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Sample records for radiography facilities otimizacao

  1. PROTON RADIOGRAPHY FOR AN ADVANCED HYDROTEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    C. MORRIS

    2000-11-01

    Analysis of data from BNL experiment 933 is presented. Results demonstrate that proton radiography can meet many of the requirements for an Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF). Results for background, position resolution, metrology, quantitative radiography, material identification, and edge resolution are presented.

  2. Beam Physics in X-Ray Radiography Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y J; Caporaso, G J; Chambers, F W; Falabella, S; Goldin, F J; Guethlein, G; Lauer, E L; McCarrick, J F; Neurath, R; Richardson, R A; Sampayan, S; Weir, J T

    2002-12-02

    Performance of x-ray radiography facilities requires focusing the electron beams to sub-millimeter spots on the x-ray converters. Ions extracted from a converter by impact of a high intensity beam can partially neutralize the beam space charge and change the final focusing system. We will discuss these ion effects and mitigation.

  3. Beam Characterization at the Neutron Radiography Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah Morgan; Jeffrey King

    2013-01-01

    The quality of a neutron imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam’s effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This project characterized the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam’s effective length-to-diameter ratio and image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. Improvement of the existing NRAD MCNP beamline model includes validation of the model’s energy spectrum and the development of enhanced image simulation methods. The image simulation methods predict the radiographic image of an object based on the foil reaction rate data obtained by placing a model of the object in front of the image plane in an MCNP beamline model.

  4. Radiography Facility - Building 239 Independent Validation Review

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T J; Beaulieu, R A; Watson, J F; Wong, H J

    2010-02-02

    The purpose of this task was to perform an Independent Validation Review to evaluate the successful implementation and effectiveness of Safety Basis controls, including new and revised controls, to support the implementation of a new DSA/TSR for B239. This task addresses Milestone 2 of FY10 PEP 7.6.6. As the first IVR ever conducted on a LLNL nuclear facility, it was designated a pilot project. The review follows the outline developed for Milestone 1 of the PEP, which is based on the DOE Draft Guide for Performance of Independent Verification Review of Safety Basis Controls. A formal Safety Basis procedure will be developed later, based on the lessons learned with this pilot project. Note, this review is termed a ''Validation'' in order to be consistent with the PEP definition and address issues historically raised about verification mechanisms at LLNL. Validation is intended to confirm that implementing mechanisms realistically establish the ability of TSR LCO, administrative control or safety management program to accomplish its intended safety function and that the controls are being implemented. This effort should not, however, be confused with a compliance assessment against all relevant DOE requirements and national standards. Nor is it used as a vehicle to question the derivation of controls already approved by LSO unless a given TSR statement simply cannot be implemented as stated.

  5. Design of the fuels and materials examination facility (FMEF) neutron radiography facility for irradiated fuel. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, R.L.; Henshall, J.B.

    1981-11-01

    The Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) is a breeder reactor program facility currently under construction at the Hanford Reservation. Major activities carried out in the FMEF are post-irradiation examination of breeder reactor subassemblies, fuel and control pins, and materials; test pin fabrication for use in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF); and Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) of FFTF and Clinch River Breeder Reactor fuel. An important feature of the FMEF is the neutron radiography examination facility which will examine full or partial fuel assemblies at short decay times following long-term reactor irradiation. The neutron source is a one-megawatt TRIGA reactor which supplies intense neutron beams to the two neutron radiography exposure facilities. These two exposure facilities operate simultaneously and independently so that both full fuel assemblies and individual fuel pins can be neutron radiographed in the separate exposure facilities at the same time using collimation systems that are continuously and remotely variable over a wide range of resolutions.

  6. Proposed power upgrade of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility's neutron radiography reactor. [NRAD reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pruett, D.P.; Richards, W.J.; Heidel, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Hot Fuel Examination Facility, HFEF, is one of several facilities located at the Argonne Site. HFEF comprises a large hot cell where both non-destructive and destructive examination of highly-irradiated reactor fuels are conducted in support of the LMFBR program. One of the non-destructive examination techniques utilized at HFEF is neutron radiography. Neutron radiography is provided by the NRAD reactor facility, which is located beneath the HFEF hot cell. The NRAD reactor is a TRIGA reactor and is operated at a steady state power level of 250 kW solely for neutron radiography and the development of radiography techniques. When the NRAD facility was designed and constructed, an operating power level of 250 kW was considered to be adequate for obtaining radiographs of the type of specimens envisaged at that time. A typical radiograph required approximately a twenty-minute exposure time. Specimens were typically single fuel rods placed in an aluminum tray. Since that time, however, several things have occurred that have tended to increase radiography exposure times to as much as 90 minutes each. In order to decrease exposure times, the reactor power level is to be increased from 250 kw to 1 MW. This increase in power will necessitate several engineering and design changes. These changes are described.

  7. Scattering correction algorithm for neutron radiography and tomography tested at facilities with different beam characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanein, René; de Beer, Frikkie; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Lehmann, Eberhard

    2006-11-01

    A precise quantitative analysis with the neutron radiography technique of materials with a high-neutron scattering cross section, imaged at small distances from the detector, is impossible if the scattering contribution from the investigated material onto the detector is not eliminated in the right way. Samples with a high-neutron scattering cross section, e.g. hydrogenous materials such as water, cause a significant scattering component in their radiographs. Background scattering, spectral effects and detector characteristics are identified as additional causes for disturbances. A scattering correction algorithm based on Monte Carlo simulations has been developed and implemented to take these effects into account. The corrected radiographs can be used for a subsequent tomographic reconstruction. From the results one can obtain quantitative information, in order to detect e.g. inhomogeneity patterns within materials, or to measure differences of the mass thickness in these materials. Within an IAEA-CRP collaboration the algorithms have been tested for applicability on results obtained at the South African SANRAD facility at Necsa, the Swiss NEUTRA facilities at PSI as well as the German CONRAD facility at HMI, all with different initial neutron spectra. Results of a set of dedicated neutron radiography experiments are being reported.

  8. Documented Safety Analysis Addendum for the Neutron Radiography Reactor Facility Core Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2009-05-01

    The Neutron Radiography Reactor Facility (NRAD) is a Training, Research, Isotope Production, General Atomics (TRIGA) reactor which was installed in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) in the mid 1970s. The facility provides researchers the capability to examine both irradiated and non-irradiated materials in support of reactor fuel and components programs through non-destructive neutron radiography examination. The facility has been used in the past as one facet of a suite of reactor fuels and component examination facilities available to researchers at the INL and throughout the DOE complex. The facility has also served various commercial research activities in addition to the DOE research and development support. The reactor was initially constructed using Fuel Lifetime Improvement Program (FLIP)- type highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel obtained from the dismantled Puerto Rico Nuclear Center (PRNC) reactor. In accordance with international non-proliferation agreements, the NRAD core will be converted to a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel and will continue to utilize the PRNC control rods, control rod drives, startup source, and instrument console as was previously used with the HEU core. The existing NRAD Safety Analysis Report (SAR) was created and maintained in the preferred format of the day, combining sections of both DOE-STD-3009 and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.70. An addendum was developed to cover the refueling and reactor operation with the LEU core. This addendum follows the existing SAR format combining required formats from both the DOE and NRC. This paper discusses the project to successfully write a compliant and approved addendum to the existing safety basis documents.

  9. Upgrading the Neutron Radiography Facility in South Africa (SANRAD): Concrete Shielding Design Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beer, F. C.; Radebe, M. J.; Schillinger, B.; Nshimirimana, R.; Ramushu, M. A.; Modise, T.

    A common denominator of all neutron radiography (NRAD) facilities worldwide is that the perimeter of the experimental chamber of the facility is a radiation shielding structure which,in some cases, also includes flight tube and filter chamber structures. These chambers are normally both located on the beam port floor outside the biological shielding of the neutron source. The main function of the NRAD-shielding structure isto maintain a radiological safe working environment in the entire beam hall according to standards set by individual national radiological safety regulations. In addition, the shielding's integrity and capability should not allow, during NRAD operations, an increase in radiation levels in the beam port hall and thus negatively affectadjacent scientific facilities (e.g. neutron diffraction facilities).As a bonus, the shielding for the NRAD facility should also prevent radiation scattering towards the detector plane and doing so, thus increase thecapability of obtaining better quantitative results. This paper addresses Monte Carlo neutron-particletransport simulations to theoretically optimize the shielding capabilities of the biological barrierfor the SANRAD facility at the SAFARI-1 nuclear research reactor in South Africa. The experimental process to develop the shielding, based on the principles of the ANTARES facility, is described. After casting, the homogeneity distribution of these concrete mix materials is found to be near perfect and first order experimental radiation shielding characteristicsthrough film badge (TLD) exposure show acceptable values and trends in neutron- and gamma-ray attenuation.

  10. 2D X-ray radiography of imploding capsules at the national ignition facility.

    PubMed

    Rygg, J R; Jones, O S; Field, J E; Barrios, M A; Benedetti, L R; Collins, G W; Eder, D C; Edwards, M J; Kline, J L; Kroll, J J; Landen, O L; Ma, T; Pak, A; Peterson, J L; Raman, K; Town, R P J; Bradley, D K

    2014-05-16

    First measurements of the in-flight shape of imploding inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) were obtained by using two-dimensional x-ray radiography. The sequence of area-backlit, time-gated pinhole images is analyzed for implosion velocity, low-mode shape and density asymmetries, and the absolute offset and center-of-mass velocity of the capsule shell. The in-flight shell is often observed to be asymmetric even when the concomitant core self-emission is round. A ∼ 15 μm shell asymmetry amplitude of the Y(40) spherical harmonic mode was observed for standard NIF ICF hohlraums at a shell radius of ∼ 200 μm (capsule at ∼ 5× radial compression). This asymmetry is mitigated by a ∼ 10% increase in the hohlraum length.

  11. Thermal neutron filter design for the neutron radiography facility at the LVR-15 reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Soltes, Jaroslav; Viererbl, Ladislav; Lahodova, Zdena; Koleska, Michal; Vins, Miroslav

    2015-07-01

    In 2011 a decision was made to build a neutron radiography facility at one of the unused horizontal channels of the LVR-15 research reactor in Rez, Czech Republic. One of the key conditions for operating an effective radiography facility is the delivery of a high intensity, homogeneous and collimated thermal neutron beam at the sample location. Additionally the intensity of fast neutrons has to be kept as low as possible as the fast neutrons may damage the detectors used for neutron imaging. As the spectrum in the empty horizontal channel roughly copies the spectrum in the reactor core, which has a high ratio of fast neutrons, neutron filter components have to be installed inside the channel in order to achieve desired beam parameters. As the channel design does not allow the instalment of complex filters and collimators, an optimal solution represent neutron filters made of large single-crystal ingots of proper material composition. Single-crystal silicon was chosen as a favorable filter material for its wide availability in sufficient dimensions. Besides its ability to reasonably lower the ratio of fast neutrons while still keeping high intensities of thermal neutrons, due to its large dimensions, it suits as a shielding against gamma radiation from the reactor core. For designing the necessary filter dimensions the Monte-Carlo MCNP transport code was used. As the code does not provide neutron cross-section libraries for thermal neutron transport through single-crystalline silicon, these had to be created by approximating the theory of thermal neutron scattering and modifying the original cross-section data which are provided with the code. Carrying out a series of calculations the filter thickness of 1 m proved good for gaining a beam with desired parameters and a low gamma background. After mounting the filter inside the channel several measurements of the neutron field were realized at the beam exit. The results have justified the expected calculated values

  12. Construction and assembly of the neutron radiography and tomography facility ANTARES at FRM II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzada, Elbio; Schillinger, Burkhard; Grünauer, Florian

    2005-04-01

    In 2003, the components for the neutron radiography and tomography facility ANTARES were constructed and assembled at the beam line SR4B in the northeast corner of the experimental hall at FRM II (J. Radiat. Isotopes (2002), accepted for publication). ANTARES consists of an external beam shutter, flight tube, radiation shielding and measurement blockhouse. The shielding elements are constructed as steel casings filled with heavy concrete. Many harsh constrains in space, accessibility and other conditions (such as a very limited area accessible by the hall crane and restricted space due to surrounding instruments) made it necessary to develop special technical solutions for every step of the construction of the facility. From filling up shielding elements with heavy concrete in winter conditions (temperature below 0 °C) to the development of an hydraulics driven external shutter and collimator positioning system, new convex-shaped nearly one meter diameter vacuum flanges and windows, the development of a movable 30-ton wall on rails as blockhouse door, upto the assembly and exact positioning of heavy components (upto 50 tons) using air cushions, ball casters and a special small truck-mounted telescopic crane.

  13. 8. VIEW OF RADIOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS INCLUDED RADIOGRAPHY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF RADIOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS INCLUDED RADIOGRAPHY AND BETA BACKSCATTERING. (7/13/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. An 800-MeV proton radiography facility for dynamic experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, N. S. P.; Ables, E.; Adams, Ken; Alrick, K. R.; Amann, J. F.; Balzar, Stephen; Barnes, P. D., Jr.; Crow, M. L.; Cushing, S. B.; Eddleman, J. C.; Fife, T. T.; Flores, Paul; Fujino, D.; Gallegos, R. A.; Gray, N. T.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hogan, G. E.; Holmes, V. H.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Knudsson, J. N.; London, R. K.; Lopez, R. R.; McDonald, T. E.; McClelland, J. B.; Merrill, F. E.; Morley, K. B.; Morris, C. L.; Naivar, F. J.; Parker, E. L.; Park, H. S.; Pazuchanics, P. D.; Pillai, C.; Riedel, C. M.; Sarracino, J. S.; Shelley, F. E., Jr.; Stacy, H. L.; Takala, B. E.; Thompson, Richard; Tucker, H. E.; Yates, G. J.; Ziock, H.-J.; Zumbro, J. D.

    1999-11-01

    The capability has successfully been developed at the Los Alamos Nuclear Science Center (LANSCE) to utilize a spatially and temporally prepared 800 MeV proton beam to produce proton radiographs. A series of proton bursts are transmitted through a dynamic object and transported, via a unique magnetic lens system, to an image plane. The magnetic lens system permits correcting for the effects of multiple coulomb scattering which would otherwise completely blur the spatially transmitted information at the image plane. The proton radiographs are recorded either on a time integrating film plate or with a recently developed multi-frame electronic imaging camera system. The latter technique permits obtaining a time dependent series of proton radiographs with time intervals (modulo 358 ns) up to many microseconds and variable time intervals between images. One electronically shuttered, intensified, CCD camera is required per image. These cameras can detect single protons interacting with a scintillating fiber optic array in the image plane but also have a dynamic range which permits recording radiographs with better than 5% statistics for observation of detailed density variations in the object. A number of tests have been carried out to characterize the quality of the proton radiography system for absolute mass determination, resolution, and dynamic range. Initial dynamic experiments characterized the temporal and spatial behavior of shock propagation in a high explosive sample with up to six images per experiment. Based on experience with the prototype system, a number of upgrades are being implemented including the anticipated capability for enhanced mass discrimination through differential multiple coulomb scattering radiographs and more images with improved imaging techniques.

  15. Explosively driven two-shockwave tools with application to ejecta formation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Proton Radiography Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttler, William

    2013-06-01

    We present the development of an explosively driven physics tool to generate two mostly uniaxial shockwaves. The tool is being used to extend single shockwave ejecta models to a subsequent shockwave event separated by a time interval on the order of a few microseconds. We explore the possibility of varying the amplitude of both the first and second shockwaves, and we apply the tool in experimental geometries on Sn with a surface roughness of Ra = 0 . 8 μ m. We then evaluate the tool further at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Proton Radiography (pRad) Facility in an application to Sn with larger scale perturbations of wavelength 550 μ m, and various amplitudes that gave wave-number amplitude products of η0 2 π / λ = { 3 / 4 , 1 / 2 , 1 / 4 , 1 / 8 } , where the perturbation amplitude is η0, and the wave-number k = 2 π / λ . The pRad data and velocimetry imply it should be possible to develop a second shock ejecta model based on unstable Richtmyer-Meshkov physics. In collaboration with David Oro, Fesseha Mariam, Alexander Saunders, Malcolm Andrews, Frank Cherne, James Hammerberg. Robert Hixson, Christopher Morris, Russell Olson, Dean Preston, Joseph Stone, Dale Tupa, and Wendy Vogan-McNeil, Los Alamos National Laboratory,

  16. High energy neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-06-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos.

  17. Development of a short duration backlit pinhole for radiography on the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Huntington, C M; Krauland, C M; Kuranz, C C; Drake, R P; Park, H-S; Kalantar, D H; Maddox, B R; Remington, B A; Kline, J

    2010-10-01

    Experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will require bright, short duration, near-monochromatic x-ray backlighters for radiographic diagnosis of many high-energy density systems. This paper details a vanadium pinhole backlighter producing (1.8±0.5)×10(15) x-ray photons into 4π sr near the vanadium He-like characteristic x-ray energy of 5.18 keV. The x-ray yield was quantified from a set of Ross filters imaged to a calibrated image plate, with the Dante diagnostic used to confirm the quasimonochromatic nature of the spectrum produced. Additionally, an x-ray film image shows a source-limited image resolution of 26 μm from a 20 μm diameter pinhole.

  18. An in-flight radiography platform to measure hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, K. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; Haan, S. W.; Hoover, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kroll, J. J.; Nikroo, A.; Peterson, J. L.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Landen, O. L.; Marinak, M. M.; Munro, D. H.; Peterson, K. J.; Salmonson, J.

    2014-07-01

    A new in-flight radiography platform has been established at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules. The platform has been tested up to a convergence ratio of 4. An experimental campaign is underway to measure the growth of pre-imposed sinusoidal modulations of the capsule surface, as a function of wavelength, for a pair of ignition-relevant laser drives: a "low-foot" drive representative of what was fielded during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] and the new high-foot [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014)] pulse shape, for which the predicted instability growth is much lower. We present measurements of Legendre modes 30, 60, and 90 for the NIC-type, low-foot, drive, and modes 60 and 90 for the high-foot drive. The measured growth is consistent with model predictions, including much less growth for the high-foot drive, demonstrating the instability mitigation aspect of this new pulse shape. We present the design of the platform in detail and discuss the implications of the data it generates for the on-going ignition effort at NIF.

  19. An in-flight radiography platform to measure hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, K. S.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Casey, D. T.; Haan, S. W.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kroll, J. J.; Peterson, J. L.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Landen, O. L.; Marinak, M. M.; Munro, D. H.; Salmonson, J.; Hoover, D. E.; Nikroo, A.; Peterson, K. J.

    2014-07-15

    A new in-flight radiography platform has been established at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure Rayleigh–Taylor and Richtmyer–Meshkov instability growth in inertial confinement fusion capsules. The platform has been tested up to a convergence ratio of 4. An experimental campaign is underway to measure the growth of pre-imposed sinusoidal modulations of the capsule surface, as a function of wavelength, for a pair of ignition-relevant laser drives: a “low-foot” drive representative of what was fielded during the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) [Edwards et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 070501 (2013)] and the new high-foot [Dittrich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055002 (2014); Park et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 055001 (2014)] pulse shape, for which the predicted instability growth is much lower. We present measurements of Legendre modes 30, 60, and 90 for the NIC-type, low-foot, drive, and modes 60 and 90 for the high-foot drive. The measured growth is consistent with model predictions, including much less growth for the high-foot drive, demonstrating the instability mitigation aspect of this new pulse shape. We present the design of the platform in detail and discuss the implications of the data it generates for the on-going ignition effort at NIF.

  20. Digital Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.

  1. [Digital radiography].

    PubMed

    Haendle, J

    1983-03-01

    Digital radiography is a generally accepted term comprising all x-ray image systems producing a projected image which resembles the conventional x-ray film image, and which are linked to any type of digital image processing. Fundamental criteria of differentiation are based on the production and detection method of the x-ray image. Various systems are employed, viz. the single-detector, line-detector or fanbeam detector and the area-beam or area-detector image converters, which differ from one another mainly in the manner of conversion of the radiation produced by the x-ray tube. The article also deals with the pros and cons of the various principles, the multitude of systems employed, and the varying frequency of their use in x-ray diagnosis work.

  2. Process waste assessment for the Radiography Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.

    1994-07-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate the Radiography Laboratory, located in Building 923. It documents the processes, identifies the hazardous chemical waste streams generated by these processes, recommends possible ways to minimize waste, and serves as a reference for future assessments of this facility. The Radiography Laboratory provides film radiography or radioscopy (electronic imaging) of weapon and nonweapon components. The Radiography Laboratory has six x-ray machines and one gamma ray source. It also has several other sealed beta- and gamma-ray isotope sources of low microcurie ({mu}Ci) activity. The photochemical processes generate most of the Radiography Laboratory`s routinely generated hazardous waste, and most of that is generated by the DuPont film processor. Because the DuPont film processor generates the most photochemical waste, it was selected for an estimated material balance.

  3. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS LABORATORY GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR AN 80-HOUR COURSE IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY FOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES TRAINING TO BECOME BEGINNING RADIOGRAPHERS. IT IS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH TWO OTHER VOLUMES--(1) INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, AND (2) INUDSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY MANUAL. THE PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF REPRESENTATIVES…

  4. Increasing mobile radiography productivity.

    PubMed

    Wong, Edward; Lung, Ngan Tsz; Ng, Kris; Jeor, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Mobile radiography using computed radiography (CR) cassettes is a common equipment combination with a workflow bottleneck limited by location of CR readers. Advent of direct digital radiography (DDR) mobile x-ray machines removes this limitation by immediate image review and quality control. Through the use of key performance indicators (KPIs), the increase in efficiency can be quantified.

  5. Multi-purpose neutron radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.P.; Bryant, L.E.; Berry, P.

    1996-07-01

    A conceptual design is given for a low cost, multipurpose radiography system suited for the needs of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The proposed neutron source is californium-252. One purpose is to provide an in-house capability for occasional, reactor quality, neutron radiography thus replacing the recently closed Omega-West Reactor. A second purpose is to provide a highly reliable standby transportable neutron radiography system. A third purpose is to provide for transportable neutron probe gamma spectroscopy techniques. The cost is minimized by shared use of an existing x-ray facility, and by use of an existing transport cask. The achievable neutron radiography and radioscopy performance characteristics have been verified. The demonstrated image qualities range from high resolution gadolinium - SR film, with L:D = 100:1, to radioscopy using a LIXI image with L:D = 30:1 and neutron fluence 3.4 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}.

  6. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Smolinski, Andrew T.

    2015-09-10

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This study describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities, the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.

  7. Neutron Radiography of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Smolinski, Andrew T.

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This paper describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities, the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.

  8. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    DOE PAGES

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; ...

    2015-09-10

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This study describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities,more » the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.« less

  9. 42 CFR 37.51 - Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs-digital radiography systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-digital radiography systems. 37.51 Section 37.51 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... of Chest Radiographs § 37.51 Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs—digital radiography systems. (a) For each chest radiograph obtained at an approved facility using a digital radiography...

  10. Clinical feline dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Lemmons, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    Dental radiography is a necessary diagnostic modality in small animal practice. It is not possible to accurately assess and diagnose tooth resorption, periodontal disease, endodontic disease, neoplasia and injury without it. Dental radiography is also necessary for treatment and assessment of the patient postoperatively.

  11. Radiography of magnetically-driven implosions of initially solid beryllium cylindrical shells for equation-of-state studies at the Z pulsed-power facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Ryan

    2011-06-01

    The Z accelerator delivers approximately 4-MV, 26-MA electrical pulses with adjustable current rise times of 100--600 ns, as well as adjustable pulse waveforms. The magnetic pressure produced is used for various applications, including magnetically-driven implosions. The Z-Beamlet Laser (ZBL) is a pulsed (0.3-1.5 ns), multi-kJ, TW-class Nd:glass laser system that provides x-ray radiography capabilities for Z experiments. This talk focuses primarily on the radiography diagnostic used to study the magnetically-driven implosions of initially solid cylindrical shells (also referred to as ``liners''). Specifically, we discuss the 6.151-keV monochromatic backlighting system and its use in obtaining radiographs of imploding beryllium (Be) liners. The high transmission efficiency of 6.151-keV photons in Be allowed us to obtain radiographs with finite transmission throughout the radial extent of the imploding liners. Abel inverting these data, we have obtained time-resolved measurements of the imploding liner's density as a function of both axial and radial location throughout the field of view. These data are allowing us to study magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) growth for inertial-confinement-fusion applications, as well as compression-wave propagation for equation-of-state studies (see talks by R.L. Lemke and M.R. Martin). Additionally, Z's pulse-shaping capabilities have enabled us to obtain data for both shock- and quasi-isentropically-compressed Be. Example data from MRT, shock-compression, and quasi-isentropic-compression experiments will be shown. We will also discuss planned upgrades to 25-keV radiography that will allow us to study materials with opacities beyond that of beryllium. This work was done in collaboration with R.W. Lemke, M.R. Martin, J.-P. Davis, M.D. Knudson, D.B. Sinars, S.A. Slutz, C.A. Jennings, M.E. Cuneo, D.G. Flicker, and M.C. Herrmann. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin company, for the US

  12. Mobile waste inspection real time radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.; Mendez, J.

    1995-10-01

    The 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography System was designed and purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Mobile Real Time Radiography System has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from 5-gal. buckets to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). The fact that this unit is mobile makes it an attractive alternative to the costly road closures associated with moving waste from the waste generator to storage or disposal facilities.

  13. Proton Radiography: Its uses and Resolution Scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Mariam, Fesseha G.

    2012-08-09

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has used high energy protons as a probe in flash radiography for over a decade. In this time the proton radiography project has used 800 MeV protons, provided by the LANSCE accelerator facility at LANL, to diagnose over five-hundred dynamic experiments in support of stockpile stewardship programs as well as basic materials science. Through this effort significant experience has been gained in using charged particles as direct radiographic probes to diagnose transient systems. The results of this experience will be discussed through the presentation of data from experiments recently performed at the LANL pRad.

  14. Using ytterbium-169 for safe and economical industrial radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Dowalo, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Safety has become an issue of paramount importance for industrial radiography. Many NDE facilities and suppliers are finding the cost of performing radiography Prohibitive due to heightened safety concerns for radiation area protection. The most common sources used in radiography, Iridium-192 and Cobalt-60, result in high radiation fields over a large area. Even when collimators are used large radiation fields can result from multicurie source radiography. Radiographic operations are being forced to find alternative test methods and techniques to the use of the old stand-by sources. These alternate methods are not always as comprehensive a test as full volumetric examination with radiography. Since Iridium and Cobalt are in such wide spread use, they are sometimes called upon to perform test of materials which are not in their optimum sensitivity range.

  15. Phase-contrast radiography.

    PubMed

    Gao, D; Pogany, A; Stevenson, A W; Wilkins, S W

    1998-01-01

    For the past 100 years, the paradigm for radiography has been premised on absorption as the sole means of contrast formation and on ray optics as the basis for image interpretation. A new conceptual approach to radiography has been developed that includes phase (ie, refractive) contrast and requires wave optics for proper treatment. This new approach greatly increases the amount of information that can be obtained with radiographic techniques and is particularly well suited to the imaging of soft tissue and of very small features in biologic samples. A key feature of the present technique of phase-contrast radiography is the use of a microfocus x-ray source about an order of magnitude (< or = 20 microm) smaller than that used in conventional radiography. Phase-contrast radiography offers a number of improvements over conventional radiography in a clinical setting, especially in soft-tissue imaging. These improvements include increased contrast resulting in improved visualization of anatomic detail, reduced absorbed dose to the patient, inherent image magnification and high spatial resolution, use of harder x rays, and relative ease of implementation. More technologically advanced detectors are currently being developed and commercialized, which will help fully realize the considerable potential of phase-contrast imaging.

  16. Real-time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  17. Radiography Capabilities for Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Walstrom, Peter Lowell; Garnett, Robert William; Chapman, Catherine A. B; Salazar, Harry Richard; Otoole, Joseph Alfred; Barber, Ronald L.; Gomez, Tony Simon

    2015-04-28

    The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) experimental facility will be used to discover and design the advanced materials needed to meet 21st century national security and energy security challenges. This new facility will provide the new tools scientists need to develop next-generation materials that will perform predictably and on-demand for currently unattainable lifetimes in extreme environments. The MaRIE facility is based on upgrades to the existing LANSCE 800-MeV proton linac and a new 12-GeV electron linac and associated X-ray FEL to provide simultaneous multiple probe beams, and new experimental areas. In addition to the high-energy photon probe beam, both electron and proton radiography capabilities will be available at the MaRIE facility. Recently, detailed radiography system studies have been performed to develop conceptual layouts of high-magnification electron and proton radiography systems that can meet the experimental requirements for the expected first experiments to be performed at the facility. A description of the radiography systems, their performance requirements, and a proposed facility layout are presented.

  18. 42 CFR 37.51 - Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs-digital radiography systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-digital radiography systems. 37.51 Section 37.51 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH..., and Submission of Chest Radiographs § 37.51 Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs—digital radiography systems. (a) For each chest radiograph obtained at an approved facility using a...

  19. Apparatus for proton radiography

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting diagnostic proton radiography of patients in hospitals comprises a source of negative hydrogen ions, a synchrotron for accelerating the negative hydrogen ions to a predetermined energy, a plurality of stations for stripping extraction of a radiography beam of protons, means for sweeping the extracted beam to cover a target, and means for measuring the residual range, residual energy, or percentage transmission of protons that pass through the target. The combination of information identifying the position of the beam with information about particles traversing the subject and the back absorber is performed with the aid of a computer to provide a proton radiograph of the subject. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a back absorber comprises a plurality of scintillators which are coupled to detectors.

  20. Forensic radiography: an overview.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, April

    2010-01-01

    Perhaps the first instance of forensic radiography occurred in the 1890s when Professor AW Wright of Yale University tested Wilhelm Roentgen's newly discovered x-ray photography on a deceased rabbit. Of interest were small, round objects inside the rabbit that appeared as dark spots on the positive film. The objects were extracted and identified as bullets, thereby helping to determine the cause of the rabbit's death. In the years since Roentgen's discovery, the use of radiography and other medical imaging specialties to aid in investigating civil and criminal matters has increased as investigators realize how radiologic technology can yield information that otherwise is unavailable. Radiologic technologists can play a key role in forensic investigations.

  1. Patient care in radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.A.; McCloskey, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on patient care procedures for radiographers. The authors focus on the role of the radiographer as a member of the health care team. The authors report on such topics as communication in patient care: safety, medico-legal considerations, transfer and positioning; physical needs; infection control; medication; CPR standards, acute situations; examination of the GI tract; contrast media; special imaging techniques and bedside radiography.

  2. Particle Beam Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, Ken; Ekdahl, Carl

    2014-02-01

    Particle beam radiography, which uses a variety of particle probes (neutrons, protons, electrons, gammas and potentially other particles) to study the structure of materials and objects noninvasively, is reviewed, largely from an accelerator perspective, although the use of cosmic rays (mainly muons but potentially also high-energy neutrinos) is briefly reviewed. Tomography is a form of radiography which uses multiple views to reconstruct a three-dimensional density map of an object. There is a very wide range of applications of radiography and tomography, from medicine to engineering and security, and advances in instrumentation, specifically the development of electronic detectors, allow rapid analysis of the resultant radiographs. Flash radiography is a diagnostic technique for large high-explosive-driven hydrodynamic experiments that is used at many laboratories. The bremsstrahlung radiation pulse from an intense relativistic electron beam incident onto a high-Z target is the source of these radiographs. The challenge is to provide radiation sources intense enough to penetrate hundreds of g/cm2 of material, in pulses short enough to stop the motion of high-speed hydrodynamic shocks, and with source spots small enough to resolve fine details. The challenge has been met with a wide variety of accelerator technologies, including pulsed-power-driven diodes, air-core pulsed betatrons and high-current linear induction accelerators. Accelerator technology has also evolved to accommodate the experimenters' continuing quest for multiple images in time and space. Linear induction accelerators have had a major role in these advances, especially in providing multiple-time radiographs of the largest hydrodynamic experiments.

  3. Mobile real time radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  4. Digital radiography: an overview.

    PubMed

    Parks, Edwin T; Williamson, Gail F

    2002-11-15

    Since the discovery of X-rays in 1895, film has been the primary medium for capturing, displaying, and storing radiographic images. It is a technology that dental practitioners are the most familiar and comfortable with in terms of technique and interpretation. Digital radiography is the latest advancement in dental imaging and is slowly being adopted by the dental profession. Digital imaging incorporates computer technology in the capture, display, enhancement, and storage of direct radiographic images. Digital imaging offers some distinct advantages over film, but like any emerging technology, it presents new and different challenges for the practitioner to overcome. This article presents an overview of digital imaging including basic terminology and comparisons with film-based imaging. The principles of direct and indirect digital imaging modalities, intraoral and extraoral applications, image processing, and diagnostic efficacy will be discussed. In addition, the article will provide a list of questions dentists should consider prior to purchasing digital imaging systems for their practice.

  5. NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY (NRAD) REACTOR 64-ELEMENT CORE UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2014-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA (registered) (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The interim critical configuration developed during the core upgrade, which contains only 62 fuel elements, has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The final 64-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has also been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (approximately +/-1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  6. Beam characterization at the Neutron Radiography Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah W. Morgan; Jeffrey C. King; Chad L. Pope

    2013-12-01

    The quality of a neutron-imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, potential image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This paper provides a characterization of the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio and potential image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. The NRAD has an effective collimation ratio greater than 125, a beam divergence of 0.3 +_ 0.1 degrees, and a gold foil cadmium ratio of 2.7. The flux profile has been quantified and the facility is an ASTM Category 1 radiographic facility. Based on bare and cadmium covered foil activation results, the neutron energy spectrum used in the current MCNP model of the radiography beamline over-samples the thermal region of the neutron energy spectrum.

  7. Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An expansion of medical data collection facilities was necessary to implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The primary objective of the EDOMP was to ensure the capability of crew members to reenter the Earth's atmosphere, land, and egress safely following a 16-day flight. Therefore, access to crew members as soon as possible after landing was crucial for most data collection activities. Also, with the advent of EDOMP, the quantity of investigations increased such that the landing day maximum data collection time increased accordingly from two hours to four hours. The preflight and postflight testing facilities at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) required only some additional testing equipment and minor modifications to the existing laboratories in order to fulfill EDOMP requirements. Necessary modifications at the landing sites were much more extensive.

  8. Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract Lower gastrointestinal tract radiography or lower GI ... of Lower GI Tract Radiography? What is Lower GI Tract X-ray Radiography (Barium Enema)? Lower gastrointestinal ( ...

  9. Industrial Radiography | Radiation Protection | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-12-09

    Manufacturers use a method called industrial radiography to check for cracks or flaws in materials. Radiation is used in industrial radiography to show problems not visible from the outside without damaging the material.

  10. Accelerator system for neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Rusnak, B; Hall, J

    2000-09-21

    The field of x-ray radiography is well established for doing non-destructive evaluation of a vast array of components, assemblies, and objects. While x-rays excel in many radiography applications, their effectiveness diminishes rapidly if the objects of interest are surrounded by thick, high-density materials that strongly attenuate photons. Due to the differences in interaction mechanisms, neutron radiography is highly effective in imaging details inside such objects. To obtain a high intensity neutron source suitable for neutron imaging a 9-MeV linear accelerator is being evaluated for putting a deuteron beam into a high-pressure deuterium gas cell. As a windowless aperture is needed to transport the beam into the gas cell, a low-emittance is needed to minimize losses along the high-energy beam transport (HEBT) and the end station. A description of the HEBT, the transport optics into the gas cell, and the requirements for the linac will be presented.

  11. Digital Radiography: A Technology Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Ben A.

    1982-12-01

    Digital radiography, a term hardly recognized two years ago, has grown to become the talk of the radiology community and the excitement of many commercial companies. M2st of this attention has been directed toward digital subtraction intravenous angiography), although during this same time period, a variety of digital radiography apparatus and image processing techniques have been under development. In November of 1980 at the RSNA Conference in Chicago, three commercial digital angiography systems were announced by Philips, Technicare and ADAC Corporations. During this same time period, the University of Arizona was discussing the concept of a photo electronic radiology department2, the University of Pittsburg and Stanford University were investigating line scan radiography3,4 and approximately five laboratories were carrying out clinical IV angiography with digital video systems.5-9 These developments followed basic research programs in digital electronic and computerized imaging at various locations around the world. 10-18 In the spring of 1981 we attempted to review the state of digital radiography, focusing on the various detector systems and image acquisition approaches.19 Since that time, rapid advancements in digital radiography have occurred. A major conference was held on digital radiography at Stanford UniversityzO, a new area detector system for digital radiography was announced by Fuji Film Corporation, clinical testing began on the Picker line scan digital chest unit21, and improvements were made in selenium detectors for digital radiography. Several additional companies announced digital video angiography systems, bringing the total now to approximately 15 companies worldwide. Digital video subtraction angiography is now well established as an important clinical diagnostic procedure and a variety of improvements and extensions of digital angiography systems are now ongoing. Digital acquisition and storage systems are increasing in both speed and

  12. Laser driven radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, M.D.; Sefcik, J.; Cowan, T.

    1997-12-20

    Intense laser (> 1021 W/cm{sup 3}) driven hard x-ray sources offer a new alternative to conventional electron accelerator Bremsstrahlung sources. These laser driven sources offer considerable simplicity in design and potential cost advantage for multiple axis views. High spatial and temporal resolution is achievable as a result of the very small source size (<100 um) and short-duration of the laser pulse. We have begun a series of experiments with the Petawatt laser at LLNL to determine the photon flux achievable with these sources and assess their potential for Stewardship applications. Additionally, we are developing a conceptual design and cost estimate of a multi-pulse, multi-axis (up to five) radiographic facility utilizing the Contained Firing Facility at site 300 and existing laser hardware.

  13. New Developments in Proton Radiography at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE)

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C. L.; Brown, E. N.; Agee, C.; Bernert, T.; Bourke, M. A. M.; Burkett, M. W.; Buttler, W. T.; Byler, D. D.; Chen, C. F.; Clarke, A. J.; Cooley, J. C.; Gibbs, P. J.; Imhoff, S. D.; Jones, R.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Murray, M. M.; Olinger, C. T.; Oro, D. M.; Nedrow, P.; Saunders, A.; Terrones, G.; Trouw, F.; Tupa, D.; Vogan, W.; Winkler, B.; Wang, Z.; Zellner, M. B.

    2015-12-30

    An application of nuclear physics, a facility for using protons for flash radiography, was developed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Protons have proven far superior to high energy x-rays for flash radiography because of their long mean free path, good position resolution, and low scatter background. Although this facility is primarily used for studying very fast phenomena such as high explosive driven experiments, it is finding increasing application to other fields, such as tomography of static objects, phase changes in materials and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The advantages of protons are discussed, data from some recent experiments will be reviewed and concepts for new techniques are introduced.

  14. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G. N.; Izumi, N.; Landen, O. L.; Tommasini, R.; Holder, J. P.; Hargrove, D.; Bradley, D. K.; Lumbard, A.; Cruz, J. G.; Piston, K.; Lee, J. J.; Romano, E.; Bell, P. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Felker, B.; Rekow, V.; Allen, F. V.

    2016-11-01

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40-200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  15. Spatial resolution measurements of the advanced radiographic capability x-ray imaging system at energies relevant to Compton radiography.

    PubMed

    Hall, G N; Izumi, N; Landen, O L; Tommasini, R; Holder, J P; Hargrove, D; Bradley, D K; Lumbard, A; Cruz, J G; Piston, K; Lee, J J; Romano, E; Bell, P M; Carpenter, A C; Palmer, N E; Felker, B; Rekow, V; Allen, F V

    2016-11-01

    Compton radiography provides a means to measure the integrity, ρR and symmetry of the DT fuel in an inertial confinement fusion implosion near peak compression. Upcoming experiments at the National Ignition Facility will use the ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) laser to drive backlighter sources for Compton radiography experiments and will use the newly commissioned AXIS (ARC X-ray Imaging System) instrument as the detector. AXIS uses a dual-MCP (micro-channel plate) to provide gating and high DQE at the 40-200 keV x-ray range required for Compton radiography, but introduces many effects that contribute to the spatial resolution. Experiments were performed at energies relevant to Compton radiography to begin characterization of the spatial resolution of the AXIS diagnostic.

  16. Development of Compton radiography of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Hey, D. S.; Iglesias, C.; Izumi, N.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Sorce, C.; Delettrez, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2011-05-15

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60 to 200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {mu}m and {approx}10 ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D nonuniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  17. Californium Multiplier. Part I. Design for neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Crosbie, K.L.; Preskitt, C.A.; John, J.; Hastings, J.D.

    1982-04-01

    The Californium Multiplier (CFX) is a subcritical assembly of enriched uranium surrounding a californium-252 neutron source. The function of the CFX is to multiply the neutrons emitted by the source to a number sufficient for neutron radiography. The CFX is designed to provide a collimated beam of thermal neutrons from which the gamma radiation is filtered, and the scattered neutrons are reduced to make it suitable for high resolution radiography. The entire system has inherent safety features, which provide for system and personnel safety, and it operates at moderate cost. In Part I, the CFX and the theory of its operation are described in detail. Part II covers the performance of the Mound Facility CFX.

  18. Proton radiography and tomography with application to proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Poludniowski, G; Allinson, N M; Evans, P M

    2015-09-01

    Proton radiography and tomography have long promised benefit for proton therapy. Their first suggestion was in the early 1960s and the first published proton radiographs and CT images appeared in the late 1960s and 1970s, respectively. More than just providing anatomical images, proton transmission imaging provides the potential for the more accurate estimation of stopping-power ratio inside a patient and hence improved treatment planning and verification. With the recent explosion in growth of clinical proton therapy facilities, the time is perhaps ripe for the imaging modality to come to the fore. Yet many technical challenges remain to be solved before proton CT scanners become commonplace in the clinic. Research and development in this field is currently more active than at any time with several prototype designs emerging. This review introduces the principles of proton radiography and tomography, their historical developments, the raft of modern prototype systems and the primary design issues.

  19. Comparison of Digital Imaging Systems for Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliesi, R.; Pugliesi, Fábio; Stanojev Pereira, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    The characteristics of three digital imaging systems for neutron radiography purposes have been compared. Two of them make use of films, CR-39 and Kodak AA, and the third makes use of a LiF scintillator, for image registration. The irradiations were performed in the neutron radiography facility installed at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. According to the obtained results, the system based on CR-39 is the slowest to obtain an image, and the best in terms of resolution but the worse in terms of contrast. The system based on Kodak AA is faster than the prior, exhibits good resolution and contrast. The system based on the scintillator is the fastest to obtain an image, and best in terms of contrast but the worse in terms of resolution.

  20. Development of Compton Radiography Diagnostics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R; Hatchett, S P; Hey, D S; Izumi, N; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Mackinnon, A J; Delettrez, J; Glebov, V; Stoeckl, C

    2010-11-16

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60-200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton Radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {micro}m and {approx}10ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D non-uniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  1. Proton radiography and tomography with application to proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Allinson, N M; Evans, P M

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiography and tomography have long promised benefit for proton therapy. Their first suggestion was in the early 1960s and the first published proton radiographs and CT images appeared in the late 1960s and 1970s, respectively. More than just providing anatomical images, proton transmission imaging provides the potential for the more accurate estimation of stopping-power ratio inside a patient and hence improved treatment planning and verification. With the recent explosion in growth of clinical proton therapy facilities, the time is perhaps ripe for the imaging modality to come to the fore. Yet many technical challenges remain to be solved before proton CT scanners become commonplace in the clinic. Research and development in this field is currently more active than at any time with several prototype designs emerging. This review introduces the principles of proton radiography and tomography, their historical developments, the raft of modern prototype systems and the primary design issues. PMID:26043157

  2. System for uncollimated digital radiography

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Han; Hall, James M.; McCarrick, James F.; Tang, Vincent

    2015-08-11

    The inversion algorithm based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) removes unwanted effects in high energy imaging resulting from an uncollimated source interacting with a finitely thick scintillator. The algorithm takes as input the image from the thick scintillator (TS) and the radiography setup geometry. The algorithm then outputs a restored image which appears as if taken with an infinitesimally thin scintillator (ITS). Inversion is accomplished by numerically generating a probabilistic model relating the ITS image to the TS image and then inverting this model on the TS image through MEM. This reconstruction technique can reduce the exposure time or the required source intensity without undesirable object blurring on the image by allowing the use of both thicker scintillators with higher efficiencies and closer source-to-detector distances to maximize incident radiation flux. The technique is applicable in radiographic applications including fast neutron, high-energy gamma and x-ray radiography using thick scintillators.

  3. Characterization of the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) Neutron Radiography System Imaging Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Krista; Chantel Nowlen, K.; DePriest, K. Russell

    2016-02-01

    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is an epithermal pool-type research reactor licensed up to a thermal power of 2.4 MW. The ACRR facility has a neutron radiography facility that is used for imaging a wide range of items including reactor fuel and neutron generators. The ACRR neutron radiography system has four apertures (65:1, 125:1, 250:1, and 500:1) available to experimenters. The neutron flux and spectrum as well as the gamma dose rate were characterized at the imaging plane for the ACRR's neutron radiography system for the 65:1, 125:1 and 250:1 apertures.

  4. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  5. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  6. Neutron radiography inspection of investment castings.

    PubMed

    Richards, W J; Barrett, J R; Springgate, M E; Shields, K C

    2004-10-01

    Investment casting, also known as the lost wax process, is a manufacturing method employed to produce near net shape metal articles. Traditionally, investment casting has been used to produce structural titanium castings for aero-engine applications with wall thickness less than 1 in (2.54 cm). Recently, airframe manufacturers have been exploring the use of titanium investment casting to replace components traditionally produced from forgings. Use of titanium investment castings for these applications reduces weight, cost, lead time, and part count. Recently, the investment casting process has been selected to produce fracture critical structural titanium airframe components. These airframe components have pushed the traditional inspection techniques to their physical limits due to cross sections on the order of 3 in (7.6 cm). To overcome these inspection limitations, a process incorporating neutron radiography (n-ray) has been developed. In this process, the facecoat of the investment casting mold material contains a cocalcined mixture of yttrium oxide and gadolinium oxide. The presence of the gadolinium oxide, allows for neutron radiographic imaging (and eventual removal and repair) of mold facecoat inclusions that remain within these thick cross sectional castings. Probability of detection (POD) studies have shown a 3 x improvement of detecting a 0.050 x 0.007 in2 (1.270 x 0.178 mm2) inclusion of this cocalcined material using n-ray techniques when compared to the POD using traditional X-ray techniques. Further, it has been shown that this n-ray compatible mold facecoat material produces titanium castings of equal metallurgical quality when compared to the traditional materials. Since investment castings can be very large and heavy, the neutron radiography facilities at the University of California, Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center (UCD/MNRC) were used to develop the inspection techniques. The UCD/MNRC has very unique facilities that can handle large

  7. Proton Radiography: Cross Section Measurements and Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Longo; H. R. Gustafson: Durga Rajaram; Turgun Nigmanov

    2010-04-16

    Proton radiography has become an important tool for predicting the performance of stockpiled nuclear weapons. Current proton radiography experiments at LANSCE are confined to relatively small targets on the order of centimeters in size because of the low beam energy. LANL scientists have made radiographs with 12 and 24 GeV protons produced by the accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These energies are in the range required for hydrotest radiography. The design of a facility for hydrotest radiography requires knowledge of the cross sections for producing high-energy particles in the forward direction, which are incorporated into the Monte Carlo simulation used in designing the beam and detectors. There are few existing measurements of neutron production cross sections for proton-nuclei interactions in the 50 GeV range, and almost no data exist for forward neutron production, especially for heavy target nuclei. Thus the data from the MIPP EMCAL and HCAL, for which our group was responsible, are critical to proton radiography. Since neutrons and photons cannot be focused by magnets, they cause a background “fog” on the images. This problem can be minimized by careful design of the focusing system and detectors. The purpose of our research was to measure forward production of neutrons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. The forward-going particles carry most of the energy from a high-energy proton interaction, so these are the most important to proton radiography. This work was carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab E-907 (MIPP) collaboration. Our group was responsible for designing and building the E907 forward neutron and photon calorimeters. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grants, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. The MIPP experiment accumulated a large amount of data in the first run that ended in early 2006. Our group has

  8. A New Neutron Radiography / Tomography / Imaging Station DINGO at OPAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbe, U.; Randall, T.; Hughes, C.; Davidson, G.; Pangelis, S.; Kennedy, S. J.

    A new neutron radiography / tomography / imaging instrument DINGO was built to support the area of neutron imaging research (neutron radiography/tomography) at ANSTO. The instrument is designed for an international user community and for routine quality control for defense, industrial, cultural heritage and archaeology applications. In the industrial field it provides a useful tool for studying cracking and defects in steel or other metals. The instrument construction was completed at the end of June 2013 and it is currently in the hot commissioning stage. The usable neutron flux is mainly determined by the neutron source, but it depends on the instrument position and the resolution. The instrument position for DINGO is the thermal neutron beam port HB-2 in the reactor hall. The measured flux (using gold foil) for an L/D of approximately 500 at HB-2 is 5.3*107 [n/cm2s], which is in a similar range to other facilities. A special feature of DINGO is the in-pile collimator position in front of the main shutter at HB-2. The collimator offers two pinholes with a possible L/D of 500 and 1000. A secondary collimator separates the two beams by blocking one and positions another aperture for the other beam. The whole instrument operates in two different positions, one for high resolution and one for high speed. In the current configuration DINGO measured first radiography and tomography data sets on friendly user test samples.

  9. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  10. Patient risk from interproximal radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, S.J.; Pujol, A. Jr.; Chen, T.S.; Malcolm, A.W.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1984-09-01

    Computer simulation methods for determining patient dose from dental radiography have demonstrated that patient risk from a two-film interproximal examination ranges from 1.1 X 10(-8) to 3.4 X 10(-7) using 90-kVp beams, depending on film speed, projection technique, and age and sex of the patient. Further, changing from a short-cone round-beam to a long-cone technique with rectangular collimation reduces risk by a factor of 2.9, independent of other factors.

  11. ARG portable neutron radiography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    In this report all available neutron radiographic data, including results of tests run at LANL, McClellan AFB, and University of Virginia, will be combined to outline specific transportable neutron radiography systems that could achieve the desired results as a complement to x-radiography capabilities for the Accident Response Group (ARG).

  12. Radiological protection in equine radiography and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoxall, A T

    1977-10-01

    The principles of radiological protection are summarised and consideration is then given to problems, which may confront the equine practitioner, in the fulfillment of these principles during diagnostic radiography of the limbs, head, and spine of the horse. The place of anaesthesia in such procedures is discussed and the special problems associated with therapeutic radiography of the horse are considered.

  13. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY STUDENT GUIDE AND LABORATORY EXERCISES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE TO AN 80-HOUR COURSE IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY IS COORDINATED WITH LESSONS IN THE STUDENT GUIDE AND LABORATORY EXERCISES AND IS BASED ON MATERIAL IN THE COURSE MANUAL, INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY. THE COURSE IS INTENDED TO TRAIN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES AS BEGINNING RADIOGRAPHERS WHO ARE EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO EXTEND THEIR…

  14. Quality assurance in film radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Van Bellegem, L.; Vaessen, B.

    1993-12-31

    The ISO 9000 standards were originally developed during the 1980`s to provide uniform, worldwide quality assurance requirements. The EC (European Communities) adopted these standards as part of their modular approach to ``conformity assessment`` procedures, for several product categories. This includes the development of standards (specifications) which define what the purchaser wants and what the supplier agrees to provide, as well as quality system registration (certification) which increases confidence in the supplier`s ability to produce consistently. The requirements are typically most rigorous for regulated products that have a major impact on health and safety i.e film radiographic systems. This is the main reason for making available the necessary Q.C. tools in film radiography to comply with Q.A. specifications and guarantee the required consistent performance. These tools can only give satisfying support if they are dedicated, easy to use, precise and cost effective at the user`s level. The main topics for such a Q.A. package are: (1) standard for Film System classification for industrial radiography; (2) film system certification; and (3) standard for control of film processing by means of reference values i.e. pre-exposed film wedges and archiving quality control method.

  15. Capsule Ablator Inflight Performance Measurements Via Streaked Radiography Of ICF Implosions On The NIF*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewald, E. L.; Tommasini, R.; Mackinnon, A.; MacPhee, A.; Meezan, N.; Olson, R.; Hicks, D.; LePape, S.; Izumi, N.; Fournier, K.; Barrios, M. A.; Ross, S.; Pak, A.; Döppner, T.; Kalantar, D.; Opachich, K.; Rygg, R.; Bradley, D.; Bell, P.; Hamza, A.; Dzenitis, B.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B.; LaFortune, K.; Widmayer, C.; Van Wonterghem, B.; Kilkenny, J.; Edwards, M. J.; Atherton, J.; Moses, E. I.

    2016-03-01

    Streaked 1-dimensional (slit imaging) radiography of 1.1 mm radius capsules in ignition hohlraums was recently introduced on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and gives an inflight continuous record of capsule ablator implosion velocities, shell thickness and remaining mass in the last 3-5 ns before peak implosion time. The high quality data delivers good accuracy in implosion metrics that meets our requirements for ignition and agrees with recently introduced 2-dimensional pinhole radiography. Calculations match measured trajectory across various capsule designs and laser drives when the peak laser power is reduced by 20%. Furthermore, calculations matching measured trajectories give also good agreement in ablator shell thickness and remaining mass.

  16. Image enhancement for radiography inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Wong, Brian Stephen; Guan, Tui Chen

    2005-04-01

    The x-ray radiographic testing method is often used for detecting defects as a non-destructive testing method (NDT). In many cases, NDT is used for aircraft components, welds, etc. Hence, the backgrounds are always more complex than a piece of steel. Radiographic images are low contrast, dark and high noise image. It is difficult to detect defects directly. So, image enhancement is a significant part of automated radiography inspection system. Histogram equalization and median filter are the most frequently used techniques to enhance the radiographic images. In this paper, the adaptive histogram equalization and contrast limited histogram equalization are compared with histogram equalization. The adaptive wavelet thresholding is compared with median filter. Through comparative analysis, the contrast limited histogram equalization and adaptive wavelet thresholding can enhance perception of defects better.

