically for slush hydrogen, but applicable to LOX, LN2, LH2, and RP1 without modification is described. The signal processing portion of the system is compatible with conventional liquid level sensors. Compatibility with slush hydrogen was achieved by designing the sensor with adequate spacing, while retaining the electrical characteristics of conventional sensors. Tests indicate excellent stability of the system over a temperature range of -20 C to 70 C for the circuit and to cryogenic temperatures of the sensor. The sensor was tested up to 40 g's rms random vibration with no damage to the sensor. Operation with 305 m of cable between the sensor and signal processor was demonstrated. It is concluded that this design is more than adequate for most flight and ground applications.

  1. Wireless Fluid Level Measuring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A level-sensing probe positioned in a tank is divided into sections with each section including (i) a fluid-level capacitive sensor disposed along the length thereof, (ii) an inductor electrically coupled to the capacitive sensor, (iii) a sensor antenna positioned for inductive coupling to the inductor, and (iv) an electrical conductor coupled to the sensor antenna. An electrically non-conductive housing accessible from a position outside of the tank houses antennas arrayed in a pattern. Each antenna is electrically coupled to the electrical conductor from a corresponding one of the sections. A magnetic field response recorder has a measurement head with transceiving antennas arrayed therein to correspond to the pattern of the housing's antennas. When a measurement is to be taken, the measurement head is mechanically coupled to the housing so that each housing antenna is substantially aligned with a specific one of the transceiving antennas.

  2. Multiple Level Crowding: Crowding at the Object Parts Level and at the Object Configural level.

    PubMed

    Kimchi, Ruth; Pirkner, Yossef

    2015-01-01

    In crowding, identification of a peripheral target in the presence of nearby flankers is worse than when the target appears alone. Prevailing theories hold that crowding occurs because of integration or "pooling" of low-level features at a single, relatively early stage of visual processing. Recent studies suggest that crowding can occur also between high-level object representations. The most relevant findings come from studies with faces and may be specific to faces. We examined whether crowding can occur at the object configural level in addition to part-level crowding, using nonface objects. Target (a disconnected square or diamond made of four elements) identification was measured at varying eccentricities. The flankers were similar either to the target parts or to the target configuration. The results showed crowding in both cases: Flankers interfered with target identification such that identification accuracy decreased with an increase in eccentricity, and no interference was observed at the fovea. Crowding by object parts, however, was weaker and had smaller spatial extent than crowding by object configurations; we related this finding to the relationship between crowding and perceptual organization. These results provide strong evidence that crowding occurs not only between object parts but also between configural representations of objects.

  3. High-Level Connectionist Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    Freeman, 1987) and on the mathematical level ( Derrida & Meir, 1988; Huberman & Hogg, 1987; Kurten, 1987). It is time that this link be further...Wesley. Derrida B. & Meir, R. (198sL80moac behavior of a layered neural network. Phys. Rev. A, 38. Elman, J. L. (1988). Findi4 Structure in Time. Report...and Huberman, 1983; Kurten and Clark. 1986; Babcock and Westervelt, 1987; Derrida and Meir, 1988; Riedal et al., 1988; Sompolin- sky et al., 1988

  4. An adaptive level set method

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, Roger Brent

    1995-12-01

    This thesis describes a new method for the numerical solution of partial differential equations of the parabolic type on an adaptively refined mesh in two or more spatial dimensions. The method is motivated and developed in the context of the level set formulation for the curvature dependent propagation of surfaces in three dimensions. In that setting, it realizes the multiple advantages of decreased computational effort, localized accuracy enhancement, and compatibility with problems containing a range of length scales.

  5. Battery Electrolyte Level Detector Apparatus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-26

    issued May 8, 2001, to Purpura et al, discloses a sensor that emits a plurality of ultrasonic bursts. A rack of containers is transported under the...levels of the rack and any containers, are processed to dynamically and non-invasively (i.e., without physically contacting the liquid with a probe...instrument, where the ultrasonic sensor may be positioned above a rack transport mechanism. [0014] United States Patent No. 6,943,566, issued

  6. TDR liquid level detection program

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, G.; Toole, B.

    1996-07-01

    A data acquisition system for monitoring the SRS reactor Supplemental Safety System (SSS) during chargeback testing has been installed. The system is based on liquid level detection by means of time domain reflectometry. Software developed for the system allows data to be collected from a digitizing oscilloscope by an IBM AT computer, displayed and stored as needed by the user. The software is menu- driven to facilitate user interaction.

  7. The Operational Level of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Ramsay III, Dr. William G. Robertson, Major Claude R. Sasso, and Lieutenant Colonel Gary H. Wade. We owe special thanks to a few individuals who...initially assembled this bibliography in response to a requirement by Brigadier General William A. Stofft, then a colonel and director of CSI...and World War I. This battle analysis is accomplished largely at the operational level and is beneficial to the reader. Balck, Wilhelm ( William

  8. Billet Level Documentation Policy Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-25

    Skill Identifier (ASI)-I Additional Skill Idenfifier (ASI)-2 Aggregate of Required Strength Aggregate of Authorized Strength 6. Source of Information...filled by personnel in the grades and the skill levels indicated. By subtracting the authorizations from requirements in TAADS, it is possible to...relationship between authorized personnel (number and skills ) and authorized equipment necessary to accomplish its mission. (AR 310-49, TAADS) base file The

  9. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  10. Community-Level Physiological Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Kela P.; Legge, Raymond L.

    Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) is a technique which offers an easily applied protocol yielding information regarding mixed microbial community function and functional adaptations over space and time. Different communities can be compared and classified based on sole carbon source utilization patterns (CSUPs) gathered using BIOLOG™ microplates. One of the most challenging aspects associated with the CLPP method is in the data analysis. This chapter describes the relatively simple CLPP laboratory protocol and provides a detailed description of different data analysis techniques.

  11. System level modeling and component level control of fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xingjian

    This dissertation investigates the fuel cell systems and the related technologies in three aspects: (1) system-level dynamic modeling of both PEM fuel cell (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); (2) condition monitoring scheme development of PEM fuel cell system using model-based statistical method; and (3) strategy and algorithm development of precision control with potential application in energy systems. The dissertation first presents a system level dynamic modeling strategy for PEM fuel cells. It is well known that water plays a critical role in PEM fuel cell operations. It makes the membrane function appropriately and improves the durability. The low temperature operating conditions, however, impose modeling difficulties in characterizing the liquid-vapor two phase change phenomenon, which becomes even more complex under dynamic operating conditions. This dissertation proposes an innovative method to characterize this phenomenon, and builds a comprehensive model for PEM fuel cell at the system level. The model features the complete characterization of multi-physics dynamic coupling effects with the inclusion of dynamic phase change. The model is validated using Ballard stack experimental result from open literature. The system behavior and the internal coupling effects are also investigated using this model under various operating conditions. Anode-supported tubular SOFC is also investigated in the dissertation. While the Nernst potential plays a central role in characterizing the electrochemical performance, the traditional Nernst equation may lead to incorrect analysis results under dynamic operating conditions due to the current reverse flow phenomenon. This dissertation presents a systematic study in this regard to incorporate a modified Nernst potential expression and the heat/mass transfer into the analysis. The model is used to investigate the limitations and optimal results of various operating conditions; it can also be utilized to perform the

  12. Breaking Down Production (Into Its Levels)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Classifies production into four levels, from top level activities (beyond practical requirements) to low level activities (individual or irregular production), and describes management message characteristics for each level. The major management problem is to match level of development activity (from non to extreme) and production level (from nil…

  13. Proposed vitamin a fortification levels.

    PubMed

    Mora, Jose O

    2003-09-01

    Fortified complementary foods could be effective in preventing and controlling vitamin A and other common nutritional deficiencies in young children. Milk from well-nourished women is an excellent source of vitamin A. However, in Latin America many children are weaned prematurely and must receive the entire requirement of vitamin A from food. This paper proposes vitamin A fortification levels for foods targeted for children aged 6-23 mo to meet the existing intake gap among both breast-fed and weaned infants and young children. Estimates assume a nonsignificant contribution of common complementary foods and average levels of human milk intake by breast-fed infants and children. The estimated vitamin A gap for breast-fed infants aged 6-11 mo amounts to 63-92 microg RE [16-23% of recommended daily intake (RDI)] and for breast-fed children reaches 125 microg RE (31% of RDI). Weaned infants and children would have to fully meet the RDI (400 microg RE) from complementary foods. A fortified complementary food with 500 mg RE/100 g of dry product provided daily in a single ration of 40 g would meet 50% of the gap for weaned infants aged 6-11 mo and would raise the total intake above RDI for breast-fed infants aged 6-8 mo (125%) and 9-11 mo (127%). The same fortified food given in a daily ration of 60 mg would meet most of the gap (75%) for weaned children aged 12-23 mo and would increase total intake of breast-fed children aged 12-23 mo well above the RDI (144%), with no risk of exceeding established upper tolerable intake levels.

  14. Glutathione Levels in Human Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gamcsik, Michael P.; Kasibhatla, Mohit S.; Teeter, Stephanie D.; Colvin, O. Michael

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes clinical studies in which glutathione was measured in tumor tissue from patients with brain, breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, head and neck and lung cancer. Glutathione tends to be elevated in breast, ovarian, head and neck and lung cancer and lower in brain and liver tumors compared to disease-free tissue. Cervical, colorectal, gastric and esophageal cancers show both higher and lower levels of tumor glutathione. Some studies show an inverse relationship between patient survival and tumor glutathione. Based on this survey, we recommend approaches that may improve the clinical value of glutathione as a biomarker. PMID:22900535

  15. Excursion detection using leveling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, MinGyu; Ju, Jaewuk; Habets, Boris; Erley, Georg; Bellmann, Enrico; Kim, Seop

    2016-03-01

    Wafer leveling data are usually used inside the exposure tool for ensuring good focus, then discarded. This paper describes the implementation of a monitoring and analysis solution to download these data automatically, together with the correction profiles applied by the scanner. The resulting height maps and focus residuals form the basis for monitoring metrics tailored to catching tool and process drifts and excursions in a high-volume manufacturing (HVM) environment. In this paper, we present four six cases to highlight the potential of the method: wafer edge monitoring, chuck drift monitoring, correlations between focus residuals and overlay errors, and pre-process monitoring by chuck fingerprint removal.

  16. NASA Technology Readiness Level Definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will cover the basic Technology Readiness Level (TRL) definitions used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and their specific wording. We will discuss how they are used in the NASA Project Life Cycle and their effectiveness in practice. We'll also discuss the recent efforts by the International Standards Organization (ISO) to develop a broadly acceptable set of TRL definitions for the international space community and some of the issues brought to light. This information will provide input for further discussion of the use of the TRL scale in manufacturing.

  17. Levels at streamflow gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, E.J.

    1990-01-01

    This manual establishes the surveying procedures for (1) setting gages at a streamflow gaging station to datum and (2) checking the gages periodically for errors caused by vertical movement of the structures that support them. Surveying terms and concepts are explained, and procedures for testing, adjusting, and operating the instruments are described in detail. Notekeeping, adjusting level circuits, checking gages, summarizing results, locating the nearest National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 bench mark, and relating the gage datum to the national datum are also described.

  18. System-level flight test

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F.; Eardley, D.; Happer, W.; LeLevier, R.; Nierenberg, W.; Press, W.; Ruderman, M.; Sullivan, J.; York, H.

    1999-11-23

    System-level flight tests are an important part of the overall effort by the United States to maintain confidence in the reliability, safety, and performance of its nuclear deterrent forces. This study of activities by the Department of Energy in support of operational tests by the Department of Defense was originally suggested by Dr. Rick Wayne, Director, National Security Programs, Sandia National Laboratory/Livermore, and undertaken at the request of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs Division. It follows two 1997 studies by JASON that focused on the Department of Energy's Enhanced Surveillance Program for the physics package — i.e. the nuclear warhead.

  19. Level structure of 89Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Bermúdez, G.; Cardona, M. A.; Ribas, R. V.; Filevich, A.; Achterberg, E.; Szybisz, L.

    1993-10-01

    The level structure of 89Mo has been studied with the 60Ni(32S,2pn) reaction at 110 MeV beam energy. Mainly two bands of γ rays depopulating states of probable spin-parity values ranging up to (27/2)+ were determined from the excitation function, neutron and γ-γ coincidences, and γ-ray angular distributions. The high-spin states of 89Mo show a scheme very similar to that of the 87Zr isotone. The interpretation of these states in terms of the three neutron-hole configuration (νg9/2)-3 and core-excited states is discussed.

  20. Why control blood glucose levels?

    PubMed

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  1. CO2 and sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    There is considerable discussion currently about the potential effects of carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere over the next several decades. The sources of information are two Government funded reports, one by the National Research Council (NRC), the other by the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), both were released within the last five months. The reports were described recently as being conservative, although the consequences of the resulting greenhouse effects are deemed inevitable. Atmospheric warming on a global scale of as much as 5°C cannot be avoided, only perhaps delayed by a few years at best (Environ. Sci. Technol, 18, 45A-46A, 1984). The cause is the burning of fossil fuels. Oil will not be too important because its supplies are predictably exhausted on the time scale of 50-100 years. Coal burning is considered as the main source of carbon dioxide. Among the more spectacular results of a global temperature rise over the next 100 years is the expected rise in sea level of a minimum of 70 cm (Oceanus, Winter, 1983/84). If the West Antarctic Ice Sheet breaks up and melts, the rise could be in the several meter range. Sea level rose only 15 cm in the past century.

  2. Making predictions skill level analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katarína, Krišková; Marián, Kireš

    2017-01-01

    The current trend in the education is focused on skills that are cross-subject and have a great importance for the pupil future life. Pupils should acquire different types of skills during their education to be prepared for future careers and life in the 21st century. Physics as a subject offers many opportunities for pupils' skills development. One of the skills that are expected to be developed in physics and also in other sciences is making predictions. The prediction, in the meaning of the argument about what may happen in the future, is an integral part of the empirical cognition, in which students confront existing knowledge and experience with new, hitherto unknown and surprising phenomena. The extent of the skill is the formulation of hypotheses, which is required in the upper secondary physics education. In the contribution, the prediction skill is specified and its eventual levels are classified. Authors focus on the tools for skill level determination based on the analysis of pupils` worksheets. Worksheets are the part of the educational activities conducted within the Inquiry Science Laboratory Steelpark. Based on the formulation of pupils' prediction the pupils thinking can be seen and their understanding of the topic, as well as preconceptions and misconceptions.

  3. Photonic Landau levels on cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    Creating photonic materials with nontrivial topological characteristics has seen burgeoning interest in recent years; however, a major route to topology, a magnetic field for continuum photons, has remained elusive. We present the first experimental realization of a bulk magnetic field for optical photons. By using a non-planar ring resonator, we induce an image rotation on each round trip through the resonator. This results in a Coriolis/Lorentz force and a centrifugal anticonfining force, the latter of which is cancelled by mirror curvature. Spatial- and energy- resolved spectroscopy tracks photonic eigenstates as residual trapping is reduced, and we observe photonic Landau levels as the eigenstates become degenerate. We will discuss the conical geometry of the resulting manifold for photon dynamics and present a measurement of the local density of states that is consistent with Landau levels on a cone. While our work already demonstrates an integer quantum Hall material composed of photons, we have ensured compatibility with strong photon-photon interactions, which will allow quantum optical studies of entanglement and correlation in manybody systems including fractional quantum Hall fluids.

  4. Photonic Landau levels on cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We present the first experimental realization of a bulk magnetic field for optical photons. By using a non-planar ring resonator, we induce an image rotation on each round trip through the resonator. This results in a Coriolis/Lorentz force and a centrifugal anticonfining force, the latter of which is cancelled by mirror curvature. Using a digital micromirror device to control both amplitude and phase, we inject arbitrary optical modes into our resonator. Spatial- and energy- resolved spectroscopy tracks photonic eigenstates as residual trapping is reduced, and we observe photonic Landau levels as the eigenstates become degenerate. We show that there is a conical geometry of the resulting manifold for photon dynamics and present a measurement of the local density of states that is consistent with Landau levels on a cone. While our work already demonstrates an integer quantum Hall material composed of photons, we have ensured compatibility with strong photon-photon interactions, which will allow quantum optical studies of entanglement and correlation in manybody systems including fractional quantum Hall fluids.

  5. Homocysteine levels in Turkish children.

    PubMed

    Altuntaş, Nilgün; Soylu, Kazım; Suskan, Emine; Akar, Nejat

    2004-06-05

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a known risk factor for cerebrovascular, peripheral vascular, coronary heart disease, and thrombosis. Several data related to total homocysteine concentrations for children and adolescents were reported from different populations. But no data are available comparing homocysteine levels analyzing according to age ranges in Turkish children. So, we aimed to achieve a reference range for total homocysteine in Turkish children. Plasma total homocysteine concentrations were measured in 177 healthy children within three groups according to age range (1-6, 7-11, 12-17 y). Mean tHcy concentrations were determined (7.77 ± 4.13 μmol/L). Homocysteine were lowest in younger children and increased with age: 1-6 y (3.87 ± 1.44 μmol/L), 7-11 y (8.70 ± 1.40 μmol/L), and 12-17 y (13.54 ± 1.49 μmol/L). We observed no significant differences in tHcy values between girls and boys in all groups. We suggest that total homocysteine levels must be evaluated in children according to age.

  6. Carbamazepine and serum sodium levels.

    PubMed

    Kalff, R; Houtkooper, M A; Meyer, J W; Goedhart, D M; Augusteijn, R; Meinardi, H

    1984-06-01

    Serum sodium levels of 674 epileptic patients were tabulated according to the following categories: less than 135 mmol/L, hyponatremia (28 patients); 135-145 mmol/L, normonatremia (530 patients); greater than 145 mmol/L, hypernatremia (116 patients). One hundred one patients were treated with antiepileptics without carbamazepine (CBZ), 113 with CBZ monotherapy, and 460 with CBZ plus other antiepileptic drugs. Twenty-three patients could be followed up after the first detection of a serum sodium level of less than 135 mg/L. Ten patients were consistently hyponatremic (greater than 50% of the follow-up measurements were less than 135 mg/L), whereas the remaining 13 were occasionally hyponatremic. The following facts could be derived from the study: (1) The hyponatremic group was significantly older compared with the other groups. (2) In patients not treated with CBZ, no hyponatremia was seen. Only two patients on CBZ monotherapy showed hyponatremia. (3) The combination of CBZ, valproic acid, especially in high dosages, and barbiturates seemed to lead to hyponatremia. (4) The excretion of antidiuretic hormone, measured in 12 patients, was subnormal (less than 25 ng/24 h) in seven hyponatremic patients and in three normonatremic patients and normal (25-250 ng/24 h) in two other normonatremic patients. (5) Cyclic AMP, measured in five hyponatremic patients, was normal. (6) In all patients the hyponatremia was slight and did not cause any clinical symptoms. Special treatment was not required.

  7. IAC level "O" program development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The current status of the IAC development activity is summarized. The listed prototype software and documentation was delivered, and details were planned for development of the level 1 operational system. The planned end product IAC is required to support LSST design analysis and performance evaluation, with emphasis on the coupling of required technical disciplines. The long term IAC effectively provides two distinct features: a specific set of analysis modules (thermal, structural, controls, antenna radiation performance and instrument optical performance) that will function together with the IAC supporting software in an integrated and user friendly manner; and a general framework whereby new analysis modules can readily be incorporated into IAC or be allowed to communicate with it.

  8. Fluorescent optical liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2001-01-01

    A liquid level sensor comprising a transparent waveguide containing fluorescent material that is excited by light of a first wavelength and emits at a second, longer wavelength. The upper end of the waveguide is connected to a light source at the first wavelength through a beveled portion of the waveguide such that the input light is totally internally reflected within the waveguide above an air/liquid interface in a tank but is transmitted into the liquid below this interface. Light is emitted from the fluorescent material only in those portions of the waveguide that are above the air/liquid interface, to be collected at the upper end of the waveguide by a detector that is sensitive only to the second wavelength. As the interface moves down in the tank, the signal strength from the detector will increase.

  9. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  10. Liquid-level sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Goldfuss, G.T.

    1975-09-16

    This invention relates to a device for sensing the level of a liquid while preventing the deposition and accumulation of materials on the exterior surfaces thereof. Two dissimilar metal wires are enclosed within an electrical insulating material, the wires being joined together at one end to form a thermocouple junction outside the insulating material. Heating means is disposed within the electrical insulating material and maintains the device at a temperature substantially greater than that of the environment surrounding the device, the heating means being electrically insulated from the two dissimilar thermocouple wires. In addition, a metal sheath surrounds and contacts both the electrical insulating material and the thermocouple junction. Electrical connections are provided for connecting the heating means with a power source and for connecting the thermocouple wires with a device for sensing the electrical potential across the thermocouple junction. (auth)

  11. 34 CFR 361.86 - Performance levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards and Performance Indicators § 361.86 Performance levels. (a) General. (1) Paragraph (b) of this..., new performance levels. (b) Performance levels for each performance indicator. (1)(i) The performance levels for Performance Indicators 1.1 through 1.6 are— Performance indicator Performance level by type...

  12. Antipsychotics: impact on prolactin levels.

    PubMed

    Goodnick, Paul J; Rodriguez, Lucero; Santana, Orlando

    2002-10-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia has been associated with a variety of side effects including amenorrhoea, galactorrhoea, sexual dysfunction, breast engorgement and osteoporosis. Since the mid-1970s, the impact of antipsychotics on human prolactin (hPrl) levels has been investigated. Baseline levels of hPrl were found to be similar in healthy controls and patients who were diagnosed as having schizophrenia. Short-term acute studies done after single parenteral or oral doses of phenothiazines found rapid two- to tenfold increases in hPrl. Similar increases were found in longer term studies that reported increases of three times in both men and women after 3 days that doubled again after several weeks of treatment. A study of longer term injectable fluphenazine enanthate found that elevation induced by a single injection lasted up to 28 days. The same results with significant increases have been reported with the butyrophenone, haloperidol. Substantial increases are found after single injections (up to nine times) and after weeks of treatment (up to three times sustained). Thus, early literature believed that there might be an association between these induced changes and response to therapy. However, prolactin is secreted by the anterior pituitary and is under inhibitory control of dopamine released from the tuberoinfundibular neurones. Thus, increases in prolactin are due to antipsychotic impact on tuberoinfundibular tract, one of four dopamine-related tracts. With the application of clozapine and other atypical antipsychotics, it was found that medications can successfully treat psychosis without increasing hPrl. In fact, early single-dose trails found clozapine to reduce hPrl by 16%. Later studies replicated this result and also found that up to 6 weeks of administration led to reductions in hPrl of up to 80%. Risperidone, however, has been found to persistently elevate hPrl in studies, despite its impact on other receptor sites. Olanzapine, quetiapine and ziprasidone have

  13. High level white noise generator

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  14. Variable frequency microwave moisture leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    A variable frequency microwave system was examined to replace an existing carousel resistance heating line as the method for drying of mouth swabs for the pharmaceutical industry. A pharmaceutical manufacturer located in Northern Illinois had a resistive heating system that was not drying product satisfactorily, thus requiring additional ambient drying time even after a 30-minute drying cycle. Since the swabs are used for the healthcare industry, the amount of moisture present after drying was critical to avoid the formation of mold on the product that could have lead to dissatisfied customers. Variable frequency microwave moisture leveling allowed better product quality while turning the manufacturing operation into just in time delivery. During pilot scale testing, a 300 times cycle improvement was realized for variable frequency microwave compared to the conventional carousel resistive drying unit (24 hours to 5 minutes). The projected total cost of the variable frequency microwave system is $1 million, with 25% of the cost in the microwave unit and 70% of the cost in a new autobagging system. The author projected a $0.58 million saving per year in reduced operational costs with productivity increases. Although the project would have had a 1.8 year payback time, it was not implemented due to the capital expense and risk of an unknown technology.

  15. Synthetic Landau levels for photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock-Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen-Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.

  16. Immunoglobulin levels of vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rubaiya; Ahsan, Mohammad Shamsul; Azad, Mohammad Abul Kalam; Ullah, Md Ashik; Bari, Wasimul; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul; Yeasmin, Sabina; Hasnat, Abul

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the serum immunoglobulin profiles of vitiligo patients were compared with that of cohort control and evaluated the correlation between immunoglobulin level with their socioeconomic factors and nutritional status. Thirty vitiligo patients were recruited randomly from the Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh for this study. Thirty healthy individuals as control group matched by age, sex, education and socioeconomic factors to the patient group were selected. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were determined by turbidimetry method using immunoglobulin kit. The concentration of IgG and IgA decreased significantly (P<0.05), but the change of IgM was not significant. Socioeconomic data revealed that most of the patients were young and female. Moreover statistical analysis revealed that there was significant correlation between immunoglobulin (IgG and IgA only) concentrations and BMI and number of depigmented patches with IgG concentrations. Finally it can be concluded that the change of serum immunoglobulin concentration in vitiligo patients could be due to the disease condition as pathomechanism suggested the aberrations in cellular immunity. But study with larger number of population is required for further evaluation of the relationship between the immune response and disease state to confirm these findings.

