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Sample records for radiography thoracic

  1. Thoracic radiography in the cat: Identification of cardiomegaly and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Guglielmini, Carlo; Diana, Alessia

    2015-12-01

    Thoracic radiography is one of the most commonly employed diagnostic tools for the clinical evaluation of cats with suspected heart disease and is the standard diagnostic method in the confirmation of cardiogenic pulmonary edema. In the past, interpretation of feline radiographs focused on a description of the qualitative radiographic features of feline heart disease or the measurement of the cardiac silhouette in healthy cats and cats with different cardiovascular disorders. More recently, studies have begun to critically address the issue of the diagnostic accuracy of thoracic radiography in the diagnostic work-up of cats with heart disease. In these studies, qualitative and quantitative radiographic parameters were compared to echocardiographic findings to evaluate the usefulness of thoracic radiography for the identification of cardiac enlargement and pulmonary edema in the cat. Thoracic radiography is reasonably specific but has a low sensitivity when identifying cardiomegaly in cats with mild structural heart disease. Feline cardiogenic pulmonary edema has a variable radiographic presentation and several specific radiographic findings (i.e., enlargement of the left atrium and the pulmonary veins) can be absent or non-recognizable in affected cats.

  2. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by osteology and radiography.

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; Groenewald, Hermanus B; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N

    2015-07-15

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  3. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by osteology and radiography.

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N

    2015-07-15

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb.

  4. Thoracic Limb Morphology of the Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) Evidenced by Gross Osteology and Radiography.

    PubMed

    Makungu, M; Groenewald, H B; du Plessis, W M; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2015-08-01

    There is limited information available on the morphology of the thoracic limb of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). This study describes the morphology of the thoracic limb of captive ring-tailed lemurs evidenced by gross osteology and radiography as a guide for clinical use. Radiographic findings of 12 captive ring-tailed lemurs are correlated with bone specimens of three adult animals. The clavicle is well developed. The scapula has a large area for the origin of the m. teres major. The coracoid and hamate processes are well developed. The lateral supracondylar crest and medial epicondyle are prominent. The metacarpal bones are widely spread, and the radial tuberosity is prominent. These features indicate the presence of strong flexor muscles and flexibility of thoracic limb joints, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Furthermore, an ovoid ossicle is always seen at the inter-phalangeal joint of the first digit. Areas of increased soft tissue opacity are superimposed over the proximal half of the humerus and distal half of the antebrachium in male animals as a result of the scent gland. Knowledge of the morphology of the thoracic limb of individual species is important for accurate interpretation and diagnosis of musculoskeletal diseases.

  5. Comparison of Ultrasonography and Radiography in Detection of Thoracic Bone Fractures; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Baikpour, Masoud; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Asady, Hadi; Darafarin, Abolfazl; Amini Esfahani, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Mostafa; Yaseri, Mehdi; Safari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The potential benefit of ultrasonography for detection of thoracic bone fractures has been proven in various surveys but no comprehensive conclusion has been drawn yet; therefore, the present study aimed to conduct a thorough meta-analytic systematic review on this subject. Methods: Two reviewers independently carried out a comprehensive systematic search in Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and ProQuest databases. Data were summarized as true positive, false positive, true negative and false negative and were analyzed via STATA 11.0 software using a mixed-effects binary regression model. Sources of heterogeneity were further assessed through subgroup analysis. Results: Data on 1667 patients (807 subjects with and 860 cases without thoracic fractures), whose age ranged from 0 to 92 years, were extracted from 17 surveys. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography in detection of thoracic bone fractures were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.90-0.99; I2= 88.88, p<0.001) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.86-0.97; I2= 71.97, p<0.001), respectively. The same measures for chest radiography were found to be 0.77 (95% CI: 0.56-0.90; I2= 97.76, p<0.001) and 1.0 (95% CI: 0.91-1.00; I2= 97.24, p<0.001), respectively. The sensitivity of ultrasonography was higher in detection of rib fractures, compared to fractures of sternum or clavicle (97% vs. 91%). Moreover, the sensitivity was found to be higher when the procedure was carried out by a radiologist in comparison to an emergency medicine specialist (96% vs. 90%). Conclusion: Base on the findings of the present meta-analysis, screening performance characteristic of ultrasonography in detection of thoracic bone fractures was found to be higher than radiography. However, these characteristics were more prominent in detection of rib fractures and in cases where was performed by a radiologist. PMID:27274514

  6. Use of radiography in combination with computed tomography for the assessment of noncardiac thoracic disease in the dog and cat.

    PubMed

    Prather, Andrew B; Berry, Clifford R; Thrall, Donald E

    2005-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax was performed in 28 dogs and five cats and findings were compared with previous thoracic radiographs. The sample population included all animals that had thoracic radiographs and a CT study within 5 days of each other, where the complete imaging studies were available for review. Thoracic radiographs were considered indeterminate in 31 patients and CT examinations were done to acquire additional information. The presence of additional information from CT relating to presence of pathology, location of pathology, extent of pathology, and involvement of mediastinal structures was recorded. Whether there was a change in diagnosis based on the CT findings was also recorded. In only 4/33 animals (all dogs) did CT fail to provide any new information for the parameters evaluated when compared with survey thoracic radiographs. Additional information about the pathology that was present was gained by CT in 5/5 cats and 21/ 28 dogs. New information on compartmental location of pathology was seen in 4/5 cats and 19/28 dogs. New information on pathology extent was noted in 5/5 cats and 20/28 dogs. Additional information regarding involvement of mediastinal structures was obtained in 2/5 cats and 10/28 dogs. A change in diagnosis was made in 3/5 cats and 13/28 dogs. In conclusion, CT is a valuable tool for evaluating intrathoracic disease. CT provides additional cross-sectional anatomic information that can aid in anatomic localization and evaluation of the extent of the pathology in question.

  7. Thoracic spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... The test is done in a hospital radiology department or in the health care provider's office. You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray ...

  8. [Digital thoracic radiology: devices, image processing, limits].

    PubMed

    Frija, J; de Géry, S; Lallouet, F; Guermazi, A; Zagdanski, A M; De Kerviler, E

    2001-09-01

    In a first part, the different techniques of digital thoracic radiography are described. Since computed radiography with phosphore plates are the most commercialized it is more emphasized. But the other detectors are also described, as the drum coated with selenium and the direct digital radiography with selenium detectors. The other detectors are also studied in particular indirect flat panels detectors and the system with four high resolution CCD cameras. In a second step the most important image processing are discussed: the gradation curves, the unsharp mask processing, the system MUSICA, the dynamic range compression or reduction, the soustraction with dual energy. In the last part the advantages and the drawbacks of computed thoracic radiography are emphasized. The most important are the almost constant good quality of the pictures and the possibilities of image processing.

  9. Digital Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.

  10. [Digital radiography].

    PubMed

    Haendle, J

    1983-03-01

    Digital radiography is a generally accepted term comprising all x-ray image systems producing a projected image which resembles the conventional x-ray film image, and which are linked to any type of digital image processing. Fundamental criteria of differentiation are based on the production and detection method of the x-ray image. Various systems are employed, viz. the single-detector, line-detector or fanbeam detector and the area-beam or area-detector image converters, which differ from one another mainly in the manner of conversion of the radiation produced by the x-ray tube. The article also deals with the pros and cons of the various principles, the multitude of systems employed, and the varying frequency of their use in x-ray diagnosis work.

  11. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS LABORATORY GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR AN 80-HOUR COURSE IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY FOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES TRAINING TO BECOME BEGINNING RADIOGRAPHERS. IT IS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH TWO OTHER VOLUMES--(1) INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, AND (2) INUDSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY MANUAL. THE PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF REPRESENTATIVES…

  12. Increasing mobile radiography productivity.

    PubMed

    Wong, Edward; Lung, Ngan Tsz; Ng, Kris; Jeor, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Mobile radiography using computed radiography (CR) cassettes is a common equipment combination with a workflow bottleneck limited by location of CR readers. Advent of direct digital radiography (DDR) mobile x-ray machines removes this limitation by immediate image review and quality control. Through the use of key performance indicators (KPIs), the increase in efficiency can be quantified.

  13. Emergency Thoracic US: The Essentials.

    PubMed

    Wongwaisayawan, Sirote; Suwannanon, Ruedeekorn; Sawatmongkorngul, Sorravit; Kaewlai, Rathachai

    2016-01-01

    Acute thoracic symptoms are common among adults visiting emergency departments in the United States. Adults with these symptoms constitute a large burden on the overall resources used in the emergency department. The wide range of possible causes can make a definitive diagnosis challenging, even after clinical evaluation and initial laboratory testing. In addition to radiography and computed tomography, thoracic ultrasonography (US) is an alternative imaging modality that can be readily performed in real time at the patient's bedside to help diagnose many thoracic diseases manifesting acutely and in the trauma setting. Advantages of US include availability, relatively low cost, and lack of ionizing radiation. Emergency thoracic US consists of two main parts, lung and pleura US and focused cardiac US, which are closely related. Acoustic mismatches among aerated lungs, pleura, chest wall, and pathologic conditions produce artifacts useful for diagnosis of pneumothorax and pulmonary edema and help in detection of subpleural, pleural, and chest wall pathologic conditions such as pneumonia, pleural effusion, and fractures. Visual assessment of cardiac contractility and detection of right ventricular dilatation and pericardial effusion at focused cardiac US are critical in patients presenting with acute dyspnea and trauma. Additional US examinations of the inferior vena cava for noninvasive volume assessment and of the groin areas for detection of deep venous thrombosis are often performed at the same time. This multiorgan US approach can provide valuable information for emergency treatment of both traumatic and nontraumatic thoracic diseases involving the lungs, pleura, chest wall, heart, and vascular system. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016.

  14. Clinical feline dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Lemmons, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    Dental radiography is a necessary diagnostic modality in small animal practice. It is not possible to accurately assess and diagnose tooth resorption, periodontal disease, endodontic disease, neoplasia and injury without it. Dental radiography is also necessary for treatment and assessment of the patient postoperatively.

  15. Biomedical radiography: radiation protection and safety. (latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the safety of biomedical radiography. Radiation protection methods and techniques are described for both patients and operators. Safety techniques for dental radiology, routine x-rays, radiotherapy, thoracic radiography and other radiology procedures are included. Radiation exposure limits for patients and healthcare workers are defined. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. High energy neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-06-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos.

  17. Phase-contrast radiography.

    PubMed

    Gao, D; Pogany, A; Stevenson, A W; Wilkins, S W

    1998-01-01

    For the past 100 years, the paradigm for radiography has been premised on absorption as the sole means of contrast formation and on ray optics as the basis for image interpretation. A new conceptual approach to radiography has been developed that includes phase (ie, refractive) contrast and requires wave optics for proper treatment. This new approach greatly increases the amount of information that can be obtained with radiographic techniques and is particularly well suited to the imaging of soft tissue and of very small features in biologic samples. A key feature of the present technique of phase-contrast radiography is the use of a microfocus x-ray source about an order of magnitude (< or = 20 microm) smaller than that used in conventional radiography. Phase-contrast radiography offers a number of improvements over conventional radiography in a clinical setting, especially in soft-tissue imaging. These improvements include increased contrast resulting in improved visualization of anatomic detail, reduced absorbed dose to the patient, inherent image magnification and high spatial resolution, use of harder x rays, and relative ease of implementation. More technologically advanced detectors are currently being developed and commercialized, which will help fully realize the considerable potential of phase-contrast imaging.

  18. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Keen, G.; Bradbrook, R. A.; McGinn, F.

    1969-01-01

    Seven patients who had traumatic ruptures of the thoracic aorta are reported. Four of these died within a few hours of admission, allowing no opportunity for diagnosis or treatment. However, three survived long enough for elective surgery to be undertaken. A diagnosis of ruptured aorta was missed in one patient (case 2), and the difficulties of diagnosing this condition, even during thoracotomy, are emphasized. The value of serial chest radiography and forward aortography is discussed. Two of these patients underwent successful aortic repair, using left atrio-femoral bypass. Images PMID:5763507

  19. 8. VIEW OF RADIOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS INCLUDED RADIOGRAPHY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF RADIOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS INCLUDED RADIOGRAPHY AND BETA BACKSCATTERING. (7/13/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. American Thoracic Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infections Nursing Pediatrics Pulmonary Circulation Pulmonary Rehabilitation Respiratory Cell & Molecular Biology Respiratory Structure & Function Sleep & Respiratory Neurobiology Thoracic Oncology ...

  1. Prospective Evaluation of Thoracic Ultrasound in the Detection of Pneumothorax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. W.; Hamilton, D. R.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Billica, R. D.; Williams, D. R.; Diebel, L. N.; Sargysan, A. E.; Dulchavsky, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: Pneumothorax (PTX) occurs commonly in trauma patients and is confirmed by examination and radiography. Thoracic ultrasound (VIS) has been suggested as an alternative method for rapidly diagnosing PTX when X-ray is unavailable as in rural, military, or space flight settings; however, its accuracy and specificity are not known. Methods: We evaluated the accuracy of thoracic U/S detection of PTX compared to radiography in stable, emergency patients with a high suspicion of PTX at a Level-l trauma center over a 6-month period. Following University and NASA Institutional Review Board approval, informed consent was obtained from patients with penetrating or blunt chest trauma, or with a history consistent with PTX. Whenever possible, the presence or absence of the " lung sliding" sign or the "comet tail" artifact were determined by U/S in both hemithoraces by residents instructed in thoracic U/S before standard radiologic verification of PTX. Results were recorded on data sheets for comparison to standard radiography. Results: Thoracic VIS had a 94% sensitivity; two PTX could not be reliably diagnosed due to subcutaneous air; the true negative rate was 100%. In one patient, the VIS exam was positive while X ray did not confirm PTX; a follow-up film 1 hour later demonstrated a small PTX. The average time for bilateral thoracic VIS examination was 2 to 3 minutes. Conclusions: Thoracic ultrasound reliably diagnoses pneumothorax. Presence of the "lung sliding" sign conclusively excludes pneumothorax. Expansion of the FAST examination to include the thorax should be investigated.

  2. Real-time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  3. Apparatus for proton radiography

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting diagnostic proton radiography of patients in hospitals comprises a source of negative hydrogen ions, a synchrotron for accelerating the negative hydrogen ions to a predetermined energy, a plurality of stations for stripping extraction of a radiography beam of protons, means for sweeping the extracted beam to cover a target, and means for measuring the residual range, residual energy, or percentage transmission of protons that pass through the target. The combination of information identifying the position of the beam with information about particles traversing the subject and the back absorber is performed with the aid of a computer to provide a proton radiograph of the subject. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a back absorber comprises a plurality of scintillators which are coupled to detectors.

  4. Forensic radiography: an overview.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, April

    2010-01-01

    Perhaps the first instance of forensic radiography occurred in the 1890s when Professor AW Wright of Yale University tested Wilhelm Roentgen's newly discovered x-ray photography on a deceased rabbit. Of interest were small, round objects inside the rabbit that appeared as dark spots on the positive film. The objects were extracted and identified as bullets, thereby helping to determine the cause of the rabbit's death. In the years since Roentgen's discovery, the use of radiography and other medical imaging specialties to aid in investigating civil and criminal matters has increased as investigators realize how radiologic technology can yield information that otherwise is unavailable. Radiologic technologists can play a key role in forensic investigations.

  5. Lumbosacral transitional vertebra and thoracic limb malformations in a Chihuahua puppy.

    PubMed

    Schultz, V A; Watson, A G

    1995-01-01

    A three-month-old, male Chihuahua puppy with congenital absence of the distal 40% of the right thoracic limb was examined. The limb ended as a short, rounded, skin-covered stump. Radiography revealed a 40% shortened humerus tapered to a blunt end without its distal extremity. Dissection of the left thoracic limb identified luxation of the elbow joint and absence of the fourth digital pad. Alizarin-red staining and clearing demonstrated syndactylous fourth and fifth digits in the left thoracic limb and an anomalous eighth lumbar vertebra. This additional vertebra was unilaterally sacralized and constituted a lumbosacral transitional vertebra.

  6. Patient care in radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.A.; McCloskey, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on patient care procedures for radiographers. The authors focus on the role of the radiographer as a member of the health care team. The authors report on such topics as communication in patient care: safety, medico-legal considerations, transfer and positioning; physical needs; infection control; medication; CPR standards, acute situations; examination of the GI tract; contrast media; special imaging techniques and bedside radiography.

  7. Particle Beam Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, Ken; Ekdahl, Carl

    2014-02-01

    Particle beam radiography, which uses a variety of particle probes (neutrons, protons, electrons, gammas and potentially other particles) to study the structure of materials and objects noninvasively, is reviewed, largely from an accelerator perspective, although the use of cosmic rays (mainly muons but potentially also high-energy neutrinos) is briefly reviewed. Tomography is a form of radiography which uses multiple views to reconstruct a three-dimensional density map of an object. There is a very wide range of applications of radiography and tomography, from medicine to engineering and security, and advances in instrumentation, specifically the development of electronic detectors, allow rapid analysis of the resultant radiographs. Flash radiography is a diagnostic technique for large high-explosive-driven hydrodynamic experiments that is used at many laboratories. The bremsstrahlung radiation pulse from an intense relativistic electron beam incident onto a high-Z target is the source of these radiographs. The challenge is to provide radiation sources intense enough to penetrate hundreds of g/cm2 of material, in pulses short enough to stop the motion of high-speed hydrodynamic shocks, and with source spots small enough to resolve fine details. The challenge has been met with a wide variety of accelerator technologies, including pulsed-power-driven diodes, air-core pulsed betatrons and high-current linear induction accelerators. Accelerator technology has also evolved to accommodate the experimenters' continuing quest for multiple images in time and space. Linear induction accelerators have had a major role in these advances, especially in providing multiple-time radiographs of the largest hydrodynamic experiments.

  8. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy

    MedlinePlus

    Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) is surgery to treat sweating that is much heavier than normal. This condition ... hyperhidrosis . Usually the surgery is used to treat sweating in the palms or face. The sympathetic nerves ...

  9. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... STS Participant User File Research Program Videos Lung Cancer Screening Adoption How to Build Your Academic Career New Technologies in Mitral Valve Replacement Enhanced Recovery Pathways in Thoracic Surgery New STS Clinical Practice Guidelines ...

  10. Thoracic aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... common cause of a thoracic aortic aneurysm is hardening of the arteries . This condition is more common ... aortic aneurysm repair - open Aortic aneurysm repair - endovascular Hardening of the arteries High blood pressure Marfan syndrome ...

  11. Digital radiography: an overview.

    PubMed

    Parks, Edwin T; Williamson, Gail F

    2002-11-15

    Since the discovery of X-rays in 1895, film has been the primary medium for capturing, displaying, and storing radiographic images. It is a technology that dental practitioners are the most familiar and comfortable with in terms of technique and interpretation. Digital radiography is the latest advancement in dental imaging and is slowly being adopted by the dental profession. Digital imaging incorporates computer technology in the capture, display, enhancement, and storage of direct radiographic images. Digital imaging offers some distinct advantages over film, but like any emerging technology, it presents new and different challenges for the practitioner to overcome. This article presents an overview of digital imaging including basic terminology and comparisons with film-based imaging. The principles of direct and indirect digital imaging modalities, intraoral and extraoral applications, image processing, and diagnostic efficacy will be discussed. In addition, the article will provide a list of questions dentists should consider prior to purchasing digital imaging systems for their practice.

  12. [Blunt thoracic injury].

    PubMed

    Miura, H; Taira, O; Hiraguri, S; Uchida, O; Hagiwara, M; Ikeda, T; Kato, H

    1998-06-01

    Of 161 patients with blunt thoracic injury, 135 were male (83.9%) and 26 were female. The most common cause of injury was traffic accidents (130 patients, 80.7%), followed by falls (22 patients), and crushing (7 patients). There were 46 third decade and 36 second decade patients. Thirty-two patients had single thoracic injury and the other had multiple organ injury. The most common associated injury was head injury (65 patients). Most traffic accidents involved motor cycle accident. Forty-four patients died, 32 within 24 hours, and 4 died to thoracic injury. These 4 patients were shock on arrival and died within 24 hours. The injury severity score, which was under 30 in 78.3% of patients, correlated to the mortality rate. Rib fracture was the most common thoracic injury in 96 patients followed by hemothorax in 91, pulmonary contusion in 79, and pneumothorax in 64. Most of the thoracic injuries were treated conservatively. Thoracotomy was performed in 6 patients. Other than one patient with rupture of the left pulmonary vein, 5 patients recovered. Continued bleeding at a rate of more than 200 ml/h from the chest drainage tube or no recovery from shock and large air leakage preventing re-expansion of the lung are indications for emergency thoracotomy. Thoracotomy should also be considered after conservative treatment in patients with continued air leakage or intrabronchial bleeding negatively affecting respiration. Indications for thoracotomy should be determined individually based on evaluating of vital sign.

  13. Thoracic arachnoid cyst resection.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Harel

    2014-09-01

    Arachnoid cysts in the spinal cord may be asymptomatic. In some cases arachnoid cysts may exert mass effect on the thoracic spinal cord and lead to pain and myelopathy symptoms. Arachnoid cysts may be difficult to visualize on an MRI scan because the thin walled arachnoid may not be visible. Focal displacement of the thoracic spinal cord and effacement of the spinal cord with apparent widening of the cerebrospinal fluid space is seen. This video demonstrates surgical techniques to remove a dorsal arachnoid cyst causing spinal cord compression. The surgery involves a thoracic laminectomy. The dura is opened sharply with care taken not to open the arachnoid so that the cyst can be well visualized. The thickened arachnoid walls of the cyst are removed to alleviate the compression caused by the arachnoid cyst. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/pgUrl9xvsD0.

  14. Thoracic ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Shad, Jimmy; Budhwani, Keshav; Biswas, Rakesh

    2012-09-30

    Ectopia cordis is defined as complete or partial displacement of the heart outside the thoracic cavity. It is a rare congenital defect in fusion of the anterior chest wall resulting in extra thoracic location of the heart. Its estimated prevalence is 5.5-7.9 per million live births. The authors had one such case of a 15-h-old full-term male neonate weighing 2.25 kg with an externally visible, beating heart over the chest wall. The neonate had difficulty in respiration with peripheral cyanosis. Patient died of cardiorespiratory arrest before any surgical intervention could be undertaken inspite of best possible resuscitative measures.

  15. Thoracic ectopia cordis

    PubMed Central

    Shad, Jimmy; Budhwani, Keshav; Biswas, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is defined as complete or partial displacement of the heart outside the thoracic cavity. It is a rare congenital defect in fusion of the anterior chest wall resulting in extra thoracic location of the heart. Its estimated prevalence is 5.5–7.9 per million live births. The authors had one such case of a 15-h-old full-term male neonate weighing 2.25 kg with an externally visible, beating heart over the chest wall. The neonate had difficulty in respiration with peripheral cyanosis. Patient died of cardiorespiratory arrest before any surgical intervention could be undertaken inspite of best possible resuscitative measures. PMID:23035158

  16. Complete thoracic ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Alphonso, N; Venugopal, P S; Deshpande, R; Anderson, D

    2003-03-01

    Thoracic ectopia cordis is a rare congenital defect with very few reported survivors after surgical correction. We report a case of complete thoracic ectopia cordis with double outlet right ventricle. The diagnosis was established antenatally and a repair was undertaken soon after birth. The child remained stable and was extubated on the fifth post-operative day. Forty-eight hours later the child succumbed to an unexplained respiratory arrest. Also presented is a review of the different surgical strategies for this unusual condition.

  17. Multi-Institutional Evaluation of Digital Tomosynthesis, Dual-Energy Radiography, and Conventional Chest Radiography for the Detection and Management of Pulmonary Nodules.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, James T; McAdams, H Page; Sabol, John M; Chakraborty, Dev P; Kazerooni, Ella A; Reddy, Gautham P; Vikgren, Jenny; Båth, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To conduct a multi-institutional, multireader study to compare the performance of digital tomosynthesis, dual-energy (DE) imaging, and conventional chest radiography for pulmonary nodule detection and management. Materials and Methods In this binational, institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant prospective study, 158 subjects (43 subjects with normal findings) were enrolled at four institutions. Informed consent was obtained prior to enrollment. Subjects underwent chest computed tomography (CT) and imaging with conventional chest radiography (posteroanterior and lateral), DE imaging, and tomosynthesis with a flat-panel imaging device. Three experienced thoracic radiologists identified true locations of nodules (n = 516, 3-20-mm diameters) with CT and recommended case management by using Fleischner Society guidelines. Five other radiologists marked nodules and indicated case management by using images from conventional chest radiography, conventional chest radiography plus DE imaging, tomosynthesis, and tomosynthesis plus DE imaging. Sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy were measured by using the free-response receiver operating characteristic method and the receiver operating characteristic method for nodule detection and case management, respectively. Results were further analyzed according to nodule diameter categories (3-4 mm, >4 mm to 6 mm, >6 mm to 8 mm, and >8 mm to 20 mm). Results Maximum lesion localization fraction was higher for tomosynthesis than for conventional chest radiography in all nodule size categories (3.55-fold for all nodules, P < .001; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.96, 4.15). Case-level sensitivity was higher with tomosynthesis than with conventional chest radiography for all nodules (1.49-fold, P < .001; 95% CI: 1.25, 1.73). Case management decisions showed better overall accuracy with tomosynthesis than with conventional chest radiography, as given by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve

  18. Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract Lower gastrointestinal tract radiography or lower GI ... of Lower GI Tract Radiography? What is Lower GI Tract X-ray Radiography (Barium Enema)? Lower gastrointestinal ( ...

  19. Industrial Radiography | Radiation Protection | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-12-09

    Manufacturers use a method called industrial radiography to check for cracks or flaws in materials. Radiation is used in industrial radiography to show problems not visible from the outside without damaging the material.

  20. Accelerator system for neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Rusnak, B; Hall, J

    2000-09-21

    The field of x-ray radiography is well established for doing non-destructive evaluation of a vast array of components, assemblies, and objects. While x-rays excel in many radiography applications, their effectiveness diminishes rapidly if the objects of interest are surrounded by thick, high-density materials that strongly attenuate photons. Due to the differences in interaction mechanisms, neutron radiography is highly effective in imaging details inside such objects. To obtain a high intensity neutron source suitable for neutron imaging a 9-MeV linear accelerator is being evaluated for putting a deuteron beam into a high-pressure deuterium gas cell. As a windowless aperture is needed to transport the beam into the gas cell, a low-emittance is needed to minimize losses along the high-energy beam transport (HEBT) and the end station. A description of the HEBT, the transport optics into the gas cell, and the requirements for the linac will be presented.

  1. Digital Radiography: A Technology Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Ben A.

    1982-12-01

    Digital radiography, a term hardly recognized two years ago, has grown to become the talk of the radiology community and the excitement of many commercial companies. M2st of this attention has been directed toward digital subtraction intravenous angiography), although during this same time period, a variety of digital radiography apparatus and image processing techniques have been under development. In November of 1980 at the RSNA Conference in Chicago, three commercial digital angiography systems were announced by Philips, Technicare and ADAC Corporations. During this same time period, the University of Arizona was discussing the concept of a photo electronic radiology department2, the University of Pittsburg and Stanford University were investigating line scan radiography3,4 and approximately five laboratories were carrying out clinical IV angiography with digital video systems.5-9 These developments followed basic research programs in digital electronic and computerized imaging at various locations around the world. 10-18 In the spring of 1981 we attempted to review the state of digital radiography, focusing on the various detector systems and image acquisition approaches.19 Since that time, rapid advancements in digital radiography have occurred. A major conference was held on digital radiography at Stanford UniversityzO, a new area detector system for digital radiography was announced by Fuji Film Corporation, clinical testing began on the Picker line scan digital chest unit21, and improvements were made in selenium detectors for digital radiography. Several additional companies announced digital video angiography systems, bringing the total now to approximately 15 companies worldwide. Digital video subtraction angiography is now well established as an important clinical diagnostic procedure and a variety of improvements and extensions of digital angiography systems are now ongoing. Digital acquisition and storage systems are increasing in both speed and

  2. Comparison of thoracic radiographs and single breath-hold helical CT for detection of pulmonary nodules in dogs with metastatic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Nemanic, Sarah; London, Cheryl A; Wisner, Erik R

    2006-01-01

    Imaging studies in people indicate that x-ray computed tomography (CT) is a more sensitive technique than thoracic radiography for the detection of pulmonary metastasic neoplasia. Systematic studies comparing CT and thoracic radiographic techniques in veterinary patients have not been performed. The present retrospective study was designed to directly compare the efficacy of these 2 techniques in detecting pulmonary nodules in dogs. Eighteen dogs with histologically confirmed pulmonary metastatic neoplasia had contemporaneous thoracic radiographs and pulmonary CT scans compared. Quantitative analyses included estimation of pulmonary nodule size, number, and lobar distribution on thoracic radiographs and CT images. Only 9% of CT-detected pulmonary nodules were identified on thoracic radiographs (P < .003). The lower size threshold was approximately 1 mm to detect pulmonary nodules on CT images and 7-9 mm to reliably detect nodules on radiographs (P < .0001). Additionally, pulmonary nodules were detected in a significantly greater number of lung lobes using CT as compared with thoracic radiographs (P < .0001). These data indicate that CT is significantly more sensitive than thoracic radiography for detecting soft-tissue nodules in dogs. As such, thoracic CT should be considered in any patient with neoplasia that has potential for pulmonary metastasis to more reliably stage the disease, particularly when accurate characterization of the extent and distribution of pulmonary metastatic disease affects therapeutic planning.