  17. The relationship between contrast, resolution and detectability in accelerator-based fast neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosi, R. M.; Watterson, J. I. W.

    1999-06-10

    Fast neutron radiography as a method for non destructive testing is a fast growing field of research. At the Schonland Research Center for Nuclear Sciences we have been engaged in the formulation of a model for the physics of image formation in fast neutron radiography (FNR). This involves examining all the various factors that affect image formation in FNR by experimental and Monte Carlo methods. One of the major problems in the development of a model for fast neutron radiography is the determination of the factors that affect image contrast and resolution. Monte Carlo methods offer an ideal tool for the determination of the origin of many of these factors. In previous work the focus of these methods has been the determination of the scattered neutron field in both a scintillator and a fast neutron radiography facility. As an extension of this work MCNP has been used to evaluate the role neutron scattering in a specimen plays in image detectability. Image processing of fast neutron radiographs is a necessary method of enhancing the detectability of features in an image. MCNP has been used to determine the part it can play in indirectly improving image resolution and aiding in image processing. The role noise plays in fast neutron radiography and its impact on image reconstruction has been evaluated. All these factors aid in the development of a model describing the relationship between contrast, resolution and detectability.

  18. Information extraction from muon radiography data

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, K. N.; Asaki, T. J.; Chartrand, R.; Hengartner, N. W.; Hogan, G. E.; Morris, C. L.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Schirato, R.C.; Schultz, L. J.; Sottile, M. J.; Vixie, K. R.; Wohlberg, B. E.; Blanpied, G.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering muon radiography was proposed recently as a technique of detection and 3-d imaging for dense high-Z objects. High-energy cosmic ray muons are deflected in matter in the process of multiple Coulomb scattering. By measuring the deflection angles we are able to reconstruct the configuration of high-Z material in the object. We discuss the methods for information extraction from muon radiography data. Tomographic methods widely used in medical images have been applied to a specific muon radiography information source. Alternative simple technique based on the counting of high-scattered muons in the voxels seems to be efficient in many simulated scenes. SVM-based classifiers and clustering algorithms may allow detection of compact high-Z object without full image reconstruction. The efficiency of muon radiography can be increased using additional informational sources, such as momentum estimation, stopping power measurement, and detection of muonic atom emission.

  19. Corrosion Inhibitors as Penetrant Dyes for Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid/vapor-phase corrosion inhibitors (LVCIs) have been found to be additionally useful as penetrant dyes for neutron radiography (and perhaps also x-radiography). Enhancement of radiographic contrasts by use of LVCIs can reveal cracks, corrosion, and other defects that may be undetectable by ultrasonic inspection, that are hidden from direct optical inspection, and/or that are difficult or impossible to detect in radiographs made without dyes.

  20. Motivations for muon radiography of active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedonio, G.; Martini, M.

    2010-02-01

    Muon radiography represents an innovative tool for investigating the interior of active volcanoes. This method integrates the conventional geophysical techniques and provides an independent way to estimate the density of the volcano structure and reveal the presence of magma conduits. The experience from the pioneer experiments performed at Mt. Asama, Mt. West Iwate, and Showa-Shinzan (Japan) are very encouraging. Muon radiography could be applied, in principle, at any stratovolcano. Here we focus our attention on Vesuvius and Stromboli (Italy).

  1. Proton radiography for clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talamonti, C.; Reggioli, V.; Bruzzi, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Civinini, C.; Marrazzo, L.; Menichelli, D.; Pallotta, S.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Petterson, M.; Blumenkrantz, N.; Feldt, J.; Heimann, J.; Lucia, D.; Seiden, A.; Williams, D. C.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Bashkirov, V.; Schulte, R.

    2010-01-01

    Proton imaging is not yet applied as a clinical routine, although its advantages have been demonstrated. In the context of quality assurance in proton therapy, proton images can be used to verify the correct positioning of the patient and to control the range of protons. Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a 3D imaging method appropriate for planning and verification of proton radiation treatments, because it allows evaluating the distributions of proton stopping power within the tissues and can be directly utilized when the patient is in the actual treatment position. The aim of the PRoton IMAging experiment, supported by INFN, and the PRIN 2006 project, supported by MIUR, is to realize a proton computed radiography (pCR) prototype for reconstruction of proton images from a single projection in order to validate the technique with pre-clinical studies and, eventually, to conceive the configuration of a complete pCT system. A preliminary experiment performed at the 250 MeV proton synchrotron of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) allowed acquisition of experimental data before the completion of PRIMA project's prototype. In this paper, the results of the LLUMC experiment are reported and the reconstruction of proton images of two phantoms is discussed.

  2. Thorium-uranium fission radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    Results are described for studies designed to develop routine methods for in-situ measurement of the abundance of Th and U on a microscale in heterogeneous samples, especially rocks, using the secondary high-energy neutron flux developed when the 650 MeV proton beam of an accelerator is stopped in a 42 x 42 cm diam Cu cylinder. Irradiations were performed at three different locations in a rabbit tube in the beam stop area, and thick metal foils of Bi, Th, and natural U as well as polished silicate glasses of known U and Th contents were used as targets and were placed in contact with mica which served as a fission track detector. In many cases both bare and Cd-covered detectors were exposed. The exposed mica samples were etched in 48% HF and the fission tracks counted by conventional transmitted light microscopy. Relative fission cross sections are examined, along with absolute Th track production rates, interaction tracks, and a comparison of measured and calculated fission rates. The practicality of fast neutron radiography revealed by experiments to data is discussed primarily for Th/U measurements, and mixtures of other fissionable nuclei are briefly considered.

  3. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedar, S.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Naudet, C. J.; Jones, C. E.; Plaut, J. P.; Webb, F. H.

    2013-06-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays) to image the interior of large-scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  4. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedar, S.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Naudet, C. J.; Jones, C. E.; Plaut, J. P.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-10-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays) to image the interior of large scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  5. New Developments in Proton Radiography at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE)

    DOE PAGES

    Morris, C. L.; Brown, E. N.; Agee, C.; ...

    2015-12-30

    An application of nuclear physics, a facility for using protons for flash radiography, was developed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Protons have proven far superior to high energy x-rays for flash radiography because of their long mean free path, good position resolution, and low scatter background. Although this facility is primarily used for studying very fast phenomena such as high explosive driven experiments, it is finding increasing application to other fields, such as tomography of static objects, phase changes in materials and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The advantages of protons are discussed, data from some recentmore » experiments will be reviewed and concepts for new techniques are introduced.« less

  6. Development of backlighting sources for a Compton Radiography diagnostic of Inertial Confinement Fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R

    2010-04-23

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion is time-resolved imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. Here we report on the source and diagnostic development of hard x-ray radiography and on the first radiographs of direct drive implosions obtained at photon energies up to about 100keV, where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the shell opacity. The radiographs of direct drive, plastic shell implosions obtained at the OMEGA laser facility have a spatial resolution of {approx}10um and a temporal resolution of {approx}10ps. This novel Compton Radiography is an invaluable diagnostic tool for Inertial Confinement Fusion targets, and will be integrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  7. Thyroid dose distribution in dental radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bristow, R.G.; Wood, R.E.; Clark, G.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The anatomic position and proven radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland make it an organ of concern in dental radiography. A calibrated thermoluminescent dosimetry system was used to investigate the absorbed dose (microGy) to the thyroid gland resultant from a minimum irradiated volume, intraoral full-mouth radiography technique with the use of rectangular collimation with a lead-backed image receptor, and conventional panoramic radiography performed with front and rear lead aprons. Use of the minimum irradiated volume technique resulted in a significantly decreased absorbed dose over the entire thyroid region ranging from 100% to 350% (p less than 0.05). Because this intraoral technique results in radiographs with greater image quality and also exposes the thyroid gland to less radiation than the panoramic, this technique may be an alternative to the panoramic procedure.

  8. The current status of panoramic radiography.

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, P N

    1987-03-01

    The current status of dental panoramic tomography (rotational panoramic radiography) is reviewed. This technique is based on a combination of tomography and slit-beam radiography to provide an image of both jaws on a single film. There is a greater degree of image degradation when compared with conventional radiographic techniques due to tomographic blurring, magnification and distortion, secondary images and burn-out. Meticulous patient position is essential to accommodate their jaws to the image layer determined by the manufacturers. The absorbed doses from panoramic radiography are of a similar order to that from bitewing radiography and lower than those from a full-mouth periapical series. The individual risk of 1.3 X 10(-6) is compared with that from other radiographic examinations and smoking. The collective risk, 1.04 deaths in the UK in 1981, is relatively insignificant as is the genetic dose. The risk to the dentist and his staff is also low compared to other risks. The methods of dose limitation currently available are reviewed. The clinical indications are considered in relation to the guidelines of the American Dental Association and the Dental Estimates Board in the UK. The problems associated with attempts to measure diagnostic yield are considered. In view of the world-wide public concern at the potential dangers of ionising radiation, dentists are urged to maximize the diagnostic yield from their panoramic radiography by taking such radiographs only when clinically necessary, ensuring meticulous positioning and processing, followed by scrupulous assessment of the radiography for any sign of pathological change.

  9. [Information technologies for scanning X-ray radiography].

    PubMed

    Kretov, V V; Ukraintsev, Iu G

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies have been widely used in X-rays diagnostics, including computer tomography, magnetic-resonance tomography, digital radiography etc. Digital technologies for image analysis essentially change all arrangements and procedures of preventive examinations made at patient-care facilities. As for digital fluorography, the basic principles of fluorography diagnostic room are standard but for one arrangement-the unit is controlled via a computer-assisted working place (CAWP) by the radiologist assistant; the room of radiologist is also equipped with CAWP. Admittedly, a key issue in general fluorographic examinations is registration of patients and preparation of them for the procedure. Contemplated in the paper are new potentialities of digital fluorography of big number of patients by low-dose fluorography (LDF, equipment manufacturer/Orel, Russia) which enhance the rate and quality of diagnostics.

  10. Californium-252: A New Isotopic Source for Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Reinig, W.C.

    2001-08-29

    This report discusses a new isotopic source for neutron radiography, Californium-252. Nuclear reactors are the usual source of neutrons for radiography, primarily because of their intense neutron beams. If neutron radiography is to have widespread use, intense transportable neutron sources are required that can be used in plants, in laboratories and in the field.

  11. Digital radiography. A comparison with modern conventional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, G J

    2006-01-01

    The development of computed radiography over the past two decades has transformed radiological imaging. The radiology departments in the 21st century will look very different from those in the preceding period. In this review, the development of digital radiography is presented with a description of its various forms and a comparison with screen film radiography. PMID:16822918

  12. Predicting image blur in proton radiography: comparisons between measurements and Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    von Wittenau, A; Aufderheide, M B; Henderson, G L

    2010-05-07

    Given the cost and lead-times involved in high-energy proton radiography, it is prudent to model proposed radiographic experiments to see if the images predicted would return useful information. We recently modified our raytracing transmission radiography modeling code HADES to perform simplified Monte Carlo simulations of the transport of protons in a proton radiography beamline. Beamline objects include the initial diffuser, vacuum magnetic fields, windows, angle-selecting collimators, and objects described as distorted 2D (planar or cylindrical) meshes or as distorted 3D hexahedral meshes. We present an overview of the algorithms used for the modeling and code timings for simulations through typical 2D and 3D meshes. We next calculate expected changes in image blur as scattering materials are placed upstream and downstream of a resolution test object (a 3 mm thick sheet of tantalum, into which 0.4 mm wide slits have been cut), and as the current supplied to the focusing magnets is varied. We compare and contrast the resulting simulations with the results of measurements obtained at the 800 MeV Los Alamos LANSCE Line-C proton radiography facility.

  13. Multi-GeV electron radiography for measurements of fast dynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, F. E.; Fabritius, J.; Mariam, F. G.; Poulson, D.; Simpson, R.; Walstrom, P.; Wilde, C.

    2017-01-01

    Charged particle radiography has been developed in the past decade to provide high-resolution, muti-frame flash radiography of dynamic systems. This development has focused on proton radiography utilizing 11 MeV to 50 GeV protons for a wide range of measurements. Recently, these techniques are being applied to the use of high energy electrons for applications at a future LANL MaRIE facility. At MaRIE Multi-GeV electrons may be used to diagnose small, quickly evolving systems, requiring resolution and frame rates beyond the capability of the existing 800 MeV proton radiography. The electron accelerator proposed for MaRIE will be capable of meeting the fast frame rate and resolution requirements for MaRIE. Because of the light mass of the electrons, bremsstrahlung processes become dominant in the electron interactions within the material being studied. Simulations have been performed to study these interactions, but measurements are required to fully understand the capabilities of this new measurement technique. We present an estimate from simulations of the performance characteristics of this future capability.

  14. Safety Testing of Industrial Radiography Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Trapp, D.J.

    1999-09-29

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted the Savannah River Technology Center to verify the relevancy of the 10 CFR Part 34 requirements for the normal use of portable gamma radiography systems and to propose recommendations for changes or modifications to the requirements.

  15. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTORS' GUIDE. VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Engineering Extension Service.

    INFORMATION RELATIVE TO THE LESSON PLANS IN "INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, VOLUME I" (VT 003 565) IS PRESENTED ON 52 INFORMATION SHEETS INCLUDING THE SUBJECTS SHIELDING EQUATIONS AND LOGARITHMS, METAL PROPERTIES, FIELD TRIP INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS, WELDING SYMBOLS AND SIZES, SAMPLE REPORT FORMS, AND TYPICAL SHIPPING…

  16. Film radiography -- The lone star of quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kochakian, R.

    1995-12-31

    In this year of 1995, 100 years of x-ray photography are being celebrated. The reason film radiography is still the number one NDT technique is because of its quality. In this paper the author discusses: (1) fundamentals of image quality and (2) status of new draft ASRM film system classification standard.

  17. Recent Developments in Electronic Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.A.; Claytor, T.N.; Davis, A.W.; Jones, M.H.; Sheats, M.J.; Stupin, D.M.; Summa, D.A.; White, S.M.; Hefele, J.; Watson, S.A.; Kauppila, T.J.; Mueller, K.H.

    1999-07-18

    An overview of the radiographic capabilities with emphasis on electronic image detection and processing at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is presented. Fixed facilities and portable x-ray sources and imaging systems make up the Los Alamos capability. Examples of imaging with large area amorphous silicon imaging panels, a portable computed tomography system, high speed x-ray imaging applications and equipment, and small area, high resolution imagers are given. Radiographic simulation and reverse engineering from radiographic images to computer aided design files and solid models is also presented.

  18. Design of a streaked radiography instrument for ICF ablator tuning measurements.

    PubMed

    Olson, R E; Hicks, D G; Spears, B K; Celliers, P M; Holder, J P; Landen, O L; Geissel, M; Kellogg, J W; Bennett, G R; Edens, A D; Atherton, B W; Leeper, R J

    2008-10-01

    A streaked radiography diagnostic has been proposed as a technique to determine the ablator mass remaining in an inertial confinement fusion ignition capsule at peak velocity. This instrument, the "HXRI-5," has been designed to fit within a National Ignition Facility Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator. The HXRI-5 will be built at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and initial testing will be done at the SNL Z-Beamlet Facility. In this paper, we will describe the National Ignition Campaign requirements for this diagnostic, the instrument design, and the planned test experiments.

  19. Fresh-Core Reload of the Neutron Radiography (NRAD) Reactor with Uranium(20)-Erbium-Zirconium-Hydride Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Thomas L. Maddock; Margaret A. Marshall; Leland M. Montierth

    2014-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA® (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The 60-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The initial critical configuration developed during the fuel loading process, which contains only 56 fuel elements, has not been evaluated as it is very similar to the evaluated core configuration. The benchmark eigenvalue is 1.0012 ± 0.0029. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (~±1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  20. Fresh-Core Reload of the Neutron Radiography (NRAD) Reactor with Uranium(20)-Erbium-Zirconium-Hydride Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Thomas L. Maddock; Margaret A. Marshall; Leland M. Montierth

    2013-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA® (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The initial critical configuration developed during the fuel loading process, which contains only 56 fuel elements, has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The 60-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has also been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (~±1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  1. Fresh-Core Reload of the Neutron Radiography (NRAD) Reactor with Uranium(20)-Erbium-Zirconium-Hydride Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Thomas L. Maddock; Margaret A. Marshall; Leland M. Montierth

    2011-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA® (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The 60-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The initial critical configuration developed during the fuel loading process, which contains only 56 fuel elements, has not been evaluated as it is very similar to the evaluated core configuration. The benchmark eigenvalue is 1.0012 ± 0.0029. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (~±1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  2. New Capabilties of 800 MeV Proton Radiography at LOS Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, C. L.; Hogan, G. E.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Rigg, P. A.; Rightley, P. M.; Mariam, F. G.; Marr-Lyon, M.; Merrill, F. E.; Morris, C. L.; Saunders, A.; Tupa, D.

    2007-12-01

    Three new capabilities have recently been commissioned at the proton radiography [1] facility at Los Alamos. A powder gun driver system has been installed and commissioned and a series of demonstration measurements have been completed. This powder gun is now regularly used to drive dynamic experiments. A new CMOS hybrid camera technology has been developed and fielded resulting in dramatic improvements in quantum efficiency as well as providing eight additional radiographic images per dynamic event. A proton x3 magnifier was designed, built and commissioned to provide improved radiographic resolution for 800 MeV proton radiography experiments. Details of these new capabilities will be presented along with data from recent experiments which utilized these new capabilities.

  3. Monte Carlo calculation for microplanar beam radiography.

    PubMed

    Company, F Z; Allen, B J; Mino, C

    2000-09-01

    In radiography the scattered radiation from the off-target region decreases the contrast of the target image. We propose that a bundle of collimated, closely spaced, microplanar beams can reduce the scattered radiation and eliminate the effect of secondary electron dose, thus increasing the image dose contrast in the detector. The lateral and depth dose distributions of 20-200 keV microplanar beams are investigated using the EGS4 Monte Carlo code to calculate the depth doses and dose profiles in a 6 cm x 6 cm x 6 cm tissue phantom. The maximum dose on the primary beam axis (peak) and the minimum inter-beam scattered dose (valley) are compared at different photon energies and the optimum energy range for microbeam radiography is found. Results show that a bundle of closely spaced microplanar beams can give superior contrast imaging to a single macrobeam of the same overall area.

  4. Contrast enhancement in microplanar beam radiography.

    PubMed

    Company, F Z; Allen, B J; Mino, C

    1999-12-01

    In x-ray radiography, the target produces a useful shadow from absorption of the primary beam, while the scattered radiation into the off-target region decreases the contrast of the target image. A bundle of closely spaced microplanar beams can reduce the scattered radiation and give superior image contrast compared with a single macrobeam of the same dimensions. To further reduce the scattered radiation and increase the image contrast, we place an air gap between the tissue phantom and the detector. The primary and scattered photon flux of a single microplanar beam is measured as a function of thickness inside the phantom and in the air gap. Results show that a bundle of closely spaced, microplanar beams increase the image contrast by 22% and a 2 cm air gap decreases the scattered photon flux by about half, improving the contrast by an additional 16%. Thus an overall improvement of 41% in contrast can be achieved with microplanar beam radiography.

  5. A system for fast neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.

    1996-05-01

    A system has been designed and a neutron generator installed to perform fast neutron radiography. With this sytem, objects as small as a coin or as large as a waste drum can be radiographed. The neutron source is an MF Physics A-711 neutron generator which produces 3x10{sup 10} neutrons/second with an average energy of 14.5 MeV. The radiography system uses x-ray scintillation screens and film in commercially available cassettes. The cassettes have been modified to include a thin sheet of plastic to convert neutrons to protons through elastic scattering from hydrogen and other low Z materials in the plastic. For film densities from 1.8 to 3.0, exposures range from 1.9x10{sup 7} to 3.8x10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2} depending on the type of screen and film.

  6. Digital radiography: Present detectors and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1990-08-01

    Present detectors for digital radiography are of two classes: real time detectors and storage (non real time) types. Present real time detectors consist of image intensifier tubes with an internal cesium iodide layer x-ray converter. Non real time detectors involve linear sweep arrays or storage detectors such as film. Future detectors discussed here can be of both types utilizing new technologies such as hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode arrays coupled to thin film transistor arrays. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Proton Radiography Peers into Metal Solidification

    DOE PAGES

    Clarke, Amy J.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; ...

    2013-06-19

    Historically, metals are cut up and polished to see the structure and to infer how processing influences the evolution. We can now peer into a metal during processing without destroying it using proton radiography. Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials. Synchrotron x-ray radiography has enabled real-time glimpses into metal solidification. However, x-ray energies favor the examination of small volumes and low density metals. In this study, we use high energy proton radiography for the first time to image a large metal volume (>10,000 mm3) during melting and solidification.more » We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1mm3), bridging four orders of magnitude. In conclusion, real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of the structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models.« less

  8. Newer imaging methods in chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Wandtke, J C

    1990-01-01

    In recent years the application of computers to chest radiography has resulted in a wide variety of innovative research. Major research efforts have resulted in the development of new types of x-ray detectors, such as storage phosphor technology, for use with computers. Storage phosphor imaging is one of the most promising new techniques, and almost 100 systems have been installed worldwide. Radiologists are quickly evaluating the image quality provided by this new detector system, which has the potential to improve image quality. It has wide latitude and is coupled with a computer to perform image processing. Another promising technology, originally studied in the form of scan equalization radiography, is now commercially available in the form of advanced multiple-beam equalization radiography. This film technique uses computers to modulate the x-ray exposure to take maximum advantage of the imaging capabilities of radiographic film. Digital solid-state detectors have been studied in conjunction with computerized image enhancement systems. These currently show improvement in nodule detection and quantification of the calcium content of a lesion. Application of large image intensifiers to a digital image system is being studied, but there are currently limitations on spatial resolution.

  9. Proton Radiography Peers into Metal Solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy J.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Cooley, Jason C.; Morris, Christopher; Merrill, Frank E.; Hollander, Brian J.; Mariam, Fesseha G.; Ott, Thomas J.; Barker, Martha R.; Tucker, Tim J.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Fezzaa, Kamel; Deriy, Alex; Patterson, Brian M.; Clarke, Kester D.; Montalvo, Joel D.; Field, Robert D.; Thoma, Dan J.; Smith, James L.; Teter, David F.

    2013-06-19

    Historically, metals are cut up and polished to see the structure and to infer how processing influences the evolution. We can now peer into a metal during processing without destroying it using proton radiography. Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials. Synchrotron x-ray radiography has enabled real-time glimpses into metal solidification. However, x-ray energies favor the examination of small volumes and low density metals. In this study, we use high energy proton radiography for the first time to image a large metal volume (>10,000 mm3) during melting and solidification. We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1mm3), bridging four orders of magnitude. In conclusion, real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of the structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models.

  10. Dual energy scanning beam X-radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Randolph Frank

    Dual energy X-radiography is a method first developed in the mid-1970's by which one uses the information contained in the energy spectrum of the transmitted X-ray flux through an object. With this information one can distinguish the types of materials present in a radiograph and thus allow a computer to subtract them from the image enhancing the contrast of the remaining materials. Using this method, one can see details, which would have been hidden by overlying structures of other materials such as seen in radiographs of parts, made up of mixtures of metals and composites. There is also great interest in this technique for medical imaging of the chest where images of the organs are significantly improved by subtracting the bones. However, even with the enhanced capabilities realized with this technique, the majority of X-radiography systems only measures the bulk transmitted X-ray intensity and ignores the information contained in the energy spectrum. This is due to the added expense, time requirements, and registration problems incurred using standard radiographic methods to obtain dual energy radiographs. This dissertation describes a novel method which overcomes these problems and allows one to perform inexpensive, near real time, single shot dual energy X-radiography. The work of this thesis resulted in US patent #5,742,660.

  11. Impact of digital radiography on clinical workflow.

    PubMed

    May, G A; Deer, D D; Dackiewicz, D

    2000-05-01

    It is commonly accepted that digital radiography (DR) improves workflow and patient throughput compared with traditional film radiography or computed radiography (CR). DR eliminates the film development step and the time to acquire the image from a CR reader. In addition, the wide dynamic range of DR is such that the technologist can perform the quality-control (QC) step directly at the modality in a few seconds, rather than having to transport the newly acquired image to a centralized QC station for review. Furthermore, additional workflow efficiencies can be achieved with DR by employing tight radiology information system (RIS) integration. In the DR imaging environment, this provides for patient demographic information to be automatically downloaded from the RIS to populate the DR Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) image header. To learn more about this workflow efficiency improvement, we performed a comparative study of workflow steps under three different conditions: traditional film/screen x-ray, DR without RIS integration (ie, manual entry of patient demographics), and DR with RIS integration. This study was performed at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (Cleveland, OH) using a newly acquired amorphous silicon flat-panel DR system from Canon Medical Systems (Irvine, CA). Our data show that DR without RIS results in substantial workflow savings over traditional film/screen practice. There is an additional 30% reduction in total examination time using DR with RIS integration.

  12. Emergency skull radiography: the effect of restrictive criteria on skull radiography and CT use

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.R.; Gaylord, G.M.; Lantos, G.; Tabaddor, K.; Gallagher, E.J.

    1985-08-01

    A prospective study was performed to determine the effect of restrictive criteria on the use of emergency skull radiography and computed tomography (CT) of the head. Emergency skull radiography required the completion of a special requisition form. Emergency CT of the head was done at the request of senior consultants and was available on a full-time basis. Over 1 year, 2758 skull studies were performed, a decrease of 39.1% when compared with the year before restrictive criteria were instituted, during which 4587 skull examinations were done. In the same period, the number of emergency CT scans of the head increased by 45.7%, from 471 in the control year to 686 in the experimental year. With the use of restrictive criteria, a net savings of $164,000 was achieved. Our results suggest that the use of restrictive criteria is a cost-effective means of limiting skull radiography when CT of the head is readily available.

  13. Source characterization and modeling development for monoenergetic-proton radiography experiments on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Casey, D. T.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2012-06-15

    A monoenergetic proton source has been characterized and a modeling tool developed for proton radiography experiments at the OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Comm. 133, 495 (1997)] laser facility. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to measure global isotropy levels in proton fluence and images of the proton source itself provided information on local uniformity relevant to proton radiography experiments. Global fluence uniformity was assessed by multiple yield diagnostics and deviations were calculated to be {approx}16% and {approx}26% of the mean for DD and D{sup 3}He fusion protons, respectively. From individual fluence images, it was found that the angular frequencies of Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 50 rad{sup -1} contributed less than a few percent to local nonuniformity levels. A model was constructed using the Geant4 [S. Agostinelli et al., Nuc. Inst. Meth. A 506, 250 (2003)] framework to simulate proton radiography experiments. The simulation implements realistic source parameters and various target geometries. The model was benchmarked with the radiographs of cold-matter targets to within experimental accuracy. To validate the use of this code, the cold-matter approximation for the scattering of fusion protons in plasma is discussed using a typical laser-foil experiment as an example case. It is shown that an analytic cold-matter approximation is accurate to within Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10% of the analytic plasma model in the example scenario.

  14. Source characterization and modeling development for monoenergetic-proton radiography experiments on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuel, M. J.-E.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Casey, D. T.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Sinenian, N.; Li, C. K.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2012-06-01

    A monoenergetic proton source has been characterized and a modeling tool developed for proton radiography experiments at the OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Comm. 133, 495 (1997)], 10.1016/S0030-4018(96)00325-2 laser facility. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to measure global isotropy levels in proton fluence and images of the proton source itself provided information on local uniformity relevant to proton radiography experiments. Global fluence uniformity was assessed by multiple yield diagnostics and deviations were calculated to be ˜16% and ˜26% of the mean for DD and D3He fusion protons, respectively. From individual fluence images, it was found that the angular frequencies of ≳50 rad-1 contributed less than a few percent to local nonuniformity levels. A model was constructed using the Geant4 [S. Agostinelli et al., Nuc. Inst. Meth. A 506, 250 (2003)], 10.1016/S0168-9002(03)01368-8 framework to simulate proton radiography experiments. The simulation implements realistic source parameters and various target geometries. The model was benchmarked with the radiographs of cold-matter targets to within experimental accuracy. To validate the use of this code, the cold-matter approximation for the scattering of fusion protons in plasma is discussed using a typical laser-foil experiment as an example case. It is shown that an analytic cold-matter approximation is accurate to within ≲10% of the analytic plasma model in the example scenario.

  15. Neutron radiography with sub-15 μm resolution through event centroiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, Anton S.; McPhate, Jason B.; Vallerga, John V.; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Bruce Feller, W.; Lehmann, Eberhard; Kaestner, Anders; Boillat, Pierre; Panzner, Tobias; Filges, Uwe

    2012-10-01

    Conversion of thermal and cold neutrons into a strong ˜1 ns electron pulse with an absolute neutron detection efficiency as high as 50-70% makes detectors with 10B-doped Microchannel Plates (MCPs) very attractive for neutron radiography and microtomography applications. The subsequent signal amplification preserves the location of the event within the MCP pore (typically 6-10 μm in diameter), providing the possibility to perform neutron counting with high spatial resolution. Different event centroiding techniques of the charge landing on a patterned anode enable accurate reconstruction of the neutron position, provided the charge footprints do not overlap within the time required for event processing. The new fast 2×2 Timepix readout with >1.2 kHz frame rates provides the unique possibility to detect neutrons with sub-15 μm resolution at several MHz/cm2 counting rates. The results of high resolution neutron radiography experiments presented in this paper, demonstrate the sub-15 μm resolution capability of our detection system. The high degree of collimation and cold spectrum of ICON and BOA beamlines combined with the high spatial resolution and detection efficiency of MCP-Timepix detectors are crucial for high contrast neutron radiography and microtomography with high spatial resolution. The next generation of Timepix electronics with sparsified readout should enable counting rates in excess of 107 n/cm2/s taking full advantage of high beam intensity of present brightest neutron imaging facilities.

  16. AXIS: an instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF.

    PubMed

    Hall, G N; Izumi, N; Tommasini, R; Carpenter, A C; Palmer, N E; Zacharias, R; Felker, B; Holder, J P; Allen, F V; Bell, P M; Bradley, D; Montesanti, R; Landen, O L

    2014-11-01

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV-200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  17. Source characterization and modeling development for monoenergetic-proton radiography experiments on OMEGA.

    PubMed

    Manuel, M J-E; Zylstra, A B; Rinderknecht, H G; Casey, D T; Rosenberg, M J; Sinenian, N; Li, C K; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D

    2012-06-01

    A monoenergetic proton source has been characterized and a modeling tool developed for proton radiography experiments at the OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Comm. 133, 495 (1997)] laser facility. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to measure global isotropy levels in proton fluence and images of the proton source itself provided information on local uniformity relevant to proton radiography experiments. Global fluence uniformity was assessed by multiple yield diagnostics and deviations were calculated to be ∼16% and ∼26% of the mean for DD and D(3)He fusion protons, respectively. From individual fluence images, it was found that the angular frequencies of ≳50 rad(-1) contributed less than a few percent to local nonuniformity levels. A model was constructed using the Geant4 [S. Agostinelli et al., Nuc. Inst. Meth. A 506, 250 (2003)] framework to simulate proton radiography experiments. The simulation implements realistic source parameters and various target geometries. The model was benchmarked with the radiographs of cold-matter targets to within experimental accuracy. To validate the use of this code, the cold-matter approximation for the scattering of fusion protons in plasma is discussed using a typical laser-foil experiment as an example case. It is shown that an analytic cold-matter approximation is accurate to within ≲10% of the analytic plasma model in the example scenario.

  18. AXIS: An instrument for imaging Compton radiographs using the Advanced Radiography Capability on the NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, G. N. Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Carpenter, A. C.; Palmer, N. E.; Zacharias, R.; Felker, B.; Holder, J. P.; Allen, F. V.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D.; Montesanti, R.; Landen, O. L.

    2014-11-15

    Compton radiography is an important diagnostic for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), as it provides a means to measure the density and asymmetries of the DT fuel in an ICF capsule near the time of peak compression. The AXIS instrument (ARC (Advanced Radiography Capability) X-ray Imaging System) is a gated detector in development for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and will initially be capable of recording two Compton radiographs during a single NIF shot. The principal reason for the development of AXIS is the requirement for significantly improved detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at high x-ray energies. AXIS will be the detector for Compton radiography driven by the ARC laser, which will be used to produce Bremsstrahlung X-ray backlighter sources over the range of 50 keV–200 keV for this purpose. It is expected that AXIS will be capable of recording these high-energy x-rays with a DQE several times greater than other X-ray cameras at NIF, as well as providing a much larger field of view of the imploded capsule. AXIS will therefore provide an image with larger signal-to-noise that will allow the density and distribution of the compressed DT fuel to be measured with significantly greater accuracy as ICF experiments are tuned for ignition.

  19. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  20. Digital Radiography Qualification of Tube Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Project will be directing Lockheed Martin to perform orbital arc welding on commodities metallic tubing as part of the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle assembly and integration process in the Operations and Checkout High bay at Kennedy Space Center. The current method of nondestructive evaluation is utilizing traditional film based x-rays. Due to the high number of welds that are necessary to join the commodities tubing (approx 470), a more efficient and expeditious method of nondestructive evaluation is desired. Digital radiography will be qualified as part of a broader NNWG project scope.

  1. Axial tomography from digitized real time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnay, A.S.; McDonald, W.M.; Doupont, P.A.; McKinney, R.L.; Lee, M.M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  2. Diagnostics of coated fuel particles by neutron and synchrotron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Momot, G. V.; Podurets, K. M.; Pogorelyi, D. K.; Somenkov, V. A.; Yakovenko, E. V.

    2011-12-15

    The nondestructive monitoring of coated fuel particles has been performed using contact neutron radiography and refraction radiography based on synchrotron radiation. It is shown that these methods supplement each other and have a high potential for determining the sizes, densities, and isotopic composition of the particle components.

  3. Advances in digital radiography: physical principles and system overview.

    PubMed

    Körner, Markus; Weber, Christof H; Wirth, Stefan; Pfeifer, Klaus-Jürgen; Reiser, Maximilian F; Treitl, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    During the past two decades, digital radiography has supplanted screen-film radiography in many radiology departments. Today, manufacturers provide a variety of digital imaging solutions based on various detector and readout technologies. Digital detectors allow implementation of a fully digital picture archiving and communication system, in which images are stored digitally and are available anytime. Image distribution in hospitals can now be achieved electronically by means of web-based technology with no risk of losing images. Other advantages of digital radiography include higher patient throughput, increased dose efficiency, and the greater dynamic range of digital detectors with possible reduction of radiation exposure to the patient. The future of radiography will be digital, and it behooves radiologists to be familiar with the technical principles, image quality criteria, and radiation exposure issues associated with the various digital radiography systems that are currently available.

  4. Simulation of computed radiography with imaging plate detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tisseur, D.; Costin, M.; Mathy, F.; Schumm, A.

    2014-02-18

    Computed radiography (CR) using phosphor imaging plate detectors is taking an increasing place in Radiography Testing. CR uses similar equipment as conventional radiography except that the classical X-ray film is replaced by a numerical detector, called image plate (IP), which is made of a photostimulable layer and which is read by a scanning device through photostimulated luminescence. Such digital radiography has already demonstrated important benefits in terms of exposure time, decrease of source energies and thus reduction of radioprotection area besides being a solution without effluents. This paper presents a model for the simulation of radiography with image plate detectors in CIVA together with examples of validation of the model. The study consists in a cross comparison between experimental and simulation results obtained on a step wedge with a classical X-ray tube. Results are proposed in particular with wire Image quality Indicator (IQI) and duplex IQI.

  5. Utility of thyroid collars in cephalometric radiography

    PubMed Central

    Sansare, KP; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

    2011-01-01

    Objective A study was carried out to investigate the rationale that use of a thyroid collar (TC) in cephalometric radiography hampers the diagnostic and descriptive quality of lateral cephalogram. Methods A randomized observer blinded study was designed. The study consisted of two groups. The first group data were retrieved from the oral radiology archival system having lateral cephalogram without a TC. The second group was selected from the oral radiology department of patients where lateral cephalogram was taken using a TC. Lateral cephalogram was taken on direct digital system, the Kodak 9000 unit (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY). 2 observers blinded about the aim of the study were appointed to identify 15 sets of landmarks on the lateral cephalogram. Interobserver variance was also analysed for the study. Results 50 lateral cephalograms in each group were studied. Out of 15 sets of landmarks, 12 were identified consistent with the TC group. Three landmarks, namely the hyoid bone, second cervical vertebra and third cervical vertebra could not be identified on the TC group. There was no significant difference in the interobserver markings on lateral cephalogram. Conclusions TCs do mask a few landmarks on the lateral cephalogram. These landmarks are mainly used for analysis of skeletal maturity index (SMI). Lead TCs are probably the most convenient and easily available means to protect the thyroid from unwanted radiation while taking lateral cephalogram. It is therefore encouraged to use a TC during routine cephalometric radiography where SMI information is not needed. PMID:22065795

  6. A system for fast neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.

    1997-04-01

    A system has been designed and a neutron generator installed to perform fast neutron radiography. With this system, objects as small as a coin and as large as a 19 liter container have been radiographed. The neutron source is an MF Physics A-711 neutron generator which produces 3 x 10[sup 10] neutrons/second with an average energy of 14. 5 MeV. The radiography system uses x-ray scintillation screens and film in commercially available light-tight cassettes. The cassettes have been modified to include a thin sheet of plastic to produce protons from the neutron beam through elastic scattering from hydrogen and other low Z materials in the plastic. For film densities from 1.8 to 3.0, exposures range from 1.9 x 10[sup 7] n/cm[sup 2] to 3.8 x 10[sup 8] n/cm[sup 2] depending on the type of screen and film. The optimum source-to-film distance was found to be 150 cm. At this distance, the geometric unsharpness was determined to be approximately 2.2-2.3 mm and the smallest hole that could be resolved in a 1.25 cm thick sample had a diameter of 0.079 cm.

  7. Positioning long lines: contrast versus plain radiography

    PubMed Central

    Reece, A; Ubhi, T; Craig, A; Newell, S

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To assess the value of contrast versus plain radiography in determining radio-opaque long line tip position in neonates.
METHODS—In a prospective study, plain radiography was performed after insertion of radio-opaque long lines. If the line tip was not visible on the plain film, a second film with contrast was obtained in an attempt to visualise the tip.
RESULTS—Sixty eight lines were inserted during the study period, 62 of which were included in the study. In 31, a second radiographic examination with contrast was necessary to determine position of the tip. In 29 of these, the line tip was clearly visualised with contrast. On two occasions, the line tip could not be seen because the contrast had filled the vein and obscured the tip from view. Eight of the lines that required a second radiograph with contrast were repositioned.
CONCLUSION—Intravenous contrast should be routinely used in the assessment of long line position in the neonate.

 PMID:11207231

  8. Neutron Radiography Reactor Reactivity -- Focused Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Woolstenhulme; Randal Damiana; Kenneth Schreck; Ann Marie Phillips; Dana Hewit

    2010-11-01

    As part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, the Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was converted from using highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. After the conversion, NRAD resumed operations and is meeting operational requirements. Radiography image quality and the number of images that can be produced in a given time frame match pre-conversion capabilities. However, following the conversion, NRAD’s excess reactivity with the LEU fuel was less than it had been with the HEU fuel. Although some differences between model predictions and actual performance are to be expected, the lack of flexibility in NRAD’s safety documentation prevented adjusting the reactivity by adding more fuel, until the safety documentation could be modified. To aid future reactor conversions, a reactivity-focused Lessons Learned meeting was held. This report summarizes the findings of the lessons learned meeting and addresses specific questions posed by DOE regarding NRAD’s conversion and reactivity.

  9. Imaging properties of digital magnification radiography.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Sarah J; Samei, Ehsan

    2006-04-01

    Flat panel detectors exhibit improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and display capabilities compared to film. This improvement necessitates a new evaluation of optimal geometry for conventional projection imaging applications such as digital projection mammography as well as for advanced x-ray imaging applications including cone-beam computed tomography (CT), tomosynthesis, and mammotomography. Such an evaluation was undertaken in this study to examine the effects of x-ray source distribution, inherent detector resolution, magnification, scatter rejection, and noise characteristics including noise aliasing. A model for x-ray image acquisition was used to develop generic results applicable to flat panel detectors with similar x-ray absorption characteristics. The model assumed a Gaussian distribution for the focal spot and a rectangular distribution for a pixel. A generic model for the modulated transfer function (MTF) of indirect flat panel detectors was derived by a nonlinear fit of empirical receptor data to the Burgess model for phosphor MTFs. Noise characteristics were investigated using a generic noise power spectrum (NPS) model for indirect phosphor-based detectors. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) was then calculated from the MTF and NPS models. The results were examined as a function of focal spot size (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mm) and pixel size (50, 100, 150, and 200 microm) for magnification ranges 1 to 3. Mammography, general radiography (also applicable to mammotomography), and chest radiography applications were explored using x-ray energies of 28, 74, and 120 kVp, respectively. Nodule detection was examined using the effective point source scatter model, effective DQE, and the Hotelling SNR2 efficiency. Results indicate that magnification can potentially improve the signal and noise performance of digital images. Results also show that a cross over point occurs in the spatial frequency above and below which the effects of magnification differ

  10. High Brightness Neutron Source for Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, J. T.; Piestrup, Melvin, A.; Gary, Charles, K.; Harris, Jack, L. Williams, David, J.; Jones, Glenn, E.; Vainionpaa, J. , H.; Fuller, Michael, J.; Rothbart, George, H.; Kwan, J., W.; Ludewigt, B., A.; Gough, R.., A..; Reijonen, Jani; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-12-08

    This research and development program was designed to improve nondestructive evaluation of large mechanical objects by providing both fast and thermal neutron sources for radiography. Neutron radiography permits inspection inside objects that x-rays cannot penetrate and permits imaging of corrosion and cracks in low-density materials. Discovering of fatigue cracks and corrosion in piping without the necessity of insulation removal is possible. Neutron radiography sources can provide for the nondestructive testing interests of commercial and military aircraft, public utilities and petrochemical organizations. Three neutron prototype neutron generators were designed and fabricated based on original research done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The research and development of these generators was successfully continued by LBNL and Adelphi Technology Inc. under this STTR. The original design goals of high neutron yield and generator robustness have been achieved, using new technology developed under this grant. In one prototype generator, the fast neutron yield and brightness was roughly 10 times larger than previously marketed neutron generators using the same deuterium-deuterium reaction. In another generator, we integrate a moderator with a fast neutron source, resulting in a high brightness thermal neutron generator. The moderator acts as both conventional moderator and mechanical and electrical support structure for the generator and effectively mimics a nuclear reactor. In addition to the new prototype generators, an entirely new plasma ion source for neutron production was developed. First developed by LBNL, this source uses a spiral antenna to more efficiently couple the RF radiation into the plasma, reducing the required gas pressure so that the generator head can be completely sealed, permitting the possible use of tritium gas. This also permits the generator to use the deuterium-tritium reaction to produce 14-MeV neutrons with increases

  11. Neutron Computed Tomography Using Real-Time Neutron Radiography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulcoski, Mark Francis

    Conventional neutron radiography of an object records a two-dimensional distribution of the neutron beam intensity after it has passed through an object. The neutron radiograph, whether static film or real-time, may be considered a "shadow graph" of the object. In a shadow graph, internal structures in an object may mask one another making it difficult or impossible to precisely define the internals of the object. This problem can be solved by tomographic imaging. A real-time neutron radiography facility was constructed including the capability of neutron tomography. The neutron beam was measured for total neutron flux ((1.0 (+OR-) 0.2) x 10('11) n/(m('2)-sec)), gold cadmium ratio (52 (+OR-) 3) and effective neutron temperature (83(DEGREES)C (+OR -) 8(DEGREES)C). The angular divergence or nonparallelism of the neutron beam was measured to be \\2.3(DEGREES) (+OR -) 0.1(DEGREES) thereby providing a means of quantifying the collimator effectiveness. The resolution capabilities of both static film and real-time neutron radiographs were quantified using a Fourier transform algorithm to calculate the modulation transfer function of both types of radiographs. The contrast sensitivity of both types of radiographs was measured as 3.1% for film and 4.0% for real-time radiographs. Two tomography algorithms, the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) and the convolution method, were programmed on an Intellect 100 Image Processing System. The SIRT algorithm was found to be too large and slow on the Intellect 100 to produce useful tomographs. The convolution method produced results near the theoretical resolution limits for a given number of projections. A tomographic resolution of at least 1.3 mm was demonstrated using 200 projections. Computer running time for the convolution method was found to be (TURN)30 seconds for each projection used. A series of experiments were conducted using the convolution method investigating the effect of high and low pass

  12. Digital mammography performed with computed radiography technology.

    PubMed

    Jouan, B

    1999-07-01

    Introduced by Fuji Photo Film Japan in the early 1980s, computed radiography (CR) technology has developed considerably since then to become the mature widely installed technology it is today (about 7500 systems worldwide). Various mammographic examinations require high performance results to which CR complies on demand or following some procedures such as geometrical magnification carried out during the examination. The basic CR principles and digital image processing as well as technical improvements are detailed in this study, which also includes a synthesis of the articles on CR mammographic applications referenced in the bibliography, focusing on strong points, limits and current methods of surpassing these limits. New CR technology development perspectives in mammography and computed assisted diagnosis (CAD) algorithms will allow wider use of this method in the near future.

  13. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  14. Polarized neutron radiography with a periscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Michael; Neubauer, Andreas; Mühlbauer, Martin; Calzada, Elbio; Schillinger, Burkhard; Pfleiderer, Christian; Böni, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the magnetic moment of the neutron with magnetic fields provides a powerful probe for spatially resolved magnetisation measurements in magnetic materials. We have tested a periscope as a new type of polarizer providing neutron beams with a high polarization and a low divergence. The observed inhomogeneity of the beam caused by the waviness of the glass substrates was quantified by means of Monte-Carlo simulations using the software package McStas. The results show that beams of high homogeneity can be produced if the waviness is reduced to below 1.0·10-5 rad. Finally, it is shown that radiography with polarized neutrons is a powerful method for measuring the spatially resolved magnetisation in optically float-zoned samples of the weak itinerant ferromagnet Ni3Al, thereby aiding the identification of the appropriate growth parameters.

  15. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2-2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR (6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  16. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2 to 2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR(6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  17. Digital radiography exposure indices: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette; Robinson, John

    2014-06-15

    Digital radiography (DR) technologies have the advantage of a wide dynamic range compared to their film-screen predecessors, however, this poses a potential for increased patient exposure if left unchecked. Manufacturers have developed the exposure index (EI) to counter this, which provides radiographers with feedback on the exposure reaching the detector. As these EIs were manufacturer-specific, a wide variety of EIs existed. To offset this, the international standardised EI has been developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The purpose of this article is to explore the current literature relating to EIs, beginning with the historical development of the EI, the development of the standardised EI and an exploration of common themes and studies as evidenced in the research literature. It is anticipated that this review will provide radiographers with a useful guide to understanding EIs, their application in clinical practice, limitations and suggestions for further research.

  18. Muscle parameters estimation based on biplanar radiography.

    PubMed

    Dubois, G; Rouch, P; Bonneau, D; Gennisson, J L; Skalli, W

    2016-11-01

    The evaluation of muscle and joint forces in vivo is still a challenge. Musculo-Skeletal (musculo-skeletal) models are used to compute forces based on movement analysis. Most of them are built from a scaled-generic model based on cadaver measurements, which provides a low level of personalization, or from Magnetic Resonance Images, which provide a personalized model in lying position. This study proposed an original two steps method to access a subject-specific musculo-skeletal model in 30 min, which is based solely on biplanar X-Rays. First, the subject-specific 3D geometry of bones and skin envelopes were reconstructed from biplanar X-Rays radiography. Then, 2200 corresponding control points were identified between a reference model and the subject-specific X-Rays model. Finally, the shape of 21 lower limb muscles was estimated using a non-linear transformation between the control points in order to fit the muscle shape of the reference model to the X-Rays model. Twelfth musculo-skeletal models were reconstructed and compared to their reference. The muscle volume was not accurately estimated with a standard deviation (SD) ranging from 10 to 68%. However, this method provided an accurate estimation the muscle line of action with a SD of the length difference lower than 2% and a positioning error lower than 20 mm. The moment arm was also well estimated with SD lower than 15% for most muscle, which was significantly better than scaled-generic model for most muscle. This method open the way to a quick modeling method for gait analysis based on biplanar radiography.

  19. Development of Compton radiography using high-Z backlighters produced by ultra-intense lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, Riccardo; Park, Hye-Sook; Patel, Prav; Maddox, Brian; Le Pape, Sebastien; Hatchett, Stephen P.; Remington, Bruce A.; Key, Michael H.; Izumi, Nobuhiko; Tabak, Max; Koch, Jeffrey A.; Landen, Otto L.; Hey, Dan; MacKinnon, Andy; Seely, John; Holland, Glenn; Hudson, Larry; Szabo, Csilla

    2007-08-02

    High-energy x-ray backlighters will be valuable for radiography experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), and for radiography of imploded inertial confinement fusion cores using Compton scattering to observe cold, dense plasma. Key considerations are the available backlight brightness, and the backlight size. To quantify these parameters we have characterized the emission from low- and high-Z planar foils irradiated by intense picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses from the TITAN laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Spectra generated by a sequence of elements from Mo to Pb, spanning the x-ray energy range from 17 keV to 75 keV, have been recorded using a Charged Coupled Device (CCD) in single hit regime and a Dual Crystal Spectrometer (DCS). High-resolution point-projection 2D radiographs have also been recorded on Fuji BaFBr:Eu2 image plates using calibrated resolution grids. We discuss the results in light of the requirements for applications at NIF.

  20. An Overview of the MaRIE X-FEL and Electron Radiography LINAC RF Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Joseph Thomas III; Rees, Daniel Earl; Scheinker, Alexander; Sheffield, Richard L.

    2015-05-04

    The purpose of the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to investigate the performance limits of materials in extreme environments. The MaRIE facility will utilize a 12 GeV linac to drive an X-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL). Most of the same linac will also be used to perform electron radiography. The main linac is driven by two shorter linacs; one short linac optimized for X-FEL pulses and one for electron radiography. The RF systems have historically been the one of the largest single component costs of a linac. We will describe the details of the different types of RF systems required by each part of the linacs. Starting with the High Power RF system, we will present our methodology for the choice of RF system peak power and pulselength with respect to klystron parameters, modulator parameters, performance requirements and relative costs. We will also present an overview of the Low Level RF systems that are proposed for MaRIE and briefly describe their use with some proposed control schemes.

  1. The Enhanced Workflow and Efficiency of the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)-Based Direct Digital Radiography (DDR) Portable Radiography.

    PubMed

    Ngan, Tsz-Lung; Wong, Edward Ting-Hei; Ng, Kris Lap-Shun; Jeor, Patrick Kwok-Shing; Lo, Gladys Goh

    2015-06-01

    With the implementation of the PACS in the hospital, there is an increasing demand from the clinicians for immediate access and display of radiological images. Recently, our hospital has installed the first wireless local area network (WLAN)-based direct digital radiography (DDR) portable radiography system. The DDR portable radiography system allows wireless retrieval of modality worklist and wireless transmission of portable X-ray image on the console to the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), via WLAN connection of wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi). The aim of this study was to analyze the workflow and performance between the WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system and the old practice using conventional portable X-ray machine with computed radiography (CR) system. A total of 190 portable chest X-ray examinations were evaluated and timed, using the conventional portable X-ray machine with CR from March to April of 2012 and using the new DDR portable radiography system on December of 2012 (n = 97 for old system and n = 93 for DDR portable system). The time interval of image becoming available to the PACS using the WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system was significantly shorter than that of the old practice using the conventional portable X-ray machine with CR (6.8 ± 2.6 min for DDR portable system; 23 ± 10.2 min for old system; p < 0.0001), with the efficiency improved by 70 %. The implementation of the WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system can enhance the workflow of portable radiography by reduction of procedural steps.

  2. 5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING A CONTROL ROOM INSIDE THE RADIOGRAPHY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING A CONTROL ROOM INSIDE THE RADIOGRAPHY ROOM; PASS-THROUGH FOR EXPOSED FILM ON RIGHT - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1031, North side of South Tenth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  3. Radiography with the Fission Neutrons from Californium-252

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    iftD-Ao45 3^ m-77-B1i2i TECHNICAL 7󈧖 LIBRARY lADfto^^^ RADIOGRAPHY WITH THE FISSION NEUTRONS FROM CALIFORNIUM -252 JOHN J. ANTAL and...TITLE C«id Sub(l(/«J RADIOGRAPHY WITH THE FISSION NEUTRONS FROM CALIFORNIUM -252 5. TYPE OF REPORT it PERIOD COVERED Final Report 6...Cellulose nitrate Californium -252 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse aide 11 necessary and identity by block number) (SEE REVERSE SIDE) DD 1

  4. Bayesian Abel Inversion in Quantitative X-Ray Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, Marylesa; Fowler, Michael; Luttman, Aaron; Mitchell, Stephen E.; Hock, Margaret C.

    2016-05-19

    A common image formation process in high-energy X-ray radiography is to have a pulsed power source that emits X-rays through a scene, a scintillator that absorbs X-rays and uoresces in the visible spectrum in response to the absorbed photons, and a CCD camera that images the visible light emitted from the scintillator. The intensity image is related to areal density, and, for an object that is radially symmetric about a central axis, the Abel transform then gives the object's volumetric density. Two of the primary drawbacks to classical variational methods for Abel inversion are their sensitivity to the type and scale of regularization chosen and the lack of natural methods for quantifying the uncertainties associated with the reconstructions. In this work we cast the Abel inversion problem within a statistical framework in order to compute volumetric object densities from X-ray radiographs and to quantify uncertainties in the reconstruction. A hierarchical Bayesian model is developed with a likelihood based on a Gaussian noise model and with priors placed on the unknown density pro le, the data precision matrix, and two scale parameters. This allows the data to drive the localization of features in the reconstruction and results in a joint posterior distribution for the unknown density pro le, the prior parameters, and the spatial structure of the precision matrix. Results of the density reconstructions and pointwise uncertainty estimates are presented for both synthetic signals and real data from a U.S. Department of Energy X-ray imaging facility.