  17. Unseen GLEs (Ground Level Events)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Eric R.; Boezio, M.; Bravar, Ulisse; Bruno, A.; de Nolfo, Georgia; Martucci, M.; Merge, M.; Mocchiutti, E.; Munini, R.; Ricci, M.; Ryan, James Michael; Stochaj, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Over the last seventy years, solar energetic particle (SEP) ground level events (GLEs) have been observed by ground-based neutron monitors and muon telescopes at a rate of slightly more than one per year. Ground-based detectors only measure secondary particles, and matching their observations with SEP in-situ measurements from spacecraft has been difficult. Now, the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) instrument provides in-situ measurements that also include composition and pitch-angle distribution and bridge the energy between long-term SEP monitors in space (e.g. ACE and GOES) and the ground-based observations. The PAMELA data show that there are a few SEP events (e.g. 23 Jan 2012) where PAMELA sees high-energy (> 1 GeV) particles, yet these are not registered as GLEs. We will present evidence that the anisotropic distribution of these SEPs may miss the global network of neutron monitors.

  18. Level 2 software reuse study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Scott E.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) Level 2 Software Reuse Study group was formed by Bob Nelson (NASA SSFP) from members of the Information Systems Program Support Contract (PSC) team. The objectives of the study were to identify existing software reuse libraries, to identify existing reusability processes and experiences, to identify reusability analysis tools and users, and to provide recommendations for a software reusability process for the SSFP. To date the following have been delivered: (1) definitions of commonality and reuse, (2) a report on existing software reuse libraries and library management systems, (3) a report on reuse process and methodology gleaned from software reuse experts, and (4) a report on software attributes for measuring commonality and reusability. Three implementation alternatives for a repository of reusable components were identified: centralized at the SSE Development Facility (SSEDF), a distributed approach across the network of Software Production Facilities, and a directory approach. A number of findings from the reuse study and several reuse strategy considerations were presented.

  19. High-Level Data Races

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artho, Cyrille; Havelund, Klaus; Biere, Armin; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Data races are a common problem in concurrent and multi-threaded programming. They are hard to detect without proper tool support. Despite the successful application of these tools, experience shows that the notion of data race is not powerful enough to capture certain types of inconsistencies occurring in practice. In this paper we investigate data races on a higher abstraction layer. This enables us to detect inconsistent uses of shared variables, even if no classical race condition occurs. For example, a data structure representing a coordinate pair may have to be treated atomically. By lifting the meaning of a data race to a higher level, such problems can now be covered. The paper defines the concepts view and view consistency to give a notation for this novel kind of property. It describes what kinds of errors can be detected with this new definition, and where its limitations are. It also gives a formal guideline for using data structures in a multi-threading environment.

  20. Chip level simulation of fault tolerant computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Chip level modeling techniques, functional fault simulation, simulation software development, a more efficient, high level version of GSP, and a parallel architecture for functional simulation are discussed.

  1. Average County-Level IQ Predicts County-Level Disadvantage and Several County-Level Mortality Risk Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Research utilizing individual-level data has reported a link between intelligence (IQ) scores and health problems, including early mortality risk. A growing body of evidence has found similar associations at higher levels of aggregation such as the state- and national-level. At the same time, individual-level research has suggested the…

  2. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  3. Modelling low energy electron interactions for biomedical uses of radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuss, M.; Muñoz, A.; Oller, J. C.; Blanco, F.; Limão-Vieira, P.; Huerga, C.; Téllez, M.; Hubin-Fraskin, M. J.; Nixon, K.; Brunger, M.; García, G.

    2009-11-01

    Current radiation based medical applications in the field of radiotherapy, radio-diagnostic and radiation protection require modelling single particle interactions at the molecular level. Due to their relevance in radiation damage to biological systems, special attention should be paid to include the effect of low energy secondary electrons. In this study we present a single track simulation procedure for photons and electrons which is based on reliable experimental and theoretical cross section data and the energy loss distribution functions derived from our experiments. The effect of including secondary electron interactions in this model will be discussed.

  4. Level 1 Therapeutic Model site.

    PubMed

    Hall, Philip S; DeJong, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    This site is an intertribal residential grant school annually enrolling over 250 students in grades 1-8 from tribes located in three states on the Northern Great Plains. From its inception in 1890, the boarding school's mission has been to provide services for young children in need of a safe and supportive living and learning environment. For over a decade, this site has used strategies centered on respecting children, structuring students' time, and providing the therapeutic benefits of a well-maintained campus. This site also has a long history of believing in each child's inherent value and potential. When Therapeutic Residential Model funding commenced at the midpoint of the 2002-2003 school year, L1 focused these new resources on strengthening and refining its program. The number of personnel positions increased from 98 to 135, with new positions principally going to dormitory staff and four Masters-level counselor positions. This increase in staff allowed L1 to proactively address the children's developmental needs. The site also adopted and implemented the Applied Humanism caregiving model. In accordance with Applied Humanism, an interview was utilized that allowed the site to identify and hire applicants possessing the attitudes and skills necessary to be good caregivers, existing staff were trained so that they understood the kind of caregiving that would be expected of them, supervision procedures and practices were implemented that supported and encouraged good caregivers and provided time-limited assistance to those who were not, and relevant agency policies and procedures were revised as needed to align with the Applied Humanism philosophy. In addition, the Morningside program was brought in to systematically address the students' academic lags in reading. The results of implementing the Therapeutic Residential Model were a reduction in behavioral incidents, a decrease in the amount of money spent on external mental health services, an increase in the

  5. 22 CFR 120.38 - Maintenance levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maintenance levels. 120.38 Section 120.38 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.38 Maintenance levels. (a) Organizational-level maintenance (or basic-level maintenance) is...

  6. Assigning Level in Data-Mining Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Paul; Chilton, Ian J.; Fincham, Daron A.; Burns, Alan T.; Whitehead, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    There is currently much interest in ascribing outcomes to Masters (M) level programmes. It is particularly difficult to define M level outcomes in bioinformatics for students on non-specialist programmes. An approach is described that attempts to discriminate undergraduate from M level in a data-mining exercise. Differentiation of level is based…

  7. Level measurement solutions for coal handling applications

    SciTech Connect

    Koeneman, D.; Sholette, W.

    2006-06-15

    The article looks at the range and applications of level measurement technology for coal handling and related fly ash operations. Point level or on/off measurement instrumentation indicates the presence or absence of material in a surge bin storage silo or on a conveyor belt. Point level switches at high or low level turn on or turn off pumps and conveyors. Continuous level or proportional measurement indicates the level in a vessel over the full span of measurement. The article describes types of technologies in typical locations in a coal-fired power plant where point and continuous level measurements are taken. 1 fig.

  8. Preferred levels of auditory danger signals.

    PubMed

    Zera, J; Nagórski, A

    2000-01-01

    An important issue at the design stage of the auditory danger signal for a safety system is the signal audibility under various conditions of background noise. The auditory danger signal should be clearly audible but it should not be too loud to avoid fright, startling effects, and nuisance complaints. Criteria for designing auditory danger signals are the subject of the ISO 7731 (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1986) international standard and the EN 457 European standard (European Committee for Standardization [CEN], 1992). It is required that the A-weighted sound pressure level of the auditory danger signal is higher in level than the background noise by 15 dB. In this paper, the results of an experiment are reported, in which listeners adjusted most preferred levels of 3 danger signals (tone, sweep, complex sound) in the presence of a noise background (pink noise and industrial noise). The measurements were done for 60-, 70-, 80-, and 90-dB A-weighted levels of noise. Results show that for 60-dB level of noise the most preferred level of the danger signal is 10 to 20 dB above the noise level. However, for 90-dB level of noise, listeners selected a level of the danger signal that was equal to the noise level. Results imply that the criterion in the existing standards is conservative as it requires the level of the danger signal to be higher than the level of noise regardless of the noise level.

  9. Ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sheila M.; Fisher, Mary; Young, Joy E.; Lutz, W.

    1970-01-01

    The ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva from 40 patients receiving a dose of 250 mg., 26 patients receiving a dose of 500 mg., and 11 patients receiving a dose of 1 g. were estimated. The ampicillin was given orally four times daily. The 1-2 hour and 2-3 hour sputum levels were similar in individual patients. There was no difference in the range or mean sputum or saliva levels between specimens from patients receiving 250 mg. and 500 mg., but the levels were significantly higher after the 1 g. dose. The mean serum level showed a small increase after 500 mg. ampicillin as compared with the 250 mg. dose and a big increase after the 1 g. dose: only the latter difference was significant. The sputum levels were approximately 30 to 40 times lower than the corresponding serum levels. There was considerable scatter in the sputum level for any level of ampicillin in the serum: in only two of the 1-2 hour sputum specimens was there no detectable ampicillin. There was no correlation between the sputum levels and either the body weight or the dose in milligrams per kilogram. There was no evidence that corticosteroids or diuretics affected the sputum level. It was not possible to demonstrate any relationship between the purulence of the sputum and the level of ampicillin after doses of 250 mg. or 500 mg., but higher levels were found in the more purulent specimens after 1 g. doses. PMID:4318047

  10. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    SciTech Connect

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  11. MISR Level 2 Cloud Product Versioning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-11-04

      MISR Level 2 Cloud Product Versioning MISR Level 2 Cloud Product Processing Status ESDT Product File ... Quality Designations MIL2TCSP MISR_AM1_TC_CLOUD Stage 3 Validated:  Cloud Top Heights (Without Wind ...

  12. Correlation between hepcidin level and renal anemia.

    PubMed

    Yang, L-N; Zhang, P; Tang, F; Wang, G; Li, F-E

    2014-09-12

    Anemia in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is related to the chronic inflammatory state, low iron absorption rate, and low utilization rate. As a key protein for iron metabolism, hepcidin plays an important role in CRI anemia. The study aimed to determine the correlation between hepcidin level and renal anemia. Ninety CRI anemia patients treated in our hospital from February 2012 to December 2012 were enrolled in the study to compare with a healthy control group of 40 cases by measuring the hepcidin level and analyzing the correlation between hepcidin level and CRI anemia. The hepcidin level was significantly higher in the CRI anemia group than the control group; there was a positive correlation between hepcidin level and serum ferritin as well as IL-6 level. Hepcidin level was significantly related to degree of anemia, indicating that an increase in hepcidin level will result in anemia.

  13. Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters February 3, 2014 Vitamin D Levels Predict Multiple Sclerosis Progression Among people ... sclerosis (MS), those with higher blood levels of vitamin D had better outcomes during 5 years of ...

  14. Level Indicator On A Tubular Inside Micrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1995-01-01

    Leveling helps to ensure accurate measurements. Attachment helpful because in some situations that involve measurement of large, tight-tolerance inside dimensions, inside micrometers not held level between contact point give inaccurate readings. User adjusts position and orientation of micrometer and verifies level by observing bubble in level indicator. Upon feeling correct drag between micrometer tips and workpiece, user confident that tool used correctly and accurate measurement obtained.

  15. 14 CFR 91.861 - Base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Base level. 91.861 Section 91.861... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.861 Base level. (a) U.S. Operators. The base level of a U.S. operator is equal to the number of owned or...

  16. 14 CFR 91.861 - Base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Base level. 91.861 Section 91.861... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.861 Base level. (a) U.S. Operators. The base level of a U.S. operator is equal to the number of owned or...

  17. 14 CFR 91.861 - Base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Base level. 91.861 Section 91.861... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.861 Base level. (a) U.S. Operators. The base level of a U.S. operator is equal to the number of owned or...

  18. Middle Level Education: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel; And Others

    Developed as a reference tool for teachers, administrators, researchers, parents, and others interested in middle level education, this annotated bibliography of 1,757 entries focuses on practical aspects of middle level education and on research related to adolescence and middle level practices. Following an introduction and discussion of…

  19. Low Level of Haptoglobin in Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Timlin, Homa; Machireddy, Kirthi; Petri, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Haptoglobin levels are measured in systematic lupus erythematosus patients as part of the workup for anemia, with low levels indicating hemolysis. Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein. We present 2 lupus patients who were found to have low haptoglobin levels in the absence of other evidence of hemolysis. PMID:28203576

  20. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level... monitoring. (b) If an airborne concentration of beryllium is at or above the action level, the...

  1. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level... monitoring. (b) If an airborne concentration of beryllium is at or above the action level, the...

  2. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level... monitoring. (b) If an airborne concentration of beryllium is at or above the action level, the...

  3. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level... monitoring. (b) If an airborne concentration of beryllium is at or above the action level, the...

  4. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level... monitoring. (b) If an airborne concentration of beryllium is at or above the action level, the...

  5. Cholesterol Level: Can It Be Too Low?

    MedlinePlus

    ... low? Can your total cholesterol level be too low? Answers from Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, M.D. A high blood cholesterol level increases your ... better, but in rare cases having a very low level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or "bad") ...

  6. Blood Glucose Levels and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Weyand, David

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between varying blood glucose levels and problem behavior during daily scheduled activities was examined. The effects that varying blood glucose levels had on problem behavior during daily scheduled activities were examined. Prior research has shown that differing blood glucose levels can affect behavior and mood. Results of this…

  7. Maternal Anxiety and Lead Levels in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiklin, Harris; Mosher, Barbara

    There is a relationship between maternal anxiety and lead levels in children. Data were collected from the mothers of 15 children with "normal" lead levels and 15 children with elevated blood levels. Anxiety was measured by the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. All families lived in areas with poor housing. Treatment of lead poisoning tends…

  8. Levels of Processing in Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; And Others

    This study examined the effects of the second level (intermediate acoustical processing of rhyming words) and the third level (deep-semantic processing of words in sentences) of the "levels of processing" framework on memory performance of four types of intermediate-grade students (52 "normal" students, 50 students with…

  9. Conceptual Level and Teachers' Written Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Susan L.; Yarger, Sam J.

    Teachers devise lesson plans based on one of two "conceptual levels" (degree and kind of materials, diagnosis, student background research, and classroom and time management). Higher conceptual level (HCL) teachers emphasize diagnosis and student characteristics in their plans, while lower conceptual level (LCL) teachers give special consideration…

  10. Variations in carboxyhaemoglobin levels in smokers.

    PubMed

    Castleden, C M; Cole, P V

    1974-12-28

    Three experiments on smokers have been performed to determine variations in blood levels of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) throughout the day and night and whether a random measurement of COHb gives a true estimation of a smoker's mean COHb level. In the individual smoker the COHb level does not increase gradually during the day but is kept within relatively narrow limits. Moderately heavy smokers rise in the morning with a substantially raised COHb level because the half life of COHb is significantly longer during sleep than during the day. Women excrete their carbon monoxide faster than men. A random COHb estimation gives a good indication of the mean COHb level of an individual.

  11. Experimental level densities of atomic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Guttormsen, M.; Aiche, M.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Byun, Y.; Ducasse, Q.; Giacoppo, F.; Gorgen, A.; Gunsing, F.; Hagen, T. W.; Jurado, B.; Larsen, A. C.; Lebois, L.; Leniau, B.; Nyhus, H. T.; Renstrom, T.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tornyi, T. G.; Tveten, G. M.; Voinov, A.; Wiedeking, M.; Wilson, J.

    2015-12-23

    It is almost 80 years since Hans Bethe described the level density as a non-interacting gas of protons and neutrons. In all these years, experimental data were interpreted within this picture of a fermionic gas. However, the renewed interest of measuring level density using various techniques calls for a revision of this description. In particular, the wealth of nuclear level densities measured with the Oslo method favors the constant-temperature level density over the Fermi-gas picture. Furthermore, trom the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that nuclei exhibit a constant-temperature level density behavior for all mass regions and at least up to the neutron threshold.

  12. [Serum sclerostin levels and metabolic bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2013-06-01

    Serum sclerostin levels are being investigated in various metabolic bone diseases. Since serum sclerostin levels are decreased in primary hyperparathyroidism and elevated in hypoparathyroidism, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is thought to be a regulatory factor for sclerostin. Serum sclerostin levels exhibit a significant positive correlation with bone mineral density. On the other hand, a couple of studies on postmenopausal women have shown that high serum sclerostin levels are a risk factor for fracture. Although glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis and diabetes are both diseases that reduce bone formation, serum sclerostin levels have been reported to be decreased in the former and elevated in the latter, suggesting differences in the effects of sclerostin in the two diseases. Serum sclerostin levels are correlated with renal function, and increase with reduction in renal function. Serum sclerostin level may be a new index of bone assessment that differs from bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers.

  13. Mining level of control in medical organizations.

    PubMed

    Çalimli, Olgu; Türkeli, Serkan; Eken, Emir Gökberk; Gönen, Halil Emre

    2014-01-01

    In literature of strategic management, there are three layers of control defined in organizational structures. These layers are strategic, tactical and operational, in which resides senior, medium level and low level managers respectively. In strategic level, institutional strategies are determined according to senior managers' perceived state of organization. In tactical level, this strategy is processed into methods and activities of a business management plan. Operational level embodies actions and functions to sustain specified business management plan. An acknowledged lead organization in Turkish medical area is examined using case study and data mining method in the scope of this paper. The level of decisions regarded in managerial purposes evaluated through chosen organization's business intelligence event logs report. Hence specification of management level importance of medical organizations is made. Case study, data mining and descriptive statistical method of taken case's reports present that positions of "Chief Executive Officer", "Outpatient Center Manager", "General Manager", monitored and analyzed functions of operational level management more frequently than strategic and tactical level. Absence of strategic management decision level research in medical area distinguishes this paper and consequently substantiates its significant contribution.

  14. Noise in restaurants: levels and mathematical model.

    PubMed

    To, Wai Ming; Chung, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Noise affects the dining atmosphere and is an occupational hazard to restaurant service employees worldwide. This paper examines the levels of noise in dining areas during peak hours in different types of restaurants in Hong Kong SAR, China. A mathematical model that describes the noise level in a restaurant is presented. The 1-h equivalent continuous noise level (L(eq,1-h)) was measured using a Type-1 precision integral sound level meter while the occupancy density, the floor area of the dining area, and the ceiling height of each of the surveyed restaurants were recorded. It was found that the measured noise levels using Leq,1-h ranged from 67.6 to 79.3 dBA in Chinese restaurants, from 69.1 to 79.1 dBA in fast food restaurants, and from 66.7 to 82.6 dBA in Western restaurants. Results of the analysis of variance show that there were no significant differences between means of the measured noise levels among different types of restaurants. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was employed to determine the relationships between geometrical and operational parameters and the measured noise levels. Results of the regression analysis show that the measured noise levels depended on the levels of occupancy density only. By reconciling the measured noise levels and the mathematical model, it was found that people in restaurants increased their voice levels when the occupancy density increased. Nevertheless, the maximum measured hourly noise level indicated that the noise exposure experienced by restaurant service employees was below the regulated daily noise exposure value level of 85 dBA.

  15. Level of evidence in hand surgery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few investigations have been done to analyze the level of evidence in journals related to hand surgery, compared to other related research fields. The objective of this study was to assess the level of evidence of the clinical research papers published in the Ibero-american (RICMA), the European (JHSE) and American (JHSA) Journals of Hand Surgery. Methods A total of 932 clinical research papers published between 2005 and 2009 (RICMA 60, JHSE 461, and JHSA 411) were reviewed. Two independent observers classified the level of evidence based on the Oxford International Classification, 5 being the lowest level and 1 the highest level. The observed frequencies of the level of evidence for each journal were compared with the expected frequencies by a chi-square (χ 2) test for categorical variables with a significance level of 0.05. Results Inter-observer agreement analysis showed a Kappa of 0.617. Intra-observer agreement analysis presented a Kappa of 0.66 for the observer 1, and a Kappa of 0.751 for the observer 2. More than 80% of the papers in RICMA and JHSE and a 67.6% in the JHSA presented a level of 4. No level 1 or 2 studies were published in RICMA, compared to JHSE (0.9% level 1 and 5.0% level 2) and JHSA (8.3% level 1 and 10% level 2). The percentage of papers with level 3 published in RICMA (16.7%) was higher compared to the JHSE (11.1%) and the JHSA (14.1%). All the results were statistically significant (χ2=63.945; p<0.001). Conclusions The level of evidence in hand surgery is dependent on the type of journal; being the highest level evidence papers those published in the JHSA, followed by the JHSE and finally the RICMA. Knowing the status of the level of evidence published in hand surgery is the starting point to face the challenges of improving the quality of our clinical research PMID:23199054

  16. Lightning testing at the subsystem level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luteran, Frank

    1991-01-01

    Testing at the subsystem or black box level for lightning hardness is required if system hardness is to be assured at the system level. The often applied philosophy of lighting testing only at the system level leads to extensive end of the line design changes which result in excessive costs and time delays. In order to perform testing at the subsystem level two important factors must be defined to make the testing simulation meaningful. The first factor is the definition of the test stimulus appropriate to the subsystem level. Application of system level stimulations to the subsystem level usually leads to significant overdesign of the subsystem which is not necessary and may impair normal subsystem performance. The second factor is the availability of test equipment needed to provide the subsystem level lightning stimulation. Equipment for testing at this level should be portable or at least movable to enable efficient testing in a design laboratory environment. Large fixed test installations for system level tests are not readily available for use by the design engineers at the subsystem level and usually require special operating skills. The two factors, stimulation level and test equipment availability, must be evaluated together in order to produce a practical, workable test standard. The neglect or subordination of either factor will guarantee failure in generating the standard. It is not unusual to hear that test standards or specifications are waived because a specified stimulation level cannot be accomplished by in-house or independent test facilities. Determination of subsystem lightning simulation level requires a knowledge and evaluation of field coupling modes, peak and median levels of voltages and currents, bandwidths, and repetition rates. Practical limitations on test systems may require tradeoffs in lightning stimulation parameters in order to build practical test equipment. Peak power levels that can be generated at specified bandwidths with

  17. Circulating levels of homocysteine in preeclamptic women.

    PubMed

    Khosrowbeygi, A; Ahmadvand, H

    2011-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that maternal hyperhomocysteinemia to be associated with preeclampsia. The aims of the present study were to examine maternal serum levels of total homocysteine in preeclamptic women and its association with the severity of the disease. The study population consisted of 30 preeclamptic patients and 30 matched healthy pregnant women. Serum levels of total homocysteine were assessed using enzyme immunoassay method. Maternal serum levels of total homocysteine were significantly higher in preeclamptic group than in normal pregnant women. Women with severe preeclampsia had higher serum levels of total homocysteine than mild preeclamptic patients. Levels of total homocysteine correlated positively with systolic blood pressure values in preeclamptic women. In summary, maternal serum levels of total homocysteine were increased in preeclamptic women and hyperhomocysteinemia was associated with severity of preeclampsia.

  18. Effects of low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, M.

    1993-12-31

    The effects of low-level radiation inhumans are usually estimated by extrapolation from high-level effects. Biological radiation effects from low-level radiation can be defined as those from doses below which no deterministic or graded biological responses will occur. In addition, the health consequences are almost all probabilistic. There is incomplete knowledge regarding the role of sex, age at exposure, co-factors, or environmental pollutants.

  19. Cryogenic Liquid Level Sensor Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Allen R., Jr. (Inventor); Richards, W. Lance (Inventor); Piazza, Anthony (Inventor); Man, Hon Chan (Inventor); Bakalyar, John A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention proposed herein is a system and method for measuring the liquid level in a container that employs an optic fiber sensor which is heated using a simple power source and a wire and making an anemometry measurement. The heater wire is cycled between two levels of heat and the liquid level is obtained by measuring the heat transfer characteristics of the surrounding environment.

  20. Wholesale EOQ (Economic Order Quantity) Safety Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    below. One of the causes of the declining performance is the current safety level computation., To analyze the effectiveness of the current safety...USING THE SQUARE ROOT OF THE UNIT COST This is the optimal model LPresutti] with the square root of unit cost used to dampen the effect of the cost. We...safety levels for items with high demand. Hence model B’s low fill rate and high cost. A 30-day minimum safety level is not an effective safety level

  1. Low-level waste program technical strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, K.W.

    1994-10-01

    The Low-Level Waste Technical Strategy document describes the mechanisms which the Low-Level Waste Program Office plans to implement to achieve its mission. The mission is to manage the receipt, immobilization, packaging, storage/disposal and RCRA closure (of the site) of the low-level Hanford waste (pretreated tank wastes) in an environmentally sound, safe and cost-effective manner. The primary objective of the TWRS Low-level waste Program office is to vitrify the LLW fraction of the tank waste and dispose of it onsite.

  2. Fast Sparse Level Sets on Graphics Hardware.

    PubMed

    Jalba, Andrei C; van der Laan, Wladimir J; Roerdink, Jos B T M

    2013-01-01

    The level-set method is one of the most popular techniques for capturing and tracking deformable interfaces. Although level sets have demonstrated great potential in visualization and computer graphics applications, such as surface editing and physically based modeling, their use for interactive simulations has been limited due to the high computational demands involved. In this paper, we address this computational challenge by leveraging the increased computing power of graphics processors, to achieve fast simulations based on level sets. Our efficient, sparse GPU level-set method is substantially faster than other state-of-the-art, parallel approaches on both CPU and GPU hardware. We further investigate its performance through a method for surface reconstruction, based on GPU level sets. Our novel multiresolution method for surface reconstruction from unorganized point clouds compares favorably with recent, existing techniques and other parallel implementations. Finally, we point out that both level-set computations and rendering of level-set surfaces can be performed at interactive rates, even on large volumetric grids. Therefore, many applications based on level sets can benefit from our sparse level-set method.