  3. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings*

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Gláucia; Araujo, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Pereira e Silva, Jorge Luiz; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. PMID:25410842

  4. [Surgery for thoracic tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Kilani, T; Boudaya, M S; Zribi, H; Ouerghi, S; Marghli, A; Mestiri, T; Mezni, F

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is mainly a medical disease. Surgery has been the unique therapeutic tool for a long time before the advent of specific antituberculous drugs, and the role of surgery was then confined to the treatment of the sequelae of tuberculosis and their complications. The resurgence of tuberculosis and the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB combined to immunosuppressed patients represent a new challenge for tuberculosis surgery. Surgery may be indicated for a diagnostic purpose in patients with pulmonary, pleural, mediastinal or thoracic wall involvement, or with a therapeutic purpose (drainage, resection, residual cavity obliteration). Modern imaging techniques and the advent of video-assisted thoracic surgery allowed a new approach of this pathology; the majority of diagnostic interventions and selected cases requiring lung resection can be performed through a mini-invasive approach. Patients proposed for aggressive surgery may be treated with the best results thanks to a good evaluation of the thoracic lesions, of the patients' nutritional, infectious and general status combined with a good coordination between the specialized medical team for an optimal preparation to surgery.

  5. Nonintubated anesthesia for thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Nonintubated thoracic surgery has been used in procedures including pleura, lungs and mediastinum. Appropriate anesthesia techniques with or without sedation allow thoracic surgery patients to avoid the potential risks of intubated general anesthesia, particularly for the high-risk patients. However, nonintubated anesthesia for thoracic surgery has some benefits as well as problems. In this review, the background, indication, perioperative anesthetic consideration and management, and advantages and disadvantages are discussed and summarized. PMID:25589994

  6. Thoracic computed tomography in feline patients without use of chemical restraint.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cintia R; Mitchell, Mark A; O'Brien, Robert T

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and thoracic radiography were performed in nonsedated, nonanesthetized, cats with thoracic disease. The final diagnosis was obtained with echocardiography, cytology, histopathology, necropsy, or response to therapy. For CT imaging, cats were in a positioning device using a 16 multislice helical CT system. Fifty-four cats had CT imaging of which 50 had thoracic radiography. The most common diagnoses were lung neoplasia, lower airway disease, and cardiomyopathy (nine each). Other disease groups included mediastinal mass (eight), infection (seven), trauma (four), and hernia (three). CT provided additional correct diagnoses in 28% (14/50) and additional information in 74% (37/50) of the cats. Additional correct diagnoses achieved only with CT were most common for cats with lower airway disease. The most common additional findings with CT were lung nodules (n=4), lung masses (n=4), bronchiectasis (n=4), and mediastinal lymphadenopathy (n=3). Survey CT led to a significant different diagnosis or different prognosis in 20 of the 50 cats that were imaged both modalities. Contrast CT was performed in 19 cats, most commonly in cats with lung neoplasia (n=6), a mediastinal mass (n=4) or an infection (n=3), and provided additional correct diagnosis in two cats not achieved with survey CT. Thoracic CT using a positioning device in diseased awake cats is feasible, safe, and clinically useful.

  7. System for uncollimated digital radiography

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Han; Hall, James M.; McCarrick, James F.; Tang, Vincent

    2015-08-11

    The inversion algorithm based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) removes unwanted effects in high energy imaging resulting from an uncollimated source interacting with a finitely thick scintillator. The algorithm takes as input the image from the thick scintillator (TS) and the radiography setup geometry. The algorithm then outputs a restored image which appears as if taken with an infinitesimally thin scintillator (ITS). Inversion is accomplished by numerically generating a probabilistic model relating the ITS image to the TS image and then inverting this model on the TS image through MEM. This reconstruction technique can reduce the exposure time or the required source intensity without undesirable object blurring on the image by allowing the use of both thicker scintillators with higher efficiencies and closer source-to-detector distances to maximize incident radiation flux. The technique is applicable in radiographic applications including fast neutron, high-energy gamma and x-ray radiography using thick scintillators.

  8. Long thoracic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Wiater, J M; Flatow, E L

    1999-11-01

    Injury to the long thoracic nerve causing paralysis or weakness of the serratus anterior muscle can be disabling. Patients with serratus palsy may present with pain, weakness, limitation of shoulder elevation, and scapular winging with medial translation of the scapula, rotation of the inferior angle toward the midline, and prominence of the vertebral border. Long thoracic nerve dysfunction may result from trauma or may occur without injury. Fortunately, most patients experience a return of serratus anterior function with conservative treatment, but recovery may take as many as 2 years. Bracing often is tolerated poorly. Patients with severe symptoms in whom 12 months of conservative treatment has failed may benefit from surgical reconstruction. Although many surgical procedures have been described, the current preferred treatment is transfer of the sternal head of the pectoralis major tendon to the inferior angle of the scapula reinforced with fascia or tendon autograft. Many series have shown good to excellent results, with consistent improvement in function, elimination of winging, and reduction of pain.

  9. Thoracic damage control surgery.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Roberto; Saad, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The damage control surgery came up with the philosophy of applying essential maneuvers to control bleeding and abdominal contamination in trauma patients who are within the limits of their physiological reserves. This concept was extended to thoracic injuries, where relatively simple maneuvers can shorten operative time of in extremis patients. This article aims to revise the various damage control techniques in thoracic organs that must be known to the surgeon engaged in emergency care. RESUMO A cirurgia de controle de danos surgiu com a filosofia de se aplicar manobras essenciais para controle de sangramento e contaminação abdominal, em doentes traumatizados, nos limites de suas reservas fisiológicas. Este conceito se estendeu para as lesões torácicas, onde manobras relativamente simples, podem abreviar o tempo operatório de doentes in extremis. Este artigo tem como objetivo, revisar as diversas técnicas de controle de dano em órgãos torácicos, que devem ser de conhecimento do cirurgião que atua na emergência.

  10. Long thoracic nerve paralysis associated with thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuchi, Y; Saitoh, S; Hosaka, M; Uchiyama, S

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of long thoracic nerve palsy associated with thoracic outlet syndrome are reported. Both patients had abnormal posture, with low-set shoulders and winged scapulae. Clinically there was weakness of the serratus anterior muscle with partial denervotion on electromyography. The diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome was based on positive vascular tests and brachial plexus nerve compression symptoms induced by the vascular testing positions. An orthosis that held the shoulder in an elevated position was used in both cases. Complete recovery of shoulder function and relief of the symptoms was achieved in both cases at 8 and 13 months, respectively, after application of the orthosis.

  11. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  12. Patient risk from interproximal radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, S.J.; Pujol, A. Jr.; Chen, T.S.; Malcolm, A.W.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1984-09-01

    Computer simulation methods for determining patient dose from dental radiography have demonstrated that patient risk from a two-film interproximal examination ranges from 1.1 X 10(-8) to 3.4 X 10(-7) using 90-kVp beams, depending on film speed, projection technique, and age and sex of the patient. Further, changing from a short-cone round-beam to a long-cone technique with rectangular collimation reduces risk by a factor of 2.9, independent of other factors.

  13. ARG portable neutron radiography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    In this report all available neutron radiographic data, including results of tests run at LANL, McClellan AFB, and University of Virginia, will be combined to outline specific transportable neutron radiography systems that could achieve the desired results as a complement to x-radiography capabilities for the Accident Response Group (ARG).

  14. Radiological protection in equine radiography and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoxall, A T

    1977-10-01

    The principles of radiological protection are summarised and consideration is then given to problems, which may confront the equine practitioner, in the fulfillment of these principles during diagnostic radiography of the limbs, head, and spine of the horse. The place of anaesthesia in such procedures is discussed and the special problems associated with therapeutic radiography of the horse are considered.

  15. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY STUDENT GUIDE AND LABORATORY EXERCISES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE TO AN 80-HOUR COURSE IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY IS COORDINATED WITH LESSONS IN THE STUDENT GUIDE AND LABORATORY EXERCISES AND IS BASED ON MATERIAL IN THE COURSE MANUAL, INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY. THE COURSE IS INTENDED TO TRAIN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES AS BEGINNING RADIOGRAPHERS WHO ARE EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO EXTEND THEIR…

  16. PROTON RADIOGRAPHY FOR AN ADVANCED HYDROTEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    C. MORRIS

    2000-11-01

    Analysis of data from BNL experiment 933 is presented. Results demonstrate that proton radiography can meet many of the requirements for an Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF). Results for background, position resolution, metrology, quantitative radiography, material identification, and edge resolution are presented.

  17. Excision of Thoracic Chondrosarcoma: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Rishi; Theodore, Pierre; Mummaneni, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Chondrosarcomas are cartilage-matrix-forming tumors that make up 20-27% of primary malignant bone tumors and are the third most common primary bone malignancy after multiple myelomas and osteosarcomas. Radiographic assessment of this condition includes plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for tumor characterization and delineation of intraosseous and extraosseous involvement. Most chondrosarcomas are refractory to chemotherapy and radiation therapy; therefore, wide en bloc surgical excision offers the best chance for cure. Chondrosarcomas frequently affect the pelvis and upper and lower extremities. In rare instances, the chest wall can be involved, with chondrosarcomas occurring in the ribs, sternum, anterior costosternal junction, and posterior costotransverse junction. In this article, we present a patient with thoracic chondrosarcoma centered at the left T7 costotransverse joint with effacement of the left T7-T8 neuroforamen. We also detail our operative technique of wide en bloc chondrosarcoma excision and review current literature on this topic. PMID:27588229

  18. Thoracic manifestations of Behçet disease at CT.

    PubMed

    Hiller, Nurith; Lieberman, Sivan; Chajek-Shaul, Tova; Bar-Ziv, Jacob; Shaham, Dorith

    2004-01-01

    Behçet disease is a multisystemic and chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown cause that is characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcerations, ocular manifestations, and additional clinical manifestations in multiple organ systems. Behçet disease involving the chest can manifest as a wide spectrum of abnormalities. Although conventional chest radiography is commonly used for initial assessment, spiral computed tomography can demonstrate the entire spectrum of thoracic manifestations of Behçet disease, including abnormalities of the vessel lumen and wall, perivascular tissues, lung parenchyma, pleura, and mediastinal structures. Aneurysms of the pulmonary arteries, with or without thrombosis, are a typical manifestation of Behçet disease. Other manifestations include thrombosis, vasculitis, hemorrhage, infarction, and inflammation. Familiarity with these manifestations can be useful in the diagnosis of Behçet disease, helping to determine the cause of symptoms in patients who present with hemoptysis and guide the choice of appropriate therapy.

  19. Process waste assessment for the Radiography Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, N.M.

    1994-07-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate the Radiography Laboratory, located in Building 923. It documents the processes, identifies the hazardous chemical waste streams generated by these processes, recommends possible ways to minimize waste, and serves as a reference for future assessments of this facility. The Radiography Laboratory provides film radiography or radioscopy (electronic imaging) of weapon and nonweapon components. The Radiography Laboratory has six x-ray machines and one gamma ray source. It also has several other sealed beta- and gamma-ray isotope sources of low microcurie ({mu}Ci) activity. The photochemical processes generate most of the Radiography Laboratory`s routinely generated hazardous waste, and most of that is generated by the DuPont film processor. Because the DuPont film processor generates the most photochemical waste, it was selected for an estimated material balance.

  20. The evolution of thoracic anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Jay B

    2005-02-01

    The specialty of thoracic surgery has evolved along with the modem practice of anesthesia. This close relationship began in the 1930s and continues today. Thoracic surgery has grown from a field limited almost exclusively to simple chest wall procedures to the present situation in which complex procedures, such as lung volume reduction or lung transplantation, now can be performed on the most severely compromised patient. The great advances in thoracic surgery have followed discoveries and technical innovations in many medical fields. One of the most important reasons for the rapid escalation in the number and complexity of thoracic surgical procedures now being performed has been the evolution of anesthesia for thoracic surgery. There has been so much progress in this area that numerous books and journals are devoted entirely to this subject. The author has been privileged to work with several surgeons who specialized in noncardiac thoracic surgery. As a colleague of 25 years, the noted pulmonary surgeon James B.D. Mark wrote, "Any operation is a team effort... (but) nowhere is this team effort more important than in thoracic surgery, where near-choreography of moves by all participants is essential. Exchange of information, status and plans are mandatory". This team approach between the thoracic surgeon and the anesthesiologist reflects the history of the two specialties. With new advances in technology, such as continuous blood gas monitoring and the pharmacologic management of pulmonary circulation to maximize oxygenation during one-lung ventilation, in the future even more complex procedures may be able to be performed safely on even higher risk patients.

  1. Quality assurance in film radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Van Bellegem, L.; Vaessen, B.

    1993-12-31

    The ISO 9000 standards were originally developed during the 1980`s to provide uniform, worldwide quality assurance requirements. The EC (European Communities) adopted these standards as part of their modular approach to ``conformity assessment`` procedures, for several product categories. This includes the development of standards (specifications) which define what the purchaser wants and what the supplier agrees to provide, as well as quality system registration (certification) which increases confidence in the supplier`s ability to produce consistently. The requirements are typically most rigorous for regulated products that have a major impact on health and safety i.e film radiographic systems. This is the main reason for making available the necessary Q.C. tools in film radiography to comply with Q.A. specifications and guarantee the required consistent performance. These tools can only give satisfying support if they are dedicated, easy to use, precise and cost effective at the user`s level. The main topics for such a Q.A. package are: (1) standard for Film System classification for industrial radiography; (2) film system certification; and (3) standard for control of film processing by means of reference values i.e. pre-exposed film wedges and archiving quality control method.

  2. Image enhancement for radiography inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Wong, Brian Stephen; Guan, Tui Chen

    2005-04-01

    The x-ray radiographic testing method is often used for detecting defects as a non-destructive testing method (NDT). In many cases, NDT is used for aircraft components, welds, etc. Hence, the backgrounds are always more complex than a piece of steel. Radiographic images are low contrast, dark and high noise image. It is difficult to detect defects directly. So, image enhancement is a significant part of automated radiography inspection system. Histogram equalization and median filter are the most frequently used techniques to enhance the radiographic images. In this paper, the adaptive histogram equalization and contrast limited histogram equalization are compared with histogram equalization. The adaptive wavelet thresholding is compared with median filter. Through comparative analysis, the contrast limited histogram equalization and adaptive wavelet thresholding can enhance perception of defects better.

  3. [A case of long thoracic nerve palsy, with winged scapula, as a result of prolonged exertion on practicing archery].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, J; Nishiyama, K; Takeda, K; Ichiba, T; Sakuta, M

    1990-08-01

    Reports of isolated long thoracic nerve palsy are rare in Japan. We reported a case of isolated long thoracic nerve palsy, resulted from recurrent injury to the nerve. Muscle CT and electrodiagnostic study were useful for confirming diagnosis of this cases. This patient was a student aged 20 years, with nothing of importance in his family or past history. After he started practicing archery, winging of left scapula was gradually developed. Physical examination revealed weakness and atrophy of left serratus anterior muscle. There was no wasting and weakness of other should girdle muscles. Hematochemical tests were normal, except slight hyperthyroidism. Radiography and myelography of the cervical spine were normal. Muscle CT of upper thoracic level demonstrated atrophy of left serratus anterior muscle, and no abnormality were found in other muscles. Electromyogram of the left serratus anterior revealed discrete activity of reduced amplitude, and fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves. Conduction time for left long thoracic nerve was prolonged, and amplitude of the evoked response was small and there were temporal dispersion. Muscle CT and electrodiagnostic studies were suggestive of neuroapraxia of left long thoracic nerve. Over stretching or compression during exercises may be responsible for the damage to the long thoracic nerve.

  4. Multi-purpose neutron radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.P.; Bryant, L.E.; Berry, P.

    1996-07-01

    A conceptual design is given for a low cost, multipurpose radiography system suited for the needs of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The proposed neutron source is californium-252. One purpose is to provide an in-house capability for occasional, reactor quality, neutron radiography thus replacing the recently closed Omega-West Reactor. A second purpose is to provide a highly reliable standby transportable neutron radiography system. A third purpose is to provide for transportable neutron probe gamma spectroscopy techniques. The cost is minimized by shared use of an existing x-ray facility, and by use of an existing transport cask. The achievable neutron radiography and radioscopy performance characteristics have been verified. The demonstrated image qualities range from high resolution gadolinium - SR film, with L:D = 100:1, to radioscopy using a LIXI image with L:D = 30:1 and neutron fluence 3.4 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}.

  5. Information extraction from muon radiography data

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, K. N.; Asaki, T. J.; Chartrand, R.; Hengartner, N. W.; Hogan, G. E.; Morris, C. L.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Schirato, R.C.; Schultz, L. J.; Sottile, M. J.; Vixie, K. R.; Wohlberg, B. E.; Blanpied, G.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering muon radiography was proposed recently as a technique of detection and 3-d imaging for dense high-Z objects. High-energy cosmic ray muons are deflected in matter in the process of multiple Coulomb scattering. By measuring the deflection angles we are able to reconstruct the configuration of high-Z material in the object. We discuss the methods for information extraction from muon radiography data. Tomographic methods widely used in medical images have been applied to a specific muon radiography information source. Alternative simple technique based on the counting of high-scattered muons in the voxels seems to be efficient in many simulated scenes. SVM-based classifiers and clustering algorithms may allow detection of compact high-Z object without full image reconstruction. The efficiency of muon radiography can be increased using additional informational sources, such as momentum estimation, stopping power measurement, and detection of muonic atom emission.

  6. Thoracic Radiculopathy due to Rare Causes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic radiculopathy represents an uncommon spinal disorder that is frequently overlooked in the evaluation of thoracic, or abdominal pain syndrome. The clinical representation of this uncommon disorder is often atypical. With many differential diagnoses to consider, it is not surprising that the cause of thoracic radiculopathy is often not discovered for months, or years, after the symptoms arise. We report two rare cases of thoracic radiculopathy; one case was caused by extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (EES) along the thoracic paraspinal area, and the other by foraminal stenosis, due to a bony spur of the thoracic vertebra. As such, thoracic radiculopathy should be considered in the diagnosis of patients with thoracic and abdominal pain, especially if initial diagnostic studies are inconclusive. PMID:27446792

  7. Corrosion Inhibitors as Penetrant Dyes for Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid/vapor-phase corrosion inhibitors (LVCIs) have been found to be additionally useful as penetrant dyes for neutron radiography (and perhaps also x-radiography). Enhancement of radiographic contrasts by use of LVCIs can reveal cracks, corrosion, and other defects that may be undetectable by ultrasonic inspection, that are hidden from direct optical inspection, and/or that are difficult or impossible to detect in radiographs made without dyes.

  8. Motivations for muon radiography of active volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedonio, G.; Martini, M.

    2010-02-01

    Muon radiography represents an innovative tool for investigating the interior of active volcanoes. This method integrates the conventional geophysical techniques and provides an independent way to estimate the density of the volcano structure and reveal the presence of magma conduits. The experience from the pioneer experiments performed at Mt. Asama, Mt. West Iwate, and Showa-Shinzan (Japan) are very encouraging. Muon radiography could be applied, in principle, at any stratovolcano. Here we focus our attention on Vesuvius and Stromboli (Italy).

  9. Ruptured Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Infected with Listeria Monocytogenes: A Case Report and a Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Shigeki; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro; Takada, Masanori; Fujita, Koichi; Nishibori, Yoshiharu; Maruyama, Takao

    2013-01-01

    A 75-year-old male with a history of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, sigmoid colon cancer, and metastatic liver cancer was admitted to our institution with a complaint of a prickly feeling in his chest. On admission, a chest radiograph revealed a normal cardio-thoracic ratio of 47%. Echocardiography revealed pericardial effusion and blood chemical analyses revealed elevated C-reactive protein levels (14.7 mg/dL). On day 3, chest radiography revealed cardiomegaly with a cardio-thoracic ratio of 58% and protrusion of the left first arch. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography revealed a saccular aneurysm in the aortic arch with surrounding hematoma; thus, a ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm was suspected. Emergency surgery was performed, which revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm with extensive local inflammation. The diagnosis of an infected aortic rupture was therefore confirmed. The aneurysm and abscess were resected, followed by prosthetic graft replacement and omental packing. Histopathology of the resected aneurysm revealed gram-positive bacilli; and Listeria monocytogenes was confirmed as the causative organism by culture. Postoperative course was uneventful; on postoperative day 60, the patient was ambulatory and was discharged. Here we report the case of a male with a ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm infected with L. monocytogenes. PMID:25512697

  10. [Japanese Board Certified Thoracic Surgeon].

    PubMed

    Chihara, Koji

    2017-01-01

    The Japanese Board of General Thoracic Surgery (JBGTS) consisted by Japanese Association of Chest Surgery (JACS) and The Japanese Association of Thoracic Surgery (JATS) has been certified Japanese Board Certified Thoracic Surgeon (JBCTS) since 2004. At present, JBCTS is obtained by being of Certified Surgeon by Japan Surgical Society( JSS), completion of minimum requirement of surgical experience, scientific papers, presentation at medical assembly, learning of postgraduate educational programs, and examination approximate 11 years after graduation of medical school. Thirteen hundreds JBCTS throughout Japan are engaged in operation for 77,000 cases/year, including 38,000 lung cancer patients/year. The operative volume has been growing lineally these 30 years, and operative mortality in lung cancer patients has been less than 1% these several years. Japanese Medical Specialty Board (JMSB) published a guideline of the new system of medical specialty certification system in Jury 2014, in which fundamental structure is consisted by basic specialties of 19 medical fields and following subspecialties and program based system rather than curriculum based system. According to this guideline, JBGTS has been collaborated with JSS in order to establish sequential programs of the 2 specialties, and proposed an improved certification system to accomplish the mission that it educates trainees to be thoracic surgical professionals who is able to perform safe and standalized procedures.

  11. Aneurysms of the thoracic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Le Roux, B. T.; Rogers, M. A.; Gotsman, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    Selected radiographs from 40 patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm serve to illustrate most of the radiographic features of this disease. Surgical techniques are outlined and were used to modify the natural course of the disease in 14 patients, with three postoperative deaths. The remaining 26 patients were either moribund on admission and died shortly afterwards or declined operations and died later. Images PMID:5144643

  12. Proton radiography for clinical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talamonti, C.; Reggioli, V.; Bruzzi, M.; Bucciolini, M.; Civinini, C.; Marrazzo, L.; Menichelli, D.; Pallotta, S.; Randazzo, N.; Sipala, V.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Petterson, M.; Blumenkrantz, N.; Feldt, J.; Heimann, J.; Lucia, D.; Seiden, A.; Williams, D. C.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Bashkirov, V.; Schulte, R.

    2010-01-01

    Proton imaging is not yet applied as a clinical routine, although its advantages have been demonstrated. In the context of quality assurance in proton therapy, proton images can be used to verify the correct positioning of the patient and to control the range of protons. Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a 3D imaging method appropriate for planning and verification of proton radiation treatments, because it allows evaluating the distributions of proton stopping power within the tissues and can be directly utilized when the patient is in the actual treatment position. The aim of the PRoton IMAging experiment, supported by INFN, and the PRIN 2006 project, supported by MIUR, is to realize a proton computed radiography (pCR) prototype for reconstruction of proton images from a single projection in order to validate the technique with pre-clinical studies and, eventually, to conceive the configuration of a complete pCT system. A preliminary experiment performed at the 250 MeV proton synchrotron of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) allowed acquisition of experimental data before the completion of PRIMA project's prototype. In this paper, the results of the LLUMC experiment are reported and the reconstruction of proton images of two phantoms is discussed.

  13. Mobile real time radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  14. Thorium-uranium fission radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    Results are described for studies designed to develop routine methods for in-situ measurement of the abundance of Th and U on a microscale in heterogeneous samples, especially rocks, using the secondary high-energy neutron flux developed when the 650 MeV proton beam of an accelerator is stopped in a 42 x 42 cm diam Cu cylinder. Irradiations were performed at three different locations in a rabbit tube in the beam stop area, and thick metal foils of Bi, Th, and natural U as well as polished silicate glasses of known U and Th contents were used as targets and were placed in contact with mica which served as a fission track detector. In many cases both bare and Cd-covered detectors were exposed. The exposed mica samples were etched in 48% HF and the fission tracks counted by conventional transmitted light microscopy. Relative fission cross sections are examined, along with absolute Th track production rates, interaction tracks, and a comparison of measured and calculated fission rates. The practicality of fast neutron radiography revealed by experiments to data is discussed primarily for Th/U measurements, and mixtures of other fissionable nuclei are briefly considered.

  15. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedar, S.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Naudet, C. J.; Jones, C. E.; Plaut, J. P.; Webb, F. H.

    2013-06-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays) to image the interior of large-scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  16. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedar, S.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Naudet, C. J.; Jones, C. E.; Plaut, J. P.; Webb, F. H.

    2012-10-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays) to image the interior of large scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  17. Thyroid dose distribution in dental radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bristow, R.G.; Wood, R.E.; Clark, G.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The anatomic position and proven radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland make it an organ of concern in dental radiography. A calibrated thermoluminescent dosimetry system was used to investigate the absorbed dose (microGy) to the thyroid gland resultant from a minimum irradiated volume, intraoral full-mouth radiography technique with the use of rectangular collimation with a lead-backed image receptor, and conventional panoramic radiography performed with front and rear lead aprons. Use of the minimum irradiated volume technique resulted in a significantly decreased absorbed dose over the entire thyroid region ranging from 100% to 350% (p less than 0.05). Because this intraoral technique results in radiographs with greater image quality and also exposes the thyroid gland to less radiation than the panoramic, this technique may be an alternative to the panoramic procedure.

  18. Robotic Surgery for Thoracic Disease.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shin-Ichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgeries have developed in the general thoracic field over the past decade, and publications on robotic surgery outcomes have accumulated. However, controversy remains about the application of robotic surgery, with a lack of well-established evidence. Robotic surgery has several advantages such as natural movement of the surgeon's hands when manipulating the robotic arms and instruments controlled by computer-assisted systems. Most studies have reported the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery based on acceptable morbidity and mortality compared to open or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Furthermore, there are accumulated data to indicate longer operation times and shorter hospital stay in robotic surgery. However, randomized controlled trials between robotic and open or VATS procedures are needed to clarify the advantage of robotic surgery. In this review, we focused the literature about robotic surgery used to treat lung cancer and mediastinal tumor.