  5. Bayesian Abel Inversion in Quantitative X-Ray Radiography

    DOE PAGES

    Howard, Marylesa; Fowler, Michael; Luttman, Aaron; ...

    2016-05-19

    A common image formation process in high-energy X-ray radiography is to have a pulsed power source that emits X-rays through a scene, a scintillator that absorbs X-rays and uoresces in the visible spectrum in response to the absorbed photons, and a CCD camera that images the visible light emitted from the scintillator. The intensity image is related to areal density, and, for an object that is radially symmetric about a central axis, the Abel transform then gives the object's volumetric density. Two of the primary drawbacks to classical variational methods for Abel inversion are their sensitivity to the type andmore » scale of regularization chosen and the lack of natural methods for quantifying the uncertainties associated with the reconstructions. In this work we cast the Abel inversion problem within a statistical framework in order to compute volumetric object densities from X-ray radiographs and to quantify uncertainties in the reconstruction. A hierarchical Bayesian model is developed with a likelihood based on a Gaussian noise model and with priors placed on the unknown density pro le, the data precision matrix, and two scale parameters. This allows the data to drive the localization of features in the reconstruction and results in a joint posterior distribution for the unknown density pro le, the prior parameters, and the spatial structure of the precision matrix. Results of the density reconstructions and pointwise uncertainty estimates are presented for both synthetic signals and real data from a U.S. Department of Energy X-ray imaging facility.« less

  6. Comparison of state dental radiography safety regulations.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Thomas F; Parashar, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and provide an overview of state policies on occupational exposure, dosimetry, collimation, patient protection, and the use of portable handheld X-ray machines in dentistry. State government webpages containing radiation protection rules and regulations were scanned. The contents were compared against current federal regulations established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). They were further evaluated in light of current recommendations from the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) and the American Dental Association (ADA). Most states' regulations mirror the exposure limits set forth by the NRC and FDA. Nonregulatory recommendations regarding use of dental radiography are periodically put forth by the NCRP and the ADA. State and federal agencies often follow recommendations from these scientific organizations when creating regulations. Clinicians must be aware of their state's radiation protection rules, as variations among states exist. In addition, recommendations published by organizations such as the NCRP and the ADA, while not legally binding, contribute significantly to the reduction of radiation risks for operators and patients alike.

  7. Patient information extraction in digitized radiography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsien-Huang P

    2002-03-01

    Digital imagery is gradually replacing the traditional radiograph with the development of digital radiography and film scanner. This report presents a new method to extract the patient information number (PIN) field automatically from the film-scanned image using image analysis technique. To evaluate the PIN field extraction algorithm, 2 formats of label acquired from 2 different hospitals are tested. Given the available films with no constraints on the way the labels are written and positioned, the correct extraction rates are 73% and 84%, respectively. This extracted PIN information can link with Radiology Information System (RIS) or Hospital Information System (HIS), and the image scanned from the film then can be filed into the database automatically. The efficiency this method offers can simplify greatly the image filing process and improve the user friendliness of the overall image digitization system. Moreover, compared with the bar code reader, it solves the automatic information input problem in a very economical way. The authors believe the success of this technique will benefit the development of the PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) and teleradiology.

  8. Developments in digital radiography: an equipment update.

    PubMed

    James, J J; Davies, A G; Cowen, A R; O'Connor, P J

    2001-01-01

    Digital X-ray imaging technology has advanced rapidly over the past few years. This review, particularly aimed at those involved in using and purchasing such technology, is an attempt to unravel some of the complexities of this potentially confusing subject. The main groups of X-ray imaging devices that are considered are digitisers of conventional radiographs, image-intensifier-based fluorography systems, photostimulable phosphor computed radiography, amorphous selenium-based technology for thorax imaging and flat-panel systems. As well as describing these different systems, we look at ways of objectively assessing their image quality. Concepts that are used and explained include spatial resolution, grey-scale bit resolution, signal-to-noise ratio and detective quantum efficiency. An understanding of these basic parameters is vital in making a scientific assessment of a system's performance. Image processing and techniques are also briefly discussed, particularly with reference to their potential effects on image quality. This review aims to provide a basic understanding of digital X-ray imaging technology and enables the reader to make an independent and educated assessment of the relative merits of each system.

  9. Applications of Cosmic Ray Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardincerri, E.; Durham, J. M.; Morris, C. L.; Rowe, C. A.; Poulson, D. C.; Bacon, J. D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Morley, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral, was built between 1420 and 1436 by architect Filippo Brunelleschi and it is now cracking under its own weight. Engineering efforts are underway to model the dome's structure and reinforce it against further deterioration. According to some scholars, Brunelleschi might have built reinforcement structures into the dome itself; however, the only confirmed known subsurface reinforcement is a chain of iron and stone around the dome's base. Tomography with cosmic ray muons is a non-destructive imaging method that can be used to image the interior of the wall and therefore ascertain the layout and status of any iron substructure in the dome. We will show the results from a muon tomography measurement of iron hidden in a mockup of the dome's wall performed at Los Alamos National Lab in 2015. The sensitivity of this technique, and the status of this project will be also discussed. At last, we will show results on muon attenuation radiography of larger shallow targets.

  10. Portable Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-11-01

    This user manual describes the function and use of the portable digital radiography and computed tomography (DRCT) scanner. The manual gives a general overview of x-ray imaging systems along with a description of the DRCT system. An inventory of the all the system components, organized by shipping container, is also included. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are provided for all of the exercises necessary for a novice user to successfully collect digital radiographs and tomographic images of an object, including instructions on system assembly and detector calibration and system alignment. There is also a short section covering the limited system care and maintenance needs. Descriptions of the included software packages, the DRCT Digital Imager used for system operation, and the DRCT Image Processing Interface used for image viewing and tomographic data reconstruction are given in the appendixes. The appendixes also include a cheat sheet for more experienced users, a listing of known system problems and how to mitigate them, and an inventory check-off sheet suitable for copying and including with the machine for shipment purposes.

  11. A dose monitoring system for dental radiography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chena; Kim, Jo-Eun; Symkhampha, Khanthaly; Lee, Woo-Jin; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Yeom, Heon-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The current study investigates the feasibility of a platform for a nationwide dose monitoring system for dental radiography. The essential elements for an unerring system are also assessed. Materials and Methods An intraoral radiographic machine with 14 X-ray generators and five sensors, 45 panoramic radiographic machines, and 23 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) models used in Korean dental clinics were surveyed to investigate the type of dose report. A main server for storing the dose data from each radiographic machine was prepared. The dose report transfer pathways from the radiographic machine to the main sever were constructed. An effective dose calculation method was created based on the machine specifications and the exposure parameters of three intraoral radiographic machines, five panoramic radiographic machines, and four CBCTs. A viewing system was developed for both dentists and patients to view the calculated effective dose. Each procedure and the main server were integrated into one system. Results The dose data from each type of radiographic machine was successfully transferred to the main server and converted into an effective dose. The effective dose stored in the main server is automatically connected to a viewing program for dentist and patient access. Conclusion A patient radiation dose monitoring system is feasible for dental clinics. Future research in cooperation with clinicians, industry, and radiologists is needed to ensure format convertibility for an efficient dose monitoring system to monitor unexpected radiation dose. PMID:27358817

  12. Water Calibration Measurements for Neutron Radiography: Application to Water Content Quantification in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Misun; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Voisin, Sophie; Cheng, Chu-lin; Perfect, Edmund; Horita, Juske; Warren, Jeffrey

    2013-04-01

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 2 mm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector / scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  13. Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Voisin, S.; Cheng, C. L.; Perfect, E.; Horita, J.; Warren, J. M.

    2013-04-01

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  14. A method to optimize the processing algorithm of a computed radiography system for chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Moore, C S; Liney, G P; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R

    2007-09-01

    A test methodology using an anthropomorphic-equivalent chest phantom is described for the optimization of the Agfa computed radiography "MUSICA" processing algorithm for chest radiography. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the lung, heart and diaphragm regions of the phantom, and the "system modulation transfer function" (sMTF) in the lung region, were measured using test tools embedded in the phantom. Using these parameters the MUSICA processing algorithm was optimized with respect to low-contrast detectability and spatial resolution. Two optimum "MUSICA parameter sets" were derived respectively for maximizing the CNR and sMTF in each region of the phantom. Further work is required to find the relative importance of low-contrast detectability and spatial resolution in chest images, from which the definitive optimum MUSICA parameter set can then be derived. Prior to this further work, a compromised optimum MUSICA parameter set was applied to a range of clinical images. A group of experienced image evaluators scored these images alongside images produced from the same radiographs using the MUSICA parameter set in clinical use at the time. The compromised optimum MUSICA parameter set was shown to produce measurably better images.

  15. Visualization of embolism formation in the xylem of liana stems using neutron radiography

    PubMed Central

    Tötzke, Christian; Miranda, Tatiana; Konrad, Wilfried; Gout, Julien; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Dawson, Martin; Manke, Ingo; Roth-Nebelsick, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Cold neutron radiography was applied to directly observe embolism in conduits of liana stems with the aim to evaluate the suitability of this method for studying embolism formation and repair. Potential advantages of this method are a principally non-invasive imaging approach with low energy dose compared with synchrotron X-ray radiation, a good spatial and temporal resolution, and the possibility to observe the entire volume of stem portions with a length of several centimetres at one time. Methods Complete and cut stems of Adenia lobata, Aristolochia macrophylla and Parthenocissus tricuspidata were radiographed at the neutron imaging facility CONRAD at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, with each measurement cycle lasting several hours. Low attenuation gas spaces were separated from the high attenuation (water-containing) plant tissue using image processing. Key results Severe cuts into the stem were necessary to induce embolism. The formation and temporal course of an embolism event could then be successfully observed in individual conduits. It was found that complete emptying of a vessel with a diameter of 100 µm required a time interval of 4 min. Furthermore, dehydration of the whole stem section could be monitored via decreasing attenuation of the neutrons. Conclusions The results suggest that cold neutron radiography represents a useful tool for studying water relations in plant stems that has the potential to complement other non-invasive methods. PMID:23393096

  16. An on-line video image processing system for real-time neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujine, Shigenori; Yoneda, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji

    1983-09-01

    The neutron radiography system installed at the E-2 experimental hole of the KUR (Kyoto University Reactor) has been used for some NDT applications in the nuclear field. The on-line video image processing system of this facility is introduced in this paper. A 0.5 mm resolution in images was obtained by using a super high quality TV camera developed for X-radiography viewing a NE-426 neutron-sensitive scintillator. The image of the Ne-426 on a CRT can be observed directly and visually, thus many test samples can be sequentially observed when necessary for industrial purposes. The video image signals from the TV camera are digitized, with a 33 ms delay, through a video A/D converter (ADC) and can be stored in the image bufer (32KB DRAM) of a microcomputer (Z-80) system. The digitized pictures are taken with 16 levels of gray scale and resolved to 240×256 picture elements (pixels) on a monochrome CRT, with the capability also to display 16 distinct colors on a RGB video display. The direct image of this system could be satisfactory for penetrating the side plates to test MTR type reactor fuels and for the investigation of moving objects.

  17. Facility Focus: Science Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses design and architectural features of two new science facilities at the Florida Institute of Technology in Melbourne, Florida, and a new graduate research tower the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Notes the important convenience associated with interior windows in these facilities, which allow researchers, faculty, and students to see…

  18. Recent advances in fast neutron radiography for cargo inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowerby, B. D.; Tickner, J. R.

    2007-09-01

    Fast neutron radiography techniques are attractive for screening cargo for contraband such as narcotics and explosives. Neutrons have the required penetration, they interact with matter in a manner complementary to X-rays and they can be used to determine elemental composition. Compared to neutron interrogation techniques that measure secondary radiation (neutron or gamma-rays), neutron radiography systems are much more efficient and rapid and they are much more amenable to imaging. However, for neutron techniques to be successfully applied to cargo screening, they must demonstrate significant advantages over well-established X-ray techniques. This paper reviews recent developments and applications of fast neutron radiography for cargo inspection. These developments include a fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography system that utilizes a 14 MeV neutron generator as well as fast neutron resonance radiography systems that use variable energy quasi-monoenergetic neutrons and pulsed broad energy neutron beams. These systems will be discussed and compared with particular emphasis on user requirements, sources, detector systems, imaging ability and performance.

  19. Evaluation of a Noise Reduction Procedure for Chest Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Ryohei; Ishii, Rie; Kodani, Kazuhiko; Kanasaki, Yoshiko; Suyama, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masanari; Nakamoto, Masaki; Fukuoka, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of noise reduction procedure (NRP), a function in the new image processing for chest radiography. Methods A CXDI-50G Portable Digital Radiography System (Canon) was used for X-ray detection. Image noise was analyzed with a noise power spectrum (NPS) and a burger phantom was used for evaluation of density resolution. The usefulness of NRP was evaluated by chest phantom images and clinical chest radiography. We employed the Bureau of Radiological Health Method for scoring chest images while carrying out our observations. Results NPS through the use of NRP was improved compared with conventional image processing (CIP). The results in image quality showed high-density resolution through the use of NRP, so that chest radiography examination can be performed with a low dose of radiation. Scores were significantly higher than for CIP. Conclusion In this study, use of NRP led to a high evaluation in these so we are able to confirm the usefulness of NRP for clinical chest radiography. PMID:24574577

  20. A benchmark for comparison of dental radiography analysis algorithms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Wei; Huang, Cheng-Ta; Lee, Jia-Hong; Li, Chung-Hsing; Chang, Sheng-Wei; Siao, Ming-Jhih; Lai, Tat-Ming; Ibragimov, Bulat; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Ronneberger, Olaf; Fischer, Philipp; Cootes, Tim F; Lindner, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    Dental radiography plays an important role in clinical diagnosis, treatment and surgery. In recent years, efforts have been made on developing computerized dental X-ray image analysis systems for clinical usages. A novel framework for objective evaluation of automatic dental radiography analysis algorithms has been established under the auspices of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging 2015 Bitewing Radiography Caries Detection Challenge and Cephalometric X-ray Image Analysis Challenge. In this article, we present the datasets, methods and results of the challenge and lay down the principles for future uses of this benchmark. The main contributions of the challenge include the creation of the dental anatomy data repository of bitewing radiographs, the creation of the anatomical abnormality classification data repository of cephalometric radiographs, and the definition of objective quantitative evaluation for comparison and ranking of the algorithms. With this benchmark, seven automatic methods for analysing cephalometric X-ray image and two automatic methods for detecting bitewing radiography caries have been compared, and detailed quantitative evaluation results are presented in this paper. Based on the quantitative evaluation results, we believe automatic dental radiography analysis is still a challenging and unsolved problem. The datasets and the evaluation software will be made available to the research community, further encouraging future developments in this field. (http://www-o.ntust.edu.tw/~cweiwang/ISBI2015/).

  1. High-resolution 22-52 keV backlighter sources and application to X-ray radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, K.; Moore, A. S.; Smalyuk, V.; Wallace, K.; Gate, D.; Glendinning, S. G.; McAlpin, S.; Park, H. S.; Sorce, C.; Stevenson, R. M.

    2013-09-01

    The requirement for sources of hard X-rays suitable for high resolution radiography through large ρR targets is prominent in many aspects of current laser-driven plasma physics research. In recent work using the OMEGA EP laser facility [L. J. Waxer, M. J. Guardalben, J. H. Kelly et al., CLEO/QELS, Optical Society of America, San Jose, CA, IEEE (2008)] at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) in Rochester, NY, experiments have been performed to measure characteristics of 22-52 keV X-ray sources using high intensity short-pulse lasers. High quality point projection, two-dimensional radiography was demonstrated by irradiating microwire targets with laser intensities of 1016 W cm-2-1019 W cm-2. Microwire targets were manufactured to dimensions of 10 μm × 10 μm × 300 μm and were supported by a 100 μm × 300 μm × 6 μm low-Z substrate. Measurements of the k-α conversion efficiency and X-ray source-size are discussed and, of particular importance for radiography, the spectral purity of the backlighter is characterized to assess the relative importance of the Kα emission to bremsstrahlung background.

  2. A software tool for quality assurance of computed/digital radiography (CR/DR) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Nikunj; Valentino, Daniel J.

    2011-03-01

    The recommended methods to test the performance of computed radiography (CR) systems have been established by The American Association of Physicists in Medicine, Report No. 93, "Acceptance Testing and Quality Control of Photostimulable Storage Phosphor Imaging Systems". The quality assurance tests are categorized by how frequently they need to be performed. Quality assurance of CR systems is the responsibility of the facility that performs the exam and is governed by the state in which the facility is located. For Example, the New York State Department of Health has established a guide which lists the tests that a CR facility must perform for quality assurance. This study aims at educating the reader about the new quality assurance requirements defined by the state. It further demonstrates an easy to use software tool, henceforth referred to as the Digital Physicist, developed to aid a radiologic facility in conforming with state guidelines and monitoring quality assurance of CR/DR imaging systems. The Digital Physicist provides a vendor independent procedure for quality assurance of CR/DR systems. Further it, generates a PDF report with a brief description of these tests and the obtained results.

  3. Limiting the use of routine radiography for acute ankle injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Cockshott, W. P.; Jenkin, J. K.; Pui, M.

    1983-01-01

    In the diagnosis of ankle injuries routine radiography is often productive. An international survey of the average number of radiographs made of injured ankles suggested that two projections are adequate to detect fractures. This was confirmed in a prospective study of 242 patients coming to a hospital emergency department with recent ankle injuries. All the fractures could be identified on an anteroposterior or a lateral projection, although some were more obvious on an oblique view. As well, all the fractures were associated with malleolar soft-tissue swelling. Thus, radiography for acute ankle injuries could safely be restricted to patients with soft-tissue swelling, and fractures could be diagnosed using only two routine projections, though for management purposes additional projections might be needed. With a policy of limiting the use of radiography substantial cost reductions are possible. Images FIG. 1 PMID:6407744

  4. Studies of solid propellant combustion with pulsed radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godai, T.; Tanemura, T.; Fujiwara, T.; Shimizu, M.

    1987-01-01

    Pulsed radiography was applied to observe solid propellant surface regression during rocket motor operation. Using a 150 KV flash X-ray system manufactured by the Field Emission Corporation and two kinds of film suppliers, images of the propellant surface of a 5 cm diameter end burning rocket motor were recorded on film. The repetition frame rate of 8 pulses per second and the pulse train length of 10 pulses are limited by the capability of the power supply and the heat build up within the X-ray tube, respectively. The experiment demonstrated the effectiveness of pulsed radiography for observing solid propellant surface regression. Measuring the position of burning surface images on film with a microdensitometer, quasi-instantaneous burning rate as a function of pressure and the variation of characteristic velocity with pressure and gas stay time were obtained. Other research items to which pulsed radiography can be applied are also suggested.

  5. [Significance of plain radiography in shoulder pain diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Botser, Itamar Busheri; Shapira, Shachar; Oran, Ariel; Avivi, Eran; Pritsch, Moshe

    2011-09-01

    Shoulder pain is a common complaint--almost 20% of the population will suffer shoulder pain during their life time. Despite the availability of newer imaging techniques for evaluation of the shoulder, the first imaging study should be radiography. Recently, ultrasonography of the shoulder has become one of the first studies performed. Sometimes, ultrasonography is conducted before radiography; moreover, many patients are being referred to a shoulder specialist without performing an X-ray. There is a plethora of pathologies that can cause shoulder pain--rotator cuff tears, impingement syndrome, calcified tendinitis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, neoplasms and more. This review aims to show the significance of plain radiography in the diagnosis of shoulder pathologies, in order to encourage the use of this modality. In this paper we shall review the different causes of shoulder pain and their radiographic characteristics.

  6. Pressure Indication of 3013 Inner Containers Using Digital Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    HENSEL, SJ

    2004-04-15

    Plutonium bearing materials packaged for long term storage per the Department of Energy Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) are required to be examined periodically in a non-destructive manner (i.e. without compromising the storage containers) for pressure buildup. Radiography is the preferred technology for performing the examinations. The concept is to measure and record the container lid position. As a can pressurizes the lid will deflect outward and thus provide an indication of the internal pressure. A radiograph generated within 30 days of creation of each storage container serves as the baseline from which future surveillance examinations will be compared. A problem with measuring the lid position was discovered during testing of a digital radiography system. The solution was to provide a distinct feature upon the lower surface of the container lid from which the digital radiography system could easily track the lid position.

  7. Option study of an orthogonal X-ray radiography axis for pRad at LANSCE area C, Los Alamos.

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Bryan Velten; Johnson, David L.; Leckbee, Joshua J.; Jones, Peter

    2010-10-01

    We report on an option study of two potential x-ray systems for orthogonal radiography at Area C in the LANSCE facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The systems assessed are expected to be near equivalent systems to the presently existing Cygnus capability at the Nevada Test Site. Nominal dose and radiographic resolution of 4 rad (measured at one meter) and 1 mm spot are desired. Both a system study and qualitative design are presented as well as estimated cost and schedule. Each x-ray system analyzed is designed to drive a rod-pinch electron beam diode capable of producing the nominal dose and spot.

  8. Brighter Screens for Nondestructive Digital X-ray Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Jr., A. C.; Bell, Z. W.; Carpenter, D. A.

    2003-09-15

    Fine resolution, bright X-ray screens are needed for digital radiography and material characterization at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Current technology is simply not adequate for transferring high-energy X-ray images to visible light for demanding digital applications. Low energy radiography and especially emerging tomographic technologies are severely hampered for Y-12 nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications by dim screens with poor resolution. Also, the development of more advanced materials characterization techniques, such as electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), is driven by a design agency desire for tighter specifications and more uniform materials. Brighter screens would allow us to probe materials on a finer scale, leading to a better understanding of material behavior. A number of X-ray screen materials were studied that would be suitable for direct replacement in existing digital imaging systems. Spectroscopic evaluations were first made for a several candidates and indicated that lutetium orthosilicate (LSO) would be a promising candidate for MeV images. A relative comparison of brightness at various energies was then completed which showed that cesium iodide (CsI) could increase brightness by over an order of magnitude. Since image quality is also important for better screens, the resolving capabilities of candidate materials were measured. Resolution measurements were completed at X-ray peak energies up to 420KeV with magnified optical imaging systems, and indicated that LSO and Industrial Quality Incorporated glass (IQI) exhibited higher resolution than the CsI screen. The results give a choice of materials that can be tailored to the particular test under consideration. If high-speed images are necessary and some resolution can be sacrificed, the CsI screen will be a good choice. The screen can be replaced by an IQI or LSO unit if higher resolution is needed later, for instance to focus in on a region of interest. A number of

  9. Phosphor plate radiography: an integral component of the filmless practice.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Scott

    2010-11-01

    The federal government has mandated that all dental and medical patient records be electronic in 3 years. Practices using film radiography will be unable to comply with this mandate. PSP radiography is not only a surprisingly convenient way to transition from film to digital imaging, it can also greatly enhance the practice's productivity, profitability, and patient satisfaction. Modern, forward-thinking practices will want to take full advantage of PSP's superiority by making this transition now rather than waiting until they are forced to.

  10. Pilot study of bovine interdigital cassetteless computed radiography.

    PubMed

    El-Shafaey, El-Sayed Ahmed Awad; Aoki, Takahiro; Ishii, Mitsuo; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2013-11-01

    Twenty-one limbs of bovine cadavers (42 digits) were exposed to interdigital cassetteless imaging plate using computed radiography. The radiographic findings included exostosis, a rough planta surface, osteolysis of the apex of the distal phalanx and widening of the laminar zone between the distal phalanx and the hoof wall. All these findings were confirmed by computed tomography. The hindlimbs (19 digits) showed more changes than the forelimbs (10 digits), particularly in the lateral distal phalanx. The cassetteless computed radiography technique is expected to be an easily applicable method for the distal phalanx rather than a conventional cassette-plate and/or the film-screen cassetteless methods.

  11. Californium Multiplier Part I: design for neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Crosbie, K.L.; Preskitt, C.A.; John, J.; Hastings, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Californium Multiplier (CFX) is a subcritical assembly of enriched uranium surrounding a californium-252 neutron source. The function of the CFX is to multiply the neutrons emitted by the source to a number sufficient for neutron radiography. The CFX is designed to provide a collimated beam of thermal neutrons from which the gamma radiation is filtered, and the scattered neutrons are reduced to make it suitable for high resolution radiography. The entire system has inherent safety features, which provide for system and personnel safety, and it operates at moderate cost. In Part I, the CFX and the theory of its operation are described in detail.

  12. Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sjue, Sky K.

    2015-11-04

    The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly.

  13. Hugoniot Measurements at Low Pressures in Tin Using 800 MeV proton Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Cynthia; Hogan, Gary E; King, Nicholas S. P.; Kwiathowski, Kris K.; Mariam, Fesseha G.; Marr-Lyon, Mark; McNeil, Wendy Vogan; Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher; Rightley, Paul; Saunders, Alexander

    2009-08-05

    A 2cm long 8 mm diameter cylindrical tin target has been shocked to a pressure in the region of the {beta} {yields} {gamma} phase change using a small, low density PETN charge mounted on the opposite side of a stainless steel diaphragm. The density jump and shock velocity were measured radiographically as the shock wave moved through the sample and the pressure dropped, using the proton radiography facility at LANL. This provided a quasi-continuous record of the equations of state along the Hugoniot for the P1 wave from a shock velocity of 3.25 km/sec down to near the sound speed. Edge release effects were removed from the data using tomographic techniques. The data show evidence for a phase transition that extends over a broad pressure range. The data and analysis will be presented.

  14. Diagnostic Ultrasonography of an Ankle Fracture Undetectable by Conventional Radiography: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Clinton J.; Welk, Aaron B.; Enix, Dennis E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to present diagnostic ultrasonography assessment of an occult fracture in a case of persistent lateral ankle pain. Clinical Features A 35-year-old woman presented to a chiropractic clinic with bruising, swelling, and pain along the distal fibula 3 days following an inversion ankle trauma. Prior radiographic examination at an urgent care facility was negative for fracture. Conservative care over the next week noted improvement in objective findings, but the pain persisted. Intervention and Outcome Diagnostic ultrasonography was ordered to assess her persistent ankle pain and showed a minimally displaced fracture of the fibula 4 cm proximal to the lateral malleolus. The patient was referred to her primary care physician and successfully managed with conservative care. Conclusion In this case, diagnostic ultrasonography was able to identify a Danis-Weber subtype B1 fracture that was missed by plain film radiography. PMID:27069430

  15. Spot size measurement of a flash-radiography source using the pinhole imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Li, Qin; Chen, Nan; Cheng, Jin-Ming; Xie, Yu-Tong; Liu, Yun-Long; Long, Quan-Hong

    2016-07-01

    The spot size of the X-ray source is a key parameter of a flash-radiography facility, and is usually quoted as an evaluation of the resolving power. The pinhole imaging technique is applied to measure the spot size of the Dragon-I linear induction accelerator, by which a two-dimensional spatial distribution of the source spot is obtained. Experimental measurements are performed to measure the spot image when the transportation and focusing of the electron beam are tuned by adjusting the currents of solenoids in the downstream section. The spot size of full-width at half maximum and that defined from the spatial frequency at half peak value of the modulation transfer function are calculated and discussed.

  16. Measuring microfocal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A; Ewert, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification is especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application; and (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. The following equations are used for the focal spot size measurement: By similar triangles the following equations are presupposed: f/a = U/b and M = (a+b)/a. These equations can be combined to yield the well known expression: U = f(M - 1). Solving for f, f = U/(M-1). Therefore, the focal spot size, f, can be calculated by measuring the radiographic unsharpness and magnification of a known object. This is the basis for these tests. The European standard actually uses one-half of the unsharpness (which are then added together) from both sides of the object to avoid additional unsharpness contributions due to edge transmission unsharpness of the round test object (the outside of the object is measured). So the equation becomes f = (1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2})/(M-1). In practice 1/2 U is measured from the 50% to the 90% signal points on the transition profile from ''black'' to ''white,'' (positive image) or attenuated to unattenuated portion of the image. The 50% to 90% points are chosen as a best fit to an assumed Gaussian radiation distribution from the focal spot and to avoid edge transmission effects. 1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2} corresponds about to the full width at half height of a Gaussian focal spot. A highly absorbing material (Tungsten, Tungsten Alloy, or Platinum) is used for the object. Either wires or a sphere are used as the object to eliminate alignment issues. One

  17. Neutron Radiographic Inspection of Industrial Components using Kamini Neutron Source Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghu, N.; Anandaraj, V.; Kasiviswanathan, K. V.; Kalyanasundaram, P.

    2008-03-01

    Kamini (Kalpakkam Mini) reactor is a U233 fuelled, demineralised light water moderated and cooled, beryllium oxide reflected, low power (30 kW) nuclear research reactor. This reactor functions as a neutron source with a flux of 1012 n/cm2 s-1 at core centre with facilitates for carrying out neutron radiography, neutron activation analysis and neutron shielding experiments. There are two beam tubes for neutron radiography. The length/diameter ratio of the collimators is about 160 and the aperture size is 220 mm×70 mm. Flux at the outer end of the beam tube is ˜106-107 n/cm2 s. The north end beam tube is for radiography of inactive object while the south side beam tube is for radiography of radioactive objects. The availability of high neutron flux coupled with good collimated beam provides high quality radiographs with short exposure time. The reactor being a unique national facility for neutron radiography has been utilized in the examination of irradiated components, aero engine turbine blades, riveted plates, automobile chain links and for various types of pyro devices used in the space programme. In this paper, an overview of the salient features of this reactor facility for neutron radiography and our experience in the inspection of a variety of industrial components will be given.

  18. Neutron Radiographic Inspection of Industrial Components using Kamini Neutron Source Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Raghu, N.; Anandaraj, V.; Kasiviswanathan, K. V.; Kalyanasundaram, P.

    2008-03-17

    Kamini (Kalpakkam Mini) reactor is a U{sup 233} fuelled, demineralised light water moderated and cooled, beryllium oxide reflected, low power (30 kW) nuclear research reactor. This reactor functions as a neutron source with a flux of 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} at core centre with facilitates for carrying out neutron radiography, neutron activation analysis and neutron shielding experiments. There are two beam tubes for neutron radiography. The length/diameter ratio of the collimators is about 160 and the aperture size is 220 mmx70 mm. Flux at the outer end of the beam tube is {approx}10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2} s. The north end beam tube is for radiography of inactive object while the south side beam tube is for radiography of radioactive objects. The availability of high neutron flux coupled with good collimated beam provides high quality radiographs with short exposure time. The reactor being a unique national facility for neutron radiography has been utilized in the examination of irradiated components, aero engine turbine blades, riveted plates, automobile chain links and for various types of pyro devices used in the space programme. In this paper, an overview of the salient features of this reactor facility for neutron radiography and our experience in the inspection of a variety of industrial components will be given.

  19. Trichobezoars Detected and Treated Based on Plain Radiography.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Amy; Vachon, Tyler; Campin, Richard C; Ignacio, Romeo C

    2015-10-01

    Bezoars are conglomerations of indigestible material that become trapped in the gastrointestinal tract. We present a case of an 8-year-old female child diagnosed with a gastric bezoar solely on plain radiography and treated with abdominal surgical exploration and removal. In addition, traditional characteristic radiographic findings and treatment options for bezoars found in the current literature are reviewed.

  20. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... may affirm that all individuals acting as industrial radiographers will be certified in radiation... submits a description of the applicant's overall organizational structure as it applies to the...

  1. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... may affirm that all individuals acting as industrial radiographers will be certified in radiation... submits a description of the applicant's overall organizational structure as it applies to the...

  2. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... may affirm that all individuals acting as industrial radiographers will be certified in radiation... submits a description of the applicant's overall organizational structure as it applies to the...

  3. Method and Apparatus for Computed Imaging Backscatter Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shedlock, Daniel (Inventor); Meng, Christopher (Inventor); Sabri, Nissia (Inventor); Dugan, Edward T. (Inventor); Jacobs, Alan M. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Systems and methods of x-ray backscatter radiography are provided. A single-sided, non-destructive imaging technique utilizing x-ray radiation to image subsurface features is disclosed, capable of scanning a region using a fan beam aperture and gathering data using rotational motion.

  4. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review

    PubMed Central

    Rondon, Rafael Henrique Nunes; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara

    2014-01-01

    Professionals performing radiographic examinations are responsible for maintaining optimal image quality for accurate diagnoses. These professionals must competently execute techniques such as film manipulation and processing to minimize patient exposure to radiation. Improper performance by the professional and/or patient may result in a radiographic image of unsatisfactory quality that can also lead to a misdiagnosis and the development of an inadequate treatment plan. Currently, the most commonly performed extraoral examination is panoramic radiography. The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for the most common types of positioning errors in panoramic radiography to suggest the correct techniques. We would also discuss how to determine if the most common positioning errors occurred in panoramic radiography, such as in the positioning of the patient's head, tongue, chin, or body. PMID:24701452

  5. Point Scattered Function (PScF) for fast neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohamed H.

    2009-08-01

    Fast neutron radiography opened up a new range of possibilities to image extremely dense objects. The removal of the scattering effect is one of the most challenging problems in neutron imaging. Neutron scattering in fast neutron radiography did not receive much attention compared with X-ray and thermal neutron radiography. The purpose of this work is to investigate the behavior of the Point Scattered Function (PScF) as applied in fast neutron radiography. The PScF was calculated using MCNP as a spatial distribution of scattered neutrons over the detector surface for one emitting source element. Armament and explosives materials, namely, Rifle steel, brass, aluminum and trinitrotoluene (TNT) were simulated. Effect of various sample thickness and sample-to-detector distance were considered. Simulated sample geometries included a slab with varying thickness, a sphere with varying radii, and a cylinder with varying base radii. Different neutron sources, namely, Cf-252, DT as well as DD neutron sources were considered. Neutron beams with zero degree divergence angle; and beams with varying angles related to the normal to the source plane were simulated. Curve fitting of the obtained PScF, in the form of Gaussian function, were given to be used in future work using image restoration codes. Analytical representation of the height as well as the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the obtained Gaussian functions eliminates the need to calculate the PScF for sample parameters that were not investigated in this study.

  6. A novel approach to determine post mortem interval using neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Bilheux, Hassina Z; Cekanova, Maria; Vass, Arpad A; Nichols, Trent L; Bilheux, Jean C; Donnell, Robert L; Finochiarro, Vincenzo

    2015-06-01

    One of the most difficult challenges in forensic research is to objectively determine the post-mortem interval (PMI). The accuracy of PMI is critical for determining the timeline of events surrounding a death. Most PMI techniques rely on gross morphological changes of cadavers that are highly sensitive to taphonomic factors. Recent studies have demonstrated that even exhumed individuals exposed to the same environmental conditions with similar PMIs can present different stages of decomposition. After death, tissue undergoes sequential changes consisting of organic and inorganic phase variations, as well as a gradual reduction of tissue water content. Hydrogen (H) is the primary contributor to neutron radiography (NR) contrast in biological specimens because (1) it is the most abundant element in biological tissues and (2) its nucleus scatters thermal and cold neutrons more strongly than any other atomic nucleus. These contrast differences can be advantageous in a forensic context to determine small changes in hydrogen concentrations. Neutron radiography of decaying canine tissues was performed to evaluate the PMI by measuring the changes in H content. In this study, dog cadavers were used as a model for human cadavers. Canine tissues and cadavers were exposed to controlled (laboratory settings, at the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine) and uncontrolled (University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility) environmental conditions, respectively. Neutron radiographs were supplemented with photographs and histology data to assess the decompositional stages of cadavers. Results demonstrated that the increase in neutron transmission likely corresponded to a decrease in hydrogen content in the tissue, which was correlated with the decay time of the tissue. Tissues depleted in hydrogen were brighter in the neutron transmission radiographs of skeletal muscles, lung, and bone, under controlled conditions. Over a period of 10 days, changes in neutron

  7. A novel approach to determine post mortem interval using neutron radiography

    DOE PAGES

    Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Cekanova, Maria; Vass, Arpad Alexander; ...

    2015-03-06

    In this study, neutron radiography (NR) is used non-destructively to measure changes in hydrogen (H) content in decaying tissues as a mean to estimate post-mortem invertal (PMI). After death, tissue undergoes sequential changes consisting of organic and inorganic phase variations, as well as a gradual reduction of tissue water content. H is the primary contributor to NR contrast in biological specimens because (1) it is the most abundant element in biological tissues and (2) its nucleus scatter thermal and cold neutrons more strongly than any other atomic nucleus. These contrast differences can be advantageous in a forensic context to determinemore » small changes in hydrogen concentrations. Dog cadavers were used as a model for human cadavers. Canine tissues and cadavers were exposed to controlled (laboratory settings) and uncontrolled (University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility) environmental conditions during putefraction, respectively. Neutron radiographs were supplemented with photographs and histology data to assess the decomposition stage of cadavers. Results demonstrated that the increase in neutron transmission likely corresponded to a decrease in hydrogen content in the tissue, which was correlated with the time of decay of the tissue. Tissues depleted in hydrogen are brighter in the neutron transmission radiographs of skeletal muscles, lung, and bone, under controlled conditions. Over a period of 10 days, changes in neutron transmission through lung and muscle were found to be higher than bone by 8.3%, 7.0 %, and 2.0 %, respectively. Estimation of the PMI was calculated from a natural logarithmic fitting of the NR data. Under controlled conditions, estimation of the PMI was 70% and 63.9 % accurate for bone and lung tissues, while being 1.4% accurate for muscle tissue. All results underestimated the true PMI. In conclusion, neutron radiography can be used for detection of hydrogen changes in decaying tissues to estimate PMI.« less

  8. A novel approach to determine post mortem interval using neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bilheux, Hassina Z.; Cekanova, Maria; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Nichols, Trent L.; Bilheux, Jean -Christophe; Donnell, Robert; Finocchiaro, Vincenzo

    2015-03-06

    In this study, neutron radiography (NR) is used non-destructively to measure changes in hydrogen (H) content in decaying tissues as a mean to estimate post-mortem invertal (PMI). After death, tissue undergoes sequential changes consisting of organic and inorganic phase variations, as well as a gradual reduction of tissue water content. H is the primary contributor to NR contrast in biological specimens because (1) it is the most abundant element in biological tissues and (2) its nucleus scatter thermal and cold neutrons more strongly than any other atomic nucleus. These contrast differences can be advantageous in a forensic context to determine small changes in hydrogen concentrations. Dog cadavers were used as a model for human cadavers. Canine tissues and cadavers were exposed to controlled (laboratory settings) and uncontrolled (University of Tennessee Anthropology Research Facility) environmental conditions during putefraction, respectively. Neutron radiographs were supplemented with photographs and histology data to assess the decomposition stage of cadavers. Results demonstrated that the increase in neutron transmission likely corresponded to a decrease in hydrogen content in the tissue, which was correlated with the time of decay of the tissue. Tissues depleted in hydrogen are brighter in the neutron transmission radiographs of skeletal muscles, lung, and bone, under controlled conditions. Over a period of 10 days, changes in neutron transmission through lung and muscle were found to be higher than bone by 8.3%, 7.0 %, and 2.0 %, respectively. Estimation of the PMI was calculated from a natural logarithmic fitting of the NR data. Under controlled conditions, estimation of the PMI was 70% and 63.9 % accurate for bone and lung tissues, while being 1.4% accurate for muscle tissue. All results underestimated the true PMI. In conclusion, neutron radiography can be used for detection of hydrogen changes in decaying tissues to estimate PMI.

  9. Facility Microgrids

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.

    2005-05-01

    Microgrids are receiving a considerable interest from the power industry, partly because their business and technical structure shows promise as a means of taking full advantage of distributed generation. This report investigates three issues associated with facility microgrids: (1) Multiple-distributed generation facility microgrids' unintentional islanding protection, (2) Facility microgrids' response to bulk grid disturbances, and (3) Facility microgrids' intentional islanding.

  10. A new scanner for in situ digital radiography of paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impallaria, Anna; Evangelisti, Federico; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Tisato, Flavia; Castelli, Lisa; Taccetti, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    X-ray radiography is one of the most widely used imaging techniques in the field of cultural heritage, both for conservation and for investigation purposes. Performing radiographies in museums, thus avoiding movements of works of art, has been recently made easy by digital acquisition of images, but when the whole scan of a large painting is required, technical solutions for a portable device are still not at hand. The inherent weight of the X-ray tube and of the high-voltage generator makes the design of a portable device very difficult. In this project, the solution of the puzzle was separating devices devoted to different tasks, in order to maintain each item under 60 kg weight, thus being transportable with reasonable effort.

  11. Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.J.; Hill, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures.

  12. Proton radiography of a shock-compressed target

    SciTech Connect

    Ravasio, A.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Loupias, B.; Ozaki, N.; Vinci, T.; Koenig, M.; Romagnani, L.; Cecchetti, C.; Borghesi, M.; Le Pape, S.; Hicks, D.; MacKinnon, A.; Park, H. S.; Patel, P.; Batani, D.; Dezulian, R.; Boehly, T.; Gremillet, L.; Henry, E.; Schiavi, A.

    2010-07-15

    In this paper we report on the radiography of a shock-compressed target using laser produced proton beams. A low-density carbon foam target was shock compressed by long pulse high-energy laser beams. The shock front was transversally probed with a proton beam produced in the interaction of a high intensity laser beam with a gold foil. We show that from radiography data, the density profile in the shocked target can be deduced using Monte Carlo simulations. By changing the delay between long and short pulse beams, we could probe different plasma conditions and structures, demonstrating that the details of the steep density gradient can be resolved. This technique is validated as a diagnostic for the investigation of warm dense plasmas, allowing an in situ characterization of high-density contrasted plasmas.

  13. Radiography and ultrasonic calculation workbooks: installation and use

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, D; Dolan, K

    2000-03-24

    The radiography and ultrasonic calculation workbooks are intended to assist Level I, II and III NDE personnel in calculations used in routine job applications. These workbooks are an upgraded version of Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheets, which were originally set up in October 1988, using a Macintosh Plus{reg_sign} computer and Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} version 1.5. A description of these was released as ''Computerized Calculations for Radiography and Ultrasonics'', UCRL-JC-105419 in November 1990 and published in Materials Evaluation, Volume 49/Number 4, in April 1991. Over the years as Microsoft improved the capabilities of the Excel program to include the abilities to make sketches and to have multiple tabbed pages in a document called a ''workbook'' we have now modified the calculation spreadsheets to include these enhancements. Following is a short description on how to install and use these workbooks on a Macintosh or PC.

  14. The MU-RAY detector for muon radiography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Basta, D.; Bonechi, L.; Brianzi, M.; Bross, A.; Callier, S.; Caputo, A.; Ciaranfi, R.; Cimmino, L.; D'Alessandro, R.; D'Auria, L.; de La Taille, C.; Energico, S.; Garufi, F.; Giudicepietro, F.; Lauria, A.; Macedonio, G.; Martini, M.; Masone, V.; Mattone, C.; Montesi, M. C.; Noli, P.; Orazi, M.; Passeggio, G.; Peluso, R.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Raux, L.; Rubinov, P.; Saracino, G.; Scarlini, E.; Scarpato, G.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Starodubtsev, O.; Strolin, P.; Taketa, A.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Vanzanella, A.

    2013-12-01

    The MU-RAY detector has been designed to perform muon radiography of volcanoes. The possible use on the field introduces several constraints. First the electric power consumption must be reduced to the minimum, so that the detector can be solar-powered. Moreover it must be robust and transportable, for what concerns the front-end electronics and data acquisition. A 1 m2 prototype has been constructed and is taking data at Mt. Vesuvius. The detector consists of modules of 32 scintillator bars with wave length shifting fibers and silicon photomultiplier read-out. A dedicated front-end electronics has been developed, based on the SPIROC ASIC. An introduction to muon radiography principles, the MU-RAY detector description and results obtained in laboratory will be presented.

  15. Monte Carlo Modeling of High-Energy Film Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.C., Jr.; Cochran, J.L.; Lamberti, V.E.

    2003-03-28

    High-energy film radiography methods, adapted in the past to performing specific tasks, must now meet increasing demands to identify defects and perform critical measurements in a wide variety of manufacturing processes. Although film provides unequaled resolution for most components and assemblies, image quality must be enhanced with much more detailed information to identify problems and qualify features of interest inside manufactured items. The work described is concerned with improving current 9 MeV nondestructive practice by optimizing the important parameters involved in film radiography using computational methods. In order to follow important scattering effects produced by electrons, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was used with advanced, highly parallel computer systems. The work has provided a more detailed understanding of latent image formation at high X-ray energies, and suggests that improvements can be made in our ability to identify defects and to obtain much more detail in images of fine features.

  16. Lung nodules detection in chest radiography: image components analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tao; Mou, Xuanqin; Yang, Ying; Yan, Hao

    2009-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of different components of chest image on performances of both human observer and channelized Fisher-Hotelling model (CFH) in nodule detection task. Irrelevant and relevant components were separated from clinical chest radiography by employing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) methods. Human observer performance was evaluated in two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) on original clinical images and anatomical structure only images obtained by PCA methods. Channelized Fisher-Hotelling model with Laguerre-Gauss basis function was evaluated to predict human performance. We show that relevant component is the primary factor influencing on nodule detection in chest radiography. There is obvious difference of detectability between human observer and CFH model for nodule detection in images only containing anatomical structure. CFH model should be used more carefully.

  17. Study of a Loop Heat Pipe Using Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    C. Thomas Conroy; A. A. El-Ganayni; David R. Riley; John M. Cimbala; Jack S. Brenizer, Jr.; Abel Po-Ya Chuang; Shane Hanna

    2001-08-01

    An explanation is given of what a loop heat pipe (LHP) is, and how it works. It is then shown that neutron imaging (both real time neutron radioscopy and single exposure neutron radiography) is an effective experimental tool for the study of LHPs. Specifically, neutron imaging has helped to identify and correct a cooling water distribution problem in the condenser, and has enabled visualization of two-phase flow (liquid and vapor) in various components of the LHP. In addition, partial wick dry-out, a phenomenon of great importance in the effective operation of LHPs, has been identified with neutron imaging. It is anticipated that neutron radioscopy and radiography will greatly contribute to our understanding of LHP operation, and will lead to improvement of LHP modeling and design.

  18. Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations

    SciTech Connect

    Antoku, S.; Hoshi, M.; Russell, W.J.; Kihara, T.; Sawada, S.; Takeshita, K.; Otake, M.; Yoshinaga, H.; Beach, D.R.

    1989-03-01

    Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated on the basis of survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters and a phantom. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated from data obtained during a 2-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year and were tabulated by organs, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic-bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  19. Flash radiography with 24 GeV/c protons

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C. L.; Alrick, K. R.; Buescher, K. L.; Cagliostro, D. J.; Clark, D. A.; Clark, D. J.; Espinoza, C. J.; Ferm, E. N.; Gallegos, R. A.; Gomez, J. J.; Hogan, G. E.; King, N. S. P.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Liljestrand, R. P.; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morley, K. B.; Mottershead, C. T.; Murray, M. M.; Pazuchanics, P. D.

    2011-05-15

    The accuracy of density measurements and position resolution in flash (40 ns) radiography of thick objects with 24 Gev/c protons is investigated. A global model fit to step wedge data is shown to give a good description spanning the periodic table. The parameters obtained from the step wedge data are used to predict transmission through the French Test Object (FTO), a test object of nested spheres, to a precision better than 1%. Multiple trials have been used to show that the systematic errors are less than 2%. Absolute agreement between the average radiographic measurements of the density and the known density is 1%. Spatial resolution has been measured to be 200 {mu}m at the center of the FTO. These data verify expectations of the benefits provided by high energy hadron radiography for thick objects.

  20. [Development of breathing chest radiography: study of exposure timing].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Takeshi; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2003-08-01

    The flat-panel detector (FPD) has been introduced into clinical practice. A modified FPD, which has the ability to obtain dynamic chest radiographs, was introduced into our hospital, and clinical testing is ongoing. Both the inspiratory and expiratory phases have to be included in dynamic chest radiographs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the most appropriate chest radiography signal for observation of the respiratory process. We prepared ten protocol patterns that differed in terms of respiratory phase at X-ray exposure, exposure duration, and signal multiplicity. We also performed preliminary experiments and administered several questionnaires to ten volunteers. The volunteers breathed according to vocal and visual signals, and their respiratory waves were recorded by spirometer. The most appropriate protocol was similar to the method used for conventional chest radiography.

  1. An improved method for profile radiography of piping

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.S.; Haupt, J.D.

    1996-07-01

    The Petro-Chemical industry has used profile radiography for more than thirty years to find, and evaluate, corrosion in piping systems. The technique offers a method of ``seeing into`` a piece of pipe. This allows the inspector to see the ``whole picture``. Single point ultrasonic measurements cannot provide this degree of information. Shell`s objective for studying the use of this method centered on optimizing their profile radiography technique to improve accuracy and reproducibility of wall thickness measurements. Accuracy and reproducibility of measurements are particularly important when used to determine corrosion rates. To help achieve this objective, the authors developed an inspection procedure to minimize the more prominent sources of inaccuracies associated with this technique. Along with this procedure, they also developed an associated training program. All of Shell Oil`s Pressure Equipment inspectors and key contract employees have received this training.

  2. Study of a loop heat pipe using neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Cimbala, John M; Brenizer, Jack S; Chuang, Abel Po-Ya; Hanna, Shane; Thomas Conroy, C; El-Ganayni, A A; Riley, David R

    2004-10-01

    An explanation is given of what a loop heat pipe (LHP) is, and how it works. It is then shown that neutron imaging (both real time neutron radioscopy and single exposure neutron radiography) is an effective experimental tool for the study of LHPs. Specifically, neutron imaging has helped to identify and correct a cooling water distribution problem in the condenser, and has enabled visualization of two-phase flow (liquid and vapor) in various components of the LHP. In addition, partial wick dry-out, a phenomenon of great importance in the effective operation of LHPs, is potentially identifiable with neutron imaging. It is anticipated that neutron radioscopy and radiography will greatly contribute to our understanding of LHP operation, and will lead to improvement of LHP modeling and design.

  3. Subtraction Radiography for the Diagnosis of Bone Lesions in Dogs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-31

    Avail ander Journal of Periodontology Dist Special Ř 211 East Chicago Avenue Room 924 Chicago, IL 60611 Dear Sirs: I m submitting an original...research article titled "Subtraction Radiography for the Diagnosis of Bone Lesions in Dogs" solely to the Journal of Periodontology for review and... clinical practice in our area. 60-70 Kvp would have produced more contrast in the radiographic films used for the conventional technique, but likely

  4. Absorbed radiation by various tissues during simulated endodontic radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Torabinejad, M.; Danforth, R.; Andrews, K.; Chan, C.

    1989-06-01

    The amount of absorbed radiation by various organs was determined by placing lithium fluoride thermoluminescent chip dosimeters at selected anatomical sites in and on a human-like X-ray phantom and exposing them to radiation at 70- and 90-kV X-ray peaks during simulated endodontic radiography. The mean exposure dose was determined for each anatomical site. The results show that endodontic X-ray doses received by patients are low when compared with other radiographic procedures.

  5. PyRAT - python radiography analysis tool (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, Brian A; Buescher, Kevin L; Armstrong, Jerawan C

    2011-01-14

    PyRAT is a radiography analysis tool used to reconstruction images of unknown 1-0 objects. The tool is written in Python and developed for use on LINUX and Windows platforms. The tool is capable of performing nonlinear inversions of the images with minimal manual interaction in the optimization process. The tool utilizes the NOMAD mixed variable optimization tool to perform the optimization.

  6. Non-damaging, portable radiography: Applications in arms control verification

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.A.; Butterfield, K.B.; Apt, K.E.

    1992-08-01

    The state-of-the-technology necessary to perform portable radiography in support of arms control verification is evaluated. Specific requirements, such as accurate measurements of the location of features in a treaty-limited object and the detection of deeply imbedded features, are defined in three scenarios. Sources, detectors, portability, mensuration, and safety are discussed in relation to the scenarios. Examples are given of typical radiographic systems that would be capable of addressing the inspection problems associated with the three scenarios.

  7. X-Ray Radiography of Gas Turbine Ceramics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-20

    Microfocus X - ray equipment. 1a4ihe definition of equipment concepts for a computer assisted tomography (CAT) system; and 4ffthe development of a CAT...were obtained from these test coupons using Microfocus X - ray and image en- hancement techniques. A Computer Assisted Tomography (CAT) design concept...conventional ultrasonics (45 MHz), very high frequency ultrasonics (250 MHz), neutron radiography, Microfocus X - ray , image enhancement, microwave

  8. Leaded apron for use in panoramic dental radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Whitcher, B.L.; Gratt, B.M.; Sickles, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    The leaded aprons currently available for use during dental radiography do not protect the thyroid gland from radiation. Conventional aprons may produce artifacts when used with panoramic dental x-ray units. This study measures the dose reduction obtained with an experimental leaded apron designed for use with panoramic dental x-ray units. Skin exposures measured at the thyroid and at the sternum were reduced with the use of the apron. Films produced during the study were free from apron artifacts.

  9. Imaging Brunelleschi's cupola wall using muon scattering radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Guardincerri, Elena

    2015-09-16

    This PowerPoint presentation describes the cupola's structure and current reinforcements, reasoning behind why muon radiography would be helpful. A demonstration project is described where a similar wall was constructed to illustrate the potential benefits to Italian authorities; Requirements and a potential plan were created and collaboration to make it happen was deemed to be possible among LANL, Toshiba, the Parma and Florence Universities and the Opera del Duomo,

  10. Development of backlighting sources for a Compton radiography diagnostic of inertial confinement fusion targets (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R.; MacPhee, A.; Hey, D.; Ma, T.; Chen, C.; Izumi, N.; Unites, W.; MacKinnon, A.; Hatchett, S. P.; Remington, B. A.; Park, H. S.; Springer, P.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; Seely, John; Holland, Glenn; Hudson, Larry

    2008-10-15

    We present scaled demonstrations of backlighter sources, emitting bremsstrahlung x rays with photon energies above 75 keV, that we will use to record x-ray Compton radiographic snapshots of cold dense DT fuel in inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In experiments performed at the Titan laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we measured the source size and the bremsstrahlung spectrum as a function of laser intensity and pulse length from solid targets irradiated at 2x10{sup 17}-5x10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} using 2-40 ps pulses. Using Au planar foils we achieved source sizes down to 5.5 {mu}m and conversion efficiencies of about 1x10{sup -13} J/J into x-ray photons with energies in the 75-100 keV spectral range. We can now use these results to design NIF backlighter targets and shielding and to predict Compton radiography performance as a function of the NIF implosion yield and associated background.