  3. Additional Warning System for Cross Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewiński, Andrzej; Bester, Lucyna

    The paper contains an analysis of the safety level crossing equipped with an additional warning system for drivers that are within the level crossing before the approaching train. The proposed system is based on wireless data standard, WiMax and sensor networks WSN, placed an additional warning helps to improve safety at unguarded railway crossings. Mathematical analysis was carried out for unguarded level crossing model, and then for system with signaling the level crossing ssp and for system equipped with additional warning system for drivers. For the analysis presented models used stochastic Markov processes which allowed estimating the indicators of probabilistic studied systems.

  4. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  5. Serum Levels of Progranulin Do Not Reflect Cerebrospinal Fluid Levels in Neurodegenerative Disease.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Carlo; Gillardon, Frank; Deuschle, Christian; Dubois, Evelyn; Hobert, Markus A; Müller vom Hagen, Jennifer; Krüger, Stefanie; Biskup, Saskia; Blauwendraat, Cornelis; Hruscha, Michael; Kaeser, Stephan A; Heutink, Peter; Maetzler, Walter; Synofzik, Matthis

    2016-01-01

    Altered progranulin levels play a major role in neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's dementia (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), even in the absence of GRN mutations. Increasing progranulin levels could hereby provide a novel treatment strategy. However, knowledge on progranulin regulation in neurodegenerative diseases remains limited. We here demonstrate that cerebrospinal fluid progranulin levels do not correlate with its serum levels in AD, FTD and ALS, indicating a differential regulation of its central and peripheral levels in neurodegeneration. Blood progranulin levels thus do not reliably predict central nervous progranulin levels and their response to future progranulin-increasing therapeutics.

  6. MISR Level 2 Cloud Product Versioning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-11-04

            MISR Level 2 TOA/Cloud Versioning MISR Level 2 Top of Atmosphere/Cloud Classifiers Processing Status ...  RCCM angle-by-angle cloud fractions Stage 2 Validated:  Angular Signature Cloud Mask (ASCM), RCCM/SDCM/ASCM-based ...

  7. Ciencia: Nivel A (Science: Level A).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level science course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. The five units cover the basic concepts of the weather, colors, animals, plants, and the five senses. Each unit includes vocabulary,…

  8. Enhancing GCE A-Level Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holding, Gordon

    This document, which is based on the findings of a study of 10 further education (FE) colleges throughout the United Kingdom, is intended to help FE colleges review and enhance their curriculum for 16- to 19-year-old students in General Certificate of Education (GCE) A-level (Advanced Level) courses. Discussed first are the following reasons for…

  9. Matematicas: Nivel F (Mathematics: Level F).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level F manual is designed for grade 5 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  10. Matematicas: Nivel E (Mathematics: Level E).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level E manual is designed for grade 4 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  11. Matematicas: Nivel A (Mathematics: Level A).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual objectives, vocabulary, and structures are included. Activities are designed to teach either…

  12. Processing AIRS Scientific Data Through Level 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, Stephanie; Oliphant, Robert; Manning, Evan

    2010-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infra-Red Sounder (AIRS) Science Processing System (SPS) is a collection of computer programs, known as product generation executives (PGEs). The AIRS SPS PGEs are used for processing measurements received from the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. Early stages of the AIRS SPS development were described in a prior NASA Tech Briefs article: Initial Processing of Infrared Spectral Data (NPO-35243), Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 39. In summary: Starting from Level 0 (representing raw AIRS data), the AIRS SPS PGEs and the data products they produce are identified by alphanumeric labels (1A, 1B, 2, and 3) representing successive stages or levels of processing. The previous NASA Tech Briefs article described processing through Level 2, the output of which comprises geo-located atmospheric data products such as temperature and humidity profiles among others. The AIRS Level 3 PGE samples selected information from the Level 2 standard products to produce a single global gridded product. One Level 3 product is generated for each day s collection of Level 2 data. In addition, daily Level 3 products are aggregated into two multiday products: an eight-day (half the orbital repeat cycle) product and monthly (calendar month) product.

  13. The Social Validity of Level Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; Johanson, George A.; Kalis, Donna

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 44 students (grades 4-10) with behavior disorders, 14 special educators, and 15 teacher assistants evaluated the social validity of level systems (behavioral management interventions applied to shape students' social, emotional, and academic behaviors to pre-established levels). While students were the most negative group, they…

  14. Investigating First Year Education Students' Stress Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen; Midford, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the stress levels of first-year education students who undertake teaching practicum and theory units during their first year of teacher education program. First, 139 first-year and 143 other years' education students completed the PSS-10 scale, which measures perceived level of stress. Then, 147 first-year education…

  15. IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEE, JOHN M.; AND OTHERS

    TO HELP DISADVANTAGED INMATES WITH LOW READING LEVELS AND THOSE CONSIDERED FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE, THE DRAPER CORRECTIONAL CENTER IN ALABAMA EXPERIMENTED WITH VARIOUS READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS. MOST SUCCESSFUL WAS THE READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM USING THE PERCEPTOSCOPE. ALL APPLICANTS WHO SCORED BELOW THE SEVENTH GRADE READING LEVEL IN THE…

  16. Nebraska Schools 83-84 Immunization Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Health, Lincoln.

    The data contained in this report represents all of the 297,696 students, K-12, in the state of Nebraska. High levels of immunity are documented among children grades K-6. Some immunization levels of children grades 7-12 are yet below the 95 percent established as a minimum for the prevention of vaccine preventable diseases. Specifically, there…

  17. Developing Professional-Level Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaver, Betty Lou, Ed.; Shekhtman, Boris, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines approaches to teaching near-native ability in foreign languages. The 13 papers focus on the following: (1) "Principles and Practices in Teaching Superior-Level Language Skills: Not Just More of the Same" (Betty Lou Leaver and Boris Shekhtman); (2) "Toward Academic Level Foreign Language Abilities:…

  18. 33 CFR 159.83 - Level indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Level indicator. 159.83 Section 159.83 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.83 Level indicator. Each...

  19. 33 CFR 159.83 - Level indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Level indicator. 159.83 Section 159.83 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.83 Level indicator. Each...

  20. 33 CFR 159.83 - Level indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Level indicator. 159.83 Section 159.83 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.83 Level indicator. Each...

  1. 33 CFR 159.83 - Level indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Level indicator. 159.83 Section 159.83 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.83 Level indicator. Each...

  2. 33 CFR 101.200 - MARSEC Levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... advise the maritime community and the public of the level of risk to the maritime elements of the... maritime elements of the national transportation system. (d) The COTP may temporarily raise the MARSEC Level for the port, a specific marine operation within the port, or a specific industry within the...

  3. Educational Justice, Epistemic Justice, and Leveling Down

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift argue that education is a positional good; this, they hold, implies that there is a qualified case for leveling down educational provision. In this essay, Ben Kotzee discusses Brighouse and Swift's argument for leveling down. He holds that the argument fails in its own terms and that, in presenting the problem…

  4. Communication: Beyond the Basics: Other Communication Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, J. E.; Gratz, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    In addition to the basic communication skills of reading, writing, listening, and speaking, the authors suggest five other levels of communication to help teachers expand students' horizons: kinetic and symbolic; mental; extraterrestrial, biological, and technological; imagery; and perceptual. Each level is briefly discussed. (MF)

  5. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... document the employee's actual duties and responsibilities. (3) Sex may not be the basis for a competitive level determination, except for a position OPM designates that certification of eligibles by sex is... paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section for pay band positions, competitive level determinations are based...

  6. Structural Biology for A-Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the structure and function of proteins is an important area in biochemistry. Pupils studying A-level Biology are introduced to the four levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) and how these can be used to describe the progressive folding of a chain of amino acid residues to a final,…

  7. Reasoning about Magnetism at the Microscopic Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Cheng, Yufang; Hung, Shuo-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience of teaching physics in middle and senior secondary school, we have found that students have difficulty in reasoning at the microscopic level. Their reasoning is limited to the observational level so they have problems in developing scientific models of magnetism. Here, we suggest several practical activities and the use of…

  8. Language Learning Strategy Use across Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarei, Abbas, Ali; Baharestani, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the use of language learning strategies (LLS) by Iranian EFL learners across proficiency levels, a total of 180 Iranian adult female EFL learners were selected and divided into three different proficiency level groups. To collect data, Oxford's (1990) Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) was used. One-way ANOVA procedures…

  9. 33 CFR 159.83 - Level indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Level indicator. 159.83 Section 159.83 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.83 Level indicator. Each...

  10. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  11. Entry Level Skills Program Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Services to Education, Inc., Washington, DC.

    A guide to the implementation of the Entry Level Skills Program (ELSP) and a conceptual framework for evaluation research is presented. Attention is directed to strategies for the attainment of goals and management of the ELSP project, which is a developmental program for freshmen students who have not acquired the full range or level of cognitive…

  12. 15 CFR 4a.3 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 4a.3 Section 4a.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION... E.O. 12958. The levels established by E.O. 12958 (Top Secret, Secret, and Confidential) are the...

  13. Gauge Impact with 5 Levels of Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Effective professional learning evaluation requires consideration of five critical stages or levels of information. These five levels, which are presented in this article, represent an adaptation of an evaluation model developed by Kirkpatrick (1959, 1998) for judging the value of supervisory training programs in business and industry.…

  14. Determining Students' Conceptual Understanding Level of Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Ay, Selahattin; Comek, Arif; Cansiz, Gokhan; Uce, Musa

    2016-01-01

    Science students find heat, temperature, enthalpy and energy in chemical reactions to be some of the most difficult subjects. It is crucial to define their conceptual understanding level in these subjects so that educators can build upon this knowledge and introduce new thermodynamics concepts. This paper reports conceptual understanding levels of…

  15. The Context of State Level Policy Formation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine; And Others

    Individual members of state legislatures wield the greatest influence in state level policy formation. This was one of the findings of a study that identified the power and influence context of state-level policymaking. Data were gathered from six states (Arizona, California, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Illinois) using an instrument…

  16. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the second in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subjects areas on the primary grade level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, listening, planning, problem solving, social behavior, art, music, and…

  17. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the third in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the primary grade level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, spelling, printing, listening, planning, problem solving, social behavior,…

  18. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the last in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the primary level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, spelling, printing, listening, planning and problem solving, social behavior,…

  19. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the first in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the kindergarten level: arithmetic concepts, number concepts, reading readiness, vocabulary, language, listening, social behavior,…

  20. Levels of flurithromycin in female genital tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Furneri, P M; Cianci, A; Campo, L; Roccasalva, L S; Tempera, G; Fiore, G; Palumbo, G; Lepore, A M; Nicoletti, G

    1995-01-01

    The levels of flurithromycin in gynecological tissue in 20 female patients were studied after preoperative administration. The tissue flurithromycin levels obtained were comparable to those obtained in serum at 3 and 4 h but were frequently higher than those in serum at 6 and 12 h. Flurithromycin reached the highest concentrations in ovary at 4 h and in endometrium at 6 h. PMID:7486945

  1. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  2. Causes for contemporary regional sea level changes.

    PubMed

    Stammer, Detlef; Cazenave, Anny; Ponte, Rui M; Tamisiea, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Regional sea level changes can deviate substantially from those of the global mean, can vary on a broad range of timescales, and in some regions can even lead to a reversal of long-term global mean sea level trends. The underlying causes are associated with dynamic variations in the ocean circulation as part of climate modes of variability and with an isostatic adjustment of Earth's crust to past and ongoing changes in polar ice masses and continental water storage. Relative to the coastline, sea level is also affected by processes such as earthquakes and anthropogenically induced subsidence. Present-day regional sea level changes appear to be caused primarily by natural climate variability. However, the imprint of anthropogenic effects on regional sea level-whether due to changes in the atmospheric forcing or to mass variations in the system-will grow with time as climate change progresses, and toward the end of the twenty-first century, regional sea level patterns will be a superposition of climate variability modes and natural and anthropogenically induced static sea level patterns. Attribution and predictions of ongoing and future sea level changes require an expanded and sustained climate observing system.

  3. Valuing Initial Teacher Education at Master's Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Clare; Brant, Jacek; Abrahams, Ian; Yandell, John

    2012-01-01

    The future of Master's-level work in initial teacher education (ITE) in England seems uncertain. Whilst the coalition government has expressed support for Master's-level work, its recent White Paper focuses on teaching skills as the dominant form of professional development. This training discourse is in tension with the view of professional…

  4. Computer program to predict aircraft noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources were programmed to predict aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. The noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. Outputs can include spectra, overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, tone-weighted perceived noise level, and effective perceived noise level at locations specified by the user. Footprint contour coordinates and approximate footprint areas can also be calculated. Inputs and outputs can be in either System International or U.S. customary units. The subroutines for each noise source and propagation correction are described. A complete listing is given.

  5. [Cybernetic conceptualization of the levels of hypnosis].

    PubMed

    Cipollina Mangiameli, G

    1980-04-28

    The synaptic function of the different associational levels of cortex and cortico-subcortical depending on inputs memorised in synchronism at each level, is probably responsible, on a broad scale of values, for auto- or heteroinducible levels of hypnosis due to inputs solicited by extraneuronal values determining feed-back with inputs recorded in neuronal DNA. This hypothesis is outlined here with reference to the same Author's "Metodica psicoterapica su elementi di cultura cibernetica" (Minerva Medica, 63, 968, 1972). Sophronic levels, and levels of hypnosis and hypnotism are, in the light of elements of cybernetic culture, neurophysiologically referrable not only to qualitatively different causes, and more specifically to the final cause triggering electrobiochemical reactions. They are, in other words, referrable to the electron and its dynamics, increasingly well known today to students of cybernetics.

  6. Experimental level densities of atomic nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Guttormsen, M.; Aiche, M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; ...

    2015-12-23

    It is almost 80 years since Hans Bethe described the level density as a non-interacting gas of protons and neutrons. In all these years, experimental data were interpreted within this picture of a fermionic gas. However, the renewed interest of measuring level density using various techniques calls for a revision of this description. In particular, the wealth of nuclear level densities measured with the Oslo method favors the constant-temperature level density over the Fermi-gas picture. Furthermore, trom the basis of experimental data, we demonstrate that nuclei exhibit a constant-temperature level density behavior for all mass regions and at least upmore » to the neutron threshold.« less

  7. Renin and angiotensin levels in children.

    PubMed Central

    Broughton Pipkin, F; Smales, O R; O'Callaghan, M

    1981-01-01

    Plasma renin activity, plasma renin concentration, and angiotensin II levels were measured in 63 normal children aged between 2 months and 12 years. The results showed that the high levels of renin and angiotensin II present in infancy remained above adult levels throughout the first decade of life but that there was a decline with age. Boys less than 8 years old had lower plasma renin activity and angiotensin II levels than girls of a similar age; this may be due to a relative substrate deficiency. Serum urea levels were inversely correlated with plasma renin activity in both sexes. A significant inverse relationship was found between both plasma renin activity and angiotensin II, and serum sodium in the girls; a similar, although not statistically significant, relationship was seen with plasma renin activity in the boys. An inverse correlation was found between plasma renin concentration and diastolic blood pressure for the group as a whole. PMID:7018406

  8. Common Era Sea-Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B.; Kemp, A.; Kopp, R. E., III

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantic coast of North America provides a sedimentary record of Common Era sea levels with the resolution to identify the mechanisms that cause spatial variability in sea-level rise. This coast has a small tidal range, improving the precision of sea-level reconstructions. Coastal subsidence (from glacial isostatic adjustment, GIA) creates accommodation space that is filled by salt-marsh peat and preserves accurate and precise sea-level indicators and abundant material for radiocarbon dating. In addition, the western North Atlantic Ocean is sensitive to spatial variability in sea-level change, because of static equilibrium effects from melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, ocean circulation and wind-driven variability in the Gulf Stream and GIA induced land-level change from ongoing collapse of Laurentide forbuldge. We reveal three distinct patters in sea-level during the Common Era along the North American Atlantic coast, likely linked to wind-driven changes in the Gulf Stream: (1) Florida, sea level is essentially flat, with the record dominated by long-term geological processes; (2) North Carolina, sea level falls to a minimum near the beginning of the second millennium, climbing to an early Little Ice Age maximum in the fifteenth century, and then declining through most of the nineteenth century; and (3) New Jersey, a sea-level maximum around 900 CE, a sea-level minimum around 1500 CE, and a long-term sea-level rise through the second half of the second millennium. We combine the salt-marsh data from North American Atlantic coast with tide-gauge records and lower resolution proxies from the northern and southern hemispheres. We apply a noisy-input Gaussian process spatio-temporal modeling framework, which identifies a long-term falling global mean sea-level (GMSL), interrupted in the middle of the 19th century by an acceleration yielding a 20th century rate of rise extremely likely (probability P = 0:95) faster than any previous century in the Common Era.

  9. Sea level change: a philosophical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinfelder, R.; Seyfried, H.

    1993-07-01

    The present Cenozoic era is an ‘icehouse’ episode characterized by a low sea level. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the human race has been emitting greenhouse gases, increasing the global atmospheric temperature, and causing a rise in sea level. If emissions continue to increase at the present rate, average global temperatures may rise by 1.5°C by the year 2050, accompanied by a rise of about 30 cm in sea level. However, the prediction of future climatic conditions and sea level is hampered by the difficulty in modelling the interactions between the lithosphere, kryosphere, biosphere and atmosphere; in addition, the buffering capacity of our planet is still poorly understood. As scientists cannot offer unambiguous answers to simple questions, sorcerer's apprentices fill in the gaps, presenting plans to save planet without inconveniencing us. The geological record can help us to learn about the regulation mechanisms of our planet, many of which are connected with or expressed as sea level changes. Global changes in sea level are either tectono-eustatic or glacioeustatic. Plate tectonic processes strongly control sea levels and climate in the long term. There is a strong feed-back mechanism between sea level and climate; both can influence and determine each other. Although high sea levels are a powerful climatic buffer, falling sea levels accelerate climatic accentuation, the growth of the polar ice caps and will hence amplify the drop in sea level. Important sources of fossil greenhouse gases are botanic CO2 production, CO2 released by volcanic activity, and water vapour. The latter is particularly important when the surface area of the sea increases during a rise in sea level (‘maritime greenhouse effect’). A ‘volcanogenic greenhouse effect’ (release of volcanogenic CO2) is possibly not equally important, as intense volcanic activity may take place both during icehouse episodes as well as during greenhouse episodes. The hydrosphere

  10. Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

  11. Sea level rise and coastal erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leatherman, S. P.; Zhang, K.; Douglas, B. C.

    2003-04-01

    One of the most certain consequences of global warming is an increase of global (eustatic) sea level. The resulting inundation from rising seas will heavily impact low-lying areas; at least 100 million persons live within one meter of mean sea level and are at increased risk in the coming decades. The very existence of some island states and deltaic coasts is threatened by sea level rise. An additional threat affecting some of the most heavily developed and economically valuable real estate will come from an exacerbation of sandy beach erosion. As the beach is lost, fixed structures nearby are increasingly exposed to the direct impact of storm waves, and will ultimately be damaged or destroyed unless expensive protective measures are taken. It has long been speculated that the underlying rate of long-term sandy beach erosion is two orders of magnitude greater than the rate of rise of sea level, so that any significant increase of sea level has dire consequences for coastal inhabitants. We present an analysis of a large and consistent database of shoreline positions and sea levels to show that there is an underlying highly multiplicative relation of sandy beach erosion to sea level rise. This result means that the already-severe coastal erosion problems witnessed in the 20th century will be exacerbated in the 21st century under plausible global warming scenarios.

  12. Mammographic breast density and serum phytoestrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Sarah J; Sprague, Brian L; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn; Hampton, John M; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Sisney, Gale A; Buist, Diana S M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2012-08-01

    Some forms of estrogen are associated with breast cancer risk as well as with mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk. Whether phytoestrogen intake affects breast density, however, remains unclear. We evaluated the association between serum levels of phytoestrogens and MD in postmenopausal women. We enrolled 269 women, ages 55-70 yr, who received a screening mammogram and had no history of postmenopausal hormone use. Subjects completed a survey on diet and factors related to MD and provided a blood sample for analysis of 3 phytoestrogens: genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol. We examined whether mean percent MD was related to serum level of phytoestrogens, adjusting for age and body mass index. Genistein and daidzein levels correlated with self-reported soy consumption. Mean percent MD did not differ across women with different phytoestrogen levels. For example, women with nondetectable genistein levels had mean density of 11.0% [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.9-12.4], compared to 10.5% (95% CI = 8.0-13.7) and 11.2% (95% CI = 8.7-14.6) for < and ≥ median detectable levels, respectively. In a population with relatively low soy intake, serum phytoestrogens were not associated with mammographic density. Additional studies are needed to determine effects of higher levels, particularly given patterns of increasing phytoestrogen intake.

  13. Laws, causation and dynamics at different levels.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2012-02-06

    I have two main aims. The first is general, and more philosophical (§2). The second is specific, and more closely related to physics (§§3 and 4). The first aim is to state my general views about laws and causation at different 'levels'. The main task is to understand how the higher levels sustain notions of law and causation that 'ride free' of reductions to the lower level or levels. I endeavour to relate my views to those of other symposiasts. The second aim is to give a framework for describing dynamics at different levels, emphasizing how the various levels' dynamics can mesh or fail to mesh. This framework is essentially that of elementary dynamical systems theory. The main idea will be, for simplicity, to work with just two levels, dubbed 'micro' and 'macro', which are related by coarse-graining. I use this framework to describe, in part, the first four of Ellis' five types of top-down causation.

  14. Radon levels inside residences in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, G. . Inst. de Fisica); Gammage, R.B. )

    1989-01-01

    Levels of radon were measured during winter and spring seasons inside 55 colonial and modern houses and 30 multifamily apartment buildings representative of middle and upper income families. The modern houses and apartment buildings in the southern section of the city had average radon levels exceeding 150 Bq m{sup {minus}3} with a maximum single measurement of 458 Bq m{sup {minus}3}. The colonial houses in the central downtown section had radon levels nearly all averaging below 100 Bq m{sup {minus}3}. Between the ground and third floor of the apartment buildings, radon levels diminished by tenfold indicating that entry of radon-bearing soil gas was largely responsible for the elevated concentrations of radon. The radon levels in winter exceeded by about 30% the radon levels during spring. The potentially adverse health effects of these radon levels may be exacerbated by the quality of air in Mexico City which during winter is often highly polluted. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Core level shifts of intercalated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Ulrike A.; Petrović, Marin; Gerber, Timm; Martínez-Galera, Antonio J.; Grånäs, Elin; Arman, Mohammad A.; Herbig, Charlotte; Schnadt, Joachim; Kralj, Marko; Knudsen, Jan; Michely, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Through intercalation of metals and gases the Dirac cone of graphene on Ir(111) can be shifted with respect to the Fermi level without becoming destroyed by strong hybridization. Here, we use x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the C 1s core level shift (CLS) of graphene in contact with a number of structurally well-defined intercalation layers (O, H, Eu, and Cs). By analysis of our own and additional literature data for decoupled graphene, the C 1s CLS is found to be a non-monotonic function of the doping level. For small doping levels the shifts are well described by a rigid band model. However, at larger doping levels, a second effect comes into play which is proportional to the transferred charge and counteracts the rigid band shift. Moreover, not only the position, but also the C 1s peak shape displays a unique evolution as a function of doping level. Our conclusions are supported by intercalation experiments with Li, with which, due to the absence of phase separation, the doping level of graphene can be continuously tuned.

  16. Ghrelin levels in chronic periodontitis patients.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Gülin; Kırzıoğlu, Fatma Yeşim; Doğuç, Duygu Kumbul; Koçak, Havva; Orhan, Hikmet

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that has modulatory effects on the immune system. This study was designed to evaluate plasma ghrelin levels in patients with chronic periodontitis and to investigate if a relationship exists between ghrelin and periodontal parameters, serum cytokines, and bone turnover markers. Thirty-five chronic periodontitis patients (CP) and periodontal healthy individuals (C) were included in this study. Periodontal parameters were recorded. Blood samples were obtained to determine the levels of total and acylated ghrelin, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), the soluble receptor activator nuclear factor kappaB ligand (sRANKL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OSC). Plasma levels of total and acylated ghrelin were significantly elevated in the CP group compared with the C group (p < 0.05). The difference was significant only between males in the two groups (groups were compared with respect to gender) (p < 0.05). There was no difference between the groups regarding the levels of serum sRANKL, TNF-α, and ALP. A relative increase in the serum levels of IL-1β and a decrease in the serum levels of OSC of the CP group were observed (p < 0.05). In addition, positive correlations between total ghrelin/ALP and total ghrelin/acylated ghrelin were discovered. We found no direct correlation between ghrelin levels and periodontal parameters. Our results indicate an increase of total and acylated ghrelin levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Further, studies in larger populations (which could include ghrelin levels in gingival tissue, gingival crevicular fluid, and saliva) are needed in order to confirm the role of ghrelin in periodontal disease.