  19. The current status of panoramic radiography.

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, P N

    1987-03-01

    The current status of dental panoramic tomography (rotational panoramic radiography) is reviewed. This technique is based on a combination of tomography and slit-beam radiography to provide an image of both jaws on a single film. There is a greater degree of image degradation when compared with conventional radiographic techniques due to tomographic blurring, magnification and distortion, secondary images and burn-out. Meticulous patient position is essential to accommodate their jaws to the image layer determined by the manufacturers. The absorbed doses from panoramic radiography are of a similar order to that from bitewing radiography and lower than those from a full-mouth periapical series. The individual risk of 1.3 X 10(-6) is compared with that from other radiographic examinations and smoking. The collective risk, 1.04 deaths in the UK in 1981, is relatively insignificant as is the genetic dose. The risk to the dentist and his staff is also low compared to other risks. The methods of dose limitation currently available are reviewed. The clinical indications are considered in relation to the guidelines of the American Dental Association and the Dental Estimates Board in the UK. The problems associated with attempts to measure diagnostic yield are considered. In view of the world-wide public concern at the potential dangers of ionising radiation, dentists are urged to maximize the diagnostic yield from their panoramic radiography by taking such radiographs only when clinically necessary, ensuring meticulous positioning and processing, followed by scrupulous assessment of the radiography for any sign of pathological change.

  20. Nanotechnology applications in thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hofferberth, Sophie C; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging, rapidly evolving field with the potential to significantly impact care across the full spectrum of cancer therapy. Of note, several recent nanotechnological advances show particular promise to improve outcomes for thoracic surgical patients. A variety of nanotechnologies are described that offer possible solutions to existing challenges encountered in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Nanotechnology-based imaging platforms have the ability to improve the surgical care of patients with thoracic malignancies through technological advances in intraoperative tumour localization, lymph node mapping and accuracy of tumour resection. Moreover, nanotechnology is poised to revolutionize adjuvant lung cancer therapy. Common chemotherapeutic drugs, such as paclitaxel, docetaxel and doxorubicin, are being formulated using various nanotechnologies to improve drug delivery, whereas nanoparticle (NP)-based imaging technologies can monitor the tumour microenvironment and facilitate molecularly targeted lung cancer therapy. Although early nanotechnology-based delivery systems show promise, the next frontier in lung cancer therapy is the development of 'theranostic' multifunctional NPs capable of integrating diagnosis, drug monitoring, tumour targeting and controlled drug release into various unifying platforms. This article provides an overview of key existing and emerging nanotechnology platforms that may find clinical application in thoracic surgery in the near future.

  1. Mobile waste inspection real time radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.; Mendez, J.

    1995-10-01

    The 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography System was designed and purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Mobile Real Time Radiography System has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from 5-gal. buckets to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). The fact that this unit is mobile makes it an attractive alternative to the costly road closures associated with moving waste from the waste generator to storage or disposal facilities.

  2. Proton Radiography: Its uses and Resolution Scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Mariam, Fesseha G.

    2012-08-09

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has used high energy protons as a probe in flash radiography for over a decade. In this time the proton radiography project has used 800 MeV protons, provided by the LANSCE accelerator facility at LANL, to diagnose over five-hundred dynamic experiments in support of stockpile stewardship programs as well as basic materials science. Through this effort significant experience has been gained in using charged particles as direct radiographic probes to diagnose transient systems. The results of this experience will be discussed through the presentation of data from experiments recently performed at the LANL pRad.

  3. Californium-252: A New Isotopic Source for Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Reinig, W.C.

    2001-08-29

    This report discusses a new isotopic source for neutron radiography, Californium-252. Nuclear reactors are the usual source of neutrons for radiography, primarily because of their intense neutron beams. If neutron radiography is to have widespread use, intense transportable neutron sources are required that can be used in plants, in laboratories and in the field.

  4. Digital radiography. A comparison with modern conventional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, G J

    2006-01-01

    The development of computed radiography over the past two decades has transformed radiological imaging. The radiology departments in the 21st century will look very different from those in the preceding period. In this review, the development of digital radiography is presented with a description of its various forms and a comparison with screen film radiography. PMID:16822918

  5. Endovascular Repair of Traumatic Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta: Single-Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Saratzis, Nikolaos A. Saratzis, Athanasios N.; Melas, Nikolaos; Ginis, Georgios; Lioupis, Athanasios; Lykopoulos, Dimitrios; Lazaridis, John; Dimitrios, Kiskinis

    2007-06-15

    Purpose. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta secondary to blunt chest trauma is a life-threatening emergency and a common cause of death, usually following violent collisions. The objective of this retrospective report was to evaluate the efficacy of endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions with a single commercially available stent-graft. Methods. Nine men (mean age 29.5 years) were admitted to our institution between January 2003 and January 2006 due to blunt aortic trauma following violent motor vehicle collisions. Plain chest radiography, spiral computed tomography, aortography, and transesophageal echocardiography were used for diagnostic purposes in all cases. All patients were diagnosed with contained extramural thoracic aortic hematomas, secondary to aortic disruption. One patient was also diagnosed with a traumatic thoracic aortic dissection, secondary to blunt trauma. All subjects were poor surgical candidates, due to major injuries such as multiple bone fractures, abdominal hematomas, and pulmonary contusions. All repairs were performed using the EndoFit (LeMaitre Vascular) stent-graft. Results. Complete exclusion of the traumatic aortic disruption and pseudoaneurysm was achieved and verified at intraoperative arteriography and on CT scans, within 10 days of the repair in all patients. In 1 case the deployment of a second cuff was necessary due to a secondary endoleak. In 2 cases the left subclavian artery was occluded to achieve adequate graft fixation. No procedure-related deaths have occurred and no cardiac or peripheral vascular complications were observed within the 12 months (range 8-16 months) follow-up. Conclusions. This is the first time the EndoFit graft has been utilized in the treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions secondary to chest trauma. The repair of such pathologies is technically feasible and early follow-up results are promising.

  6. Single-image hard-copy display of the spine utilizing digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, Dorothy S.; Janchar, Timothy; Milzman, David; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1997-04-01

    Regions of the entire spine contain a wide latitude of tissue densities within the imaged field of view presenting a problem for adequate radiological evaluation. With screen/film technology, the optimal technique for one area of the radiograph is sub-optimal for another area. Computed radiography (CR) with its inherent wide dynamic range, has been shown to be better than screen/film for lateral cervical spine imaging, but limitations are still present with standard image processing. By utilizing a dynamic range control (DRC) algorithm based on unsharp masking and signal transformation prior to gradation and frequency processing within the CR system, more vertebral bodies can be seen on a single hard copy display of the lateral cervical, thoracic, and thoracolumbar examinations. Examinations of the trauma cross-table lateral cervical spine, lateral thoracic spine, and lateral thoracolumbar spine were collected on live patient using photostimulable storage phosphor plates, the Fuji FCR 9000 reader, and the Fuji AC-3 computed radiography reader. Two images were produced from a single exposure; one with standard image processing and the second image with the standard process and the additional DRC algorithm. Both sets were printed from a Fuji LP 414 laser printer. Two different DRC algorithms were applied depending on which portion of the spine was not well visualized. One algorithm increased optical density and the second algorithm decreased optical density. The resultant image pairs were then reviewed by a panel of radiologists. Images produced with the additional DRC algorithm demonstrated improved visualization of previously 'under exposed' and 'over exposed' regions within the same image. Where lung field had previously obscured bony detail of the lateral thoracolumbar spine due to 'over exposure,' the image with the DRC applied to decrease the optical density allowed for easy visualization of the entire area of interest. For areas of the lateral cervical spine

  7. Safety Testing of Industrial Radiography Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Trapp, D.J.

    1999-09-29

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted the Savannah River Technology Center to verify the relevancy of the 10 CFR Part 34 requirements for the normal use of portable gamma radiography systems and to propose recommendations for changes or modifications to the requirements.

  8. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTORS' GUIDE. VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Engineering Extension Service.

    INFORMATION RELATIVE TO THE LESSON PLANS IN "INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, VOLUME I" (VT 003 565) IS PRESENTED ON 52 INFORMATION SHEETS INCLUDING THE SUBJECTS SHIELDING EQUATIONS AND LOGARITHMS, METAL PROPERTIES, FIELD TRIP INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS, WELDING SYMBOLS AND SIZES, SAMPLE REPORT FORMS, AND TYPICAL SHIPPING…

  9. Film radiography -- The lone star of quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kochakian, R.

    1995-12-31

    In this year of 1995, 100 years of x-ray photography are being celebrated. The reason film radiography is still the number one NDT technique is because of its quality. In this paper the author discusses: (1) fundamentals of image quality and (2) status of new draft ASRM film system classification standard.

  10. Functional shoulder radiography with use of a dynamic flat panel detector.

    PubMed

    Sakuda, Keita; Sanada, Shigeru; Tanaka, Rie; Kitaoka, Katsuhiko; Hayashi, Norio; Matsuura, Yukihiro

    2014-07-01

    Our purpose in this study was to develop a functional form of radiography and to perform a quantitative analysis for the shoulder joint using a dynamic flat panel detector (FPD) system. We obtained dynamic images at a rate of 3.75 frames per second (fps) using an FPD system. Three patients and 5 healthy controls were studied with a clinically established frontal projection, with abduction of the arms. The arm angle, glenohumeral angle (G-angle), and scapulothoracic angle (S-angle) were measured on dynamic images. The ratio of the G-angle to the S-angle (GSR) was also evaluated quantitatively. In normal subjects, the G-angle and S-angle changed gradually along with the arm angle. The G-angle was approximately twice as large as the S-angle, resulting in a GSR of 2 throughout the abduction of the shoulder. Changes in G-angle and S-angle tended to be irregular in patients with shoulder disorders. The GSR of the thoracic outlet syndrome, recurrent dislocation of the shoulder joint, and anterior serratus muscle paralysis were 3-7.5, 4-9.5, and 3.5-7.5, respectively. The GSR of the anterior serratus muscle paralysis improved to approximately 2 after orthopedic treatment. Our preliminary results indicated that functional radiography by FPD and computer-aided quantitative analysis is useful for diagnosis of some shoulder disorders, such as the thoracic outlet syndrome, recurrent dislocation of the shoulder joint, and anterior serratus muscle paralysis. The technique and procedures described comprise a simple, functional shoulder radiographic method for evaluation of the therapeutic effects of surgery and/or rehabilitation.

  11. Doctors of Thoracic Surgery: The Division of Thoracic Surgery at Toronto General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Keshavjee, Shaf; Spatafora, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The Division of Thoracic Surgery at Toronto General Hospital has a history of sustained excellence and commitment to patient care, research and innovation in Thoracic Surgery. Doctors of Thoracic Surgery (DOTSR) continues to be a leading thoracic division training surgeons who practice all over the world--impacting the treatment of patients with thoracic disease. Many leaders in our specialty worldwide have directly or indirectly trained in Toronto. At University Health Network and the University of Toronto, this academic division has continued to contribute and thrive in a highly supportive and productive research and clinical environment.

  12. Evolution of thoracic surgery in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Deslauriers, Jean; Griffith Pearson, F; Nelems, Bill

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Canada’s contributions toward the 21st century’s practice of thoracic surgery have been both unique and multilayered. Scattered throughout are tales of pioneers where none had gone before, where opportunities were greeted by creativity and where iconic figures followed one another. OBJECTIVE: To describe the numerous and important achievements of Canadian thoracic surgeons in the areas of surgery for pulmonary tuberculosis, thoracic oncology, airway surgery and lung transplantation. METHOD: Information was collected through reading of the numerous publications written by Canadian thoracic surgeons over the past 100 years, interviews with interested people from all thoracic surgery divisions across Canada and review of pertinent material form the archives of several Canadian hospitals and universities. RESULTS: Many of the developments occurred by chance. It was the early and specific focus on thoracic surgery, to the exclusion of cardiac and general surgery, that distinguishes the Canadian experience, a model that is now emerging everywhere. From lung transplantation in chimera twin calves to ex vivo organ preservation, from the removal of airways to tissue regeneration, and from intensive care research to complex science, Canadians have excelled in their commitment to research. Over the years, the influence of Canadian thoracic surgery on international practice has been significant. CONCLUSIONS: Canada spearheaded the development of thoracic surgery over the past 100 years to a greater degree than any other country. From research to education, from national infrastructures to the regionalization of local practices, it happened in Canada.

  13. The Thoracic Shape of Hominoids

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lap Ki

    2014-01-01

    In hominoids, the broad thorax has been assumed to contribute to their dorsal scapular position. However, the dorsoventral diameter of their cranial thorax was found in one study to be longer in hominoids. There are insufficient data on thoracic shape to explain the relationship between broad thorax and dorsal scapular position. The current study presents data on multilevel cross-sectional shape and volume distribution in a range of primates. Biplanar radiographs of intact fluid-preserved cadavers were taken to measure the cross-sectional shape of ten equally spaced levels through the sternum (called decisternal levels) and the relative volume of the nine intervening thoracic segments. It was found that the cranial thorax of hominoids is larger and broader (except in the first two decisternal levels) than that of other primates. The cranial thorax of hominoids has a longer dorsoventral diameter because the increase in dorsoventral diameter caused by the increase in the volume of the cranial thorax overcompensates for the decrease caused by the broadening of the cranial thorax. The larger and broader cranial thorax in hominoids can be explained as a locomotor adaptation for scapular gliding and as a respiratory adaptation for reducing the effects of orthograde posture on ventilation-perfusion inequality. PMID:24818026

  14. Thoracic organ transplantation: laboratory methods.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jignesh K; Kobashigawa, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    Although great progress has been achieved in thoracic organ transplantation through the development of effective immunosuppression, there is still significant risk of rejection during the early post-transplant period, creating a need for routine monitoring for both acute antibody and cellular mediated rejection. The currently available multiplexed, microbead assays utilizing solubilized HLA antigens afford the capability of sensitive detection and identification of HLA and non-HLA specific antibodies. These assays are being used to assess the relative strength of donor specific antibodies; to permit performance of virtual crossmatches which can reduce the waiting time to transplantation; to monitor antibody levels during desensitization; and for heart transplants to monitor antibodies post-transplant. For cell mediated immune responses, the recent development of gene expression profiling has allowed noninvasive monitoring of heart transplant recipients yielding predictive values for acute cellular rejection. T cell immune monitoring in heart and lung transplant recipients has allowed individual tailoring of immunosuppression, particularly to minimize risk of infection. While the current antibody and cellular laboratory techniques have enhanced the ability to manage thoracic organ transplant recipients, future developments from improved understanding of microchimerism and graft tolerance may allow more refined allograft monitoring techniques.

  15. Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of the left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery as a surgical strategy has been shown to improve the survival rate and decrease the risk of adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. These clinical benefits appear to be related to the superior short and long-term patency rates of the internal thoracic artery graft. Although the advantages of using of both internal thoracic arteries (ITA) for bypass grafting have taken longer to prove, recent results from multiple data sets now support these findings. The major advantage of bilateral ITA grafting appears to be improved survival rate, while the disadvantages of complex ITA grafting include the increased complexity of operation, and an increased risk of wound complications. While these short-term disadvantages have been mitigated in contemporary surgical practice, they have not eliminated. Bilateral ITA grafting should be considered the procedure of choice for patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery that have a predicted survival rate of longer than ten years. PMID:23977627

  16. Thoracic osteophyte: rare cause of esophageal perforation.

    PubMed

    Rathinam, S; Makarawo, T; Norton, R; Collins, F J

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal perforation is a difficult problem in thoracic surgery. Esophageal perforations can be spontaneous, iatrogenic, or malignant. We report two cases of esophageal perforations caused by thoracic osteophytes and different management strategies leading to successful outcomes. An 80-year-old male presented with chest pain and dysphagia following a fall. On endoscopy, an esophageal perforation and foreign body was noted which was confirmed as a thoracic osteophyte on computed tomography scan. He was managed conservatively as he declined surgery. A 63-year-old male was admitted with dysphagia following a food bolus obstruction. Following esophagoscopy and dilatation, there was clinical and radiological evidence of perforation. During surgery, a thoracic osteophyte was identified as the cause of perforation. The perforation was closed in layers and the osteophyte was trimmed. Both patients recovered well. Thoracic osteophytes are a rare cause of esophageal perforations and a high index of suspicion is required in patients with osteoarthritis who present with esophageal perforations.

  17. Thoracic outlet syndrome in whiplash injury.

    PubMed Central

    Capistrant, T D

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-five cases of thoracic outlet syndrome complicating whiplash or cervical strain injury were studied. Thirty cases had confirmation by the demonstration of slowed ulnar nerve conduction velocity (UNCV) through the thoracic outlet. Two distinct groups of patients were found. An acute group, seen an average of 3 1/2 months post injury, had severe neck pain with often mild or incidental thoracic outlet syndrome. A chronic group, with symptoms persisting more than 2 years after cervical injury, often had thoracic outlet symptoms as the predominant complaint. This study suggests that the arm aches and parethesias seen in association with both acute and chronic cervical strain injury are most often secondary to thoracic outlet syndrome. PMID:836089

  18. Assessment and optimisation of the image quality of chest-radiography systems.

    PubMed

    Redlich, U; Hoeschen, C; Doehring, W

    2005-01-01

    A complete evaluation strategy had been developed for thoracic X-ray imaging. It has been validated by investigating five chest-radiography systems, two of these systems after optimising image processing. The systems were a screen-film combination, a selenium drum, a conventional and a transparent imaging plate and a Cs/I-based flat panel detector (the two latter ones have been optimised using different post processing). At first all detectors have been characterised using physical parameters like DQE and MTF. After that all systems have been evaluated by human observer studies using anatomy in clinical images (VGA, ICS) and added pathological structures in thoracic phantom images (ROC). The ranking of the image quality of the systems was nearly the same in all studies. There was a similar assessment of main image quality parameters like spatial resolution, dynamic range and MTF. The modification of image post processing changed the visibility of pathological structures more than the visualisation of the anatomical criteria. The assessment of the clinical image quality has to be done for anatomical structures, and the recognition of pathological structures has to be evaluated.

  19. Monte Carlo calculation for microplanar beam radiography.

    PubMed

    Company, F Z; Allen, B J; Mino, C

    2000-09-01

    In radiography the scattered radiation from the off-target region decreases the contrast of the target image. We propose that a bundle of collimated, closely spaced, microplanar beams can reduce the scattered radiation and eliminate the effect of secondary electron dose, thus increasing the image dose contrast in the detector. The lateral and depth dose distributions of 20-200 keV microplanar beams are investigated using the EGS4 Monte Carlo code to calculate the depth doses and dose profiles in a 6 cm x 6 cm x 6 cm tissue phantom. The maximum dose on the primary beam axis (peak) and the minimum inter-beam scattered dose (valley) are compared at different photon energies and the optimum energy range for microbeam radiography is found. Results show that a bundle of closely spaced microplanar beams can give superior contrast imaging to a single macrobeam of the same overall area.

  20. Contrast enhancement in microplanar beam radiography.

    PubMed

    Company, F Z; Allen, B J; Mino, C

    1999-12-01

    In x-ray radiography, the target produces a useful shadow from absorption of the primary beam, while the scattered radiation into the off-target region decreases the contrast of the target image. A bundle of closely spaced microplanar beams can reduce the scattered radiation and give superior image contrast compared with a single macrobeam of the same dimensions. To further reduce the scattered radiation and increase the image contrast, we place an air gap between the tissue phantom and the detector. The primary and scattered photon flux of a single microplanar beam is measured as a function of thickness inside the phantom and in the air gap. Results show that a bundle of closely spaced, microplanar beams increase the image contrast by 22% and a 2 cm air gap decreases the scattered photon flux by about half, improving the contrast by an additional 16%. Thus an overall improvement of 41% in contrast can be achieved with microplanar beam radiography.

  1. A system for fast neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.

    1996-05-01

    A system has been designed and a neutron generator installed to perform fast neutron radiography. With this sytem, objects as small as a coin or as large as a waste drum can be radiographed. The neutron source is an MF Physics A-711 neutron generator which produces 3x10{sup 10} neutrons/second with an average energy of 14.5 MeV. The radiography system uses x-ray scintillation screens and film in commercially available cassettes. The cassettes have been modified to include a thin sheet of plastic to convert neutrons to protons through elastic scattering from hydrogen and other low Z materials in the plastic. For film densities from 1.8 to 3.0, exposures range from 1.9x10{sup 7} to 3.8x10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2} depending on the type of screen and film.

  2. Digital radiography: Present detectors and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1990-08-01

    Present detectors for digital radiography are of two classes: real time detectors and storage (non real time) types. Present real time detectors consist of image intensifier tubes with an internal cesium iodide layer x-ray converter. Non real time detectors involve linear sweep arrays or storage detectors such as film. Future detectors discussed here can be of both types utilizing new technologies such as hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode arrays coupled to thin film transistor arrays. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Proton Radiography Peers into Metal Solidification

    DOE PAGES

    Clarke, Amy J.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; ...

    2013-06-19

    Historically, metals are cut up and polished to see the structure and to infer how processing influences the evolution. We can now peer into a metal during processing without destroying it using proton radiography. Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials. Synchrotron x-ray radiography has enabled real-time glimpses into metal solidification. However, x-ray energies favor the examination of small volumes and low density metals. In this study, we use high energy proton radiography for the first time to image a large metal volume (>10,000 mm3) during melting and solidification.more » We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1mm3), bridging four orders of magnitude. In conclusion, real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of the structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models.« less

  4. Newer imaging methods in chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Wandtke, J C

    1990-01-01

    In recent years the application of computers to chest radiography has resulted in a wide variety of innovative research. Major research efforts have resulted in the development of new types of x-ray detectors, such as storage phosphor technology, for use with computers. Storage phosphor imaging is one of the most promising new techniques, and almost 100 systems have been installed worldwide. Radiologists are quickly evaluating the image quality provided by this new detector system, which has the potential to improve image quality. It has wide latitude and is coupled with a computer to perform image processing. Another promising technology, originally studied in the form of scan equalization radiography, is now commercially available in the form of advanced multiple-beam equalization radiography. This film technique uses computers to modulate the x-ray exposure to take maximum advantage of the imaging capabilities of radiographic film. Digital solid-state detectors have been studied in conjunction with computerized image enhancement systems. These currently show improvement in nodule detection and quantification of the calcium content of a lesion. Application of large image intensifiers to a digital image system is being studied, but there are currently limitations on spatial resolution.

  5. Proton Radiography Peers into Metal Solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy J.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Cooley, Jason C.; Morris, Christopher; Merrill, Frank E.; Hollander, Brian J.; Mariam, Fesseha G.; Ott, Thomas J.; Barker, Martha R.; Tucker, Tim J.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Fezzaa, Kamel; Deriy, Alex; Patterson, Brian M.; Clarke, Kester D.; Montalvo, Joel D.; Field, Robert D.; Thoma, Dan J.; Smith, James L.; Teter, David F.

    2013-06-19

    Historically, metals are cut up and polished to see the structure and to infer how processing influences the evolution. We can now peer into a metal during processing without destroying it using proton radiography. Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials. Synchrotron x-ray radiography has enabled real-time glimpses into metal solidification. However, x-ray energies favor the examination of small volumes and low density metals. In this study, we use high energy proton radiography for the first time to image a large metal volume (>10,000 mm3) during melting and solidification. We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1mm3), bridging four orders of magnitude. In conclusion, real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of the structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models.

  6. Dual energy scanning beam X-radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Randolph Frank

    Dual energy X-radiography is a method first developed in the mid-1970's by which one uses the information contained in the energy spectrum of the transmitted X-ray flux through an object. With this information one can distinguish the types of materials present in a radiograph and thus allow a computer to subtract them from the image enhancing the contrast of the remaining materials. Using this method, one can see details, which would have been hidden by overlying structures of other materials such as seen in radiographs of parts, made up of mixtures of metals and composites. There is also great interest in this technique for medical imaging of the chest where images of the organs are significantly improved by subtracting the bones. However, even with the enhanced capabilities realized with this technique, the majority of X-radiography systems only measures the bulk transmitted X-ray intensity and ignores the information contained in the energy spectrum. This is due to the added expense, time requirements, and registration problems incurred using standard radiographic methods to obtain dual energy radiographs. This dissertation describes a novel method which overcomes these problems and allows one to perform inexpensive, near real time, single shot dual energy X-radiography. The work of this thesis resulted in US patent #5,742,660.

  7. Impact of digital radiography on clinical workflow.

    PubMed

    May, G A; Deer, D D; Dackiewicz, D

    2000-05-01

    It is commonly accepted that digital radiography (DR) improves workflow and patient throughput compared with traditional film radiography or computed radiography (CR). DR eliminates the film development step and the time to acquire the image from a CR reader. In addition, the wide dynamic range of DR is such that the technologist can perform the quality-control (QC) step directly at the modality in a few seconds, rather than having to transport the newly acquired image to a centralized QC station for review. Furthermore, additional workflow efficiencies can be achieved with DR by employing tight radiology information system (RIS) integration. In the DR imaging environment, this provides for patient demographic information to be automatically downloaded from the RIS to populate the DR Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) image header. To learn more about this workflow efficiency improvement, we performed a comparative study of workflow steps under three different conditions: traditional film/screen x-ray, DR without RIS integration (ie, manual entry of patient demographics), and DR with RIS integration. This study was performed at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation (Cleveland, OH) using a newly acquired amorphous silicon flat-panel DR system from Canon Medical Systems (Irvine, CA). Our data show that DR without RIS results in substantial workflow savings over traditional film/screen practice. There is an additional 30% reduction in total examination time using DR with RIS integration.

  8. [Thoracic nocardiosis - a clinical report].

    PubMed

    Vale, Artur; Guerra, Miguel; Martins, Daniel; Lameiras, Angelina; Miranda, José; Vouga, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Nocardia genus microorganisms are ubiquitous, Gram positive aerobic bacterias, responsible for disease mainly in immunocompromised hosts, with cellular immune response commitment. Inhalation is the main form of transmition and pulmonary disease is the most frequent presentation. Dissemination may occur by contiguity and also via hematogenous. The clinical and imaging presentation is not specific, and diagnosis is obtained after identification of Nocardia bacteria in biological samples. Since there are no reliable studies that indicate the best therapeutic option, treatment should be individualized and based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Surgical drainage should also be considered in all patients. The authors present a clinical case of a patient with thoracic nocardiosis, and make a short literature review on the theme.

  9. Ossification of thoracic ligamenta flava

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, S.; Minoru, O.; Russell, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    Although ligamentum flavum ossification (LFO) often occurs in normal persons, there are no reports of its detection on lateral chest radiographs made during screening examinations. Review of 1,744 consecutive lateral chest radiographs identified LFO in 6.2% of males and 4.8% of females. LFO occurred mainly at the intervertebral segments from T9-T10 through T12-L1. Most prevalent was the hook-shaped LFO, protruding inferoirly from the inferior facets into the projections of the intervertabral foramina. Though LFO can cause severe neurologic symptoms, none of the affected persons in this study reported such symptoms. LFO was first visualized radiographically when the subjects were 20-40 years old, and it may be a physiologic condition. The LFO in these cases existed independent of thoracic posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, and degenerative osteoarthritis.

  10. Emergency skull radiography: the effect of restrictive criteria on skull radiography and CT use

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.R.; Gaylord, G.M.; Lantos, G.; Tabaddor, K.; Gallagher, E.J.

    1985-08-01

    A prospective study was performed to determine the effect of restrictive criteria on the use of emergency skull radiography and computed tomography (CT) of the head. Emergency skull radiography required the completion of a special requisition form. Emergency CT of the head was done at the request of senior consultants and was available on a full-time basis. Over 1 year, 2758 skull studies were performed, a decrease of 39.1% when compared with the year before restrictive criteria were instituted, during which 4587 skull examinations were done. In the same period, the number of emergency CT scans of the head increased by 45.7%, from 471 in the control year to 686 in the experimental year. With the use of restrictive criteria, a net savings of $164,000 was achieved. Our results suggest that the use of restrictive criteria is a cost-effective means of limiting skull radiography when CT of the head is readily available.