  11. Development of backlighting sources for a Compton radiography diagnostic of Inertial Confinement Fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R; MacPhee, A; Hey, D; Ma, T; Chen, C; Izumi, N; Unites, W; MacKinnon, A; Hatchett, S P; Remington, B A; Park, H S; Springer, P; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Seely, J; Holland, G; Hudson, L

    2008-05-07

    We present scaled demonstrations of backlighter sources, emitting Bremsstrahlung x-rays with photon energies above 75 keV, that we will use to record x-ray Compton radiographic snapshots of cold dense DT fuel in inertial confinement fusion implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In experiments performed at the Titan laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we measured the source size and the Bremsstrahlung spectrum as a function of laser intensity and pulse length, from solid targets irradiated at 2e17-5e18 W/cm{sup 2} using 2-40 ps pulses. Using Au planar foils we achieved source sizes down to 5.5 {micro}m, and conversion efficiencies of about 1e-3 J/J into x-ray photons with energies in the 75-100 keV spectral range. We can now use these results to design NIF backlighter targets and shielding, and to predict Compton radiography performance as a function of the NIF implosion yield and associated background.

  12. Z-petawatt driven ion beam radiography development.

    SciTech Connect

    Schollmeier, Marius; Geissel, Matthias; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Sefkow, Adam B.

    2013-09-01

    Laser-driven proton radiography provides electromagnetic field mapping with high spatiotemporal resolution, and has been applied to many laser-driven High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments. Our report addresses key questions about the feasibility of ion radiography at the Z-Accelerator (%E2%80%9CZ%E2%80%9D), concerning laser configuration, hardware, and radiation background. Charged particle tracking revealed that radiography at Z requires GeV scale protons, which is out of reach for existing and near-future laser systems. However, it might be possible to perform proton deflectometry to detect magnetic flux compression in the fringe field region of a magnetized liner inertial fusion experiment. Experiments with the Z-Petawatt laser to enhance proton yield and energy showed an unexpected scaling with target thickness. Full-scale, 3D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, coupled to fully explicit and kinetic 2D particle-in-cell simulations running for over 10 ps, explain the scaling by a complex interplay of laser prepulse, preplasma, and ps-scale temporal rising edge of the laser.

  13. The implementation of digital sensors in maxillofacial radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Stelt, Paul F.

    2001-03-01

    Systems for intra-oral digital radiography in dentistry can be divided into two main groups: direct sensor systems and semi-direct or indirect sensor systems. Direct imaging is performed by a two-dimensional array of sensor elements. The size of a typical intra-oral CCD-sensor is approximately from 18 mm×24 mm to 30 mm×40 mm; the active area is somewhat smaller, because of the thickness of the packaging of the sensor. CCD-based imaging is now also available for panoramic and cephalometric radiography. Indirect (semi-direct) imaging is based on storage phosphor plates (SPP) imaging. The plate is positioned in the mouth of the patient behind the teeth, and exposed to radiation. The positioning of the sensor plate resembles very much the way conventional radiographic films are handled. SPP technology is also available for panoramic and cephalometric imaging. The purpose of radiography is to provide information to solve a particular diagnostic task. It is therefore very likely that the role of dedicated diagnostic software will become essential in the near future. The importance of dedicated software for diagnostic imaging will increase. As a result of worldwide research, more procedures will become available, for research as well as for use in general practice.

  14. Detection of gastritis by single- and double-contrast radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Thoeni, R.F.; Goldberg, H.I.; Ominsky, S.; Cello, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    Sixty-eight patients with various types of gastritis, 23 patients with normal stomachs, and four patients with other gastric diseases were examined in a prospective study to assess the sensitivity and specificity of single-contrast (SC) and double-contrast (DC) upper gastrointestinal examinations in the evaluation of gastritis. All patients underwent endoscopy with biopsy followed first by DC and then by SC radiography. The respective sensitivities of SC and DC radiography were 58% and 72% for all examinations and 59% and 77% for adequate examinations only. The respective specificities were 59% and 55% based on all examinations. Useful radiographic features included polypoid defects and erosions detected by both methods, abnormal folds and flattened margins detected by the SC technique, and narrowed lumen and crenulated margins detected by the DC technique. In 93% of all cases, the correct diagnosis was based on two or more of these radiographic features. According to this study, the radiographic sensitivity in the detection of gastritis is reliable only in cases of moderate-to-severe disease and only when based on findings of the DC examination. Neither SC nor DC radiography should be used as the primary screening method for patients with suspected gastritis, and the radiographic diagnosis should be restricted to the terms ''erosive'' or ''nonerosive gastritis.''

  15. Proton radiography based on near-threshold Cerenkov radiation

    DOEpatents

    van Bibber, Karl A.; Dietrich, Frank S.

    2003-01-01

    A Cerenkov imaging system for charged particle radiography that determines the energy loss of the charged particle beam passing through an object. This energy loss information provides additional detail on target densities when used with traditional radiographic techniques like photon or x-ray radiography. In this invention a probe beam of 800 MeV to 50 GeV/c charged particles is passed through an object to be imaged, an imaging magnetic spectrometer, to a silicon aerogel Cerenkov radiator where the charged particles emitted Cerenkov light proportional to their velocity. At the same beam focal plane, a particle scintillator produces a light output proportional to the incident beam flux. Optical imaging systems relay the Cerenkov and scintillator information to CCD's or other measurement equipment. A ratio between the Cerenkov and scintillator is formed, which is directly proportional to the line density of the object for each pixel measured. By rotating the object, tomographic radiography may be performed. By applying pulses of beam, discrete time-step movies of dynamic objects may be made.

  16. Management of pediatric radiation dose using Agfa computed radiography.

    PubMed

    Schaetzing, R

    2004-10-01

    Radiation dose to patients and its management have become important considerations in modern radiographic imaging procedures, but they acquire particular significance in the imaging of children. Because of their longer life expectancy, children exposed to radiation are thought to have a significantly increased risk of radiation-related late sequelae compared to adults first exposed to radiation later in life. Therefore, current clinical thinking dictates that dose in pediatric radiography be minimized, while simultaneously ensuring sufficient diagnostic information in the image, and reducing the need for repeat exposures. Dose management obviously starts with characterization and control of the exposure technique. However, it extends farther through the imaging chain to the acquisition system, and even to the image processing techniques used to optimize acquired images for display. Further, other factors, such as quality control procedures and the ability to handle special pediatric procedures, like scoliosis exams, also come into play. The need for dose management in modern radiography systems has spawned a variety of different solutions, some of which are similar across different manufacturers, and some of which are unique. This paper covers the techniques used in Agfa Computed Radiography (CR) systems to manage dose in a pediatric environment.

  17. Advances in computed radiography systems and their physical imaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cowen, A R; Davies, A G; Kengyelics, S M

    2007-12-01

    Radiological imaging is progressing towards an all-digital future, across the spectrum of medical imaging techniques. Computed radiography (CR) has provided a ready pathway from screen film to digital radiography and a convenient entry point to PACS. This review briefly revisits the principles of modern CR systems and their physical imaging characteristics. Wide dynamic range and digital image enhancement are well-established benefits of CR, which lend themselves to improved image presentation and reduced rates of repeat exposures. However, in its original form CR offered limited scope for reducing the radiation dose per radiographic exposure, compared with screen film. Recent innovations in CR, including the use of dual-sided image readout and channelled storage phosphor have eased these concerns. For example, introduction of these technologies has improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) by approximately 50 and 100%, respectively, compared with standard CR. As a result CR currently affords greater scope for reducing patient dose, and provides a more substantive challenge to the new solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors.

  18. Rendezvous facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gehani, N.H.; Roome, W.D.

    1988-11-01

    The concurrent programming facilities in both Concurrent C and the Ada language are based on the rendezvous concept. Although these facilities are similar, there are substantial differences. Facilities in Concurrent C were designed keeping in perspective the concurrent programming facilities in the Ada language and their limitations. Concurrent C facilities have also been modified as a result of experience with its initial implementations. In this paper, the authors compare the concurrent programming facilities in Concurrent C and Ada, and show that it is easier to write a variety of concurrent programs in Concurrent C than in Ada.

  19. Methodology for digital radiography simulation using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Souza, E M; Correa, S C A; Silva, A X; Lopes, R T; Oliveira, D F

    2008-05-01

    This work presents a methodology for digital radiography simulation for industrial applications using the MCNPX radiography tally. In order to perform the simulation, the energy-dependent response of a BaFBr imaging plate detector was modeled and introduced in the MCNPX radiography tally input. In addition, a post-processing program was used to convert the MCNPX radiography tally output into 16-bit digital images. Simulated and experimental images of a steel pipe containing corrosion alveoli and stress corrosion cracking were compared, and the results showed good agreement between both images.

  20. Health Facilities

    MedlinePlus

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, ... psychiatric care centers. When you choose a health facility, you might want to consider How close it ...

  1. High Energy X-Ray System Specification for the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the NNSS

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A.

    2012-08-10

    This specification establishes requirements for an X-Ray System to be used at the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) to support radiography of experimental assemblies for Laboratory (LANL, LLNL, SNL) programs conducting work at the NNSS.

  2. Integration of structure, x-ray radiography, elastic wave velocity, and viscosity measurement in the Paris-Edinburgh Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Yoshio; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Shen, Guoyin; Wang, Yanbin

    2013-06-01

    We have integrated a range of techniques for physical property measurement with the energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXD) technique at the 16BM-B, a white x-ray beamline at the Advanced Photon Source, to promote comprehensive studies of structure-property correlations of liquid and amorphous materials at high-pressure. These include white x-ray radiography, ultrasonic velocity, and falling sphere viscometry techniques. The integration is centered on a Paris-Edinburgh cell to fully utilize the multi-angle EDXD capability with the wide open access. The integrated techniques are particularly useful to study liquid and amorphous materials, for which the integrated facility allows making simultaneous observations of macroscopic phenomena as the direct manifestation of the microscopic structure. The Paris-Edinburgh press enables us to compress large volume samples up to 2 mm in both diameter and length up to ~7 GPa and 2300 K. The resolution of white x-ray radiography is ~4 μm. The ultrasonic wave velocity measurement can be made for liquid materials as well as amorphous solids. The falling sphere viscometry technique have been developed using high-speed x-ray camera (>1000 frame/second), enabling us to investigate viscosity of not only high viscosity melts such as silicates but also low viscosity (<1 mPa s) liquids such as liquid metals and salts.

  3. Design, construction and characterization of a new neutron beam for neutron radiography at the Tehran Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choopan Dastjerdi, M. H.; Khalafi, H.; Kasesaz, Y.; Mirvakili, S. M.; Emami, J.; Ghods, H.; Ezzati, A.

    2016-05-01

    To obtain a thermal neutron beam for neutron radiography applications, a neutron collimator has been designed and implemented at the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR). TRR is a 5 MW open pool light water moderated reactor with seven beam tubes. The neutron collimator is implemented in the E beam tube of the TRR. The design of the neutron collimator was performed using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. In this work, polycrystalline bismuth and graphite have been used as a gamma filter and an illuminator, respectively. The L/D parameter of the facility was chosen in the range of 150-250. The thermal neutron flux at the image plane can be varied from 2.26×106 to 6.5×106 n cm-2 s-1. Characterization of the beam was performed by ASTM standard IQI and foil activation technique to determine the quality of neutron beam. The results show that the obtained neutron beam has a good quality for neutron radiography applications.

  4. The role of postoperative chest radiography in pediatric tracheotomy.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J S; Sulek, M; de Jong, A; Friedman, E M

    2001-07-30

    A postoperative chest radiograph has traditionally been obtained after tracheotomies to evaluate for the presence of a pneumothorax and to assess tube position. Several recent studies in adults have questioned the usefulness of routine postoperative chest radiography in uncomplicated cases, but the role of post-operative chest radiography in pediatric patients has not been previously reviewed. We performed this study to examine the clinical utility of post-tracheotomy chest radiography in pediatric patients and determine if this routine practice impacts patient management enough to merit continued usage. A retrospective review was performed of 200 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent tracheotomies by the otolaryngology service in a tertiary care pediatric hospital from January 1994 to June 1999. All patients received postoperative chest radiographs. Five of 200 patients had a new postoperative radiographic finding, with three requiring interventions. Two patients required chest tube placement for pneumothorax, and one patient required tracheostomy tube change for repositioning. Fifty-one patients, including both pneumothoraces, exhibited clinical signs of pneumothorax (decreased breath sounds or oxygen saturation) in the immediate postoperative period. Chest X-ray ruled out a pneumothorax in the remaining 49 patients. The majority of these 51 patients were less than 2 years old (94%, P=0.002) or weighed less than 17 kg (89%, P=0.004). Postoperative chest X-rays yielded clinically relevant information in 168 patients that fell into one or more of four high risk categories: age less than 2, weight less than 17 kg, emergent procedures, or concomitant central line placement. Avoiding chest X-rays in the remaining 32 patients would have resulted in potential savings of $5000, which does not reflect the actuarial cost of a missed complication. Since the majority of our patients (84%) fell into a high-risk category, we feel it would be prudent to continue

  5. Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chu-Lin; Perfect, Edmund; Kang, Misun; Voisin, Sophie; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Horita, Juske; Hussey, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

  6. Spectroscopic neutron radiography for a cargo scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahon, Jill; Danagoulian, Areg; MacDonald, Thomas D.; Hartwig, Zachary S.; Lanza, Richard C.

    2016-06-01

    Detection of cross-border smuggling of illicit materials and contraband is a challenge that requires rapid, low-dose, and efficient radiographic technology. The work we describe here is derived from a technique which uses monoenergetic gamma rays from low energy nuclear reactions, such as 11B(d,nγ)12C, to perform radiographic analysis of shipping containers. Transmission ratios of multiple monoenergetic gamma lines resulting from several gamma producing nuclear reactions can be employed to detect materials of high atomic number (Z), the details of which will be described in a separate paper. Inherent in this particular nuclear reaction is the production of fast neutrons which could enable neutron radiography and further characterization of the effective-Z of the cargo, especially within the range of lower Z. Previous research efforts focused on the use of total neutron counts in combination with X-ray radiography to characterize the hydrogenous content of the cargo. We present a technique of performing transmitted neutron spectral analysis to reconstruct the effective Z and potentially the density of the cargo. This is made possible by the large differences in the energy dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections between hydrogenous materials and those of higher Z. These dependencies result in harder transmission spectra for hydrogenous cargoes than those of non-hydrogenous cargoes. Such observed differences can then be used to classify the cargo based on its hydrogenous content. The studies presented in this paper demonstrate that such techniques are feasible and can provide a contribution to cargo security, especially when used in concert with gamma radiography.

  7. BBU design of linear induction accelerator cells for radiography application

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, C.C.; Chen, Y.J.; Gaporaso, G.J.; Houck, T.L.; Molau, N.E.; Focklen, J.; Gregory, S.

    1997-05-06

    There is an ongoing effort to develop accelerating modules for high-current electron accelerators for advanced radiography application. Accelerating modules with low beam-cavity coupling impedances along with gap designs with acceptable field stresses comprise a set of fundamental design criteria. We examine improved cell designs which have been developed for accelerator application in several radiographic operating regimes. We evaluate interaction impedances, analyze the effects of beam structure coupling on beam dynamics (beam break-up instability and corkscrew motion). We also provide estimates of coupling through interesting new high-gradient insulators and evaluate their potential future application in induction cells.

  8. X-ray vector radiography imaging for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Potdevin, Guillaume; Malecki, Andreas; Biernath, Thomas; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-07-31

    The non-invasive estimation of fracture risk in osteoporosis remains a challenge in the clinical routine and is mainly based on an assessment of bone density by dual X-ray absorption (DXA) although bone micro-architecture is known to play an important role for bone fragility. Here we report on 'X-ray vector Radiography' measurements able to provide a direct bone microstructure diagnostics on human bone samples, which we compare qualitatively and quantitatively with numerical analysis of high resolution radiographs.

  9. [A scientometric radiography of Revista Médica de Chile].

    PubMed

    Krauskopf, M

    1997-07-01

    In the context of a festschrift to commemorate the 125th anniversary of the Revista Médica de Chile, "radiography" of the journal has been depicted using several scientometric indicators. Among the mainstream journals in the category of Medicine, General & Internal and taking into account the wide editorial coverage and the language of the publication that fulfills the need for the required social appropriation of science that the country requires, the Revista Médica de Chile portrays healthy and quite relevant. Among the articles published between 1981 and 1995, some concerning public health have reached, particularly, an impact which surpasses their mean expected citation rate.

  10. Excretory urography using dual-energy scanned projection radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Soomer, F.G.; Brody, W.R.; Gross, D.; Macovski, A.; Hall, A.; Pelc, N.

    1981-11-01

    Excretory urograms of 10 patients were obtained using a GE 8800 CT scanner with Scout View which had been modified for dual-kVp scanned projection radiography. Using this system, it is possible to combine images obtained simultaneously at 85 and 135 kVp to create subtraction images from which substances of desired mean atomic number have been removed. This permits improved visualization of the genitourinary system on urograms by (a) eliminating obscuring bowel gas shadows and (b) enhancement of both iodinated contrast media and retroperitoneal fat planes.

  11. DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL TEST PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    HOWARD, BOYD

    2006-02-02

    The purpose of this document is to provide a brief introduction to digital radiography (DR), and a description of the DR configuration that was used to radiographically image the Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Test Packages before and after function tests that have been conducted. Also included are (1) Attachment 1, a comprehensive index that describes at which phase of the certification process that digital radiographic images were acquired, (2) digital radiographic images of each of the six packages at various stages of the certification process, and (3) Attachment 2, imaging instructions, that specify the setup procedures and detailed parameters of the DR imaging methodology that were used.

  12. Computers in dental radiography: a scenario for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, R.L.

    1985-09-01

    The recent emergence of cost-effective computing power makes it possible to integrate sophisticated data-sampling and image-interpretation techniques into dental radiography for the first time. A prototype system is being developed to permit clinical information expressed in three dimensions--plus time--to be made visible almost instantly. The associated X-ray dose for a complete three-dimensional survey of a selected dental region is predicted to be less than that required for a single conventional periapical radiograph exposed on D-speed film.

  13. X-ray vector radiography imaging for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potdevin, Guillaume; Malecki, Andreas; Biernath, Thomas; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-07-01

    The non-invasive estimation of fracture risk in osteoporosis remains a challenge in the clinical routine and is mainly based on an assessment of bone density by dual X-ray absorption (DXA) although bone micro-architecture is known to play an important role for bone fragility. Here we report on 'X-ray vector Radiography' measurements able to provide a direct bone microstructure diagnostics on human bone samples, which we compare qualitatively and quantitatively with numerical analysis of high resolution radiographs.

  14. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  15. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  16. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  17. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  18. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  19. 10 CFR 34.20 - Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment. 34.20 Section 34.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND... meet the following minimum criteria: (a)(1) Each radiographic exposure device, source assembly...

  20. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  1. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  2. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  3. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  4. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  5. Dual Use Corrosion Inhibitor and Penetrant for Anomaly Detection in Neutron/X Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Phillip B. (Inventor); Novak, Howard L. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A dual purpose corrosion inhibitor and penetrant composition sensitive to radiography interrogation is provided. The corrosion inhibitor mitigates or eliminates corrosion on the surface of a substrate upon which the corrosion inhibitor is applied. In addition, the corrosion inhibitor provides for the attenuation of a signal used during radiography interrogation thereby providing for detection of anomalies on the surface of the substrate.

  6. 75 FR 57080 - In the Matter of Aerotest Operations, Inc. (Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor); Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Aerotest Operations, Inc. (Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor); Order... which authorizes the possession, use, and operation of the Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor... Regulations (10 CFR) Section 50.21(c) for research and development purposes. Aerotest is a wholly...

  7. 75 FR 27368 - Aerotest Operations, Inc., Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor; Notice of Consideration of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Aerotest Operations, Inc., Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor; Notice of Consideration of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Cindy Montgomery, Project Manager, Research and Test Reactors Licensing Branch, Division... Operating License No. R-98 for the Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor (ARRR), currently held...

  8. Implementation of a PACS for radiography training and clinical service in a university setting through a multinational effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fuk-hay; Law, Yuen Y.; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Hai L.; Chang, Tony; Matsuda, Koyo; Cao, Fei

    2001-08-01

    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University has a Radiography Division under the Development of Optometry and Radiography. The Division trains both diagnostic and therapeutic radiographers with 60 students/year and offers a B.Sc. degree. In addition the Division together with the University Health Service operates a radiography clinic with radiology consultation from radiologists from other hospitals and clinics. This paper describers the implementation of a PACS in the Division for radiography training, and for clinical service.

  9. Correlation of the clinical and physical image quality in chest radiography for average adults with a computed radiography imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Wood, T J; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the quality of visually graded patient (clinical) chest images and a quantitative assessment of chest phantom (physical) images acquired with a computed radiography (CR) imaging system. Methods: The results of a previously published study, in which four experienced image evaluators graded computer-simulated postero-anterior chest images using a visual grading analysis scoring (VGAS) scheme, were used for the clinical image quality measurement. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and effective dose efficiency (eDE) were used as physical image quality metrics measured in a uniform chest phantom. Although optimal values of these physical metrics for chest radiography were not derived in this work, their correlation with VGAS in images acquired without an antiscatter grid across the diagnostic range of X-ray tube voltages was determined using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: Clinical and physical image quality metrics increased with decreasing tube voltage. Statistically significant correlations between VGAS and CNR (R=0.87, p<0.033) and eDE (R=0.77, p<0.008) were observed. Conclusion: Medical physics experts may use the physical image quality metrics described here in quality assurance programmes and optimisation studies with a degree of confidence that they reflect the clinical image quality in chest CR images acquired without an antiscatter grid. Advances in knowledge: A statistically significant correlation has been found between the clinical and physical image quality in CR chest imaging. The results support the value of using CNR and eDE in the evaluation of quality in clinical thorax radiography. PMID:23568362

  10. 42 CFR 37.44 - Approval of radiographic facilities that use digital radiography systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard PS 3.12-2011 (incorporated by reference, see § 37.10). Applicants... (compact or digital video disc) and formatted to meet specifications of the current DICOM Standard PS...

  11. 42 CFR 37.44 - Approval of radiographic facilities that use digital radiography systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard PS 3.12-2011 (incorporated by reference, see § 37.10). Applicants... (compact or digital video disc) and formatted to meet specifications of the current DICOM Standard PS...

  12. 42 CFR 37.44 - Approval of radiographic facilities that use digital radiography systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Medicine (DICOM) standard PS 3.12-2011 (incorporated by reference, see § 37.10). Applicants will be advised... digital video disc) and formatted to meet specifications of the current DICOM Standard PS...

  13. Unified Database for Rejected Image Analysis Across Multiple Vendors in Radiography.

    PubMed

    Little, Kevin J; Reiser, Ingrid; Liu, Lili; Kinsey, Tiffany; Sánchez, Adrian A; Haas, Kateland; Mallory, Florence; Froman, Carmen; Lu, Zheng Feng

    2017-02-01

    Reject rate analysis has been part of radiography departments' quality control since the days of screen-film radiography. In the era of digital radiography, one might expect that reject rate analysis is easily facilitated because of readily available information produced by the modality during the examination procedure. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. The lack of an industry standard and the wide variety of system log entries and formats have made it difficult to implement a robust multivendor reject analysis program, and logs do not always include all relevant information. The increased use of digital detectors exacerbates this problem because of higher reject rates associated with digital radiography compared with computed radiography. In this article, the authors report on the development of a unified database for vendor-neutral reject analysis across multiple sites within an academic institution and share their experience from a team-based approach to reduce reject rates.

  14. Free-focus radiography using conventional films: Radiation exposures in a simulated clinical study

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, T.W.; Randall, G.J.; Goldberg, A.J.

    1980-07-01

    This study compared air exposures during conventional dental and maxillofacial radiography and similar views using free-focus radiography with conventional image receptors. The results show that periapical type surveys on nonscreen film placed extraorally or in the buccal fold may be carried out with an exposure to the surface tissues, which is similar to or less than conventional dental radiography. Extraoral survey type radiographs of the jaws may be carried out with significantly less surface exposure than lateral oblique views of the jaws. The least exposure was required, when the film was placed in the buccla fold instead of against the face during free-focus radiography. The exposures with film screen combinations were reduced by an order of magnitude when compared to the nonscreen techniques. Proper filtration of the beam of the miniaturized x-ray machines radiography in dentistry may thus be desirable and applications in other parts of the body encouraged.

  15. 46 CFR 54.25-8 - Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33... Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57). (a) Full radiography is required for all... requirements.) (b) Class II-L vessels shall be spot radiographed. The exemption provided in UW-11(c) of...

  16. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  17. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  18. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  19. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  20. Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Mobile Real Time Radiography System

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Mendez, J.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.

    1997-01-01

    A 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph greater than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes. It has three independent X-Ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12 in. image intensifier, the second is a 36 in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53 ft long X 8 ft. wide X 14 ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only a easily obtainable overweight permit because it weighs approximately 38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  1. Pulsed-Power Driven Liner-On-Target Hydrodynamics Experiments Diagnosed with Proton Radiography using PHELIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oro, D. M.; Rousculp, C. L.; Reass, W. A.; Griego, J. R.; Turchi, P. J.; Reinovsky, R. E.; Saunders, A.; Mariam, F. G.; Morris, C.

    2015-06-01

    The Precision High Energy-density Liner Implosion eXperiment, PHELIX, is a pulsed-power driver capable of delivering multi-mega-ampere currents to cylindrical loads. The pulsed-power system utilizes a high-efficiency transformer to couple a small capacitor bank (~400 kJ) to a ~5 cm diameter cylindrical Al liner. A peak current of ~4 MA causes the liner to implode in 20 - 30 μs and attain speeds of >1 km/s. The PHELIX system is designed to be compatible with the Los Alamos proton radiography facility. Initial experiments with PHELIX explore shocked-ejected particle transport into gas in converging geometries. For these experiments a liner-on-target configuration is employed. To control the initial conditions, micron-sized tungsten particles are used in place of shock-formed ejecta. The inner surface of the cylindrical target is coated with a 0.1 mm uniform layer of W powder. The liner impacts the target generating a shock that launches the W particles off the target surface. The time history of the trajectory of the shocked-ejected particulate is captured in 21 proton radiographs recorded during the experiment. Comparison of 3 experiments, one into vacuum, one into Ar at 8.3 bars and one into Xe at 8.3 bars are discussed. Results are compared to simulations. Work supported by United States-DOE under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  2. [Development of automatic analyses for star-shot images using computed radiography (CR)].

    PubMed

    Kawata, Hidemichi; Ohkura, Sunao; Ono, Hiroshi; Fukudome, Yoshifumi; Kawamura, Seiji; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2006-12-20

    Recent progress in radiation therapy has been greatly enhanced in many facilities by the development of new machines for treatment, improved computer technology for radiotherapy treatment planning systems (RTPs), increased accuracy of radiation therapy such as stereotactic irradiation, and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Quality control (QC) of the isocenter, which has consisted of gantry rotation and limiting the radiation field, is important for greater accuracy of these radiation therapy technologies. Star-shot analyses using computed radiography (CR) for evaluation of the isocenter were employed in this study. Devices to support CR were created, and a method of automatically analyzing images obtained by the star-shot technique, which calculated the error (distance) from the isocenter and the incident beam angle, were developed. In terms of the accuracy of our method, the average maximum error was 0.33 mm (less than 2 pixels: 0.35 mm), the average absolute error and incident beam angle errors were 0.3 mm and 0.4 degrees at maximum and at one standard deviation (SD), respectively. In this study, the processing times were 16 sec at minimum, 152 sec at maximum, 18 sec at most frequencies, and 23.6 sec on average. In conclusion, it was considered that our newly developed method for analyzing star-shot images using CR enabled immediate, quantitative evaluation of the isocenter.

  3. Visualization of water on through-plane direction of GDL using X-ray radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jongrok; Je, Junho; Kim, MooHwan; Kim, TaeJoo; Kaviany, Massoud; Son, Sang Young

    2010-03-01

    In this investigation, we visualized water distribution and behavior of water on through plane direction of GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer), which is one of components of PEMFC, using X-ray radiography. In order to investigate water distribution and behavior at GDL of PEMFC, the facilities was set up at the 7B2 beam line in Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. The phenomena of cathode side GDL is more important because the cathode side GDL has more water than the anode side. For this reason, the cathode side GDL was targeted and test section (Figure 1) was made to make similar boundary condition with a cathode side GDL of operating PEMFC. GDL faced two single channels. One is air channel as cathode gas channel of PEMFC and the other is liquid channel as cathode catalyst layer. Water is produced in cathode catalyst layer and almost of this water transport through cathode GDL. Because of this, liquid channel was adopted as catalyst layer. Images of water distribution were recorded per 4 second under various liquid pressure conditions. Water content was calculated from these images using mathematic process.

  4. Ultra-high speed burst-mode imager for multi-frame radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Kwiatkowski, Kris; Nedrow, Paul; Mariam, Fesseha; Merrill, Frank E; Morris, Chris L; Saunders, Abdy; Hogan, Gary; Douance, Vincent; Bal, Yibin; Joshi, Atul; Auyeung, John

    2010-01-01

    A 720 x 720 pixel hybrid-CMOS imager was fabricated by Rockwell Scientific (now Teledyne Imaging Sensors). Several cameras have been in operation for 5 years, in a variety of static and dynamic experiments, at the 800MeV proton radiography (pRAD) facility at the LANSCE accelerator. The cameras can operate with a per-pulse adjustable inter-frame time of 250ns to 2s, and with an exposure/integration-time as short as 150 ns. Given the 800 ms total readout time, the imager can be externally synchronized to 0.1-to-5Hz, 50-ns wide proton beam pulses, and record 1000-frame radiographic movies of 5-to-30 minute duration. The effectiveness and dependence of the global electronic shutter on the pixelated Si photo-sensor bias voltage is discussed. The spatial resolution dependence of the full imaging system on various monolithic and structured scintillators is presented. We also present features of a new-generation 10-frame, 1024 x 1024 pixel, 50-ns exposure, 12-bit dynamic range imager, which is now in the design phase.

  5. Accuracy of direct digital radiography for detecting occlusal caries in primary teeth compared with conventional radiography and visual inspection: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Dias da Silva, P R; Martins Marques, M; Steagall, W; Medeiros Mendes, F; Lascala, C A

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The diagnosis of caries lesions is still a matter of concern in dentistry. The diagnosis of dental caries by digital radiography has a number of advantages over conventional radiography; however, this method has not been explored fully in the field of paediatric dentistry. This in vitro research evaluated the accuracy of direct digital radiography compared with visual inspection and conventional radiography in the diagnosis of occlusal caries lesions in primary molars. Methods 50 molars were selected and evaluated under standardized conditions by 2 previously calibrated examiners according to 3 diagnostic methods (visual inspection, conventional radiography and direct digital radiography). Direct digital radiographs were obtained with the Dixi3 system (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland) and the conventional radiographs with InSight film (Kodak Eastman Co., Rochester, NY). The images were scored and a reference standard was obtained histologically. The interexaminer reliability was calculated using Cohen's kappa test and the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of the methods were calculated. Results Examiner reliability was good. For lesions limited to the enamel, visual inspection showed significantly higher sensitivity and accuracy than both radiographic methods, but no significant difference was found in specificity. For teeth with dentinal caries, no significant differences were found for any parameter when comparing visual and radiographic evaluation. Conclusions Although less accurate than the visual method for detecting caries lesions confined to the enamel, the direct digital radiographic method is as effective as conventional radiographic examination and visual inspection of primary teeth with occlusal caries when the dentine is involved. PMID:20729186

  6. Inverse-collimated proton radiography for imaging thin materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Matthew S.; Allison, Jason; Andrews, Malcolm; Ferm, Eric; Goett, John J.; Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lopez, Julian; Mariam, Fesseha; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Martinez, Michael; Medina, Jason; Medina, Patrick; Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Chris L.; Murray, Matthew M.; Nedrow, Paul; Neukirch, Levi P.; Prestridge, Katherine; Rigg, Paolo; Saunders, Alexander; Schurman, Tamsen; Tainter, Amy; Trouw, Frans; Tupa, Dale; Tybo, Josh; Vogan-McNeil, Wendy; Wilde, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Relativistic, magnetically focused proton radiography was invented at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the 800 MeV LANSCE beam and is inherently well-suited to imaging dense objects, at areal densities >20 g cm-2. However, if the unscattered portion of the transmitted beam is removed at the Fourier plane through inverse-collimation, this system becomes highly sensitive to very thin media, of areal densities <100 mg cm-2. Here, this inverse-collimation scheme is described in detail and demonstrated by imaging Xe gas with a shockwave generated by an aluminum plate compressing the gas at Mach 8.8. With a 5-mrad inverse collimator, an areal density change of just 49 mg cm-2 across the shock front is discernible with a contrast-to-noise ratio of 3. Geant4 modeling of idealized and realistic proton transports can guide the design of inverse-collimators optimized for specific experimental conditions and show that this technique performs better for thin targets with reduced incident proton beam emittance. This work increases the range of areal densities to which the system is sensitive to span from ˜25 mg cm-2 to 100 g cm-2, exceeding three orders of magnitude. This enables the simultaneous imaging of a dense system as well as thin jets and ejecta material that are otherwise difficult to characterize with high-energy proton radiography.

  7. Inverse-collimated proton radiography for imaging thin materials.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Matthew S; Allison, Jason; Andrews, Malcolm; Ferm, Eric; Goett, John J; Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lopez, Julian; Mariam, Fesseha; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Martinez, Michael; Medina, Jason; Medina, Patrick; Merrill, Frank E; Morris, Chris L; Murray, Matthew M; Nedrow, Paul; Neukirch, Levi P; Prestridge, Katherine; Rigg, Paolo; Saunders, Alexander; Schurman, Tamsen; Tainter, Amy; Trouw, Frans; Tupa, Dale; Tybo, Josh; Vogan-McNeil, Wendy; Wilde, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Relativistic, magnetically focused proton radiography was invented at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the 800 MeV LANSCE beam and is inherently well-suited to imaging dense objects, at areal densities >20 g cm(-2). However, if the unscattered portion of the transmitted beam is removed at the Fourier plane through inverse-collimation, this system becomes highly sensitive to very thin media, of areal densities <100 mg cm(-2). Here, this inverse-collimation scheme is described in detail and demonstrated by imaging Xe gas with a shockwave generated by an aluminum plate compressing the gas at Mach 8.8. With a 5-mrad inverse collimator, an areal density change of just 49 mg cm(-2) across the shock front is discernible with a contrast-to-noise ratio of 3. Geant4 modeling of idealized and realistic proton transports can guide the design of inverse-collimators optimized for specific experimental conditions and show that this technique performs better for thin targets with reduced incident proton beam emittance. This work increases the range of areal densities to which the system is sensitive to span from ∼25 mg cm(-2) to 100 g cm(-2), exceeding three orders of magnitude. This enables the simultaneous imaging of a dense system as well as thin jets and ejecta material that are otherwise difficult to characterize with high-energy proton radiography.

  8. Toward practical 3D radiography of pipeline girth welds

    SciTech Connect

    Wassink, Casper

    2015-03-31

    Digital radiography has made its way into in-the-field girth weld testing. With recent generations of detectors and x-ray tubes it is possible to reach the image quality desired in standards as well as the speed of inspection desired to be competitive with film radiography and automated ultrasonic testing. This paper will show the application of these technologies in the RTD Rayscan system. The method for achieving an image quality that complies with or even exceeds prevailing industrial standards will be presented, as well as the application on pipeline girth welds with CRA layers. A next step in development will be to also achieve a measurement of weld flaw height to allow for performing an Engineering Critical Assessment on the weld. This will allow for similar acceptance limits as currently used with Automated Ultrasonic Testing of pipeline girth welds. Although a sufficient sizing accuracy was already demonstrated and qualified in the TomoCAR system, testing in some applications is restricted to time limits. The paper will present some experiments that were performed to achieve flaw height approximation within these time limits.

  9. Using Digital Radiography To Image Liquid Nitrogen in Voids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Dwight; Blevins, Elana

    2007-01-01

    Digital radiography by use of (1) a field-portable x-ray tube that emits low-energy x rays and (2) an electronic imaging x-ray detector has been found to be an effective technique for detecting liquid nitrogen inside voids in thermal-insulation panels. The technique was conceived as a means of investigating cryopumping (including cryoingestion) as a potential cause of loss of thermal insulation foam from space-shuttle external fuel tanks. The technique could just as well be used to investigate cryopumping and cryoingestion in other settings. In images formed by use of low-energy x-rays, one can clearly distinguish between voids filled with liquid nitrogen and those filled with gaseous nitrogen or other gases. Conventional film radiography is of some value, but yields only non-real-time still images that do not show time dependences of levels of liquids in voids. In contrast, the present digital radiographic technique yields a succession of images in real time at a rate of about 10 frames per second. The digitized images can be saved for subsequent analysis to extract data on time dependencies of levels of liquids and, hence, of flow paths and rates of filling and draining. The succession of images also amounts to a real-time motion picture that can be used as a guide to adjustment of test conditions.

  10. Toward practical 3D radiography of pipeline girth welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassink, Casper; Hol, Martijn; Flikweert, Arjan; van Meer, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Digital radiography has made its way into in-the-field girth weld testing. With recent generations of detectors and x-ray tubes it is possible to reach the image quality desired in standards as well as the speed of inspection desired to be competitive with film radiography and automated ultrasonic testing. This paper will show the application of these technologies in the RTD Rayscan system. The method for achieving an image quality that complies with or even exceeds prevailing industrial standards will be presented, as well as the application on pipeline girth welds with CRA layers. A next step in development will be to also achieve a measurement of weld flaw height to allow for performing an Engineering Critical Assessment on the weld. This will allow for similar acceptance limits as currently used with Automated Ultrasonic Testing of pipeline girth welds. Although a sufficient sizing accuracy was already demonstrated and qualified in the TomoCAR system, testing in some applications is restricted to time limits. The paper will present some experiments that were performed to achieve flaw height approximation within these time limits.

  11. The sensitivity of radiography of the postoperative stomach

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, D.J.; Munitz, H.A.; Gelfand, D.W.; Lane, T.G.; Wu, W.C.

    1982-09-01

    The results of radiology and endoscopy were compared in 140 patients who had undergone gastric surgery for ulcer disease. Of 74 patients who were examined with single-contrast radiography, 37 had abnormalities that were demonstrated endoscopically. The radiographic sensitivities in these patients were: gastritis 2/22 (9%); ulcer 3/5 (60%); obstruction 8/8 (100%); and miscellaneous abnormalities 2/2 (100%). The predictive accuracy of a diagnois of ulcer was 38%. Of the 66 patients who were examined with double-contrast radiography, 33 abnormalities were found with endoscopy. The radiographic sensitivities were: gastritis 3/13 (23%); ulcer 7/10 (70%); obstruction 4/4 (100%); and miscellaneous abnormalities 6/6 (100%). The predictive accuracy of a diagnosis of ulcer was 44%. Radiology appears to be unreliable in diagnosing gastritis and recurrent ulceration in the post-operation stomach. The double-contrast technique does not offer significant improvement over the single-contrast method in evaluating these postoperative problems.

  12. Assessing The Impact Of Computed Radiography And PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedgcock, Marcus W.; Kehr, Katherine

    1989-05-01

    Our institution (San Francisco VA Medical Center) is a VA pilot center for total digital imaging and PACS. Quantitative information about PACS impact on health care is limited, because no centers have done rigorous preimplementation studies. We are gathering quantitative service delivery and cost data before, during, and after stepwise implementation of computed radiography and PACS at our institution to define the impact on imaging service delivery. We designed a simple audit method using the x-ray request and time clocks to determine patient waiting time, imaging time, film use, image availability to the radiologist, matching of current with previous images, image availability to clinicians, and time to final interpretation. Our department model is a multichannel, mulitserver patient queue. Our current radiograph file is space limited, containing only one year of images; older images are kept in a remote file area in another building. In addition, there are 16 subfile areas within the Radiology Service and the medical center. Our preimplementation audit showed some long waiting times (40 minutes, average 20) and immediate retrieval of prior films in only 42% of cases, with an average retrieval time of 22 hours. Computed radiography and the optical archive have the potential to improve these figures. The audit will be ongoing and automated as implementation of PACS progresses, to measure service improvement and learning curve with the new equipment. We present the audit format and baseline preimplementation figures.

  13. Building a cost efficient digital radiography system for educational purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Chris

    Due to the growing need for Medical Physicists, many universities are implementing a Medical Physics program into their academic catalog. To help establish a new program, feasible equipment may be needed to help academic departments provide a hands-on experience for students and help teach the basic concepts of Medical Physics. For example, clinical Digital Radiography Systems (DRS) are used to help teach the basic concepts of digital imaging. However, such systems can cost in excess of 100,000, creating a financial obstacle that will be difficult to overcome. Hence, the development of a cost efficient digital radiography system may be desired in order to eliminate the financial obstacle and give students a hands-on learning experience. This DRS uses three main components to develop an image, an x-ray source, an intensifying plate, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. All three components are housed in a lead-lined box. The purpose of this project is to find the limitations of our DRS and compare the price between our DRS and commercially available DRSs. At optimal settings, a SNR of 25 is shown across the intensifying screen that can identify objects as small as 0.42mm. A Contrast-detail phantom shows the ability to decipher the varying thickness of foam rubber squares. The total cost of our DRS comes to 17,000.00, a fractional price tag compared to a commercially available DRS.

  14. Grating Based, Phase Contrast Radiography with Bremsstrahlung Source

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher Goldin and Shaun Hampton

    2009-09-11

    Phase-contrast radiography (PCR) generates an image from gradients in the phase of the probing X-radiation induced by the radiographic object, and can therefore make visible features difficult or impossible to see with conventional, absorption-contrast (ACR) radiography. For any particular object, variations in either the real or imaginary parts of the index of refraction could be greater. Most practical difficulties of PCR arise from the very small deviation from unity (~10-5-10-6, depending of material and energy) of the real part of the index of refraction. In principal, straightforward shadowgraphy would provide a phase-contrast image, but in practice this is usually overwhelmed by the zero-order (bright field) signal. Eliminating this sets the phase-contrast signal against a dark field (as in Schlieren photography with visible light). One way to do this with X-rays is with a grating that produces a Talbot interference pattern. Minute variations in optical path lengths through the radiographic object can significantly shift the Talbot fringes, and these shifts constitute a dark-field signal separate from the zero-order wave. This technique has recently been investigated up to ~20keV [1-3]; this work addresses what sets the practical upper limit, and where that limit is. These appear to be grating fabrication, and ~60keV, respectively.

  15. A note on digital dental radiography in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Chiam, Sher-Lin

    2014-09-01

    Digital dental radiography, intraoral and extraoral, is becoming more popular in dental practice. It offers convenience, such as lower exposure to radiation, ease of storing of images, and elimination of chemical processing. However, it also has disadvantages and drawbacks. One of these is the potential for confusion of the orientation of the image. This paper outlines one example of this, namely, the lateral inversion of the image. This source of confusion is partly inherent in the older model of phosphor storage plates (PSPs), as they allow both sides to be exposed without clue to the fact that the image is acquired on the wrong side. The native software allows digital manipulation of the X-ray image, permitting both rotation and inversion. Attempts to orientate the X-ray according to the indicator incorporated on the plate can then sometimes lead to inadvertent lateral inversion of the image. This article discusses the implications of such mistakes in dental digital radiography to forensic odontology and general dental practice.

  16. Development of a Logging Tool for Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suenaga, H.; Kiho, K.; Miyakawa, K.; Tanaka, H.

    2012-04-01

    A research for high level radioactive waste disposal should investigate geological structure and saturation change of rock mass around a disposal cavern. In the CO2 geological storage and the underground storage of crude oil, natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), it is necessary to monitor an upward migration of a gaseous fluid which is stored in underground. For an investigation of slope stability, it is effective to evaluate a high saturation area in the ground's pore space as the area should be the same as that of a rainfall infiltration. Since these phenomena could be evaluated by a measurement of a density variation in underground rock, an application of muon radiography is highly prospective. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has a plan to conduct a field experiment to evaluate an applicability of the muon radiography to engineering geology in cooperation with Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. (J-POWER). The field experiment will be performed this year in slope topography. If the applicability will be revealed as a result of the field experiment, CRIEPI will start a research on development of a logging tool which can measure muon in a borehole. We plan to build a prototype of the logging tool in around three years and will put it into practical use in around five years.

  17. Multiple-Image Radiography for Human Soft Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Muehleman,C.; Li, J.; Zhong, Z.; Brankov, J.; Wernick, M.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional radiography only provides a measure of the X-ray attenuation caused by an object; thus, it is insensitive to other inherent informative effects, such as refraction. Furthermore, conventional radiographs are degraded by X-ray scatter that can obscure important details of the object being imaged. The novel X-ray technology diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) has recently allowed the visualization of nearly scatter-free images displaying both attenuation and refraction properties. A new method termed multiple-image radiography (MIR) is a significant improvement over DEI, corrects errors in DEI, is more robust to noise and produces an additional image that is entirely new to medical imaging. This new image, which portrays ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) conveys the presence of microstructure in the object, thus differentiating homogeneous tissues from tissues that are irregular on a scale of micrometers. The aim of this study was to examine the use of MIR for evaluation of soft tissue, and in particular to conduct a preliminary investigation of the USAXS image, which has not previously been used in tissue imaging.

  18. Dose measurements in intraoral radiography using thermoluminescent dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorín, C.; Azorín, J.; Aguirre, F.; Rivera, T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of X-ray in medicine demands to expose the patient and the professional to the lowest radiation doses available in agreement with ALARA philosophy. The reference level for intraoral dental radiography is 7 mGy and, in Mexico, a number of examinations of this type are performed annually. It is considered that approximately 25% of all the X-rays examinations carried out in our country correspond to intraoral radiographies. In other hand, most of the intraoral X-ray equipment correspond to conventional radiological systems using film, which are developed as much manual as automatically. In this work the results of determining the doses received by the patients in intraoral radiological examinations made with different radiological systems using LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE thermoluminescent dosimeters are presented. In some conventional radiological systems using film, when films are developed manual or automatically, incident kerma up to 10.61 ± 0.74 mGv were determined. These values exceed that reference level suggested by the IAEA and in the Mexican standards for intraoral examinations.

  19. The need for skull radiography in patients presenting for CT

    SciTech Connect

    Tress, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    One thousand patients had both CT of the head and a conventional skull series of radiographs. Radiographic findings were abnormal in 250 patients (25%), but only 64 patients (6.4%) had diagnostically significant abnormalities at radiography that were not detected by CT. If the 163 patients who presented after acute trauma were excluded from the series, only 39 (4.7%) of the remaining patients had radiographically significant abnormal findings that were not seen at CT, and only two (0.2%) of these abnormalities could not be diagnosed by a lateral skull radiograph alone. In only five patients (0.5%) was the management actively changed because an abnormaltiy that was detected at skull radiography was not detected at CT. Thus, in nontrauma patients who have stroke, epilepsy, dementia, or non-specific symptoms without focal signs, or have recently undergone craniotomy, and who have been referred for CT, skull radiographs are not justified. In the patient with a history and findings that are strongly suggestive of a pathological disorder anywhere other than in the sella turcica, cerebello-pontine angle, and paranasal sinuses, only the lateral skull radiograph should be obtained after CT, and only if CT is equivocal.

  20. Value of radiography in the management of possible fishbone ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sundgren, P C; Burnett, A; Maly, P V

    1994-08-01

    A retrospective study was performed on 42 consecutive patients to examine the value of radiography in the management of complaints of fishbone ingestion. All patients underwent an oral examination followed by radiographic examination with plain films, barium swallows, barium and water swallows, and an endoscopic examination. All radiographs were reviewed by two unbiased, experienced radiologists. Of the 7 cases with fishbone found at endoscopic examination, only two (29%) bones were seen by the primary radiologist and 5 (71%) by the reviewing radiologists. Except for one case in which all three radiologists detected a fishbone that passed during the examination, and thereby was not found on endoscopy, no fishbones were found at the radiographic examination that were not seen on the endoscopic examination. Thus, radiography added no valuable information but only delayed the endoscopic examination with ensuing removal of the foreign body, which had to be performed regardless of the outcome of the radiographic examination. Therefore, we suggest that patients with a short history of complaints of fishbone ingestion, ie, 48 hours or less, should first be evaluated with oral and endoscopic examination.

  1. Low material budget floating strip Micromegas for ion transmission radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortfeldt, J.; Biebel, O.; Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Klitzner, F.; Lösel, Ph.; Magallanes, L.; Müller, R.; Parodi, K.; Schlüter, T.; Voss, B.; Zibell, A.

    2017-02-01

    Floating strip Micromegas are high-accuracy and discharge insensitive gaseous detectors, able to track single particles at fluxes of 7 MHz/cm2 with 100 μm resolution. We developed low-material-budget detectors with one-dimensional strip readout, suitable for tracking at highest particle rates as encountered in medical ion transmission radiography or inner tracker applications. Recently we additionally developed Kapton-based floating strip Micromegas with two-dimensional strip readout, featuring an overall thickness of 0.011 X0. These detectors were tested in high-rate proton and carbon-ion beams at the tandem accelerator in Garching and the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, operated with an optimized Ne:CF4 gas mixture. By coupling the Micromegas detectors to a new scintillator based range detector, ion transmission radiographies of PMMA and tissue-equivalent phantoms were acquired. The range detector with 18 layers is read out via wavelength shifting fibers, coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier. We present the performance of the Micromegas detectors with respect to timing and single plane track reconstruction using the μTPC method. We discuss the range resolution of the scintillator range telescope and present the image reconstruction capabilities of the combined system.

  2. High-ratio grid considerations in mobile chest radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Alexander W.; Gauntt, David M.; Yester, Michael V.; Barnes, Gary T.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: Grids are often not used in mobile chest radiography, and when used, they have a low ratio and are often inaccurately aligned. Recently, a mobile radiography automatic grid alignment system (MRAGA) was developed that accurately and automatically aligns the focal spot with the grid. The objective of this study is to investigate high-ratio grid tradeoffs in mobile chest radiography at fixed patient dose when the focal spot lies on the focal axis of the grid. Methods: The chest phantoms (medium and large) used in this study were modifications of the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) chest phantom and consisted of layers of Lucite Trade-Mark-Sign , aluminum, and air. For the large chest phantom, the amount of Lucite and aluminum was increased by 50% over the medium phantom. Further modifications included a mediastinum insert and the addition of contrast targets in the lung and mediastinum regions. Five high-ratio grids were evaluated and compared to the nongrid results at x-ray tube potentials of 80, 90, 100, and 110 kVp for both phantoms. The grids investigated were from two manufacturers: 12:1 and 15:1 aluminum interspace grids from one and 10:1, 13:1, and 15:1 fiber interspace grids from another. MRAGA was employed to align the focal spot with the grid. All exposures for a given kVp and phantom size were made using the same current-time product (CTP). The phantom images were acquired using computed radiography, and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and CNR improvement factors (k{sub CNR}) were determined from the resultant images. The noise in the targets and the contrast between the targets and their backgrounds were calculated using a local detrending correction, and the CNR was calculated as the ratio of the target contrast to the background noise. k{sub CNR} was defined as the ratio of the CNR imaged with the grid divided by the CNR imaged without a grid. Results: The CNR values obtained with a high-ratio grid were 4%-65% higher than those

  3. Is radiography justified for the evaluation of patients presenting with cervical spine trauma?

    SciTech Connect

    Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Chatzakis, Georgios; Damilakis, John

    2009-10-15

    Conventional radiography has been for decades the standard method of evaluation for cervical spine trauma patients. However, currently available helical multidetector CT scanners allow multiplanar reconstruction of images, leading to increased diagnostic accuracy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative benefit/risk ratio between cervical spine CT and cervical spine radiography and between cervical spine CT and cervical spine radiography, followed by CT as an adjunct for positive findings. A decision analysis model for the determination of the optimum imaging technique was developed. The sensitivity and specificity of CT and radiography were obtained by dedicated meta-analysis. Lifetime attributable risk of mortal cancer from CT and radiography was calculated using updated organ-specific risk coefficients and organ-absorbed doses. Patient organ doses from radiography were calculated using Monte Carlo techniques, simulated exposures performed on an anthropomorphic phantom, and thermoluminescence dosimetry. A prospective patient study was performed regarding helical CT scans of the cervical spine. Patient doses were calculated based on the dose-length-product values and Monte Carlo-based CT dosimetry software program. Three groups of patient risk for cervical spine fracture were incorporated in the decision model on the basis of hypothetical trauma mechanism and clinical findings. Radiation effects were assessed separately for males and females for four age groups (20, 40, 60, and 80 yr old). Effective dose from radiography amounts to 0.050 mSv and from a typical CT scan to 3.8 mSv. The use of CT in a hypothetical cohort of 10{sup 6} patients prevents approximately 130 incidents of paralysis in the low risk group (a priori fracture probability of 0.5%), 500 in the moderate risk group (a priori fracture probability of 2%), and 5100 in the high risk group (a priori fracture probability of 20%). The expense of this CT-based prevention is 15-32 additional

  4. Multi-Institutional Evaluation of Digital Tomosynthesis, Dual-Energy Radiography, and Conventional Chest Radiography for the Detection and Management of Pulmonary Nodules.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, James T; McAdams, H Page; Sabol, John M; Chakraborty, Dev P; Kazerooni, Ella A; Reddy, Gautham P; Vikgren, Jenny; Båth, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To conduct a multi-institutional, multireader study to compare the performance of digital tomosynthesis, dual-energy (DE) imaging, and conventional chest radiography for pulmonary nodule detection and management. Materials and Methods In this binational, institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant prospective study, 158 subjects (43 subjects with normal findings) were enrolled at four institutions. Informed consent was obtained prior to enrollment. Subjects underwent chest computed tomography (CT) and imaging with conventional chest radiography (posteroanterior and lateral), DE imaging, and tomosynthesis with a flat-panel imaging device. Three experienced thoracic radiologists identified true locations of nodules (n = 516, 3-20-mm diameters) with CT and recommended case management by using Fleischner Society guidelines. Five other radiologists marked nodules and indicated case management by using images from conventional chest radiography, conventional chest radiography plus DE imaging, tomosynthesis, and tomosynthesis plus DE imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy were measured by using the free-response receiver operating characteristic method and the receiver operating characteristic method for nodule detection and case management, respectively. Results were further analyzed according to nodule diameter categories (3-4 mm, >4 mm to 6 mm, >6 mm to 8 mm, and >8 mm to 20 mm). Results Maximum lesion localization fraction was higher for tomosynthesis than for conventional chest radiography in all nodule size categories (3.55-fold for all nodules, P < .001; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.96, 4.15). Case-level sensitivity was higher with tomosynthesis than with conventional chest radiography for all nodules (1.49-fold, P < .001; 95% CI: 1.25, 1.73). Case management decisions showed better overall accuracy with tomosynthesis than with conventional chest radiography, as given by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve

  5. Practical guidelines for radiographers to improve computed radiography image quality.

    PubMed

    Pongnapang, N

    2005-10-01

    Computed Radiography (CR) has become a major digital imaging modality in a modern radiological department. CR system changes workflow from the conventional way of using film/screen by employing photostimulable phosphor plate technology. This results in the changing perspectives of technical, artefacts and quality control issues in radiology departments. Guidelines for better image quality in digital medical enterprise include professional guidelines for users and the quality control programme specifically designed to serve the best quality of clinical images. Radiographers who understand technological shift of the CR from conventional method can employ optimization of CR images. Proper anatomic collimation and exposure techniques for each radiographic projection are crucial steps in producing quality digital images. Matching image processing with specific anatomy is also important factor that radiographers should realise. Successful shift from conventional to fully digitised radiology department requires skilful radiographers who utilise the technology and a successful quality control program from teamwork in the department.