  17. Plasma adropin level in patients with pseudoexfoliation.

    PubMed

    Oğurel, Tevfik; Oğurel, Reyhan; Topuz, Mustafa; Örnek, Nurgül; Örnek, Kemal

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma adropin levels in patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX). This retrospective case-control study included 35 patients with PEX and 35 individuals without PEX who served as controls. Plasma adropin levels with triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and haemoglobin A1c (HGBA1C) concentrations were measured in both groups. The mean serum adropin levels were 3.24 ± 0.95 ng/mL (range, 1.90-7.88 ng/mL) in patients with PEX syndrome and 5.78 ± 2.85 ng/mL (range, 2.08-5.41 ng/mL) in PEX glaucoma patients. There was no statistically significant difference in mean adropin levels between PEX syndrome and PEX glaucoma patients. However, similar adropin levels were found in the PEX glaucoma patients and the control group (P > 0.05). The mean serum adropin levels were 3.34 ± 0.89 ng/mL (range, 1.90-5.39 ng/mL) in the PEX group and 5.78 ± 2.85 ng/mL (range, 3.08-11.06 ng/mL) in the control group. The mean serum adropin level of the PEX group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, HGBA1C, triglycerides levels, or body mass index (all P > 0.05). Adropin level is lower in patients with PEX.

  18. Lead levels in saliva and in blood

    SciTech Connect

    P'an, A.Y.S.

    1981-02-01

    The relation between salivary and whole-blood Pb levels was examined in 266 male adults, 196 of whom were Pb-exposed workers. The coefficient of correlation r between salivary and blood Pb levels was .72 (p<0.01). The results show that the salivary Pb concentration increased very rapidly, in a more or less exponential fashion, after blood Pb levels exceeded 500 ..mu..g/l. Techniques of saliva collection and Pb determination by flamesless atomic absorption spectrophotometry are described. The validity of using salivary Pb as a screening test is evaluated.

  19. Klinefelter syndrome with low gonadotropin levels.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Kripa Elizabeth; Jebasingh, Felix K; Kapoor, Nitin; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil

    2015-12-29

    Klinefelter syndrome is usually characterised by the presence of a eunuchoid body habitus and testes that are usually small and firm, with low testosterone, and elevated luteinising hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, consistent with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Low levels of gonadotropins in karyotypically proven cases are not expected, they are extremely rare occurrences. We report a case of a patient who was diagnosed to have Klinefelter syndrome (47 XXY) with low gonadotropin levels. The rest of his anterior pituitary hormonal profile was normal with no lesions in the pituitary gland on imaging. He was continued on androgen replacement therapy.

  20. Acetabular pneumatocyst containing air-fluid level.

    PubMed

    Narváez, J A; Narváez, J; Rodríguez-Mijarro, M; Quintero, J C

    1999-01-01

    The presence of intraosseous gas most commonly occurs in osteomyelitis, vacuum phenomenon, and postsurgery or posttraumatic states. Several cases of subchondral gas-filled lesions, called pneumatocysts, have also been described in the sacroiliac joint and clavicle, none of them with intralesional air-fluid level. These pneumatocysts are innocuous lesions of uncertain origin. We describe one case of acetabular pneumatocyst containing air-fluid level in a 62-year-old man with long-standing ankylosing spondylitis involving hip joint. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a pneumatocyst in an acetabular location containing air-fluid level.

  1. Tracking water levels in axisymmetric flows

    SciTech Connect

    Aktas, B.; Baratta, A.J.; Mahaffy, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    An interface tracking scheme can radically improve the first-order computational methods for two-phase flow when a problem consists of an interface between liquid phase and steam. On the other hand, the authors studies have shown that failure to implement level tracking fully consistently has degraded the quality of TRAC-BF1 results. In these studies, they have presented an improved version of one-dimensional level tracking with relatively simple and physically sensible corrections. A fully consistent level tracking scheme is also necessary for best results in multidimensional two-phase flows.

  2. Models, controls, and levels of semiotic autonomy

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper the authors consider forms of autonomy, forms of semiotic systems, and any necessary relations among them. Levels of autonomy are identified as levels of system identity, from adiabatic closure to disintegration. Forms of autonomy or closure in systems are also recognized, including physical, dynamical, functional, and semiotic. Models and controls are canonical linear and circular (closed) semiotic relations respectively. They conclude that only at higher levels of autonomy do semiotic properties become necessary. In particular, all control systems display at least a minimal degree of semiotic autonomy; and all systems with sufficiently interesting functional autonomy are semiotically related to their environments.

  3. Plasma substance P levels in fibrositis.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W J; Chiu, B; Inman, R D

    1988-12-01

    The mechanism of pain in the fibrositis syndrome is unknown. We measured plasma levels of substance P in 32 patients with fibrositis and 26 sex and age matched controls using a radioimmunoassay. The mean plasma level of substance P in the patients with fibrositis was 371 +/- 91 pg/ml and in controls 397 +/- 84 pg/ml (p = NS). We conclude that determination of plasma levels of substance P in fibrositis is of no diagnostic value. This does not exclude the possible role of substance P as a neurotransmitter in the fibrositis syndrome.

  4. Level II Ergonomic Analyses, Dover AFB, DE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    IERA-RS-BR-TR-1999-0002 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE IERA Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover AFB, DE Andrew Marcotte Marilyn Joyce The Joyce...Project (070401881, Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover...1.0 INTRODUCTION 1-1 1.1 Purpose Of The Level II Ergonomie Analyses : 1-1 1.2 Approach 1-1 1.2.1 Initial Shop Selection and Administration of the

  5. Low level vapor verification of monomethyl hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Narinder

    1990-01-01

    The vapor scrubbing system and the coulometric test procedure for the low level vapor verification of monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) are evaluated. Experimental data on precision, efficiency of the scrubbing liquid, instrument response, detection and reliable quantitation limits, stability of the vapor scrubbed solution, and interference were obtained to assess the applicability of the method for the low ppb level detection of the analyte vapor in air. The results indicated that the analyte vapor scrubbing system and the coulometric test procedure can be utilized for the quantitative detection of low ppb level vapor of MMH in air.

  6. Bilateral double level tibial lengthening in dwarfism☆

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Rolf D.; Yoshino, Koichi; Kashiwagi, Naoya; Yoshino, Shigeo; Bhave, Anil; Paley, Dror; Herzenberg, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Outcome assessment after double level tibial lengthening in patients with dwarfism. Methods Fourteen patients with dwarfism were analyzed after bilateral simultaneous double level tibial lengthening. Results Average age was 15.1 years. Average lengthening was 13.5 cm. The two levels were lengthened by an average of 7.5 cm proximally and 6.0 cm distally. Concomitant deformities were also addressed during lengthening. External fixation treatment time averaged 8.8 months. Healing index averaged 0.7 months/cm. Conclusion Bilateral tibial lengthening for dwarfism is difficult, but the results are usually quite gratifying. PMID:26566326

  7. What do the CERES Product Levels represent?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... as radiative broadband fluxes and their associated MODIS cloud properties. CRS, ES-8, SSF Level 3 Data ... between average global net TOA flux imbalance and ocean heat storage). EBAF   CERES: Product Questions ...

  8. Regional Screening Levels Frequent Questions (May 2016)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regional Screening Level RSL frequently asked question FAQ page provides risk assessors answers to common questions about the preliminary remediation goal PRG risk based concentration RBC and risk calculator for the assessment of human Health.

  9. Conceptual and logical level of database modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri

    2016-06-01

    Conceptual and logical levels form the top most levels of database modeling. Usually, ORM (Object Role Modeling) and ER diagrams are utilized to capture the corresponding schema. The final aim of business process modeling is to store its results in the form of database solution. For this reason, value oriented business process modeling which utilizes ER diagram to express the modeling entities and relationships between them are used. However, ER diagrams form the logical level of database schema. To extend possibilities of different business process modeling methodologies, the conceptual level of database modeling is needed. The paper deals with the REA value modeling approach to business process modeling using ER-diagrams, and derives conceptual model utilizing ORM modeling approach. Conceptual model extends possibilities for value modeling to other business modeling approaches.

  10. Electronic Instrumentation in A-Level Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellse, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Describes: (1) the light beam galvanometer; (2) the electrometer/direct current amplifier; and (3) digital multimeters. Focuses on the uses or potential uses of these instruments in teaching A-level physics. (JN)

  11. Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels?

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Health Information Center Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? Print-friendly Version (PDF, 6.1 MB) ... Eat Smart Did you know that high blood cholesterol is a serious problem among Latinos? About one ...

  12. Level-2 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.U.; /Purdue U.

    2007-04-01

    The CDF Run II Level-2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on an algorithm used in Run I. This system insured good performance at low luminosity obtained during the Tevatron Run II. However, as the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitations of the current system due to the algorithm start to become clear. In this paper, we will present an upgrade of the Level-2 calorimeter trigger system at CDF. The upgrade is based on the Pulsar board, a general purpose VME board developed at CDF and used for upgrading both the Level-2 tracking and the Level-2 global decision crate. This paper will describe the design, hardware and software implementation, as well as the advantages of this approach over the existing system.

  13. A Lagrangian particle level set method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieber, Simone E.; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2005-11-01

    We present a novel particle level set method for capturing interfaces. The level set equation is solved in a Lagrangian frame using particles that carry the level set information. A key aspect of the method involves a consistent remeshing procedure for the regularization of the particle locations when the particle map gets distorted by the advection field. The Lagrangian description of the level set method is inherently adaptive and exact in the case of solid body motions. The efficiency and accuracy of the method is demonstrated in several benchmark problems in two and three dimensions involving pure advection and curvature induced motion of the interface. The simplicity of the particle description is shown to be well suited for real time simulations of surfaces involving cutting and reconnection as in virtual surgery environments.

  14. Global sea level linked to global temperature

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, Martin; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple relationship linking global sea-level variations on time scales of decades to centuries to global mean temperature. This relationship is tested on synthetic data from a global climate model for the past millennium and the next century. When applied to observed data of sea level and temperature for 1880–2000, and taking into account known anthropogenic hydrologic contributions to sea level, the correlation is >0.99, explaining 98% of the variance. For future global temperature scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report, the relationship projects a sea-level rise ranging from 75 to 190 cm for the period 1990–2100. PMID:19995972

  15. Hierarchical Classification by Multi-Level Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuitty, Louis L.

    1970-01-01

    A method is developed and illustrated which relaxes the principle of reciprocity in relation to characteristics of data and classifies in terms of successive levels of reciprocity, using two versions: (a) successive linkages, and (b) core assignments. (Author/RF)

  16. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    MedlinePlus

    ... High blood pressure (hypertension) Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some diuretics — also called water pills — decrease potassium in the blood. Diuretics are commonly used to ...

  17. Level III and IV Ecoregions by State

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information and links to downloadable maps and datasets for Level III and IV ecoregions, listed by state. Ecoregions are areas of general similarity in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources.

  18. Climate Adaptation and Sea Level Rise

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA supports the development and maintenance of water utility infrastructure across the country. Included in this effort is helping the nation’s water utilities anticipate, plan for, and adapt to risks from flooding, sea level rise, and storm surge.

  19. Model Rocketry: University-Level Educational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrowman, James S.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how model rocketry can be a useful educational tool at the university level as a practical application of theoretical aerodynamic concepts and as a tool for students in experimental research. (BR)

  20. Auxin level and regeneration of Begonia leaves.

    PubMed

    Heide, O M

    1968-06-01

    As previously found, both the level of ether-extractable auxin (presumably indole-3-acetic acid) and the root-forming ability of B.xcheimantha leaves are increased under long-day conditions by high temperature, whereas the capacity for adventitious bud formation is reduced. However, this relation is present under relatively high light intensity only. Under the low light intensities in late fall neither auxin level nor regeneration ability were significantly affected by temperature.Dark treatment of detached leaves for 2 to 16 days greatly counteracted the inhibitory effect of high temperature on bud formation and reduced both the auxin level and the root-forming ability of the leaves.The great seasonal changes in the regeneration ability of Begonia leaves seem to be the result of a complex interaction of temperature, day-length, and daily light energy on the level of endogenous auxin and other growth regulators.

  1. Bergman kernel from the lowest Landau level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klevtsov, S.

    2009-07-01

    We use path integral representation for the density matrix, projected on the lowest Landau level, to generalize the expansion of the Bergman kernel on Kähler manifold to the case of arbitrary magnetic field.

  2. Levelling in the German Verb Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, John

    1974-01-01

    Levelling processes in the history of the German verb paradigm from Old High German to the present are discussed. It is asserted that the theory of transformational generative grammar provides a proper framework for the study of linguistic change. (RM)

  3. The levels of edit, second edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanburen, R.; Buehler, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    The editorial process is analyzed, and five levels of edit are identified. These levels represent cumulative combinations of nine types of edit: Coordination, Policy, Integrity, Screening, Copy Clarification, Format, Mechanical Style, Language, and Substantive. The levels and types of edit, although developed for specific use with external reports at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, cover the general range of technical editing, especially as it applies to an in-house technical publications organization. Each type of edit is set forth in terms of groups of actions to be performed by editor. The edit-level concept has enhanced understanding and communication among editors, authors, and publications managers concerning the specific editorial work to be done on each manuscript. It has also proved useful as a management tool for estimating and monitoring cost.

  4. Levels of empathy in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Lisa; Boyle, Malcolm; Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Molloy, Andrew; Lewis, Belinda; Molloy, Liz

    2012-06-01

    Empathy and absence of prejudice and stigma are instrumental in facilitating effective nurse-patient relations. This study assessed empathy levels and regard for specific medical conditions in undergraduate nursing students. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using paper-based versions of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) and Medical Condition Regard Scale (MCRS), along with a brief set of demographic questions. Participants reported good empathy levels on JSPE. Attitudes towards intellectual disability, chronic pain, acute mental illness and terminal illness rated well on MCRS. Attitudes towards substance abuse, however, were lower. There were no significant differences between age groups, gender or year level of study. Overall results of this study were positive. Nursing students demonstrated acceptable empathy levels. Attitudes towards patients who abuse substances highlight an area that needs both further exploration and addressing. Attitudes towards mental health diagnoses were particularly favourable given that these often attract stigma and negative attitudes.

  5. NASA Now: Climate Change: Sea Level Rise

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Josh Willis discusses the connection between oceans and global climate change. Learn why NASA measures greenhouse gases and how we detect ocean levels from space. These are crucial vital signs ...

  6. Trends in adsorbate induced core level shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Viktor; Van den Bossche, Maxime; Hellman, Anders; Grönbeck, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Photoelectron core level spectroscopy is commonly used to monitor atomic and molecular adsorption on metal surfaces. As changes in the electron binding energies are convoluted measures with different origins, calculations are often used to facilitate the decoding of experimental signatures. The interpretation could in this sense benefit from knowledge on trends in surface core level shifts for different metals and adsorbates. Here, density functional theory calculations have been used to systematically evaluate core level shifts for (111) and (100) surfaces of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metals upon CO, H, O and S adsorption. The results reveal trends and several non-intuitive cases. Moreover, the difficulties correlating core level shifts with charging and d-band shifts are underlined.

  7. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage.

  8. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the summer meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: responsibility for nonfuel component disposal; state experiences in facility licensing; and volume projections.

  9. Regional Screening Levels (RSLs) - Equations (May 2016)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regional Screening Level RSL equations page provides quick access to the equations used in the Chemical Risk Assessment preliminary remediation goal PRG risk based concentration RBC and risk calculator for the assessment of human Health.

  10. ERIC/RCS: Adult Performance Level Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiss, Thom

    1976-01-01

    This second article in a two-part series reviews the literature in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) on the Adult Performance Level (APL) project and other programs for adult education. (See CS 710 176) (KS)

  11. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    Sternwheeler, W.D.E.

    1992-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the 1992 winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Wastes Forum. Topics of discussion included: legal information; state and compact reports; freedom of information requests; and storage.

  12. Nuclear level density: Shell-model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen'kov, Roman; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the nuclear level density is necessary for understanding various reactions, including those in the stellar environment. Usually the combinatorics of a Fermi gas plus pairing is used for finding the level density. Recently a practical algorithm avoiding diagonalization of huge matrices was developed for calculating the density of many-body nuclear energy levels with certain quantum numbers for a full shell-model Hamiltonian. The underlying physics is that of quantum chaos and intrinsic thermalization in a closed system of interacting particles. We briefly explain this algorithm and, when possible, demonstrate the agreement of the results with those derived from exact diagonalization. The resulting level density is much smoother than that coming from conventional mean-field combinatorics. We study the role of various components of residual interactions in the process of thermalization, stressing the influence of incoherent collision-like processes. The shell-model results for the traditionally used parameters are also compared with standard phenomenological approaches.

  13. A Special Function Coprocessor for Level-2

    SciTech Connect

    Cutts, D.; Hoftun, J.H.; Nesic, D.; Johnson, C.R.; Zeller, R.T.

    1990-06-26

    The idea of supplementing Level-2 filtering nodes with additional processing power has been alive within D0 collaboration for some time now. The utility of additional processing power became increasingly recognized as the Level-2 filtering code matures. Here we will describe one scenario of augmenting Level-2 nodes with coprocessing power within the framework of the present D0 data acquisition system. Primary data reduction, consisting of repetitive but simple tasks, form the major part of the first order Level-2 filter, in terms of its time budget. Such computing tasks are well suited to the coprocessor environment. In what follows we will use the term Special Function Coprocessor (SFC) to denote this additional processor. 2 figs.

  14. Task-level control for autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid

    1994-01-01

    Task-level control refers to the integration and coordination of planning, perception, and real-time control to achieve given high-level goals. Autonomous mobile robots need task-level control to effectively achieve complex tasks in uncertain, dynamic environments. This paper describes the Task Control Architecture (TCA), an implemented system that provides commonly needed constructs for task-level control. Facilities provided by TCA include distributed communication, task decomposition and sequencing, resource management, monitoring and exception handling. TCA supports a design methodology in which robot systems are developed incrementally, starting first with deliberative plans that work in nominal situations, and then layering them with reactive behaviors that monitor plan execution and handle exceptions. To further support this approach, design and analysis tools are under development to provide ways of graphically viewing the system and validating its behavior.

  15. Energy levels of bilayer graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, D. R.; Zarenia, M.; Chaves, Andrey; Farias, G. A.; Peeters, F. M.

    2015-09-01

    Within a tight binding approach we investigate the energy levels of hexagonal and triangular bilayer graphene (BLG) quantum dots (QDs) with zigzag and armchair edges. We study AA- and AB- (Bernal) stacked BLG QDs and obtain the energy levels in both the absence and the presence of a perpendicular electric field (i.e., biased BLG QDs). Our results show that the size dependence of the energy levels is different from that of monolayer graphene QDs. The energy spectrum of AB-stacked BLG QDs with zigzag edges exhibits edge states which spread out into the opened energy gap in the presence of a perpendicular electric field. We found that the behavior of these edges states is different for the hexagonal and triangular geometries. In the case of AA-stacked BLG QDs, the electron and hole energy levels cross each other in both cases of armchair and zigzag edges as the dot size or the applied bias increases.

  16. Cardiac troponin I levels in canine pyometra

    PubMed Central

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Fransson, Boel A; Bergström, Annika; Häggström, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Background Myocardial injury may contribute to unexpected deaths due to pyometra. To detect myocardial damage, measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is currently the most sensitive and specific method. The aims of the present study were to evaluate presence of myocardial damage in canine pyometra by analysis of cTnI, to explore whether myocardial injury was associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and to evaluate whether other clinical or laboratory parameters were associated with cTnI increase. Methods Preoperative plasma levels of cTnI were investigated in 58 female dogs with pyometra and 9 controls. The value of physical examination findings, haematological, serum biochemical and pro-inflammatory (CRP and TNF-α) parameters as possible predictors of increased cTnI levels was also evaluated. Results Seven dogs with pyometra (12%) and one control dog (11%) had increased levels of cTnI. In the pyometra group, the levels ranged between 0.3–0.9 μg l-1 and in the control dog the level was 0.3 μg l-1. The cTnI levels did not differ significantly between the two groups. No cardiac abnormalities were evident on preoperative physical examinations. Four of the pyometra patients died within two weeks of surgery, of which two were examined post mortem. In one of these cases (later diagnosed with myocarditis and disseminated bacterial infection) the cTnI levels increased from 0.9 μg l-1 preoperatively to 180 μg l-1 the following day when also heart arrhythmia was also detected. The other patient had cTnI levels of 0.7 μg l-1 with no detectable heart pathology post mortem. CTnI increase was not associated with presence of SIRS. There was a trend for the association of cTnI increase with increased mortality. No preoperative physical examination findings and few but unspecific laboratory parameters were associated with increased cTnI levels. Conclusion Increased cTnI levels were observed in 12% of the dogs with pyometra. The proportions of dogs

  17. Effect of plethora on erythropoietin levels

    SciTech Connect

    Moccia, G.; Miller, M.E.; Garcia, J.F.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism by which plethora suppresses erythropoiesis in experimental animals has been assumed to be related to a decrease in erythropoietin (Ep) levels. Prior to the advent of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for Ep this theory could not be confirmed because of the insensitivity of the bioassay for Ep. In the present study hypertransfusion induced plethora was associated with approximately a 50% reduction in plasma Ep levels in CF/sub 1/ mice.

  18. Sea Level Variability in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbini, S.; Bruni, S.; del Conte, S.; Errico, M.; Petracca, F.; Prati, C.; Raicich, F.; Santi, E.

    2015-12-01

    Tide gauges measure local sea-level relative to a benchmark on land, therefore the interpretation of these measurements can be limited by the lack of appropriate knowledge of vertical crustal motions. The oldest sea-level records date back to the 18th century; these observations are the only centuries-old data source enabling the estimate of historical sea-level trends/variations. In general, tide gauge benchmarks were not frequently levelled, except in those stations where natural and/or anthropogenic subsidence was a major concern. However, in most cases, it is difficult to retrieve the historical geodetic levelling data. Space geodetic techniques, such as GNSS, Doris and InSAR are now providing measurements on a time and space-continuous basis, giving rise to a large amount of different data sets. The vertical motions resulting from the various analyses need to be compared and best exploited for achieving reliable estimates of sea level variations. In the Mediterranean area, there are a few centennial tide gauge records; our study focuses, in particular, on the Italian time series of Genoa, Marina di Ravenna, Venice and Trieste. Two of these stations, Marina di Ravenna and Venice, are affected by both natural and anthropogenic subsidence, the latter was particularly intense during a few decades of the 20th century because of ground fluids withdrawal. We have retrieved levelling data of benchmarks at and/or close to the tide gauges from the end of 1800 and, for the last couple of decades, also GPS and InSAR height time series in close proximity of the stations. By using an ensemble of these data, modelling of the long-period non-linear behavior of subsidence was successfully accomplished. After removal of the land vertical motions, the linear long period sea-level rates of all stations are in excellent agreement. Over the last two decades, the tide gauge rates were also compared with those obtained by satellite radar altimetry data.

  19. Case hardenability at high carbon levels

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, H.W.

    1995-02-01

    Loss of hardenability in the case was thought to be responsible for a lower than specified hardness found on a large carburized bushing. Pseudo Jominy testing on several high hardenability carburizing grades confirmed that hardenability fade was present at carbon levels above 0.65% and particularly for those steels containing molybdenum. Analysis of previous work provided a formula for calculating Jominy hardenability at various carbon levels. Again the results confirmed that the loss of hardenability was more severe in steels containing molybdenum.

  20. Interagency Efficacy at the Operational Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-26

    Interagency Efficacy at the Operational Level A Monograph by MAJ Thomas M. Lafleur U.S. Army School of Advanced Military Studies United...20503 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 052605 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Monograph 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Interagency Efficacy ...departmental control of the interagency process at the operational level. Such control will enable effective oversight of interagency planning and reduce

  1. A Primer on Architectural Level Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the fundamental concepts of fault tolerant computing. Key topics covered are voting, fault detection, clock synchronization, Byzantine Agreement, diagnosis, and reliability analysis. Low level mechanisms such as Hamming codes or low level communications protocols are not covered. The paper is tutorial in nature and does not cover any topic in detail. The focus is on rationale and approach rather than detailed exposition.

  2. Liquid-Level Monitor for Pressurized Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Mall, G. H.

    1986-01-01

    Technique for monitoring water levels in pressurized stainless-steel cylinders, based on differences in gamma-ray attenuation coefficients in water and air, developed. Full-scale laboratory prototype system constructed to test technique. Technique usable with liquids other than water, since linear attenuation coefficients for intermediate-energy gamma rays in air considerably lower than in liquids. Also adaptable for continuous monitoring of liquid levels in resevoir systems and in underground storage tanks.

  3. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the spring meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: state and compact reports; New York`s challenge to the constitutionality of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Amendments Act of 1985; DOE technical assistance for 1993; interregional import/export agreements; Department of Transportation requirements; superfund liability; nonfuel bearing components; NRC residual radioactivity criteria.

  4. Analysis of magnetic field levels at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulou, Christos G.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this work is to evaluate the magnetic field levels of distribution systems and other equipment at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Magnetic fields levels in several operational areas and various facilities are investigated. Three dimensional mappings and contour are provided along with the measured data. Furthermore, the portion of magnetic fields generated by the 60 Hz fundamental frequency and the portion generated by harmonics are examined. Finally, possible mitigation techniques for attenuating fields from electric panels are discussed.

  5. Tactical Level Commander and Staff Toolkit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    communications may require such a determination to be made on the spot , by the chaplain, based on the information available at the time. 4. The support...injuries, other medical symptoms may include: • Fever • Difficulty breathing • Persistent cough • Confusion DSCA Handbook Tactical Level...with a fever and shaking chills should seek immediate medical attention. DSCA Handbook Tactical Level Commander and Staff Toolkit 5-60

  6. Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 142 Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium (Web, free access)   This database provides theoretical values of energy levels of hydrogen and deuterium for principle quantum numbers n = 1 to 200 and all allowed orbital angular momenta l and total angular momenta j. The values are based on current knowledge of the revelant theoretical contributions including relativistic, quantum electrodynamic, recoil, and nuclear size effects.