  11. Lung ultrasound versus chest radiography for the diagnosis of pneumothorax in critically ill patients: A prospective, single-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, W; Elgendy, M; Abdelaziz, AA; Ammar, MA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radiologic data remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of pneumothorax (PTX). The use of ultrasonography (US) has recently emerged as the method of choice with physicians who can perform bedside US. Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of lung US against bedside chest radiography (CR) for the detection of PTX using thoracic computed tomography (CT) as the gold standard. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, single-blind study on 192 critically ill patients; each patient received lung US examination, bedside CR, followed by thoracic CT scan searching for PTX. Results: Of the studied patients, CT of the chest confirmed the diagnosis of PTX in 36 (18.75%) patients of which 31 were diagnosed by thoracic US while CR detected only 19 cases. Overall lung US showed a considerable higher sensitivity than bedside CR (86.1% vs. 52.7%), lung US also showed higher, negative predictive values, and diagnostic accuracy against CR (96.8% vs. 90.1%), and (95.3% vs. 90.6%), respectively. CR had a slightly higher specificity than lung US (99.4% vs. 97.4%), and higher positive predictive values (95.0% vs. 88.6%). Conclusion: Lung US is an accurate modality more than anteroposterior bedside CR in comparison with CT scanning when evaluating critically ill mechanically ventilated patients, patients underwent thoracocentesis, central venous catheter insertion, or patients with polytrauma. PMID:27375379

  12. PET-Based Thoracic Radiation Oncology.

    PubMed

    Simone, Charles B; Houshmand, Sina; Kalbasi, Anusha; Salavati, Ali; Alavi, Abass

    2016-07-01

    Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET is increasingly being integrated into multiple aspects of oncology. PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become especially important in radiation oncology. With the increasing use of advanced techniques like intensity-modulated radiation therapy and proton therapy, PET/CT scans have played critical roles in the target delineation of tumors for radiation oncologists delivering conformal treatment techniques. Use of PET/CT is well established in lung cancer and several other thoracic malignancies. This article details the current uses of PET/CT in thoracic radiation oncology with a focus on lung cancer and describes expected future roles of PET/CT for thoracic tumors.

  13. Thoracic involvement in Behçet's disease: pathologic, clinical, and imaging features.

    PubMed

    Tunaci, A; Berkmen, Y M; Gökmen, E

    1995-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a rare form of vasculitis of obscure etiology. Any large or small artery, vein, or organ may be involved in an unpredictable combination. Intrathoracic manifestations of Behçet's disease consist mainly of thromboembolism of the superior vena cava and/or other mediastinal veins; aneurysms of the aorta and pulmonary arteries; pulmonary infarct and hemorrhage; pleural effusion; and, rarely, myocardial or pericardial involvement, cor pulmonale, and mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy. Chest radiography is the best diagnostic method for evaluating thoracic involvement in Behçet's disease. Because aneurysms may develop at the arterial puncture sites and veins may be quickly thrombosed after injection of contrast material, angiography and venography should be avoided whenever possible. Although no comparative studies are available, CT and MR angiography appear to be imaging techniques of choice for evaluating vascular involvement. Pulmonary parenchymal alterations depicted on CT scan have not been fully explored.

  14. Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine

    MedlinePlus

    .org Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Page ( 1 ) Spinal fractures can vary widely in severity. While some fractures are very serious injuries that require emergency treatment, other fractures can ...

  15. Nonintubated anesthesia in thoracic surgery: general issues

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Anesthetic management for awake thoracic surgery (ATS) is more difficult than under general anesthesia (GA), being technically extremely challenging for the anesthesiologist. Therefore, thorough preparation and vigilance are paramount for successful patient management. In this review, important considerations of nonintubated anesthesia for thoracic surgery are discussed in view of careful patient selection, anesthetic preparation, potential perioperative difficulties and the management of its complications. PMID:26046051

  16. Cardio-thoracic surgical experience in Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Mbamendame, Sylvestre; Ngakani Offobo, Silvère; Kaba, Mory Mamadi; Mbourou, Jean Bernard; Diané, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Our experience in cardio-thoracic surgery focuses on thoracic activity. The minimum fare for traumatisms, infectious pathology and tumoral pathology requires, for its improvement, the acquisition of a technical platform and of an adequate medical infrastructure, with a rational organisation of the care sequence. Vascular surgery calls for the training of qualified human resources, and the great demand in heart surgery calls upon the public powers for the construction of infrastructures, and the formation of necessary superstructures. PMID:27904845

  17. Clinical innovations in Philippine thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic surgery in the Philippines followed the development of thoracic surgery in the United States and Europe. With better understanding of the physiology of the open chest and refinements in thoracic anesthetic and surgical approaches, Filipino surgeons began performing thoracoplasties, then lung resections for pulmonary tuberculosis and later for lung cancer in specialty hospitals dealing with pulmonary diseases—first at the Quezon Institute (QI) and presently at the Lung Center of the Philippines although some university and private hospitals made occasional forays into the chest. Esophageal surgery began its early attempts during the post-World War II era at the Philippine General Hospital (PGH), a university hospital affiliated with the University of the Philippines. With the introduction of minimally invasive thoracic surgical approaches, Filipino thoracic surgeons have managed to keep up with their Asian counterparts although the problems of financial reimbursement typical of a developing country remain. The need for creative innovative approaches of a focused multidisciplinary team will advance the boundaries of thoracic surgery in the Philippines. PMID:27651936

  18. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  19. Digital Radiography Qualification of Tube Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Project will be directing Lockheed Martin to perform orbital arc welding on commodities metallic tubing as part of the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle assembly and integration process in the Operations and Checkout High bay at Kennedy Space Center. The current method of nondestructive evaluation is utilizing traditional film based x-rays. Due to the high number of welds that are necessary to join the commodities tubing (approx 470), a more efficient and expeditious method of nondestructive evaluation is desired. Digital radiography will be qualified as part of a broader NNWG project scope.

  20. Axial tomography from digitized real time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnay, A.S.; McDonald, W.M.; Doupont, P.A.; McKinney, R.L.; Lee, M.M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  1. Thoracic Sarcoidosis: Imaging with High Resolution Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarvinder; Jain, Megha; Singh, Satyendra Narayan; Sharma, Rajat Kumar

    2017-01-01

    features of end stage lung disease on HRCT noted in a small subset of patients. HRCT was superior to chest radiography for evaluating the features, pattern and distribution of the parenchymal lesions and mediastinal lymph nodes, for assessing the stage and activity of the disease and in aiding detection of subtle parenchymal lesions which are liable to be missed on conventional imaging. Conclusion Thoracic sarcoidosis can have varied presentations. HRCT is superior to conventional CT for the detection and characterisation of the lung parenchymal lesions. PMID:28384959

  2. Diagnostics of coated fuel particles by neutron and synchrotron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Momot, G. V.; Podurets, K. M.; Pogorelyi, D. K.; Somenkov, V. A.; Yakovenko, E. V.

    2011-12-15

    The nondestructive monitoring of coated fuel particles has been performed using contact neutron radiography and refraction radiography based on synchrotron radiation. It is shown that these methods supplement each other and have a high potential for determining the sizes, densities, and isotopic composition of the particle components.

  3. Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis: spectrum of thoracic imaging findings in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    Khorashadi, L; Wu, C C; Betancourt, S L; Carter, B W

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare disease characterized by alveolar capillary haemorrhage resulting in deposition and accumulation of haemosiderin in the lungs. Although its precise pathophysiology remains unclear, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the aetiology of the disorder, including autoimmune, environmental, allergic, and genetic theories. IPH is typically diagnosed in childhood, usually before the age of 10 years; however, this entity may be encountered in older patients given the greater awareness of the diagnosis, availability and utilization of advanced imaging techniques, and improved treatment and survival. The classic presentation of IPH consists of the triad of haemoptysis, iron-deficiency anaemia, and pulmonary opacities on chest radiography. The diagnosis is usually confirmed via bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), at which time haemosiderin-laden macrophages referred to as siderophages, considered pathognomonic for IPH, may be identified. However, lung biopsy may ultimately be necessary to exclude other disease processes. For children with IPH, the disease course is severe and the prognosis is poor. However, adults generally have a longer disease course with milder symptoms and the prognosis is more favourable. Specific imaging features, although non-specific in isolation, may be identified on thoracic imaging studies, principally chest radiography and CT, depending on the phase of disease (acute or chronic). Recognition of these findings is important to guide appropriate clinical management.

  4. Advances in digital radiography: physical principles and system overview.

    PubMed

    Körner, Markus; Weber, Christof H; Wirth, Stefan; Pfeifer, Klaus-Jürgen; Reiser, Maximilian F; Treitl, Marcus

    2007-01-01

    During the past two decades, digital radiography has supplanted screen-film radiography in many radiology departments. Today, manufacturers provide a variety of digital imaging solutions based on various detector and readout technologies. Digital detectors allow implementation of a fully digital picture archiving and communication system, in which images are stored digitally and are available anytime. Image distribution in hospitals can now be achieved electronically by means of web-based technology with no risk of losing images. Other advantages of digital radiography include higher patient throughput, increased dose efficiency, and the greater dynamic range of digital detectors with possible reduction of radiation exposure to the patient. The future of radiography will be digital, and it behooves radiologists to be familiar with the technical principles, image quality criteria, and radiation exposure issues associated with the various digital radiography systems that are currently available.

  5. Using ytterbium-169 for safe and economical industrial radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Dowalo, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Safety has become an issue of paramount importance for industrial radiography. Many NDE facilities and suppliers are finding the cost of performing radiography Prohibitive due to heightened safety concerns for radiation area protection. The most common sources used in radiography, Iridium-192 and Cobalt-60, result in high radiation fields over a large area. Even when collimators are used large radiation fields can result from multicurie source radiography. Radiographic operations are being forced to find alternative test methods and techniques to the use of the old stand-by sources. These alternate methods are not always as comprehensive a test as full volumetric examination with radiography. Since Iridium and Cobalt are in such wide spread use, they are sometimes called upon to perform test of materials which are not in their optimum sensitivity range.

  6. Simulation of computed radiography with imaging plate detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tisseur, D.; Costin, M.; Mathy, F.; Schumm, A.

    2014-02-18

    Computed radiography (CR) using phosphor imaging plate detectors is taking an increasing place in Radiography Testing. CR uses similar equipment as conventional radiography except that the classical X-ray film is replaced by a numerical detector, called image plate (IP), which is made of a photostimulable layer and which is read by a scanning device through photostimulated luminescence. Such digital radiography has already demonstrated important benefits in terms of exposure time, decrease of source energies and thus reduction of radioprotection area besides being a solution without effluents. This paper presents a model for the simulation of radiography with image plate detectors in CIVA together with examples of validation of the model. The study consists in a cross comparison between experimental and simulation results obtained on a step wedge with a classical X-ray tube. Results are proposed in particular with wire Image quality Indicator (IQI) and duplex IQI.

  7. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Smolinski, Andrew T.

    2015-09-10

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This study describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities, the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.

  8. Neutron Radiography of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Smolinski, Andrew T.

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This paper describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities, the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.

  9. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    DOE PAGES

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; ...

    2015-09-10

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This study describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities,more » the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.« less

  10. Beam characterization at the Neutron Radiography Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah W. Morgan; Jeffrey C. King; Chad L. Pope

    2013-12-01

    The quality of a neutron-imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, potential image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This paper provides a characterization of the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio and potential image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. The NRAD has an effective collimation ratio greater than 125, a beam divergence of 0.3 +_ 0.1 degrees, and a gold foil cadmium ratio of 2.7. The flux profile has been quantified and the facility is an ASTM Category 1 radiographic facility. Based on bare and cadmium covered foil activation results, the neutron energy spectrum used in the current MCNP model of the radiography beamline over-samples the thermal region of the neutron energy spectrum.

  11. Utility of thyroid collars in cephalometric radiography

    PubMed Central

    Sansare, KP; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

    2011-01-01

    Objective A study was carried out to investigate the rationale that use of a thyroid collar (TC) in cephalometric radiography hampers the diagnostic and descriptive quality of lateral cephalogram. Methods A randomized observer blinded study was designed. The study consisted of two groups. The first group data were retrieved from the oral radiology archival system having lateral cephalogram without a TC. The second group was selected from the oral radiology department of patients where lateral cephalogram was taken using a TC. Lateral cephalogram was taken on direct digital system, the Kodak 9000 unit (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY). 2 observers blinded about the aim of the study were appointed to identify 15 sets of landmarks on the lateral cephalogram. Interobserver variance was also analysed for the study. Results 50 lateral cephalograms in each group were studied. Out of 15 sets of landmarks, 12 were identified consistent with the TC group. Three landmarks, namely the hyoid bone, second cervical vertebra and third cervical vertebra could not be identified on the TC group. There was no significant difference in the interobserver markings on lateral cephalogram. Conclusions TCs do mask a few landmarks on the lateral cephalogram. These landmarks are mainly used for analysis of skeletal maturity index (SMI). Lead TCs are probably the most convenient and easily available means to protect the thyroid from unwanted radiation while taking lateral cephalogram. It is therefore encouraged to use a TC during routine cephalometric radiography where SMI information is not needed. PMID:22065795

  12. A system for fast neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.

    1997-04-01

    A system has been designed and a neutron generator installed to perform fast neutron radiography. With this system, objects as small as a coin and as large as a 19 liter container have been radiographed. The neutron source is an MF Physics A-711 neutron generator which produces 3 x 10[sup 10] neutrons/second with an average energy of 14. 5 MeV. The radiography system uses x-ray scintillation screens and film in commercially available light-tight cassettes. The cassettes have been modified to include a thin sheet of plastic to produce protons from the neutron beam through elastic scattering from hydrogen and other low Z materials in the plastic. For film densities from 1.8 to 3.0, exposures range from 1.9 x 10[sup 7] n/cm[sup 2] to 3.8 x 10[sup 8] n/cm[sup 2] depending on the type of screen and film. The optimum source-to-film distance was found to be 150 cm. At this distance, the geometric unsharpness was determined to be approximately 2.2-2.3 mm and the smallest hole that could be resolved in a 1.25 cm thick sample had a diameter of 0.079 cm.

  13. Positioning long lines: contrast versus plain radiography

    PubMed Central

    Reece, A; Ubhi, T; Craig, A; Newell, S

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To assess the value of contrast versus plain radiography in determining radio-opaque long line tip position in neonates.
METHODS—In a prospective study, plain radiography was performed after insertion of radio-opaque long lines. If the line tip was not visible on the plain film, a second film with contrast was obtained in an attempt to visualise the tip.
RESULTS—Sixty eight lines were inserted during the study period, 62 of which were included in the study. In 31, a second radiographic examination with contrast was necessary to determine position of the tip. In 29 of these, the line tip was clearly visualised with contrast. On two occasions, the line tip could not be seen because the contrast had filled the vein and obscured the tip from view. Eight of the lines that required a second radiograph with contrast were repositioned.
CONCLUSION—Intravenous contrast should be routinely used in the assessment of long line position in the neonate.

 PMID:11207231

  14. Neutron Radiography Reactor Reactivity -- Focused Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Woolstenhulme; Randal Damiana; Kenneth Schreck; Ann Marie Phillips; Dana Hewit

    2010-11-01

    As part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, the Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was converted from using highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. After the conversion, NRAD resumed operations and is meeting operational requirements. Radiography image quality and the number of images that can be produced in a given time frame match pre-conversion capabilities. However, following the conversion, NRAD’s excess reactivity with the LEU fuel was less than it had been with the HEU fuel. Although some differences between model predictions and actual performance are to be expected, the lack of flexibility in NRAD’s safety documentation prevented adjusting the reactivity by adding more fuel, until the safety documentation could be modified. To aid future reactor conversions, a reactivity-focused Lessons Learned meeting was held. This report summarizes the findings of the lessons learned meeting and addresses specific questions posed by DOE regarding NRAD’s conversion and reactivity.

  15. Imaging properties of digital magnification radiography.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Sarah J; Samei, Ehsan

    2006-04-01

    Flat panel detectors exhibit improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and display capabilities compared to film. This improvement necessitates a new evaluation of optimal geometry for conventional projection imaging applications such as digital projection mammography as well as for advanced x-ray imaging applications including cone-beam computed tomography (CT), tomosynthesis, and mammotomography. Such an evaluation was undertaken in this study to examine the effects of x-ray source distribution, inherent detector resolution, magnification, scatter rejection, and noise characteristics including noise aliasing. A model for x-ray image acquisition was used to develop generic results applicable to flat panel detectors with similar x-ray absorption characteristics. The model assumed a Gaussian distribution for the focal spot and a rectangular distribution for a pixel. A generic model for the modulated transfer function (MTF) of indirect flat panel detectors was derived by a nonlinear fit of empirical receptor data to the Burgess model for phosphor MTFs. Noise characteristics were investigated using a generic noise power spectrum (NPS) model for indirect phosphor-based detectors. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) was then calculated from the MTF and NPS models. The results were examined as a function of focal spot size (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mm) and pixel size (50, 100, 150, and 200 microm) for magnification ranges 1 to 3. Mammography, general radiography (also applicable to mammotomography), and chest radiography applications were explored using x-ray energies of 28, 74, and 120 kVp, respectively. Nodule detection was examined using the effective point source scatter model, effective DQE, and the Hotelling SNR2 efficiency. Results indicate that magnification can potentially improve the signal and noise performance of digital images. Results also show that a cross over point occurs in the spatial frequency above and below which the effects of magnification differ

  16. High Brightness Neutron Source for Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, J. T.; Piestrup, Melvin, A.; Gary, Charles, K.; Harris, Jack, L. Williams, David, J.; Jones, Glenn, E.; Vainionpaa, J. , H.; Fuller, Michael, J.; Rothbart, George, H.; Kwan, J., W.; Ludewigt, B., A.; Gough, R.., A..; Reijonen, Jani; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-12-08

    This research and development program was designed to improve nondestructive evaluation of large mechanical objects by providing both fast and thermal neutron sources for radiography. Neutron radiography permits inspection inside objects that x-rays cannot penetrate and permits imaging of corrosion and cracks in low-density materials. Discovering of fatigue cracks and corrosion in piping without the necessity of insulation removal is possible. Neutron radiography sources can provide for the nondestructive testing interests of commercial and military aircraft, public utilities and petrochemical organizations. Three neutron prototype neutron generators were designed and fabricated based on original research done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The research and development of these generators was successfully continued by LBNL and Adelphi Technology Inc. under this STTR. The original design goals of high neutron yield and generator robustness have been achieved, using new technology developed under this grant. In one prototype generator, the fast neutron yield and brightness was roughly 10 times larger than previously marketed neutron generators using the same deuterium-deuterium reaction. In another generator, we integrate a moderator with a fast neutron source, resulting in a high brightness thermal neutron generator. The moderator acts as both conventional moderator and mechanical and electrical support structure for the generator and effectively mimics a nuclear reactor. In addition to the new prototype generators, an entirely new plasma ion source for neutron production was developed. First developed by LBNL, this source uses a spiral antenna to more efficiently couple the RF radiation into the plasma, reducing the required gas pressure so that the generator head can be completely sealed, permitting the possible use of tritium gas. This also permits the generator to use the deuterium-tritium reaction to produce 14-MeV neutrons with increases

  17. Thoracic aortic aneurysm: reading the enemy's playbook.

    PubMed

    Elefteriades, John A

    2008-05-01

    The vast database of the Yale Center for Thoracic Aortic Disease--which includes information on 3000 patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm or dissection, with 9000 catalogued images and 9000 patient-years of follow-up--has, over the last decade, permitted multiple glimpses into the "playbook" of this virulent disease. Understanding the precise behavioral features of thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection permits us more effectively to combat this disease. In this monograph, we will first review certain fundamentals--in terms of anatomy, nomenclature, imaging, diagnosis, medical, surgical, and stent treatment. After reviewing these fundamentals, we will proceed with a detailed exploration of lessons learned by peering into the operational playbook of thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection. Among the glimpses afforded in the behavioral playbook of this disease are the following: 1 Thoracic aortic aneurysm, while lethal, is indolent. Mortality usually does not occur until after years of growth. 2 The aneurysmal ascending thoracic aorta grows slowly: about 0.1 cm per year (the descending aorta grows somewhat faster). 3 Over a patient's lifetime, "hinge points" at which the likelihood of rupture or dissection skyrockets are seen at 5.5 cm for the ascending and 6.5 cm for the descending aorta. Intervening at 5 cm diameter for the ascending and 6 cm for the descending prevents most adverse events. 4 Symptomatic aneurysms require resection regardless of size. 5 The yearly rate of rupture, dissection, or death is 14.1% for a patient with a thoracic aorta of 6 cm diameter. 6 The mechanical properties of the aorta deteriorate markedly at 6 cm diameter (distensibility falls, and wall stress rises)--a finding that "dovetails" perfectly with observations of the clinical behavior of the thoracic aorta. 7 Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection are largely inherited diseases, with a predominantly autosomal-dominant pattern. The specific genetics are being elucidated at the

  18. Sensitivity of Thoracic Digital Tomosynthesis (DTS) for the Identification of Lung Nodules.

    PubMed

    Langer, Steve G; Graner, Brian D; Schueler, Beth A; Fetterly, Kenneth A; Kofler, James M; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Bartholmai, Brian J

    2016-02-01

    Thoracic computed tomography (CT) is considered the gold standard for detection lung pathology, yet its efficacy as a screening tool in regards to cost and radiation dose continues to evolve. Chest radiography (CXR) remains a useful and ubiquitous tool for detection and characterization of pulmonary pathology, but reduced sensitivity and specificity compared to CT. This prospective, blinded study compares the sensitivity of digital tomosynthesis (DTS), to that of CT and CXR for the identification and characterization of lung nodules. Ninety-five outpatients received a posteroanterior (PA) and lateral CXR, DTS, and chest CT at one care episode. The CXR and DTS studies were independently interpreted by three thoracic radiologists. The CT studies were used as the gold standard and read by a fourth thoracic radiologist. Nodules were characterized by presence, location, size, and composition. The agreement between observers and the effective radiation dose for each modality was objectively calculated. One hundred forty-five nodules of greatest diameter larger than 4 mm and 215 nodules less than 4 mm were identified by CT. DTS identified significantly more >4 mm nodules than CXR (DTS 32 % vs. CXR 17 %). CXR and DTS showed no significant difference in the ability to identify the smaller nodules or central nodules within 3 cm of the hilum. DTS outperformed CXR in identifying pleural nodules and those nodules located greater than 3 cm from the hilum. Average radiation dose for CXR, DTS, and CT were 0.10, 0.21, and 6.8 mSv, respectively. Thoracic digital tomosynthesis requires significantly less radiation dose than CT and nearly doubles the sensitivity of that of CXR for the identification of lung nodules greater than 4 mm. However, sensitivity and specificity for detection and characterization of lung nodules remains substantially less than CT. The apparent benefits over CXR, low cost, rapid acquisition, and minimal radiation dose of thoracic DTS suggest that it may be a

  19. Giant thoracic osteophyte: a distinct clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Jean-Valery C E; Neal, Jonathan B; Grottkau, Brian E; Nahed, Brian V; Shin, John H; Walcott, Brian P

    2014-09-01

    Calcified lesions described within the neural axis are classified as either an ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, or ossification of the ligamentum flavum. We aim to describe a unique pathologic entity: the giant thoracic osteophyte. We identified four patients who were surgically treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital from 2006 to 2012 with unusual calcified lesions in the ventral aspect of the spinal canal. In order to differentiate giant thoracic osteophytes from calcified extruded disc material, disc volumetrics were performed on actual and simulated disc spaces. All patients underwent operative resection of the calcific lesion as they had signs and/or symptoms of spinal cord compression. The lesions were found to be isolated, large calcific masses that originated from the posterior aspect of adjacent thoracic vertebral bodies. Pathological examination was negative for tumor. Adjacent disc volumes were not significantly different from the index disc (p=0.91). A simulated calculation hypothesizing that the calcific mass was extruded disc material demonstrated a significant difference (p=0.01), making this scenario unlikely. In conclusion, giant thoracic osteophyte is a unique and rare entity that can be found in the thoracic spine. The central tenant of surgical treatment is resection to relieve spinal cord compression.

  20. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons general thoracic surgery databases: joint standardization of variable definitions and terminology.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Felix G; Falcoz, Pierre E; Kozower, Benjamin D; Salati, Michele; Wright, Cameron D; Brunelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The European Society of Thoracic Surgery (ESTS) and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) general thoracic surgery databases collect thoracic surgical data from Europe and North America, respectively. Their objectives are similar: to measure processes and outcomes so as to improve the quality of thoracic surgical care. Future collaboration between the two databases and their integration could generate significant new knowledge. However, important discrepancies exist in terminology and definitions between the two databases. The objective of this collaboration between the ESTS and STS is to identify important differences between databases and harmonize terminology and definitions to facilitate future endeavors.

  1. USE OF A NOVEL BOARD GAME IN A CLINICAL ROTATION FOR LEARNING THORACIC DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSES IN VETERINARY MEDICAL IMAGING.

    PubMed

    Ober, Christopher P

    2017-03-01

    When confronted with various findings on thoracic radiographs, fourth-year veterinary students often have difficulty generating appropriate lists of differential diagnoses. The purpose of this one-group, pretest, posttest experimental study was to determine if a game could be used as an adjunct teaching method to improve students' understanding of connections between imaging findings and differential diagnoses. A novel board game focusing on differential diagnoses in thoracic radiography was developed. One hundred fourth-year veterinary students took a brief pretest, played the board game, and took a brief posttest as a part of their respective clinical radiology rotations. Pretest results were compared to posttest results using a paired t-test to determine if playing the game impacted student understanding. Students' mean scores on the posttest were significantly higher than mean pretest scores (P < 0.0001). Thus, results indicate that playing the board game resulted in improved short-term understanding of thoracic differential diagnoses by fourth-year students, and use of the board game on a clinical rotation seems to be a beneficial part of the learning process.

  2. Local-Reference Patient Dose Evaluation in Conventional Radiography Examinations in Mazandaran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khoshdel-Navi, D.; Shabestani-Monfared, A.; Deevband, M. R.; Abdi, R.; Nabahati, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The most efficient application of ionizing radiation is serving medical purposes and using this radiation has caused people to learn that artificial sources of radiation exposure among these resources can be of highest exposure rate. Obiective The present study is aimed at initially establishing a baseline for local-reference dose level in Mazandaran, Iran in 12 projections of the most conventional x-ray examination. Methods In this study, 13 public hospitals in Mazandaran province were selected for review and required data collected for ten adult patients with mean weight of 70±10kg in each projection. Then, information of each center was separately analyzed. Next, in order to measure x-ray output tube, the dosimeter RTI model Barracuda calibrated has been applied for measuring air karma within energy rage of 40-150kvp. ESAK and ESD parameters, usually used for monitoring DRL in conventional radiography, were calculated. Results Mean ESDs in this study has been obtained to 1.47±0.98 for skull (PA/AP), 1.01±0.79 for skull (LAT), 0.67±0.38 for cervical spine (AP), 0.79±0.37 for cervical (LAT), 0.49±0.38 for chest (PA/AP), 1.06±0.44 for chest (LAT), 2.15±0.73 for thoracic spine (AP), 3±0.87 for thoracic spine (LAT), 2.81 ±0.82 for lumbar spine (AP), 4.28±0.78 for lumbar (LAT), 2.07±1.17 for abdomen and 1.90±0.99 for pelvis, respectively. The ESDs calculated for chest examination in both projections, PA and LAT are more than values recommended by the UK (2000), Brazil and Slovenia. Conclusion The present study has determined wide variations in radiation dose of x-ray examinations among hospitals in Mazandaran, Iran. In order to reduce skin dose, an optimization procedure should be considered. Application of a reference dose (DRL) could be a practical method for this purpose. The role of optimization of radiography parameters for reducing patient dose is a significant issue. Through optimizing parameters, it would be possible to preserve image

  3. Change of paradigm in thoracic radionecrosis management.

    PubMed

    Dast, S; Assaf, N; Dessena, L; Almousawi, H; Herlin, C; Berna, P; Sinna, R

    2016-06-01

    Classically, muscular or omental flaps are the gold standard in the management of thoracic defects following radionecrosis debridement. Their vascular supply and antibacterial property was supposed to enhance healing compared with cutaneous flaps. The evolution of reconstructive surgery allowed us to challenge this dogma. Therefore, we present five consecutive cases of thoracic radionecrosis reconstructed with cutaneous perforator flaps. In four patients, we performed a free deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap and one patient had a thoracodorsal perforator (TDAP) flap. Median time healing was 22.6 days with satisfactory cutaneous covering and good aesthetic results. There were no flap necrosis, no donor site complications. We believe that perforator flaps are a new alternative, reliable and elegant option that questions the dogma of muscular flaps in the management of thoracic radionecrosis.