  6. Inspection of an artificial heart by the neutron radiography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliesi, R.; Geraldo, L. P.; Andrade, M. L. G.; Menezes, M. O.,; Pereira, M. A. S.; Maizato, M. J. S.

    1999-11-01

    The neutron radiography technique was employed to inspect an artificial heart prototype which is being developed to provide blood circulation for patients expecting heart transplant surgery. The radiographs have been obtained by the direct method with a gadolinium converter screen along with the double coated Kodak-AA emulsion film. The artificial heart consists of a flexible plastic membrane located inside a welded metallic cavity, which is employed for blood pumping purposes. The main objective of the present inspection was to identify possible damages in this plastic membrane, produced during the welding process of the metallic cavity. The obtained radiographs were digitized as well as analysed in a PC and the improved images clearly identify several damages in the plastic membrane, suggesting changes in the welding process.

  7. Bone Texture Characterization for Osteoporosis Diagnosis using Digital Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Keni; Makrogiannis, Sokratis

    2017-01-01

    We introduce texture classification techniques to effectively diagnose osteoporosis in bone radiography data. Osteoporosis is an age-related systemic bone skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass and bone structure deterioriation that results in increased bone fragility and higher fracture risk. Therefore, early diagnosis can effectively predict fracture risk and prevent the disease. Automated diagnosis from digital radiographs is very challenging since the scans of healthy and osteoporotic subjects show little or no visual differences, and their density histograms mostly overlap. We designed a system to separate healthy from osteoporotic subjects using high-dimensional textural feature representations computed from radiographs. These features were then reduced using feature selection to obtain the more discriminant subset that was finally classified by our methods. The top performing approach yields 79.3% accuracy and 81% area under the ROC over 116 bone radiographs. PMID:28268501

  8. Dosimetry and image quality assessment in a direct radiography system

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Paixão, Lucas; Teixeira, Maria Helena Araújo; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the mean glandular dose with a solid state detector and the image quality in a direct radiography system, utilizing phantoms. Materials and Methods Irradiations were performed with automatic exposure control and polymethyl methacrylate slabs with different thicknesses to calculate glandular dose values. The image quality was evaluated by means of the structures visualized on the images of the phantoms. Results Considering the uncertainty of the measurements, the mean glandular dose results are in agreement with the values provided by the equipment and with internationally adopted reference levels. Results obtained from images of the phantoms were in agreement with the reference values. Conclusion The present study contributes to verify the equipment conformity as regards dose values and image quality. PMID:25741119

  9. Measurement Of Gas Bubbles In Mercury Using Proton Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Riemer, Bernie; Bingham, Philip R; Mariam, Fesseha G; Merrill, Frank E

    2007-01-01

    An experiment using proton radiography on a small mercury loop for testing gas bubble injection was conducted at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in December 2006. Small gas bubble injection is one of the approaches under development to reduce cavitation damage in the U.S. Spallation Neutron Source mercury target vessel. Several hundred radiograph images were obtained as the test loop was operated over range of conditions that included two jet type bubble generators, two needle type bubble generators, various mercury flow speeds and gas injection rates, and use of helium, argon and xenon. This paper will describe the analysis of the radiograph images and present the obtained bubble measurement data.

  10. Reduction of absorbed doses in radiography of the facial skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.

    1984-11-01

    Radiation absorbed doses from radiography of the paranasal sinuses and the facial skeleton were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) on a phantom head using high-sensitivity screens in an Orbix stand. The entrance doses to the skin of the head ranged from 0.31 to 2.9 mGy per exposure. The absorbed dose from a full series of sinus exposures averaged 0.33 mGy for the oral mucous membrane, 0.33 mGy for the maxillary sinus mucous membrane, 0.11 MgY for the parotid gland, 0.15 MgY for the submandibular gland, 0.61 mGy for the eye lens, and 0.75 mGy for the thyroid gland region. A leaded soft collar adapted to the thyroid region reduced the thyroid doses by more than one order of magnitude, but also reduced the image field.

  11. Digital neutron radiography using plane converters with multiwire proportional chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, S.N.; Director, B.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Valentine, K.H.

    1981-12-01

    The work described here was completed more than three years ago, and represents, in large part the PhD and MS thesis research of two of the present authors. Much of it has been reported previously elsewhere. It constitutes an effort to develop and study a moderately low cost, moderate resolution, high sensitivity, on-line method for digital neutron radiography, intended for use where neutron fluence was limited by source strength, or received dose. The basic imaging system consisted of a position-sensitive gas proportional chamber together with its associated imaging electronics, and a plane neutron converter. Enriched-boron, gadolinium, and polyethylene (for fast neutrons) converters were analyzed and tested. Some work was done on digital data enhancement, and efforts to improve spatial resolution included pressurizing the proportional-chamber gas to reduce the track lengths of the neutron-interaction products.

  12. A third generation mobile high energy radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.A.; Valdez, J.E.; Johnson, C.S.; Kimerly, H.J.; Vananne, J.R.

    1997-12-01

    A third generation mobile high energy radiographic capability has been completed and put into service by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The system includes a 6 MeV linac x-ray generator, Co-60 gamma source, all-terrain transportation, on-board power, real-time radiography (RTR), a control center, and a complete darkroom capability. The latest version includes upgraded and enhanced portability, flexibility, all-terrain operation, all-weather operation, and ease of use features learned from experience with the first and second generation systems. All systems were required to have the following characteristics; all-terrain, all-weather operation, self-powered, USAF airlift compatible, reliable, simple to setup, easy to operate, and all components two-person portable. The systems have met these characteristics to differing degrees, as is discussed in the following section, with the latest system being the most capable.

  13. Wrist rhythm during wrist joint motion evaluated by dynamic radiography.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Hiroki; Tada, Kaoru; Suganuma, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Sanada, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that wrist joint motion involves a "wrist rhythm" similar to the scapulohumeral rhythm. Therefore, we used a flat-panel detector to evaluate the ratio of radiolunate and capitolunate joint motions during wrist joint motion by dynamic radiography. The subjects were 20 healthy men. Dynamic imaging of the wrist joint was performed during active exercise for a total of ten seconds. In this study, we defined the radiocarpal (RL angle) and midcarpal joint angle (CL angle) as the wrist joint angle in the obtained images and measured the variation of these angles. The average curve was plotted and regression lines calculated from the average curve. The ratio was calculated from the slopes of the regression lines of the RL CL angles. These findings indicated that the ratio of the RL and CL angle motions was approximately 1:4 during palmar flexion and approximately 2:1 during dorsiflexion.

  14. Plasma-flash radiography utilizing a molybdenum target in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mariko; Takabe, Akihito; Sakamaki, Kimio; Sato, Eiichi; Takahashi, Kei; Sagae, Michiaki; Oizumi, Teiji; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Sasaki, Katsuaki; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu; Yanagisawa, Toru

    1995-09-01

    The construction and the radiographic characteristics of a plasma flash x-ray generator having a molybdenum-target (anode tip) triode are described. This generator was primarily designed in order to perform soft radiography in dental medicine and employed the following essential components: a high-voltage power supply, a low-impedance coaxial transmission line with a gap switch, a coaxial oil condenser of 0.2 (mu) F, a turbo-molecular pump, a Krytron pulser as a trigger device, and a flash x-ray tube. The high-voltage main condenser of 0.2 (mu) F was charged from 40 to 60 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser were discharged to the tube after closing the gap switch. Because this tube employed a long target, the plasma x-ray source which consists of molybdenum ions and electrons was easily produced by the target evaporating. The maximum tube voltage was nearly equivalent to the initial charge voltage of the main condenser, and the maximum current had a value of about 25 kA with a charging voltage of 60 kV. The average width of flash x rays was less than 1 microsecond(s) , and the time-integrated x-ray intensity with a charging voltage of 60 kV was approximately 20 (mu) C/kg at 1.0 m per pulse. The characteristic K-series intensity substantially increased according to increases in the charged voltage. High-speed dental radiography was performed using a laser timing switch and a trigger-delay device.

  15. Paediatric entrance doses from exposure index in computed radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, E.; Martinez, D.; Fernandez, J. M.; Ordiales, J. M.; Prieto, C.; Floriano, A.; Ten, J. I.

    2008-06-01

    Over the last two years we have evaluated paediatric patient doses in projection radiography derived from exposure level (EL) in computed radiography (CR) in a large university hospital. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for 3501 paediatric examinations was calculated from the EL, which is a dose index parameter related to the light emitted by the phosphor-stimulable plate, archived in the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) header of the images and automatically transferred to a database using custom-built dedicated software. Typical mean thicknesses for several age bands of paediatric patients was estimated to calculate ESAK from the EL values, using results of experimental measurements with phantoms for the typical x-ray beam qualities used in paediatric examinations. Mean/median ESAK values (in µGy) for the age bands of <1 year, 1-5 years, 6-10 years and 11-15 years have been obtained for chest without a bucky: 51/41, 57/34, 91/54 and 122/109; chest with a bucky (for only the last three age bands): 114/87, 129/105 and 219/170; abdomen: 119/91, 291/225, 756/600 and 1960/1508 and pelvis: 65/48, 455/314, 943/707 and 2261/1595. Sample sizes of clinical images used for the (indirect) measurements were 1724 for chest without a bucky, 799 for chest with a bucky, 337 for abdomen and 641 for pelvis. The methodology we describe could be applicable to other centres using CR as an imaging modality for paediatrics. Presently, this method is the only practical approach to automatically extract parameters contained in the DICOM header, for the calculation of patient dose values for the CR modality.

  16. Single-exposure dual-energy computed radiography.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B K; Huang, H K

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on analysis and development of a single-exposure dual-energy digital radiographic method using computed radiography (Fuji FCR-101 storage phosphor system). A detector sandwich consisting of storage phosphor imaging plates and an interdetector filter is used. The goal of this process is to provide a simple dual-energy method using typical plane-projection radiographic equipment and techniques. This approach exploits the transparency of the storage phosphor plates, using radiographic information that would be otherwise lost, to provide energy selective information essentially as a by-product of the radiographic examination. In order to effectively make use of the large dynamic range of the storage phosphor imaging plates (10,000:1), a computed radiography image reading mode of fixed analog-to-digital converter gain and variable photomultiplier sensitivity provides image data which can be related to relative incident exposure for export to the decomposition algorithm. Scatter rejection requirements necessitated crossed 12:1 grids for a field size of 36 x 36 cm. Optimal technique parameters obtained from computer simulation through minimization of the aluminum and Plexiglas equivalent image uncertainty under conditions of constant absorbed does resulted as: 100 kVp using a 0.15-mm-thick tin (Sn) interdetector filter for the lung field. This yields a surface exposure of 23 mR and a surface absorbed dose of 0.26 mGy for a 23-cm-thick chest. Clinical application in evaluation of the solitary pulmonary nodule is discussed, along with an image set demonstrating this application.

  17. Plasma-flash radiography utilizing a molybdenum target in dentistry

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Mariko; Takabe, Akihito; Sakamaki, Kimio

    1995-12-31

    The construction and the radiographic characteristics of a plasma flash x-ray generator having a molybdenum-target (anode tip) triode are described. This generator was primarily designed in order to perform soft radiography in dental medicine and employed the following essential components: a high-voltage power supply, a low-impedance coaxial transmission line with a gap switch, a coaxial oil condenser of 0.2 {micro}F, a turbo-molecular pump, a Krytron pulser as a trigger device, and a flash x-ray tube. The high-voltage main condenser of 0.2 {micro}F was charged from 40 to 60 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser were discharged to the tube after closing the gap switch. Because this tube employed a long target, the plasma x-ray source which consists of molybdenum ions and electrons was easily produced by the target evaporating. The maximum tube voltage was nearly equivalent to the initial charging voltage of the main condenser, and the maximum current had a value of about 25 kA with a charging voltage of 60 kV. The average width of flash x rays was less than 1 {micro}s, and the time-integrated x-ray intensity with a charging voltage of 60 kV was approximately 20 {micro}C/kg at 1.0 m per pulse. The characteristic K-series intensity substantially increased according to increases in the charging voltage. High-speed dental radiography was performed by using a laser timing switch and a trigger-delay device.

  18. Facility Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Ben E.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews recommendations on policies for leasing surplus school space made during the Council of Educational Facility Planners/International conference. A case study presentation of a Seattle district's use of lease agreements is summarized. (MJL)

  19. Sandia National Laboratories shock thermodynamics applied research (STAR) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Asay, J.R.

    1981-08-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories Shock Thermodynamics Applied Research (STAR) Facility has recently consolidated three different guns and a variety of instrumentation capabilities into a single location. The guns available at the facility consist of a single-stage light gas gun, a single-stage propellant gun and a two-stage light gas gun, which cover a velocity range from 15 m/s to 8 km/s. Instrumentation available at the facility includes optical and microwave interferometry, time-resolved holography, fast x-radiography, framing and streak photography, fast multi-wavelength pyrometry, piezoelectric and piezoresistive gauges and computer data reduction. This report discusses the guns and instrumentation available at the facility and selected recent applications.

  20. Novel joint source-channel coding for wireless transmission of radiography images.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Katsuhiro; Takizawa, Kenichi; Ikegami, Tetsushi

    2010-01-01

    A wireless technology is required to realize robust transmission of medical images like a radiography image over noisy environment. The use of error correction technique is essential for realizing such a reliable communication, in which a suitable channel coding is introduced to correct erroneous bits caused by passing through a noisy channel. However, the use of a channel code decreases its efficiency because redundancy bits are also transmitted with information bits. This paper presents a joint source-channel coding which maintains the channel efficiency during transmission of medical images like a radiography image. As medical images under the test, we use typical radiography images in this paper. The joint coding technique enjoys correlations between pixels of the radiography image. The results show that the proposed joint coding provides capability to correcting erroneous bits without increasing the redundancy of the codeword.

  1. Time resolved analysis of water drainage in porous asphalt concrete using neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Poulikakos, L D; Sedighi Gilani, M; Derome, D; Jerjen, I; Vontobel, P

    2013-07-01

    Porous asphalt as a road surface layer controls aquaplaning as rain water can drain through its highly porous structure. The process of water drainage through this permeable layer is studied using neutron radiography. Time-resolved water configuration and distribution within the porous structure are reported. It is shown that radiography depicts the process of liquid water transport within the complex geometry of porous asphalt, capturing water films, filled dead end pores and water islands.

  2. Application of Digital Radiography to Weld Inspection for the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ussery, Warren

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of digital radiography to inspect the welds of the external tanks used to hold the cryogenic fuels for the Space Shuttle Main Engines. NASA has had a goal of replacing a significant portion of film used to inspect the welds, with digital radiography. The presentation reviews the objectives for converting to a digital system from film, the characteristics of the digital system, the Probability of detection study, the qualification and implementation of the system.

  3. Digital Radiography and X-ray Computed Tomography Slice Inspection of an Aluminum Truss Section

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    3. Results The DR and XCT scans of the specimen were done using the 225-keV microfocus x - ray tube and II/CCD camera setup in centered rotate-only...Digital Radiography and X - ray Computed Tomography Slice Inspection of an Aluminum Truss Section by William H. Green ARL-MR-791 September...Digital Radiography and X - ray Computed Tomography Slice Inspection of an Aluminum Truss Section William H. Green Weapons and Materials

  4. Biomedical radiography: radiation protection and safety. (latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the safety of biomedical radiography. Radiation protection methods and techniques are described for both patients and operators. Safety techniques for dental radiology, routine x-rays, radiotherapy, thoracic radiography and other radiology procedures are included. Radiation exposure limits for patients and healthcare workers are defined. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. A transportable neutron radiography system based on a SbBe neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantidis, J. G.; Nicolaou, G. E.; Tsagas, N. F.

    2009-07-01

    A transportable neutron radiography system, incorporating a SbBe neutron source, has been simulated using the MCNPX code. Design provisions have allowed two radiography systems to be utilised using the same SbBe neutron source. In this respect, neutron radiographies can be carried out using the photoneutrons produced when the 124Sb is surrounded by the Be target. Alternatively, γ-radiography can be utilised with the photons from the 124Sb with the target removed. Appropriate collimators were simulated for each of the radiography modes. Apart from Be, the materials considered were compatible with the European Union Directive on 'Restriction of Hazardous Substances' (RoHS) 2002/95/EC, hence excluding the use of cadmium and lead. Bismuth was chosen as the material for γ-radiation shielding and the proposed system allowed a maximum activity of the 124Sb up to 1.85×1013 Bq. The system simulated allows different object sizes to be studied with a wide range of radiography parameters.

  6. Diagnostic Accuracy of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Periapical Radiography in Internal Root Resorption

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Zahrasadat; Moudi, Ehsan; Bijani, Ali; Mahmoudi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and periapical (PA) radiography in detecting internal root resorption. Methods and Materials: Eighty single rooted human teeth with visible pulps in PA radiography were split mesiodistally along the coronal plane. Internal resorption like lesions were created in three areas (cervical, middle and apical) in labial wall of the canals in different diameters. PA radiography and CBCT images were taken from each tooth. Two observers examined the radiographs and CBCT images to evaluate the presence of resorption cavities. The data were statistically analyzed and degree of agreement was calculated using Cohen’s kappa (k) values. Results: The mean±SD of agreement coefficient of kappa between the two observers of the CBCT images was calculated to be 0.681±0.047. The coefficients for the direct, mesial and distal PA radiography were 0.405±0.059, 0.421±0.060 and 0.432±0.056, respectively (P=0.001). The differences in the diagnostic accuracy of resorption of different sizes were statistically significant (P<0.05); however, the PA radiography and CBCT, had no statistically significant differences in detection of internal resorption lesions in the cervical, middle and apical regions. Conclusion: Though, CBCT has a higher sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value in comparison with conventional radiography, this difference was not significant. PMID:26843878

  7. Dynamic chest radiography: flat-panel detector (FPD) based functional X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic chest radiography is a flat-panel detector (FPD)-based functional X-ray imaging, which is performed as an additional examination in chest radiography. The large field of view (FOV) of FPDs permits real-time observation of the entire lungs and simultaneous right-and-left evaluation of diaphragm kinetics. Most importantly, dynamic chest radiography provides pulmonary ventilation and circulation findings as slight changes in pixel value even without the use of contrast media; the interpretation is challenging and crucial for a better understanding of pulmonary function. The basic concept was proposed in the 1980s; however, it was not realized until the 2010s because of technical limitations. Dynamic FPDs and advanced digital image processing played a key role for clinical application of dynamic chest radiography. Pulmonary ventilation and circulation can be quantified and visualized for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Dynamic chest radiography can be deployed as a simple and rapid means of functional imaging in both routine and emergency medicine. Here, we focus on the evaluation of pulmonary ventilation and circulation. This review article describes the basic mechanism of imaging findings according to pulmonary/circulation physiology, followed by imaging procedures, analysis method, and diagnostic performance of dynamic chest radiography.

  8. The new neutron radiography/tomography/imaging station DINGO at OPAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbe, U.; Randall, T.; Hughes, C.

    2011-09-01

    A new neutron imaging instrument will be built to support the area of neutron imaging research (neutron radiography/tomography) at ANSTO. The instrument will be designed for an international user community and for routine quality control for defence, industrial, mining, space and aircraft applications. It will also be a useful tool for assessing oil and water flow in sedimentary rock reservoirs (like the North West Shelf), assessing water damage in aircraft components, and the study of hydrogen distribution and cracking in steel. The instrument is planned to be completed by the end of June 2013 and is currently in the design stage. The usable neutron flux is mainly determined by the neutron source, but it also depends on the instrument position and the resolution. The designated instrument position for DINGO is the beam port HB-2 in the reactor hall. The estimated flux for an L/ D of approximately 250 at HB-2 is calculated by Mcstas simulation in a range of 4.75×10 7 n/cm 2 s, which is in the same range of other facilities like ANSTARES (FRM II; Schillinger et al., 2004 [1]) or BT2 (NIST; Hussey et al., 2005 [2]). A special feature of DINGO is the in-pile collimator place in front of the main shutter at HB-2. The collimator offers two pinholes with a possible L/ D of 250 and 1000. A secondary collimator will separate the two beams and block one. The whole instrument will operate in two different positions, one for high resolution and the other for high speed.

  9. SU-E-I-27: Establishing Target Exposure Index Values for Computed Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, N; Tchou, P; Belcher, K; Scott, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a standard set of target exposure index (TEI) values to be applied to Agfa Computed Radiography (CR) readers in accordance with International Electrotechnical Committee 62494-1 (ed. 1.0). Methods: A large data cohort was collected from six USAF Medical Treatment Facilities that exclusively use Agfa CR Readers. Dose monitoring statistics were collected from each reader. The data was analyzed based on anatomic region, view, and processing speed class. The Agfa specific exposure metric, logarithmic mean (LGM), was converted to exposure index (EI) for each data set. The optimum TEI value was determined by minimizing the number of studies that fell outside the acceptable deviation index (DI) range of +/− 2 for phototimed techniques or a range of +/−3 for fixed techniques. An anthropomorphic radiographic phantom was used to corroborate the TEI recommendations. Images were acquired of several anatomic regions and views using standard techniques. The images were then evaluated by two radiologists as either acceptable or unacceptable. The acceptable image with the lowest exposure and EI value was compared to the recommended TEI values using a passing DI range. Results: Target EI values were determined for a comprehensive list of anatomic regions and views. Conclusion: Target EI values must be established on each CR unit in order to provide a positive feedback system for the technologist. This system will serve as a mechanism to prevent under or overexposures of patients. The TEI recommendations are a first attempt at a large scale process improvement with the goal of setting reasonable and standardized TEI values. The implementation and effectiveness of the recommended TEI values should be monitored and adjustments made as necessary.

  10. EOS imaging versus current radiography: A health technology assessment study

    PubMed Central

    Mahboub-Ahari, Alireza; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Yusefi, Mahmoud; Velayati, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: EOS is a 2D/3D muscle skeletal diagnostic imaging system. The device has been developed to produce a high quality 2D, full body radiographs in standing, sitting and squatting positions. Three dimensional images can be reconstructed via sterEOS software. This Health Technology Assessment study aimed to investigate efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new emerged EOS imaging system in comparison with conventional x-ray radiographic techniques. Methods: All cost and outcome data were assessed from Iran's Ministry of Health Perspective. Data for clinical effectiveness was extracted using a rigorous systematic review. As clinical outcomes the rate of x-ray emission and related quality of life were compared with Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR). Standard costing method was conducted to find related direct medical costs. In order to examine robustness of the calculated Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) we used two-way sensitivity analysis. GDP Per capita of Islamic Republic of Iran (2012) adopted as cost-effectiveness threshold. Results: Review of related literature highlighted the lack of rigorous evidence for clinical outcomes. Ultra low dose EOS imaging device is known as a safe intervention because of FDA, CE and CSA certificates. The rate of emitted X-ray was 2 to 18 fold lower for EOS compared to the conventional techniques (p<0.001). The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio for EOS relative to CR calculated $50706 in baseline analysis (the first scenario) and $50714, $9446 respectively for the second and third scenarios. Considering the value of neither $42146 as upper limit, nor the first neither the second scenario could pass the cost-effectiveness threshold for Iran. Conclusion: EOS imaging technique might not be considered as a cost-effective intervention in routine practice of health system, especially within in-patient wards. Scenario analysis shows that, only in an optimum condition such as lower

  11. A conceptual optimisation strategy for radiography in a digital environment.

    PubMed

    Båth, Magnus; Håkansson, Markus; Hansson, Jonny; Månsson, Lars Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Using a completely digital environment for the entire imaging process leads to new possibilities for optimisation of radiography since many restrictions of screen/film systems, such as the small dynamic range and the lack of possibilities for image processing, do not apply any longer. However, at the same time these new possibilities lead to a more complicated optimisation process, since more freedom is given to alter parameters. This paper focuses on describing an optimisation strategy that concentrates on taking advantage of the conceptual differences between digital systems and screen/film systems. The strategy can be summarised as: (a) always include the anatomical background during the optimisation, (b) perform all comparisons at a constant effective dose and (c) separate the image display stage from the image collection stage. A three-step process is proposed where the optimal setting of the technique parameters is determined at first, followed by an optimisation of the image processing. In the final step the optimal dose level-given the optimal settings of the image collection and image display stages-is determined.

  12. Detection of fissionable materials in cargoes using monochromatic photon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danagoulian, Areg; Lanza, Richard; O'Day, Buckley; LNSP Team

    2015-04-01

    The detection of Special Nuclear Materials (e.g. Pu and U) and nuclear devices in the commercial cargo traffic is one of the challenges posed by the threat of nuclear terrorism. Radiography and active interrogation of heavily loaded cargoes require ~ 1 - 10MeV photons for penetration. In a proof-of-concept system under development at MIT, the interrogating monochromatic photon beam is produced via a 11B(d , nγ) 12C reaction. To achieve this, a boron target is used along with the 3 MeV d+ RFQ accelerator at MIT-Bates. The reactions results in the emission of very narrow 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV gammas lines. The photons, after traversing the cargo, are detected by an array of NaI(Tl) detectors. A spectral analysis of the transmitted gammas allows to independently determine the areal density and the atomic number (Z) of the cargo. The proposed approach could revolutionize cargo inspection, which, in its current fielded form has to rely on simple but high dose bremsstrahlung sources. Use of monochromatic sources would significantly reduce the necessary dose and allow for better determination of the cargo's atomic number. The general methodology will be described and the preliminary results from the proof-of-concept system will be presented and discussed. Supported by NSF/DNDO Collaborative Research ARI-LA Award ECCS-1348328.

  13. Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography (DRCT) Product Improvement Plan (PIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Roney; Bob Pink; Karen Wendt; Robert Seifert; Mike Smith

    2010-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing and deploying x-ray inspection systems for chemical weapons containers for the past 12 years under the direction of the Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM). In FY-10 funding was provided to advance the capabilities of these systems through the DRCT (Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography) Product Improvement Plan (PIP), funded by the PMNSCM. The DRCT PIP identified three research tasks; end user study, detector evaluation and DRCT/PINS integration. Work commenced in February, 2010. Due to the late start and the schedule for field inspection of munitions at various sites, it was not possible to spend sufficient field time with operators to develop a complete end user study. We were able to interact with several operators, principally Mr. Mike Rowan who provided substantial useful input through several discussions and development of a set of field notes from the Pueblo, CO field mission. We will be pursuing ongoing interactions with field personnel as opportunities arise in FY-11.

  14. Image quality evaluation of a desktop computed radiography system.

    PubMed

    Fetterly, K A; Hangiandreou, N J

    2000-12-01

    The modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the Lumisys ACR-2000 desktop computed radiography (CR) reader were measured and compared to equivalent measurements acquired from a Fuji AC-3 CR system. The one-dimensional (1D) MTF was measured from an image of a sharp edge and the 1D NPS was derived from a 2D NPS measured from a uniform field exposure. The energy dependent ideal input signal to noise ratio of the incident x-ray beams was estimated using published x-ray spectra and attenuation coefficients. Measurements were acquired using Agfa, Fuji, and Kodak storage phosphor plates and it was concluded that use of the Fuji plates resulted in the highest system DQE for the ACR-2000. The DQE was measured using exposures of 0.10, 1.0, and 10.0 mR from 70 and 120 kVp x-ray beams filtered with aluminum. The DQE of the Lumisys ACR-2000 was lower than that of the Fuji AC-3.

  15. Photon counting detector for the personal radiography inspection system "SIBSCAN"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babichev, E. A.; Baru, S. E.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Leonov, V. V.; Oleynikov, V. P.; Porosev, V. V.; Savinov, G. A.

    2017-02-01

    X-ray detectors operating in the energy integrating mode are successfully used in many different applications. Nevertheless the direct photon counting detectors, having the superior parameters in comparison with the integrating ones, are rarely used yet. One of the reasons for this is the low value of the electrical signal generated by a detected photon. Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) based scintillation counters have a high detection efficiency, high electronic gain and compact dimensions. This makes them a very attractive candidate to replace routinely used detectors in many fields. More than 10 years ago the digital scanning radiography system based on multistrip ionization chamber (MIC) was suggested at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. The detector demonstrates excellent radiation resistance and parameter stability after 5 year operations and an imaging of up to 1000 persons per day. Currently, the installations operate at several Russian airports and at subway stations in some cities. At the present time we design a new detector operating in the photon counting mode, having superior parameters than the gas one, based on scintillator - SiPM assemblies. This detector has close to zero noise, higher quantum efficiency and a count rate capability of more than 5 MHz per channel (20% losses), which leads to better image quality and improved detection capability. The suggested detector technology could be expanded to medical applications.

  16. Evaluation of entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porto, L.; Lunelli, N.; Paschuk, S.; Oliveira, A.; Ferreira, J. L.; Schelin, H.; Miguel, C.; Denyak, V.; Kmiecik, C.; Tilly, J.; Khoury, H.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography. An evaluation of 301 radiographical examinations in anterior-posterior (AP) and posterior-anterior (PA) (166 examinations) and lateral (LAT) (135 examinations) projections was performed. The analyses were performed on patients grouped by age; the groups included ages 0-1 y, 1-5 y, 5-10 y, and 10-15 y. The entrance surface air kerma was determined with DoseCal software (Radiological Protection Center of Saint George's Hospital, London) and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Two different exposure techniques were compared. The doses received by patients who had undergone LAT examinations were 40% higher, on average, those in AP/PA examinations because of the difference in tube voltage. A large high-dose “tail” was observed for children up to 5 y old. An increase in tube potential and corresponding decrease in current lead to a significant dose reduction. The difference between the average dose values for different age ranges was not practically observed, implying that the exposure techniques are still not optimal. Exposure doses received using the higher tube voltage and lower current-time product correspond to the international diagnostic reference levels.

  17. Micro-radiography of biological samples with medical contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammer, J.; Weyda, F.; Benes, J.; Sopko, V.; Gelbic, I.

    2013-12-01

    Micro-radiography is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to study the internal structures of objects. This fast and easy imaging tool is based on differential X-ray attenuation by various tissues and structures within biological samples. The experimental setup described is based on the semiconductor pixel X-ray detector Medipix2 and X-ray micro-focus tube. Our micro-radiographic system has been recently used not only for the examination of internal structures of various arthropods and other biological objects but also for tracing some processes in selected model species (we used living larvae of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus). Low concentrations of iodine, lanthanum or gold particles were used as a tracer (contrast agent). Such contrast agents increase the absorption of X-rays and allow a better visibility of internal structures of model organisms (especially the various cavities, pores, etc.). In addition, the movement of tracers in selected timing experiments demonstrates some physiological functions of digestive and excretory system.

  18. Linear inductive voltage adders (IVA) for advanced hydrodynamic radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Boyes, J.D.; Johnson, D.L.

    1998-09-01

    The electron beam which drifts through the multiple cavities of conventional induction linacs (LIA) is replaced in an IVA by a cylindrical metal conductor which extends along the entire length of the device and effectuates the addition of the accelerator cavity voltages. In the approach to radiography, the linear inductive voltage adder drives a magnetically immersed electron diode with a millimeter diameter cathode electrode and a planar anode/bremsstrahlung converter. Both anode and cathode electrodes are immersed in a strong (15--50 T) solenoidal magnetic field. The electron beam cross section is approximately of the same size as the cathode needle and generates a similar size, very intense x-ray beam when it strikes the anode converter. An IVA driven diode can produce electron beams of equal size and energy as a LIA but with much higher currents (40--50 kA versus 4--5 kA), simpler hardware and thus lower cost. The authors present here first experimental validations of the technology utilizing HERMES 3 and SABRE IVA accelerators. The electron beam voltage and current were respectively of the order of 10 MV and 40 kA. X-ray doses of up to 1 kR {at} 1 m and spot sizes as small as 1.7 mm (at 200 R doses) were measured.

  19. Scale analysis using X-ray microfluorescence and computed radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeias, J. P.; de Oliveira, D. F.; dos Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.

    2014-02-01

    Scale deposits are the most common and most troublesome damage problems in the oil field and can occur in both production and injection wells. They occur because the minerals in produced water exceed their saturation limit as temperatures and pressures change. Scale can vary in appearance from hard crystalline material to soft, friable material and the deposits can contain other minerals and impurities such as paraffin, salt and iron. In severe conditions, scale creates a significant restriction, or even a plug, in the production tubing. This study was conducted to qualify the elements present in scale samples and quantify the thickness of the scale layer using synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence (SRμXRF) and computed radiography (CR) techniques. The SRμXRF results showed that the elements found in the scale samples were strontium, barium, calcium, chromium, sulfur and iron. The CR analysis showed that the thickness of the scale layer was identified and quantified with accuracy. These results can help in the decision making about removing the deposited scale.

  20. Performance characterization of computed radiography based mammography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Abhinav; Desai, Nikunj; Valentino, Daniel J.

    2010-04-01

    Computed Radiography (CR) is a cost-effective technology for digital mammography. In order to optimize the quality of images obtained using CR Mammography, we characterized the effect on image quality of the electrooptical components of the CR imaging chain. The metrics used to assess the image quality included the Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR), Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Noise Power Spectrum (NPS), Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) and Contrast Detail Response Phantom (CDMAM 3.4 Artinis Medical Systems). An 18×24 cm high-resolution granular phosphor imaging plate (AGFA MM3.0) was used to acquire the images. Contrast detail was measured using a GUI developed for the CDMAM phantom that was scored by independent observers. The range of theoretically acceptable values measured for the CR laser was (5-36) mW and voltage range for PMT's was (4-8) V. The light detection amplifier was investigated, and the optimal Laser Power and PMT gain used for scanning was measured. The tools that we used (CNR, MTF, NPS, DQE and Contrast-detail phantom) provided an effective means of selecting optimal values for the electro-optical components of the system. The procedure enabled us to obtain good quality CR mammograms that have less noise and improved contrast.

  1. Reduction of absorbed doses in radiography of the facial skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.

    1984-11-01

    Radiation absorbed doses from radiography of the paranasal sinuses and the facial skeleton were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) on a phantom head using high-sensitivity screens in an Orbix stand. The entrance doses to the skin of the head ranged from 0.31 to 2.9 mGy per exposure. The absorbed dose from a full series of sinus exposures averaged 0.33 mGy for the oral mucous membrane, 0.33 mGy for the maxillary sinus mucous membrane, 0.11 mGy for the parotid gland, 0.15 mGy for the submandibular gland, 0.61 mGy for the eye lens, and 0.75 mGy for the thyroid gland region. A leaded soft collar adapted to the thyroid region reduced the thyroid doses by more than one order of magnitude, but also reduced the image field. The mean energy imparted from a full series of paranasal sinus projections was 4.8 mJ and from a total series of the facial skeleton, 7.9 mJ.

  2. Micro-pattern gas detectors for digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunbas, Mustafa Cem

    The gas proportional counter technology has seen vast changes in the last decade and has lead to the introduction of micro-pattern gas detectors that offer much more improved x-ray counting rate capability and better position resolution than traditional wire chambers. In this study, we investigated the Gas Electron Multiplier, a member of micro-pattern gas detector generation, as an energy sensitive, single photon-counting x-ray detector for digital radiography. We built a high pressure detector with two cascaded Gas Electron Multipliers to evaluate its performance characteristics in Neon, Argon, Krypton and Xenon mixtures. The determination of detector gain as a function of pressure and the filling gas formed the major part of this evaluation. In the second part of the study, we employed position sensitive electronics to demonstrate the imaging capability of the detector. For the first time, we acquired 2D images and examined the spatial resolution of the detector for Krypton and Xenon mixtures as a function of gas pressure using double and quadruple GEM configurations up to 7 atmospheres gas pressure. Besides the experimental studies, we constructed a theoretical model based on the Cascaded Linear Systems approach to study the imaging performance of single photon counting gas detectors. In the model, we gave the emphasis to the intrinsic properties of the gas absorber; therefore we considered the contribution of quantum efficiency, primary electron range and reabsorption of K fluorescence photons on detector MTF and DQE.

  3. Quantitative shadowgraphy and proton radiography for large intensity modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Muhammad Firmansyah; Ceurvorst, Luke; Ratan, Naren; Sadler, James; Chen, Nicholas; Sävert, Alexander; Trines, Raoul; Bingham, Robert; Burrows, Philip N.; Kaluza, Malte C.; Norreys, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Shadowgraphy is a technique widely used to diagnose objects or systems in various fields in physics and engineering. In shadowgraphy, an optical beam is deflected by the object and then the intensity modulation is captured on a screen placed some distance away. However, retrieving quantitative information from the shadowgrams themselves is a challenging task because of the nonlinear nature of the process. Here, we present a method to retrieve quantitative information from shadowgrams, based on computational geometry. This process can also be applied to proton radiography for electric and magnetic field diagnosis in high-energy-density plasmas and has been benchmarked using a toroidal magnetic field as the object, among others. It is shown that the method can accurately retrieve quantitative parameters with error bars less than 10%, even when caustics are present. The method is also shown to be robust enough to process real experimental results with simple pre- and postprocessing techniques. This adds a powerful tool for research in various fields in engineering and physics for both techniques.

  4. Modeling and measurement of root canal using stereo digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Mostafa; Krisnamurthy, Satthya; Brown, Cecil

    2000-04-01

    Determining root canal length is a crucial step in success of root canal treatment. Root canal length is commonly estimated based on pre-operation intraoral radiography. 2D depiction of a 3D object is the primary source of error in this approach. Techniques based on impedance measurement are more accurate than radiographic approaches, but do not offer a method for depicting the shape of canal. In this study, we investigated a stererotactic approach for modeling and measurement of root canal of human dentition. A weakly perspective model approximated the projectional geometry. A series of computer-simulated objects was used to test accuracy of this model as the first step. The, to assess the clinical viability of such an approach, endodontic files inserted in the root canal phantoms were fixed on an adjustable platform between a radiographic cone and an image receptor. Parameters of projection matrix were computed based on the relative positions of image receptors, focal spot, and test objects. Rotating the specimen platform from 0 to 980 degrees at 5-degree intervals set relative angulations for stereo images. Root canal is defined as the intersection of two surfaces defined by each projection. Computation of error for length measurement indicates that for angulations greater than 40 degrees the error is within clinically acceptable ranges.

  5. Patient exposure trends in medical and dental radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Goetz, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Patient exposure to medical and dental x rays has long been of interest to the radiological health community. With the cooperation of state and local agencies and professional groups, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health has conducted three major surveys of patient exposure to x rays. The latest of these surveys, the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT), collected x-ray exposure data for each year starting in 1972. Two earlier studies, the 1964 and 1970 X-ray Exposure Studies collected x-ray data during the years these surveys were conducted. Exposure trends presented are based on results of all three studies. Major improvements in beam limitation are seen for medical and dental radiography. Since 1964, when the first nationwide survey was conducted, dental exposures have decreased about 75%. Decreases of up to one-third occurred in exposures for medical examinations. The current exposure data presented continue to show a wide variation in medical exposures. Also presented are organ doses for four organs (ovaries, testes, thyroid and active bone marrow).

  6. Location of mental foramen using digital panoramic Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Ajmal; Nataraj, Kannan; Mathew, Vinod B.; Varma, Beena; Mohamed, Shamil; Valappila, Nidhin J.; Meena, Aravind S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comparative evaluation of the location of mental foramen in different age groups. Determine the variation in position of mental foramen with gender using digital panoramic radiography. Materials and Methods: Digital panoramic radiographs of 250 patients were reviewed. The study population was divided into five age groups with 50 patients each. Radiographic position of mental foramen was evaluated in each radiograph based on three parameters. Measurements were taken in each radiograph using Planmeca Dimaxis pro version 4.4.0 (Helsinki, Finland). The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis using paired Student's t-test. Results: The mean distance of position of mental foramen showed a significant variation within the five age groups. In the first group, female patients showed an increase in mean distance of mental foramen position in relation to three parameters. From the second to fifth groups, male patient showed an increase in the mean distance of mental foramen position. The first and fifth group showed a reduced mean distance of mental foramen position when compared to other age groups. Conclusion: This study concluded that the position of mental foramen varies with age. There was a gender-related variation in position of mental foramen within the population too. PMID:27555723

  7. Long line positioning in neonates: does computed radiography improve visibility?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, A; Natarajan, J; Davies, C

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the use of soft copy reporting of computed radiography (CR) images in determining intravenous long line tip position in neonates and compare visibility rates with hard copy printed images. Method: A retrospective study of all long lines inserted on the neonatal unit over a period of one year was performed. Forty five lines were inserted in 30 neonates over this time. Assessment of the CR images was made by three independent observers by reviewing the films on the viewing console and as hard copy printed films. Results: Accurate identification of the line tip could be made in 66.7% of cases (κ = 0.9) using hard copy images and 95.6% cases (κ = 1.0) using soft copy reporting (significant difference: p = 0.002). The difference in percentage visibility using the two techniques was 28.9% (95% confidence interval 10.2% to 36.7%). Conclusion: The use of soft copy review of CR image improves the visibility of the line tip position compared with hard copy films and reduces the need for repeat radiographs with/without intravenous contrast. PMID:14711855

  8. Optimization of the radiological protection of patients undergoing digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menglong; Chu, Cunkun

    2012-02-01

    Because of a much higher dynamic range of flat panel detectors, patient dose can vary without change of image quality being perceived by radiologists. This condition makes optimization (OT) of radiation protection undergoing digital radiography (DR) more complex, while a chance to reduced patient dose also exists. In this study, we evaluated the difference of patient radiation and image rejection before and after OT to identify if it is necessary to carry out an OT procedure in a routine task with DR. The study consisted of a measurement of the dose area product (DAP) and entrance surface dose (ESD) received by a reference group of patients for eight common radiographic procedures using the DR system before and after OT. Meanwhile image rejection data during two 2-month periods were collected and sorted according to reason. For every radiographic procedure, t tests showed significant difference in average ESD and DAP before and after OT (p < 0.005). The ESDs from most examinations before OT were three times higher than that after OT. For DAPs, the difference is more significant. Image rejection rate after OT is significantly lower than that before OT (χ (2) = 36.5, p < 0.005). The substantial reductions of dose after OT resulted from appropriate mAs and exposure field. For DR patient dose, less than recommended diagnostic reference level can meet quality criteria and clinic diagnosis.

  9. Facilities Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents responses from Matt McGovern, "School Planning and Management's" Maintenance and Operations columnist, on the issue of school facility maintenance. McGovern does not believe schools will ever likely meet acceptable levels of maintenance, nor use infrared thermography for assessing roofs, outsource all maintenance work, nor find…

  10. Time-resolved fast-neutron radiography of air-water two-phase flows in a rectangular channel by an improved detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Zboray, Robert; Dangendorf, Volker; Bromberger, Benjamin; Tittelmeier, Kai; Mor, Ilan

    2015-07-15

    In a previous work, we have demonstrated the feasibility of high-frame-rate, fast-neutron radiography of generic air-water two-phase flows in a 1.5 cm thick, rectangular flow channel. The experiments have been carried out at the high-intensity, white-beam facility of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany, using an multi-frame, time-resolved detector developed for fast neutron resonance radiography. The results were however not fully optimal and therefore we have decided to modify the detector and optimize it for the given application, which is described in the present work. Furthermore, we managed to improve the image post-processing methodology and the noise suppression. Using the tailored detector and the improved post-processing, significant increase in the image quality and an order of magnitude lower exposure times, down to 3.33 ms, have been achieved with minimized motion artifacts. Similar to the previous study, different two-phase flow regimes such as bubbly slug and churn flows have been examined. The enhanced imaging quality enables an improved prediction of two-phase flow parameters like the instantaneous volumetric gas fraction, bubble size, and bubble velocities. Instantaneous velocity fields around the gas enclosures can also be more robustly predicted using optical flow methods as previously.

  11. Variation in emergency department use of cervical spine radiography for alert, stable trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Stiell, I G; Wells, G A; Vandemheen, K; Laupacis, A; Brison, R; Eisenhauer, M A; Greenberg, G H; MacPhail, I; McKnight, R D; Reardon, M; Verbeek, R; Worthington, J; Lesiuk, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To, assess the emergency department use of cervical spine radiography for alert, stable adult trauma patients in terms of utilization, yield for injury and variation in practices among hospitals and physicians. DESIGN: Retrospective survey of health records. SETTING: Emergency departments of 6 teaching and 2 community hospitals in Ontario and British Columbia. PATIENTS: Consecutive alert, stable adult trauma patients seen with potential cervical spine injury between July 1, 1994, and June 30, 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total number of eligible patients, referral for cervical spine radiography (overall, by hospital and by physician), presence of cervical spine injury, patient characteristics and hospitals associated with use of radiography. RESULTS: Of 6855 eligible patients, cervical spine radiography was ordered for 3979 (58.0%). Only 60 (0.9%) patients were found to have an acute cervical spine injury (fracture, dislocation or ligamentous instability); 98.5% of the radiographic films were negative for any significant abnormality. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were similar across the 8 hospitals, and no cervical spine injuries were missed. Significant variation was found among the 8 hospitals in the rate of ordering radiography (p < 0.0001), from a low of 37.0% to a high of 72.5%. After possible differences in case severity and patient characteristics at each hospital were controlled for, logistic regression analysis revealed that 6 of the hospitals were significantly associated with the use of radiography. At 7 hospitals, there was significant variation in the rate of ordering radiography among the attending emergency physicians (p < 0.05), from a low of 15.6% to a high of 91.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite considerable variation among institutions and individual physicians in the ordering of cervical spine radiography for alert, stable trauma patients with similar characteristics, no cervical spine injuries were missed. The

  12. Automatic readout for nuclear emulsions in muon radiography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, A.; Bozza, C.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Kose, U.; Lauria, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Miyamoto, S.; Montesi, C.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Russo, A.; Sirignano, C.; Stellacci, S. M.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear emulsions are an effective choice in many scenarios of volcano radiography by cosmic-ray muons. They are cheap and emulsion-based detectors require no on-site power supply. Nuclear emulsion films provide sub-micrometric tracking precision and intrinsic angular accuracy better than 1 mrad. Imaging the inner structure of a volcano requires that the cosmic-ray absorption map be measured on wide angular range. High-absorption directions can be probed by allowing for large statistics, which implies a large overall flux, i.e. wide surface for the detector. A total area of the order of a few m2 is nowadays typical, thanks to the automatic readout tools originally developed for high-energy physics experiments such as CHORUS, PEANUT, OPERA. The European Scanning System is now being used to read out nuclear emulsion films exposed to cosmic rays on the side of volcanoes. The structure of the system is described in detail with respect to both hardware and software. Its present scanning speed of 20 cm2/h/side/microscope is suitable to fulfil the needs of the current exposures of nuclear emulsion films for muon radiograph, but it is worth to notice that applications in volcano imaging are among the driving forces pushing to increase the performances of the system. Preliminary results for the Unzen volcano of a joint effort by research groups in Italy and Japan show that the current system is already able to provide signal/background ratio in the range 100÷10000:1, depending on the quality cuts set in the off-line data analysis. The size of the smallest detectable structures in that experimental setup is constrained by the available statistics in the region of highest absorption to about 50 mrad, or 22 m under the top of the mountain. Another exposure is currently taking data at the Stromboli volcano. Readout of the exposed films is expected to begin in March 2012, and preliminary results will be available soon after. An effort by several universities and INFN has

  13. Inspection of Alpine glaciers with cosmic-ray muon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Ereditato, Antonio; Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Scampoli, Paola; Schlunegger, Fritz; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo

    2016-04-01

    Radiography using cosmic-ray muons represents a challenging method for probing the bedrock topography beneath Alpine glaciers. We present the current status of our feasibility study at Eiger glacier, situated on the western flank of the Eiger in the Jungfrau region, Central Swiss Alps. The muon radiography is a technique that has been recently developed to investigate the internal density profiles of geoscientific targets. It is based on the measurement of the absorption of the cosmic-ray muons inside a material. Because the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray muons and the energy dependence of muon range have been studied well during the past years, the attenuation of the muon flux can be used to derive the column density, i.e. the density integrated along the muon trajectories, of geoscientific targets. This technique has recently been applied for non-invasive inspection of volcanoes, nuclear reactors, seismic faults, caves and etc. The greatest advantage of the method in the field of glacier studies is that it yields a unique solution of the density underneath a glacier without any assumption of physical properties inside the target. Large density contrasts, as expected between glacier ice (˜ 1.0g/cm3) and bedrock (˜ 2.5g/cm3), would allow us to elucidate the shape of the bedrock in high resolution. Accordingly, this technology will provide for the first time information on the bedrock surface beneath a steep and non-accessible Alpine glacier, in a complementary way with respect to other exploration methods (drilling, ground penetrating radar, seismic survey, gravity explorations and etc.). Our first aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of the method through a case study at the Eiger glacier, situated in the Central Swiss Alps. The Eiger glacier straddles the western flank of the Eiger between 3700 and 2300 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The glacier has shortened by about 150 m during the past 30 years in response to the ongoing global warming, causing a concern for

  14. Measurement and analysis of release isentropes using proton radiography (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Cynthia L; Rigg, Paulo A; Cherne, Frank J; Hixson, Rob S; Greff, Carl W

    2011-01-25

    Off-Hugoniot measurements are needed to further develop predictive models that accurately describe the behavior of metals undergoing phase transitions. Predictive modeling of phase transitions is essential for LANL to meet its programmatic objectives. Understanding the dynamic evolution of density as a function of time during the release process is important to developing high fidelity equation of state models. This is particularly true for metals that have a degree of complexity, such as a solid-solid phase transition. The equations-of-state (EOS) for metals with complexity are more difficult to measure and to model, and states far away from where measurements are easily made can be poorly known. Accurate density measurements can provide us with additional fundamental information that can be used to further constrain the equation of state for a material. Currently release isentrope information is obtained from shock experiments at a sample window interface using optical velocimetry. This data is highly convoluted due to wave interactions between the sample window-interface making it difficult to infer physical processes happening within the material. Proton radiography has the ability to probe the release waves in-situ before these wave interactions can take place. Since multiple radiographs are obtained in each experiment, pRad provides the unique capability of being able to measure both density and wave evolution within the material. The measurement of release wave densities, however, presents new challenges for pRad since the release wave of a shocked transition is not a step function but instead a ramped wave. Previous pRad experiments have generally measured density jumps over step transitions; therefore, new analysis techniques will have to be developed to measure the ramped density change of a release isentrope. Once developed, these new analysis techniques can also be used for experiments that involve ramped compression. This kind of compression is being

  15. Monochromatic flash embossed radiography using clean K photons from a spherical-plasma target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Akihiro; Sato, Eiichi; Oda, Yasuyuki; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Abderym, Purkhet; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Nagao, Jiro; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2011-04-01

    Embossed radiography is an important technique for imaging target region by decreasing absorption contrast of objects. The monochromatic flash embossed radiography (M-FER) system consists of a computed radiography system, an intense plasma flash X-ray generator, and a two-dimensional subtraction program for shifting the image pixel. In the flash X-ray generator, a high-voltage condenser of 150 nF is charged to 80 kV, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the flash X-ray tube through a four-cable transmission line after closing the gap switch. The molybdenum-target evaporation leads to the formation of weakly ionized spherical plasma, and intense molybdenum K-series characteristic X-rays (K-rays) were produced utilizing angular dependence of bremsstrahlung X-ray intensity. High-speed monochromatic radiography was performed using molybdenum flash K-rays, and M-FER was carried out utilizing single-energy subtraction after the image shifting. The spatial resolutions of the horizontal and vertical directions were both 125 μm, and monochromatic concavoconvex radiography such as phase-differential imaging was performed with X-ray durations of approximately 100 ns.

  16. [Image quality and detection performance of a direct digital radiography system].

    PubMed

    Ideguchi, Tadamitsu; Matsuda, Katsuhiko; Himuro, Kazuhiko; Kuwahara, Rie; Miyazaki, Hidetsune; Hazeyama, Hiroyuki; Kumazawa, Seiji; Kawaji, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Akira; Matsumoto, Masao; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2006-03-20

    The physical characteristics of a direct amorphous Selenium (a-Se) digital fluoroscopy and radiography system were investigated. Pre-sampled modulation transfer functions (MTF) were measured using a slit method. Noise power spectra were determined for different input exposures by fast Fourier transform of uniformly exposed samples. The MTFs of direct digital radiography systems showed significantly higher values than those of indirect digital radiography and screen-film systems. The direct digital radiography systems showed higher noise levels compared with those of indirect systems under roughly the same exposure conditions. Contrast-detail analysis was performed to compare detection by direct digital radiography systems with that of the screen-film (FUJI HG-M2/UR2) systems. The average contrast-detail curves of digital and film images were obtained from the results of observation. Image quality figures (IQF) were also calculated from the individual observer performance tests. The results indicated that digital contrast-detail curves and IQF are, on average, are equal those of the screen-film system.