  7. Annotated Bibliography of Relative Sea Level Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    contribution, and--future sea-level scenarios. If an accelerated rise of sea level occurs as predicted, coastal communities will be faced with deciding the...Moreover, seismic sequence analysis in ne.. u.plo- ration areas allow for reliable predictions of geologic age ahead of drilli.g and facilitate...comparable age suggest a strong seaward tilt of the outer continental shelf. The outer -shelf over the Baltimore Canyon trough geosyncline has

  8. Some dilemmas of master's level nurse education.

    PubMed

    Gerrish, K; Ashworth, P D; McManus, M

    2000-10-01

    Despite an increase in the growth of master's level provision for qualified nurses in the United Kingdom uncertainty exists regarding the characteristics of master's level performance in respect of professional practice. This paper presents selected findings from a multidisciplinary study that sought to examine the characteristics of master's level performance in health professional courses that had an expressed practice orientation. It focuses specifically on dilemmas nurse educators encountered in relation to British master's level nurse education. Following an initial pilot stage involving focus group interviews with separate groups of nurses, occupational therapists and physiotherapists, an interview agenda was developed to explore participants' perspectives of the characteristics of master's level performance. Individual in-depth interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of 18 nurse educators drawn from eight universities in England. Interview transcripts were coded and thematically analysed. Six kinds of dilemma emerged from the interviews. These were breadth vs. depth in the conceptualization of master's level for nursing, relevance to practice vs. academic detachment, facilitating creative thinking vs. reinforcing rigidity, encouraging or suppressing different modes of critical thinking, postgraduate nurses as loyal change agents vs. the problem of well-qualified mavericks, and professional experience as facilitating or hindering master's level performance. These dilemmas raise important questions about course design and the role of stakeholders in determining curriculum content. Moreover, a pervasive tension between a utilitarian emphasis on the application and utility of knowledge on one hand, and aspirations to promote creativity and critical thinking which look to alternative possibilities on the other hand, suggests that nurse educators exercise a degree of conservatism in relation to master's level. It is concluded that this apparent quest to

  9. Future high sea levels in south Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Blomgren, S.H.; Hanson, H.

    1997-12-31

    An estimation of future mean high water levels in Oeresund and the southwest Baltic Sea is presented together with a discussion of probable consequences for Falsterbo Peninsula, a trumpet-shaped sandy formation of some 25 km{sup 2} size situated in the very southwest corner of Sweden. A literature review coupled with sea-level measurements and observations made in the area every four hours since October 1945 are given and comprise the base for the present analysis.

  10. Asymmetric dimethylarginine level in hyperglycemic gestation.

    PubMed

    Sertkaya, Ayse Cikim; Kafkasli, Ayse; Turkcuoglu, Ilgin; Karabulut, Aysun Bay

    2011-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) concentrations and its relation with insulin sensitivity/resistance indices in pregnant women with different degrees of carbohydrate intolerance. This study included a two step approach; 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) followed by 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used for diagnosis of carbohydrate intolerance within 24-28th weeks of gestation. Pregnant women with positive GCT but negative OGTT (AGCT group, n=30) and gestational diabetics (GDM group, n=58) were compared to healthy pregnant controls (n=50). Plasma ADMA concentration and its relationship with glucose and insulin levels and insulin sensitivity/resistance indices (HOMA-IR, QUICKI, ISIOGTT) were evaluated. Both AGCT and GDM groups were found to have similarly higher plasma ADMA levels than control subjects (3.60±1.21; 4.00±1.70; 2.65±0.82 μmol/l, respectively, P=0.001). ADMA was significantly but slightly correlated with insulin sensitivity/resistance indices and moderately correlated with 2-h insulin level. The 2-h insulin value of the OGTT was the independent influencing constant for ADMA (R=0.57, P=0.0001). In conclusion, plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine level was higher in cases with abnormal glucose challenge test but normal OGTT as well as in gestational diabetics, compared to pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance. The elevated ADMA level in pregnant women with carbohydrate intolerance may possibly be due to elevated insulin level.

  11. Rippled-spectrum resolution dependence on level.

    PubMed

    Supin, Alexander Ya; Popov, Vladimir V; Milekhina, Olga N; Tarakanov, Mikhail B

    2003-11-01

    Rippled-density resolution of a rippled sound spectrum (probe band) in both the presence and absence of another band (masker) was studied as a function of sound level in normal listeners. The resolvable ripple density in the probe band was measured by finding the highest ripple density at which an interchange of ripple peak and valley positions was detectable (the phase-reversal test). Probe bands were 0.5 oct wide with center frequencies of 1, 2, and 4 kHz. In the control condition (no masker), the ripple-density resolution was almost independent of sound level within a range of 40-90 dB SPL. When an on-frequency masker coincided with the probe band (that resulted in reduced ripple depth), resolution decreased slightly relative to the control condition but remained little dependent on level. With an off-frequency low-side masker, the ripple-density resolution was a little less than in the control but almost independent of level within a range of 40-60 dB SPL and progressively decreased with level increase from 70 to 90 dB SPL. The dependence on level was qualitatively similar at all probe frequencies and at various widths and positions of the low-side off-frequency masker band.

  12. A Wireless Fluid-Level Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a recently developed wireless measurement acquisition system to fluid-level measurement. This type of fluid-level measurement system alleviates many shortcomings of fluid-level measurement methods currently being used, including limited applicability of any one fluid-level sensor design. Measurement acquisition shortcomings include the necessity for power to be supplied to each sensor and for the measurement to be extracted from each sensor via a physical connection to the sensor. Another shortcoming is existing measurement systems require that a data channel and signal conditioning electronics be dedicated to each sensor. Use of wires results in other shortcomings such as logistics needed to add or replace sensors, weight, potential for electrical arcing and wire degradations. The fluid level sensor design is a simple passive inductor-capacitor circuit that is not subject to mechanical failure that is possible when float and lever-arm systems are used. Methods are presented for using the sensor in caustic, acidic or cryogenic fluids. Oscillating magnetic fields are used to power the sensor. Once electrically excited, the sensor produces a magnetic field response. The response frequency corresponds to the amount to fluid within the capacitor s electric field. The sensor design can be modified for measuring the level of any fluid or fluent substance that can be stored in a non-conductive reservoir. The interrogation method for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency is also presented.

  13. New trends in Brunner's relation: dielectric levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouiller, Yorick; Didiergeorges, Anne; Fanget, Gilles L.; Laviron, Cyrille; Comboure, Corinne; Quere, Yves

    1999-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand the optical phenomena at dielectric levels. The purpose is also to quantify the impact of dielectric and resist thickness variations on the CD range with and without Bottom Anti Reflective COating (BARC). First we will show how all dielectric levels can be reduced to the stack metal/oxide/BARC/resist, and what are the contributions to resists and dielectric thickness range for each levels. Then a simple model will be developed to understand CD variation in this tack: by extending the Perot/Fabry model to the dielectric levels, developed by Brunner for the gate level, we can obtain a simple relation between the CD variation and all parameters. Experimentally CD variation for Damascene line level on 0.18micrometers technology has been measured depending on oxide thickness and resist thickness and can confirm this model. UV5 resist, AR2 BARC from Shipley and Top ARC from JSR have been used for these experiments. The main conclusions are: (1) Depending on your dielectric deposition and CMP processes, if resist thickness is controlled, a standard BARC process used for the gate is adapted to remove oxide thickness variation influence providing the optimized resist thickness is used. (2) If both resist thickness and dielectric thickness are uncontrolled, a more absorbent BARC is required.

  14. Glacier Contributions to Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, A. S.; Cogley, J. G.; Moholdt, G.; Wouters, B.; Wiese, D. N.

    2015-12-01

    Global mean sea level is rising in response to two primary factors: warming oceans and diminishing glaciers and ice sheets. If melted completely, glaciers would raise sea levels by half a meter, much less than that the 80 meters or so that would result from total melt of the massive Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. That is why glacier contributions to sea level rise have been less studied, allowing estimates of to vary widely. Glacier contributions to sea level change are challenging to quantify as they are broadly distributed, located in remote and poorly accessible high latitude and high altitude regions, and ground observations are sparse. Advances in satellite altimetry (ICESat) and gravimetry (GRACE) have helped, but they also have their own challenges and limitations. Here we present an updated (2003-2014) synthesis of multiple techniques adapted for varying regions to show that rates of glacier loss change little between the 2003-2009 and 2003-2014 periods, accounting for roughly one third of global mean sea level rise. Over the next century and beyond glaciers are expected to continue to contribute substantial volumes of water to the world's oceans, motivating continued study of how glaciers respond to climate change that will improve projections of future sea levels.

  15. Features, Events, and Processes: system Level

    SciTech Connect

    D. McGregor

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the system-level features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.113 (d, e, and f) (DIRS 156605). The system-level FEPs addressed in this report typically are overarching in nature, rather than being focused on a particular process or subsystem. As a result, they are best dealt with at the system level rather than addressed within supporting process-level or subsystem-level analyses and models reports. The system-level FEPs also tend to be directly addressed by regulations, guidance documents, or assumptions listed in the regulations; or are addressed in background information used in development of the regulations. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from the TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). The initial version of this report (Revision 00) was developed to support the total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR). This revision addresses the license application (LA) FEP List (DIRS 170760).

  16. Trace element levels in the experimental peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Konukoglu, D; Ercan, M; Ziylan, E

    2001-01-01

    Electron transfer from iron or copper ions to oxygen is an important example of cellular free radical initiation. Oxygen derived free radicals have been implicated as mediators of cellular injury in several model systems. To evaluate the importance of iron, copper and zinc levels on lipid peroxidation in peritonitis, we measured peritoneum malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation, zinc, copper, and iron levels during an animal model of intraperitoneal sepsis. Additionally the effects of the free radical scavenger alpha-tocopherol administration was studied. The peritoneum MDA, iron, copper and zinc levels were increased after induction of peritonitis with Escherichia Coli. The treatment with alpha-tocopherol was decreased the peritoneum MDA, iron and copper levels significantly, except the zinc level (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). Additionally the alpha-tocopherol treatment for three days prior to injection of E.Coli more decreased MDA, copper and iron levels than that of the treatment with alpha-tocopherol at the time of injection of E. Coli (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p<0.001, respectively). Our results indicated that copper, iron and zinc had important effects on peroxidation events in E. Coli induced peritonitis, and alpha-tocopherol treatment can improve the oxidant status.

  17. Marr's levels and the minimalist program.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark

    2017-02-01

    A simple change to a cognitive system at Marr's computational level may entail complex changes at the other levels of description of the system. The implementational level complexity of a change, rather than its computational level complexity, may be more closely related to the plausibility of a discrete evolutionary event causing that change. Thus the formal complexity of a change at the computational level may not be a good guide to the plausibility of an evolutionary event introducing that change. For example, while the Minimalist Program's Merge is a simple formal operation (Berwick & Chomsky, 2016), the computational mechanisms required to implement the language it generates (e.g., to parse the language) may be considerably more complex. This has implications for the theory of grammar: theories of grammar which involve several kinds of syntactic operations may be no less evolutionarily plausible than a theory of grammar that involves only one. A deeper understanding of human language at the algorithmic and implementational levels could strengthen Minimalist Program's account of the evolution of language.

  18. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    SciTech Connect

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  19. Intergenerational equity and environmental restoration cleanup levels.

    SciTech Connect

    Hocking, E. K.; Environmental Assessment

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy environmental restoration program faces difficult decisions about the levels of cleanup to be achieved at its many contaminated sites and has acknowledged the need for considering intergenerational equity in its decision making. Intergenerational equity refers to the fairness of access to resources across generations. Environmental restoration cleanup levels can have unintended and unfair consequences for future generations access to resources. The potentially higher costs associated with using low, non-risk-based cleanup levels for remediation may divert funding from other activities that could have a greater beneficial impact on future generations. Low, non-risk-based cleanup levels could also result in more damage to the nation's resources than would occur if a higher cleanup level were used. The loss or impairment of these resources could have an inequitable effect on future generations. However, intergenerational inequity could arise if sites are not completely restored and if access to and use of natural and cultural resources are unfairly limited as a result of residual contamination. In addition to concerns about creating possible intergenerational inequities related to selected cleanup levels, the tremendous uncertainties associated with sites and their restoration can lead site planners to rely on stewardship by default. An ill-conceived stewardship program can contribute to intergenerational inequity by limiting access to resources while passing on risks to future generations and not preparing them for those risks. This paper presents a basic model and process for designing stewardship programs that can achieve equity among generations.

  20. Integrating ICT at the Faculty Level: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altun, Sadegul Akbaba; Kalayci, Esin; Avci, Ummuhan

    2011-01-01

    ICT integration can be realized at various levels: It can be at a state level (central government); at an institutional level (Higher Education Councils); at an organizational level (universities and schools); at a faculty level; at a department level, or at an individual level. Thus, ICT integration can be studied at macro level as a system, or…

  1. Development of the Bulgarian Sea Level Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas

    2013-04-01

    Systematic sea level measurements have been started in Bulgaria in the beginning of 20th century and nowadays there are 16 coastal sea level stations in operation. Operators of sea level stations are: National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (NIMH) - 6 stations, Cadastre Agency, Ministry of Regional Development and Public Works (CA) - 4 stations, Port Infrastructure (PI) - 5 stations and Institute of Oceanology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IO-BAS) - 1 station. Six of them are able to provide real time data. The sea level observations in the network of NIMH, performed at six main Bulgarian ports using standard poles, started in 1910. The program, implemented on the NIMH stations, includes daily measurements of the sea level with water gauges (poles). The position of a zero mark of the water gauge is checked once per year. The sea level network of the CA consists of 4 stations: Varna and Burgas (operational since 1928), Irakly and Ahtopol (since 1971). These stations are equipped with stilling-well tide gauges and with mechanical writing devices which draws sea level changes on paper. A mechanical paper writing instruments were installed in Varna and Burgas during 1928 and in 1971, a new paper writing instruments of type SUM (Russian) were installed in the stations of Irakly and Ahtopol. A set of five sea level stations in the ports of Balchik, Varna west, Pomorie, Burgas and Oil port Burgas was build during 2009 in the frame of Port Operational Marine Observing System (POMOS), equipped with high accuracy microwave instruments and operated by PI. In 2010 a new sea level station was set up in the IO-BAS coastal research base Shkorpolovtci. The station is equipped with high accuracy microwave instrument. These six stations are providing real time data. According to the decision of the Council of Ministers in 2012 sea level stations in Varna, Irakly, Burgas and Ahtopol will be operated jointly by Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and

  2. Spatiotemporal characteristics of flood protection level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoue, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding is the most frequent natural hazard and its global impacts will be rising associated with climate change and socioeconomic growth. So, the understanding of the physical and spatial-temporal patterns of risk drivers (exposure, damage, and flood protection level) are required to conduct effective adaptation and reduce the negative impacts of flooding. Although the understanding of exposure and damage has greatly improved using a combination of numerical model simulation and spatiotemporal distributions of population and asset, that of flood protection level is still lacking in particular spatial patterns. Previous research clarifies its temporal variation and relationship with per-capita income, however they do not consider its spatial variation. Flood protection level was associated with geographical characteristics (e.g., soil type and tectonic zone etc). This study tried to estimate spatiotemporal of flood protection level at country level and discuss about relationship between its spatial patterns and geographical characteristics. Mortality rate (percentage of fatalities in modeled exposed population) and loss rate (percentage of losses in modeled exposed GDP) to fluvial river flooding across the world suggested by Jongmann et al. (2015) were estimated from modeled flood exposure and damage statistics taken from the International Emergency Disasters Database. The result indicated that mortality rate reduced across the world from 1990 to 2005. The degree of its reduction decreased with increasing per-capita income level. On the other hand, loss rate at high income and middle low income levels reduced, while that at middle high income and low income levels drastically increased between 1995 and 2000 due to growth economic and occurrence of serious fluvial river flooding. Spatial distribution of mortality and loss rates were high in East Asia, the western part of South America, and the eastern part of Europe. These regions seem to be corresponded to the

  3. Differential Use and Benefits of PowerPoint in Upper Level versus Lower Level Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehling, Patricia V.; Trent-Brown, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    The study examines whether college instructors use PowerPoint differently in upper level versus lower level courses and whether PowerPoint differentially affects the learning and behaviours of students in those courses. The authors surveyed 191 students from 14 psychology classes and found that instructors teaching higher level courses use…

  4. Propagation & Level: Factors Influencing in the ICT Composite Index at the School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Hiroyuki; Kim, JaMee; Lee, WonGyu

    2013-01-01

    Many nations are greatly affected by their education policies, and the educational level of different schools is relevant to a nation's ICT policy. In the area of ICT, Korea has achieved quite high levels of competency. This study analyzed the level of ICT competency of 4490 elementary and 2419 middle schools in Korea within the context of the…

  5. The Association between County-Level IQ and County-Level Crime Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Wright, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    An impressive body of research has revealed that individual-level IQ scores are negatively associated with criminal and delinquent involvement. Recently, this line of research has been extended to show that state-level IQ scores are associated with state-level crime rates. The current study uses this literature as a springboard to examine the…

  6. 3000 Years of Sea Level Change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, William F.

    1992-03-01

    Sea level change is generally taken to indicate climate change, and may be more nearly global than what we perceive to be climate change. Close to the beach, even a small sea level change (such as 1-3 m) produces important changes in local depositional conditions. This effect can be deduced from a study of properly selected beach deposits.Various measures of beach-sand grain size indicate conditions of deposition. The best of these parameters is the kurtosis; it is a reliable indicator of surf-zone wave energy density. An abrupt energy-level shift, after centuries with little change, indicates sea level rise or drop. Kurtosis, within stated limits, shows this.Beach ridge systems (successive, distinct old beach deposits) span the last several thousand years. A sequence of sand samples across such a deposit provides grain-size evidence for alternating high and low sea level. Changes were 1 to 3 m vertically, and took place at rates of about 1 ern yr1. There were at least seven such events in the last 3000 years.The two most recent changes were the drop and subsequent rise that marked the Little Ice Age (starting about 1200 A.D.). One cannot say, from these data, that the planet has come fully out of the Little ice Age. Predictions about what sea level will do in the near future should be based on the many small changes (1 to 3 m) in the last few thousand years, rather than on the arbitrary, fictitious, and unrealistic absolute sea level that appears to underlie various popular forecasts.

  7. Extended Late Pleistocene Sea Level Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbanks, R. G.; Cao, L.; Mortlock, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    Several hundred new closed system 230Th/234U and radiocarbon dates and the addition of more cores and coral samples from the islands of Barbados, Kiritimati and Araki contribute to an enhanced sea level record for the late Pleistocene ranging from the present to 240,000 yrs BP. Application of more rigorous sample screening criteria, including redundant 231Pa/235U dates have resulted in more closed system ages and better sea level resolution. In addition, a multibeam survey has mapped an extensive glacial lowstand reef on a ridge south of Barbados that is capped by a set of pinnacle reefs that grew during the early deglaciation. Among our new observations, the more detailed Barbados sea level record now resolves a Younger Dryas still- stand and a sea level drop between 16,140 and 14,690, overlapping the timing of H1 by some age estimates. The coral ages bracketing melt water pulse 1A have been further refined to 14,082 +/- 28 yrs BP and 13,632 +/- 32 yrs BP (2-sigma). The Isotope Stage 3 interstadial ended with sea level near 87.5 meters below present at 29,500 years ago before dropping to full glacial levels. The last glacial sea level lowstand began as early as 26,000 yrs BP. Extensive dating of Marine Isotope Stage 3 interstadial reefs on the islands of Araki and Barbados have added considerable resolution to this time interval and reliably bracket lowstand intervals separating the interstadials. A new diagenesis model has improved our prospecting success for closed system ages from older reefs and added some critical dates to the sparse closed-system data set for MIS-5 and MIS-7 high stand reefs..

  8. Sea Level Rise Impacts On Infrastructure Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, D.; Mccown, A. W.; Backhaus, S.; Urban, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    Increase of global sea level is one of the potential consequences of climate change and represents a threat for the U.S.A coastal regions, which are highly populated and home of critical infrastructures. The potential danger caused by sea level rise may escalate if sea level rise is coupled with an increase in frequency and intensity of storms that may strike these regions. These coupled threats present a clear risk to population and critical infrastructure and are concerns for Federal, State, and particularly local response and recovery planners. Understanding the effect of sea level rise on the risk to critical infrastructure is crucial for long planning and for mitigating potential damages. In this work we quantify how infrastructure vulnerability to a range of storms changes due to an increase of sea level. Our study focuses on the Norfolk area of the U.S.A. We assess the direct damage of drinking water and wastewater facilities and the power sector caused by a distribution of synthetic hurricanes. In addition, our analysis estimates indirect consequences of these damages on population and economic activities accounting also for interdependencies across infrastructures. While projections unanimously indicate an increase in the rate of sea level rise, the scientific community does not agree on the size of this rate. Our risk assessment accounts for this uncertainty simulating a distribution of sea level rise for a specific climate scenario. Using our impact assessment results and assuming an increase of future hurricanes frequencies and intensities, we also estimate the expected benefits for critical infrastructure.

  9. Underwater noise levels in UK waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Brookes, Kate L.; Faulkner, Rebecca C.; Bicknell, Anthony W. J.; Godley, Brendan J.; Witt, Matthew J.

    2016-11-01

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013–2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5–95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63–500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97th percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific.

  10. Fluoride absorption: independence from plasma fluoride levels

    SciTech Connect

    Whitford, G.M.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-04-01

    The concept that there are physiologic mechanisms to homeostatically regulate plasma fluoride concentrations has been supported by results in the literature suggesting an inverse relationship between plasma fluoride levels and the absorption of the ion from the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. The validity of the relationship was questioned because of possible problems in the experimental design. The present work used four different methods to evaluate the effect of plasma fluoride levels on the absorption of the ion in rats: (i) the percentage of the daily fluoride intake that was excreted in the urine; (ii) the concentration of fluoride in femur epiphyses; (iii) the net areas under the time-plasma fluoride concentration curves after intragastric fluoride doses; and (iv) the residual amounts or fluoride in the gastrointestinal tracts after the intragastric fluoride doses. None of these methods indicated that plasma fluoride levels influence the rate or the degree or fluoride absorption. It was concluded that, unless extremely high plasma fluoride levels are involved (pharmacologic or toxic doses), the absorption of the ion is independent of plasma levels. The results provide further evidence that plasma fluoride concentrations are not homeostatically regulated.

  11. Umbilical cord blood lead levels in California

    SciTech Connect

    Satin, K.P.; Neutra, R.R.; Guirguis, G.; Flessel, P. )

    1991-05-01

    During the fall of 1984, we conducted a survey of umbilical cord blood lead levels of 723 live births that occurred at 5 hospitals located in 5 cities in California. Historical ambient air lead levels were used as a qualitative surrogate of air and dust exposure. The area-specific cord blood means (all means {approximately} 5 micrograms/dl), medians, deciles, and distributions did not vary among locations. The California distributions included means that were lower than the 6.6 micrograms/dl reported in Needleman et al.'s Boston study in 1979. Indeed, the entire California distribution was shifted to the left of the Boston study distribution, even though 3% of the California cord lead levels exceeded 10 micrograms/dl--the level above which Needleman et al. have documented psychoneurological effects in children during the first few years of life. Fourteen percent of premature babies had cord blood lead levels above 10 micrograms/dl. The association between prematurity (i.e., less than 260 d gestation) and elevated (greater than 5 micrograms/dl) cord blood lead was observed in all hospitals and yielded a relative risk of 2.9 (95% CI: .9, 9.2) and a population attributable risk of 47%. Further research is needed to confirm this association and to explore the roles of endogenous and exogenous sources of lead exposure to the mothers who give birth to premature infants.

  12. Processing AIRS Scientific Data Through Level 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliphant, Robert; Lee, Sung-Yung; Chahine, Moustafa; Susskind, Joel; arnet, Christopher; McMillin, Larry; Goldberg, Mitchell; Blaisdell, John; Rosenkranz, Philip; Strow, Larrabee

    2007-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Spectrometer (AIRS) Science Processing System (SPS) is a collection of computer programs, denoted product generation executives (PGEs), for processing the readings of the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth aboard NASA s Aqua spacecraft. AIRS SPS at an earlier stage of development was described in "Initial Processing of Infrared Spectral Data' (NPO-35243), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 39. To recapitulate: Starting from level 0 (representing raw AIRS data), the PGEs and their data products are denoted by alphanumeric labels (1A, 1B, and 2) that signify the successive stages of processing. The cited prior article described processing through level 1B (the level-2 PGEs were not yet operational). The level-2 PGEs, which are now operational, receive packages of level-1B geolocated radiance data products and produce such geolocated geophysical atmospheric data products such as temperature and humidity profiles. The process of computing these geophysical data products is denoted "retrieval" and is quite complex. The main steps of the process are denoted microwave-only retrieval, cloud detection and cloud clearing, regression, full retrieval, and rapid transmittance algorithm.