  4. Digital mammography performed with computed radiography technology.

    PubMed

    Jouan, B

    1999-07-01

    Introduced by Fuji Photo Film Japan in the early 1980s, computed radiography (CR) technology has developed considerably since then to become the mature widely installed technology it is today (about 7500 systems worldwide). Various mammographic examinations require high performance results to which CR complies on demand or following some procedures such as geometrical magnification carried out during the examination. The basic CR principles and digital image processing as well as technical improvements are detailed in this study, which also includes a synthesis of the articles on CR mammographic applications referenced in the bibliography, focusing on strong points, limits and current methods of surpassing these limits. New CR technology development perspectives in mammography and computed assisted diagnosis (CAD) algorithms will allow wider use of this method in the near future.

  5. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  6. Polarized neutron radiography with a periscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Michael; Neubauer, Andreas; Mühlbauer, Martin; Calzada, Elbio; Schillinger, Burkhard; Pfleiderer, Christian; Böni, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the magnetic moment of the neutron with magnetic fields provides a powerful probe for spatially resolved magnetisation measurements in magnetic materials. We have tested a periscope as a new type of polarizer providing neutron beams with a high polarization and a low divergence. The observed inhomogeneity of the beam caused by the waviness of the glass substrates was quantified by means of Monte-Carlo simulations using the software package McStas. The results show that beams of high homogeneity can be produced if the waviness is reduced to below 1.0·10-5 rad. Finally, it is shown that radiography with polarized neutrons is a powerful method for measuring the spatially resolved magnetisation in optically float-zoned samples of the weak itinerant ferromagnet Ni3Al, thereby aiding the identification of the appropriate growth parameters.

  7. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2-2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR (6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  8. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2 to 2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR(6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  9. Digital radiography exposure indices: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette; Robinson, John

    2014-06-15

    Digital radiography (DR) technologies have the advantage of a wide dynamic range compared to their film-screen predecessors, however, this poses a potential for increased patient exposure if left unchecked. Manufacturers have developed the exposure index (EI) to counter this, which provides radiographers with feedback on the exposure reaching the detector. As these EIs were manufacturer-specific, a wide variety of EIs existed. To offset this, the international standardised EI has been developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The purpose of this article is to explore the current literature relating to EIs, beginning with the historical development of the EI, the development of the standardised EI and an exploration of common themes and studies as evidenced in the research literature. It is anticipated that this review will provide radiographers with a useful guide to understanding EIs, their application in clinical practice, limitations and suggestions for further research.

  10. An unusual case of thoracic ectopia cordis in a Toggenburg Goat and its three-dimensional images constructed with X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jyh-Mirn; Wu, Jui-Te; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Chao, Ming-Hsin; Nagahata, Hajime

    2016-05-01

    A two-day-old female Toggenburg goat with thoracic ectopia cordis (EC) was diagnosed via radiography and computed tomography. The goat was born with EC, defects of the sternum and a supra-umbilical abdominal wall, but without the presence of Cantrell's syndrome. Necropsy and histopathological findings indicated the affected kid had malformation of the heart with an enlarged left ventricle. The findings showed the heart (9 x 5 x 5 cm) stayed outside the thorax, and was covered by a semitransparent membrane. This report is the first to describe a case of thoracic EC in a goat whose sternum was not developed fully and was not connected to the ribs. It is also the first paper to describe three-dimensional images of this condition constructed from computed tomography scans.

  11. Muscle parameters estimation based on biplanar radiography.

    PubMed

    Dubois, G; Rouch, P; Bonneau, D; Gennisson, J L; Skalli, W

    2016-11-01

    The evaluation of muscle and joint forces in vivo is still a challenge. Musculo-Skeletal (musculo-skeletal) models are used to compute forces based on movement analysis. Most of them are built from a scaled-generic model based on cadaver measurements, which provides a low level of personalization, or from Magnetic Resonance Images, which provide a personalized model in lying position. This study proposed an original two steps method to access a subject-specific musculo-skeletal model in 30 min, which is based solely on biplanar X-Rays. First, the subject-specific 3D geometry of bones and skin envelopes were reconstructed from biplanar X-Rays radiography. Then, 2200 corresponding control points were identified between a reference model and the subject-specific X-Rays model. Finally, the shape of 21 lower limb muscles was estimated using a non-linear transformation between the control points in order to fit the muscle shape of the reference model to the X-Rays model. Twelfth musculo-skeletal models were reconstructed and compared to their reference. The muscle volume was not accurately estimated with a standard deviation (SD) ranging from 10 to 68%. However, this method provided an accurate estimation the muscle line of action with a SD of the length difference lower than 2% and a positioning error lower than 20 mm. The moment arm was also well estimated with SD lower than 15% for most muscle, which was significantly better than scaled-generic model for most muscle. This method open the way to a quick modeling method for gait analysis based on biplanar radiography.

  12. Long thoracic neuropathy from athletic activity.

    PubMed

    Schultz, J S; Leonard, J A

    1992-01-01

    Four cases of long thoracic mononeuropathy associated with sports participation are presented. Each patient developed shoulder pain or dysfunction after an acute event or vigorous activity, and demonstrated scapular winging consistent with serratus anterior weakness. The diagnosis was confirmed with electromyography in each case. It is suggested that the athletic activity caused a stretch injury to the long thoracic nerve. Conservative management, consisting of range of motion exercises for the shoulder and strengthening of the serratus anterior muscle, resulted in a favorable outcome in all patients.

  13. Thoracic pain in a collegiate runner.

    PubMed

    Austin, G P; Benesky, W T

    2002-08-01

    This case study describes the process of examination, re-examination, and intervention for a collegiate runner with mechanical thoracic pain preventing athletic participation and limiting daily function. Unimpaired function fully returned in less than 3 weeks with biweekly sessions to re-establish normal and painfree thoracic mechanics via postural hygiene, exercise, mobilization, and manipulation. The outcome of this case study supports the original hypothesis that the pattern of impairments was in fact responsible for the functional limitations and disability in this athlete. At the time of publication the athlete was without functional limitations and had fully returned to competitive sprinting for the university track team.

  14. MR imaging of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Lohan, Derek G; Krishnam, Mayil; Saleh, Roya; Tomasian, Anderanik; Finn, J Paul

    2008-05-01

    MR imaging has been incorporated into the diagnostic algorithm for suspected thoracic aortic pathology, challenging CT and invasive catheter angiography as investigations of choice. Techniques, including spin echo, 3-D steady-state free precession, cardiac cine imaging, phase-contrast flow quantification, and high-resolution contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography, are poised to trump other single competitive modalities. The proliferation of 3-tesla systems has advanced the performance of magnetic resonance, aided by parallel imaging techniques, multiarray surface coils, and powerful gradient coils. This article considers the current status of MR imaging in evaluation of the thoracic aorta, with reference to common clinical indications in clinical practice.

  15. The renal disease of thoracic asphyxiant dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gruskin, A B; Baluarte, H J; Cote, M L; Elfenbein, I B

    1974-01-01

    In those children with thoracic asphyxiant dystrophy, a genetically determined disorder, who survive infancy, the development of renal disease may be life-threatening. This report will present data obtained in six patients from three families which deals with the renal abnormalities in thoracic asphyxiant dystrophy. Both functional and anatomic abnormalities are described. Abnormalities in solute transport in the proximal tubule may be the earliest sign of renal dysfunction in this syndrome. Early glomerular changes may be more important than previously recognized. Finally, the various phenotypic expressions of this disorder are considered.

  16. Mayo Clinic: An Institutional History of General Thoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gillaspie, Erin A; Nichols, Francis C; Allen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    The Mayo Clinic was started in Rochester, MN after a 1883 tornado disaster. The Mayo brothers, William and Charles began thoracic surgical procedures early in their career. Dr. Samuel Robinson is recognized as the first thoracic surgeon at Mayo. He was followed by Drs. Harrington and Claret who became famous surgeons. Many other notable surgeons have help to build the thoracic surgical practice into what is today a world renown center of excellence in thoracic surgery.

  17. The Enhanced Workflow and Efficiency of the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)-Based Direct Digital Radiography (DDR) Portable Radiography.

    PubMed

    Ngan, Tsz-Lung; Wong, Edward Ting-Hei; Ng, Kris Lap-Shun; Jeor, Patrick Kwok-Shing; Lo, Gladys Goh

    2015-06-01

    With the implementation of the PACS in the hospital, there is an increasing demand from the clinicians for immediate access and display of radiological images. Recently, our hospital has installed the first wireless local area network (WLAN)-based direct digital radiography (DDR) portable radiography system. The DDR portable radiography system allows wireless retrieval of modality worklist and wireless transmission of portable X-ray image on the console to the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), via WLAN connection of wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi). The aim of this study was to analyze the workflow and performance between the WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system and the old practice using conventional portable X-ray machine with computed radiography (CR) system. A total of 190 portable chest X-ray examinations were evaluated and timed, using the conventional portable X-ray machine with CR from March to April of 2012 and using the new DDR portable radiography system on December of 2012 (n = 97 for old system and n = 93 for DDR portable system). The time interval of image becoming available to the PACS using the WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system was significantly shorter than that of the old practice using the conventional portable X-ray machine with CR (6.8 ± 2.6 min for DDR portable system; 23 ± 10.2 min for old system; p < 0.0001), with the efficiency improved by 70 %. The implementation of the WLAN-based DDR portable radiography system can enhance the workflow of portable radiography by reduction of procedural steps.

  18. Self-perceived video-assisted thoracic surgery lobectomy proficiency by recent graduates of North American thoracic residencies.

    PubMed

    Boffa, Daniel J; Gangadharan, Sidharta; Kent, Michael; Kerendi, Faraz; Onaitis, Mark; Verrier, Edward; Roselli, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Minimally invasive surgical techniques offer several advantages over traditional open procedures, yet the pathway to minimally invasive proficiency can be difficult to navigate. As a part of an effort of the Joint Council of Thoracic Surgical Education to increase access to this skill set in the general thoracic community, recent graduates of thoracic residencies were surveyed to determine the self-reported achievement of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy proficiency and the merits of various educational opportunities. The objective of this study was to estimate the comfort level of recent graduates with the minimally invasive approach, as this demographic not only reflects the current status of training, but represents the future of the specialty. Surgeons graduating North American thoracic residencies between 2006 and 2008 identifying themselves as practitioners of general thoracic surgery were surveyed. A total of 271 surgeons completed training between 2006 and 2008 and indicated general thoracic to be a part of their practice (84 dedicated thoracic and 187 mixed). One hundred and forty-six surgeons completed the survey (54%) including 74 of 84 (88%) dedicated thoracic surgeons. Overall, 58% of recent graduates who perform general thoracic procedures consider themselves proficient in VATS lobectomies (86% of dedicated thoracic surgeons and 28% of surgeons with a mixed practice, P < 0.0001). Of surgeons considering themselves to be proficient at VATS lobectomies, 66% felt thoracic residency was critical or very important to achieving proficiency. Fellowships after completing board residency, animal labs, and follow-up VATS courses put on by experts were much less consistently beneficial. The vast majority of the 25 dedicated general thoracic surgeons who graduate each year consider themselves proficient in VATS lobectomies, largely due to training in their thoracic residencies. On the other hand, the minority of surgeons performing general

  19. 5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING A CONTROL ROOM INSIDE THE RADIOGRAPHY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING A CONTROL ROOM INSIDE THE RADIOGRAPHY ROOM; PASS-THROUGH FOR EXPOSED FILM ON RIGHT - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1031, North side of South Tenth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  20. Aortobronchial Fistula after Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair (TEVAR) for Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Melvan, John Nicholas; DeLaRosa, Jacob; Vasquez, Julio C

    2017-03-07

    Continued enlargement of the aneurysm sac after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is a known risk after endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. For this reason, periodic outpatient follow-up is required to identify situations that require repair. Here, we describe an aortobronchial fistula (ABF) in a patient lost to follow-up, that presented 3 years after an elective TEVAR done for a primary, descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. Our patient arrived in extremis and suffered massive hemoptysis leading to her demise. Computed tomography (CT) angiogram near the time of her death demonstrated a bleeding ABF immediately distal to her previous TEVAR repair. Aortic aneurysmal disease remains life threatening even after repair. Improved endovascular techniques and devices have resulted in decreased need for reintervention. However, this case demonstrates the risk of thoracic aortic disease progression and highlights the importance of establishing consistent, long-term follow-up after TEVAR.

  1. Thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Tomoyuki; Urata, Teruo; Nemoto, Daisuke; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus, an organism considered as a periodontal pathogen but rarely recovered from extraoral specimens. The patient fully recovered through drainage of purulent pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics. The present case illustrates that C. rectus can be a cause of not only periodontal disease but also pulmonary infection.

  2. Thoracic empyema due to migrated gallstones.

    PubMed

    Flores-Franco, René Agustín

    2013-01-01

    Hepatobiliary conditions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right pleural effusion. Here we present the illustrative images of thoracic empyema due to migrated gallstones in a woman who was treated for laparoscopic cholecystectomy one year before. The gallstones were obtained unexpectedly during a thoracentesis with aid of an Abrams needle. This rare complication is discussed under current literature review.

  3. Radiography with the Fission Neutrons from Californium-252

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    iftD-Ao45 3^ m-77-B1i2i TECHNICAL 7󈧖 LIBRARY lADfto^^^ RADIOGRAPHY WITH THE FISSION NEUTRONS FROM CALIFORNIUM -252 JOHN J. ANTAL and...TITLE C«id Sub(l(/«J RADIOGRAPHY WITH THE FISSION NEUTRONS FROM CALIFORNIUM -252 5. TYPE OF REPORT it PERIOD COVERED Final Report 6...Cellulose nitrate Californium -252 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse aide 11 necessary and identity by block number) (SEE REVERSE SIDE) DD 1

  4. Thoracic Endoscopic-Assisted Mini-Open Surgery for Thoracic and Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord Compression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bao-Shan; Xu, Hai-Wei; Yuan, Qiu-Ming; Liu, Yue; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Hong-Feng; Wang, Dong-Bin; Ji, Ning; Ma, Xin-Long; Zhang, Yang

    2016-11-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation is a common cause of spinal cord compression, especially for the thoracic and thoracolumbar spinal cord, which has limited buffer space in the spinal canal. Spinal cord compression usually causes decreased sensation and paralysis of limbs below the level of compression, urinary and fecal incontinence, and/or urinary retention, which brings great suffering to the patients and usually requires surgical intervention. Thoracotomy or abdominothoracic surgery is usually performed for the thoracolumbar cord compression caused by hard intervertebral disc herniation. However, there is high risk of trauma and complications with this surgery. To reduce the surgical trauma and obtain good visibility, we designed athoracic endoscopic-assisted mini-open surgery for thoracic and thoracolumbar disc herniation, and performed this procedure on 10 patients who suffered from hard thoracic or thoracolumbar spinal cord compression. During the procedure, the thoracic endoscopy provided clear vision of the surgical field with a good light source. The compression could be fully exposed and completely removed, and no nerve root injury or spinal cord damage occurred. All patients achieved obvious recovery of neurological function after this procedure. This technique possesses the merits of minimal trauma, increased safety, and good clinical results. The aim of this study is to introduce this thoracic endoscopic-assisted mini-open surgery technique, and we believe that this technique will be a good choice for the thoracic and thoracolumbar cord compression caused by hard intervertebral disc herniation.

  5. Multidetector-row computed tomography of thoracic aortic anomalies in dogs and cats: Patent ductus arteriosus and vascular rings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of extracardiac intrathoracic vascular anomalies is of clinical importance, but remains challenging. Traditional imaging modalities, such as radiography, echocardiography, and angiography, are inherently limited by the difficulties of a 2-dimensional approach to a 3-dimensional object. We postulated that accurate characterization of malformations of the aorta would benefit from 3-dimensional assessment. Therefore, multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) was chosen as a 3-dimensional, new, and noninvasive imaging technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with 2 common diseases of the intrathoracic aorta, either patent ductus arteriosus or vascular ring anomaly, by contrast-enhanced 64-row computed tomography. Results Electrocardiography (ECG)-gated and thoracic nongated MDCT images were reviewed in identified cases of either a patent ductus arteriosus or vascular ring anomaly. Ductal size and morphology were determined in 6 dogs that underwent ECG-gated MDCT. Vascular ring anomalies were characterized in 7 dogs and 3 cats by ECG-gated MDCT or by a nongated thoracic standard protocol. Cardiac ECG-gated MDCT clearly displayed the morphology, length, and caliber of the patent ductus arteriosus in 6 affected dogs. Persistent right aortic arch was identified in 10 animals, 8 of which showed a coexisting aberrant left subclavian artery. A mild dilation of the proximal portion of the aberrant subclavian artery near its origin of the aorta was present in 4 dogs, and a diverticulum analogous to the human Kommerell's diverticulum was present in 2 cats. Conclusions Contrast-enhanced MDCT imaging of thoracic anomalies gives valuable information about the exact aortic arch configuration. Furthermore, MDCT was able to characterize the vascular branching patterns in dogs and cats with a persistent right aortic arch and the morphology and size of the patent ductus arteriosus in affected dogs. This additional information can be of help

  6. Thoracic outlet syndromes and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Panegyres, P K; Moore, N; Gibson, R; Rushworth, G; Donaghy, M

    1993-08-01

    The thoracic outlet syndromes encompass the diverse clinical entities affecting the branchial plexus or subclavian artery including cervical ribs or bands. Thoracic outlet syndrome are often difficult to diagnose on existing clinical and electrophysiological criteria and new diagnostic methods are necessary. This study reports our experience with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brachial plexus in 20 patients with suspected thoracic outlet syndrome. The distribution of pain and sensory disturbance varied widely, weakness and wasting usually affected C8/T1 innervated muscles, and electrophysiology showed combinations of reduced sensory nerve action potentials from the fourth and fifth digits, and prolonged F-responses or tendon reflex latencies. The MRI study was interpreted blind. Deviation of the brachial plexus was recorded in 19 out of the 24 symptomatic sides (sensitivity 79%). Absence of distortion was correctly identified in 14 out of 16 asymptomatic sides (specificity 87.5%). The false positive rate was 9.5%. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated all seven cervical ribs visible on plain cervical spine radiographs. Magnetic resonance imaging also showed a band-like structure extending from the C7 transverse process in 25 out of 33 sides; similar structures were detected in three out of 18 sides in control subjects. These MRI bands often underlay the brachial plexus distortion observed in our patients. We also observed instances of plexus distortion by post-traumatic callus of the first rib, and by a hypertrophied serratus anterior muscle. If they did not demonstrate a cervical rib, plain cervical spine radiographs had no value in predicting brachial plexus distortion. We believe MRI to be of potential value in the diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome by: (i) demonstrating deviation or distortion of nerves or blood vessels; (ii) suggesting the presence of radiographically invisible bands; (iii) disclosing other causes of thoracic outlet syndrome

  7. Chronic pain and the thoracic spine

    PubMed Central

    Louw, Adriaan; Schmidt, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience in physical therapy.1,2 Emerging pain neuroscience research has challenged prevailing models used to understand and treat pain, including the Cartesian model of pain and the pain gate.2–4 Focus has shifted to the brain's processing of a pain experience, the pain neuromatrix and more recently, cortical reorganisation of body maps.2,3,5,6 In turn, these emerging theories have catapulted new treatments, such as therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE)7–10 and graded motor imagery (GMI),11,12 to the forefront of treating people suffering from persistent spinal pain. In line with their increased use, both of these approaches have exponentially gathered increasing evidence to support their use.4,10 For example, various randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown that teaching patients more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience leads to positive changes in pain, pain catastrophization, function, physical movement and healthcare utilisation.7–10 Graded motor imagery, in turn, has shown increasing evidence to help pain and disability in complex pain states such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).11,12 Most research using TNE and GMI has focussed on chronic low back pain (CLBP) and CRPS and none of these advanced pain treatments have been trialled on the thoracic spine. This lack of research and writings in regards to the thoracic spine is not unique to pain science, but also in manual therapy. There are, however, very unique pain neuroscience issues that skilled manual therapists may find clinically meaningful when treating a patient struggling with persistent thoracic pain. Utilising the latest understanding of pain neuroscience, three key clinical chronic thoracic issues will be discussed – hypersensitisation of intercostal nerves, posterior primary rami nerves mimicking Cloward areas and mechanical and sensitisation issues of the spinal dura in

  8. Chronic pain and the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Louw, Adriaan; Schmidt, Stephen G

    2015-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience in physical therapy.1,2 Emerging pain neuroscience research has challenged prevailing models used to understand and treat pain, including the Cartesian model of pain and the pain gate.2-4 Focus has shifted to the brain's processing of a pain experience, the pain neuromatrix and more recently, cortical reorganisation of body maps.2,3,5,6 In turn, these emerging theories have catapulted new treatments, such as therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE)7-10 and graded motor imagery (GMI),11,12 to the forefront of treating people suffering from persistent spinal pain. In line with their increased use, both of these approaches have exponentially gathered increasing evidence to support their use.4,10 For example, various randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown that teaching patients more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience leads to positive changes in pain, pain catastrophization, function, physical movement and healthcare utilisation.7-10 Graded motor imagery, in turn, has shown increasing evidence to help pain and disability in complex pain states such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).11,12 Most research using TNE and GMI has focussed on chronic low back pain (CLBP) and CRPS and none of these advanced pain treatments have been trialled on the thoracic spine. This lack of research and writings in regards to the thoracic spine is not unique to pain science, but also in manual therapy. There are, however, very unique pain neuroscience issues that skilled manual therapists may find clinically meaningful when treating a patient struggling with persistent thoracic pain. Utilising the latest understanding of pain neuroscience, three key clinical chronic thoracic issues will be discussed - hypersensitisation of intercostal nerves, posterior primary rami nerves mimicking Cloward areas and mechanical and sensitisation issues of the spinal dura in the

  9. Non-intubated anesthesia in thoracic surgery—technical issues

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Performing awake thoracic surgery (ATS) is technically more challenging than thoracic surgery under general anesthesia (GA), but it can result in a greater benefit for the patient. Local wound infiltration and lidocaine administration in the pleural space can be considered for ATS. More invasive techniques are local wound infiltration with wound catheter insertion, thoracic wall blocks, selective intercostal nerve blockade, thoracic paravertebral blockade and thoracic epidural analgesia, offering the advantage of a catheter placement which can also be continued for postoperative analgesia. PMID:26046050

  10. Organ-specific dosimetry in spinal radiography: an analysis of genetic and somatic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Fickel, T.E.

    1988-02-01

    Radiation doses absorbed by the uterus, ovary, testicle and active bone marrow are computed for cervical, thoracic, lumbar, full spine and chest series performed under typical office conditions. Assuming a nonthreshold, linear relationship between dose and radiogenic effect, the computed tissue-specific doses are used to estimate the probability that each X-ray series might enhance the statistical probability of occurrence of an adult leukemia fatality of the irradiated patient; a childhood leukemia, mental retardation or cancer fatality as a result of fetal irradiation; or a variety of sex cell chromosomal aberrations in irradiated patients. It is concluded that the greatest hazard to active bone marrow, the uterus and the gonads is posed by lumbar and full spine radiography and that the need to adequately justify such exposure is mandatory; furthermore, in these series, irradiation of the ovary is 10 times as great as that of the testicle. Lumbar radiographic examinations can be made significantly safer by the elimination of the lumbosacral spot view.

  11. Radiography, computed tomography and virtual bronchoscopy in four dogs and two cats with lung lobe torsion.

    PubMed

    Schultz, R M; Peters, J; Zwingenberger, A

    2009-07-01

    This report describes the imaging features of radiography, computed tomography and virtual bronchoscopy in dogs and cats with lung lobe torsions. The medical records, thoracic radiographs and computed tomography images of four dogs and two cats with confirmed lung lobe torsions were retrospectively reviewed. Computed tomography with virtual bronchoscopy showed bronchial narrowing, collapse or occlusion in all six animals, while this was only appreciated on one radiographic examination. A tapering terminating angle of the air-filled bronchus proximal or distal to the collapsed region was seen only on computed tomography and virtual bronchoscopy in all six animals. The vesicular emphysema pattern typical of lung lobe torsion was seen on three computed tomographies but only on one radiographic examination. The lung lobe torsion-specific findings of vesicular emphysema and a proximally narrowed or occluded bronchus were more easily recognised on computed tomography and virtual bronchoscopy than with radiographs. Computed tomography slices acquired through the bronchus and lung lobe of interest in a cat or dog with possible lung lobe torsion can be reformatted into virtual bronchoscopic images that can be utilised along with computed tomography to help make a more definitive preoperative diagnosis.

  12. Neutron radiography inspection of investment castings.

    PubMed

    Richards, W J; Barrett, J R; Springgate, M E; Shields, K C

    2004-10-01

    Investment casting, also known as the lost wax process, is a manufacturing method employed to produce near net shape metal articles. Traditionally, investment casting has been used to produce structural titanium castings for aero-engine applications with wall thickness less than 1 in (2.54 cm). Recently, airframe manufacturers have been exploring the use of titanium investment casting to replace components traditionally produced from forgings. Use of titanium investment castings for these applications reduces weight, cost, lead time, and part count. Recently, the investment casting process has been selected to produce fracture critical structural titanium airframe components. These airframe components have pushed the traditional inspection techniques to their physical limits due to cross sections on the order of 3 in (7.6 cm). To overcome these inspection limitations, a process incorporating neutron radiography (n-ray) has been developed. In this process, the facecoat of the investment casting mold material contains a cocalcined mixture of yttrium oxide and gadolinium oxide. The presence of the gadolinium oxide, allows for neutron radiographic imaging (and eventual removal and repair) of mold facecoat inclusions that remain within these thick cross sectional castings. Probability of detection (POD) studies have shown a 3 x improvement of detecting a 0.050 x 0.007 in2 (1.270 x 0.178 mm2) inclusion of this cocalcined material using n-ray techniques when compared to the POD using traditional X-ray techniques. Further, it has been shown that this n-ray compatible mold facecoat material produces titanium castings of equal metallurgical quality when compared to the traditional materials. Since investment castings can be very large and heavy, the neutron radiography facilities at the University of California, Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center (UCD/MNRC) were used to develop the inspection techniques. The UCD/MNRC has very unique facilities that can handle large

  13. Dry needling for the management of thoracic spine pain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Layton, Michelle; Dommerholt, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Thoracic spine pain is as disabling as neck and low back pain without receiving the same level of attention in the scientific literature. Among the different structures that can refer pain to the thoracic spine, muscles often play a relevant role. Trigger points (TrPs) from neck, shoulder and spinal muscles can induce pain in the region of the thoracic spine. There is a lack of evidence reporting the presence of TrPs in the region of the thoracic spine, but clinical evidence suggests that TrPs can be a potential source of thoracic spine pain. The current paper discusses the role of TrPs in the thoracic spine and dry needling (DN) for the management of TrPs in the thoracic multifidi and longissimus thoracis. This paper also includes a brief discussion of the application of DN in other tissues such as tendons, ligaments and scars.