  17. Remote x-ray operator radiography: a case study in interprofessional rural clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tony; Jones, Peter

    2007-06-01

    In Australia, some radiographic examinations may be performed by rural and remote nurses and general practitioners (GPs), so called remote x-ray operators, where a radiographer is unavailable. This study aimed to investigate the experiences and perceptions of remote x-ray operator radiography from the perspective of rural radiographers, nurses and GPs in New South Wales. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were performed with 20 radiographers, 10 nurses and 7 GPs. Interviews explored the informants' knowledge, opinions and values, experience and behaviour, and attitudes and feelings about remote operator radiography. Data analysis led to the emergence of three interrelated key concepts, with their relevant themes and sub-themes. The primary concept, "Dimensions of Practice", includes the core principles of remote x-ray operator radiography. The concept of "Service Provision and Equity of Access" includes the realities of rural and remote healthcare, and "Professional Roles and Relationships" the interprofessional interactions that occur. Remote x-ray operator radiography takes place at the intersection of the occupational worlds of rural radiographers, nurses and GPs. Remote operators provide a valuable service but the quality of their radiography is below expected standards. Better teamwork could improve service quality but interprofessional collaboration is stifled by hierarchical relationships. This case study may inform the development of new models of healthcare.

  18. General Dental Practitioners’ Concept towards Using Radiography and Apex-Locators in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Maryam; Heidaripour, Maryam; Shahravan, Arash; Haghani, Jahangir; Afkham, Arash; Razifar, Mahsa; Mohammadizadeh, Sakineh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite being the gold standard as well as a routine technique in endodontics, radiographic working length (WL) determination owns many drawbacks. Electronic apex-locators (EALs) are recommended to complement radiographies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of Iranian general dental practitioners (GDPs) towards using radiography and EAL. Methods and Materials: Three hundred and ninety one GDPs attending the 53th Iranian Dental Association Congress completed a questionnaire focusing on the use of radiography and EALs during the various stages of root canal treatment. The data was analyzed with the chi-square test with the level of significance set at 0.05. The results were then calculated as frequencies and percentages. Results: More than half of the GDPs reported using radiographs as the sole method for WL determination. A total of 30.4% of the practitioners were using the combined approach during root canal therapy of a single-rooted tooth, while 38.9% used this method in multi-rooted teeth. Approximately half of the respondents would not order follow-up radiographies after root canal treatment. Conclusion: Radiography continues to be the most common method for WL determination in Iran. PMID:25386209

  19. An evaluation of author productivity in international radiography journals 2004–2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snaith, Beverly A

    2013-09-15

    Radiography, the allied health profession, has changed beyond recognition over the last century; however, in academic terms radiography is a relatively young profession. It is therefore still establishing its professional knowledge base. This article uses peer-review author productivity distribution to evaluate its scholarly maturity. Four peer-reviewed journals in medical radiation sciences were examined over an 8-year period (2004–2011) and author productivity was compared to Lotka's law. Further analysis of the most prolific authors provided an evaluation of their characteristics. The 1306 unique authors contributed 835 articles during the study period. Of these, 1012 (77.5%) contributed only one article to the journals studied, with an inverse power relationship of author productivity. At the 0.1 level of significance, radiography does not fit Lotka's law (n = −2.334; c = 0.712; D{sub max} = 0.0627; Critical threshold = 0.0337). There was a significant correlation between the most prolific authors and collaboration (P = 0.002), although variation was noted in author discipline and location. The results of this study add to the discussion of radiography scholarship and demonstrate that the radiography authors have similar productivity distribution to other professions, but do not follow Lotka's law.

  20. Analysis of sculptures using XRF and X-ray radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calza, C.; Oliveira, D. F.; Freitas, R. P.; Rocha, H. S.; Nascimento, J. R.; Lopes, R. T.

    2015-11-01

    This work reports the analysis of two sacred images on polychrome wood using X-ray Radiography and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. The first case is the analysis of a sculpture portraying Saint Sebastian, the patron saint of Rio de Janeiro, which is considered the second most ancient sacred image of Brazil. This sculpture was made in Portugal and was transported to Brazil by Estácio Sá, founder of the city of Rio de Janeiro, in 1565. Nowadays, it is located on the main altar of the Church of Capuchin Friars. The second case is the analysis of a sculpture representing Our Lady of Conception, which is located in the D. João VI Museum (EBA/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro). The objective of these analyses was to evaluate the general conditions of the sculptures, identifying possible problems and internal damages, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the materials and pigments employed by the artists, in order to assist its restoration procedures. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system, developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, consisting of a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek and an Oxford TF3005 X-ray tube with W anode. An X-ray source, a CR System GE CR50P and IP detectors were used to perform the radiographs. The XRF analysis of the sculptures identified the original pigments in both cases and the radiographic images revealed details of the manufacture; restored regions; extensive use of lead white; presence of cracks on the wood; use of nails and spikes, etc.

  1. Action research in radiography: What it is and how it can be conducted

    PubMed Central

    Munn, Zachary; Pearson, Alan; Jordan, Zoe; Murphy, Frederick; Pilkington, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Action research is a form of research that investigates and describes a social or work situation with the aim of achieving a change which results in improvement. This article emphasizes the potential for action research to be a useful research method in radiography. A search was conducted to determine the extent to which action research has been utilized in radiography. Although action research has been used in a number of health-care settings, there are no published examples of action research being utilized in a clinical medical imaging department. Action research is discussed in detail, along with an example guide for an action research study. Action research has been identified as a useful way to affect change, to involve radiographers in the research process, and to introduce evidence-based practice to radiography. PMID:26229607

  2. Searching early bone metastasis on plain radiography by using digital imaging processing

    SciTech Connect

    Jaramillo-Nunez, A.; Perez-Meza, M.

    2012-10-23

    Some authors mention that it is not possible to detect early bone metastasis on plain radiography. In this work we use digital imaging processing to analyze three radiographs taken from a patient with bone metastasis discomfort on the right shoulder. The time period among the first and second radiography was approximately one month and between the first and the third one year. This procedure is a first approach in order to know if in this particular case it was possible to detect an early bone metastasis. The obtained results suggest that by carrying out a digital processing is possible to detect the metastasis since the radiography contains the information although visually it is not possible to observe it.

  3. Neutron radiography and other NDE tests of main rotor helicopter blades.

    PubMed

    de Beer, F C; Coetzer, M; Fendeis, D; Da Costa E Silva, A

    2004-10-01

    A few nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques are extensively being used worldwide to investigate aircraft structures for all types of defects. The detection of corrosion and delaminations, which are believed to be the major initiators of defects leading to aircraft structural failures, are addressed by various NDE techniques. In a combined investigation by means of visual inspection, X-ray radiography and shearography on helicopter main rotor blades, neutron radiography (NRad) at SAFARI-1 research reactor operated by Necsa, was performed to introduce this form of NDE testing to the South African aviation industry to be evaluated for applicability. The results of the shearography, visual inspection and NRad techniques are compared in this paper. The main features and advantages of neutron radiography, within the framework of these investigations, will be highlighted.

  4. Searching early bone metastasis on plain radiography by using digital imaging processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo-Núñez, A.; Pérez-Meza, M.

    2012-10-01

    Some authors mention that it is not possible to detect early bone metastasis on plain radiography. In this work we use digital imaging processing to analyze three radiographs taken from a patient with bone metastasis discomfort on the right shoulder. The time period among the first and second radiography was approximately one month and between the first and the third one year. This procedure is a first approach in order to know if in this particular case it was possible to detect an early bone metastasis. The obtained results suggest that by carrying out a digital processing is possible to detect the metastasis since the radiography contains the information although visually it is not possible to observe it.

  5. Swelling behavior detection of irradiated U-10Zr alloy fuel using indirect neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yong; Huo, He-yong; Wu, Yang; Li, Jiangbo; Zhou, Wei; Guo, Hai-bing; Li, Hang; Cao, Chao; Yin, Wei; Wang, Sheng; Liu, Bin; Feng, Qi-jie; Tang, Bin

    2016-11-01

    It is hopeful that fusion-fission hybrid energy system will become an effective approach to achieve long-term sustainable development of fission energy. U-10Zr alloy (which means the mass ratio of Zr is 10%) fuel is the key material of subcritical blanket for fusion-fission hybrid energy system which the irradiation performance need to be considered. Indirect neutron radiography is used to detect the irradiated U-10Zr alloy because of the high residual dose in this paper. Different burnup samples (0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7%) have been tested with a special indirect neutron radiography device at CMRR (China Mianyang Research Reactor). The resolution of the device is better than 50 μm and the quantitative analysis of swelling behaviors was carried out. The results show that the swelling behaviors relate well to burnup character which can be detected accurately by indirect neutron radiography.

  6. PATIENT EXPOSURE DURING PLAIN RADIOGRAPHY AND MAMMOGRAPHY IN JAPAN IN 1974-2014.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Minami, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Shoichi; Chida, Koichi

    2017-03-01

    We investigated changes in the entrance skin dose (ESD) and the mean glandular dose (MGD) during plain radiography or mammography in Japan from 1974 to 2014. Surveys regarding the conditions used for plain radiography and mammography were performed throughout Japan in 1974, 1979, 1989, 1993, 1997, 2001, 2003, 2007, 2011 and 2014. The anatomical regions considered were categorised as follows: skull anteroposterior (AP), lumbar AP, lumbar lateral (LAT), pelvis (AP), ankle, chest posteroanterior (PA), Guthmann (lateral pelviography for pregnant women), infant hip joint and mammography. The doses for all anatomical regions decreased from 1974 to 1993. The MGD for mammography remained low from 1993 to 2014, and the ESDs for chest (PA) radiography trended upward. After the 2000s, the use of digital imaging increased in Japan. This is the first long-term study to examine changes in ESDs and MGDs in Japan.

  7. The integral dose in panoramic intraoral x-ray tube radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Hayami, A.; Fujishita, M.; Sumida, A.; Kanke, M.; Fujiki, T.; Uemura, S.; Fuchihata, H.

    1983-07-01

    A Monte Carlo computer program was developed to estimate the integral dose to the head and thyroid for panoramic intraoral x-ray tube radiography. The advantage of this computer simulation is that it is able to avoid many of the difficulties associated with low-energy and low-dose x-ray dosimetry. The calculations were made for maxillary and mandibular projections separately, using 10 kv. increments between 40 and 60 kv. The results obtained were presented in terms of the integral dose per milliampere second. Typical integral doses for a routine examination of the head are 2.1 mJ. and 8.5 microJ for the thyroid during mandibular radiography and 1.7 microJ for the thyroid during radiography of the maxilla using 55 kv. and 0.5 mAs.

  8. High Resolution Neutron Radiography and Tomography of Hydrided Zircaloy-4 Cladding Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Tyler S; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Ray, Holly B; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Yan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Neutron radiography for hydrogen analysis was performed with several Zircaloy-4 cladding samples with controlled hydrogen concentrations up to 1100 ppm. Hydrogen charging was performed in a process tube that was heated to facilitate hydrogen absorption by the metal. A correlation between the hydrogen concentration in the hydrided tubes and the neutron intensity was established, by which hydrogen content can be determined precisely in a small area (55 m x 55 m). Radiography analysis was also performed to evaluate the heating rate and its correlation with the hydrogen distribution through hydrided materials. In addition to radiography analysis, tomography experiments were performed on Zircaloy-4 tube samples to study the local hydrogen distribution. Through tomography analysis a 3D reconstruction of the tube was evaluated in which an uneven hydrogen distribution in the circumferential direction can be observed.

  9. Digital radiography for the equine practitioner: basic principles and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nathan C; Zekas, Lisa J; Reese, David J

    2012-12-01

    As availability increases and cost decreases, digital radiograph systems become more common in equine practice. Technological advances provide an array of choices for the equine practitioner considering purchase. Two classes of systems are available: computed radiography and flat-panel systems (direct radiography). Image processing encompasses all manipulations performed on an image at acquisition and can have a profound effect on the final digital radiograph. Consideration should be given to the type of display monitor because many options are now available. The type of display monitor and the viewing environment have an effect on interpretation performance.

  10. X-ray backscatter imaging for radiography by selective detection and snapshot: Evolution, development, and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shedlock, Daniel

    Compton backscatter imaging (CBI) is a single-sided imaging technique that uses the penetrating power of radiation and unique interaction properties of radiation with matter to image subsurface features. CBI has a variety of applications that include non-destructive interrogation, medical imaging, security and military applications. Radiography by selective detection (RSD), lateral migration radiography (LMR) and shadow aperture backscatter radiography (SABR) are different CBI techniques that are being optimized and developed. Radiography by selective detection (RSD) is a pencil beam Compton backscatter imaging technique that falls between highly collimated and uncollimated techniques. Radiography by selective detection uses a combination of single- and multiple-scatter photons from a projected area below a collimation plane to generate an image. As a result, the image has a combination of first- and multiple-scatter components. RSD techniques offer greater subsurface resolution than uncollimated techniques, at speeds at least an order of magnitude faster than highly collimated techniques. RSD scanning systems have evolved from a prototype into near market-ready scanning devices for use in a variety of single-sided imaging applications. The design has changed to incorporate state-of-the-art detectors and electronics optimized for backscatter imaging with an emphasis on versatility, efficiency and speed. The RSD system has become more stable, about 4 times faster, and 60% lighter while maintaining or improving image quality and contrast over the past 3 years. A new snapshot backscatter radiography (SBR) CBI technique, shadow aperture backscatter radiography (SABR), has been developed from concept and proof-of-principle to a functional laboratory prototype. SABR radiography uses digital detection media and shaded aperture configurations to generate near-surface Compton backscatter images without scanning, similar to how transmission radiographs are taken. Finally, a

  11. Muon radiography in Russia with emulsion technique. First experiments future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, A. B.; Bagulya, A. V.; Chernyavsky, M. M.; Konovalova, N. S.; Polukhina, N. G.; Shchedrina, T. V.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Vladymyrov, M. S.; Managadze, A. K.; Roganova, T. M.; Orurk, O. I.; Zemskova, S. G.

    2015-12-31

    Cosmic ray muon radiography is a novel technique for imaging the internal structures of massive objects. It exploits the capability of high energy muons from cosmic-rays in order to obtain a density map of investigated object and trying to guess information on the variation in the density distribution. Nuclear emulsions are tracking detectors well suited to be employed in this context since they have an excellent angular resolution (few mrad), they are cheap, compact and robust, easily transportable, able to work in harsh environments, and do not require power supply. This work presents the first successful results in the field of muon radiography in Russia with nuclear emulsions.

  12. Micro-Radiography Using an Electron Linac Source and Ram Memory Chip Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    comme source un accelerateur lineaire d’electron a impulsion ( LINAC ) et utilisant des memoires a circuits integres comme detecteur est etudiee dans ce...MICRO-RADIOGRAPHY USING AN ELECTRON LINAC SOURCE AND RAM MEMORY CHIP DETECTORS (U) by 00 T. Cousins, E.L Karam and J.R. Brisson ("NI DTIC.. ELECTE...Defence nationaie MICRO-RADIOGRAPHY USING AN ELECTRON LINAC SOURCE AND RAM MEMORY CHIP DETECTORS (U) by T. Cousins, E.L Karam and J.R. Brisson Nuclear

  13. Neutron flux mapping inside a cubic and a head PMMA phantom using indirect neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pi-En; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Huang, Chun-Kai; Liu, Hong-Ming; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2009-07-01

    This study aims to measure the two-dimensional (2D) neutron spatial distribution inside a cubic and a head PMMA phantom for the purpose of further comparison with the treatment planning. The measurements were made by using the indirect neutron radiography (INR), which utilized a thin copper foil and the imaging plate. The developed image provides satisfactory spatial resolution and very low statistical error (< 1%). As to the time cost, the whole procedure normally takes less than 3 h. The result shows that the indirect neutron radiography can be a quick and reliable method to provide a 2D neutron spatial distribution inside a phantom.

  14. Evaluation of three effervescent agents for double-contrast upper gastrointestinal radiography.

    PubMed

    Koehler, R E; Weyman, P J; Stanley, R J; Lee, J K; Balfe, D M

    1981-01-01

    The agent used to introduce gas into the stomach is an important factor in determining the quality of double-contrast upper gastrointestinal radiography. The efficacy of 3 effervescent agents formulated for use in double-contract upper gastrointestinal radiography was evaluated in 300 patients. Patients found 2 granular preparations (E-Z-Gas granules and Baros) easier to swallow than a powdered agent (E-Z-Gas powder). Bubble formation and flocculation of barium in the stomach were less of a problem with Baros. Differences in mucosal coating and visualization of area gastricae were not statistically significant.

  15. Proton radiography of PBX 9502 detonation shock dynamics confinement sandwich test

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam, Tariq D; Jackson, Scott I; Morris, John S

    2009-01-01

    Recent results utilizing proton radiography (P-Rad) during the detonation of the high explosive PBX 9502 are presented. Specifically, the effects of confinement of the detonation are examined in the LANL detonation confinement sandwich geometry. The resulting detonation velocity and detonation shock shape are measured. In addition, proton radiography allows one to image the reflected shocks through the detonation products. Comparisons are made with detonation shock dynamics (DSD) and reactive flow models for the lead detonation shock and detonation velocity. In addition, predictions of reflected shocks are made with the reactive flow models.

  16. Combined x-ray scattering, radiography, and velocity interferometry/streaked optical pyrometry measurements of warm dense carbon using a novel technique of shock-and-releasea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, K.; Collins, L. A.; Gamboa, E. J.; Kagan, G.; Kress, J. D.; Montgomery, D. S.; Srinivasan, B.; Tzeferacos, P.; Benage, J. F.

    2014-05-01

    This work focused on a new application of the shock-and-release technique for equation of state (EOS) measurements. Warm dense matter states at near normal solid density and at temperatures close to 10 eV in diamond and graphite samples were created using a deep release from a laser-driven shock at the OMEGA laser facility. Independent temperature, density, and pressure measurements that do not depend on any theoretical models or simulations were obtained using imaging x-ray Thomson scattering, radiography, velocity interferometry, and streaked optical pyrometry. The experimental results were reproduced by the 2-D FLASH radiation hydrodynamics simulations finding a good agreement. The final EOS measurement was then compared with widely used SESAME EOS models as well as quantum molecular dynamics simulation results for carbon, which were very consistent with the experimental data.

  17. Combined x-ray scattering, radiography, and velocity interferometry/streaked optical pyrometry measurements of warm dense carbon using a novel technique of shock-and-release

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, K.; Collins, L. A.; Kagan, G.; Kress, J. D.; Montgomery, D. S.; Srinivasan, B.; Gamboa, E. J.; Tzeferacos, P.; Benage, J. F.

    2014-05-15

    This work focused on a new application of the shock-and-release technique for equation of state (EOS) measurements. Warm dense matter states at near normal solid density and at temperatures close to 10 eV in diamond and graphite samples were created using a deep release from a laser-driven shock at the OMEGA laser facility. Independent temperature, density, and pressure measurements that do not depend on any theoretical models or simulations were obtained using imaging x-ray Thomson scattering, radiography, velocity interferometry, and streaked optical pyrometry. The experimental results were reproduced by the 2-D FLASH radiation hydrodynamics simulations finding a good agreement. The final EOS measurement was then compared with widely used SESAME EOS models as well as quantum molecular dynamics simulation results for carbon, which were very consistent with the experimental data.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation optimisation of zinc sulphide based fast-neutron detector for radiography using a 252Cf source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkian, Mohsen

    2016-02-01

    Neutron radiography is rapidly extending as one of the methods for non-destructive screening of materials. There are various parameters to be studied for optimising imaging screens and image quality for different fast-neutron radiography systems. Herein, a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation is employed to evaluate the response of a fast-neutron radiography system using a 252Cf neutron source. The neutron radiography system is comprised of a moderator as the neutron-to-proton converter with suspended silver-activated zinc sulphide (ZnS(Ag)) as the phosphor material. The neutron-induced protons deposit energy in the phosphor which consequently emits scintillation light. Further, radiographs are obtained by simulating the overall radiography system including source and sample. Two different standard samples are used to evaluate the quality of the radiographs.

  19. Image quality of digital radiography using flat detector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducourant, Thierry; Couder, David; Wirth, Thibaut; Trochet, J. C.; Bastiaens, Raoul J. M.; Bruijns, Tom J. C.; Luijendijk, Hans A.; Sandkamp, Bernhard; Davies, Andrew G.; Didier, Dominique; Gonzalez, Agustin; Terraz, Sylvain; Ruefenacht, Daniel

    2003-06-01

    One of the most demanding applications in dynamic X-Ray imaging is Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA). As opposed to other applications such as Radiography or Fluoroscopy, there has been so far limited attempts to introduce DSA with flat detector (FD) technology: Up to now, only part of the very demanding requirements could be taken into account. In order to enable an introduction of FD technology also in this area, a complete understanding of all physical phenomena related to the use of this technology in DSA is necessary. This knowledge can be used for detector design and performance optimization. Areas of research include fast switching between several detector operating modes (e.g. switching between fluoroscopy and high dose exposure modes and vice versa) and non stability during the DSA run e.g. due to differences in gain between subsequent images. Furthermore, effects of local and global X-Ray overexposure (due to direct radiation), which can cause temporal artifacts such as ghosting, may have a negative impact on the image quality. Pixel shift operations and image subtraction enhance the visibility of any artifact. The use of a refresh light plays an important role in the optimization process. Both an 18x18 cm2 as well as a large area 30x40 cm2 flat panel detector are used for studying the various phenomena. Technical measurements were obtained using complex imaging sequences representing the most demanding application conditions. Studies on subtraction test objects were performed and vascular applications have been carried out in order to confirm earlier findings. The basis for comparison of DSA is, still, the existing and mature IITV technology. The results of this investigation show that the latest generation of dynamic flat detectors is capable of handling this kind of demanding application. Not only the risk areas and their solutions and points of attention will be addressed, but also the benefits of present FD technology with respect to state

  20. An experimental comparison of detector performance for computed radiography systems.

    PubMed

    Samei, Ehsan; Flynn, Michael J

    2002-04-01

    The intrinsic resolution, noise, and signal-to-noise transfer characteristics of five commercial digital computed radiography (CR) systems were compared using identical experimental methods. The reader/screen combinations evaluated were Agfa ADC-Compact/MD-10, Agfa ADC-Compact/MD-30, Agfa ADC-Solo/MD-10, Agfa ADC-Solo/MD-30, Lumisys CR-2000/MD-10, Fuji FCR-9501 (HQ)/ST-Va, Kodak CR-400/GP-25, and Kodak CR-400/HR. Measurements were made at 70 and 115 kVp with 19 mm added aluminum filtration. The presampled modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of the systems were measured using an edge method. The noise power spectra (NPS) were determined by 2D Fourier analysis of uniformly exposed radiographs. The frequency-dependent detective quantum efficiencies (DQEs) were computed from the MTF, NPS, exposure measurements, and computational estimates of the ideal signal-to-noise ratios. Using 70 kVp and 0.1-0.12 mm pixel sizes, spatial frequencies of 2.1, 2.0, 2.2, 1.9, 2.0, 2.0, 2.3, 2.3, and 3.5 cycles/mm were measured at 0.2 MTF for the eight reader/screen combinations, respectively. Using 70 kVp, 7.74 x 10(-8) C/kg (0.3 mR), and 0.1-0.12 mm pixel sizes, DQE(0.15) values of 20.3%, 22.9%, 24.6%, 28.6%, 22.2%, 30.0%, 29.5%, and 17.3% were obtained for the eight combinations, respectively. The corresponding values at 115 kVp were 15.9%, 18.5%, 21.5%, 21.8%, 15.3%, 23.1%, 22.3%, and 13.8%, respectively. The findings of the study demonstrate the pixel size, orientation, beam quality, screen, and reader dependencies of image quality in CR systems. The physical performance of the systems having standard-resolution screens demonstrated similar resolution performance but more notable variations in DQE. The one high-resolution screen tested had reduced DQE and increased MTF at high frequencies.

  1. Pencil beam proton radiography using a multilayer ionization chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farace, Paolo; Righetto, Roberto; Meijers, Arturs

    2016-06-01

    A pencil beam proton radiography (PR) method, using a commercial multilayer ionization chamber (MLIC) integrated with a treatment planning system (TPS) was developed. A Giraffe (IBA Dosimetry) MLIC (±0.5 mm accuracy) was used to obtain pencil beam PR by delivering spots uniformly positioned at a 5.0 mm distance in a 9  ×  9 square of spots. PRs of an electron-density (with tissue-equivalent inserts) phantom and a head phantom were acquired. The integral depth dose (IDD) curves of the delivered spots were computed by the TPS in a volume of water simulating the MLIC, and virtually added to the CT at the exit side of the phantoms. For each spot, measured and calculated IDD were overlapped in order to compute a map of range errors. On the head-phantom, the maximum dose from PR acquisition was estimated. Additionally, on the head phantom the impact on the range errors map was estimated in case of a 1 mm position misalignment. In the electron-density phantom, range errors were within 1 mm in the soft-tissue rods, but greater in the dense-rod. In the head-phantom the range errors were  -0.9  ±  2.7 mm on the whole map and within 1 mm in the brain area. On both phantoms greater errors were observed at inhomogeneity interfaces, due to sensitivity to small misalignment, and inaccurate TPS dose computation. The effect of the 1 mm misalignment was clearly visible on the range error map and produced an increased spread of range errors (-1.0  ±  3.8 mm on the whole map). The dose to the patient for such PR acquisitions would be acceptable as the maximum dose to the head phantom was  <2cGyE. By the described 2D method, allowing to discriminate misalignments, range verification can be performed in selected areas to implement an in vivo quality assurance program.

  2. Advanced applications of cosmic-ray muon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, John

    The passage of cosmic-ray muons through matter is dominated by the Coulomb interaction with electrons and atomic nuclei. The muon's interaction with electrons leads to continuous energy loss and stopping through the process of ionization. The muon's interaction with nuclei leads to angular diffusion. If a muon stops in matter, other processes unfold, as discussed in more detail below. These interactions provide the basis for advanced applications of cosmic-ray muon radiography discussed here, specifically: 1) imaging a nuclear reactor with near horizontal muons, and 2) identifying materials through the analysis of radiation lengths weighted by density and secondary signals that are induced by cosmic-ray muon trajectories. We have imaged a nuclear reactor, type AGN-201m, at the University of New Mexico, using data measured with a particle tracker built from a set of sealed drift tubes, the Mini Muon Tracker (MMT). Geant4 simulations were compared to the data for verification and validation. In both the data and simulation, we can identify regions of interest in the reactor including the core, moderator, and shield. This study reinforces our claims for using muon tomography to image reactors following an accident. Warhead and special nuclear materials (SNM) imaging is an important thrust for treaty verification and national security purposes. The differentiation of SNM from other materials, such as iron and aluminum, is useful for these applications. Several techniques were developed for material identification using cosmic-ray muons. These techniques include: 1) identifying the radiation length weighted by density of an object and 2) measuring the signals that can indicate the presence of fission and chain reactions. By combining the radiographic images created by tracking muons through a target plane with the additional fission neutron and gamma signature, we are able to locate regions that are fissionable from a single side. The following materials were imaged

  3. The First Pulsed-Power Z-Pinch Liner-On-Target Hydrodynamics Experiment Diagnosed with Proton Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousculp, C. L.; Reass, W. A.; Oro, D. M.; Griego, J. R.; Turchi, P. J.; Reinovsky, R. E.; Saunders, A.; Mariam, F. G.; Morris, C.

    2014-10-01

    The first pulse-power driven, dynamic, liner-on-target experiment was successfully conducted at the Los Alamos proton radiography (pRad) facility. 100% data return was achieved on this experiment including a 21-image pRad movie. The experiment was driven with the PHELIX pulsed-power machine that utilizes a high-efficiency (k ~ 0.93) transformer to couple a small capacitor bank (U ~ 300 kJ) to a low inductance condensed-matter experimental load in a Z-pinch configuration. The current pulse (Ipeak = 3.7 MA, δt ~10 μs) was measured via a fiber optic Faraday rotation diagnostic. The experimental load consisted of a cylindrical Al liner (6 cm diam, 3 cm tall, 0.8 mm thick) and a cylindrical Al target (3 cm diam, 3 cm tall, 0.1 mm thick) that was coated with a thin (0.1 mm) uniform layer of tungsten powder (1 micron diam). It is observed that the shock-launched powder layer fully detaches from the target into a spatially correlated, radially converging (vr ~ 800 m/s) ring. The powder distribution is highly modulated in azimuth indicating particle interactions are significant. Results are compared to MHD simulations. Work supported by United States-DOE under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  4. Analysis of radial radiography for the liner stability series at Pegasus: PGII-59, PGII-62, and PGII-63

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.V.; Platts, D.; Shlachter, J.S.; Martinez, D.L.; Carpenter, B.

    1997-09-01

    Recently, three liner stability experiments were performed at the Pegasus II pulsed power facility to determine the asymmetric variations in the material density of a cylindrical liner during an electro-magnetically driven implosion. The initial campaign consisted of three experiments, designated LS-1, LS-2, and LS-3. LS-1 and LS-2 were driven with a peak current of approximately 4.2 MA, whereas the peak current for LS-3 was approximately 6.4 MA. All three liners initially were 0.4 mm wall aluminum cylinders with a mean radius of 2.38 cm and a height of 2.0 cm. The inner surface of each liner was coated with a thin (18--23 {micro}m) layer of gold to aid in the determination of the position of the inner surface of the liner. Radial radiography was used to characterize the z-dependent and {theta}-dependent instabilities that were observed as the liner contracted.

  5. High-speed, two-dimensional synchrotron white-beam x-ray radiography of spray breakup and atomization.

    PubMed

    Halls, Benjamin R; Radke, Christopher D; Reuter, Benjamin J; Kastengren, Alan L; Gord, James R; Meyer, Terrence R

    2017-01-23

    High-speed, two-dimensional synchrotron x-ray radiography and phase-contrast imaging are demonstrated in propulsion sprays. Measurements are performed at the 7-BM beamline at the Advanced Photon Source user facility at Argonne National Laboratory using a recently developed broadband x-ray white beam. This novel enhancement allows for high speed, high fidelity x-ray imaging for the community at large. Quantitative path-integrated liquid distributions and spatio-temporal dynamics of the sprays were imaged with a LuAG:Ce scintillator optically coupled to a high-speed CMOS camera. Images are collected with a microscope objective at frame rates of 20 kHz and with a macro lens at 120 kHz, achieving spatial resolutions of 12 μm and 65 μm, respectively. Imaging with and without potassium iodide (KI) as a contrast-enhancing agent is compared, and the effects of broadband attenuation and spatial beam characteristics are determined through modeling and experimental calibration. In addition, phase contrast is used to differentiate liquid streams with varying concentrations of KI. The experimental approach is applied to different spray conditions, including quantitative measurements of mass distribution during primary atomization and qualitative visualization of turbulent binary fluid mixing.

  6. WE-EF-303-04: An Advanced Image Processing Method to Improve the Spatial Resolution of Proton Radiographies

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldi, I; Parodi, K; Krah, N

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We present an optimization method to improve the spatial resolution and the water equivalent thickness accuracy of proton radiographies. Methods: The method is designed for imaging systems measuring only the residual range of protons without relying on tracker detectors to determine the beam trajectory before and after the target. Specifically, the method was used for an imaging set-up consisting of a stack of 61 parallel-plate ionization chambers (PPIC) working as a range telescope. The method uses a decomposition approach of the residual range signal measured by the PPIC and constructs subimages with small size pixels geometrically rearranged and appropriately averaged to be merged into a final single radiography. The method was tested using Monte Carlo simulated and experimental proton radiographies of a PMMA step phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom. Results: For the step phantom, the effective spatial resolution was found to be 4 and 3 times higher than the nominal resolution for the simulated and experimental radiographies, respectively. For the head phantom, a gamma index was calculated to quantify the conformity of the simulated proton radiographies with a digitally reconstructed X-ray radiography convolved with a Gaussian kernel equal to the proton beam spot-size. For DTA=2.5 mm and RD=2.5%, the passing ratio was 100%/85% for the optimized/non-optimized case, respectively. An extension of the method allows reducing the dose given to the patient during radiography acquisition. We show that despite a dose reduction of 25 times (leading to a dose of 0.016 mGy for the current imaging set-up), the image quality of the optimized radiographies remains fairly unaffected for both the simulated and experimental results. Conclusion: The optimization method leads to a significant increase of the spatial resolution allowing recovering image details that are unresolved in non-optimized radiographies. These results represent a major step towards clinical

  7. Downgrading Nuclear Facilities to Radiological Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Jarry, Jeffrey F.; Farr, Jesse Oscar; Duran, Leroy

    2015-08-01

    Based on inventory reductions and the use of alternate storage facilities, the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) downgraded 4 SNL Hazard Category 3 (HC-3) nuclear facilities to less-than-HC-3 radiological facilities. SNL’s Waste Management and Pollution Prevention Department (WMPPD) managed the HC-3 nuclear facilities and implemented the downgrade. This paper will examine the downgrade process,

  8. Pre surgical evaluation of scrotal cystocele by conventional radiography (cystogram).

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Mohinder Kumar; Kapoor, Yamini

    2012-01-01

    Urinary bladder is a known content of sliding inguinal hernias but rarely presents as irreducible direct inguinal hernia. As inguinal hernia repair is commonly undertaken even at peripheral surgical centers. Cystogram a simple radiological investigation (picturesque view) is useful for pre-surgical evaluation as it can prevent iatrogenic bladder injury during inguinal hernia repair. This investigation can be performed where other radiological expertises like computerized tomography scan/magnetic resonance imaging or even ultrasound facilities are not readily available.

  9. Corrosion/erosion pipe inspection using reverse geometry radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, R.D.

    1996-07-01

    Measurement of corrosion in piping was studied using the Digiray Reverse Geometry X-ray{reg_sign} (RGX{reg_sign}) imaging system during a series of field tests. Sponsored by Shell, Exxon and Mobil oil companies, these were recently carried out at the Shell Martinez refinery facility. Results of the field tests as well as other RGX radiographs taken in the laboratory by Digiray will be described in this report.

  10. Application of Terahertz Imaging and Backscatter Radiography to Space Shuttle Foam Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ussery, Warren

    2008-01-01

    Two state of the art technologies have been developed for External Fuel Tank foam inspections. Results of POD tests have shown Backscatter Radiography and Terahertz imaging detect critical defects with no false positive issue. These techniques are currently in use on the External Tank program as one component in the foam quality assurance program.

  11. The Mathematical Model of Image, Generated by Scanning Digital Radiography System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udod, V. A.; Osipov, S. P.; Wang, Yanzhao

    2017-01-01

    The mathematical model of image, generated by scanning digital radiography system is present. This model takes into account the X-ray energy spectrum transformation of the test object and a noise due to the quantum nature of radiation. The calculation results confirm the importance of fluctuations of the absorbed energy of the registered photon for the small size of the scintillation detectors.

  12. A new x-ray imaging technique for radiography mode of flat-panel imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, K.; Ikeda, S.; Ueda, K.; Baba, R.

    2007-03-01

    A digital radiography system using a flat-panel imager, which has a novel imaging technique for a radiography mode, has been developed. A radiographic image captured by the new imaging technique has a wide dynamic range in comparison with conventional radiographic images. The purpose of this presentation is to show the basic performance of the image quality acquired by the new imaging technique and compare it with an image taken by a conventional technique. The flat-panel imager has a gain switching capability, normally used in a dynamic imaging mode for a cone-beam CT study. The gain switching method has two gain settings and switches between them automatically, depending on the incident dose to each pixel of flat-panel imager. As a result of the gain switching method, an image having wide dynamic range is achieved. In this study, we applied the gain switching method to the radiography mode, and achieved a radiographic image with wider dynamic range than a conventional radiograph. Furthermore, we have also developed an algorithm for calibration of the gain switching method in radiography mode.

  13. Solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors and their physical imaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cowen, A R; Kengyelics, S M; Davies, A G

    2008-05-01

    Solid-state, digital radiography (DR) detectors, designed specifically for standard projection radiography, emerged just before the turn of the millennium. This new generation of digital image detector comprises a thin layer of x-ray absorptive material combined with an electronic active matrix array fabricated in a thin film of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). DR detectors can offer both efficient (low-dose) x-ray image acquisition plus on-line readout of the latent image as electronic data. To date, solid-state, flat-panel, DR detectors have come in two principal designs, the indirect-conversion (x-ray scintillator-based) and the direct-conversion (x-ray photoconductor-based) types. This review describes the underlying principles and enabling technologies exploited by these designs of detector, and evaluates their physical imaging characteristics, comparing performance both against each other and computed radiography (CR). In standard projection radiography indirect conversion DR detectors currently offer superior physical image quality and dose efficiency compared with direct conversion DR and modern point-scan CR. These conclusions have been confirmed in the findings of clinical evaluations of DR detectors. Future trends in solid-state DR detector technologies are also briefly considered. Salient innovations include WiFi-enabled, portable DR detectors, improvements in x-ray absorber layers and developments in alternative electronic media to a-Si:H.

  14. Application Of Flash X-Ray Radiography To Problems In The Pulp And Paper Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, Theodore E.

    1988-02-01

    The use of flash x-ray radiography to investigate high speed multiphase flows is demonstrated. Both fundamental and practical problems of interest to the pulp and paper industry are used as examples. More specifically, studies of concentrated fiber suspension flows, kraft black liquor sprays and impulse drying are discussed.

  15. Working safely in gamma radiography. A training manual for industrial radiographers

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S.A.; Peabody, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    This manual is designed for classroom training in working safely in industrial radiography using gamma sources. The purpose is to train radiographers' assistants to work safely as a qualified gamma radiographer. The contents cover the essentials of radiation, radiation protection, emergency procedures, gamma cameras, and biological effects of radiation. (ACR)

  16. THE USE OF DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY IN THE EVALUATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS PACKAGING PERFORMANCE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    May, C; Lawrence Gelder, L; Boyd Howard, B

    2007-03-22

    New designs of radioactive material shipping packages are required to be evaluated in accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, ''Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material''. This paper will discuss the use of digital radiography to evaluate the effects of the tests required by 10 CFR 71.71, Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT), and 10 CFR 71.73, Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). One acceptable means of evaluating packaging performance is to subject packagings to the series of NCT and HAC tests. The evaluation includes a determination of the effect on the packaging by the conditions and tests. That determination has required that packagings be cut and sectioned to learn the actual effects on internal components. Digital radiography permits the examination of internal packaging components without sectioning a package. This allows a single package to be subjected to a series of tests. After each test, the package is digitally radiographed and the effects of particular tests evaluated. Radiography reduces the number of packages required for testing and also reduces labor and materials required to section and evaluate numerous packages. This paper will include a description of the digital radiography equipment used in the testing and evaluation of the 9977 and 9978 packages at SRNL. The equipment is capable of making a single radiograph of a full-sized package in one exposure. Radiographs will be compared to sectioned packages that show actual conditions compared to radiographic images.

  17. 10 CFR 34.20 - Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... equipment. 34.20 Section 34.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND... inspection at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Library, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. A.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (2) Engineering analysis may be...

  18. Diagnostic sensitivity of ultrasound, radiography and computed tomography for gender determination in four species of lizards.

    PubMed

    Di Ianni, Francesco; Volta, Antonella; Pelizzone, Igor; Manfredi, Sabrina; Gnudi, Giacomo; Parmigiani, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Gender determination is frequently requested by reptile breeders, especially for species with poor or absent sexual dimorphism. The aims of the current study were to describe techniques and diagnostic sensitivities of ultrasound, radiography, and computed tomography for gender determination (identification of hemipenes) in four species of lizards. Nineteen lizards of known sex, belonging to four different species (Pogona vitticeps, Uromastyx aegyptia, Tiliqua scincoides, Gerrhosaurus major) were prospectively enrolled. With informed owner consent, ultrasound, noncontrast CT, contrast radiography, and contrast CT (with contrast medium administered into the cloaca) were performed in conscious animals. Imaging studies were reviewed by three different operators, each unaware of the gender of the animals and of the results of the other techniques. The lizard was classified as a male when hemipenes were identified. Nineteen lizards were included in the study, 10 females and nine males. The hemipenes were seen on ultrasound in only two male lizards, and appeared as oval hypoechoic structures. Radiographically, hemipenes filled with contrast medium appeared as spindle-shaped opacities. Noncontrast CT identified hemipenes in only two lizards, and these appeared as spindle-shaped kinked structures with hyperattenuating content consistent with smegma. Hemipenes were correctly identified in all nine males using contrast CT (accuracy of 100%). Accuracy of contrast radiography was excellent (94.7%). Accuracy of ultrasound and of noncontrast CT was poor (64.3% and 63.1%, respectively). Findings from the current study supported the use of contrast CT or contrast radiography for gender determination in lizards.

  19. High-speed dental radiography achieved with a kilohertz-range pulsed x-ray generator

    SciTech Connect

    Takabe, Akihito; Yamamoto, Mariko; Sakamaki, Kimio

    1995-12-31

    The development of a high-intensity kilohertz-range pulsed x-ray generator and its application to dental radiography are described. The pulsed x-ray generator consisted of the following major components: a constant high-voltage power supply, a high-voltage main condenser, a hot-cathode triode, a DC power supply for the filament (hot cathode), and a grid controller. The main condenser of 0.5 {micro}F-100 kV in the pulser was charged from 50 to 70 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser were discharged to the triode by the grid controller. To be exact, the tube voltage decreased during the discharging for generating pulsed x-rays, yet the maximum value was equivalent to the initial charging voltage of the main condenser. The maximum values of the tube current and the repetition rate were about 0.5 A and 30 kHz, respectively. The pulse width of the x-rays ranged from approximately 20 to 400 {micro}s, and the x-ray intensity with a charging voltage of 70 kV and a total resistance of 5.1 M{Omega} was about 0.83 {micro}C/kg at 1.0 m per pulse. Using this generator, high-speed dental radiography, e.g., delayed radiography and multiple-shot radiography, was performed.

  20. Visibility Estimation for Neutron Resonance Absorption Radiography using a Pulsed Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Tetsuya; Maekawa, Fujio; Oshita, Hidetoshi; Sato, Hirotaka; Shinohara, Takenao; Ooi, Motoki; Harada, Masahide; Uno, Shoji; Otomo, Toshiya; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki

    Neutron resonance absorption radiography is a technique to enhance neutron transmission images of specific nucleus at neutron resonance energies. Demonstration measurements by using a lithium-glass pixel type scintillator and a gas electron multiplication (GEM) neutron detector were carried out at NOBORU beam line in MLF/J-PARC for sodium, manganese, cobalt, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cadmium, indium, tantalum and gold. To discuss advantages of the resonance absorption radiography the mass attenuation coefficient at resonance energy of each element was compared to that at 25 meV. In addition a visibility index derived by a resonance peak cross section and a relative width (full width at half maximum divided by its resonance energy) was proposed to summarize visibility of the neutron resonance absorption radiography for natural elements. The values of visibility index and the resonance energy indicated that large advantages of the resonance absorption radiography were obtainable for the following elements: sodium (Na), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), rhodium (Rh), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), indium (In), xenon (Xe), cesium (Cs), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er), thulium (Tm), hafnium (Hf), tantalum (Ta), tungsten (W), rhenium (Re), iridium (Ir) and gold (Au).

  1. Thoracic radiography in the cat: Identification of cardiomegaly and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Guglielmini, Carlo; Diana, Alessia

    2015-12-01

    Thoracic radiography is one of the most commonly employed diagnostic tools for the clinical evaluation of cats with suspected heart disease and is the standard diagnostic method in the confirmation of cardiogenic pulmonary edema. In the past, interpretation of feline radiographs focused on a description of the qualitative radiographic features of feline heart disease or the measurement of the cardiac silhouette in healthy cats and cats with different cardiovascular disorders. More recently, studies have begun to critically address the issue of the diagnostic accuracy of thoracic radiography in the diagnostic work-up of cats with heart disease. In these studies, qualitative and quantitative radiographic parameters were compared to echocardiographic findings to evaluate the usefulness of thoracic radiography for the identification of cardiac enlargement and pulmonary edema in the cat. Thoracic radiography is reasonably specific but has a low sensitivity when identifying cardiomegaly in cats with mild structural heart disease. Feline cardiogenic pulmonary edema has a variable radiographic presentation and several specific radiographic findings (i.e., enlargement of the left atrium and the pulmonary veins) can be absent or non-recognizable in affected cats.

  2. Quantifying moisture transport in cementitious materials using neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, Catherine L.

    . It has been found through this study that small pores, namely voids created by chemical shrinkage, gel pores, and capillary pores, ranging from 0.5 nm to 50 microm, fill quickly through capillary action. However, large entrapped and entrained air voids ranging from 0.05 to 1.25 mm remain empty during the initial filling process. In mortar exposed to calcium chloride solution, a decrease in sorptivity was observed due to an increase in viscosity and surface tension of the solution as proposed by Spragg et al 2011. This work however also noted a decrease in the rate of absorption due to a reaction between the salt and matrix which results in the filling of the pores in the concrete. The results from neutron imaging can help in the interpretation of standard absorption tests. ASTM C1585 test results can be further analyzed in several ways that could give an accurate indication of the durability of the concrete. Results can be reported in depth of penetration versus the square root of time rather than mm3 of fluid per mm2 of exposed surface area. Since a known fraction of pores are initially filling before reaching the edge of the sample, the actual depth of penetration can be calculated. This work is compared with an 'intrinsic sorptivity' that can be used to interpret mass measurements. Furthermore, the influence of shrinkage reducing admixtures (SRAs) on drying was studied. Neutron radiographs showed that systems saturated in water remain "wetter" than systems saturated in 5% SRA solution. The SRA in the system reduces the moisture diffusion coefficient due an increase in viscosity and decrease in surface tension. Neutron radiography provided spatial information of the drying front that cannot be achieved using other methods.

  3. Breadboard Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    In the sixties, Chrysler was NASA's prime contractor for the Saturn I and IB test launch vehicles. The company installed and operated at Huntsville what was known as the Saturn I/IB Development Breadboard Facility. "Breadboard," means an array of electrical and electronic equipment for performing a variety of development and test functions. This work gave Chrysler a broad capability in computerized testing to assure quality control in development of solid-state electronic systems. Today that division is manufacturing many products not destined for NASA, most of them being associated with the company's automotive line. A major project is production and quality-control testing of the "lean-burn" engine, one that has a built-in Computer to control emission timing, and allow the engine to run on a leaner mixture of fuel and air. Other environment-related products include vehicle emission analyzers. The newest of the line is an accurate, portable solid state instrument for testing auto exhaust gases. The exhaust analyzers, now being produced for company dealers and for service

  4. Conventional Versus Digital Radiography in Detecting Root Canal Type in Maxillary Premolars: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Moshfeghi, Mahkameh; Sajadi, Soodabeh Sadat; Sajadi, Sepideh; Shahbazian, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Successful endodontic therapy depends on adequate mechanical and chemical debridement of the canal which requires knowledge of the canal morphology. Conventional radiography has been used to evaluate the canal type; however, direct digital radiography has recently been practiced for this purpose due to the shortcomings of conventional radiography. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of digital and conventional radiography taken at 0° and 30° angles in the diagnosis of the canal type of extracted maxillary premolars. Materials and Methods: This diagnostic study was performed on 90 extracted maxillary premolars. Conventional and digital radiographies were taken of all teeth at 0° and 30° horizontal angles. The images were assessed by an oral and maxillofacial radiologist. The clearing technique was used as the gold standard. The canal type was determined using Weine classification. The agreement between each one of the 4 radiographic modalities and gold standard was determined by kappa statistics. Results: The kappa values for the agreement of parallel conventional, 30° conventional, parallel digital and 30° digital modalities with the clearing technique were 0.059, 0.215, 0.043 and 0.391, respectively. Parallel modalities were unable to determine the tooth canal type. Radiographic images taken at 30° significantly determined the canal type, although only a poor level of agreement was noted between the two modalities and the clearing technique. Conclusion: All modalities had limited value to determine the root canal type in maxillary premolars. However, direct digital imaging taken at 30° angle showed the highest accuracy for canal type assessment. PMID:23724205

  5. K-(alpha) Radiography at 20-100 keV Using Short-Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H S; Chambers, D; Clarke, R; Eagleton, R; Giraldez, E; Goldsack, T; Heathcote, R; Izumi, N; Key, M; King, J; Koch, J; Landen, O L; Mackinnon, A; Nikroo, A; Patel, P; Pasley, J; Remington, B; Robey, H; Snavely, R; Steinman, D; Stephenson, R; Stoeckl, C; Storm, M; Tabak, M; Theobald, W; Town, R J

    2005-08-29

    X-ray radiography is an important tool for diagnosing and imaging planar and convergent hydrodynamics phenomena for laser experiments. Until now, hydrodynamics experiments at Omega and NIF utilize E{sub x-ray} < 9 keV backlighter x-rays emitted by thermal plasmas. However, future experiments will need to diagnose larger and denser targets and will require x-ray probes of energies from 20-100 keV and possibly up to 1 MeV. Hard K-{alpha} x-ray photons can be created through high-energy electron interactions in the target material after irradiation by petawatt-class high-intensity-short-pulse lasers with > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. We have performed several experiments on the JanUSP, and the Vulcan 100TW, and Vulcan Petawatt lasers to understand K-{alpha} sources and to test radiography concepts. 1-D radiography using an edge-on foil and 2-D radiography using buried wires and cone-fiber targets were tested. We find that 1-D thin edge-on foils can have imaging resolution better than 10 {micro}m. Micro volume targets produce bright sources with measured conversion efficiency from laser energy to x-ray photons of {approx} 1 x 10{sup -5}. This level of conversion may not be enough for 2-D point projection radiography. A comparison of our experimental measurements of small volume sources with the LSP/PIC simulation show similar K-{alpha} creation profiles but discrepancy in absolute yields.

  6. Streaked radiography measurements of convergent ablator performance (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, D. G.; Spears, B. K.; Braun, D. G.; Olson, R. E.; Sorce, C. M.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L.

    2010-10-15

    The velocity and remaining ablator mass of an imploding capsule are critical metrics for assessing the progress toward ignition of an inertially confined fusion experiment. These and other ablator rocket parameters have been measured using a single streaked x-ray radiograph. A regularization technique has been used to determine the ablator density profile {rho}(r) at each time step; moments of {rho}(r) then provide the areal density, average radius, and mass of the unablated, or remaining, ablator material, with the velocity determined from the time derivative of the average radius. The technique has been implemented on experiments at the OMEGA laser facility.

  7. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels for dental intraoral radiography.

    PubMed

    Manousaridis, G; Koukorava, C; Hourdakis, C J; Kamenopoulou, V; Yakoumakis, E; Tsiklakis, K

    2013-10-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) is a tool for the optimisation of radiological procedures. Establishment of a DRL is a requirement of national regulations. Measurements performed by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission on 529 dental intraoral radiographic facilities have been used in order to define DRLs for digital and film imaging modalities, taking into account the region of the mouth to be imaged. Thus, different DRL values have been proposed for minimum (usually incisors), maximum (usually maxillary molars) and average exposure settings, both for film and digital imaging. The results have been compared with similar studies performed in Europe and the USA and are in line with the most recent ones.

  8. Facility Focus: Sports and Recreation Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Examines projects that demonstrate three different commitments administrators make to their athletic facilities: convenience; excellence; and comfort. Projects discussed involve a fitness center, a football stadium, and a multi-sport indoor practice facility. (GR)

  9. Experimental investigations on carbon ion scanning radiography using a range telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, I.; Brons, S.; Jäkel, O.; Voss, B.; Parodi, K.

    2014-06-01

    Ion beams offer an excellent tumor-dose conformality due to their inverted depth-dose profile and finite range in tissue, the Bragg peak (BP). However, they introduce sensitivity to range uncertainties. Imaging techniques play an increasingly important role in ion beam therapy to support precise diagnosis and identification of the target volume at the planning stage as well as to ensure the correspondence between the planning and treatment situation at the actual irradiation. For the purpose of improved treatment quality, ion-based radiographic images could be acquired at the treatment site before or during treatment and be employed to monitor the patient positioning and to check the patient-specific ion range. This work presents the initial experimental investigations carried out to address the feasibility of carbon ion radiography at the Heidelberg ion therapy center using a prototype range telescope set-up and an active raster scanning ion beam delivery system. Bragg curves are measured with a stack of ionization chambers (IC) synchronously to the beam delivery. The position of the BP is extracted from the data by locating the channel of maximum current signal for each delivered beam. Each BP is associated to the lateral and vertical positions of the scanned raster point extrapolated from the beam monitor system to build up a radiography. The radiographic images are converted into water equivalent thickness (WET) based on two calibrations of the detector. Radiographies of two phantoms of different complexities are reconstructed and their image quality is analyzed. A novel method proposed to increase the nominal range resolution of the IC stack is applied to the carbon ion radiography of an Alderson head phantom. Moreover, an x-ray digitally reconstructed radiography of the same anthropomorphic head phantom is converted in WET through the clinically used ion range calibration curve and compared with the carbon ion radiography based on a γ-index approach

  10. Experimental investigations on carbon ion scanning radiography using a range telescope.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, I; Brons, S; Jäkel, O; Voss, B; Parodi, K

    2014-06-21

    Ion beams offer an excellent tumor-dose conformality due to their inverted depth-dose profile and finite range in tissue, the Bragg peak (BP). However, they introduce sensitivity to range uncertainties. Imaging techniques play an increasingly important role in ion beam therapy to support precise diagnosis and identification of the target volume at the planning stage as well as to ensure the correspondence between the planning and treatment situation at the actual irradiation. For the purpose of improved treatment quality, ion-based radiographic images could be acquired at the treatment site before or during treatment and be employed to monitor the patient positioning and to check the patient-specific ion range. This work presents the initial experimental investigations carried out to address the feasibility of carbon ion radiography at the Heidelberg ion therapy center using a prototype range telescope set-up and an active raster scanning ion beam delivery system. Bragg curves are measured with a stack of ionization chambers (IC) synchronously to the beam delivery. The position of the BP is extracted from the data by locating the channel of maximum current signal for each delivered beam. Each BP is associated to the lateral and vertical positions of the scanned raster point extrapolated from the beam monitor system to build up a radiography. The radiographic images are converted into water equivalent thickness (WET) based on two calibrations of the detector. Radiographies of two phantoms of different complexities are reconstructed and their image quality is analyzed. A novel method proposed to increase the nominal range resolution of the IC stack is applied to the carbon ion radiography of an Alderson head phantom. Moreover, an x-ray digitally reconstructed radiography of the same anthropomorphic head phantom is converted in WET through the clinically used ion range calibration curve and compared with the carbon ion radiography based on a γ-index approach

  11. Radiography with cosmic-ray and compact accelerator muons; Exploring inner-structure of large-scale objects and landforms.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Kanetada

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic-ray muons (CRM) arriving from the sky on the surface of the earth are now known to be used as radiography purposes to explore the inner-structure of large-scale objects and landforms, ranging in thickness from meter to kilometers scale, such as volcanic mountains, blast furnaces, nuclear reactors etc. At the same time, by using muons produced by compact accelerators (CAM), advanced radiography can be realized for objects with a thickness in the sub-millimeter to meter range, with additional exploration capability such as element identification and bio-chemical analysis. In the present report, principles, methods and specific research examples of CRM transmission radiography are summarized after which, principles, methods and perspective views of the future CAM radiography are described.