  13. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  14. Fluorescent Optical Liquid-Level Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1999-07-26

    An optical method of detecting liquid level is presented that uses fluorescence radiation generated in an impurity-doped glass or plastic slab. In operation, the slab is inserted into the liquid and pump light is coupled into it so that the light is guided by the slab-air interface above the liquid and escapes into the liquid just below its surface. Since the fluorescence is generated only in that section of the slab above the liquid, the fluorescence power will monotonically decrease with increasing liquid level. Thus, a relationship can be established between any signal proportional to it and the liquid level. Because optical fibers link the pump source and the detector of fluorescence radiation to the sensor, no electrical connections are needed in or near the liquid. Their absence vastly decreases the hazard associated with placing a liquid-level sensor in a potentially explosive environment. A laboratory prototype, consisting of a methyl styrene slab doped with an organic dye, has been built and successfully tested in water. Its response to liquid level when pumped by a tunable argon-ion laser at 476, 488, and 496 nm, and by a blue LED, is presented and shown to be consistent with theory. The fluorescence spectra are also presented and discussed.

  15. Serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Dezhong; Liu, Chun; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Some observational studies have shown that elevated serum selenium levels are associated with reduced prostate cancer risk; however, not all published studies support these results. A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Medline, and the Cochrane Library up until September 2016 identified 17 studies suitable for further investigation. A meta-analysis was conducted on these studies to investigate the association between serum selenium levels and subsequent prostate cancer risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the overall OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus the lowest levels of serum selenium. We found a pooled OR (95% CI) of 0.76 (0.64, 0.91; P < 0.05). In subgroup analysis, an inverse association between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk was found in each of case–control studies, current and former smokers, high-grade cancer cases, advanced cancer cases, and different populations. Such correlations were not found for subgroups containing each of cohort studies, nonsmokers, low-grade cancer cases, and early stage cancer cases. In conclusion, our study suggests an inverse relationship between serum selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. However, further cohort studies and randomized control trials based on non-Western populations are required. PMID:28151881

  16. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    SciTech Connect

    Morinet, Frédéric; Casetti, Luana; François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude; Pillet, Sylvie

    2013-09-15

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.

  17. Underwater noise levels in UK waters.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Brookes, Kate L; Faulkner, Rebecca C; Bicknell, Anthony W J; Godley, Brendan J; Witt, Matthew J

    2016-11-10

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013-2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5-95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63-500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97(th) percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific.

  18. Expected and Experienced Pain Levels in Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    YALINAY DİKMEN, Pınar; ILGAZ AYDINLAR, Elif; KARLIKAYA, Geysu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the present study was to assess pain using a visual analogue scale (VAS) in patients awaiting an EMG procedure (i.e., expected VAS) and after an EMG procedure (i.e., experienced VAS). Methods Expected and experienced pain in response to nerve conduction studies (NCS) and needle EMG were assessed in 108 patients (61 females, 47 males; mean age 43.2±11.6) using a VAS. Results No significant correlations were noted between the expected or the experienced VAS in response to EMG and demographic features of the patients. The expected VAS was significantly higher than the experienced VAS in response to needle EMG (p=0.005). The highest VAS level was noted in the expected VAS in response to needle EMG (4.7±2.2). The lowest VAS level was noted in the experienced VAS in response to NCS (3.6±2.5). Conclusion The present study demonstrated that neither the expected nor the experienced pain associated with EMG exceeded a moderate level. Interestingly, we found that expected pain levels in response to needle EMG were significantly higher than experienced pain levels. Therefore, it may be possible to increase compliance if patients are provided with this information before undergoing electrophysiological procedures.

  19. Decreased selenium levels in acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, F.J.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; de Bruijn, A.M.; Kruyssen, D.H.C.M.; de Bruin, M.; Valkenburg, H.A. )

    1989-02-24

    To study the association between selenium status and the risk of myocardial infarction, the authors compared plasma, erythrocyte, and toenail selenium levels and the activity of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase among 84 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 84 population controls. Mean concentrations of all selenium measurements were lower in cases than controls. The differences were statistically significant, except for the plasma selenium level. A positive trend in the risk of acute myocardial infarction from high to low toenail selenium levels was observed, which persisted after adjustment for other risk factors for myocardial infarction. In contrast, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in cases than controls. Because toenail selenium level reflects blood levels up to one year before sampling, these findings suggest that a low selenium status was present before the infarction and, thus, may be of etiologic relevance. The higher glutathione peroxidase activity in the cases may be interpreted as a defense against increased oxidant stress either preceding or following the acute event.

  20. Underwater noise levels in UK waters

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Brookes, Kate L.; Faulkner, Rebecca C.; Bicknell, Anthony W. J.; Godley, Brendan J.; Witt, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Underwater noise from human activities appears to be rising, with ramifications for acoustically sensitive marine organisms and the functioning of marine ecosystems. Policymakers are beginning to address the risk of ecological impact, but are constrained by a lack of data on current and historic noise levels. Here, we present the first nationally coordinated effort to quantify underwater noise levels, in support of UK policy objectives under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Field measurements were made during 2013–2014 at twelve sites around the UK. Median noise levels ranged from 81.5–95.5 dB re 1 μPa for one-third octave bands from 63–500 Hz. Noise exposure varied considerably, with little anthropogenic influence at the Celtic Sea site, to several North Sea sites with persistent vessel noise. Comparison of acoustic metrics found that the RMS level (conventionally used to represent the mean) was highly skewed by outliers, exceeding the 97th percentile at some frequencies. We conclude that environmental indicators of anthropogenic noise should instead use percentiles, to ensure statistical robustness. Power analysis indicated that at least three decades of continuous monitoring would be required to detect trends of similar magnitude to historic rises in noise levels observed in the Northeast Pacific. PMID:27830837

  1. Regional frequency analysis of extreme groundwater levels.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Josef; Bichler, Andrea; Konecny, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Flood risk is generally perceived as being a consequence of surface water inundation. However, large damage is also caused by high groundwater levels. In surface hydrology, statistical frequency analysis is a standard tool to estimate discharge with a given return period or exceedance probability. First, a suitable probability distribution is fit to a series of annual maximum peaks. Second, this distribution is used to determine the discharge corresponding to the desired return period. Where only short series of recorded data are available, the estimates can often be improved by regional frequency analysis (RFA). Unfortunately, there is little information in the literature on analogous approaches for the estimation of extreme groundwater levels. In this contribution, the applicability of l-moments-based RFA for the estimation of extreme groundwater levels is investigated. The main issues specific to groundwater levels are (1) appropriate transformation of the data, (2) criteria for identification of statistically homogeneous regions, (3) consideration of correlation between sites, and (4) choice of distribution function. This study is based on data from more than 1100 observation sites in four shallow Austrian Aquifers with a record length of 10 to 50 years. Results show that homogeneous regions for l-moments-based RFA can be identified covering about one half of the total area of the aquifers. The confidence intervals for the 30- and 100-year return levels can be significantly reduced by RFA. Out of the four investigated distribution functions, none is to be preferred generally.

  2. Concerns with low-level ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yalow, R.S.

    1994-12-31

    Populations have been studied in geographic areas of increased natural radiation, in radiation-exposed workers, in patients medically exposed, and in accidental exposures. No reproducible evidence exists of harmful effects from increases in background radiation three to ten times the usual levels. There is no increase in leukemia or other cancers among American military participants in nuclear testing, no increase in leukemia or thyroid cancer among medical patients receiving {sup 131}I for diagnosis or treatment of hypothyroidism, and no increase in lung cancer among nonsmokers exposed to increased radon in the home. The association of radiation with the atomic bomb and with excessive regulatory and health physics as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) radiation levels practices has created a climate of fear about the dangers of radiation at any level. However, there is no evidence that radiation exposures at the levels equivalent to medical usage are harmful. The unjustified excessive concern with radiation at any level, however, precludes beneficial uses of radiation and radioactivity in medicine, science, and industry.

  3. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  4. Water-level fluctuations influence sediment porewater ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Reservoirs typically have elevated fish mercury (Hg) levels compared to natural lakes and rivers. A unique feature of reservoirs is water-level management which can result in sediment exposure to the air. The objective of this study is to identify how reservoir water-level fluctuations impact Hg cycling, particularly the formation of the more toxic and bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Total-Hg (THg), MeHg, stable isotope methylation rates and several ancillary parameters were measured in reservoir sediments (including some in porewater and overlying water) that are seasonally and permanently inundated. The results showed that sediment and porewater MeHg concentrations were over 3-times higher in areas experiencing water-level fluctuations compared to permanently inundated sediments. Analysis of the data suggest that the enhanced breakdown of organic matter in sediments experiencing water-level fluctuations has a two-fold effect on stimulating Hg methylation: 1) it increases the partitioning of inorganic Hg from the solid phase into the porewater phase (lower log Kd values) where it is more bioavailable for methylation; and 2) it increases dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the porewater which can stimulate the microbial community that can methylate Hg. Sulfate concentrations and cycling were enhanced in the seasonally inundated sediments and may have also contributed to increased MeHg production. Overall, our results suggest that reservoir management a

  5. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented.

  6. Administration, Levels 1-2. 2nd Edition. Customer Service, Level 3. Management, Levels 3-5. National Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business and Technology Education Council, London (England).

    Britain's National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) are work qualifications that measure what an employee or potential employee can do as well as how much he or she knows and understands about a particular job. Used as written proof of usable workplace skills that can be put to profitable use by an employer, NVQs range from basic Level 1, for…

  7. Semiconductor steady state defect effective Fermi level and deep level transient spectroscopy depth profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Ken K.; Cheng, Zimeng

    2016-09-01

    The widely used deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) theory and data analysis usually assume that the defect level distribution is uniform through the depth of the depletion region of the n—p junction. In this work we introduce the concept of effective Fermi level of the steady state of semiconductor, by using which deep level transient spectroscopy depth profiling (DLTSDP) is proposed. Based on the relationship of its transition free energy level (TFEL) and the effective Fermi level, the rules of detectivity of the defect levels are listed. Computer simulation of DLTSDP is presented and compared with experimental data. The experimental DLTS data are compared with what the DLTSDP selection rules predicted. The agreement is satisfactory.

  8. Level structure of {sup 95}Nb

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, M.A.; Chowdhury, M.S.

    2005-11-01

    The level structure of the {sup 95}Nb nucleus has been studied with the (t,p) reaction in {sup 93}Nb using a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator and a multichannel magnetic spectrograph at an incident beam energy of 12 MeV. Proton spectra are obtained at 12 different angles from 5 deg. to 87.5 deg. at an interval of 7.5 deg. Measurements of the proton distributions from the {sup 93}Nb(t,p){sup 95}Nb reaction were made for the ground and 54 excited states up to the excitation energy of 3.669 MeV. Absolute differential cross sections for the levels have been measured. The experimental angular distributions are compared with the theoretical distorted-wave Born approximation calculations to determine L values and J{sup {pi}} values. The level structure of {sup 95}Nb is compared with previous results.

  9. Cost optimization of spacecraft test levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    Common to all nondestructive type testing of hardware that provides the necessary confidence in the design is the question regarding the proper magnitude of the test level. The objective of this investigation was to study the possibility of establishing cost optimized test levels of a rather general nature. This investigation was based on studying the influence of test level on a cost of error cost model that reflects the adverse effects of 'undertesting' and 'overtesting'. For the assumed conditions of normal distribution for the random variables and a protoflight spacecraft case, the results indicated that the limits for an optimum test factor can range between slightly less than 1.0 to slightly more than 1.5.

  10. Torsional ultrasonic wave based level measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David E [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A [Knoxville, TN

    2012-07-10

    A level measurement system suitable for use in a high temperature and pressure environment to measure the level of coolant fluid within the environment, the system including a volume of coolant fluid located in a coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment and having a level therein; an ultrasonic waveguide blade that is positioned within the desired coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment; a magnetostrictive electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment and configured to operate in the environment and cooperate with the waveguide blade to launch and receive ultrasonic waves; and an external signal processing system located outside of the high temperature and pressure environment and configured for communicating with the electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment.

  11. Effective action theory of Andreev level spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaktionov, Artem V.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2015-12-01

    With the aid of the Keldysh effective action technique we develop a microscopic theory describing Andreev level spectroscopy experiments in nontunnel superconducting contacts. We derive an effective impedance of such contacts which accounts for the presence of Andreev levels in the system. At subgap bias voltages and low temperatures, inelastic Cooper pair tunneling is accompanied by transitions between these levels resulting in a set of sharp current peaks. We evaluate the intensities of such peaks, establish their dependence on the external magnetic flux piercing the structure and estimate the thermal broadening of these peaks. We also specifically address the effect of capacitance renormalization in a nontunnel superconducting contact and its impact on both the positions and heights of the current peaks. At overgap bias voltages, the I -V curve is determined by quasiparticle tunneling and contains current steps related to the presence of discrete Andreev states in our system.

  12. Hepatitis viral load correlates to glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Several recent scientific articles have found a direct correlation between Glutathione levels and viral activity for hepatitis B and C. When viral load increases, Glutathione decreases. Researchers from Germany report that adding NAC (N-acetyl cysteine) to HBV producing cells lines can reduce hepatitis viral load 50 fold. Glutathione is used by the liver to help break down toxins. Patients who have chronic infection for more than 90 days should ask their physicians to check their Glutathione levels. A test kit is available from ImmunoSciences Labs; contact information is included. An amino acid, L-Glutamine, can be used with Alpha Lipoic Acid and NAC to increase Glutathione levels. Chlorophyll also offers benefits to people with hepatitis and other infections. Instructions on how to use a special retention enema containing chlorophyll, water, and apple cider vinegar are provided.

  13. Walkyourplace - Evaluating Neighbourhood Accessibility at Street Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiniger, S.; Poorazizi, M. E.; Hunter, A. J. S.

    2013-05-01

    The popularity of a neighbourhood is often explained by its perceived "higher" quality of life. Good access to shops, restaurants, parks, etc., is seen as an indicator that reflects improved quality of life. We present a web-based tool for assessment of accessibility to such services. The system evaluates in real time an area that is accessible using pedestrian, transit, and cycling infrastructure. The accessible area is evaluated using "quality of life" indicators, such as the number of grocery stores, shopping and recreation facilities, and local crime within that area. This tool sets itself apart from pre-computed and neighbourhood-level walkability indices, because it makes use of detailed street-level data, rather than block-level generalizations. It uses real network travel time, and, when transit data are provided, permits the creation and evaluation of accessibility areas for a combination of travel modes such as walking with transit use.

  14. Vibrational energy levels of CH5+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker

    2008-12-01

    We present a parallelized contracted basis-iterative method for calculating numerically exact vibrational energy levels of CH5+ (a 12-dimensional calculation). We use Radau polyspherical coordinates and basis functions that are products of eigenfunctions of bend and stretch Hamiltonians. The bend eigenfunctions are computed in a nondirect product basis with more than 200×106 functions and the stretch functions are computed in a product potential optimized discrete variable basis. The basis functions have amplitude in all of the 120 equivalent minima. Many low-lying levels are well converged. We find that the energy level pattern is determined in part by the curvature and width of the valley connecting the minima and in part by the slope of the walls of this valley but does not depend on the height or shape of the barriers separating the minima.

  15. Visualizing Sea Level Rise with Augmented Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Looking Glass is an application on the iPhone that visualizes in 3-D future scenarios of sea level rise, overlaid on live camera imagery in situ. Using a technology known as augmented reality, the app allows a layperson user to explore various scenarios of sea level rise using a visual interface. Then the user can see, in an immersive, dynamic way, how those scenarios would affect a real place. The first part of the experience activates users' cognitive, quantitative thinking process, teaching them how global sea level rise, tides and storm surge contribute to flooding; the second allows an emotional response to a striking visual depiction of possible future catastrophe. This project represents a partnership between a science journalist, MIT, and the Rhode Island School of Design, and the talk will touch on lessons this projects provides on structuring and executing such multidisciplinary efforts on future design projects.

  16. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    SciTech Connect

    Tuite, K.T.; Winberg, M.; Flores, A.Y.; Killian, E.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1996-08-01

    Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site operators have no method of independently verifying the radionuclide content of packaged LLW that arrive at disposal sites for disposal. At this time, disposal sites rely on LLW generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to insure that LLW received meets the waste acceptance criteria. An independent verification system would provide a method of checking generator LLW characterization methods and help ensure that LLW disposed of at disposal facilities meets requirements. The Mobile Low-Level Waste Verification System (MLLWVS) provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of LLW shipping records to insure that disposal site waste acceptance criteria are being met. The MLLWVS system was developed under a cost share subcontract between WMG, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies through the Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  17. Discovering Rules by Meta-level Abduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Katsumi; Furukawa, Koichi; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Nabeshima, Hidetomo

    This paper addresses discovery of unknown relations from incomplete network data by abduction. Given a network information such as causal relations and metabolic pathways, we want to infer missing links and nodes in the network to account for observations. To this end, we introduce a framework of meta-level abduction, which performs abduction in the meta level. This is implemented in SOLAR, an automated deduction system for consequence finding, using a first-order representation for algebraic properties of causality and the full-clausal form of network information and constraints. Meta-level abduction by SOLAR is powerful enough to infer missing rules, missing facts, and unknown causes that involve predicate invention in the form of existentially quantified hypotheses. We also show an application of rule abduction to discover certain physical techniques and related integrity constraints within the subject area of Skill Science.

  18. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections.

    PubMed

    Morinet, Frédéric; Casetti, Luana; François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude; Pillet, Sylvie

    2013-09-01

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition.

  19. Ghrelin plasmatic levels in patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Otero, Miguel; Nogueiras, Ruben; Lago, Francisca; Meijide, Juan; Amarelo, Juan; Mera, Antonio; Gomez-Reino, Juan; Gualillo, Oreste

    2005-01-01

    Ghrelin is a recently discovered 28 amino acid peptide that regulates GH secretion and energy homeostasis. In fibromyalgia (FM) there are alterations in the pituitary-hypothalamic axis, particularly in the growth hormone (GH) secretion pattern. Whether this anomalous secretion of GH pertains to abnormal levels of ghrelin is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma ghrelin levels in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) compared with healthy controls. Plasmatic ghrelin concentrations were determined by a double antibody radioimmunoassay in 19 patients with FM and 14 healthy controls. Compared with controls, patients with FM did not show any significant differences of ghrelin plasmatic levels. In conclusion, FM is not associated with deviation in ghrelin concentrations. Existing alterations in FM with respect to GH are unlikely due to circulating ghrelin.

  20. Community-level consequences of cannibalism.

    PubMed

    Ohlberger, Jan; Langangen, Oystein; Stenseth, Nils C; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2012-12-01

    Ecological interactions determine the structure and dynamics of communities and their responses to the environment. Understanding the community-level effects of ecological interactions, such as intra- and interspecifc competition, predation, and cannibalism, is therefore central to ecological theory and ecosystem management. Here, we investigate the community-level consequences of cannibalism in populations with density-dependent maturation and reproduction. We model a stage-structured consumer population with an ontogenetic diet shift to analyze how cannibalism alters the conditions for the invasion and persistence of stage-specific predators and competitors. Our results demonstrate that cannibalistic interactions can facilitate coexistence with other species at both trophic levels. This effect of cannibalism critically depends on the food dependence of the demographic processes. The underlying mechanism is a cannibalism-induced shift in the biomass distribution between the consumer life stages. These findings suggest that cannibalism may alter the structure of ecological communities through its effects on species coexistence.

  1. A Software Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shen,G.

    2009-05-04

    A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

  2. Dissolved Oxygen Levels in Lake Chabot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, D.; Pica, R.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved oxygen levels are crucial in every aquatic ecosystem; it allows for the fish to breathe and it is the best indicator of water quality. Lake Chabot is the main backup water source for Castro Valley, making it crucial that the lake stays in good health. Last year, research determined that the water in Lake Chabot was of good quality and not eutrophic. This year, an experiment was conducted using Lake Chabot's dissolved oxygen levels to ensure the quality of the water and to support the findings of the previous team. After testing three specifically chosen sites at the lake using a dissolved oxygen meter, results showed that the oxygen levels in the lake were within the healthy range. It was then determined that Lake Chabot is a suitable backup water source and it continues to remain a healthy habitat.

  3. Multi-level coupled cluster theory

    SciTech Connect

    Myhre, Rolf H.; Koch, Henrik; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M. J.

    2014-12-14

    We present a general formalism where different levels of coupled cluster theory can be applied to different parts of the molecular system. The system is partitioned into subsystems by Cholesky decomposition of the one-electron Hartree-Fock density matrix. In this way the system can be divided across chemical bonds without discontinuities arising. The coupled cluster wave function is defined in terms of cluster operators for each part and these are determined from a set of coupled equations. The total wave function fulfills the Pauli-principle across all borders and levels of electron correlation. We develop the associated response theory for this multi-level coupled cluster theory and present proof of principle applications. The formalism is an essential tool in order to obtain size-intensive complexity in the calculation of local molecular properties.

  4. Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milesi, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Presentation by Cristina Milesi, First Author, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA at the "Meeting the Challenge of Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County" on June 19, 2005 Santa Clara County, bordering with the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay, is highly vulnerable to flooding and to sea level rise (SLR). In this presentation, the latest sea level rise projections for the San Francisco Bay will be discussed in the context of extreme water height frequency and extent of flooding vulnerability. I will also present preliminary estimations of levee requirements and possible mitigation through tidal restoration of existing salt ponds. The examples will draw mainly from the work done by the NASA Climate Adaptation Science Investigators at NASA Ames.

  5. Autophagy regulates sphingolipid levels in the liver.

    PubMed

    Alexaki, Aikaterini; Gupta, Sita D; Majumder, Saurav; Kono, Mari; Tuymetova, Galina; Harmon, Jeffrey M; Dunn, Teresa M; Proia, Richard L

    2014-12-01

    Sphingolipid levels are tightly regulated to maintain cellular homeostasis. During pathologic conditions such as in aging, inflammation, and metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, levels of some sphingolipids, including the bioactive metabolite ceramide, are elevated. Sphingolipid metabolism has been linked to autophagy, a critical catabolic process in both normal cell function and disease; however, the in vivo relevance of the interaction is not well-understood. Here, we show that blocking autophagy in the liver by deletion of the Atg7 gene, which is essential for autophagosome formation, causes an increase in sphingolipid metabolites including ceramide. We also show that overexpression of serine palmitoyltransferase to elevate de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis induces autophagy in the liver. The results reveal autophagy as a process that limits excessive ceramide levels and that is induced by excessive elevation of de novo sphingolipid synthesis in the liver. Dysfunctional autophagy may be an underlying mechanism causing elevations in ceramide that may contribute to pathogenesis in diseases.

  6. Homocysteine levels in vegetarians versus omnivores.

    PubMed

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Blazícek, P; Kopcová, J; Béderová, A; Babinská, K

    2000-01-01

    Vitamin B(12), folate, and vitamin B(6) are the main determinants of homocysteinemia. The vegan diet provides no vitamin B(12), but also less strict forms of alternative nutrition may suffer from a deficit of this vitamin. The plasma homocysteine level was measured in alternative nutrition groups of adults (lacto- and lactoovovegetarians, n = 62; vegans, n = 32) and compared with the levels in a group consuming traditional diet (n = 59), omnivores). In the group of vegetarians the average homocysteine level is 13.18 vs. 10.19 micromol/l in omnivores; the frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia is 29 vs. 5% in omnivores. In the group of vegans the average homocysteine value is 15.79 micromol/l (53% of the individual values exceeded 15 micromol/l). Omnivores consume the recommended amount of methionine; however, in individuals consuming an alternative diet, the intake of methionine is deficient (assessed by food frequency questionnaire; lower content of methionine in plant proteins). Under conditions of lower methionine availability the remethylation pathway prevails; therefore, vitamin B(12) and folate were evaluated in relation to the homocysteine level. The serum vitamin B(12) levels are significantly lower in the alternative nutrition groups (214.8 pmol/l in vegetarians, 140.1 pmol/l in vegans vs. 344.7 pmol/l in omnivores); a deficit (<179.0 pmol/l) was found in 26% of the vegetarians and in 78% of the vegans vs. 0% in omnivores. The serum folate levels were within the range of reference values in all groups; however, they were significantly lower in omnivores. The results show that the mild hyperhomocysteinemia in alternative nutrition is a consequence of vitamin B(12) deficiency.

  7. [Diagnostic reference levels in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Vañó Carruana, E; Fernández Soto, J M; Sánchez Casanueva, R M; Ten Morón, J I

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses the diagnostic reference levels for radiation exposure proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to facilitate the application of the optimization criteria in diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures. These levels are normally established as the third quartile of the dose distributions to patients in an ample sample of centers and are supposed to be representative of good practice regarding patient exposure. In determining these levels, it is important to evaluate image quality as well to ensure that it is sufficient for diagnostic purposes. When the values for the dose received by patients are systematically higher or much lower than the reference levels, an investigation should determine whether corrective measures need to be applied. The European and Spanish regulations require the use of these reference values in quality assurance programs. For interventional procedures, the dose area product (or kerma area product) values are usually used as reference values together with the time under fluoroscopy and the total number of images acquired. The most modern imaging devices allow the value of the accumulated dose at the entrance to the patient to be calculated to optimize the distribution of the dose on the skin. The ICRP recommends that the complexity of interventional procedures be taken into account when establishing reference levels. In the future, diagnostic imaging departments will have automatic systems to manage patient dosimetric data; these systems will enable continuous dosage auditing and alerts about individual procedures that might involve doses several times above the reference values. This article also discusses aspects that need to be clarified to take better advantage of the reference levels in interventional procedures.