  14. Dry needling for the management of thoracic spine pain

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Layton, Michelle; Dommerholt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic spine pain is as disabling as neck and low back pain without receiving the same level of attention in the scientific literature. Among the different structures that can refer pain to the thoracic spine, muscles often play a relevant role. Trigger points (TrPs) from neck, shoulder and spinal muscles can induce pain in the region of the thoracic spine. There is a lack of evidence reporting the presence of TrPs in the region of the thoracic spine, but clinical evidence suggests that TrPs can be a potential source of thoracic spine pain. The current paper discusses the role of TrPs in the thoracic spine and dry needling (DN) for the management of TrPs in the thoracic multifidi and longissimus thoracis. This paper also includes a brief discussion of the application of DN in other tissues such as tendons, ligaments and scars. PMID:26309385

  15. Comparison of state dental radiography safety regulations.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Thomas F; Parashar, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and provide an overview of state policies on occupational exposure, dosimetry, collimation, patient protection, and the use of portable handheld X-ray machines in dentistry. State government webpages containing radiation protection rules and regulations were scanned. The contents were compared against current federal regulations established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). They were further evaluated in light of current recommendations from the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (NCRP) and the American Dental Association (ADA). Most states' regulations mirror the exposure limits set forth by the NRC and FDA. Nonregulatory recommendations regarding use of dental radiography are periodically put forth by the NCRP and the ADA. State and federal agencies often follow recommendations from these scientific organizations when creating regulations. Clinicians must be aware of their state's radiation protection rules, as variations among states exist. In addition, recommendations published by organizations such as the NCRP and the ADA, while not legally binding, contribute significantly to the reduction of radiation risks for operators and patients alike.

  16. Patient information extraction in digitized radiography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsien-Huang P

    2002-03-01

    Digital imagery is gradually replacing the traditional radiograph with the development of digital radiography and film scanner. This report presents a new method to extract the patient information number (PIN) field automatically from the film-scanned image using image analysis technique. To evaluate the PIN field extraction algorithm, 2 formats of label acquired from 2 different hospitals are tested. Given the available films with no constraints on the way the labels are written and positioned, the correct extraction rates are 73% and 84%, respectively. This extracted PIN information can link with Radiology Information System (RIS) or Hospital Information System (HIS), and the image scanned from the film then can be filed into the database automatically. The efficiency this method offers can simplify greatly the image filing process and improve the user friendliness of the overall image digitization system. Moreover, compared with the bar code reader, it solves the automatic information input problem in a very economical way. The authors believe the success of this technique will benefit the development of the PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) and teleradiology.

  17. Developments in digital radiography: an equipment update.

    PubMed

    James, J J; Davies, A G; Cowen, A R; O'Connor, P J

    2001-01-01

    Digital X-ray imaging technology has advanced rapidly over the past few years. This review, particularly aimed at those involved in using and purchasing such technology, is an attempt to unravel some of the complexities of this potentially confusing subject. The main groups of X-ray imaging devices that are considered are digitisers of conventional radiographs, image-intensifier-based fluorography systems, photostimulable phosphor computed radiography, amorphous selenium-based technology for thorax imaging and flat-panel systems. As well as describing these different systems, we look at ways of objectively assessing their image quality. Concepts that are used and explained include spatial resolution, grey-scale bit resolution, signal-to-noise ratio and detective quantum efficiency. An understanding of these basic parameters is vital in making a scientific assessment of a system's performance. Image processing and techniques are also briefly discussed, particularly with reference to their potential effects on image quality. This review aims to provide a basic understanding of digital X-ray imaging technology and enables the reader to make an independent and educated assessment of the relative merits of each system.

  18. Applications of Cosmic Ray Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardincerri, E.; Durham, J. M.; Morris, C. L.; Rowe, C. A.; Poulson, D. C.; Bacon, J. D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Morley, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral, was built between 1420 and 1436 by architect Filippo Brunelleschi and it is now cracking under its own weight. Engineering efforts are underway to model the dome's structure and reinforce it against further deterioration. According to some scholars, Brunelleschi might have built reinforcement structures into the dome itself; however, the only confirmed known subsurface reinforcement is a chain of iron and stone around the dome's base. Tomography with cosmic ray muons is a non-destructive imaging method that can be used to image the interior of the wall and therefore ascertain the layout and status of any iron substructure in the dome. We will show the results from a muon tomography measurement of iron hidden in a mockup of the dome's wall performed at Los Alamos National Lab in 2015. The sensitivity of this technique, and the status of this project will be also discussed. At last, we will show results on muon attenuation radiography of larger shallow targets.

  19. Portable Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-11-01

    This user manual describes the function and use of the portable digital radiography and computed tomography (DRCT) scanner. The manual gives a general overview of x-ray imaging systems along with a description of the DRCT system. An inventory of the all the system components, organized by shipping container, is also included. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are provided for all of the exercises necessary for a novice user to successfully collect digital radiographs and tomographic images of an object, including instructions on system assembly and detector calibration and system alignment. There is also a short section covering the limited system care and maintenance needs. Descriptions of the included software packages, the DRCT Digital Imager used for system operation, and the DRCT Image Processing Interface used for image viewing and tomographic data reconstruction are given in the appendixes. The appendixes also include a cheat sheet for more experienced users, a listing of known system problems and how to mitigate them, and an inventory check-off sheet suitable for copying and including with the machine for shipment purposes.

  20. Beam Characterization at the Neutron Radiography Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah Morgan; Jeffrey King

    2013-01-01

    The quality of a neutron imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam’s effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This project characterized the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam’s effective length-to-diameter ratio and image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. Improvement of the existing NRAD MCNP beamline model includes validation of the model’s energy spectrum and the development of enhanced image simulation methods. The image simulation methods predict the radiographic image of an object based on the foil reaction rate data obtained by placing a model of the object in front of the image plane in an MCNP beamline model.

  1. A dose monitoring system for dental radiography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chena; Kim, Jo-Eun; Symkhampha, Khanthaly; Lee, Woo-Jin; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Yeom, Heon-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The current study investigates the feasibility of a platform for a nationwide dose monitoring system for dental radiography. The essential elements for an unerring system are also assessed. Materials and Methods An intraoral radiographic machine with 14 X-ray generators and five sensors, 45 panoramic radiographic machines, and 23 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) models used in Korean dental clinics were surveyed to investigate the type of dose report. A main server for storing the dose data from each radiographic machine was prepared. The dose report transfer pathways from the radiographic machine to the main sever were constructed. An effective dose calculation method was created based on the machine specifications and the exposure parameters of three intraoral radiographic machines, five panoramic radiographic machines, and four CBCTs. A viewing system was developed for both dentists and patients to view the calculated effective dose. Each procedure and the main server were integrated into one system. Results The dose data from each type of radiographic machine was successfully transferred to the main server and converted into an effective dose. The effective dose stored in the main server is automatically connected to a viewing program for dentist and patient access. Conclusion A patient radiation dose monitoring system is feasible for dental clinics. Future research in cooperation with clinicians, industry, and radiologists is needed to ensure format convertibility for an efficient dose monitoring system to monitor unexpected radiation dose. PMID:27358817

  2. A method to optimize the processing algorithm of a computed radiography system for chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Moore, C S; Liney, G P; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R

    2007-09-01

    A test methodology using an anthropomorphic-equivalent chest phantom is described for the optimization of the Agfa computed radiography "MUSICA" processing algorithm for chest radiography. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the lung, heart and diaphragm regions of the phantom, and the "system modulation transfer function" (sMTF) in the lung region, were measured using test tools embedded in the phantom. Using these parameters the MUSICA processing algorithm was optimized with respect to low-contrast detectability and spatial resolution. Two optimum "MUSICA parameter sets" were derived respectively for maximizing the CNR and sMTF in each region of the phantom. Further work is required to find the relative importance of low-contrast detectability and spatial resolution in chest images, from which the definitive optimum MUSICA parameter set can then be derived. Prior to this further work, a compromised optimum MUSICA parameter set was applied to a range of clinical images. A group of experienced image evaluators scored these images alongside images produced from the same radiographs using the MUSICA parameter set in clinical use at the time. The compromised optimum MUSICA parameter set was shown to produce measurably better images.

  3. Comparison of patient specific dose metrics between chest radiography, tomosynthesis, and CT for adult patients of wide ranging body habitus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yakun; Li, Xiang; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-02-15

    metrics only increased slightly for radiographic modalities and for chest tomosynthesis. Effective and organ doses normalized to mAs all illustrated an exponential decrease with increasing patient size. As a surface organ, breast doses had less correlation with body size than that of lungs or liver. Conclusions: Patient body size has a much greater impact on radiation dose of chest CT examinations than chest radiography and tomosynthesis. The size of a patient should be considered when choosing the best thoracic imaging modality.

  4. Myelopathy with syringomyelia following thoracic epidural anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, J A; Ferrari, H

    2004-02-01

    Under general anaesthesia and muscle relaxation, a thoracic epidural catheter was inserted at the T8-T9 level in a 7-year-old boy scheduled to have a Nissen fundoplication to provide postoperative analgesia. After 4 ml of lignocaine 1.5% was injected through the catheter, hypotension resulted. Fifty-five minutes later 5 ml of bupivacaine 0.25% produced the same effect. In the recovery room a similar injection resulted in lower blood pressure and temporary apnoea. Sensory and motor deficits were noted the next day and four days later magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated spinal cord syringomyelia extending from T5 to T10. Four years later, dysaesthesia from T6 to T10 weakness of the left lower extremity and bladder and bowel dysfunction persist. The risks of inserting thoracic epidural catheters in patients under general anaesthesia and muscle relaxation are discussed, emphasising the possibility of spinal cord injury with disastrous consequences.

  5. Acute Aortic Syndromes and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ramanath, Vijay S.; Oh, Jae K.; Sundt, Thoralf M.; Eagle, Kim A.

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic aortic diseases have been diagnosed and studied by physicians for centuries. Both the diagnosis and treatment of aortic diseases have been steadily improving over time, largely because of increased physician awareness and improvements in diagnostic modalities. This comprehensive review discusses the pathophysiology and risk factors, classification schemes, epidemiology, clinical presentations, diagnostic modalities, management options, and outcomes of various aortic conditions, including acute aortic dissection (and its variants intramural hematoma and penetrating aortic ulcers) and thoracic aortic aneurysms. Literature searches of the PubMed database were conducted using the following keywords: aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, aortic ulcer, and thoracic aortic aneurysm. Retrospective and prospective studies performed within the past 20 years were included in the review; however, most data are from the past 15 years. PMID:19411444

  6. [Thoracic ectopia cordis with tetralogy of fallot].

    PubMed

    Ben Khalfallah, A; Annabi, N; Ousji, M; Hadrich, M; Najai, A

    2003-01-01

    Ectopia cordis; very rare congenital malformation, characterized by an evisceration of the heart through a parietal defect. The thoracic localization is most frequent. We report the case of a full term baby girl without follow-up of the pregnancy, presenting a beating mass in thoracic position, expansive to the effort, covered by a translucent membrane corresponding to an ectopique position of the heart. Transthoracic echocardiography shows cardiac malformation: Fallot tetralogy. The precocious diagnosis is possible by prenatal ultrasound examination after 12th week of pregnancy. The surgical treatment remain the only hope for these neonates. It's results depends on the associated malformations and the neonatal complications especially the infections. The prognosis remains poor in spite of the progress of surgical techniques.

  7. Thoracic radiology in kidney and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Joel E; Rabkin, John M

    2002-04-01

    Renal transplantation accounts for more than half of all solid organ transplants performed in the U.S., and the liver is the second most commonly transplanted solid organ. Although abdominal imaging procedures are commonplace in these patients, there has been relatively little attention paid to thoracic imaging applications. Preoperative imaging is crucial to aid in the exclusion of infectious or malignant disease. In the perioperative time period, thoracic imaging focuses both on standard intensive care unit care, including monitoring devices and their complications, and on the early infections that can occur. Postoperative management is divided into three time periods, and the principles governing the occurrence of infections and malignancies are reviewed. Anatomic and pathologic aspects unique to kidney and liver transplantation patients are also discussed.

  8. [Applications for bronchial blockers in thoracic surgery].

    PubMed

    García-Guasch, R; Campos, J H; Granell, M; Peña, J J

    2007-11-01

    One-lung ventilation is commonly used to facilitate visualization of the field during thoracic surgery. New devices for performing this technique that have become available over the past 2 decades include the Univent bronchial blocker incorporated in a single-lumen tube, the Arndt endobronchial blocker, and the Cohen endobronchial blocker. Although insertion of a double-lumen tube is still the method used most often to isolate the lung, bronchial blockade is an increasingly common technique and, in certain clinical settings, provides advantages over the double-lumen tube. This review provides an update on new concepts in the use of bronchial blockers as a technique for lung isolation and one-lung ventilation. The literature search was performed on MEDLINE through PubMed using the keywords bronchial blockers and thoracic surgery. The search span started with 1982-the year the first modern bronchial blocker was described - and ended with February 2006.

  9. Clinical Guideline for Treatment of Symptomatic Thoracic Spinal Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong-qiang; Sun, Chui-guo

    2015-08-01

    Thoracic spinal stenosis is a relatively common disorder causing paraplegia in the population of China. Until nowadays, the clinical management of thoracic spinal stenosis is still demanding and challenging with lots of questions remaining to be answered. A clinical guideline for the treatment of symptomatic thoracic spinal stenosis has been created by reaching the consensus of Chinese specialists using the best available evidence as a tool to aid practitioners involved with the care of this disease. In this guideline, many fundamental questions about thoracic spinal stenosis which were controversial have been explained clearly, including the definition of thoracic spinal stenosis, the standard procedure for diagnosing symptomatic thoracic spinal stenosis, indications for surgery, and so on. According to the consensus on the definition of thoracic spinal stenosis, the soft herniation of thoracic discs has been excluded from the pathological factors causing thoracic spinal stenosis. The procedure for diagnosing thoracic spinal stenosis has been quite mature, while the principles for selecting operative procedures remain to be improved. This guideline will be updated on a timely schedule and adhering to its recommendations should not be mandatory because it does not have the force of law.

  10. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm from Chronic Antiestrogen Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Rishi; Sainathan, Sandeep; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A

    2017-03-01

    Aortic aneurysms are a common but often undetected pathology prevalent in the population. They are often detected as incidental findings on imaging studies performed for unrelated pathologies. Estrogens have been shown to exert a protective influence on aortic tissue. Pharmacological agents blocking the actions of estrogens may thus be implicated in causing aortic pathologies. We present the case of an elderly woman with breast carcinoma treated for 18 years with antiestrogen therapy who subsequently developed acute thoracic aortic deterioration (enlargement and wall disruption).

  11. Transesophageal echocardiography evaluation of the thoracic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Patil, T. A.; Nierich, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) can be used to identify risk factors such as aortic atherosclerosis[2] before any sort of surgical manipulations involving aorta and its related structures. TEE has become an important noninvasive tool to diagnose acute thoracic aortic pathologies. TEE evaluation of endoleaks helps early detection and immediate corrective interventions. TEE is an invaluable imaging modality in the management of aortic pathology. TEE has to a large extent improved the patient outcomes. PMID:27762248

  12. Thoracic kidney associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Kamal N; Rohilla, Seema; Narang, Rajat; Rattan, Simmi K; Maggu, Sarita; Dhaulakhandi, Dhara B

    2009-09-01

    We report three cases of ectopic thoracic (or superior ectopic) kidney; one in a neonate and two in 6-month-old children, associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In all cases the diagnosis was made during surgery and confirmed by intravenous pyelography, sonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the postoperative period. Because of the rarity of this condition we report these cases together with a wide review of the published reports.

  13. Thoracic surgery in India: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    India has the dubitable honor of being ranked first in the world with regards to lung disease burden. A good proportion of this disease burden is amenable to surgical treatment. However, patients have limited access to quality thoracic surgical care due to a number of obstacles. This review article summarizes these obstacles and the implied opportunities that exist in this nascent surgical discipline in the world’s second most populous country. PMID:27651933

  14. Managing Dissections of the Thoracic Aorta

    PubMed Central

    WONG, DANIEL R.; LEMAIRE, SCOTT A.; COSELLI, JOSEPH S.

    2010-01-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, and it requires timely and accurate diagnosis and treatment. Long-term antihypertensive therapy remains critical for the treatment of this disease. Surgical intervention, although still a formidable undertaking, has evolved to better address both acute and chronic dissection, and the results have improved. Basic and clinical research, as well as technological advances, have increased our understanding of this challenging disease state. PMID:18481490

  15. The European general thoracic surgery database project.

    PubMed

    Falcoz, Pierre Emmanuel; Brunelli, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    The European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) Database is a free registry created by ESTS in 2001. The current online version was launched in 2007. It runs currently on a Dendrite platform with extensive data security and frequent backups. The main features are a specialty-specific, procedure-specific, prospectively maintained, periodically audited and web-based electronic database, designed for quality control and performance monitoring, which allows for the collection of all general thoracic procedures. Data collection is the "backbone" of the ESTS database. It includes many risk factors, processes of care and outcomes, which are specially designed for quality control and performance audit. The user can download and export their own data and use them for internal analyses and quality control audits. The ESTS database represents the gold standard of clinical data collection for European General Thoracic Surgery. Over the past years, the ESTS database has achieved many accomplishments. In particular, the database hit two major milestones: it now includes more than 235 participating centers and 70,000 surgical procedures. The ESTS database is a snapshot of surgical practice that aims at improving patient care. In other words, data capture should become integral to routine patient care, with the final objective of improving quality of care within Europe.

  16. [Videothoracospy in thoracic trauma and penetrating injuries].

    PubMed

    Lang-Lazdunski, L; Chapuis, O; Pons, F; Jancovici, R

    2003-03-01

    Videothoracoscopy represents a valid and useful approach in some patients with blunt chest trauma or penetrating thoracic injury. This technique has been validated for the treatment of clotted hemothorax or posttraumatic empyema, traumatic chylothorax, traumatic pneumothorax, in patients with hemodynamic stability. Moreover, it is probably the most reliable technique for the diagnosis of diaphragmatic injury. It is also useful for the extraction of intrathoracic projectiles and foreign bodies. This technique might be useful in hemodynamically stable patients with continued bleeding or for the exploration of patients with penetrating injury in the cardiac area, although straightforward data are lacking to confirm those indications. Thoracotomy or median sternotomy remain indicated in patients with hemodynamic instability or those that cannot tolerate lateral decubitus position or one-lung ventilation. Performing video-surgery in the trauma setting require expertise in both video-assisted thoracic surgery and chest trauma management. The contra-indications to videothoracoscopy and indications for converting the procedure to an open thoracotomy should be perfectly known by surgeons performing video-assisted thoracic surgery in the trauma setting. Conversion to thoracotomy or median sternotomy should be performed without delay whenever needed to avoid blood loss and achieve an adequate procedure.

  17. Recent advances in fast neutron radiography for cargo inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowerby, B. D.; Tickner, J. R.

    2007-09-01

    Fast neutron radiography techniques are attractive for screening cargo for contraband such as narcotics and explosives. Neutrons have the required penetration, they interact with matter in a manner complementary to X-rays and they can be used to determine elemental composition. Compared to neutron interrogation techniques that measure secondary radiation (neutron or gamma-rays), neutron radiography systems are much more efficient and rapid and they are much more amenable to imaging. However, for neutron techniques to be successfully applied to cargo screening, they must demonstrate significant advantages over well-established X-ray techniques. This paper reviews recent developments and applications of fast neutron radiography for cargo inspection. These developments include a fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography system that utilizes a 14 MeV neutron generator as well as fast neutron resonance radiography systems that use variable energy quasi-monoenergetic neutrons and pulsed broad energy neutron beams. These systems will be discussed and compared with particular emphasis on user requirements, sources, detector systems, imaging ability and performance.

  18. Evaluation of a Noise Reduction Procedure for Chest Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Ryohei; Ishii, Rie; Kodani, Kazuhiko; Kanasaki, Yoshiko; Suyama, Hisashi; Watanabe, Masanari; Nakamoto, Masaki; Fukuoka, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of noise reduction procedure (NRP), a function in the new image processing for chest radiography. Methods A CXDI-50G Portable Digital Radiography System (Canon) was used for X-ray detection. Image noise was analyzed with a noise power spectrum (NPS) and a burger phantom was used for evaluation of density resolution. The usefulness of NRP was evaluated by chest phantom images and clinical chest radiography. We employed the Bureau of Radiological Health Method for scoring chest images while carrying out our observations. Results NPS through the use of NRP was improved compared with conventional image processing (CIP). The results in image quality showed high-density resolution through the use of NRP, so that chest radiography examination can be performed with a low dose of radiation. Scores were significantly higher than for CIP. Conclusion In this study, use of NRP led to a high evaluation in these so we are able to confirm the usefulness of NRP for clinical chest radiography. PMID:24574577

  19. A benchmark for comparison of dental radiography analysis algorithms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Wei; Huang, Cheng-Ta; Lee, Jia-Hong; Li, Chung-Hsing; Chang, Sheng-Wei; Siao, Ming-Jhih; Lai, Tat-Ming; Ibragimov, Bulat; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Ronneberger, Olaf; Fischer, Philipp; Cootes, Tim F; Lindner, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    Dental radiography plays an important role in clinical diagnosis, treatment and surgery. In recent years, efforts have been made on developing computerized dental X-ray image analysis systems for clinical usages. A novel framework for objective evaluation of automatic dental radiography analysis algorithms has been established under the auspices of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging 2015 Bitewing Radiography Caries Detection Challenge and Cephalometric X-ray Image Analysis Challenge. In this article, we present the datasets, methods and results of the challenge and lay down the principles for future uses of this benchmark. The main contributions of the challenge include the creation of the dental anatomy data repository of bitewing radiographs, the creation of the anatomical abnormality classification data repository of cephalometric radiographs, and the definition of objective quantitative evaluation for comparison and ranking of the algorithms. With this benchmark, seven automatic methods for analysing cephalometric X-ray image and two automatic methods for detecting bitewing radiography caries have been compared, and detailed quantitative evaluation results are presented in this paper. Based on the quantitative evaluation results, we believe automatic dental radiography analysis is still a challenging and unsolved problem. The datasets and the evaluation software will be made available to the research community, further encouraging future developments in this field. (http://www-o.ntust.edu.tw/~cweiwang/ISBI2015/).

  20. [Development of treatment of severe thoracic injuries].

    PubMed

    Le Brigand, H

    1975-11-01

    About 25 p. 100 of cases of closed trauma of the thorax may be classified as severe, for they rapidly endanger life. Their treatment has made considerable progress since the report of J. Dor and H. Le Brigand in 1960. However, when severe trauma is treated, the mortality has remained unchanged over the last ten years. The treatment of fractures of the sternum includes respiratory assistance and internal fixation of the fractured bones, these two methods together, when correctly applied, give good results. Endothoracic lesions are now better recognised. Hemothorax and pneumothorax are now treated by a well recognised method. Visceral lesions, such as bronchial rupture, or major vascular ruptures, e.g. aorta, and heart lesions may be diagnosed at an early stage and be operated on more often. On the other hand, it is now better recognised that diffuse pulmonary lesions, e.g. pulmonary contusions or "shock lung", which is usually treated by artificial respiration alone, still may have a poor prognosis in some cases. From this it results that many surgical teams have enlarged the indications for early thoracotomy in the same way as laparotomy is more often carried out in abdominal trauma. In fact, these indications require circumspection and thoracotomy should only be carried out in specialised thoracic surgery units. If this is not available, aspiration, drainage, tracheotomy, continuous extension, are still applicable, but it is also necessary for them to be carried out correctly; if not, failures and complications of these minor measures are frequent. The use of these methods has shown the existence of therapeutic failures, including major bilateral bony lesions, diffuse severe lung injuries with resistant anoxia, complex multiple injuries with thoracic involvement and, finally, combined thoracic and cranial lesions, the mortality of which is about 50 p. 100. These facts explain why treatment of severe thoracic trauma gives variable results. The mortality varies from

  1. NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY (NRAD) REACTOR 64-ELEMENT CORE UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2014-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA (registered) (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The interim critical configuration developed during the core upgrade, which contains only 62 fuel elements, has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The final 64-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has also been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (approximately +/-1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  2. Limiting the use of routine radiography for acute ankle injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Cockshott, W. P.; Jenkin, J. K.; Pui, M.

    1983-01-01

    In the diagnosis of ankle injuries routine radiography is often productive. An international survey of the average number of radiographs made of injured ankles suggested that two projections are adequate to detect fractures. This was confirmed in a prospective study of 242 patients coming to a hospital emergency department with recent ankle injuries. All the fractures could be identified on an anteroposterior or a lateral projection, although some were more obvious on an oblique view. As well, all the fractures were associated with malleolar soft-tissue swelling. Thus, radiography for acute ankle injuries could safely be restricted to patients with soft-tissue swelling, and fractures could be diagnosed using only two routine projections, though for management purposes additional projections might be needed. With a policy of limiting the use of radiography substantial cost reductions are possible. Images FIG. 1 PMID:6407744

  3. Studies of solid propellant combustion with pulsed radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godai, T.; Tanemura, T.; Fujiwara, T.; Shimizu, M.

    1987-01-01

    Pulsed radiography was applied to observe solid propellant surface regression during rocket motor operation. Using a 150 KV flash X-ray system manufactured by the Field Emission Corporation and two kinds of film suppliers, images of the propellant surface of a 5 cm diameter end burning rocket motor were recorded on film. The repetition frame rate of 8 pulses per second and the pulse train length of 10 pulses are limited by the capability of the power supply and the heat build up within the X-ray tube, respectively. The experiment demonstrated the effectiveness of pulsed radiography for observing solid propellant surface regression. Measuring the position of burning surface images on film with a microdensitometer, quasi-instantaneous burning rate as a function of pressure and the variation of characteristic velocity with pressure and gas stay time were obtained. Other research items to which pulsed radiography can be applied are also suggested.

  4. [Significance of plain radiography in shoulder pain diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Botser, Itamar Busheri; Shapira, Shachar; Oran, Ariel; Avivi, Eran; Pritsch, Moshe

    2011-09-01

    Shoulder pain is a common complaint--almost 20% of the population will suffer shoulder pain during their life time. Despite the availability of newer imaging techniques for evaluation of the shoulder, the first imaging study should be radiography. Recently, ultrasonography of the shoulder has become one of the first studies performed. Sometimes, ultrasonography is conducted before radiography; moreover, many patients are being referred to a shoulder specialist without performing an X-ray. There is a plethora of pathologies that can cause shoulder pain--rotator cuff tears, impingement syndrome, calcified tendinitis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, neoplasms and more. This review aims to show the significance of plain radiography in the diagnosis of shoulder pathologies, in order to encourage the use of this modality. In this paper we shall review the different causes of shoulder pain and their radiographic characteristics.

  5. Pressure Indication of 3013 Inner Containers Using Digital Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    HENSEL, SJ

    2004-04-15

    Plutonium bearing materials packaged for long term storage per the Department of Energy Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) are required to be examined periodically in a non-destructive manner (i.e. without compromising the storage containers) for pressure buildup. Radiography is the preferred technology for performing the examinations. The concept is to measure and record the container lid position. As a can pressurizes the lid will deflect outward and thus provide an indication of the internal pressure. A radiograph generated within 30 days of creation of each storage container serves as the baseline from which future surveillance examinations will be compared. A problem with measuring the lid position was discovered during testing of a digital radiography system. The solution was to provide a distinct feature upon the lower surface of the container lid from which the digital radiography system could easily track the lid position.

  6. CT and MRI in the Evaluation of Thoracic Aortic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most commonly used imaging examinations to evaluate thoracic aortic diseases because of their high spatial and temporal resolutions, large fields of view, and multiplanar imaging reconstruction capabilities. CT and MRI play an important role not only in the diagnosis of thoracic aortic disease but also in the preoperative assessment and followup after treatment. In this review, the CT and MRI appearances of various acquired thoracic aortic conditions are described and illustrated. PMID:24396601

  7. [Thoracic involvement in Behçet's vasculitis].

    PubMed

    Zidi, A; Ben Miled Mrad, K; Hantous, S; Nouira, K; Mestiri, I; Mrad, S

    2006-03-01

    Thoracic involvement of Behcet's disease is unusual but serious. It is related to the well known vascular tropism of the disease. It may involve the superior vena cava, pulmonary arteries, aorta and subclavian vessels. Imaging is useful for diagnosis and assess the degree of thoracic involvement. CT scan and MRI are obviously more accurate than angiography. The spectrum of thoracic manifestations of the disease is presented based on a review of 22 cases.