  12. Radiography with cosmic-ray and compact accelerator muons; Exploring inner-structure of large-scale objects and landforms

    PubMed Central

    NAGAMINE, Kanetada

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic-ray muons (CRM) arriving from the sky on the surface of the earth are now known to be used as radiography purposes to explore the inner-structure of large-scale objects and landforms, ranging in thickness from meter to kilometers scale, such as volcanic mountains, blast furnaces, nuclear reactors etc. At the same time, by using muons produced by compact accelerators (CAM), advanced radiography can be realized for objects with a thickness in the sub-millimeter to meter range, with additional exploration capability such as element identification and bio-chemical analysis. In the present report, principles, methods and specific research examples of CRM transmission radiography are summarized after which, principles, methods and perspective views of the future CAM radiography are described. PMID:27725469

  13. Core Length and Spray Width Measurements in Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Rocket Injectors from X-ray Radiography Measurements 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) M. D...combustion applications, such as rockets , this region is also the area of flame holding, and so is of primary importance in predicting combustion...in Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors from X- ray Radiography Measurements M. D. A. Lightfoot*, S. A. Schumaker, and S. A. Danczyk Air Force

  14. Guide to research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This Guide provides information on facilities at US Department of Energy (DOE) and other government laboratories that focus on research and development of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. These laboratories have opened these facilities to outside users within the scientific community to encourage cooperation between the laboratories and the private sector. The Guide features two types of facilities: designated user facilities and other research facilities. Designated user facilities are one-of-a-kind DOE facilities that are staffed by personnel with unparalleled expertise and that contain sophisticated equipment. Other research facilities are facilities at DOE and other government laboratories that provide sophisticated equipment, testing areas, or processes that may not be available at private facilities. Each facility listing includes the name and phone number of someone you can call for more information.

  15. An Experimental Study for Minimum Level of Decalcification to Detect the Osteolytic Bone Metastasis of Long Bone on Plain Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jun Ho; Seo, Sung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Background In 1951, Ardran reported that metastatic bone lesions could be detectable on plain radiography with 30% to 50% of decalcification. Authors performed experimental study for minimum level of decalcification to detect the osteolytic bone metastasis of long bone with recent technique of radiographs. Methods One pair of fibula and humerus from two cadavers was cut into specimen 1 inch in length. Distal half of specimen was dipped into hydrochloride (HCl) with 15 min interval. All 16 specimens were checked by film-type radiography (FR), computed radiography (CR), digital radiography (DR). To exclude inter-observer's variance, 3 radiologists evaluated images. Calcium amount before and after decalcification was measured and expressed in percentage of decalcification. Results Osteolytic changes were detectable with 11% to 16% of decalcification for fibula and 3% to 8% for humerus on plain radiography with FR, CR, and DR. Conclusions Our study showed that minimum of 3% and maximum of 16% of decalcification is necessary when osteolytic metastatic bone lesions of long bone could be detected on plain radiography. PMID:27622177

  16. Image enhancement using MCNP5 code and MATLAB in neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Montaser; Mohamed, Nader; Mongy, T

    2014-07-01

    This work presents a method that can be used to enhance the neutron radiography (NR) image for objects with high scattering materials like hydrogen, carbon and other light materials. This method used Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, to simulate the NR process and get the flux distribution for each pixel of the image and determines the scattered neutron distribution that caused image blur, and then uses MATLAB to subtract this scattered neutron distribution from the initial image to improve its quality. This work was performed before the commissioning of digital NR system in Jan. 2013. The MATLAB enhancement method is quite a good technique in the case of static based film neutron radiography, while in neutron imaging (NI) technique, image enhancement and quantitative measurement were efficient by using ImageJ software. The enhanced image quality and quantitative measurements were presented in this work.

  17. Flash Kα radiography of laser-driven solid sphere compression for fast ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, H.; Lee, S.; Shiroto, T.; Nagatomo, H.; Arikawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Ueda, T.; Shigemori, K.; Sunahara, A.; Ohnishi, N.; Beg, F. N.; Theobald, W.; Pérez, F.; Patel, P. K.; Fujioka, S.

    2016-06-01

    Time-resolved compression of a laser-driven solid deuterated plastic sphere with a cone was measured with flash Kα x-ray radiography. A spherically converging shockwave launched by nanosecond GEKKO XII beams was used for compression while a flash of 4.51 keV Ti Kα x-ray backlighter was produced by a high-intensity, picosecond laser LFEX (Laser for Fast ignition EXperiment) near peak compression for radiography. Areal densities of the compressed core were inferred from two-dimensional backlit x-ray images recorded with a narrow-band spherical crystal imager. The maximum areal density in the experiment was estimated to be 87 ± 26 mg/cm2. The temporal evolution of the experimental and simulated areal densities with a 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics code is in good agreement.

  18. An industrial radiography exposure device based on measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polee, C.; Chankow, N.; Srisatit, S.; Thong-Aram, D.

    2015-05-01

    In film radiography, underexposure and overexposure may happen particularly when lacking information of specimen material and hollowness. This paper describes a method and a device for determining exposure in industrial gamma-ray radiography based on quick measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity with a small detector. Application software was developed for Android mobile phone to remotely control the device and to display counting data via Bluetooth communication. Prior to film exposure, the device is placed behind a specimen to measure transmitted intensity which is inversely proportional to the exposure. Unlike in using the conventional exposure curve, correction factors for source decay, source-to- film distance, specimen thickness and kind of material are not needed. The developed technique and device make radiographic process economic, convenient and more reliable.

  19. Terahertz Imaging and Backscatter Radiography Probability of Detection Study for Space Shuttle Foam Inspections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ussery, Warren; Johnson, Kenneth; Walker, James; Rummel, Ward

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of terahertz imaging and Backscatter Radiography in a probability of detection study of the foam on the external tank (ET) shedding and damaging the shuttle orbiter. Non-destructive Examination (NDE) is performed as one method of preventing critical foam debris during the launch. Conventional NDE methods for inspection of the foam are assessed and the deficiencies are reviewed. Two methods for NDE inspection are reviewed: Backscatter Radiography (BSX) and Terahertz (THZ) Imaging. The purpose of the Probability of Detection (POD) study was to assess performance and reliability of the use of BSX and or THZ as an appropriate NDE method. The study used a test article with inserted defects, and a sample of blanks included to test for false positives. The results of the POD study are reported.

  20. Cellular death but not genetic damage in oral mucosa cells after exposure to digital lateral radiography.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Daniel A; Sannomiya, Eduardo K; Pozzi, Renan; Miranda, Sandra R; Angelieri, Fernanda

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate DNA damage (micronucleus) and cellular death (pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) in exfoliated buccal mucosa cells from individuals following digital lateral radiography. A total of 30 healthy patients (15 men and 15 women) indicated to the orthodontic therapy were submitted to digital lateral X-ray. Exfoliated oral mucosa cells were collected immediately before the X-ray exposure and after 10 days. The results pointed out no significant statistically differences (p > 0.05) of micronucleated oral mucosa cells. On the other hand, X-ray was able to increase other nuclear alterations closely related to cytotoxicity such as karyorrhexis, pyknosis, and karyolysis. In summary, these data indicate that exposure to digital lateral radiography may not be a factor that induced chromosomal damage, but it is able to promote cytotoxicity.

  1. Perspectives for the radiography of Mt. Vesuvius by cosmic ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buontempo, S.; D'Auria, L.; de Lellis, G.; Festa, G.; Gasparini, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Marotta, A.; Martini, M.; Miele, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Pisanti, O.; Strolin, P.; Vassallo, M.; Zollo, A.

    2010-02-01

    The measurements performed in Japan have shown that muon radiography is an "imaging technique" capable of providing information of the internal structure of volcanoes with a resolution and richness of details beyond the reach of conventional, non-imaging techniques. The measurements have been performed using electronic detectors or nuclear emulsions. The latter have shown excellent muon tracking capabilities and space resolution, but are lacking of the capability of electronic detectors to provide data in real time. In this paper, we examine the possibility of developing an electronic detector giving a resolution comparable to that of nuclear emulsions and with a larger area than used so far, in order to see deeper structures inside volcanoes in spite of the strong muon absorption in the rock. We specifically discuss the very challenging application of muon radiography to Mt. Vesuvius, driven by the strong social interest coming from the enormous potential danger which it represents. Applications to other volcanoes can be envisaged.

  2. A Review of Full-Body Radiography in Nontraumatic Emergency Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, S. P.; Mantokoudis, G.; Ott, D.; Zimmerman, H.; Exadaktylos, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of full-body radiography to nontraumatic emergency situations. The Lodox Statscan is an X-ray machine capable of imaging the entire body in 13 seconds using linear slit scanning radiography (LSSR). Nontraumatic emergency applications in ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt visualisation, emergency room arteriography (ERA), detection of foreign bodies, and paediatric emergency imaging are presented. Reports show that the fast, full-body, and low-dose scanning capabilities of the Lodox system make it well suited to these applications, with the same or better image quality, faster processing times, and lower dose to patients. In particular, the large format scans allowing visualisation of a greater area of anatomy make it well suited to VP shunt monitoring, ERA, and the detection of foreign bodies. Whilst more studies are required, it can be concluded that the Lodox Statscan has the potential for widespread use in these and other nontraumatic emergency radiology applications. PMID:23243508

  3. Development of fast neutron radiography system based on portable neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Chia Jia; Nilsuwankosit, Sunchai

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high installation cost, the safety concern and the immobility of the research reactors, the neutron radiography system based on portable neutron generator is proposed. Since the neutrons generated from a portable neutron generator are mostly the fast neutrons, the system is emphasized on using the fast neutrons for the purpose of conducting the radiography. In order to suppress the influence of X-ray produced by the neutron generator, a combination of a shielding material sandwiched between two identical imaging plates is used. A binary XOR operation is then applied for combining the information from the imaging plates. The raw images obtained confirm that the X-ray really has a large effect and that XOR operation can help enhance the effect of the neutrons.

  4. Inspection of the hydrogen gas pressure with metal shield by cold neutron radiography at CMRR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hang; Cao, Chao; Huo, Heyong; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Yang; Yin, Wei; Sun, Yong; Liu, Bin; Tang, Bin

    2017-04-01

    The inspection of the process of gas pressure change is important for some applications (e.g. gas tank stockpile or two phase fluid model) which need quantitative and non-touchable measurement. Neutron radiography provides a suitable tool for such investigations with nice resolution. The quantitative cold neutron radiography (CNR) is developed at China Mianyang Research Reactor (CMRR) to measure the hydrogen gas pressure with metal shield. Because of the high sensitivity to hydrogen, even small change of the hydrogen pressure can be inspected by CNR. The dark background and scattering neutron effect are both corrected to promote measurement precision. The results show that CNR can measure the hydrogen gas pressure exactly and the pressure value average relative error between CNR and barometer is almost 1.9%.

  5. An Overview of High Energy Short Pulse Technology for Advanced Radiography of Laser Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C J; Key, M; Britten, J; Beach, R; Beer, G; Brown, C; Bryan, S; Caird, J; Carlson, T; Crane, J; Dawson, J; Erlandson, A C; Fittinghoff, D; Hermann, M; Hoaglan, C; Iyer, A; Jones, L; Jovanovic, I; Komashko, A; Landen, O; Liao, Z; Molander, W; Mitchell, A; Moses, E; Nielsen, N; Nguyen, H; Nissen, J; Payne, S; Pennington, D; Risinger, L; Rushford, M; Skulina, K; Spaeth, M; Stuart, B; Tietbohl, G; Wattellier, B

    2004-06-18

    The technical challenges and motivations for high-energy, short-pulse generation with NIF-class, Nd:glass laser systems are reviewed. High energy short pulse generation (multi-kilojoule, picosecond pulses) will be possible via the adaptation of chirped pulse amplification laser techniques on the NIF. Development of meter-scale, high efficiency, high-damage-threshold final optics is a key technical challenge. In addition, deployment of HEPW pulses on NIF is constrained by existing laser infrastructure and requires new, compact compressor designs and short-pulse, fiber-based, seed-laser systems. The key motivations for high energy petawatt pulses on NIF is briefly outlined and includes high-energy, x-ray radiography, proton beam radiography, proton isochoric heating and tests of the fast ignitor concept for inertial confinement fusion.

  6. Validation of a computed radiography device to monitor the HIV-1 RNase H activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, F.; Fanti, V.; Marzeddu, R.; Randaccio, P.; Tramontano, E.; Zinzula, L.

    2009-08-01

    A commercially available computed radiography (CR) system for dental radiography was used to produce images from radiolabeled polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) assays. Typically, similar investigations require specific and expensive autoradiography devices. The CR unit was characterized in terms of sensitivity and fading by means of a 90Sr source that well simulates the experimental conditions, and then used for quantitative analyses of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase-independent ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity monitored by PAGE analysis. The results showed that the present methodology allows quantifying effectively the RNase H catalyses and that the obtained data are in good agreement with previous reference works. Finally, in order to further validate the present method in terms of relationship between enzyme activity, the rate of products formation and signal intensity, a PAGE analyses of the HIV-1 RNase H inhibition by the known diketo acid derivative RDS1643 was carried out.

  7. Simple solution to the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction integral for application to refraction-enhanced radiography.

    PubMed

    Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Suter, L J; Masse, L P

    2013-07-01

    We present a simple solution to the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction integral that is appropriate for x-ray radiography of strongly absorbing and phase-shifting objects in the geometrical optics regime, where phase contrast enhancements can be considered to be caused by refraction by a semi-opaque object. We demonstrate its accuracy by comparison to brute-force numerical ray trace and diffraction calculations of a representative simulated object, and show excellent agreement for spatial scales corresponding to Fresnel numbers greater than unity. The result represents a significant improvement over approximate formulas typically used in analysis of refraction-enhanced radiographs, particularly for radiography of transient phenomena in objects that strongly refract and show significant absorption.

  8. Development of fast neutron radiography system based on portable neutron generator

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Chia Jia Nilsuwankosit, Sunchai

    2016-01-22

    Due to the high installation cost, the safety concern and the immobility of the research reactors, the neutron radiography system based on portable neutron generator is proposed. Since the neutrons generated from a portable neutron generator are mostly the fast neutrons, the system is emphasized on using the fast neutrons for the purpose of conducting the radiography. In order to suppress the influence of X-ray produced by the neutron generator, a combination of a shielding material sandwiched between two identical imaging plates is used. A binary XOR operation is then applied for combining the information from the imaging plates. The raw images obtained confirm that the X-ray really has a large effect and that XOR operation can help enhance the effect of the neutrons.

  9. Evaluation of ultrasonics and optimized radiography for 2219-T87 aluminum weldments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clotfelter, W. N.; Hoop, J. M.; Duren, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    Ultrasonic studies are described which are specifically directed toward the quantitative measurement of randomly located defects previously found in aluminum welds with radiography or with dye penetrants. Experimental radiographic studies were also made to optimize techniques for welds of the thickness range to be used in fabricating the External Tank of the Space Shuttle. Conventional and innovative ultrasonic techniques were applied to the flaw size measurement problem. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. Flaw size data obtained ultrasonically were compared to radiographic data and to real flaw sizes determined by destructive measurements. Considerable success was achieved with pulse echo techniques and with 'pitch and catch' techniques. The radiographic work described demonstrates that careful selection of film exposure parameters for a particular application must be made to obtain optimized flaw detectability. Thus, film exposure techniques can be improved even though radiography is an old weld inspection method.

  10. Comparison of physical examination and conventional radiography in diagnosis of nasal fracture.

    PubMed

    Gharehdaghi, Jaber; Samadi Rad, Bahram; Ghatreh Samani, Venous; Kolahi, Farinaz; Khatami Zonoozian, Arezo; Marashian, Sayed Mehran

    2013-08-01

    Nasal bone fracture is the most common fracture which would result from facial trauma. So, the present study performed to select the most reliable way to diagnose new fractures considering CT scan results as a gold standard in this matter. All the people refer to a forensic medicine center were, at first, physically examined by general practitioners. Plain lateral radiography and ENT consult were requested afterwards. CT scan was requested to get trusty results in case of any imbalance between Radiographic finding and physical examination. The results finally were evaluated and compared. CT scan was tried for 61 (6%) patients with positive clinical findings for new fracture which were not supported by radiologic studies. New fracture was identified in 55 participants out of the above number. Trusting physical examination and its preference to the radiologic findings has special value in cases where fracture is not detectable by radiography and there is no access to CT scan.

  11. The classic: Radiography of the trapeziometacarpal joint. Degenerative changes of this joint. 1936.

    PubMed

    Robert, M

    2014-04-01

    This classic article is a translation and reprint (Appendix 1. Supplemental material is available with the online version of CORR.) from the French of the original article by M. Robert, entitled La radiographie de l'articulation trapézo-métacarpienne. Les arthroses de cette jointure. The original article was published in Société de Radiologie Méd de France, Bulletins.1936;24:687-689. (Reproduced with kind permission of the SFR.).

  12. [Digital radiography using light-emitting detectors. Operative principles and characteristics of images].

    PubMed

    Salvini, E

    1988-12-01

    This paper briefly describes the technical features of a digital radiographic system based on the principle of scanning laser stimulated luminescence. Such aspects as the physics of the stimulable phosphor detector are dealt with, and image acquisition, processing, and hard-copy output. Automatic analysis of pixel histograms is described, in a qualitative way, together with contrast modifications and spatial filtering. Physical image characteristics are reported. The overall performance of digital radiography is examined, together with the current requirements and its eventual developments.

  13. A detector system for proton radiography on the gantry of the Paul-Scherrer-Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pemler, P.; Besserer, J.; de Boer, J.; Dellert, M.; Gahn, C.; Moosburger, M.; Schneider, U.; Pedroni, E.; Stäuble, H.

    1999-08-01

    A detector system for fast in vivo proton radiography on the proton gantry of the Paul Scherrer Institute was developed. The system, consisting of two scintillating fiber hodoscopes and a range telescope made of plastic scintillator tiles, is capable of detecting position and range of 10 6 protons/s as single coincidence events. The spatial resolution achieved for the residual-range images is ≈1 mm and the density resolution is 0.3% for 200 protons/mm 2.

  14. Assessing cadmium distribution applying neutron radiography in moss trophical levels, located in Szarvasko, Hungary.

    PubMed

    Varga, János; Korösi, Ferenc; Balaskó, Márton; Naár, Zoltán

    2004-10-01

    The measuring station of the 10 MW VVR-SM research reactor at the Budapest Neutron Centre (Hungary) was used to perform dynamic neutron radiography (DNR), which was, to our best knowledge, the first time, in a Tortella tortuosa biotope. In the conducted study, two trophical levels, moss and spider Thomisidae sp. juv., were examined. Cadmium penetration routes, distribution and accumulation zones were visualized in the leafy gametophyte life cycle of Tortella tortuosa and in the organs of the spider.

  15. The MU-RAY project: volcano radiography with cosmic-ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noli, Pasquale

    2013-04-01

    The MU-RAY project: volcano radiography with cosmic-ray muons Cosmic-ray muon radiography is a technique for imaging the variation of density inside the top few hundred meters of a volcanic cone. it is based on the high penetration capability of the high energy muon component of the cosmic radiation.The measurement of the flux variation allows the evaluation of the average density along the observation line with few percents precision and spatial resolution up to tens of meters, in optimal detection conditions. Muon radiography can provide images of the top region of a volcano edifice with a resolution that is considerably better than that typically achieved with conventional methods.Such precise measurements are expected to provide us with information on anomalies in the rock density distribution, like those expected from dense lava conduits, low density magma supply paths or the compression with depth of the overlying soil. The MU-RAY project developed a muon telescopes prototype for muon radiography. The telescopes is required to be able to work in harsh environment and to have low power consumption, good angular and time resolutions, large active area and modularity. The telescope consists of three X-Y planes of one square meter area made by plastic scintillator strips of triangular shape. Each strip is read by a fast WLS fibre coupled to a silicon photomultiplier. The readout electronics is based on the SPIROC/EASIROC ASIC. The prototype is under test and will be soon installed at the Mt Vesuvio in Naples.Detector technology and first results will be presented.

  16. Development and investigation of single-scan TV radiography for the acquisition of dynamic physiologic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baily, N. A.

    1974-01-01

    Research data obtained by the low dose electronic radiography system are reported. Data cover: (1) localization and tracking of Ta screws implanted in the inner wall of the right ventrical of the heart, (2) use of cross hairs to outline inner or outer heart wall contours, (3) quantitative measure of anatomical components which are stationary in size or change size dynamically, and (4) study of dynamic quantitative data from roentenologic or fluoroscopic procedures.

  17. Improvement of material decomposition and image quality in dual-energy radiography by reducing image noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Kim, Y.-s.; Choi, S.; Lee, H.; Choi, S.; Jo, B. D.; Jeon, P.-H.; Kim, H.; Kim, D.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.-J.

    2016-08-01

    Although digital radiography has been widely used for screening human anatomical structures in clinical situations, it has several limitations due to anatomical overlapping. To resolve this problem, dual-energy imaging techniques, which provide a method for decomposing overlying anatomical structures, have been suggested as alternative imaging techniques. Previous studies have reported several dual-energy techniques, each resulting in different image qualities. In this study, we compared three dual-energy techniques: simple log subtraction (SLS), simple smoothing of a high-energy image (SSH), and anti-correlated noise reduction (ACNR) with respect to material thickness quantification and image quality. To evaluate dual-energy radiography, we conducted Monte Carlo simulation and experimental phantom studies. The Geant 4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) v 6.0 and tungsten anode spectral model using interpolation polynomials (TASMIP) codes were used for simulation studies and digital radiography, and human chest phantoms were used for experimental studies. The results of the simulation study showed improved image contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and coefficient of variation (COV) values and bone thickness estimation accuracy by applying the ACNR and SSH methods. Furthermore, the chest phantom images showed better image quality with the SSH and ACNR methods compared to the SLS method. In particular, the bone texture characteristics were well-described by applying the SSH and ACNR methods. In conclusion, the SSH and ACNR methods improved the accuracy of material quantification and image quality in dual-energy radiography compared to SLS. Our results can contribute to better diagnostic capabilities of dual-energy images and accurate material quantification in various clinical situations.

  18. Dynamic radiography using a carbon-nanotube-based field-emission x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.; Zhang, J.; Lee, Y.Z.; Gao, B.; Dike, S.; Lin, W.; Lu, J.P.; Zhou, O.

    2004-10-01

    We report a dynamic radiography system with a carbon nanotube based field-emission microfocus x-ray source. The system can readily generate x-ray radiation with continuous variation of temporal resolution as short as nanoseconds. Its potential applications for dynamic x-ray imaging are demonstrated. The performance characteristics of this compact and versatile system are promising for noninvasive imaging in biomedical research and industrial inspection.

  19. Subtraction radiography for the diagnosis of bone lesions in dogs. Report for 1982-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Rethman, M.P.; Ruttiman, U.E.; O'Neal, R.B.; Webber, R.L.; Davis, A.A.

    1984-05-31

    Resolution of osseous wounds utilizing conventional radiographic techniques is dependent upon favorable angulation without superimposition of dense anatomical structures. A technique of computer subtraction utilizing sequential radiographs has been demonstrated to enhance visualization of such defects in dry skulls, but usefulness in live animals had heretofore not been demonstrated. This investigation demonstrated the usefulness of computer subtraction radiography in live animals, both error rate and diagnostic time being reduced significantly.

  20. An overexposure in industrial radiography using an /sup 192/Ir radionuclide

    SciTech Connect

    Jalil, A.; Molla, M.A.

    1989-07-01

    An industrial radiographer was accidentally exposed to a high dose of ionizing radiation from an /sup 192/Ir source during radiography of weldjoints in gas pipelines. Some symptoms of high radiation exposure occurred immediately after the incident. The clinical effect of skin erythema developed within 7 d, leading to progressive tissue deterioration. The dose to the body was estimated to be about 2-3 Gy, and the dose to the fingertips was approximately 24 Gy.

  1. Direct digital radiography versus conventional radiography – assessment of visibility of file length placed in the root canal: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Vaiyapuri; Lipee, Priyadarshini; Rao, Canagapalli Venkat Nakabushan; Lakshmikanthan, Lakshminarayanan

    2012-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To compare conventional and direct digital radiography (DDR) in working length measurement of the root canal and to assess the significance of the different enhancement modes provided by the software to visualize the file length. Materials and Methods: Access cavities were prepared in 30 extracted maxillary central incisors. Size 15 k-file was introduced into the canal till it was flush with the apical foramen. The working length was calculated as 0.5 mm less than the vernier caliper measured length of each file. The files were then sealed with resin at their respective lengths. Intraoral periapical radiographs and direct digital radiographs were taken. Vernier caliper was used to measure the file length in the periapical radiographs, and standard, positive conversion, and colorize modes were used with the CDR system. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to give an accurate analysis between the actual file length and the different groups. Results: There was no statistical significance between the different groups tested. The multiple regression analysis test showed that the positive and colorize modes more accurately corresponded to the actual file length. Conclusion: Both conventional radiography and DDR can be reliably used for working length determination. The positive and colorize modes enhancement features of DDR greatly improve the visual perception, leading to more accurate measurements. PMID:23066272

  2. Future Fixed Target Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Melnitchouk, Wolodymyr

    2009-01-01

    We review plans for future fixed target lepton- and hadron-scattering facilities, including the 12 GeV upgraded CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab, neutrino beam facilities at Fermilab, and the antiproton PANDA facility at FAIR. We also briefly review recent theoretical developments which will aid in the interpretation of the data expected from these facilities.

  3. Sports Facility Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Marcia L., Ed.; Stotlar, David K., Ed.

    The numbers of both sports facility management college courses and sport and exercise facilities are increasing, along with the need for an understanding of the trends and management concepts of these facilities. This book focuses exclusively on managing facilities where sporting events occur and includes examples in physical education, athletics,…

  4. Neutron radiography for the characterization of porous structure in degraded building stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, G.; Crupi, V.; Longo, F.; Majolino, D.; Mazzoleni, P.; Raneri, S.; Teixeira, J.; Venuti, V.

    2014-05-01

    As it is well known, the porous structure of stones can change due to different degradation processes that modify the characteristics of freshly quarried blocks. Their knowledge is fundamental for predicting the behavior of stones and the efficacy of conservative treatments. In this context, neutron radiography is a useful tool not only to visualize the structure of porous materials, but also to evaluate the degree of degradation and surface modifications resulting from weathering processes. Furthermore, since thermal neutrons suffer a strong attenuation by hydrogen, this technique is effective in order to investigate the amount of absorbed water in building materials. In the present work, we report a neutron radiography investigation of limestones cropping out in the South-Eastern Sicily and widely used as building stones in Baroque monuments of the Noto Valley. The analyzed samples have been submitted to cyclic salt crystallization that simulate degradation processes acting in exposed stones of buildings. The obtained results demonstrate the interest of neutron radiography to better understand deterioration processes in limestones and to acquire information useful for restoration projects.

  5. Food consumption and digestion time estimation of spotted scat, Scatophagus argus, using X-radiography technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, Marina; Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal; Das, Simon K.; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2014-09-03

    The present study was conducted to investigate the food consumption pattern and gastric emptying time using x-radiography technique in scats fish, Scatophagus argus feeding to satiation in laboratory conditions. Prior to feeding experiment, fish of various sizes were examined their stomach volume, using freshly prepared stomachs ligatured at the tips of the burret, where the maximum amount of distilled water collected in the stomach were measured (ml). Stomach volume is correlated with maximum food intake (S{sub max}) and it can estimate the maximum stomach distension by allometric model i.e volume=0.0000089W{sup 2.93}. Gastric emptying time was estimated using a qualitative X-radiography technique, where the fish of various sizes were fed to satiation at different time since feeding. All the experimental fish was feed into satiation using radio-opaque barium sulphate (BaSO{sub 4}) paste injected in the wet shrimp in proportion to the body weight. The BaSO{sub 4} was found suitable to track the movement of feed/prey in the stomach over time and gastric emptying time of scats fish can be estimated. The results of qualitative X-Radiography observation of gastric motility, showed the fish (200 gm) that fed to maximum satiation meal (circa 11 gm) completely emptied their stomach within 30 - 36 hrs. The results of the present study will provide the first baseline information on the stomach volume, gastric emptying of scats fish in captivity.

  6. State of the Art and Development Trends of the Digital Radiography Systems for Cargo Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udod, V.; Van, J.; Osipov, S.; Chakhlov, S.; Temnik, A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing requirements for technical parameters of inspection digital radiography systems are caused by increasing incidences of terrorism, drug trafficking and explosives via variety of transport. These requirements have determined research for new technical solutions that enable to ensure the safety of passengers and cargos in real-time. The main efforts in the analyzed method of testing are aimed at the creation of new and modernization of operated now systems of digital radiography as a whole and their main components and elements in particular. The number of these main components and elements includes sources of X-ray recording systems and transformation of radiometric information as well as algorithms and software that implements these algorithms for processing, visualization and results interpretation of inspection. Recent developments of X-ray units and betatrons used for inspection of small- and large-sized objects that are made from different materials are deserve special attention. The most effective X-ray detectors are a line and a radiometric detector matrix based on various scintillators. The most promising methods among the algorithms of material identification of testing objects are dual-energy methods. The article describes various models of digital radiography systems applied in Russia and abroad to inspection of baggage, containers, vehicles and large trucks.

  7. Devloping High Energy Radiography for HED Experiments on NIF and Omega-EP

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, B; Tommasini, R; Remington, B; Key, M; Town, R

    2008-02-14

    High energy radiography capabilities are essential for many future DNT/HED experiments on NIF. We have been developing bright, high-energy (15-100 keV), high resolution (< 20 {micro}m), 1-D and 2-D radiography solutions for DNT experiments on NIF. In this LDRD, we have made significant progress utilizing high-energy, high-intensity, short-pulse lasers to generate hard K-{alpha} photons. High energy K-{alpha} sources are created by hot electrons interacting in the target fluor material after irradiation by lasers with intensity I{sub L} > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. High resolution point projection 1-D and 2-D radiography have been achieved using {mu}-foil and {mu}-wire targets attached to low-Z substrate materials. The {mu}-wire size was 10 x 10 x 300 {micro}m on a 300 x 300 x 5 {micro}m CH substrate creating the point source size equivalent to these micro targets. This unique technique will utilize the NIF short pulse laser (ARC) as a backlighter suitable for the full range of DNT science experiments on NIF.

  8. A computer-assisted systematic quality monitoring method for cervical hip fracture radiography

    PubMed Central

    Laurin, Olof; Johnsson, Ragnar; Laurin, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background A thorough quality analysis of radiologic performance is cumbersome. Instead, the prevalence of missed cervical hip fractures might be used as a quality indicator. Purpose To validate a computer-based quality study of cervical hip fracture radiography. Material and Methods True and false negative and positive hip trauma radiography during 6 years was assessed manually. Patients with two or more radiologic hip examinations before surgery were selected by computer analysis of the databases. The first of two preoperative examinations might constitute a missed fracture. These cases were reviewed. Results Out of 1621 cervical hip fractures, manual perusal found 51 (3.1%) false negative radiographic diagnoses. Among approximately 14,000 radiographic hip examinations, there were 27 (0.2%) false positive diagnoses. Fifty-seven percent of false negative reports were occult fractures, the other diagnostic mistakes. There were no significant differences over the years. Diagnostic sensitivity was 96.9% and specificity 99.8%. Computer-assisted analysis with a time interval of at least 120 days between the first and the second radiographic examination discovered 39 of the 51 false negative reports. Conclusion Cervical hip trauma radiography has high sensitivity and specificity. With computer-assisted analysis, 76% of false negative reports were found. PMID:27994880

  9. Understanding the Challenges in the Transition from Film Radiography in the Nuclear Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Moran, Traci L.; Nove, Carol A.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2012-09-01

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) applications in the nuclear power industry using film radiography are shrinking due to the advent of modern digital imaging technologies and advances in alternative inspection methods that do not present an ionizing radiation hazard. Technologies that are used routinely in the medical industry for patient diagnosis are being adapted to industrial NDE applications including the detection and characterization of defects in welds. From the user perspective, non-film inspection techniques provide several advantages over film techniques. It is anticipated that the shift away from the application of film radiography in the nuclear power industry represents an irreversible trend. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has noted this trend in the U.S. nuclear power industry and will be working to ensure that the effectiveness and reliability of component inspections is not compromised by this transition. Currently, specific concerns are associated with 1) obtaining a fundamental understanding of how inspection effectiveness and reliability may be impacted by this transition and 2) ensuring training standards and qualifications remain compatible with modern industrial radiographic practice. This paper discusses recent trends in industrial radiography and assesses their advantages and disadvantages from the perspective of nuclear power plant component inspections.

  10. MO-G-18A-01: Radiation Dose Reducing Strategies in CT, Fluoroscopy and Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Mahesh, M; Gingold, E; Jones, A

    2014-06-15

    Advances in medical x-ray imaging have provided significant benefits to patient care. According to NCRP 160, there are more than 400 million x-ray procedures performed annually in the United States alone that contributes to nearly half of all the radiation exposure to the US population. Similar growth trends in medical x-ray imaging are observed worldwide. Apparent increase in number of medical x-ray imaging procedures, new protocols and the associated radiation dose and risk has drawn considerable attention. This has led to a number of technological innovations such as tube current modulation, iterative reconstruction algorithms, dose alerts, dose displays, flat panel digital detectors, high efficient digital detectors, storage phosphor radiography, variable filters, etc. that are enabling users to acquire medical x-ray images at a much lower radiation dose. Along with these, there are number of radiation dose optimization strategies that users can adapt to effectively lower radiation dose in medical x-ray procedures. The main objectives of this SAM course are to provide information and how to implement the various radiation dose optimization strategies in CT, Fluoroscopy and Radiography. Learning Objectives: To update impact of technological advances on dose optimization in medical imaging. To identify radiation optimization strategies in computed tomography. To describe strategies for configuring fluoroscopic equipment that yields optimal images at reasonable radiation dose. To assess ways to configure digital radiography systems and recommend ways to improve image quality at optimal dose.

  11. The MU-RAY project: Volcano radiography with cosmic-ray muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosi, G.; Ambrosino, F.; Battiston, R.; Bross, A.; Callier, S.; Cassese, F.; Castellini, G.; Ciaranfi, R.; Cozzolino, F.; D'Alessandro, R.; de La Taille, C.; Iacobucci, G.; Marotta, A.; Masone, V.; Martini, M.; Nishiyama, R.; Noli, P.; Orazi, M.; Parascandolo, L.; Parascandolo, P.; Passeggio, G.; Peluso, R.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Raux, L.; Rocco, R.; Rubinov, P.; Saracino, G.; Scarpato, G.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Strolin, P.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Tanaka, M.; Trattino, P.; Uchida, T.; Yokoyamao, I.

    2011-02-01

    Cosmic-ray muon radiography is a technique for imaging the variation of density inside the top few 100 m of a volcanic cone. With resolutions up to 10s of meters in optimal detection conditions, muon radiography can provide images of the top region of a volcano edifice with a resolution that is considerably better than that typically achieved with conventional methods. Such precise measurements are expected to provide us with information on anomalies in the rock density distribution, like those expected from dense lava conduits, low density magma supply paths or the compression with depth of the overlying soil. The MU-RAY project aims at the construction of muon telescopes and the development of new analysis tools for muon radiography. The telescopes are required to be able to work in harsh environment and to have low power consumption, good angular and time resolutions, large active area and modularity. The telescope consists of two X-Y planes of 2×2 square meters area made by plastic scintillator strips of triangular shape. Each strip is read by a fast WLS fiber coupled to a silicon photomultiplier. The readout electronics is based on the SPIROC chip.

  12. Archaeometric studies by neutron, x-ray radiography and microCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B.; Vinagre Filho, U. M.; Souza, M. I. S.; Lima, I.; Oliveira, D. F.; Lopes, R. T.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate manufacturing techniques used in prehistoric Brazilian pottery from Acre state and Araruama, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, using Neutron and X-Ray Radiography. For the neutrongraphy different fragments of pottery were submitted to a neutron flux of the order of 105n.cm-2.s-1 for 3 minutes at the Argonauta research reactor of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN)/CNEN. Digital processing techniques using imaging plate were applied to process the image of the selected sample. For the radiography the sample were exposed to an X-Rays in the Feinfocus Model FX100 and the image was obtained by Flat Panel GE IT Model DXR 250V at the Laboratório de Instrumentação Nuclear (LIN) - COPPE/UFRJ. The Neutrongraphy and radiography shows two different manufacturing details: palette and rollers and the microtomography shows cavities in the clay body and different temper applied in the pottery production. The preliminary results shows promising techniques applied for the pottery manufacturing information and as complement for better understanding the ceramics classification and precedence.

  13. Food consumption and digestion time estimation of spotted scat, Scatophagus argus, using X-radiography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Marina; Abidin, Diana Atiqah Zainal; Das, Simon K.; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the food consumption pattern and gastric emptying time using x-radiography technique in scats fish, Scatophagus argus feeding to satiation in laboratory conditions. Prior to feeding experiment, fish of various sizes were examined their stomach volume, using freshly prepared stomachs ligatured at the tips of the burret, where the maximum amount of distilled water collected in the stomach were measured (ml). Stomach volume is correlated with maximum food intake (Smax) and it can estimate the maximum stomach distension by allometric model i.e volume=0.0000089W2.93. Gastric emptying time was estimated using a qualitative X-radiography technique, where the fish of various sizes were fed to satiation at different time since feeding. All the experimental fish was feed into satiation using radio-opaque barium sulphate (BaSO4) paste injected in the wet shrimp in proportion to the body weight. The BaSO4 was found suitable to track the movement of feed/prey in the stomach over time and gastric emptying time of scats fish can be estimated. The results of qualitative X-Radiography observation of gastric motility, showed the fish (200 gm) that fed to maximum satiation meal (circa 11 gm) completely emptied their stomach within 30 - 36 hrs. The results of the present study will provide the first baseline information on the stomach volume, gastric emptying of scats fish in captivity.

  14. Digital Radiography for Determination of Primary Tooth Length: In Vivo and Ex Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Maria D.; Jeremias, Fabiano; Cordeiro, Rita C. L.; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Background. Methods for determining the root canal length of the primary tooth should yield accurate and reproducible results. In vitro studies show some limitations, which do not allow their findings to be directly transferred to a clinical situation. Aim. To compare the accuracy of radiographic tooth length obtained from in vivo digital radiograph with that obtained from ex vivo digital radiograph. Method. Direct digital radiographs of 20 upper primary incisors were performed in teeth (2/3 radicular resorption) that were radiographed by an intraoral sensor, according to the long-cone technique. Teeth were extracted, measured, and mounted in a resin block, and then radiographic template was used to standardise the sensor-target distance (30 cm). The apparent tooth length (APTL) was obtained from the computer screen by means of an electronic ruler accompanying the digital radiography software (CDR 2.0), whereas the actual tooth length (ACTL) was obtained by means of a digital calliper following extraction. Data were compared to the ACTL by variance analysis and Pearson's correlation test. Results. The values for APTL obtained from in vivo radiography were slightly underestimated, whereas those values obtained from ex vivo were slightly overestimated. No significance was observed (P ≤ 0.48) between APTL and ACTL. Conclusion. The length of primary teeth estimated by in vivo and ex vivo comparisons using digital radiography was found to be similar to the actual tooth length. PMID:25802894

  15. Neonatal magnification radiography using standard-focus x-ray tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Nikesch, W.; Kuntzler, C.M.; Cushing, F.R.

    1983-10-01

    Radiographic examination of the chests of premature newborn infants is complicated by the small size and poor object contrast of the structures to be evaluated. Magnification radiography can improve image quality significantly in this situation. Unfortunately, high-quality magnification radiography requires dedicated microfocus equipment that is not available in most neonatal intensive care units. The use of standard-focus x-ray tubes (up to 1 mm focal spot size) for moderate magnification radiography (1.5 times) by using the anode side of the x-ray field of the standard mobile x-ray unit is proposed. In addition to the cost advantage of using existing standard mobile x-ray equipment, the high tube current allows for short exposure times and long target-film distances. This reduces most motion unsharpness and allows for a large air gap that results in improved image contrast. Although focal spot size at the anode side of the field is smaller in only one dimension, the magnification radiographs are superior to those obtained using the central part of the x-ray beam and superior to standard contact radiographs using the same equipment. Improvement in image quality is due primarily to decreased noise and improved contrast in the magnified image.

  16. Reliable Facility Location Problem with Facility Protection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Luohao; Zhu, Cheng; Lin, Zaili; Shi, Jianmai; Zhang, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a reliable facility location problem with facility protection that aims to hedge against random facility disruptions by both strategically protecting some facilities and using backup facilities for the demands. An Integer Programming model is proposed for this problem, in which the failure probabilities of facilities are site-specific. A solution approach combining Lagrangian Relaxation and local search is proposed and is demonstrated to be both effective and efficient based on computational experiments on random numerical examples with 49, 88, 150 and 263 nodes in the network. A real case study for a 100-city network in Hunan province, China, is presented, based on which the properties of the model are discussed and some managerial insights are analyzed.

  17. Reliable Facility Location Problem with Facility Protection

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Luohao; Zhu, Cheng; Lin, Zaili; Shi, Jianmai; Zhang, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies a reliable facility location problem with facility protection that aims to hedge against random facility disruptions by both strategically protecting some facilities and using backup facilities for the demands. An Integer Programming model is proposed for this problem, in which the failure probabilities of facilities are site-specific. A solution approach combining Lagrangian Relaxation and local search is proposed and is demonstrated to be both effective and efficient based on computational experiments on random numerical examples with 49, 88, 150 and 263 nodes in the network. A real case study for a 100-city network in Hunan province, China, is presented, based on which the properties of the model are discussed and some managerial insights are analyzed. PMID:27583542

  18. Comparison of scatter rejection and low-contrast performance of scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR), slot-scan digital radiography, and full-field digital radiography systems for chest phantom imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xinming; Shaw, Chris C.; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang Tianpeng

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate and compare the scatter rejection properties and low-contrast performance of the scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR) technique to the slot-scan and conventional full-field digital radiography techniques for chest imaging. Methods: A prototype SEDR system was designed and constructed with an a-Se flat-panel (FP) detector to improve image quality in heavily attenuating regions of an anthropomorphic chest phantom. Slot-scanning geometry was used to reject scattered radiation without attenuating primary x rays. The readout scheme of the FP was modified to erase accumulated scatter signals prior to image readout. A 24-segment beam width modulator was developed to regulate x-ray exposures regionally and compensate for the low x-ray flux in heavily attenuating regions. To measure the scatter-to-primary ratios (SPRs), a 2 mm thick lead plate with a 2-D array of aperture holes was used to measure the primary signals, which were then subtracted from those obtained without the lead plate to determine scatter components. A 2-D array of aluminum beads (3 mm in diameter) was used as the low-contrast objects to measure the contrast ratios (CRs) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for evaluating the low-contrast performance in chest phantom images. A set of two images acquired with the same techniques were subtracted from each other to measure the noise levels. SPRs, CRs, and CNRs of the SEDR images were measured in four anatomical regions of chest phantom images and compared to those of slot-scan images and full-field images acquired with and without antiscatter grid. Results: The percentage reduction of SPR (percentage of SPRs reduced with scatter removal/rejection methods relative to that for nongrid full-field imaging) averaged over four anatomical regions was measured to be 80%, 83%, and 71% for SEDR, slot-scan, and full-field with grid, respectively. The average CR over four regions was found to improve over that for nongrid full

  19. Intercomparison of gamma scattering, gammatography and radiography techniques for mild steel nonuniform corrosion detection

    SciTech Connect

    Priyada, P.; Margret, M.; Ramar, R. ); Menaka, M. ); Thilagam, L. ); Venkataraman, B.; Quality Assurance Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102, Tamil Nadu ); Baldev Raj )

    2011-03-01

    This paper focuses on the mild steel (MS) corrosion detection and intercomparison of results obtained by gamma scattering, gammatography, and radiography techniques. The gamma scattering non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method utilizes scattered gamma radiation for the detection of corrosion, and the scattering experimental setup is an indigenously designed automated personal computer (PC) controlled scanning system consisting of computerized numerical control (CNC) controlled six-axis source detector system and four-axis job positioning system. The system has been successfully used to quantify the magnitude of corrosion and the thickness profile of a MS plate with nonuniform corrosion, and the results are correlated with those obtained from the conventional gammatography and radiography imaging measurements. A simple and straightforward reconstruction algorithm to reconstruct the densities of the objects under investigation and an unambiguous interpretation of the signal as a function of material density at any point of the thick object being inspected is described. In this simple and straightforward method the density of the target need not be known and only the knowledge of the target material's mass attenuation coefficients (composition) for the incident and scattered energies is enough to reconstruct the density of the each voxel of the specimen being studied. The Monte Carlo (MC) numerical simulation of the phenomena is done using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the quantitative estimates of the values of signal-to-noise ratio for different percentages of MS corrosion derived from these simulations are presented and the spectra are compared with the experimental data. The gammatography experiments are carried out using the same PC controlled scanning system in a narrow beam, good geometry setup, and the thickness loss is estimated from the measured transmitted intensity. Radiography of the MS plates is carried out using 160 kV x

  20. Intercomparison of gamma scattering, gammatography, and radiography techniques for mild steel nonuniform corrosion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyada, P.; Margret, M.; Ramar, R.; Shivaramu, Menaka, M.; Thilagam, L.; Venkataraman, B.; Raj, Baldev

    2011-03-01

    This paper focuses on the mild steel (MS) corrosion detection and intercomparison of results obtained by gamma scattering, gammatography, and radiography techniques. The gamma scattering non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method utilizes scattered gamma radiation for the detection of corrosion, and the scattering experimental setup is an indigenously designed automated personal computer (PC) controlled scanning system consisting of computerized numerical control (CNC) controlled six-axis source detector system and four-axis job positioning system. The system has been successfully used to quantify the magnitude of corrosion and the thickness profile of a MS plate with nonuniform corrosion, and the results are correlated with those obtained from the conventional gammatography and radiography imaging measurements. A simple and straightforward reconstruction algorithm to reconstruct the densities of the objects under investigation and an unambiguous interpretation of the signal as a function of material density at any point of the thick object being inspected is described. In this simple and straightforward method the density of the target need not be known and only the knowledge of the target material's mass attenuation coefficients (composition) for the incident and scattered energies is enough to reconstruct the density of the each voxel of the specimen being studied. The Monte Carlo (MC) numerical simulation of the phenomena is done using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) and the quantitative estimates of the values of signal-to-noise ratio for different percentages of MS corrosion derived from these simulations are presented and the spectra are compared with the experimental data. The gammatography experiments are carried out using the same PC controlled scanning system in a narrow beam, good geometry setup, and the thickness loss is estimated from the measured transmitted intensity. Radiography of the MS plates is carried out using 160 kV x

  1. A maximum likelihood method for high resolution proton radiography/proton CT.

    PubMed

    Collins-Fekete, Charles-Antoine; Brousmiche, Sébastien; Portillo, Stephen K N; Beaulieu, Luc; Seco, Joao

    2016-12-07

    Multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) is the largest contributor to blurring in proton imaging. In this work, we developed a maximum likelihood least squares estimator that improves proton radiography's spatial resolution. The water equivalent thickness (WET) through projections defined from the source to the detector pixels were estimated such that they maximizes the likelihood of the energy loss of every proton crossing the volume. The length spent in each projection was calculated through the optimized cubic spline path estimate. The proton radiographies were produced using Geant4 simulations. Three phantoms were studied here: a slanted cube in a tank of water to measure 2D spatial resolution, a voxelized head phantom for clinical performance evaluation as well as a parametric Catphan phantom (CTP528) for 3D spatial resolution. Two proton beam configurations were used: a parallel and a conical beam. Proton beams of 200 and 330 MeV were simulated to acquire the radiography. Spatial resolution is increased from 2.44 lp cm(-1) to 4.53 lp cm(-1) in the 200 MeV beam and from 3.49 lp cm(-1) to 5.76 lp cm(-1) in the 330 MeV beam. Beam configurations do not affect the reconstructed spatial resolution as investigated between a radiography acquired with the parallel (3.49 lp cm(-1) to 5.76 lp cm(-1)) or conical beam (from 3.49 lp cm(-1) to 5.56 lp cm(-1)). The improved images were then used as input in a photon tomography algorithm. The proton CT reconstruction of the Catphan phantom shows high spatial resolution (from 2.79 to 5.55 lp cm(-1) for the parallel beam and from 3.03 to 5.15 lp cm(-1) for the conical beam) and the reconstruction of the head phantom, although qualitative, shows high contrast in the gradient region. The proposed formulation of the optimization demonstrates serious potential to increase the spatial resolution (up by 65[Formula: see text]) in proton radiography and greatly accelerate proton computed tomography reconstruction.

  2. Research and test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A description is given of each of the following Langley research and test facilities: 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel, 7-by 10-Foot High Speed Tunnel, 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel, 13-Inch Magnetic Suspension & Balance System, 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel, 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel, 16-by 24-Inch Water Tunnel, 20-Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel, 30-by 60-Foot Wind Tunnel, Advanced Civil Transport Simulator (ACTS), Advanced Technology Research Laboratory, Aerospace Controls Research Laboratory (ACRL), Aerothermal Loads Complex, Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF), Avionics Integration Research Laboratory, Basic Aerodynamics Research Tunnel (BART), Compact Range Test Facility, Differential Maneuvering Simulator (DMS), Enhanced/Synthetic Vision & Spatial Displays Laboratory, Experimental Test Range (ETR) Flight Research Facility, General Aviation Simulator (GAS), High Intensity Radiated Fields Facility, Human Engineering Methods Laboratory, Hypersonic Facilities Complex, Impact Dynamics Research Facility, Jet Noise Laboratory & Anechoic Jet Facility, Light Alloy Laboratory, Low Frequency Antenna Test Facility, Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel, Mechanics of Metals Laboratory, National Transonic Facility (NTF), NDE Research Laboratory, Polymers & Composites Laboratory, Pyrotechnic Test Facility, Quiet Flow Facility, Robotics Facilities, Scientific Visualization System, Scramjet Test Complex, Space Materials Research Laboratory, Space Simulation & Environmental Test Complex, Structural Dynamics Research Laboratory, Structural Dynamics Test Beds, Structures & Materials Research Laboratory, Supersonic Low Disturbance Pilot Tunnel, Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA), Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT), Transport Systems Research Vehicle, Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, and the Visual Motion Simulator (VMS).

  3. Diagnostic accuracy and added value of dual-energy subtraction radiography compared to standard conventional radiography using computed tomography as standard of reference

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Katharina; Baessler, Marco; Baumueller, Stephan; Frauenfelder, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively evaluate diagnostic performance of dual-energy subtraction radiography (DESR) for interpretation of chest radiographs compared to conventional radiography (CR) using computed tomography (CT) as standard of reference. Material and methods A total of 199 patients (75 female, median age 67) were included in this institutional review board (IRB)-approved clinical trial. All patients were scanned in posteroanterior and lateral direction with dual-shot DE-technique. Chest CT was performed within ±72 hours. The system provides three types of images: bone weighted-image, soft tissue weighted-image, herein termed as DESR-images, and a standard image, termed CR-image (marked as CR-image). Images were evaluated by two radiologists for presence of inserted life support lines, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, infectious consolidation, interstitial lung changes, tumor, skeletal alterations, soft tissue alterations, aortic or tracheal calcification and pleural thickening. Inter-observer agreement between readers and diagnostic performance were calculated. McNemar’s test was used to test for significant differences. Results Mean inter-observer agreement throughout the investigated parameters was higher in DESR images compared to CR-images (kDESR = 0.935 vs. kCR = 0.858). DESR images provided significantly increased sensitivity compared to CR-images for the detection of infectious consolidations (42% vs. 62%), tumor (46% vs. 57%), interstitial lung changes (69% vs. 87%) and aortic or tracheal calcification (25 vs. 73%) (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in sensitivity for the detection of inserted life support lines, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, skeletal alterations, soft tissue alterations or pleural thickening (p>0.05). Conclusion DESR increases significantly the sensibility without affecting the specificity evaluating chest radiographs, with emphasis on the detection of interstitial lung diseases. PMID:28301584

  4. Materials analysis opportunities on the new neutron imaging facility IMAT@ISIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minniti, T.; Kockelmann, W.; Burca, G.; Kelleher, J. F.; Kabra, S.; Zhang, S. Y.; Pooley, D. E.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Mutamba, Q.; Sykora, J.; Rhodes, N. J.; Pouzols, F. M.; Nightingale, J. B.; Aliotta, F.; Bonaccorsi, L. M.; Ponterio, R.; Salvato, G.; Trusso, S.; Vasi, C.; Tremsin, A. S.; Gorini, G.

    2016-03-01

    A new neutron imaging and diffraction facility, called IMAT, is currently being commissioned at the ISIS pulsed neutron spallation source. IMAT will take advantage of neutron time-of-flight measurement techniques for flexible neutron energy selection and effective energy discrimination. The instrument will be completed and commissioned within the next few months, after neutrons have been recently delivered to the sample area. From 2016 IMAT will enable white-beam neutron radiography and tomography as well as energy-dependent neutron imaging. The facility will offer a spatial resolution down to 50 microns for a field of view of up to 400 cm2. IMAT will be operated as a user facility for material science applications and will be open for developments of time-of-flight imaging methods.