  8. Sudden change: Climate and sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, W.F.

    1995-10-01

    Dates, magnitudes and rates of Holocene sea-level changes were reviewed at the 1995 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Richard B. Alley (Penn. State U.) described laminae in Greenland ice cores, with details at the annual level. A major event of unknown nature occurred at roughly 8,000 B.P. Gerard Bond (Lamont-Doherty Observ., N.Y.) described sediment cores from the North Atlantic, with a major event at 8,000 B.P. Published work of K.S. Petersen (Danish Geol. Survey) from a well near Vust (Denmark) was reviewed: A rapid sea level rise (25 m), then a similar drop centered at 8,000 B.P. at 8-15 cm/yr. W.F. Tanner (Florida State U.) described the beach ridge plain in northern Denmark, where a sequence of more than 270 Holocene ridges shows the date of the big Mid-Holocene sea level change couplet, 8,000 B.P., with a magnitude of {open_quotes}more than 14 m,{close_quotes} plus smaller changes. These data showed vertical magnitudes of the larger sea level events (except the Mid-Holocene catastrophe) in the range of 1-to-5 meters. W.C. Parker (Florida State) sought possible cycles in the same sequence, but they were too poorly defined for detailed forecasts. Charles R. Bentley (U. of Wisconsin) examined the possibility of an early collapse of the West Antarctic marine ice sheet, with a sea level rise of about 5 meters, but concluded that it is unlikely.

  9. Statistics of high-level scene context

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Context is critical for recognizing environments and for searching for objects within them: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed “things” in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by

  10. The Sea Level Fingerprints of Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Hay, C.; Kopp, R. E., III; Morrow, E.

    2014-12-01

    It may be difficult to persuade those living in northern Europe that the sea level changes that their coastal communities face depends less on the total melting of polar ice sheets and glaciers than on the individual contributions to this total. In particular, melting of a specific ice sheet or mountain glacier drives deformational, gravitational and rotational perturbations to the Earth system that are manifest in a unique geometry, or fingerprint, of global sea level change. For example, melting from the Greenland Ice Sheet equivalent to 1 mm/yr of global mean sea level (GMSL) rise will lead to sea level rise of ~0 mm/yr in Dublin, ~0.2 mm/yr in Amsterdam, ~0.4 mm/yr in Boston and ~1.2 mm/yr in Cape Town. In contrast, if the same volume of ice melted from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, all of the above sites would experience a sea level rise in the range 1.1-1.2 mm/yr. These fingerprints of modern ice melting, together with ocean thermal expansion and dynamic effects, and the ongoing signal from glacial isostatic adjustment in response to the last ice age, combine to produce a sea level field with significant geographic variability. In this talk I will highlight an analysis of global tide gauge records that takes full advantage of this variability to estimate both GMSL and the sources of meltwater over the last century, and to project GMSL to the end of the current century.

  11. Fault-tolerant three-level inverter

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, John; Xu, Longya; Bhargava, Brij B.

    2006-12-05

    A method for driving a neutral point clamped three-level inverter is provided. In one exemplary embodiment, DC current is received at a neutral point-clamped three-level inverter. The inverter has a plurality of nodes including first, second and third output nodes. The inverter also has a plurality of switches. Faults are checked for in the inverter and predetermined switches are automatically activated responsive to a detected fault such that three-phase electrical power is provided at the output nodes.

  12. Ultraviolet radiation levels during the Antarctic spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, John E.; Snell, Hilary E.

    1988-01-01

    The decrease in atmospheric ozone over Antarctica during spring implies enhanced levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation received at the earth's surface. Model calculations show that UV irradiances encountered during the occurrence of an Antarctic 'ozone hole' remain less than those typical of a summer solstice at low to middle latitudes. However, the low ozone amounts observed in October 1987 imply biologically effective irradiances for McMurdo Station, Antarctica, that are comparable to or greater than those for the same location at December solstice. Life indigenous to Antarctica thereby experiences a greatly extended period of summerlike UV radiation levels.

  13. Superstatistical analysis of sea-level fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabassa, Pau; Beck, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We perform a statistical analysis of measured time series of sea levels at various coastal locations in the UK, measured at time differences of 15 min over the past 20 years. When the astronomical tide and other deterministic components are removed from the record, a stochastic signal corresponding to the meteorological component remains, and this is well-described by a superstatistical model. We do various tests on the measured time series, and compare the data at 5 different UK locations. Overall the χ2-superstatistics is best suitable to describe the data, in particular when one looks at the dynamics of sea-level differences on short time scales.

  14. Measuring oxygen levels in Caco-2 cultures

    PubMed Central

    Zeitouni, Nathalie E; Fandrey, Joachim; Naim, Hassan Y; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measuring oxygen levels in three different systems of Caco-2 cell culture. Methods Caco-2 cells were cultured in three different systems, using conventional polystyrene 24-well plates, special 24-well gas permeable plates, or on membrane inserts in conventional plates. Optical sensor spots were used to measure dissolved O2 levels in these cultured cells over the course of 6 days under normoxia (143 mmHg) and for 6 hours under hypoxia (7 mmHg). Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in the different cultures. Results All culture systems displayed lower O2 levels over time than expected when cultured under normoxia conditions. On average, O2 levels reached as low as 25 mmHg in 24-well plates but remained at 97 and 117 mmHg in gas permeable plates and membrane inserts, respectively. Under hypoxia, 1 mL cell cultures equilibrated to 7 mmHg O2 within the first 60 minutes and dropped to 0.39 and 0.61 mmHg O2 in 24-well and gas permeable plates, respectively, after the 6-hour incubation period. Cultures in membrane inserts did not equilibrate to 7 mmHg by the end of the 6-hour incubation period, where the lowest O2 measurements reached 23.12 mmHg. Western blots of HIF-1α protein level in the whole cell lysates of the different Caco-2 cultures revealed distinct stabilization of HIF-1α after hypoxic incubation for 1, 2, and 4 hours in 24-well plates as well as gas permeable plates. For membrane inserts, notable HIF-1α was seen after 4 hours of hypoxic incubation. Conclusion Cellular oxygen depletion was achieved in different hypoxic Caco-2 culture systems. However, different oxygen levels comparing different culture systems indicate that O2 level should be carefully considered in oxygen-dependent experiments. PMID:27774482

  15. Critical level statistics for weakly disordered graphene.

    PubMed

    Amanatidis, E; Kleftogiannis, I; Katsanos, D E; Evangelou, S N

    2014-04-16

    In two dimensions chaotic level statistics with the Wigner spacing distribution P(S) is expected for massless fermions in the Dirac region. The obtained P(S) for weakly disordered finite graphene samples with zigzag edges turns out, however, to be neither chaotic (Wigner) nor localized (Poisson). It is similar to the intermediate statistics at the critical point of the Anderson metal-insulator transition. The quantum transport of finite graphene for weak disorder, with critical level statistics can occur via edge states as in topological insulators, and for strong disorder, graphene behaves as an ordinary Anderson insulator with Poisson statistics.

  16. The lowest Landau level in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckmann, Falk; Endrőodi, Gergely; Giordano, Matteo; Katz, Sándor D.; Kovács, Tamás G.; Pittler, Ferenc; Wellnhofer, Jacob

    2017-03-01

    The thermodynamics of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) in external (electro-)magnetic fields shows some unexpected features like inverse magnetic catalysis, which have been revealed mainly through lattice studies. Many effective descriptions, on the other hand, use Landau levels or approximate the system by just the lowest Landau level (LLL). Analyzing lattice configurations we ask whether such a picture is justified. We find the LLL to be separated from the rest by a spectral gap in the two-dimensional Dirac operator and analyze the corresponding LLL signature in four dimensions. We determine to what extent the quark condensate is LLL dominated at strong magnetic fields.

  17. Examining Earthquake Scaling Via Event Ratio Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, W. R.; Yoo, S.; Mayeda, K. M.; Gok, R.

    2013-12-01

    A challenge with using corner frequency to interpret stress parameter scaling is that stress drop and apparent stress are related to the cube of the corner frequency. In practice this leads to high levels of uncertainty in measured stress from since the uncertainty in measuring the corner frequency is cubed to determine uncertainty in the stress parameters. We develop a new approach using the low and high frequency levels of spectral ratios between two closely located events recorded at the same stations. This approach has a number of advantages over more traditional corner frequency fitting, either in spectral ratios or individual spectra. First, if the bandwidth of the spectral ratio is sufficient, the levels can be measured at many individual frequency points and averaged, reducing the measurement error. Second the apparent stress (and stress drop) are related to the high frequency level to the 3/2 power so the measurement uncertainty is not as amplified as when using the corner frequency. Finally, if the bandwidth is sufficiently broad to determine both the spectral ratio low and high frequency levels, the apparent stress (or stress drop) ratio can be determined without the need to use any other measurements (e.g., moment, fault area), which of course have their own measurement uncertainties. We will show a number examples taken from a wide variety of crustal earthquake sequences. Example of the sigmoid formed by a spectral ratio between two hypothetical events for two different cases of stress scaling using the models described in this paper. Event 1 is Mw 6.0 event and event 2 is an Mw 4.0 event. In the self-similar case both have an apparent stress of 3 MPa, in the non-self-similar case the large event apparent stress is 3 MPA and the smaller one is 1 MPa. Note that ratio reaches different constant levels. The low frequency level (LVL) is the ratio of the moments and high frequency level (HFL) depends on the stress parameters. In this paper we derive the

  18. Python based high-level synthesis compiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieszewski, Radosław; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a python based High-Level synthesis (HLS) compiler. The compiler interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior written in Python and map it to VHDL. FPGA combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be reconfigured over the lifetime of the system. FPGAs therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Creating parallel programs implemented in FPGAs is not trivial. This article describes design, implementation and first results of created Python based compiler.

  19. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Navigation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strub, Richard; Dominguez, Roseanne; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS Staff Science effort covered those activities that were BOREAS community-level activities or required uniform data collection procedures across sites and time. These activities included the acquisition, processing, and archiving of aircraft navigation/attitude data to complement the digital image data. The level-0 ER-2 navigation data files contain aircraft attitude and position information acquired during the digital image and photographic data collection missions. Temporally, the data were acquired from April to September 1994. Data were recorded at intervals of 5 seconds. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  20. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1998-01-01

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

  1. Teachers' self-assessed level of preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Susan

    2013-03-01

    We asked high school physics teachers to assess their level of preparation across a number of domains. Almost all (98%) reported feeling adequately or well prepared in terms of their basic physics knowledge. The chart presents teachers' responses to their self-assessed level of preparation in six different areas. Almost all feel at least adequately prepared with respect to their science knowledge in other areas and the applications of physics to everyday experience. However, only two-thirds feel adequately or well prepared in recent developments in physics.

  2. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1998-03-03

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units. 12 figs.

  3. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

  4. Solution notches, earthquakes, and sea level, Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, C. R.; Mildor, B. S.; Bilham, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Shortly after the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake, we installed an array of five tide gauges to determine sea level and its variability in the region of uplifted corals on the coast SW of Leogane, Haiti, that had been uplift ≤30 cm during the earthquake. Each gauge consists of a pressure transducer bolted 50-80 cm below mean sea level, which samples the difference between atmospheric pressure and sea pressure every 10 minutes. The data are transmitted via the Iridium satellite and are publically available with a latency of 10 minutes to 2 hours. The measurements reveal a maximum tidal range of ≈50 cm with 2-4 week oscillations in mean sea level of several cm. Sea slope, revealed by differences between adjacent gauges, varies 2-5 cm per 10 km at periods of 2-5 weeks, which imposes a disappointing limit to the utility of the gauges in estimating post seismic vertical motions. A parallel study of the form and elevation of coastal notches and mushroom rocks (rocks notched on all sides, hence forming a mushroom shape), along the coast west of Petit Goave suggests that these notches may provide an uplift history of the region over the past several hundreds of years. Notch sections in two areas were contoured, digitized, and compared to mean sea level. The notches mimic the histogram of sea level, suggesting that they are formed by dissolution by acidic surface waters. Notches formed two distinct levels, one approximately 58 cm above mean sea level, and the other approximately 157 cm above mean sea level. Several landslide blocks fell into the sea during the 2010 earthquake, and we anticipate these are destined for conversion to future mushroom rocks. Surfaces have been prepared on these blocks to study the rate of notch formation in situ, and samples are being subjected to acid corrosion in laboratory conditions, with the hope that the depth of notches may provide an estimate of the time of fall of previous rocks to help constrain the earthquake history of this area

  5. Measurement of feline serum interleukin-5 level.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Ayumi; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Kadoya, Michiyo; Iwasaki, Toshiroh

    2007-08-01

    A bioassay was developed to measure feline interleukin-5 (IL-5). Human IL-5 receptor alpha chain transfected murine Ba/F3 cells (Ba/F3-IL-5R) showed feline IL-5-dependent proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. IL-5 levels in serum samples from 54 cats with suspected allergic dermatitis and from 11 control cats could be successfully measured using Ba/F3-IL-5R cells. The number of eosinophils in peripheral blood was not correlated with serum IL-5 level.

  6. Groundwater level monitoring using hybrid gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, J.; Fujimitsu, Y.; Oka, D.; Fukuda, Y.; Taniguchi, M.

    2012-12-01

    It is important to monitor the aquifer mass balance between discharge and recharge for the sustainable groundwater usage. The discharge of groundwater causes mass redistributions, which can cause measurable gravity changes. We carried out the repeat hybrid gravity measurements at some fields in order to detect the gravity changes associated with groundwater level changes. We used the instruments for the relative gravity measurement (CG-3M and CG-5 gravimeter: Scintrex Ltd.) and the absolute gravity measurement (A-10 gravimeter: Micro-g LaCoste, Inc.). The A10 absolute gravimeter is a portable absolute gravimeter produced by Micro-g LaCoste Inc. It operates on a 12V DC power supply (i.e. vehicle battery). We can measure the absolute gravity using the vehicle battery at the field. We started repeat gravity measurement at Ito campus, Kyushu university Fukuoka city, Northern part of Kyushu, Japan, where the instrument is usually maintained, since 2008 in order to assess the A10 gravimeter's accuracy and repeatability. We measured 10 sets at each measurement, and 1 set consists of 100 drops. There are 3 groundwater level monitoring wells near the gravity station. It can be seen that there is a good correlation between gravity changes and groundwater level changes. We confirmed that the instrument is maintained good condition in general, although some bad data was included. It seems that the repeatability of A10 gravimeter is better than 10 microgals. The A10 absolute gravimeter (Micro-g LaCoste Inc.) was introduced in order to monitor the gravity changes at base observation points since 2008. We observed seasonal gravity change (Maximum change was 26 micro gal), and we compared with the groundwater level changes. There are good correlation between the gravity changes and the groundwater level changes. We calculated the effect of groundwater level changes using Gwater-1D (Kazama et al., 2010). As a result of the calculation, we can explain the gravity seasonal changes

  7. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  8. Upper level experimental physics resource materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Lee E.

    1992-04-01

    During a 1990 NSF-sponsored workshop on improving upper level experimental physics laboratories, it was agreed that a list of resources from publishers and from institutions with strong upper level labs would be useful to the physics teaching community. This compilation is by no means exhaustive, and suggestions for additions are welcome. If you have or know of materials that should be included, please contact the compiler of this list, Lee Larson, Department of Physics, Denison University, Granville, Ohio (614-587-6468; Bitnet LARSON@DENISON).

  9. A NOAA/NOS Sea Level Advisory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, W.

    2011-12-01

    In order for coastal communities to realize current impacts and become resilient to future changes, sea level advisories/bulletins are necessary that systematically monitor and document non-tidal anomalies (residuals) and flood-watch (elevation) conditions. The need became apparent after an exceptional sea level anomaly along the U.S. East Coast in June - July of 2009 when higher than normal sea levels coincided with a perigean-spring tide and flooded many coastal regions. The event spurred numerous public inquiries to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) from coastal communities concerned because of the lack of any coastal storm signatures normally associated with such an anomaly. A subsequent NOAA report provided insight into some of the mechanisms involved in the event and methods for tracking their reoccurrences. NOAA/CO-OPS is the U.S. authority responsible for defining sea level datums and tracking their relative changes in support of marine navigation and national and state land-use boundaries. These efforts are supported by the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON), whose long-term and widespread observations largely define a total water level measurement impacting a coastal community. NWLON time series provide estimates of local relative sea level trends, a product increasingly utilized by various stakeholders planning for the future. NWLON data also capture significant short-term changes and conveyance of high-water variations (from surge to seasonal scale) provides invaluable insight into inundation patterns ultimately needed for a more comprehensive planning guide. A NOAA/CO-OPS Sea Level Advisory Project will enhance high-water monitoring capabilities by: - Automatically detecting sea level anomalies and flood-watch occurrences - Seasonally calibrating the anomaly thresholds to a locality in terms of flood potential - Alerting for near

  10. Lead, cadmium and mercury levels in pregnancy: the need for international consensus on levels of concern.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C M; Golding, J; Emond, A M

    2014-02-01

    For heavy metals that have any degree of transfer though the placenta to the fetus, it is unlikely that there are safe limits for maternal blood levels. The only means of reducing fetal exposure is to minimise maternal exposure. There are few recommendations for levels of concern. With the exception of US recommendations for maternal Pb levels, but there are no international levels of concern or cut-off levels specifically for pregnancy for heavy metals, so that comparisons can generally only be made with national reference values relating to similar physiological statuses or age groups. These include recommendations for Cd levels by Germany (reference value for non-smoking adults aged 18-69 years, 1 µg/l) and for Hg by Germany (reference value for adults age 18-60 years with fish intake < or =3 times per month, 2.0 µg/l) and the USA (cut-off level for women, 5.8 µg/dl). To illustrate the lack of cohesion, we present data on blood Pb, Cd and Hg levels from pregnant women enroled in the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children study and compare the values with present levels of concern and recommended cut-off values. We also compare the levels with those found in other groups of pregnant women worldwide to strengthen the database for the development of levels of concern in pregnancy. The need for clarity of terminology in describing levels of concern is discussed. There is a pressing need for international consensus on levels of concern for all age groups and physiological statuses, particularly for pregnancy.

  11. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  12. THE STAR LEVEL-3 TRIGGER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    LANGE, J.S.; ADLER, C.; BERGER, J.; DEMELLO, M.; FLIERL, D.; ET AL

    1999-11-15

    The STAR level-3 trigger is a MYRINET interconnected ALPHA processor farm, performing online tracking of N{sub track} {ge} 8000 particles (N{sub point} {le} 45 per track) with a design input rate of R=100 Hz. A large scale prototype system was tested in 12/99 with laser and cosmic particle events.

  13. Leveled Reading and Engagement with Complex Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of engaging with age-appropriate reading materials in classroom settings are numerous. For example, students' comprehension is developed as they acquire new vocabulary and concepts. The Common Core requires all students have daily opportunities to engage with "complex text" regardless of students' decoding levels. However,…

  14. Thinking and Reading for Entry Level Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allentown Literacy Council, PA.

    A pilot project demonstrated that cooperative training programs are effective and cost efficient for small businesses. Common entry-level reading and thinking tasks were identified in a variety of occupational areas. Five growing occupational areas were identified: industrial/machine operator; health care; food preparation; hotel/hospitality; and…

  15. Graduate Development Programmes and Satisfaction Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Edel; Mangan, John; O'Connor, Marion

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the perceived progress of graduates who have been recruited by organisations and to assess their expectations and corresponding satisfaction levels. Drawing on the psychological contract and graduate development literature, the objective of the study was to compare the opinions of graduates from an…

  16. Web life: Confused at a Higher Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    This two-person blog owes its name to Enrico Fermi, who supposedly informed a visiting lecturer that although he used to be confused about the lecture topic, "having listened to your lecture, I am still confused. But on a higher level".

  17. Nuisance levels of noise effects radiologists' performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Mark F.; Coffey, Amina; Ryan, John; O'Beirne, Aaron; Toomey, Rachel; Evanoff, Micheal; Manning, David; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to measure the sound levels in Irish x-ray departments. The study then established whether these levels of noise have an impact on radiologists performance Noise levels were recorded 10 times within each of 14 environments in 4 hospitals, 11 of which were locations where radiologic images are judged. Thirty chest images were then presented to 26 senior radiologists, who were asked to detect up to three nodular lesions within 30 posteroanterior chest x-ray images in the absence and presence of noise at amplitude demonstrated in the clinical environment. The results demonstrated that noise amplitudes rarely exceeded that encountered with normal conversation with the maximum mean value for an image-viewing environment being 56.1 dB. This level of noise had no impact on the ability of radiologists to identify chest lesions with figure of merits of 0.68, 0.69, and 0.68 with noise and 0.65, 0.68, and 0.67 without noise for chest radiologists, non-chest radiologists, and all radiologists, respectively. the difference in their performance using the DBM MRMC method was significantly better with noise than in the absence of noise at the 90% confidence interval (p=0.077). Further studies are required to establish whether other aspects of diagnosis are impaired such as recall and attention and the effects of more unexpected noise on performance.

  18. Examining punishment at different explanatory levels.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Miguel; Wedekind, Claus

    2012-02-01

    Experimental studies on punishment have sometimes been over-interpreted not only for the reasons Guala lists, but also because of a frequent conflation of proximate and ultimate explanatory levels that Guala's review perpetuates. Moreover, for future analyses we may need a clearer classification of different kinds of punishment.

  19. Toward Graduate-Level Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micciche, Laura R.

    2011-01-01

    Critical writing is intertwined with performances of professional identity, voice, and persona--performances that can be studied and practiced. To that end, the author proposes that one intuitive place to locate such study and practice is in English graduate curricula. This essay calls for an explicit commitment to graduate-level writing…

  20. The Teaching of Electromagnetism at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houldin, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses different kinds of material presentation in the teaching of electromagnetism at the university level, including three "classical" approaches and the Keller personalized proctorial system. Indicates that a general introduction to generators and motors may be useful in an electromagnetism course. (CC)

  1. Communication Apprehension Levels of Student Governance Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael T.; Nadler, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    A major component of the college student experience is the engagement with out-of-class activities. This involvement has been linked to a variety of success indicators, including higher levels of academic achievement, high retention and matriculation, and overall collegiate satisfaction. One of the key areas for student engagement is college…

  2. Teaching Quantum Mechanics on an Introductory Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Rainer; Wiesner, Hartmut

    2002-01-01

    Presents a new research-based course on quantum mechanics in which the conceptual issues of quantum mechanics are taught at an introductory level. Involves students in the discovery of how quantum phenomena deviate from classical everyday experiences. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/YDS)

  3. Motor Coordination and Intelligence Level in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsec, Jurij; Pisot, Rado

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor coordination and intelligence level in adolescents. The sample was comprised of 550 adolescents from Slovenia, aged 13.1 years (SD = 0.87), who attended elementary schools. For assessment of motor coordination a battery of eight tests were used. Assessment of intelligence was carried out with…

  4. Noise Levels in the Operating Room

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    59-63. Hodge, B., & Thompson , J . F . (1990). Noise pollution in the operating theatre. The Lancet, 335, 891-894. Noise Levels 41...Kam, P. C. A., Kam A. C., & Thompson , J . F . (1994). Noise pollution in the anaesthetic and intensive care environment. Anaesthesia, 49, 982-986

  5. Unmanned seismometer levels self, corrects drift errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, G.

    1964-01-01

    Four-component, three-axis, feedback-controlled seismograph incorporates electronic circuitry for leveling and for monitoring the feedback signal required for servo-centering. Viscous damping of the earth-motion signal, compensation of the residual long-term drift, and centering of the seismometers are provided by automatic mechanisms.

  6. Teaching Structural Bioinformatics at the Undergraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeno, Nuria B.; Villa-Freixa, Jordi; Oliva, Baldomero

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the basic principles of structural biology is becoming a major subject of study in most undergraduate level programs in biology. In the genomic and proteomic age, it is becoming indispensable for biology students to master concepts related to the sequence and structure of proteins in order to develop skills that may be useful in a…

  7. Reinventing potato at the diploid level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The outcrossing polyploidy nature of cultivated potato has hindered the use of genomics resources to dissect the genetic basis of agronomically important traits. Reversion to the diploid level allows us to apply powerful tools toward this effort. Parthenogenesis generates diploid cultivated potato, ...

  8. Middle Level Leadership... and All That Jazz!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Patti; Tomlin, Dru

    2013-01-01

    Much like a Jazz group, successful middle level schools are also founded on elements of improvisation, collaboration, teamwork, and responsive communication. Just as the director of the jazz group must have a solid foundation of music theory, the skills to bring out the best in the players, and an attitude that allows others to shine, those who…

  9. Modelling Continuing Load at Disaggregated Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    The current methodology of estimating load in the following year at Flinders University has achieved reasonable accuracy in the previous capped funding environment, particularly at the university level, due largely to our university having stable intakes and student profiles. While historically within reasonable limits, variation in estimates at…

  10. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the October 1990 meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: a special session on liability and financial assurance needs; proposal to dispose of mixed waste at federal facilities; state plans for interim storage; and hazardous materials legislation.

  11. Group-Level Formative Feedback and Metadiscourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resendes, Monica; Scardamalia, Marlene; Bereiter, Carl; Chen, Bodong; Halewood, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    This research explores the ability of grade 2 students to engage in productive discussion about the state of their knowledge building using group-level feedback tools to support their metadiscourse. Two aspects of knowledge work were common to the comparison and experimental classes: "Knowledge Building talk" (KB talk) involving…

  12. Information Technology, Level 1, Level 3, and Level 4. Information Technology for End Users, Levels 1-3. National Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business and Technology Education Council, London (England).