  8. Phosphor plate radiography: an integral component of the filmless practice.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Scott

    2010-11-01

    The federal government has mandated that all dental and medical patient records be electronic in 3 years. Practices using film radiography will be unable to comply with this mandate. PSP radiography is not only a surprisingly convenient way to transition from film to digital imaging, it can also greatly enhance the practice's productivity, profitability, and patient satisfaction. Modern, forward-thinking practices will want to take full advantage of PSP's superiority by making this transition now rather than waiting until they are forced to.

  9. Pilot study of bovine interdigital cassetteless computed radiography.

    PubMed

    El-Shafaey, El-Sayed Ahmed Awad; Aoki, Takahiro; Ishii, Mitsuo; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2013-11-01

    Twenty-one limbs of bovine cadavers (42 digits) were exposed to interdigital cassetteless imaging plate using computed radiography. The radiographic findings included exostosis, a rough planta surface, osteolysis of the apex of the distal phalanx and widening of the laminar zone between the distal phalanx and the hoof wall. All these findings were confirmed by computed tomography. The hindlimbs (19 digits) showed more changes than the forelimbs (10 digits), particularly in the lateral distal phalanx. The cassetteless computed radiography technique is expected to be an easily applicable method for the distal phalanx rather than a conventional cassette-plate and/or the film-screen cassetteless methods.

  10. Californium Multiplier Part I: design for neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Crosbie, K.L.; Preskitt, C.A.; John, J.; Hastings, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The Californium Multiplier (CFX) is a subcritical assembly of enriched uranium surrounding a californium-252 neutron source. The function of the CFX is to multiply the neutrons emitted by the source to a number sufficient for neutron radiography. The CFX is designed to provide a collimated beam of thermal neutrons from which the gamma radiation is filtered, and the scattered neutrons are reduced to make it suitable for high resolution radiography. The entire system has inherent safety features, which provide for system and personnel safety, and it operates at moderate cost. In Part I, the CFX and the theory of its operation are described in detail.

  11. Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sjue, Sky K.

    2015-11-04

    The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly.

  12. Thoracic duct cyst of posterior mediastinum: a "challenging" differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Electra, Michalopoulou-Manoloutsiou; Evangelia, Athanasiou; Mattheos, Bobos; Dimitris, Hatzibougias I; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Tsavlis, Drosos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Charalampidis, Chralampos; Fassiadis, Nikolaos; Mparmpetakis, Nikolaos; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Andreas, Mpakas; Stamatis, Arikas; Alexandros, Kolettas; Kosmas, Tsakiridis

    2016-05-01

    Thoracic duct cysts of the mediastinum are extremely rare entities and their pathogenesis still remains unknown. Imaging methods are not specific and show a cystic mass, however the real nature of the lesion is confirmed only with the help of histopathological examination after surgical excision. Here, we present a case of thoracic cyst in a 28-year-old female, lining in posterior lower mediastinum. The cyst was removed by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and the histopathological findings were that of thoracic duct cyst. Through this case, we propose an ideal surgical approach and diagnostic procedure.

  13. Measuring microfocal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A; Ewert, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification is especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application; and (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. The following equations are used for the focal spot size measurement: By similar triangles the following equations are presupposed: f/a = U/b and M = (a+b)/a. These equations can be combined to yield the well known expression: U = f(M - 1). Solving for f, f = U/(M-1). Therefore, the focal spot size, f, can be calculated by measuring the radiographic unsharpness and magnification of a known object. This is the basis for these tests. The European standard actually uses one-half of the unsharpness (which are then added together) from both sides of the object to avoid additional unsharpness contributions due to edge transmission unsharpness of the round test object (the outside of the object is measured). So the equation becomes f = (1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2})/(M-1). In practice 1/2 U is measured from the 50% to the 90% signal points on the transition profile from ''black'' to ''white,'' (positive image) or attenuated to unattenuated portion of the image. The 50% to 90% points are chosen as a best fit to an assumed Gaussian radiation distribution from the focal spot and to avoid edge transmission effects. 1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2} corresponds about to the full width at half height of a Gaussian focal spot. A highly absorbing material (Tungsten, Tungsten Alloy, or Platinum) is used for the object. Either wires or a sphere are used as the object to eliminate alignment issues. One

  14. 42 CFR 37.51 - Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs-digital radiography systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-digital radiography systems. 37.51 Section 37.51 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... of Chest Radiographs § 37.51 Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs—digital radiography systems. (a) For each chest radiograph obtained at an approved facility using a digital radiography...

  15. Preliminary study of visualizing membrane structures of spiculated pulmonary nodules in three-dimensional thoracic CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Ohmatsu, H.; Aokage, K.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.

    2016-03-01

    Research results from the National Lung Screening Trial revealed that screening for lung cancer with low-dose CT (LDCT) reduces lung cancer mortality in heavy smokers by 20% compared to radiography. While this study does show the efficacy of CT-based screening, radiologists often face the problem of estimating the malignant likelihoods of pulmonary nodules detected on LDCT screening for maximizing patient survival and for preserving lung function. Spiculation is considered as one of the indicators of nodule malignancy and an important feature to assess requirements on a patient-tailored follow-up procedure. However, the spiculation is also observed in some benign nodules, particularly in tuberculoma. The elucidation of the spliculation morphology in 3D thoracic CT images is an important preliminary step towards developing the malignant discrimination strategies from benign nodules. In this study, we present a visualization method to reveal a spatial configuration of spiculation of pulmonary nodules in three-dimensional thoracic CT images. Applying the method to an example of malignant nodule with the spiculated margins, the visualizing preliminary result of the spatial configuration reveals the presence of membrane structures of spiculation.

  16. The reported thoracic injuries in Homer's Iliad

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Homer's Iliad is considered to be a prominent and representative work of the tradition of the ancient Greek epic poetry. In this poem Homer presents the battles which took place during the last year of the 10-year lasting Trojan War between Achaeans and Trojans. We wanted to examine the chest wounds, especially those which are described in detail, according to their localization, severity and mortality. Finally, there are reported 54 consecutive thoracic injuries in the Iliad. The mostly used weapons were the spear (63%), the stones (7.4%), the arrow (5.5%) and the sword (5.5%). We divided the injuries according to their severity in mild (those which did not cause serious injury to the victim), medium (those which cause the victim to abandon the battlefield), and severe (those which cause death of the victim). According to this classification, the reported injuries were mild in 11.11%, medium in 18.52%, and severe in the last 70.37% of the reported cases. In other words, 89% of the injuries belong to the medium or severe category of thoracic injury. As far as the mortality of the injuries is concerned, 38 out of 54 thoracic injuries include death, which makes the mortality percentage reach 70.37%. Concerning the "allocation of the roles", the Achaean were in 68% perpetrators and the Trojans in only 32%. In terms of gravity, out of 38 mortal injuries 30 involve a Trojan (78.95%) and the remaining 8 an Achaean (21.05%). The excellent and detailed description of the injuries by Homer, as well as of the symptoms, may reveal a man with knowledge of anatomy and medicine who cared for the injured warriors in the battlefield. PMID:21087529

  17. The reported thoracic injuries in Homer's Iliad.

    PubMed

    Apostolakis, Efstratios; Apostolaki, Georgia; Apostolaki, Mary; Chorti, Maria

    2010-11-19

    Homer's Iliad is considered to be a prominent and representative work of the tradition of the ancient Greek epic poetry. In this poem Homer presents the battles which took place during the last year of the 10-year lasting Trojan War between Achaeans and Trojans. We wanted to examine the chest wounds, especially those which are described in detail, according to their localization, severity and mortality. Finally, there are reported 54 consecutive thoracic injuries in the Iliad. The mostly used weapons were the spear (63%), the stones (7.4%), the arrow (5.5%) and the sword (5.5%). We divided the injuries according to their severity in mild (those which did not cause serious injury to the victim), medium (those which cause the victim to abandon the battlefield), and severe (those which cause death of the victim). According to this classification, the reported injuries were mild in 11.11%, medium in 18.52%, and severe in the last 70.37% of the reported cases. In other words, 89% of the injuries belong to the medium or severe category of thoracic injury. As far as the mortality of the injuries is concerned, 38 out of 54 thoracic injuries include death, which makes the mortality percentage reach 70.37%. Concerning the "allocation of the roles", the Achaean were in 68% perpetrators and the Trojans in only 32%. In terms of gravity, out of 38 mortal injuries 30 involve a Trojan (78.95%) and the remaining 8 an Achaean (21.05%). The excellent and detailed description of the injuries by Homer, as well as of the symptoms, may reveal a man with knowledge of anatomy and medicine who cared for the injured warriors in the battlefield.

  18. Iatrogenic Injury to the Long Thoracic Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Bizzarri, Federico; Davoli, Giuseppe; Bouklas, Dimitri; Oricchio, Luca; Frati, Giacomo; Neri, Eugenio

    2001-01-01

    After heart surgery, complications affecting the brachial plexus have been reported in 2% to 38% of cases. The long thoracic nerve is vulnerable to damage at various levels, due to its long and superficial course. This nerve supplies the serratus anterior muscle, which has an important role in the abduction and elevation of the superior limb; paralysis of the serratus anterior causes “winged scapula,” a condition in which the arm cannot be lifted higher than 90° from the side. Unfortunately, the long thoracic nerve can be damaged by a wide variety of traumatic and nontraumatic occurrences, ranging from viral or nonviral disease to improper surgical technique, to the position of the patient during transfer to a hospital bed. Our patient, a 62-year-old man with triple-vessel disease, underwent myocardial revascularization in which right and left internal thoracic arteries and the left radial artery were grafted to the right coronary, descending anterior, and obtuse marginal arteries, respectively. Despite strong recovery and an apparently good postoperative course, the patient sued for damages due to subsequent winging of the left scapula. In this instance, the legal case has less to do with the cause of the lesion (which remains unclear) than with failure to adequately inform the patient of possible complications at the expense of the nervous system. The lesson is that each patient must receive detailed written and oral explanation of the potential benefits and all conceivable risks of a procedure. (Tex Heart Inst J 2001;28:315–7) PMID:11777160

  19. [Clamshell thoracotomy after thoracic knife wounds].

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Marcus; Schneider, Niko R E; Popp, Erik

    2017-01-04

    Resuscitation in the event of traumatic cardiac arrest was for a long time considered to be a less than promising technique to employ; however, current data indicate that the prospects of success need not be any poorer than for resuscitation due to cardiac distress. The targeted and rapid remedying of reversible causes can re-establish the circulatory function and the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) algorithm for traumatic cardiac arrest is a helpful guide in this respect. This case report illustrates the resolute implementation of this algorithm in the prehospital environment in the case of an attempted suicide by a thoracic knife wound.

  20. Video-Assisted Thoracic Sympathectomy for Hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Milanez de Campos, Jose Ribas; Kauffman, Paulo; Gomes, Oswaldo; Wolosker, Nelson

    2016-08-01

    By the 1980s, endoscopy was in use by some groups in sympathetic denervation of the upper limbs with vascular indications. Low morbidity, cosmetic results, reduction in the incidence of Horner syndrome, and the shortened time in hospital made video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy (VATS) better accepted by those undergoing treatment for hyperhidrosis. Over the last 25 years, this surgical procedure has become routine in the treatment of hyperhidrosis, leading to a significant increase in the number of papers on the subject in the literature.

  1. Thoracic ectopia cordis with anatomically normal heart.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Flávio Donizete; Novaes, Fernando Rotatori; Maia, Marcelo Alves; Barros, Francisco de Assis

    2007-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital malformation, which is commonly associated with other intracardiac defects. At two-day-old full-term baby girl was admitted to Santa Casade Misericórdia Hospital Montes Claros, NG, Brazil, with thoracic ectopia cordis. A transthoracic echocardiographic study did not identify any associated congenital heart diseases. The infant underwent surgical treatment using a rib graft to create a neo-sternum. She was discharged after presenting a good outcome on the 20th postoperative day.

  2. Digital subtraction angiography of the thoracic aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, L.B.; Buonocore, E.; Modic, M.T.; Meaney, T.F.

    1984-02-01

    Forty-three patients with acquired and congenital abnormalities of the thoracic aorta were studied using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) after an intravenous bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast material. Abnormalities studied included coarctation, pseudocoarctation, Marfan syndrome, cervical aorta, double aortic arch, aneurysm, dissection, and tumor. Twenty-four patients also had conventional angiography. DSA was accurate in 95% of cases; in the other 5%, involving patients with acute type I dissection, the coronary arteries could not be seen. The authors concluded that in 92% of their patients, DSA could have replaced the standard aortogram.

  3. Video-assisted thoracic surgery complications

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Józef

    2014-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is a miniinvasive technique commonly applied worldwide. Indications for VATS are very broad and include the diagnosis of mediastinal, lung and pleural diseases, as well as large resection procedures such as pneumonectomy. The most frequent complication is prolonged postoperative air leak. The other significant complications are bleeding, infections, postoperative pain and recurrence at the port site. Different complications of VATS procedures can occur with variable frequency in various diseases. Despite the large number of their types, such complications are rare and can be avoided through the proper selection of patients and an appropriate surgical technique. PMID:25561984

  4. Idiopathic thoracic aortic aneurysm at pediatric age.

    PubMed

    Marín-Manzano, E; González-de-Olano, D; Haurie-Girelli, J; Herráiz-Sarachaga, J I; Bermúdez-Cañete, R; Tamariz-Martel, A; Cuesta-Gimeno, C; Pérez-de-León, J

    2009-03-01

    A 6-year-old-boy presented with epigastric pain and vomiting over 1 year. Chest X-ray and esophagogastric transit showed a mediastinal mass. A chest computerized tomography angiogram demonstrated a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. Analytical determinations carried out were all negative. The aneurysm was surgically repaired using a Dacron patch. The anatomopathological study described atherosclerotic lesions with calcifications, compatible with an atherosclerotic aneurysm wall. Aneurysms are uncommon in the pediatric population. Usually, no pathogenesis can be determined, and thus, such cases are grouped as idiopathic. Direct repair with or without patch is a therapeutic alternative in pediatric aneurysms and can allow the growth of the aortic circumference.

  5. Trichobezoars Detected and Treated Based on Plain Radiography.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Amy; Vachon, Tyler; Campin, Richard C; Ignacio, Romeo C

    2015-10-01

    Bezoars are conglomerations of indigestible material that become trapped in the gastrointestinal tract. We present a case of an 8-year-old female child diagnosed with a gastric bezoar solely on plain radiography and treated with abdominal surgical exploration and removal. In addition, traditional characteristic radiographic findings and treatment options for bezoars found in the current literature are reviewed.

  6. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... may affirm that all individuals acting as industrial radiographers will be certified in radiation... submits a description of the applicant's overall organizational structure as it applies to the...

  7. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... may affirm that all individuals acting as industrial radiographers will be certified in radiation... submits a description of the applicant's overall organizational structure as it applies to the...

  8. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY... may affirm that all individuals acting as industrial radiographers will be certified in radiation... submits a description of the applicant's overall organizational structure as it applies to the...

  9. Beam Physics in X-Ray Radiography Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y J; Caporaso, G J; Chambers, F W; Falabella, S; Goldin, F J; Guethlein, G; Lauer, E L; McCarrick, J F; Neurath, R; Richardson, R A; Sampayan, S; Weir, J T

    2002-12-02

    Performance of x-ray radiography facilities requires focusing the electron beams to sub-millimeter spots on the x-ray converters. Ions extracted from a converter by impact of a high intensity beam can partially neutralize the beam space charge and change the final focusing system. We will discuss these ion effects and mitigation.

  10. Method and Apparatus for Computed Imaging Backscatter Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shedlock, Daniel (Inventor); Meng, Christopher (Inventor); Sabri, Nissia (Inventor); Dugan, Edward T. (Inventor); Jacobs, Alan M. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Systems and methods of x-ray backscatter radiography are provided. A single-sided, non-destructive imaging technique utilizing x-ray radiation to image subsurface features is disclosed, capable of scanning a region using a fan beam aperture and gathering data using rotational motion.

  11. Radiography Capabilities for Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Walstrom, Peter Lowell; Garnett, Robert William; Chapman, Catherine A. B; Salazar, Harry Richard; Otoole, Joseph Alfred; Barber, Ronald L.; Gomez, Tony Simon

    2015-04-28

    The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) experimental facility will be used to discover and design the advanced materials needed to meet 21st century national security and energy security challenges. This new facility will provide the new tools scientists need to develop next-generation materials that will perform predictably and on-demand for currently unattainable lifetimes in extreme environments. The MaRIE facility is based on upgrades to the existing LANSCE 800-MeV proton linac and a new 12-GeV electron linac and associated X-ray FEL to provide simultaneous multiple probe beams, and new experimental areas. In addition to the high-energy photon probe beam, both electron and proton radiography capabilities will be available at the MaRIE facility. Recently, detailed radiography system studies have been performed to develop conceptual layouts of high-magnification electron and proton radiography systems that can meet the experimental requirements for the expected first experiments to be performed at the facility. A description of the radiography systems, their performance requirements, and a proposed facility layout are presented.

  12. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review

    PubMed Central

    Rondon, Rafael Henrique Nunes; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara

    2014-01-01

    Professionals performing radiographic examinations are responsible for maintaining optimal image quality for accurate diagnoses. These professionals must competently execute techniques such as film manipulation and processing to minimize patient exposure to radiation. Improper performance by the professional and/or patient may result in a radiographic image of unsatisfactory quality that can also lead to a misdiagnosis and the development of an inadequate treatment plan. Currently, the most commonly performed extraoral examination is panoramic radiography. The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for the most common types of positioning errors in panoramic radiography to suggest the correct techniques. We would also discuss how to determine if the most common positioning errors occurred in panoramic radiography, such as in the positioning of the patient's head, tongue, chin, or body. PMID:24701452

  13. Point Scattered Function (PScF) for fast neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohamed H.

    2009-08-01

    Fast neutron radiography opened up a new range of possibilities to image extremely dense objects. The removal of the scattering effect is one of the most challenging problems in neutron imaging. Neutron scattering in fast neutron radiography did not receive much attention compared with X-ray and thermal neutron radiography. The purpose of this work is to investigate the behavior of the Point Scattered Function (PScF) as applied in fast neutron radiography. The PScF was calculated using MCNP as a spatial distribution of scattered neutrons over the detector surface for one emitting source element. Armament and explosives materials, namely, Rifle steel, brass, aluminum and trinitrotoluene (TNT) were simulated. Effect of various sample thickness and sample-to-detector distance were considered. Simulated sample geometries included a slab with varying thickness, a sphere with varying radii, and a cylinder with varying base radii. Different neutron sources, namely, Cf-252, DT as well as DD neutron sources were considered. Neutron beams with zero degree divergence angle; and beams with varying angles related to the normal to the source plane were simulated. Curve fitting of the obtained PScF, in the form of Gaussian function, were given to be used in future work using image restoration codes. Analytical representation of the height as well as the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the obtained Gaussian functions eliminates the need to calculate the PScF for sample parameters that were not investigated in this study.

  14. Surface anatomy and surface landmarks for thoracic surgery: Part II.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shona E; Darling, Gail E

    2011-05-01

    Surface anatomy is an integral part of a thoracic surgeon's armamentarium to assist with the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of thoracic pathology. As reviewed in this article, the surface landmarks of the lungs, heart, great vessels, and mediastinum are critical for appropriate patient care and should be learned in conjunction with classic anatomy.

  15. Extraforaminal ligament attachments of the thoracic spinal nerves in humans.

    PubMed

    Kraan, G A; Hoogland, P V J M; Wuisman, P I J M

    2009-04-01

    An anatomical study of the extraforaminal attachments of the thoracic spinal nerves was performed using human spinal columns. The objectives of the study are to identify and describe the existence of ligamentous structures at each thoracic level that attach spinal nerves to structures at the extraforaminal region. During the last 120 years, several mechanisms have been described to protect the spinal nerve against traction. All the described structures were located inside the spinal canal proximal to the intervertebral foramen. Ligaments with a comparable function just outside the intervertebral foramen are mentioned ephemerally. No studies are available about ligamentous attachments of thoracic spinal nerves to the spine. Five embalmed human thoracic spines (Th2-Th11) were dissected. Bilaterally, the extraforaminal region was dissected to describe and measure anatomical structures and their relationships with the thoracic spinal nerves. Histology was done at the sites of attachment of the ligaments to the nerves and along the ligaments. The thoracic spinal nerves are attached to the transverse process of the vertebrae cranial and caudal to the intervertebral foramen. The ligaments consist mainly of collagenous fibers. In conclusion, at the thoracic level, direct ligamentous connections exist between extraforaminal thoracic spinal nerves and nearby structures. They may serve as a protective mechanism against traction and compression of the nerves by positioning the nerve in the intervertebral foramen.

  16. The thoracic anterior spinal cord adhesion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, T R; Dineen, R; White, B; Jaspan, T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study included a series of middle-aged male and female patients who presented with chronic anterior hemicord dysfunction progressing to paraplegia. Imaging of anterior thoracic cord displacement by either a dural adhesion or a dural defect with associated cord herniation is presented. Methods This is a retrospective review of cases referred to a tertiary neuroscience centre over a 19-year period. Imaging series were classified by two experienced neuroradiologists against several criteria and correlated with clinical examination and/or findings at surgery. Results 16 cases were available for full review. Nine were considered to represent adhesions (four confirmed surgically) and four to represent true herniation (three confirmed surgically). In the three remaining cases the diagnosis was radiologically uncertain. Conclusion The authors propose “thoracic anterior spinal cord adhesion syndrome” as a novel term to describe this patient cohort and suggest appropriate clinicoradiological features for diagnosis. Several possible aetiologies are also suggested, with disc rupture and inflammation followed by disc resorption and dural pocket formation being a possible mechanism predisposing to herniation at the extreme end of a clinicopathological spectrum. PMID:22665931

  17. Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Study Group.

    PubMed

    LoCicero, J

    1993-09-01

    Both patients and the medical profession are quick to embrace new technology, particularly when it may replace an existing surgical procedure. Unfortunately, the rapidity of acceptance is rarely associated with careful evaluation. Laparoscopy is a recent example of such widely embraced technology. Studies of laparoscopy that yielded good comparative data to more traditional methods were slow to accrue. This led to the exposure of its shortcomings through governmental reports and the lay press. To prevent this from happening in thoracoscopy, two types of studies are required so that valid conclusions about the new technology can be drawn. The first is an accounting of the new technology as procedures evolve around it. The data collected in such a study should contain basic information, including the indications for the procedure, how it was performed, procedure length, associated complications, and patient outcome. Such information provides a broad profile of the technology, emphasizing from the outset its potential strengths and weaknesses. The second type of study involves a more detailed concurrent comparison of the specific procedures utilizing this technology to the established traditional methods. Such randomized studies help to firmly establish through scientific process the place of the new technology. The Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Study Group was organized in early 1992 to address these concerns. From an initial four surgeons the group has grown to include more than 41 institutions. Currently the group is collecting data in a registry and has established three clinical trials to evaluate video-assisted thoracic surgery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Surgical efficacy of minimally invasive thoracic discectomy.

    PubMed

    Elhadi, Ali M; Zehri, Aqib H; Zaidi, Hasan A; Almefty, Kaith K; Preul, Mark C; Theodore, Nicholas; Dickman, Curtis A

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to determine the clinical indications and surgical outcomes for thoracoscopic discectomy. Thoracic disc disease is a rare degenerative process. Thoracoscopic approaches serve to minimize tissue injury during the approach, but critics argue that this comes at the cost of surgical efficacy. Current reports in the literature are limited to small institutional patient series. We systematically identified all English language articles on thoracoscopic discectomy with at least two patients, published from 1994 to 2013 on MEDLINE, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. We analyzed 12 articles that met the inclusion criteria, five prospective and seven retrospective studies comprising 545 surgical patients. The overall complication rate was 24% (n=129), with reported complications ranging from intercostal neuralgia (6.1%), atelectasis (2.8%), and pleural effusion (2.6%), to more severe complications such as pneumonia (0.8%), pneumothorax (1.3%), and venous thrombosis (0.2%). The average reported postoperative follow-up was 20.5 months. Complete resolution of symptoms was reported in 79% of patients, improvement with residual symptoms in 10.2%, no change in 9.6%, and worsening in 1.2%. The minimally invasive endoscopic approaches to the thoracic spine among selected patients demonstrate excellent clinical efficacy and acceptable complication rates, comparable to the open approaches. Disc herniations confined to a single level, with small or no calcifications, are ideal for such an approach, whereas patients with calcified discs adherent to the dura would benefit from an open approach.

  19. Thoracic ultrasound recognition of competence: A position paper of the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jonathan P; Twaddell, Scott H; Lee, Y C Gary; Salamonsen, Matthew; Hew, Mark; Fielding, David; Nguyen, Phan; Steinfort, Daniel; Hopkins, Peter; Smith, Nicola; Grainge, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    The ability to perform bedside thoracic ultrasound is increasingly recognized as an essential skill for thoracic clinicians, extending the clinical examination and aiding diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Thoracic ultrasound reduces complications and increases success rates when used prior to thoracentesis or intercostal chest tube insertion. It is increasingly difficult to defend performing these procedures without real or near-real time image guidance. To assist thoracic physicians and others achieve and demonstrate thoracic ultrasound competence, the Interventional Pulmonology Special Interest Group (IP-SIG) of the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand (TSANZ) has developed a new pathway with four components: (i) completion of an approved thoracic ultrasound theory and hands-on teaching course. (ii) A log of at least 40 relevant scans. (iii) Two formative assessments (following 5-10 scans and again after 20 scans) using the Ultrasound-Guided Thoracentesis Skills and Tasks Assessment Tool (UG-STAT). (iv) A barrier assessment (UG-STAT, pass score of 90%) by an accredited assessor not directly involved in the candidate's training. Upon completion of these requirements a candidate may apply to the TSANZ for recognition of competence. This pathway is intended to provide a regional standard for thoracic ultrasound training.

  20. Reflecting the thoracic fellowship in Canada as a Japanese thoracic surgeon: is there anything we should follow?

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Teruya

    2011-01-01

    In Japanese surgical society, there have been urgent discussions as to the decrease in the number of junior doctors who want to be surgical specialists. This problem seems to have originated from the loss of attractiveness of surgery. One of the counter-measures to regain the attractiveness of surgical specialties might be a well-organized training system, for which the Japanese Board of General Thoracic Surgery (JBGTS), as well as those of other surgical subspecialties, has struggled. Fortunately, I had an opportunity of general thoracic surgery training in Canada, and had a chance to reflect on the thoracic training programs of both countries. Based on my experience as a thoracic fellow in Canada, I would like to introduce the Canadian way of thoracic surgery training, referring to the differences between each program.