  5. Evaluation of Conventional Radiography and an Electronic Apex Locator in Determining the Working Length in C-shaped Canals

    PubMed Central

    Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Beyrami, Masoud; Forghani, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the accuracy of working length determination using the apex locator versus conventional radiography in C-shaped canals. Methods and Materials: After confirming the actual C-shaped anatomy using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), 22 extracted C-shaped mandibular second molars were selected and decoronated at the cemento-enamel junction. The actual working length of these canals were determined by inserting a #15 K-file until the tip could be seen through the apical foramen and the working length was established by subtracting 0.5 mm from this length. The working length was also determined using conventional analog radiography and electronic apex locator (EAL) that were both compared with the actual working length. The data was statistically analyzed using paired t-test and marginal homogeneity test. Results: There was no significant differences between the working length obtained with apex locator and that achieved through conventional radiography in terms of measuring the mesiolingual and distal canals (P>0.05); while, significant differences were observed in measurements of the mesiobuccal canals (P=0.036). Within ±0.5 mm of tolerance margin there was no significant difference between EAL and conventional radiography. Conclusion: The apex locator was more accurate in determination of the working length of C-shaped canals compared with the conventional radiography. PMID:28179926

  6. Spacelab Data Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The capabilities of the Spacelab Data Processing Facility (SPDPF) are highlighted. The capturing, quality monitoring, processing, accounting, and forwarding of vital Spacelab data to various user facilities around the world are described.

  7. Facilities for US Radioastronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaddeus, Patrick

    1982-01-01

    Discusses major developments in radioastronomy since 1945. Topics include proposed facilities, very-long-baseline interferometric array, millimeter-wave telescope, submillimeter-wave telescope, and funding for radioastronomy facilities and projects. (JN)

  8. FDA Certified Mammography Facilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Program Consumer Information (MQSA) Search for a Certified Facility Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Email Print This list of FDA Certified Mammography Facilities is updated weekly. If you click on Search ...

  9. Facility safety study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The safety of NASA's in house microelectronics facility is addressed. Industrial health standards, facility emission control requirements, operation and safety checklists, and the disposal of epitaxial vent gas are considered.

  10. Note: A monoenergetic proton backlighter for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rygg, J. R.; LePape, S.; Bachmann, B.; Khan, S. F.; Sayre, D. B.; Zylstra, A. B.; Séguin, F. H.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Lahmann, B. J.; Petrasso, R. D.; Sio, H. W.; Craxton, R. S.; Garcia, E. M.; Kong, Y. Z.; McKenty, P. W.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M. J.

    2015-11-15

    A monoenergetic, isotropic proton source suitable for proton radiography applications has been demonstrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A deuterium and helium-3 gas-filled glass capsule was imploded with 39 kJ of laser energy from 24 of NIF’s 192 beams. Spectral, spatial, and temporal measurements of the 15-MeV proton product of the {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He nuclear reaction reveal a bright (10{sup 10} protons/sphere), monoenergetic (ΔE/E = 4%) spectrum with a compact size (80 μm) and isotropic emission (∼13% proton fluence variation and <0.4% mean energy variation). Simultaneous measurements of products produced by the D(d,p)T and D(d,n){sup 3}He reactions also show 2 × 10{sup 10} isotropically distributed 3-MeV protons.

  11. Note: A monoenergetic proton backlighter for the National Ignition Facility.

    PubMed

    Rygg, J R; Zylstra, A B; Séguin, F H; LePape, S; Bachmann, B; Craxton, R S; Garcia, E M; Kong, Y Z; Gatu-Johnson, M; Khan, S F; Lahmann, B J; McKenty, P W; Petrasso, R D; Rinderknecht, H G; Rosenberg, M J; Sayre, D B; Sio, H W

    2015-11-01

    A monoenergetic, isotropic proton source suitable for proton radiography applications has been demonstrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). A deuterium and helium-3 gas-filled glass capsule was imploded with 39 kJ of laser energy from 24 of NIF's 192 beams. Spectral, spatial, and temporal measurements of the 15-MeV proton product of the (3)He(d,p)(4)He nuclear reaction reveal a bright (10(10) protons/sphere), monoenergetic (ΔE/E = 4%) spectrum with a compact size (80 μm) and isotropic emission (∼13% proton fluence variation and <0.4% mean energy variation). Simultaneous measurements of products produced by the D(d,p)T and D(d,n)(3)He reactions also show 2 × 10(10) isotropically distributed 3-MeV protons.

  12. Experimental investigation of high mach number 3D hydrodynamic jets at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, B E; Weber, S; Glendinning, S; Lanier, N; Woods, D; Bono, M; Dixit, S; Haynam, C; Holder, J; Kalantar, D; MacGowan, B; Nikitin, A; Rekow, V; Van Wonterghem, B; Moses, E; Stry, P; Wilde, B; Hsing, W; Robey, H

    2004-09-24

    The first hydrodynamics experiments were performed on the National Ignition Facility. A supersonic jet was formed via the interaction of a laser driven shock ({approx}40 Mbars) with 2D and 3D density perturbations. The temporal evolution of the jet's spatial scales and ejected mass were measured with point projection x-ray radiography. Measurements of the large-scale features and mass are in good agreement with 2D and 3D numerical simulations. These experiments are the first quantitative measurements of the evolution of 3D supersonic jets and provide insight into their 3D behavior.

  13. Facilities maintenance handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This handbook is a guide for facilities maintenance managers. Its objective is to set minimum facilities maintenance standards. It also provides recommendations on how to meet the standards to ensure that NASA maintains its facilities in a manner that protects and preserves its investment in the facilities in a cost-effective manner while safely and efficiently performing its mission. This handbook implements NMI 8831.1, which states NASA facilities maintenance policy and assigns organizational responsibilities for the management of facilities maintenance activities on all properties under NASA jurisdiction. It is a reference for facilities maintenance managers, not a step-by-step procedural manual. Because of the differences in NASA Field Installation organizations, this handbook does not assume or recommend a typical facilities maintenance organization. Instead, it uses a systems approach to describe the functions that should be included in any facilities maintenance management system, regardless of its organizational structure. For documents referenced in the handbook, the most recent version of the documents is applicable. This handbook is divided into three parts: Part 1 specifies common definitions and facilities maintenance requirements and amplifies the policy requirements contained in NMI 8831. 1; Part 2 provides guidance on how to meet the requirements of Part 1, containing recommendations only; Part 3 contains general facilities maintenance information. One objective of this handbook is to fix commonality of facilities maintenance definitions among the Centers. This will permit the application of uniform measures of facilities conditions, of the relationship between current replacement value and maintenance resources required, and of the backlog of deferred facilities maintenance. The utilization of facilities maintenance system functions will allow the Centers to quantitatively define maintenance objectives in common terms, prepare work plans, and

  14. Aeronautical facilities assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penaranda, F. E. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the free world's aeronautical facilities was undertaken and an evaluation made on where the relative strengths and weaknesses exist. Special emphasis is given to NASA's own capabilities and needs. The types of facilities surveyed are: Wind Tunnels; Airbreathing Propulsion Facilities; and Flight Simulators

  15. Facilities Engineering in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagluiso, M. A.

    1970-01-01

    An overview of NASA facilities is given outlining some of the more interesting and unique aspects of engineering and facilities associated with the space program. Outlined are some of the policies under which the Office of Facilities conducts its business. Included are environmental quality control measures.

  16. Considerations on Facilities Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baule, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Most facilities renovation projects occur because someone at the executive or board level has lobbied successfully for them. Often in public schools, the voters have agreed to the project as well via a building referendum. Therefore, facilities projects are highly visible to the community. Unlike many other issues in schools, facilities projects…

  17. Indoor Athletic Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, E. Scott

    2000-01-01

    Examines the concept of shared-use facilities to help financially support and meet the demand for athletic facilities. Shared-use considerations are explored including cost sharing of ongoing operations, aesthetics, locker rooms, support facilities, parking and site access, and building access and security. (GR)

  18. Imaging of plantar fascia disorders: findings on plain radiography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Draghi, Ferdinando; Gitto, Salvatore; Bortolotto, Chandra; Draghi, Anna Guja; Ori Belometti, Gioia

    2017-02-01

    Plantar fascia (PF) disorders commonly cause heel pain and disability in the general population. Imaging is often required to confirm diagnosis. This review article aims to provide simple and systematic guidelines for imaging assessment of PF disease, focussing on key findings detectable on plain radiography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sonographic characteristics of plantar fasciitis include PF thickening, loss of fibrillar structure, perifascial collections, calcifications and hyperaemia on Doppler imaging. Thickening and signal changes in the PF as well as oedema of adjacent soft tissues and bone marrow can be assessed on MRI. Radiographic findings of plantar fasciitis include PF thickening, cortical irregularities and abnormalities in the fat pad located deep below the PF. Plantar fibromatosis appears as well-demarcated, nodular thickenings that are iso-hypoechoic on ultrasound and show low-signal intensity on MRI. PF tears present with partial or complete fibre interruption on both ultrasound and MRI. Imaging description of further PF disorders, including xanthoma, diabetic fascial disease, foreign-body reactions and plantar infections, is detailed in the main text. Ultrasound and MRI should be considered as first- and second-line modalities for assessment of PF disorders, respectively. Indirect findings of PF disease can be ruled out on plain radiography. Teaching Points • PF disorders commonly cause heel pain and disability in the general population.• Imaging is often required to confirm diagnosis or reveal concomitant injuries.• Ultrasound and MRI respectively represent the first- and second-line modalities for diagnosis.• Indirect findings of PF disease can be ruled out on plain radiography.

  19. Trace fossils revealed through x-radiography in facies analysis of Smackover Formation, southwest Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, R.A.; King, D.T. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The use of x-radiography has been applied to slabbed cores of Jurassic Smackover limestones from southwestern Alabama to enhance the complete petrologic description of the rocks. Through x-radiography, trace fossils have been revealed in what would otherwise appear to be homogeneous rock. In these biogenic structures, organic material, partly fecal in origin, is concentrated as infill packing in actively filled burrows. A microreducing environment within the burrow results in the mineralization by finely disseminated FeS/sub 2/. The density difference between FeS/sub 2/, which has a high absorption coefficient, and the surrounding calcium carbonate highlights the burrows in the x-radiographs. This characteristic burrow mineralization is shown well in the Smackover where a Zoophycus-Thalassinoides trace-fossil assemblage has been identified. Zoophycus, a feeding structure, is characterized by concave-upward traces with whorled peaks, and is best seen in slabs cut perpendicular to bedding. Thalassinoides is a dwelling structure characterized by a boxwork burrow system and is best seen in cores cut parallel to bedding. This assemblage is restricted to facies that is laterally persistent throughout the Smackover in most of Escambia County, Alabama. This trace-fossil assemblage is found in an oolitic pelletal packstone. This unit is overlain by an oolitic grainstone and is stratigraphically above a sparsely fossiliferous, laminated wackestone and packstone. Trace fossils in this horizon are abundant, but the traces are not found in stratigraphically adjacent lithofacies. Detecting these otherwise unseen trace fossils by x-radiography assisted the paleoenvironmental interpretation of this depositional facies as a low-energy subwave-base carbonate-shelf deposit.

  20. FINAL SCIENTIFIC REPORT - PROTON RADIOGRAPHY: CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS AND DETECTOR DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Longo, Michael J.; Gustafson, H. Richard.; Rajaram, Durga; Nigmanov, Turgun

    2007-05-11

    Proton radiography offers significant advantages over conventional X-ray radiography, including the capability of looking into thick, dense materials, better contrast for a wide range of materials, sensitivity to different materials of similar density, and better resolution because of the ability to focus beams. In order to achieve this capability it is crucial to understand the background due to neutrons and photons and to develop techniques to reduce it to tolerable levels. The physics goal of this project is to measure forward production of neutrons and photons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. This work is being carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab Experiment 907 (MIPP) collaboration including physicists from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Our group is responsible for the E907 forward neu-tron/photon calorimeters. These are the only detectors in the experiment that provide informa-tion on neutrons and photons. We are taking a leading role in obtaining and analyzing the for-ward production data and in developing an optimal detector for proton radiography. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grant, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. E-907 officially started physics running at Fermilab in January 2005, and data taking continued through February 2006. Data were taken on a range of targets, from liquid hydrogen to uranium, at beam energies from 5 GeV/c to 120 GeV/c. The analysis of the data is challenging because data from many different detector systems must be understood and merged and over 31 million events were accumulated. Our recent efforts have been devoted to the calibration of the neutron and photon detectors, to track and shower reconstruction, identification of forward-going neutrons, and simulation of the calorimeters in a Monte Carlo. Reconstruction of the data with improved tracking is underway.

  1. WE-EF-303-08: Proton Radiography Using Pencil Beam Scanning and Novel Micromegas Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dolney, D; Lustig, R; Teo, B; Maughan, R; Solberg, T; Mayers, G; Newcomer, M; Bollinger, D; Desai, N; Hollebeek, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: While the energy of therapeutic proton beams can be adjusted to penetrate to any given depth in water, range uncertainties arise in patients due in part to imprecise knowledge of the stopping power of protons in human tissues. Proton radiography is one approach to reduce the beam range uncertainty, thereby allowing for a reduction in treatment margins and dose escalation. Methods: The authors have adapted a novel detector technology based on Micromesh Gaseous Structure (“Micromegas”) for proton therapy beams and have demonstrated fine spatial and time resolution of magnetically scanned proton pencil beams, as well as wide dynamic range for dosimetry. In this work, proton radiographs were obtained using Micromegas 2D planes positioned downstream of solid water assemblies. The position-sensitive monitor chambers in the IBA proton delivery nozzle provide the beam entrance position. Results: Radiography with Micromegas detectors and actively scanned beams provide spatial resolution of up to 300 µm and water-equivalent thickness (WET) resolution as good as 0.02% (60 µm out of 31 cm total thickness), with the dose delivered to the patient kept below 2 cGy. The spatial resolution as a function of sample rate and number of delivered protons is found to be near the theoretical Cramer-Rao lower bound. Using the CR bound, we argue that the imaging dose could be further lowered to 1 mGy, while still achieving sub-mm spatial resolution, by relatively simple instrumentation upgrades and beam delivery modifications. Conclusion: For proton radiography, high spatial and WET resolution can be achieved, with minimal additional dose to patient, by using magnetically scanned proton pencil beams and Micromegas detectors.

  2. An adapted modulation transfer function for x-ray backscatter radiography by selective detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, Nissia; Dugan, Edward T.; Jacobs, Alan M.; Shedlock, Daniel

    2007-09-01

    The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) is a quantitative function based on frequency resolution that characterizes imaging system performance. In this study, a new MTF methodology is investigated for application to Radiography by Selective Detection (RSD), an enhanced single-side x-ray Compton backscatter imaging (CBI) technique which detects selected scatter components. The RSD imaging modality is a unique type of real-time radiography that uses a set of fin and sleeve collimators to preferentially select different components of the x-ray backscattered field. Radiography by selective detection has performed successfully in different non-destructive evaluation (NDE) applications. A customized RSD imaging system was built at the University of Florida for inspection of the space shuttle external tank spray-on foam insulation (SOFI). The x-ray backscatter RSD imaging system has been successfully used for crack and corrosion detection in a variety of materials. The conventional transmission x-ray image quality characterization tools do not apply for RSD because of the different physical process involved. Thus, the main objective of this project is to provide an adapted tool for dynamic evaluation of RSD system image quality. For this purpose, an analytical model of the RSD imaging system response is developed and supported. Two approaches are taken for the MTF calculations: one using the Fourier Transform of a line spread function and the other one using a sine function pattern. Calibration and test targets are then designed according to this proposed model. A customized Matlab code using image contrast and digital curve recognition is developed to support the experimental data and provide the Modulation Transfer Functions for RSD.

  3. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of nasal bone fractures: a comparison with conventional radiography and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Sook; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Woo, Chang-Ki; Kim, Hak Jin; Sol, Yu Li; Song, Jong Woon; Cho, Kyu-Sup

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic efficacy of ultrasonography (US) with radiography and multi-detector computed tomography (CT) for the detection of nasal bone fractures. Forty-one patients with a nasal bone fracture who underwent prospective US examinations were included. Plain radiographs and CT images were obtained on the day of trauma. For US examinations, radiologist used a linear array transducer (L17-5 MHz) in 24 patients and hockey-stick probe (L15-7 MHz) in 17. The bony component of the nose was divided into three parts (right and left lateral nasal walls, and midline of nasal bone). Fracture detection by three modalities was subjected to analysis. Furthermore, findings made by each modality were compared with intraoperative findings. Nasal bone fractures were located in the right lateral wall (n = 28), midline of nasal bone (n = 31), or left lateral wall (n = 31). For right and left lateral nasal walls, CT had greater sensitivity and specificity than US or radiography, and better agreed with intraoperative findings. However, for midline fractures of nasal bone, US had higher specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value than CT. Although two US evaluations showed good agreements at all three sites, US findings obtained by the hockey-stick probe showed closer agreement with intraoperative findings for both lateral nasal wall and midline of nasal bone. Although CT showed higher sensitivity and specificity than US or radiography, US found to be helpful for evaluating the midline of nasal bone. Furthermore, for US examinations of the nasal bone, a smaller probe and higher frequency may be required.

  4. Utility of a Newly Designed Film Holder for Premolar Bitewing Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Safi, Yaser; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad; Vasegh, Zahra; Valizadeh, Solmaz; Aghdasi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sarani, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bitewing radiography is a valuable technique for assessment of proximal caries, alveolar crest and periodontal status. Technical errors during radiography result in erroneous radiographic interpretation, misdiagnosis, possible mistreatment or unnecessary exposure of patient for taking a repeat radiograph. Aim In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a film holder modified from the conventional one and compared it with that of conventional film holder. Materials and Methods Our study population comprised of 70 patients who were referred to the Radiology Department for bilateral premolar bitewing radiographs as requested by their attending clinician. Bitewing radiographs in each patient were taken using the newly designed holder in one side and the conventional holder in the other side. The acceptability of the two holders from the perspectives of the technician and patients was determined using a 0-20 point scale. The frequency of overlap and film positioning errors was calculated for each method. Results The conventional holder had greater acceptability among patients compared to the newly designed holder (mean score of 16.59 versus 13.37). From the technicians’ point of view, the newly designed holder was superior to the conventional holder (mean score of 17.33 versus 16.44). The frequency of overlap was lower using the newly designed holder (p<0.001) and it allowed more accurate film positioning (p=0.005). Conclusion The newly designed holder may facilitate the process of radiography for technicians and may be associated with less frequency of radiographic errors compared to the conventional holder. PMID:26675339

  5. Combining Radiography and Passive Measurements for Radiological Threat Localization in Cargo

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Erin A.; White, Timothy A.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Robinson, Sean M.; Wittman, Richard A.

    2015-10-01

    Detecting shielded special nuclear material (SNM) in a cargo container is a difficult problem, since shielding reduces the amount of radiation escaping the container. Radiography provides information that is complementary to that provided by passive gamma-ray detection systems: while not directly sensitive to radiological materials, radiography can reveal highly shielded regions that may mask a passive radiological signal. Combining these measurements has the potential to improve SNM detection, either through improved sensitivity or by providing a solution to the inverse problem to estimate source properties (strength and location). We present a data-fusion method that uses a radiograph to provide an estimate of the radiation-transport environment for gamma rays from potential sources. This approach makes quantitative use of radiographic images without relying on image interpretation, and results in a probabilistic description of likely source locations and strengths. We present results for this method for a modeled test case of a cargo container passing through a plastic-scintillator-based radiation portal monitor and a transmission-radiography system. We find that a radiograph-based inversion scheme allows for localization of a low-noise source placed randomly within the test container to within 40 cm, compared to 70 cm for triangulation alone, while strength estimation accuracy is improved by a factor of six. Improvements are seen in regions of both high and low shielding, but are most pronounced in highly shielded regions. The approach proposed here combines transmission and emission data in a manner that has not been explored in the cargo-screening literature, advancing the ability to accurately describe a hidden source based on currently-available instrumentation.

  6. Observations of breakup processes of liquid jets using real-time X-ray radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Char, J. M.; Kuo, K. K.; Hsieh, K. C.

    1988-01-01

    To unravel the liquid-jet breakup process in the nondilute region, a newly developed system of real-time X-ray radiography, an advanced digital image processor, and a high-speed video camera were used. Based upon recorded X-ray images, the inner structure of a liquid jet during breakup was observed. The jet divergence angle, jet breakup length, and fraction distributions along the axial and transverse directions of the liquid jets were determined in the near-injector region. Both wall- and free-jet tests were conducted to study the effect of wall friction on the jet breakup process.

  7. Scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR) implemented with an amorphous selenium flat-panel detector: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinming; Lai, Chao-Jen; Chen, Lingyun; Han, Tao; Zhong, Yuncheng; Shen, Youtao; Wang, Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C

    2009-11-21

    It is well recognized in projection radiography that low-contrast detectability suffers in heavily attenuating regions due to excessively low x-ray fluence to the image receptor and higher noise levels. Exposure equalization can improve image quality by increasing the x-ray exposure to heavily attenuating regions, resulting in a more uniform distribution of exposure to the detector. Image quality is also expected to be improved by using the slot-scan geometry to reject scattered radiation effectively without degrading primary x-rays. This paper describes the design of a prototype scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR) system implemented with an amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film transistor (TFT) array-based flat-panel detector. With this system, slot-scan geometry with alternate line erasure and readout (ALER) technique was used to achieve scatter rejection. A seven-segment beam height modulator assembly was mounted onto the fore collimator to regulate exposure regionally for chest radiography. The beam modulator assembly, consisting of micro linear motors, lead screw cartridge with lead (Pb) beam blockers attached, position feedback sensors and motor driver circuitry, has been tested and found to have an acceptable response for exposure equalization in chest radiography. An anthropomorphic chest phantom was imaged in the posterior-anterior (PA) view under clinical conditions. Scatter component, primary x-rays, scatter-to-primary ratios (SPRs) and primary signal-to-noise ratios (PSNRs) were measured in the SEDR images to evaluate the rejection and redistribution of scattered radiation, and compared with those for conventional full-field imaging with and without anti-scatter grid methods. SPR reduction ratios (SPRRRs, defined as the differences between the non-grid full-field SPRs and the reduced SPRs divided by the former) yielded approximately 59% for the full-field imaging with grid and 82% for the SEDR technique in the lungs, and 77% for the full

  8. Fast neutron radiography scanner for the detection of contraband in air cargo containers.

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, J E; Rainey, S; Stevens, R J; Sowerby, B D; Tickner, J R

    2005-08-01

    There is a growing need to rapidly scan bulk air cargo for contraband such as illicit drugs and explosives. The Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have been working with Australian Customs Service to develop a scanner capable of directly scanning airfreight containers in 1--2 minutes without unpacking. The scanner combines fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography to provide high-resolution images that include information on material composition. A full-scale prototype scanner has been successfully tested in the laboratory and a commercial-scale scanner is due to be installed at Brisbane airport in 2005.

  9. DR with a DSLR: Digital Radiography with a Digital Single-Lens Reflex camera.

    PubMed

    Fan, Helen; Durko, Heather L; Moore, Stephen K; Moore, Jared; Miller, Brian W; Furenlid, Lars R; Pradhan, Sunil; Barrett, Harrison H

    2010-02-15

    An inexpensive, portable digital radiography (DR) detector system for use in remote regions has been built and evaluated. The system utilizes a large-format digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera to capture the image from a standard fluorescent screen. The large sensor area allows relatively small demagnification factors and hence minimizes the light loss. The system has been used for initial phantom tests in urban hospitals and Himalayan clinics in Nepal, and it has been evaluated in the laboratory at the University of Arizona by additional phantom studies. Typical phantom images are presented in this paper, and a simplified discussion of the detective quantum efficiency of the detector is given.

  10. Imaging of Hip Pain: From Radiography to Cross-Sectional Imaging Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando; Santiago Chinchilla, Alicia; Ansari, Afshin; Guzmán Álvarez, Luis; Castellano García, Maria del Mar; Martínez Martínez, Alberto; Tercedor Sánchez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Hip pain can have multiple causes, including intra-articular, juxta-articular, and referred pain, mainly from spine or sacroiliac joints. In this review, we discuss the causes of intra-articular hip pain from childhood to adulthood and the role of the appropriate imaging techniques according to clinical suspicion and age of the patient. Stress is put on the findings of radiographs, currently considered the first imaging technique, not only in older people with degenerative disease but also in young people without osteoarthritis. In this case plain radiography allows categorization of the hip as normal or dysplastic or with impingement signs, pincer, cam, or a combination of both. PMID:26885391

  11. A computerized scheme for lung nodule detection in multiprojection chest radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Wei; Li Qiang; Boyce, Sarah J.; McAdams, H. Page; Shiraishi, Junji; Doi, Kunio; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Our previous study indicated that multiprojection chest radiography could significantly improve radiologists' performance for lung nodule detection in clinical practice. In this study, the authors further verify that multiprojection chest radiography can greatly improve the performance of a computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme. Methods: Our database consisted of 59 subjects, including 43 subjects with 45 nodules and 16 subjects without nodules. The 45 nodules included 7 real and 38 simulated ones. The authors developed a conventional CAD scheme and a new fusion CAD scheme to detect lung nodules. The conventional CAD scheme consisted of four steps for (1) identification of initial nodule candidates inside lungs, (2) nodule candidate segmentation based on dynamic programming, (3) extraction of 33 features from nodule candidates, and (4) false positive reduction using a piecewise linear classifier. The conventional CAD scheme processed each of the three projection images of a subject independently and discarded the correlation information between the three images. The fusion CAD scheme included the four steps in the conventional CAD scheme and two additional steps for (5) registration of all candidates in the three images of a subject, and (6) integration of correlation information between the registered candidates in the three images. The integration step retained all candidates detected at least twice in the three images of a subject and removed those detected only once in the three images as false positives. A leave-one-subject-out testing method was used for evaluation of the performance levels of the two CAD schemes. Results: At the sensitivities of 70%, 65%, and 60%, our conventional CAD scheme reported 14.7, 11.3, and 8.6 false positives per image, respectively, whereas our fusion CAD scheme reported 3.9, 1.9, and 1.2 false positives per image, and 5.5, 2.8, and 1.7 false positives per patient, respectively. The low performance of the conventional

  12. Carcinomas of the base of the tongue: diagnosis using double-contrast radiography of the pharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Apter, A.J.; Levine, M.S.; Glick, S.N.

    1984-04-01

    A barium examination is frequently performed as the primary screening study on patients with carcinoma of the base of the tongue who present with dysphagia. Because of the limitations of the conventional barium study in visualizing the pharynx, double-contrast views of this region are routinely included as part of the standard barium examination on all patients with pharyngeal dysphagia. With this technique, six carcinomas of the base of the tongue were detected, including four ulcerating and two exophytic lesions. The normal and abnormal appearance of the tongue base on double-contrast radiography of the pharynx is described.

  13. Thin object radiography with a 2.2 MeV pulsed power machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, T. J.; Danielson, J. R.; Smith, J.; Wood, W. M.

    2017-01-01

    An experimental series was performed at a pulsed-power 2.2 MeV flash radiography machine to determine the lower limits of its mass sensitivity. This machine uses a rod-pinch diode with accelerating potential of 2.2 MeV and 50 ns pulse duration. Tungsten, aluminium, and titanium rod anodes were used to tune the emitted bremsstrahlung spectrum; as well as aluminium and beryllium filter materials. Analysis of thin tantalum foils shows a mass sensitivity as low as 300

  14. An unexpected cause of vaginal bleeding: the role of pelvic radiography

    PubMed Central

    Kyrgios, Ioannis; Emmanouilidou, Eleftheria; Theodoridis, Theodoros; Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal bleeding and/or discharge in young girls may result from infection, urological problems, endocrine causes, bleeding disorders, dermatological conditions, trauma, sexual abuse, masses or foreign bodies. We report a case of excessive vaginal bleeding caused by a foreign body in a prepubertal girl with emphasis on the diagnostic challenges and pitfalls regarding imaging techniques. In our patient, although invasive and expensive investigations had been initially made, the foreign body was last detected only when a plain pelvic radiography was performed. PMID:24532235

  15. A spectrometric approach in radiography for detection of materials by their effective atomic number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikov, V. D.; Naydenov, S. V.; Onyshchenko, G. M.; Lecoq, P.; Smith, C. F.

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we report a spectrometric approach to dual-energy digital radiography that has been developed and applied to identify specific organic substances and discern small differences in their effective atomic number. An experimental setup has been designed, and a theoretical description proposed based on the experimental results obtained. The proposed method is based on the application of special reference samples made of materials with different effective atomic number and thickness parameters known to affect X-ray attenuation in the low-energy range. The results obtained can be used in the development of a new generation of multi-energy customs or medical X-ray scanners.

  16. A maximum likelihood method for high resolution proton radiography/proton CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins-Fekete, Charles-Antoine; Brousmiche, Sébastien; Portillo, Stephen K. N.; Beaulieu, Luc; Seco, Joao

    2016-12-01

    Multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) is the largest contributor to blurring in proton imaging. In this work, we developed a maximum likelihood least squares estimator that improves proton radiography’s spatial resolution. The water equivalent thickness (WET) through projections defined from the source to the detector pixels were estimated such that they maximizes the likelihood of the energy loss of every proton crossing the volume. The length spent in each projection was calculated through the optimized cubic spline path estimate. The proton radiographies were produced using Geant4 simulations. Three phantoms were studied here: a slanted cube in a tank of water to measure 2D spatial resolution, a voxelized head phantom for clinical performance evaluation as well as a parametric Catphan phantom (CTP528) for 3D spatial resolution. Two proton beam configurations were used: a parallel and a conical beam. Proton beams of 200 and 330 MeV were simulated to acquire the radiography. Spatial resolution is increased from 2.44 lp cm-1 to 4.53 lp cm-1 in the 200 MeV beam and from 3.49 lp cm-1 to 5.76 lp cm-1 in the 330 MeV beam. Beam configurations do not affect the reconstructed spatial resolution as investigated between a radiography acquired with the parallel (3.49 lp cm-1 to 5.76 lp cm-1) or conical beam (from 3.49 lp cm-1 to 5.56 lp cm-1). The improved images were then used as input in a photon tomography algorithm. The proton CT reconstruction of the Catphan phantom shows high spatial resolution (from 2.79 to 5.55 lp cm-1 for the parallel beam and from 3.03 to 5.15 lp cm-1 for the conical beam) and the reconstruction of the head phantom, although qualitative, shows high contrast in the gradient region. The proposed formulation of the optimization demonstrates serious potential to increase the spatial resolution (up by 65 % ) in proton radiography and greatly accelerate proton computed tomography reconstruction.

  17. Quality assurance in dental radiography: intra-oral image quality analysis.

    PubMed

    Bolas, Andrew; Fitzgerald, Maurice

    With the introduction of criteria for clinical audit by the Irish Dental Council, and the statutory requirement on dentists to introduce this into their practice, this article will introduce the basic concepts of quality standards in intra-oral radiography and the subsequent application of these standards in an image quality audit cycle. Subjective image quality analysis is not a new concept, but its application can prove beneficial to both patient and dental practitioner. The ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle is fundamental in radiation protection, and therefore the prevention of repeat exposures demonstrates one facet of this that the dental practitioner can employ within daily practice.

  18. Skin and gonadal dose reduction during hip radiography of the bull.

    PubMed

    Wood, A K; Blockey, B; Reynolds, K M; Leith, I S; Burns, P A

    1979-10-01

    Radiology is being used to an increasing extent in the clinical diagnosis of hip lameness in bulls. Consequent gonadal doses may have important implications in later breeding programmes. Skin and gonadal doses were recorded during hip radiography of 18 bulls. An additional 0.13 mm copper filtration reduced skin dose by more than one third, but had no effect on gonadal dose. The average radiation dose to the gonads was approximately halved by completely surrounding the scrotum with lead sheeting 0.95 mm in thickness.

  19. BEAM TRANSPORT IN A COMPACT DIELECTRIC WALL INDUCTION ACCELERATOR SYSTEM FOR PULSED RADIOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect

    McCarrick, J F; Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y

    2005-05-09

    Using dielectric wall accelerator technology, we are developing a compact induction accelerator system primarily intended for pulsed radiography. The accelerator would provide a 2-kA beam with an energy of 8 MeV, for a 20-30 ns flat-top. The design goal is to generate a 2-mm diameter, 10-rad x-ray source. We have a physics design of the system from injector to the x-ray converter. We present the results of injector modeling and PIC simulations of beam transport. We also discuss the predicted spot size and the on-axis x-ray dose.

  20. Flash X-ray radiography source based on plasma-filled rod pinch diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, S. A.

    2010-04-01

    Results of experiments on the formation of a high-power focused electron beam in a plasma-filled rod pinch diode driven by a high-current MIG generator (maximum voltage, 1.3 MV; impedance, 0.65 Ω) are presented. The proposed diode with a sharpened 1.5-mm-thick tungsten rod anode provides an X-ray source for flash radiography with a size of ˜1 mm, which is capable of producing a radiation dose of 2.4 rad per pulse at a distance of 1 m. The results of comparative experiments with and without plasma injection into the diode are presented.

  1. Magnifying Lenses with Weak Achromatic Bends for High-Energy Electron Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Walstrom, Peter Lowell

    2015-02-27

    This memo briefly describes bremsstrahlung background effects in GeV-range electron radiography systems and the use of weak bending magnets to deflect the image to the side of the forward bremsstrahlung spot to reduce background. The image deflection introduces first-order chromatic image blur due to dispersion. Two approaches to eliminating the dispersion effect to first order by use of magnifying lens with achromatic bends are described. Also, higher-order image blur terms caused by weak bends are also discussed, and shown to be negligibly small in most cases of interest.

  2. High contrast neutron radiography with optical devices in Kyoto University reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Y.; Nakano, T.; Hino, M.; Sunohara, H.; Matsushima, U.; Takenaka, N.

    2004-08-01

    The high-contrast neutron radiography has been performed at a VCN guide (VCN) and a supermirror cold neutron guide (CN-3) in Kyoto University Reactor. The large absorption cross-section of very low-energy neutrons can show a slight change of sample which thermal neutrons can not show. The effectiveness is shown in the fields of botany, agriculture and industrial researches. A new spectrum change option using high Qc supermirror ( m=4) is attached. It can change the upper limit of the energy of exposure neutrons by reflections, and gives a high flexibility of the experimental condition.

  3. Clinical performance of a prototype flat-panel digital detector for general radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, Walter; Scalzetti, Ernest M.; Roskopf, Marsha L.; Geiger, Robert

    2001-08-01

    Digital radiographs obtained using a prototype Digital Radiography System (Stingray) were compared with those obtained using conventional screen-film. Forty adult volunteers each had two identical radiographs taken at the same level of radiation exposure, one using screen-film and the other the digital detector. Each digital image was processed by hand to ensure that the printed quality was optimal. Ten radiologists compared the diagnostic image quality of the digital images with the corresponding film radiographs using a seven point ranking scheme.

  4. Monochromatic x-ray radiography for areal-density measurement of inertial fusion energy fuel in fast ignition experiment.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanabe, Minoru; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Ohira, Shinji; Inubushi, Yuichi; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    Ultrafast, two-dimensional x-ray imaging is an important diagnostics for the inertial fusion energy research, especially in investigating implosion dynamics at the final stage of the fuel compression. Although x-ray radiography was applied to observing the implosion dynamics, intense x-rays emitted from the high temperature and dense fuel core itself are often superimposed on the radiograph. This problem can be solved by coupling the x-ray radiography with monochromatic x-ray imaging technique. In the experiment, 2.8 or 5.2 keV backlight x-rays emitted from laser-irradiated polyvinyl chloride or vanadium foils were selectively imaged by spherically bent quartz crystals with discriminating the out-of-band emission from the fuel core. This x-ray radiography system achieved 24 μm and 100 ps of spatial and temporal resolutions, respectively.

  5. Monochromatic x-ray radiography for areal-density measurement of inertial fusion energy fuel in fast ignition experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Fujioka, Shinsuke; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanabe, Minoru; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Nagatomo, Hideo; Ohira, Shinji; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Azechi, Hiroshi; Inubushi, Yuichi

    2010-10-15

    Ultrafast, two-dimensional x-ray imaging is an important diagnostics for the inertial fusion energy research, especially in investigating implosion dynamics at the final stage of the fuel compression. Although x-ray radiography was applied to observing the implosion dynamics, intense x-rays emitted from the high temperature and dense fuel core itself are often superimposed on the radiograph. This problem can be solved by coupling the x-ray radiography with monochromatic x-ray imaging technique. In the experiment, 2.8 or 5.2 keV backlight x-rays emitted from laser-irradiated polyvinyl chloride or vanadium foils were selectively imaged by spherically bent quartz crystals with discriminating the out-of-band emission from the fuel core. This x-ray radiography system achieved 24 {mu}m and 100 ps of spatial and temporal resolutions, respectively.

  6. Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Radiation Dose-Equivalent Radiography, Multidetector Computed Tomography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Fractures of Adult Cadaveric Wrists

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Jakob; Benndorf, Matthias; Reidelbach, Carolin; Krauß, Tobias; Lampert, Florian; Zajonc, Horst; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Fiebich, Martin; Goerke, Sebastian M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic accuracy of radiography, to radiography equivalent dose multidetector computed tomography (RED-MDCT) and to radiography equivalent dose cone beam computed tomography (RED-CBCT) for wrist fractures. Methods As study subjects we obtained 10 cadaveric human hands from body donors. Distal radius, distal ulna and carpal bones (n = 100) were artificially fractured in random order in a controlled experimental setting. We performed radiation dose equivalent radiography (settings as in standard clinical care), RED-MDCT in a 320 row MDCT with single shot mode and RED-CBCT in a device dedicated to musculoskeletal imaging. Three raters independently evaluated the resulting images for fractures and the level of confidence for each finding. Gold standard was evaluated by consensus reading of a high-dose MDCT. Results Pooled sensitivity was higher in RED-MDCT with 0.89 and RED-MDCT with 0.81 compared to radiography with 0.54 (P = < .004). No significant differences were detected concerning the modalities’ specificities (with values between P = .98). Raters' confidence was higher in RED-MDCT and RED-CBCT compared to radiography (P < .001). Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of RED-MDCT and RED-CBCT for wrist fractures proved to be similar and in some parts even higher compared to radiography. Readers are more confident in their reporting with the cross sectional modalities. Dose equivalent cross sectional computed tomography of the wrist could replace plain radiography for fracture diagnosis in the long run. PMID:27788215

  7. Comparison of clinical and physical measures of image quality in chest and pelvis computed radiography at different tube voltages

    SciTech Connect

    Sandborg, Michael; Tingberg, Anders; Ullman, Gustaf; Dance, David R.; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

    2006-11-15

    The aim of this work was to study the dependence of image quality in digital chest and pelvis radiography on tube voltage, and to explore correlations between clinical and physical measures of image quality. The effect on image quality of tube voltage in these two examinations was assessed using two methods. The first method relies on radiologists' observations of images of an anthropomorphic phantom, and the second method was based on computer modeling of the imaging system using an anthropomorphic voxel phantom. The tube voltage was varied within a broad range (50-150 kV), including those values typically used with screen-film radiography. The tube charge was altered so that the same effective dose was achieved for each projection. Two x-ray units were employed using a computed radiography (CR) image detector with standard tube filtration and antiscatter device. Clinical image quality was assessed by a group of radiologists using a visual grading analysis (VGA) technique based on the revised CEC image criteria. Physical image quality was derived from a Monte Carlo computer model in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, SNR, of anatomical structures corresponding to the image criteria. Both the VGAS (visual grading analysis score) and SNR decrease with increasing tube voltage in both chest PA and pelvis AP examinations, indicating superior performance if lower tube voltages are employed. Hence, a positive correlation between clinical and physical measures of image quality was found. The pros and cons of using lower tube voltages with CR digital radiography than typically used in analog screen-film radiography are discussed, as well as the relevance of using VGAS and quantum-noise SNR as measures of image quality in pelvis and chest radiography.

  8. Complementary X-ray and neutron radiography study of the initial lithiation process in lithium-ion batteries containing silicon electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fu; Markötter, Henning; Manke, Ingo; Hilger, André; Alrwashdeh, Saad S.; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Banhart, John

    2017-03-01

    Complementary in operando X-ray radiography and neutron radiography measurements were conducted to investigate and visualize the initial lithiation in silicon-electrode lithium-ion batteries. By means of X-ray radiography, a significant volume expansion of Si particles and the Si electrode during the first discharge was observed. In addition, many Si particles were found that never undergo electrochemical reactions. These findings were confirmed by neutron radiography, which, for the first time, showed the process of Li alloying with the Si electrode during initial lithiation. These results demonstrate that complementary X-ray and neutron radiography is a powerful tool to investigate the lithiation mechanisms inside Si-electrode based lithium-ion batteries.

  9. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by osteology and radiography.

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; Groenewald, Hermanus B; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N

    2015-07-15

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  10. Polycapillaries and x-ray lens performances in order to improve conventional radiography experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlu, Jean-Marc; Lemoing, Steven; Chevallier, Pierre; Boutin, Jean-Yves

    1997-07-01

    The goal of polycapillaries and Kumakhov lens study is to bring out possible and liable ameliorations in terms of spatial resolution, brightness and spectral discrimination to a flash radiography chain used to image moving objects. Different kinds of polycapillaries have been tested with an x ray tube and a synchrotron beamline (DCI/LURE), in order to determine the performances of each type and highlight principal parameters which influence transmission and divergence. This report presents theoretical and experimental methods used to characterize polycapillaries and Kumakhov lens. The energy range studied is 10 to 50 keV. Tested polycapillaries are 5 to 20 cm in length. The number of capillaries inside the polycapillaries is: 550, 1250, and 2700. Various profiles have been checked: linear, circular arc curvatures, double circular arc curvatures and cubic curvatures. The transmission measurement is carried out either with a germanium diode or through fluorescence on a metallic foil. The divergence is analyzed either by photosensitive plate or by an x ray camera. Kumakhov lenses are tested in the same way. The knowledge of polycapillaries characteristics allows us to design future collection of polycapillaries (lens) to satisfy restraint, dimensions, positioning in radiography experiment.

  11. Relationship between atherosclerosis and knee osteoarthritis as graded by radiography and ultrasonography in females

    PubMed Central

    Ekim, Ayşe Aydemir; İnal, Esra Erkol; Kaya, Dilek Serin; Yılmazer, Şebnem; Kuzgun, Selen; Mumcu, Gamze; Yurdasiper, Alper; Musmul, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between atherosclerosis and knee osteoarthritis grade in women as assessed by both ultrasonography and radiography. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy women diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis were classified into two groups according to cartilage grading/radiographic grading. Patients with Kellgren-Lawrence grades 1 and 2 were included in group 1, while those with Kellgren-Lawrence grades 3 and 4 were included in group 2. Patients with cartilage grades 1–3 were included in group 1, while those with cartilage grades 4–6 were included in group 2. Patients were clinically assessed using a visual analog scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index. Radiographic osteoarthritis grade was scored using the Kellgren and Lawrence grading system. Using ultrasonography, symptomatic knees were graded and evaluated for distal femoral cartilage thickness. Carotid intima-media thickness and serum lipid levels were measured to assess atherosclerosis. [Results] Carotid intima-media thickness measurements were higher in group 2 than in group 1 as determined by the Kellgren-Lawrence and cartilage grading systems. Carotid intima-media thickness measurements were positively correlated with both the ultrasonographic cartilage grade and Kellgren-Lawrence. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that osteoarthritis as assessed by ultrasonography was successful and comparable to assessment with radiography. We showed a correlation between atherosclerosis and ultrasonographic knee osteoarthritis grade. PMID:27942107

  12. Computerized scheme for lung nodule detection in multi-projection chest radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Qiang; Boyce, Sarah J.; McAdams, H. Page; Shiraishi, Junji; Doi, Kunio; Samei, Ehsan

    2012-03-01

    Our purposes are to develop a conventional computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) scheme and a new fusion CAD scheme for the detection of lung nodules in multi-projection chest radiography, and to verify that information fused from the multi-projection chest radiography can greatly improve the performance of the conventional CAD scheme. The conventional CAD scheme processed each of the three projection images of a subject independently, and discarded the correlation information between the three images. The fusion CAD scheme registered all candidates detected by the conventional CAD scheme in the three images of a subject, and integrated the correlation information between the registered candidates to remove false positives. The CAD schemes were trained and evaluated on a database with 97 subjects. At the sensitivities of 70%, 65% and 60%, the conventional CAD scheme reported 20.4, 13.6 and 8.8 false positives per image, respectively, whereas the fusion CAD scheme reported 4.5, 2.8 and 1.2 false positives per image, respectively. The fusion of correlation information can markedly improve the performance of CAD scheme for lung nodule detection.

  13. Ultrasound versus conventional radiography in the assessment of bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Salaffi, Fausto; Gutierrez, Marwin; Carotti, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Bone erosions are the hallmark of joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis and both their detection and increase in number and/or in size are indicative of a poor outcome. To date, conventional radiography is still the most common imaging tool adopted for detecting and scoring joint damage in daily clinical practice, in spite of its low sensitivity with respect computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasound. Ultrasound is a rapidly evolving technique that is gaining an increasing success in the assessment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It permits an early detection and careful characterisation of bone erosions playing a key role in both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Ultrasound presents several advantages over other imaging techniques: it is patient-friendly, safe and non-invasive, free of ionising radiation, less expensive, and permit multiple target assessment in real time without the need for external referral. The aim of this review is to compare conventional radiography and ultrasound in the assessment of bone erosions in RA in daily rheumatology practice and to provide insights into which modality can provide the optimal information for a desired outcome in a given clinical trial or practice situation.

  14. Non-invasive differentiation of kidney stone types using X-ray dark-field radiography.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Kai; Braig, Eva; Willer, Konstantin; Willner, Marian; Fingerle, Alexander A; Chabior, Michael; Herzen, Julia; Eiber, Matthias; Haller, Bernhard; Straub, Michael; Schneider, Heike; Rummeny, Ernst J; Noël, Peter B; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-04-15

    Treatment of renal calculi is highly dependent on the chemical composition of the stone in question, which is difficult to determine using standard imaging techniques. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of scatter-sensitive X-ray dark-field radiography to differentiate between the most common types of kidney stones in clinical practice. Here, we examine the absorption-to-scattering ratio of 118 extracted kidney stones with a laboratory Talbot-Lau Interferometer. Depending on their chemical composition, microscopic growth structure and morphology the various types of kidney stones show strongly varying, partially opposite contrasts in absorption and dark-field imaging. By assessing the microscopic calculi morphology with high resolution micro-computed tomography measurements, we illustrate the dependence of dark-field signal strength on the respective stone type. Finally, we utilize X-ray dark-field radiography as a non-invasive, highly sensitive (100%) and specific (97%) tool for the differentiation of calcium oxalate, uric acid and mixed types of stones, while additionally improving the detectability of radio-lucent calculi. We prove clinical feasibility of the here proposed method by accurately classifying renal stones, embedded within a fresh pig kidney, using dose-compatible measurements and a quick and simple visual inspection.

  15. Measurement of biodiesel blend and conventional diesel spray structure using x-ray radiography.

    SciTech Connect

    Kastengren, A. L.; Powell, C. F.; Wang, Y. J.; IM, K. S.; Wang, J.

    2009-11-01

    The near-nozzle structure of several nonevaporating biodiesel-blend sprays has been studied using X-ray radiography. Radiography allows quantitative measurements of the fuel distribution in sprays to be made with high temporal and spatial resolution. Measurements have been made at different values of injection pressure, ambient density, and with two different nozzle geometries to understand the influences of these parameters on the spray structure of the biodiesel blend. These measurements have been compared with corresponding measurements of Viscor, a diesel calibration fluid, to demonstrate the fuel effects on the spray structure. Generally, the biodiesel-blend spray has a similar structure to the spray of Viscor. For the nonhydroground nozzle used in this study, the biodiesel-blend spray has a slightly slower penetration into the ambient gas than the Viscor spray. The cone angle of the biodiesel-blend spray is generally smaller than that of the Viscor spray, indicating that the biodiesel-blend spray is denser than the Viscor spray. For the hydroground nozzle, both fuels produce sprays with initially wide cone angles that transition to narrow sprays during the steady-state portion of the injection event. These variations in cone angle with time occur later for the biodiesel-blend spray than for the Viscor spray, indicating that the dynamics of the injector needle as it opens are somewhat different for the two fuels.

  16. The natural history of the anterior knee instability by stress radiography

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Márcia Uchôa; Hernandez, Arnaldo José; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the anteroposterior displacement of the knee by means of stress radiography in individuals with unilateral anterior knee instability and relate to time of instability. METHODS: Sixty individuals with intact knees (control group) and 125 patients with unilateral anterior instability (AI group) agreed to participate in the study. Gender, age, weight, height, age at injury, time between injury and testing, and surgical findings are studied. Both groups are submitted to anterior and posterior stress radiographies of both knees. Anterior (ADD) and posterior displacement difference (PDD) were calculated between sides. RESULTS: In the control group ADD and PDD are in average, zero, whereas in the AI group ADD averaged 9.8mm and PDD, 1.92mm. Gender, age, weight, height, age at trauma and presence of menisci's lesions do not intervene in the values of ADD and PDD. Meniscal injuries increase with time. ADD and PDD do not relate with the presence or absence of associated menisci's lesions. The ADD and the PDD are related to each other and increase with time. CONCLUSION: There is a permanent anterior subluxation of the injured knee that is related to the amount of anterior displacement that increases with time. Level of Evidence III, Study Types Case-control study. PMID:25246846

  17. A dynamic material discrimination algorithm for dual MV energy X-ray digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Li, Ruizhe; Zhang, Siyuan; Zhao, Tiao; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Dual-energy X-ray radiography has become a well-established technique in medical, industrial, and security applications, because of its material or tissue discrimination capability. The main difficulty of this technique is dealing with the materials overlapping problem. When there are two or more materials along the X-ray beam path, its material discrimination performance will be affected. In order to solve this problem, a new dynamic material discrimination algorithm is proposed for dual-energy X-ray digital radiography, which can also be extended to multi-energy X-ray situations. The algorithm has three steps: α-curve-based pre-classification, decomposition of overlapped materials, and the final material recognition. The key of the algorithm is to establish a dual-energy radiograph database of both pure basis materials and pair combinations of them. After the pre-classification results, original dual-energy projections of overlapped materials can be dynamically decomposed into two sets of dual-energy radiographs of each pure material by the algorithm. Thus, more accurate discrimination results can be provided even with the existence of the overlapping problem. Both numerical and experimental results that prove the validity and effectiveness of the algorithm are presented.

  18. Observing the setting and hardening of cementitious materials by X-ray dark-field radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Prade, F.; Chabior, M.; Malm, F.; Grosse, C.U.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2015-08-15

    Novel X-ray imaging methods expand conventional attenuation-based X-ray radiography by the phase- and the dark-field contrasts. While weakly absorbing structures in the specimen can be better visualized in phase contrast, the dark-field contrast provides information about morphological sub-pixel microstructures. Here we report an application of dark-field X-ray radiography for imaging the time-resolved setting process in fresh cement. Our results demonstrate that the microstructural changes within the cement result in a decreasing dark-field signal. We quantify this imaging signal with a time-dependent dark-field scatter coefficient and show its good correlation with the compressional wave velocity. We further present images based on a pixel-wise analysis of the scattering signal and a corresponding logistic fit. These images emphasize the benefit of dark-field imaging of cementitious materials as it provides two dimensional spatial information on the processes within the sample while other established testing techniques only provide information on the bulk average.

  19. New X-ray testing methods of aerosol products for industrial radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozydar Knyziak, Adrian; Rzodkiewicz, Witold; Kaczorowska, Ewa; Derlacinski, Michal

    2017-02-01

    An amount of product in e.g. an aerosol canister is not difficult to estimate by weighing a filled can and subtracting the tare of packaging. In this way, we can obtain the net weight of the ingredients present in the can. Although, this does not indicate the volumetric content. Therefore, in the paper, the fundamental (the weight method and given by FEICA) and new methods (given by authors) related to the determination of the volumetric content of canister filled with aeorosol products are presented. The new methods are based on direct digital radiography (DR) using X-ray radiation. For the needs of new methods, the X-ray CCD-DR imaging system was built and developed in our Laboratory in Department of Radiation and Vibration at the Central Office of Measures. For comparison purposes, with regard to the volumetric content, a lot of metal cans of capacities 140, 185, 450, 700 ml were inspected. In future, computed tomography (CT) for industrial radiography in our laboratory will be used. Currently, an algorithm for CT is being tested. It will give us possibility for very precise measurements to determine volumetric content of examined canisters.

  20. Digital panoramic radiography versus cone beam computed tomography in the delineation of maxillomandibular tumors.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Barros, Renata Quirino de; Abilio, Vanessa Maria Freire; Yamamoto, Angela Toshie Araki; Melo, Daniela Pita de; Godoy, Gustavo Pina; Bento, Patricia Meira

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to compare the efficacy of digital panoramic radiography (DPR) with that of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for delineation of odontogenic and nonodontogenic tumors. From November 2009 through March 2011, 23 tumors in the maxillomandibular complex were diagnosed by histopathological examination. All DPRs and CBCTs were obtained and analyzed by a single previously calibrated radiologist, who considered the following radiographic aspects: clarity of the lesion edges, relation with dental elements, involvement of adjacent anatomical structures, cortical bone expansion and disruption, and, if present, type of involved anatomical structures and site of bone expansion and disruption. Of 23 patients, 15 (65.2%) were male and 8 (34.8%) were female. The tumor was classified as odontogenic in 73.9% of patients and nonodontogenic in 26.1% of patients. Analysis revealed that 56.5% of the tumors were located in the mandible, 34.8% in the maxilla, and 8.7% in both arches. For all analyzed variables, CBCTs offered more accurate details than did DPRs. Panoramic radiography should not be the examination of choice to visualize lesions in the maxillomandibular complex.