    Britain's National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) are work qualifications that measure what an employee or potential employee can do as well as how much he or she knows and understands about a particular job. Used as written proof of usable workplace skills that can be put to profitable use by an employer, NVQs range from basic Level 1, for…

  13. Association between Criminal Thinking and Reading Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintschel, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze a relationship between adult, male inmate's criminal attitudes and reading level. Data is derived from the secondary assessments, Criminal Sentiments Scale-Modified (CSS-M) and the reading scores from the Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE). The sample size is 112 adult, males incarcerated at California…

  14. Agriculture, Levels 1-4. Agriculture & Commercial Horticulture, Levels 1-4. Commercial Horticulture, Levels 1-3. Environmental Conservation, Levels 2-4. National Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business and Technology Education Council, London (England).

    Britain's National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) are work qualifications that measure what an employee or potential employee can do as well as how much he or she knows and understands about a particular job. Used as written proof of usable workplace skills that can be put to profitable use by an employer, NVQs range from basic Level 1, for…

  15. System-Level Integration of Mass Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian; Mellstrom, Jeffrey; Wysocky, Terry

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses integrating multiple memory modules on the high-speed serial interconnect (IEEE 1393) that is used by a spacecraft?s inter-module communications in order to ease data congestion and provide for a scalable, strong, flexible system that can meet new system-level mass memory requirements.

  16. 34 CFR 361.86 - Performance levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Performance levels. 361.86 Section 361.86 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES PROGRAM...

  17. Developmental Levels of the Child's Storytelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjanovic-Umek, Ljubica; Kranjc, Simona; Fekonja, Urska

    Noting that examining the storytelling skills of children between 4 and 8 years of age can provide insights into the child's overall language development, this study explored the development of children's storytelling, using story coherence and story cohesion to evaluate the developmental level of the child's storytelling. Participating in the…

  18. Salary Levels for Chief Financial Aid Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    The Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures gathered information on median annual salary levels for chief financial aid administrators in 1999-2000. Among detailed findings, the survey concluded that men still have higher salaries than women. (EV)

  19. Salary Levels for Chief Financial Aid Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the median annual salary levels for chief financial aid administrators in 1999-2000 based on results from the Survey of Undergraduate Financial Aid Policies, Practices, and Procedures. Findings indicate that men still have higher salaries than women. (EV)

  20. Pressure studies of deep levels in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Samara, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of pressure on the energetics and kinetics of electron emission and capture processes by several important deep levels in Si are discussed. The results yield the first quantitative measures of the breathing mode lattice relaxations accompanying these processes. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  1. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY...

  2. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY...

  3. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY...

  4. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  5. SNAB: A New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Of all the sciences, biology has probably made the most rapid progress in recent years and the need for this to be reflected in a new Advanced Level biology course has long been recognised in the UK. After wide-ranging consultation and successful piloting in over 50 schools and colleges in England and Wales, the new Salters-Nuffield Advanced…

  6. Vitamin levels in adults with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Landaas, Elisabeth Toverud; Aarsland, Tore Ivar Malmei; Ulvik, Arve; Halmøy, Anne; Ueland, Per Magne; Haavik, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Micronutrients containing vitamins are reported to reduce symptom levels in persons with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but data on vitamin levels in ADHD are sparse. Aims To examine the relationship between vitamin concentrations, ADHD diagnosis and psychiatric symptoms in young adult ADHD patients and controls. Method Eight vitamins and the nicotine metabolite cotinine were analysed in serum samples from 133 ADHD patients and 131 controls aged between 18 and 40, who also reported ADHD symptoms and comorbid conditions. Results Lower concentrations of vitamins B2, B6 and B9 were associated with the ADHD diagnosis, and B2 and B6 also with symptom severity. Smokers had lower levels of vitamins B2 and B9. Conclusions ADHD patients were overrepresented in the group with low levels of some vitamins, possibly indicative of inadequate dietary intake of these micronutrients in a subgroup of patients. It is important to identify these patients in dietary intervention trials of ADHD. Declaration of interest J.H. has received lecture honoraria as part of continuing medical education programmes sponsored by Novartis, Eli Lilly and Company, and Janssen-Cilag. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:27990293

  7. Middle Level Learning, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Intended for middle school social studies classrooms, this publication features articles that spotlight diverse and innovative learning activities. This document includes the three issues of the "Middle Level Learning" supplement published in 1999 and the three that were published in 2000. Articles and classroom activities highlighted in this…

  8. Chinese Parental Involvement: Reaching New Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, Rebecca; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies the involvement of 15 Chinese immigrant parents or guardians at 1 school in southern California, and provides information on home/school communication. The study determined, through additional interviews with 10 elementary teachers, at which levels of participation did parents and teachers see themselves working and the kinds of…

  9. Colleges Overproducing Elementary-Level Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Data, while imprecise, suggest that some states are producing far more new teachers at the elementary level than will be able to find jobs in their respective states--even as districts struggle to find enough recruits in other certification fields. For some observers, the imbalances reflect a failure of teacher colleges--by far, the largest source…

  10. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  11. Media Literacy Education at the University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the media literacy education movement has developed to help individuals of all ages acquire the competencies necessary to fully participate in the modern world of media convergence. Yet media literacy education is not practiced uniformly at all educational levels. This study used a survey to compare the extent to which students…

  12. Mainstreaming ELLs into Grade-Level Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) placed a new focus and accountability on the achievement levels of English learners by requiring that they develop English proficiency and meet the same academic standards that all children are expected to meet by year 2014. Administrators and teachers are looking at ways English learners might progress more…

  13. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  14. Concordances for Lower-Level Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Gordon

    2002-01-01

    Relates how one teacher used a C-ROM encyclopedia, a concordancer, and a word processor to make concordances suitable for lower-level language learners. These concordances helped overcome the unfamiliarity of 80-character KWIC lines and the difficulties of obscure vocabulary, and were useful in the teaching of grammar and lexis. (Author/VWL)

  15. Administrative Job Level Study and Factoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Community Coll., OR.

    The administrative job classification system and generic job descriptions presented in this report were developed at Portland Community College (PCC) as management tools. After introductory material outlining the objectives of and criteria used in the administrative job-level study, and offering information on the administrative job factoring…

  16. Sound pressure level in a municipal preschool

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Adriana Aparecida Tahara; Delecrode, Camila Ribas; Guida, Heraldo Lorena; Ribeiro, André Knap; Cardoso, Ana Claúdia Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim: To evaluate the sound pressure level to which preschool students are exposed. Method: This was a prospective, quantitative, nonexperimental, and descriptive study. To achieve the aim of the study we used an audio dosimeter. The sound pressure level (SPL) measurements were obtained for 2 age based classrooms. Preschool I and II. The measurements were obtained over 4 days in 8-hour sessions, totaling 1920 minutes. Results: Compared with established standards, the SPL measured ranged from 40.6 dB (A) to 105.8 dB (A). The frequency spectrum of the SPL was concentrated in the frequency range between 500 Hz and 4000 Hz. The older children produced higher SPLs than the younger ones, and the levels varied according to the activity performed. Painting and writing were the quietest activities, while free activities period and games were the noisiest. Conclusion: The SPLs measured at the preschool were higher and exceeded the maximum permitted level according to the reference standards. Therefore, the implementation of actions that aim to minimize the negative impact of noise in this environment is essential. PMID:25992013

  17. The Validity of the Instructional Reading Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, William R.

    Presented is a critical inquiry about the product of the informal reading inventory (IRI) and about some of the elements used in the process of determining that product. Recent developments on this topic are briefly reviewed. Questions are raised concerning what is a suitable criterion level for word recognition. The original criterion of 95…

  18. Application of TDR to water level measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, A.; Hansen, B.; Schelde, K.

    2000-09-01

    A specialised time domain reflectometry (TDR) probe for measuring water level in tanks collecting surface runoff was developed, calibrated and field-tested. The water level probe — in the form of a slightly modified soil moisture probe — was developed as part of a TDR measuring system designed for continuous monitoring of soil water content and surface runoff in plot studies of water erosion and sediment transport. A computer algorithm for the analysis of TDR traces from the new probe was developed and incorporated into existing software for automated acquisition and analysis of TDR data. Laboratory calibration showed that water level could be measured with sufficient accuracy (standard deviation <2 mm) for a range of applications in hydrology. Soil erosion is typically a short duration process closely linked to soil moisture content and rainfall intensity. A major benefit of integrating time critical measurements of surface runoff and soil moisture into a single system is the synchronisation of measurements. Measurements were made on a regular schedule except during rainfall events when the measuring rate depended on rainfall intensity. In a parallel calibration study it was shown that the performance of the TDR probe was comparable to a commercial ultrasonic liquid level sensor used for measuring runoff at an erosion site not instrumented for automated TDR measurements.

  19. Spectrum and energy levels of Mo VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, Joseph

    1998-05-01

    We have photographed the spectrum of the Rb-like ion Mo VI from 200 to 5300 Å with a sliding-spark discharge on our 10.7-m normal- and grazing-incidence spectrographs and have observed most of the yrast transitions given by Romanov et al.(N. P. Romanov and A. R. Striganov, Opt. Spectrosc. 27), 8 (1969). from a Penning discharge. We have obtained improved values for all of the energy levels. We confirm the odd levels of Kancerevicius et al.,(A. Kancerevicius et al.), Lithuanian Phys. J. 31, 143 (1991). but have revised a number of the even levels of Edlén et al.(B. Edlén et al.), Phys. Scr. 32, 215 (1985). The ionization energy of Edlén et al.,footnotemark[4] which had been called into question by Kancerevicius et al.footnotemark[3] as a result of their revision of the odd levels,footnotemark[4] is confirmed.

  20. Interactive Reading on the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Patricia A.

    A study of two teachers and four secondary level English classes examined how traditional methods of teaching literature were replaced by more interactive and integrated approaches to text, based primarily upon a whole language philosophy. Intervention aspects purposely remained open-ended to accommodate each teacher's understandings and…

  1. Unity of forces at the preon level

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, K.S. ); Pati, J.C. )

    1993-09-01

    In the context of a viable preon model which serves to provide a unified origin of the diverse scales and an explanation for family replication, it is shown that the unity of forces may well occur at the level of preons near the Planck scale in a manner that is novel compared to the conventional approach of elementary quarks and leptons.

  2. The Decline in American Children's Fitness Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntzleman, Charles T.; Reiff, Guy G.

    1992-01-01

    Examines whether physical fitness levels in U.S. children and youth have changed over time. Research indicates that weight and skinfolds have increased over 50 years and distance run times have worsened over 10 years. The article includes information on relationships between cardiovascular fitness and coronary heart disease risks in children. (SM)

  3. Photoelectric system continuously monitors liquid level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Immersion probe presents a depth-sensitive optical transmission path between a light source and a photoelectric cell to continuously monitor the level of a transparent liquid in a tank. This system operates automatically, without moving parts, and provides output signals to a remote recorder.

  4. ESTIMATION OF BACKGROUND LEVELS OF CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from hazardous waste site investigations frequently come from two or more statistical populations. Assessment of "background" levels of contaminants can be a significant problem. This problem is being investigated at the US EPA's EMSL in Las Vegas. This paper describes a ...

  5. PLANCK LFI Level 1 Processing During Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisset, N.; Rohlfs, R.; Türler, M.; Meharga, M.; Binko, P.; Beck, M.; Frailis, M.; Zacchei, A.; Galeotta, S.

    2008-08-01

    The PLANCK satellite with two on-board instruments, a Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and a High Frequency Instrument (HFI) is foreseen to be launched in August 2008 with Ariane 5. The Data Processing Centre (DPC) in Trieste, Italy for LFI is responsible for processing the PLANCK LFI data. The ISDC data centre in Switzerland is responsible for developing/installing and maintaining the software for the LFI Level 1 data processing presented here. The main tasks of the Level 1 processing are to retrieve the daily available consolidated scientific and housekeeping (HK) data of the LFI instrument from the Mission Operation Centre in Darmstadt (MOC); to sort them by time and by type (detector, observing mode, etc...); to extract the spacecraft attitude information from auxiliary files; to flag the data according to several criteria; and to archive the resulting Time Ordered Information (TOI). The TOI data generated by the level 1 pipeline are the input for the more scientific LFI level 2 processing. The TOI are first stored in FITS format and then ingested into the Data Management Component (DMC) system, which is the interface to the LFI DPC database. In addition, the ISDC also developed software tools to display and perform a quick look analysis of the data.

  6. Sea Grant Education at the University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, Shirley J.

    1998-01-01

    Sea Grant's investment in university-level education shows a diversity of avenues for supporting students from experience-based internships, merit scholarships, and fellowships to team-based multidisciplinary undergraduate education. Describes such programs as Undergraduate Research Opportunities in ocean engineering, graduate research…

  7. 14 CFR 91.861 - Base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base level. 91.861 Section 91.861... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.861 Base... specifications for operations to or from airports in the contiguous United States on any one day selected by...

  8. Many Variables Determine Campus Safety Staffing Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    College and university administrators must take into account a number of variables in determining the appropriate staffing levels for their campus public safety function, according to a white paper released by International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators (IACLEA). The report is entitled, "Establishing Appropriate Staffing…

  9. Sound Levels in East Texas Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Aaron Lynn

    A survey of sound levels was taken in several Texas schools to determine the amount of noise and sound present by size of class, type of activity, location of building, and the presence of air conditioning and large amounts of glass. The data indicate that class size and relative amounts of glass have no significant bearing on the production of…

  10. Towards artificial muscles at the nanometric level.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Molero, Maria Consuelo; Dietrich-Buchecker, Christiane; Sauvage, Jean-Pierre

    2003-07-21

    The authors describe their study of molecular systems suited to the fabrication of machines and (rotory or linear) motors at the molecular level. They indicate that a future application of these molecular'muscles'could be in the area of information storage and processing.

  11. Economic and Career Awareness: Level A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The teacher's guide is the first in a series of three developed for primary and early intermediate levels. The learning experiences focus on helping students to develop an understanding of the family as an economic unit, to acquire elementary classification skills, to appreciate the priority families must place on satisfying basic economic needs,…

  12. Sea Level Rise National Coastal Property Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of sea level rise on coastal properties depends critically on the human response to the threat, which in turn depends on several factors, including the immediacy of the risk, the magnitude of property value at risk, options for adapting to the threat and the cost of th...

  13. Higher Level Thinking Skills through Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Jane M.

    1990-01-01

    The use of drama in the classroom provides concrete opportunities to explore such higher-level thinking abilities as synthesis, evaluation, and divergent thinking. Suggested activities for use with upper elementary and secondary students involve pantomime, verbal improvisation, expressing emotions, and developing characters. (JDD)

  14. ARH missense polymorphisms and plasma cholesterol levels.

    PubMed

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Hyatt, Tommy

    2004-01-01

    Mutations in a putative low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor adaptor protein called ARH have been recently described in patients with autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH). ARH plays a tissue-specific role in determination of LDL receptor function. In the ARH gene three mismatched polymorphisms have been detected: Pro202Ser, Pro202His and Arg238Trp. These are of putative interest in plasma cholesterol level determination. To evaluate the effect of polymorphisms on plasma cholesterol levels, all polymorphisms were analyzed by PCR and restriction enzyme analysis by MnII, HpyCH4IV and SacII in 100 Caucasian males with high (>90%, 6.29 +/- 0.89 mmol/l), and 100 males with low (<10%, 3.60 +/- 0.57 mmol/l), total plasma cholesterol levels. No significant differences were observed in frequencies of ARH genotypes or alleles between these two extreme groups. These results suggest that ARH polymorphisms are unlikely to be important genetic determinants of plasma cholesterol levels.

  15. Transforming Middle Level Education: Perspectives and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Judith L., Ed.

    This book addresses the critical issues of curriculum and instruction as they pertain to the restructuring of middle-level education. The first part deals with developing a sense of identity both with the middle-school movement and with young adolescents. Chapters include the following: "Perspectives on the Middle School Movement" (John H.…

  16. Develop Education Systems that Integrate All Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiker, Jason

    2007-01-01

    During the last few years, the development of seamless education systems to promote students' postsecondary success has been discussed by policymakers at the local, state and federal levels as well as reform-minded individuals. Florida, Washington, Iowa, Georgia and California either have statewide integrated systems or are moving quickly toward…

  17. Sea-Level Changes during the Tertiary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Peter R.; Hardenbol, Jan

    1979-01-01

    Discussed are research procedures undertaken to determine the magnitude and timing of eustatic sea-level changes during the Tertiary Period. Data now becoming available give scientists a knowledge of conditions that may have been conducive to the formation of petroleum. (BT)

  18. The Significance of Rising Sea Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Gregory J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students graph changes in tides and ocean levels over a period in order to obtain a visual representation of the changes taking place and their effects upon the Earth. Provides questions for students to answer after construction of the graphs. (RT)

  19. Vocabulary Levels and Size of Malaysian Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harji, Madhubala Bava; Balakrishnan, Kavitha; Bhar, Sareen Kaur; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary is a fundamental requirement of language acquisition, and its competence enables independent reading and effective language acquisition. Effective language use requires adequate level of vocabulary knowledge; therefore, efforts must be made to identify students' vocabulary base for greater efficiency and competency in the language.…

  20. Reading Levels of Spanish Deaf Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monreal, S. T.; Hernandez, R. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Reading Levels of a population of 93 Spanish deaf students were examined. All study participants had prelingual profound hearing loss; their ages ranged from 9 to 20 years. All were enrolled in compulsory education during 2002-2003 in the Canary Islands (Spain). They were evaluated with sentence and text comprehension subtests from the…

  1. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides the results of the winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Discussions were held on the following topics: new developments in states and compacts; adjudicatory hearings; information exchange on siting processes, storage surcharge rebates; disposal after 1992; interregional access agreements; and future tracking and management issues.

  2. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards.

  3. Low-level radioactive waste regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Autry, V.

    1994-12-31

    This speaker presents definitions of low-level radioactive waste according to the Federal Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the South Carolina governing body. The classification of waste for near surface disposal and the various, NRC classes of waste are described.

  4. Language Arts Teaching Guide, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    Designed to provide teachers with a listing of sequentially ordered objectives in specific language arts areas, this level two teaching guide was developed in Plano, Texas, as part of an elementary series keyed to the reading, language, spelling, and handwriting books used in that district. The guide is organized according to vocabulary, word…

  5. Language Arts Teaching Guide, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Independent School District, TX.

    Designed to provide teachers with a listing of sequentially ordered objectives in specific language arts areas, this level one teaching guide was developed in Plano, Texas, as part of an elementary series keyed to the reading, language, spelling, and handwriting books used in that district. The guide is organized according to vocabulary, word…

  6. Parallel Processing at the High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheary, Kathryn Anne

    This study investigated the ability of high school students to cognitively understand and implement parallel processing. Data indicates that most parallel processing is being taught at the university level. Instructional modules on C, Linux, and the parallel processing language, P4, were designed to show that high school students are highly…

  7. Benefits of Spacecraft Level Vibration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Scott; Kern, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA-HDBK-7008 Spacecraft Level Dynamic Environments Testing discusses the approaches, benefits, dangers, and recommended practices for spacecraft level dynamic environments testing, including vibration testing. This paper discusses in additional detail the benefits and actual experiences of vibration testing spacecraft for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight projects. JPL and GSFC have both similarities and differences in their spacecraft level vibration test approach: JPL uses a random vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending to as high as 250 Hz. GSFC uses a sine sweep vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending only to the limits of the coupled loads analysis (typically 50 to 60 Hz). However, both JPL and GSFC use force limiting to realistically notch spacecraft resonances and response (acceleration) limiting as necessary to protect spacecraft structure and hardware from exceeding design strength capabilities. Despite GSFC and JPL differences in spacecraft level vibration test approaches, both have uncovered a significant number of spacecraft design and workmanship anomalies in vibration tests. This paper will give an overview of JPL and GSFC spacecraft vibration testing approaches and provide a detailed description of spacecraft anomalies revealed.

  8. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    This report contains highlights from the 1991 fall meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included legal updates; US NRC updates; US EPA updates; mixed waste issues; financial assistance for waste disposal facilities; and a legislative and policy report.

  9. Neck Muscle Activation Levels During Frontal Impacts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    right and left upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid . Amplitude and frequency components of the signals were evaluated to determine the amount of...Gx acceleration levels. The trapezius produced more force than the sternocleidomastoid . Activity of both muscle groups was synchronized, by their...dynamic environment. The role of upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid (SCM) during long-duration head and neck loading situations has been

  10. Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Agte, Jeremy S.; Sandusky, Robert R., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    BLISS is a method for optimization of engineering systems by decomposition. It separates the system level optimization, having a relatively small number of design variables, from the potentially numerous sub-system optimizations that may each have a large number of local design variables. The subsystem optimizations are autonomous and may be conducted concurrently. Subsystem and system optimizations alternate, linked by sensitivity data, producing a design improvement in each iteration. Starting from a best guess initial design, the method improves that design in iterative cycles, each cycle comprised of two steps. In step one, the system level variables are frozen and the improvement is achieved by separate, concurrent, and autonomous optimizations in the local variable subdomains. In step two, further improvement is sought in the space of the system level variables. Optimum sensitivity data link the second step to the first. The method prototype was implemented using MATLAB and iSIGHT programming software and tested on a simplified, conceptual level supersonic business jet design, and a detailed design of an electronic device.

  11. MISR Level 3 Albedo and Cloud Versioning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-11-04

      MISR Level 3 Albedo and Cloud Versioning Component Global Albedo Product (CGAL) and Component Global Cloud Product (CGCL) - Daily, ...  CLOUD - Wind Vectors, Height Histogram Stage 1:  ALBEDO - Expansive, Restrictive and Local Albedo (except over snow and ice) ...

  12. Padilla Bay: The Estuary Guide. Level 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesem, Judy; Lynn, Valerie, Ed.

    Estuaries are marine systems that serve as nurseries for animals, links in the migratory pathways, and habitat for a complex community of organisms. This curriculum guide intended for use at the middle school level is designed for use with the on-site program developed by the Padilla Bay National Esturine Research Reserve (Washington). The guide…

  13. Measuring Children's Reading Development Using Leveled Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Scott G.

    2002-01-01

    Notes that the main problem with using Informal Reading Inventories (IRIs) for measuring reading growth is that running records and miscue analyses are gathered on variable levels of text that are appropriate for each child. Presents several possible solutions to the measurement problem beyond the simple profile descriptions usually reported from…

  14. Teaching/Learning Guide: Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbon - Lehigh Intermediate Unit, Schnecksville, PA.

    The manual presents sequences of skills designed for use as guides to teaching/learning objectives and as a basis for evaluating and recording special education students' progress. It is explained that the goal of the first level of objectives (sequenced in this document) is to enable the student to function at a motor/psychomotor state of…

  15. Quantum mechanical wavefunction: visualization at undergraduate level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabra, Mahima; Das, Ritwick

    2017-01-01

    Quantum mechanics (QM) forms the most crucial ingredient of modern-era physical science curricula at undergraduate level. The abstract ideas involved in QM related concepts pose a challenge towards appropriate visualization as a consequence of their counter-intuitive nature and lack of experiment-assisted visualization tools. At the heart of the quantum mechanical formulation lies the concept of ‘wavefunction’, which forms the basis for understanding the behavior of physical systems. At undergraduate level, the concept of ‘wavefunction’ is introduced in an abstract framework using mathematical tools and therefore opens up an enormous scope for alternative conceptions and erroneous visualization. The present work is an attempt towards exploring the visualization models constructed by undergraduate students for appreciating the concept of ‘wavefunction’. We present a qualitative analysis of the data obtained from administering a questionnaire containing four visualization based questions on the topic of ‘wavefunction’ to a group of ten undergraduate-level students at an institute in India which excels in teaching and research of basic sciences. Based on the written responses, all ten students were interviewed in detail to unravel the exact areas of difficulty in visualization of ‘wavefunction’. The outcome of present study not only reveals the gray areas in students’ conceptualization, but also provides a plausible route to address the issues at the pedagogical level within the classroom.

  16. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY...

  17. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  18. 34 CFR 361.86 - Performance levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Performance levels. 361.86 Section 361.86 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION SERVICES PROGRAM...

  19. Fiber-optic liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber-optic liquid level sensor measures the height of a column of liquid through the hydrostatic pressure it produces. The sensor employs a fiber-optic displacement sensor to detect the pressure-induced displacement of the center of a corrugated diaphragm.

  20. Level crossings in a cavity QED model

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J.

    2006-01-15

    In this paper I study the dynamics of a two-level atom interacting with a standing-wave field. When the atom is subjected to a weak linear force, the problem can be turned into a time-dependent one, and the evolution is understood from the band structure of the spectrum. The presence of level crossings in the spectrum gives rise to Bloch oscillations of the atomic motion. Here I investigate the effects of the atom-field detuning parameter. A variety of different level crossings are obtained by changing the magnitude of the detuning, and the behavior of the atomic motion is strongly affected due to this. I also consider the situation in which the detuning is oscillating in time, and its impact on the atomic motion. Wave-packet simulations of the full problem are treated numerically and the results are compared with analytical solutions given by the standard Landau-Zener and the three-level Landau-Zener models.