  1. Proton Radiography: Cross Section Measurements and Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Longo; H. R. Gustafson: Durga Rajaram; Turgun Nigmanov

    2010-04-16

    Proton radiography has become an important tool for predicting the performance of stockpiled nuclear weapons. Current proton radiography experiments at LANSCE are confined to relatively small targets on the order of centimeters in size because of the low beam energy. LANL scientists have made radiographs with 12 and 24 GeV protons produced by the accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These energies are in the range required for hydrotest radiography. The design of a facility for hydrotest radiography requires knowledge of the cross sections for producing high-energy particles in the forward direction, which are incorporated into the Monte Carlo simulation used in designing the beam and detectors. There are few existing measurements of neutron production cross sections for proton-nuclei interactions in the 50 GeV range, and almost no data exist for forward neutron production, especially for heavy target nuclei. Thus the data from the MIPP EMCAL and HCAL, for which our group was responsible, are critical to proton radiography. Since neutrons and photons cannot be focused by magnets, they cause a background “fog” on the images. This problem can be minimized by careful design of the focusing system and detectors. The purpose of our research was to measure forward production of neutrons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. The forward-going particles carry most of the energy from a high-energy proton interaction, so these are the most important to proton radiography. This work was carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab E-907 (MIPP) collaboration. Our group was responsible for designing and building the E907 forward neutron and photon calorimeters. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grants, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. The MIPP experiment accumulated a large amount of data in the first run that ended in early 2006. Our group has

  2. Non-intubated thoracic surgery—A survey from the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Sorge, Roberto; Akopov, Andrej; Congregado, Miguel; Grodzki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Background A survey amongst the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) members has been performed to investigate the currents trends, rates of adoption as well as potential for future expansion of non-intubated thoracic surgery (NITS) performed under spontaneous ventilation. Methods A 14-question-based questionnaire has been e-mailed to ESTS members. To facilitate the completion of the questionnaire, questions entailed either quantitative or multiple-choice answers. Investigated issues included previous experience with NITS and number of procedures performed, preferred types of anesthesia protocols (i.e., thoracic epidural anesthesia, intercostal or paravertebral blocks, laryngeal mask, use of additional sedation), type of procedures, ideal candidates for NITS, main advantages and technical disadvantages. Non-univocal answer to multiple-choice questions was permitted. Results Out of 105 responders, 62 reported an experience with NITS. The preferred types of anesthesia were intercostal blocks with (59%) or without (50%) sedation, followed by laryngeal mask with sedation (43%) and thoracic epidural anesthesia with sedation (20%). The most frequently performed procedures included thoracoscopic management of recurrent pleural effusion (98%), pleural decortication for empyema thoracis and lung biopsy for interstitial lung disease (26% each); pericardial window and mediastinal biopsy (20% each). More complex procedures such as lobectomy, lung volume reduction surgery and thymectomy have been performed by a minority of responders (2% each). Poor-risk patients due to co-morbidities (70%) and patients with poor pulmonary function (43%) were considered the ideal candidates. Main advantages included faster, recovery (67%), reduced morbidity (59%) and shorter hospital stay with decreased costs (43% each). Reported technical disadvantages included coughing (59%) and poor maneuverability due to diaphragmatic and lung movements (56%). Overall, 69% of responders indicated

  3. Respiratory Displacement of the Thoracic Aorta: Physiological Phenomenon With Potential Implications for Thoracic Endovascular Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Tim Frederik; Tetzlaff, Ralf; Rengier, Fabian; Geisbuesch, Philipp; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Boeckler, Dittmar; Eichinger, Monika; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude and direction of respiratory displacement of the ascending and descending thoracic aorta during breathing maneuvers. In 11 healthy nonsmokers, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was performed in transverse orientation at the tracheal bifurcation during maximum expiration and inspiration as well as tidal breathing. The magnitude and direction of aortic displacement was determined relatively to resting respiratory position for the ascending (AA) and descending (DA) aorta. To estimate a respiratory threshold for occurrence of distinct respiratory aortic motion, the latter was related to the underlying change in anterior-posterior thorax diameter. Compound displacement between maximum expiration and inspiration was 24.3 {+-} 6.0 mm for the AA in the left anterior direction and 18.2 {+-} 5.5 mm for the DA in the right anterior direction. The mean respiratory thorax excursion during tidal breathing was 8.9 {+-} 2.8 mm. The respiratory threshold, i.e., the increase in thorax diameter necessary to result in respiratory aortic displacement, was estimated to be 15.7 mm. The data suggest that after a threshold of respiratory thorax excursion is exceeded, respiration is accompanied by significant displacement of the thoracic aorta. Although this threshold may not be reached during tidal breathing in the majority of individuals, segmental differences during forced respiration impact on aortic geometry, may result in additional extrinsic forces on the aortic wall, and may be of significance for aortic prostheses designed for thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

  4. [Thoracic kidney: congenital or traumatic origin?].

    PubMed

    Esquis, P; Osmak, L; Ognois, P; Goudet, P; Cougard, P

    2006-04-01

    The discovery of a thoracic kidney in adult patients can lead to three diagnoses, yielding different prognoses and treatment. It can either mean traumatic or congenital diaphragmatic hernia, or a congenital ectopic kidney. Intrathoracic herniation of the left kidney trough a left diaphragmatic rupture is an exceptional discovery. We report the case of a 44 year-old man who met with a car accident 20 years ago, and presented abdominal pain. CT-scan showed an intrathoracic herniation of the left kidney trough a left posterior diaphragmatic rupture. Laparoscopic approach in lateral position showed a traumatic hernia of the left costo-diaphragmatic hiatus only containing the left kidney and its pedicle. After reduction of herniated left kidney into the abdomen, the hiatus was closed by non-resorbable prosthetic mesh. Postoperative course was uneventful.

  5. Video assisted thoracic surgery in children

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rasik; Reddy, A Suyodhan; Dhende, Nitin P

    2007-01-01

    Thoracoscopic surgery, i.e., video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been in use in children for last 98 years. Its use initially was restricted to the diagnostic purposes. However, with the improvement in the optics, better understanding of the physiology with CO2 insufflation, better capabilities in achieving the single lung ventilation and newer vessel sealing devices have rapidly expanded the spectrum of the indication of VATS. At present many complex lung resections, excision of mediastinal tumors are performed by VATS in the experienced centre. The VATS has become the standard of care in empyema, lung biopsy, Mediastinal Lymphnode biopsy, repair of diaphragmatic hernia, etc. The article discusses the indications of VATS, techniques to achieve the selective ventilation and surgical steps in the different surgical conditions in children. PMID:19789677

  6. Endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic fistulas.

    PubMed

    Léobon, Bertrand; Roux, Daniel; Mugniot, Antoine; Rousseau, Hervé; Cérene, Alain; Glock, Yves; Fournial, Gérard

    2002-07-01

    Aortoesophageal and aortobronchial fistulas constitute a problem in therapy because of the high rates of morbidity and mortality associated with operation. From May 1996 to March 2000, we treated by an endovascular procedure one aortoesophageal and three aortobronchial fistulas. There was no postoperative death. We noted one peripheral vascular complication that required a surgical procedure, one postoperative confusion, and one inflammatory syndrome. In one case, because of a persistent leakage after 21 months, we had to implant a second endovascular stent graft. A few weeks later the reopening of this patient's esophageal fistula led to his death by mediastinitis 25 months after the first procedure. The few cases published seem to bear out the interest, observed in our 4 patients, of an endovascular approach to treat complex lesions such as fistulas of the thoracic aorta especially in emergency or palliative cases.

  7. [Flexible endoscope in thoracic surgery: CITES or cVATS?].

    PubMed

    Assouad, J; Fénane, H; Masmoudi, H; Giol, M; Karsenti, A; Gounant, V; Grunenwald, D

    2013-10-01

    Early pain and persistent parietal disorders remains a major unresolved problem in thoracic surgery. Thoracotomy and the use of multiple ports in most Video Assisted Thoracic Surgery (VATS) procedures are the major cause of this persistent pain. For the last decade, a few publications describing the use of either single incision VATS and cervical thoracic approaches have been reported without significant results in comparison with current used techniques. Intercostals compression during surgery and early after by intercostals chest tube placement, are probably the major cause of postoperative pain. Flexible endoscope is currently used in several surgeries and will take more and more importance in our daily use in thoracic surgery. Instrument flexibility allows its use through minimally invasive approaches and offers a very interesting intra-thoracic navigation. We describe here the first use in France of a flexible endoscope in thoracic surgery through a single cervical incision to perform simultaneous exploration and biopsies of the mediastinum and right pleura using the original approach of Cervical Incision Thoracic Endoscopic Surgery (CITES).

  8. A reappraisal of adult thoracic surface anatomy.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, S Ali; Hale, Samuel J M; Buckenham, Tim; Wilson, Ben; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Accurate surface anatomy is essential for safe clinical practice. Numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings exist between and within anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to investigate key thoracic surface anatomical landmarks in vivo using computed tomographic (CT) imaging. High-resolution thoracic CT scans from 153 supine adults (mean age 63, range 19-89 years; 53% female) taken at end tidal inspiration were analyzed by dual consensus reporting to determine the surface anatomy of the sternal angle, central veins, heart, lungs, and diaphragm. Patients with kyphosis/scoliosis, distorting space-occupying lesions, or visceromegaly were excluded. The position of the cardiac apex, formation of the brachiocephalic veins, and vertebral levels of the sternal angle, xiphisternal joint, and aortic hiatus were consistent with commonly accepted surface markings although there was a wide range of normal variation. In contrast, common surface markings were markedly inaccurate for the following: the position of the tracheal bifurcation, aortic arch, and azygos vein termination (below the plane of the sternal angle at T5-T6 vertebral level in most individuals); the superior vena cava/right atrial junction (most often behind the fourth costal cartilage); the lower border of the lung (adjacent to T12 vertebra posteriorly); and the level at which the inferior vena cava and esophagus traverse the diaphragm (T11 in most). Surface anatomy must be reappraised using modern imaging in vivo if it is to be evidence based and fit for purpose. The effects of gender, age, posture, respiration, build, and ethnicity also deserve greater emphasis.

  9. Breast size, thoracic kyphosis & thoracic spine pain - association & relevance of bra fitting in post-menopausal women: a correlational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Menopause would seem to exist as a period of accelerated changes for women and their upper torso mechanics. Whether these anthropometric changes reflect changes in pain states remains unclear. Plausible mechanisms of pain exist for the independent and combined effect of increasing breast size and thoracic kyphosis. Bra fit has the potential to change when the anthropometric measures (chest circumference and bust circumference) used to determine bra size change, such as postmenopausally. Identifying an association between breast size, thoracic kyphosis and thoracic spine pain in postmenopausal women and identifying the relevance of bra fit to this association may be of importance to the future management and education of post-menopausal women presenting clinically with thoracic spine pain. Methods A cross-sectional study design. Fifty-one postmenopausal bra-wearing women were recruited. Measures included breast size (Triumph International), thoracic kyphosis (flexible curve), bra fitted (Y/N) and pain (Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire) and tenderness on palpation (posteroanterior pressure testing). These measures were collected in one session at a physiotherapy clinic. Results The majority of the women in this study were overweight or obese and wearing an incorrect sized bra. Pain was significantly related to breast size, body weight and BMI at mid thoracic levels (T7-8). In contrast self-reported thoracic pain was not correlated with age or index of kyphosis (thoracic kyphosis). Women with thoracic pain were no more likely to have their bra professionally fitted whereas women with a higher BMI and larger breasts were more likely to have their bra professionally fitted. Conclusion The findings of this study show that larger breasts and increased BMI are associated with thoracic pain in postmenopausal women. This is unrelated to thoracic kyphosis. Increasing breast size and how a bra is worn may have biomechanical implications for the loaded thoracic

  10. Development of Compton radiography of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Hey, D. S.; Iglesias, C.; Izumi, N.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Sorce, C.; Delettrez, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2011-05-15

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60 to 200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {mu}m and {approx}10 ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D nonuniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  11. A new scanner for in situ digital radiography of paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impallaria, Anna; Evangelisti, Federico; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Tisato, Flavia; Castelli, Lisa; Taccetti, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    X-ray radiography is one of the most widely used imaging techniques in the field of cultural heritage, both for conservation and for investigation purposes. Performing radiographies in museums, thus avoiding movements of works of art, has been recently made easy by digital acquisition of images, but when the whole scan of a large painting is required, technical solutions for a portable device are still not at hand. The inherent weight of the X-ray tube and of the high-voltage generator makes the design of a portable device very difficult. In this project, the solution of the puzzle was separating devices devoted to different tasks, in order to maintain each item under 60 kg weight, thus being transportable with reasonable effort.

  12. Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.J.; Hill, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures.

  13. Proton radiography of a shock-compressed target

    SciTech Connect

    Ravasio, A.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Loupias, B.; Ozaki, N.; Vinci, T.; Koenig, M.; Romagnani, L.; Cecchetti, C.; Borghesi, M.; Le Pape, S.; Hicks, D.; MacKinnon, A.; Park, H. S.; Patel, P.; Batani, D.; Dezulian, R.; Boehly, T.; Gremillet, L.; Henry, E.; Schiavi, A.

    2010-07-15

    In this paper we report on the radiography of a shock-compressed target using laser produced proton beams. A low-density carbon foam target was shock compressed by long pulse high-energy laser beams. The shock front was transversally probed with a proton beam produced in the interaction of a high intensity laser beam with a gold foil. We show that from radiography data, the density profile in the shocked target can be deduced using Monte Carlo simulations. By changing the delay between long and short pulse beams, we could probe different plasma conditions and structures, demonstrating that the details of the steep density gradient can be resolved. This technique is validated as a diagnostic for the investigation of warm dense plasmas, allowing an in situ characterization of high-density contrasted plasmas.

  14. Californium Multiplier. Part I. Design for neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Crosbie, K.L.; Preskitt, C.A.; John, J.; Hastings, J.D.

    1982-04-01

    The Californium Multiplier (CFX) is a subcritical assembly of enriched uranium surrounding a californium-252 neutron source. The function of the CFX is to multiply the neutrons emitted by the source to a number sufficient for neutron radiography. The CFX is designed to provide a collimated beam of thermal neutrons from which the gamma radiation is filtered, and the scattered neutrons are reduced to make it suitable for high resolution radiography. The entire system has inherent safety features, which provide for system and personnel safety, and it operates at moderate cost. In Part I, the CFX and the theory of its operation are described in detail. Part II covers the performance of the Mound Facility CFX.

  15. Radiography and ultrasonic calculation workbooks: installation and use

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, D; Dolan, K

    2000-03-24

    The radiography and ultrasonic calculation workbooks are intended to assist Level I, II and III NDE personnel in calculations used in routine job applications. These workbooks are an upgraded version of Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheets, which were originally set up in October 1988, using a Macintosh Plus{reg_sign} computer and Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} version 1.5. A description of these was released as ''Computerized Calculations for Radiography and Ultrasonics'', UCRL-JC-105419 in November 1990 and published in Materials Evaluation, Volume 49/Number 4, in April 1991. Over the years as Microsoft improved the capabilities of the Excel program to include the abilities to make sketches and to have multiple tabbed pages in a document called a ''workbook'' we have now modified the calculation spreadsheets to include these enhancements. Following is a short description on how to install and use these workbooks on a Macintosh or PC.

  16. Proton radiography and tomography with application to proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Poludniowski, G; Allinson, N M; Evans, P M

    2015-09-01

    Proton radiography and tomography have long promised benefit for proton therapy. Their first suggestion was in the early 1960s and the first published proton radiographs and CT images appeared in the late 1960s and 1970s, respectively. More than just providing anatomical images, proton transmission imaging provides the potential for the more accurate estimation of stopping-power ratio inside a patient and hence improved treatment planning and verification. With the recent explosion in growth of clinical proton therapy facilities, the time is perhaps ripe for the imaging modality to come to the fore. Yet many technical challenges remain to be solved before proton CT scanners become commonplace in the clinic. Research and development in this field is currently more active than at any time with several prototype designs emerging. This review introduces the principles of proton radiography and tomography, their historical developments, the raft of modern prototype systems and the primary design issues.

  17. The MU-RAY detector for muon radiography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Basta, D.; Bonechi, L.; Brianzi, M.; Bross, A.; Callier, S.; Caputo, A.; Ciaranfi, R.; Cimmino, L.; D'Alessandro, R.; D'Auria, L.; de La Taille, C.; Energico, S.; Garufi, F.; Giudicepietro, F.; Lauria, A.; Macedonio, G.; Martini, M.; Masone, V.; Mattone, C.; Montesi, M. C.; Noli, P.; Orazi, M.; Passeggio, G.; Peluso, R.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Raux, L.; Rubinov, P.; Saracino, G.; Scarlini, E.; Scarpato, G.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Starodubtsev, O.; Strolin, P.; Taketa, A.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Vanzanella, A.

    2013-12-01

    The MU-RAY detector has been designed to perform muon radiography of volcanoes. The possible use on the field introduces several constraints. First the electric power consumption must be reduced to the minimum, so that the detector can be solar-powered. Moreover it must be robust and transportable, for what concerns the front-end electronics and data acquisition. A 1 m2 prototype has been constructed and is taking data at Mt. Vesuvius. The detector consists of modules of 32 scintillator bars with wave length shifting fibers and silicon photomultiplier read-out. A dedicated front-end electronics has been developed, based on the SPIROC ASIC. An introduction to muon radiography principles, the MU-RAY detector description and results obtained in laboratory will be presented.

  18. Comparison of Digital Imaging Systems for Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliesi, R.; Pugliesi, Fábio; Stanojev Pereira, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    The characteristics of three digital imaging systems for neutron radiography purposes have been compared. Two of them make use of films, CR-39 and Kodak AA, and the third makes use of a LiF scintillator, for image registration. The irradiations were performed in the neutron radiography facility installed at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. According to the obtained results, the system based on CR-39 is the slowest to obtain an image, and the best in terms of resolution but the worse in terms of contrast. The system based on Kodak AA is faster than the prior, exhibits good resolution and contrast. The system based on the scintillator is the fastest to obtain an image, and best in terms of contrast but the worse in terms of resolution.

  19. Monte Carlo Modeling of High-Energy Film Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.C., Jr.; Cochran, J.L.; Lamberti, V.E.

    2003-03-28

    High-energy film radiography methods, adapted in the past to performing specific tasks, must now meet increasing demands to identify defects and perform critical measurements in a wide variety of manufacturing processes. Although film provides unequaled resolution for most components and assemblies, image quality must be enhanced with much more detailed information to identify problems and qualify features of interest inside manufactured items. The work described is concerned with improving current 9 MeV nondestructive practice by optimizing the important parameters involved in film radiography using computational methods. In order to follow important scattering effects produced by electrons, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was used with advanced, highly parallel computer systems. The work has provided a more detailed understanding of latent image formation at high X-ray energies, and suggests that improvements can be made in our ability to identify defects and to obtain much more detail in images of fine features.

  20. Lung nodules detection in chest radiography: image components analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tao; Mou, Xuanqin; Yang, Ying; Yan, Hao

    2009-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of different components of chest image on performances of both human observer and channelized Fisher-Hotelling model (CFH) in nodule detection task. Irrelevant and relevant components were separated from clinical chest radiography by employing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) methods. Human observer performance was evaluated in two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) on original clinical images and anatomical structure only images obtained by PCA methods. Channelized Fisher-Hotelling model with Laguerre-Gauss basis function was evaluated to predict human performance. We show that relevant component is the primary factor influencing on nodule detection in chest radiography. There is obvious difference of detectability between human observer and CFH model for nodule detection in images only containing anatomical structure. CFH model should be used more carefully.

  1. Study of a Loop Heat Pipe Using Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    C. Thomas Conroy; A. A. El-Ganayni; David R. Riley; John M. Cimbala; Jack S. Brenizer, Jr.; Abel Po-Ya Chuang; Shane Hanna

    2001-08-01

    An explanation is given of what a loop heat pipe (LHP) is, and how it works. It is then shown that neutron imaging (both real time neutron radioscopy and single exposure neutron radiography) is an effective experimental tool for the study of LHPs. Specifically, neutron imaging has helped to identify and correct a cooling water distribution problem in the condenser, and has enabled visualization of two-phase flow (liquid and vapor) in various components of the LHP. In addition, partial wick dry-out, a phenomenon of great importance in the effective operation of LHPs, has been identified with neutron imaging. It is anticipated that neutron radioscopy and radiography will greatly contribute to our understanding of LHP operation, and will lead to improvement of LHP modeling and design.

  2. Development of Compton Radiography Diagnostics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R; Hatchett, S P; Hey, D S; Izumi, N; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Mackinnon, A J; Delettrez, J; Glebov, V; Stoeckl, C

    2010-11-16

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60-200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton Radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {micro}m and {approx}10ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D non-uniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  3. Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations

    SciTech Connect

    Antoku, S.; Hoshi, M.; Russell, W.J.; Kihara, T.; Sawada, S.; Takeshita, K.; Otake, M.; Yoshinaga, H.; Beach, D.R.

    1989-03-01

    Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated on the basis of survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and doses were measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters and a phantom. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated from data obtained during a 2-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year and were tabulated by organs, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic-bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  4. Flash radiography with 24 GeV/c protons

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C. L.; Alrick, K. R.; Buescher, K. L.; Cagliostro, D. J.; Clark, D. A.; Clark, D. J.; Espinoza, C. J.; Ferm, E. N.; Gallegos, R. A.; Gomez, J. J.; Hogan, G. E.; King, N. S. P.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Liljestrand, R. P.; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morley, K. B.; Mottershead, C. T.; Murray, M. M.; Pazuchanics, P. D.

    2011-05-15

    The accuracy of density measurements and position resolution in flash (40 ns) radiography of thick objects with 24 Gev/c protons is investigated. A global model fit to step wedge data is shown to give a good description spanning the periodic table. The parameters obtained from the step wedge data are used to predict transmission through the French Test Object (FTO), a test object of nested spheres, to a precision better than 1%. Multiple trials have been used to show that the systematic errors are less than 2%. Absolute agreement between the average radiographic measurements of the density and the known density is 1%. Spatial resolution has been measured to be 200 {mu}m at the center of the FTO. These data verify expectations of the benefits provided by high energy hadron radiography for thick objects.

  5. [Development of breathing chest radiography: study of exposure timing].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Takeshi; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2003-08-01

    The flat-panel detector (FPD) has been introduced into clinical practice. A modified FPD, which has the ability to obtain dynamic chest radiographs, was introduced into our hospital, and clinical testing is ongoing. Both the inspiratory and expiratory phases have to be included in dynamic chest radiographs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the most appropriate chest radiography signal for observation of the respiratory process. We prepared ten protocol patterns that differed in terms of respiratory phase at X-ray exposure, exposure duration, and signal multiplicity. We also performed preliminary experiments and administered several questionnaires to ten volunteers. The volunteers breathed according to vocal and visual signals, and their respiratory waves were recorded by spirometer. The most appropriate protocol was similar to the method used for conventional chest radiography.

  6. Proton radiography and tomography with application to proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Allinson, N M; Evans, P M

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiography and tomography have long promised benefit for proton therapy. Their first suggestion was in the early 1960s and the first published proton radiographs and CT images appeared in the late 1960s and 1970s, respectively. More than just providing anatomical images, proton transmission imaging provides the potential for the more accurate estimation of stopping-power ratio inside a patient and hence improved treatment planning and verification. With the recent explosion in growth of clinical proton therapy facilities, the time is perhaps ripe for the imaging modality to come to the fore. Yet many technical challenges remain to be solved before proton CT scanners become commonplace in the clinic. Research and development in this field is currently more active than at any time with several prototype designs emerging. This review introduces the principles of proton radiography and tomography, their historical developments, the raft of modern prototype systems and the primary design issues. PMID:26043157

  7. An improved method for profile radiography of piping

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.S.; Haupt, J.D.

    1996-07-01

    The Petro-Chemical industry has used profile radiography for more than thirty years to find, and evaluate, corrosion in piping systems. The technique offers a method of ``seeing into`` a piece of pipe. This allows the inspector to see the ``whole picture``. Single point ultrasonic measurements cannot provide this degree of information. Shell`s objective for studying the use of this method centered on optimizing their profile radiography technique to improve accuracy and reproducibility of wall thickness measurements. Accuracy and reproducibility of measurements are particularly important when used to determine corrosion rates. To help achieve this objective, the authors developed an inspection procedure to minimize the more prominent sources of inaccuracies associated with this technique. Along with this procedure, they also developed an associated training program. All of Shell Oil`s Pressure Equipment inspectors and key contract employees have received this training.

  8. Study of a loop heat pipe using neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Cimbala, John M; Brenizer, Jack S; Chuang, Abel Po-Ya; Hanna, Shane; Thomas Conroy, C; El-Ganayni, A A; Riley, David R

    2004-10-01

    An explanation is given of what a loop heat pipe (LHP) is, and how it works. It is then shown that neutron imaging (both real time neutron radioscopy and single exposure neutron radiography) is an effective experimental tool for the study of LHPs. Specifically, neutron imaging has helped to identify and correct a cooling water distribution problem in the condenser, and has enabled visualization of two-phase flow (liquid and vapor) in various components of the LHP. In addition, partial wick dry-out, a phenomenon of great importance in the effective operation of LHPs, is potentially identifiable with neutron imaging. It is anticipated that neutron radioscopy and radiography will greatly contribute to our understanding of LHP operation, and will lead to improvement of LHP modeling and design.

  9. Surgical treatment of a long thoracic nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Novak, Christine B; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2002-05-01

    A 17-year-old patient presented with a long thoracic nerve palsy following an idiopathic onset of weakness to the serratus anterior muscle. With no evidence of recovery 3.5 months following onset of serratus anterior weakness, the patient underwent a thoracodorsal to long thoracic nerve transfer to reinnervate the serratus anterior muscle. Follow-up examination 6.5 years following the nerve transfer revealed no scapular winging, full range of motion of the shoulder and no reported functional shoulder restriction. We conclude that a thoracodorsal to long thoracic nerve transfer results in good functional recovery of the serratus anterior muscle.

  10. Chronic Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Presenting 29 Years following Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Sarah; Kumar, Prashant; Van den Bosch, Rene; Khanafer, Adib

    2015-01-01

    Blunt, nonpenetrating injuries of the thoracic aorta are uncommon and associated with a high mortality rate within the first hour. Aortic injury is missed in 1-2% of patients that survive to hospital, and a chronic thoracic aortic aneurysm may subsequently form. We present a case in which a chronic thoracic aortic aneurysm was diagnosed 29 years following a significant motor vehicle accident. We discuss the epidemiology, presentation, and management of this uncommon consequence of blunt, nonpenetrating aortic injury. Our case illustrates an important clinical lesson; a past medical history of trauma should not be overlooked at any patient assessment. PMID:26351610

  11. Venous Thoracic Outlet Syndrome as a Cause of Intractable Migraines.

    PubMed

    Chahwala, Veer; Tashiro, Jun; Li, Xiaoyi; Baqai, Atif; Rey, Jorge; Robinson, Handel R

    2017-02-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) refers to the compression of the neurovascular bundle within the thoracic outlet. Cases are classified by primary etiology-arterial, neurogenic, or venous. In addition to the typical symptoms of arm swelling and paresthesias, headaches have been reported as a potential symptom of TOS. In this report, we describe a patient with debilitating migraines, which were consistently preceded by unilateral arm swelling. Resolution of symptoms occurred only after thoracic outlet decompression. Patients with migraines and concomitant swelling and/or paresthesias, especially related to provocative arm maneuvers, should be considered a possible atypical presentation of TOS and evaluated in more detail.

  12. Implementing effective and sustainable multidisciplinary clinical thoracic oncology programs

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Richard K.; Krasna, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Three models of care are described, including two models of multidisciplinary care for thoracic malignancies. The pros and cons of each model are discussed, the evidence supporting each is reviewed, and the need for more (and better) research into care delivery models is highlighted. Key stakeholders in thoracic oncology care delivery outcomes are identified, and the need to consider stakeholder perspectives in designing, validating and implementing multidisciplinary programs as a vehicle for quality improvement in thoracic oncology is emphasized. The importance of reconciling stakeholder perspectives, and identify meaningful stakeholder-relevant benchmarks is also emphasized. Metrics for measuring program implementation and overall success are proposed. PMID:26380186

  13. Rare case of thoracic kidney detected by renal scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Aravintho; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Intrathoracic kidney is a rare congenital abnormality with lowest frequency among all renal ectopias. Patients with thoracic kidneys are usually asymptomatic, and the condition is usually discovered incidentally during radiological evaluation for other conditions or during thoracic surgery. We report a case of a 62-year-old male who was referred to our department for renal scintigraphy for a nonvisualized left kidney on ultrasonography report. Both Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scans revealed a left thoracic kidney which was confirmed by CT scan of the thorax and abdomen. PMID:27385896

  14. Subtraction Radiography for the Diagnosis of Bone Lesions in Dogs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-31

    Avail ander Journal of Periodontology Dist Special Ř 211 East Chicago Avenue Room 924 Chicago, IL 60611 Dear Sirs: I m submitting an original...research article titled "Subtraction Radiography for the Diagnosis of Bone Lesions in Dogs" solely to the Journal of Periodontology for review and... clinical practice in our area. 60-70 Kvp would have produced more contrast in the radiographic films used for the conventional technique, but likely

  15. Absorbed radiation by various tissues during simulated endodontic radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Torabinejad, M.; Danforth, R.; Andrews, K.; Chan, C.

    1989-06-01

    The amount of absorbed radiation by various organs was determined by placing lithium fluoride thermoluminescent chip dosimeters at selected anatomical sites in and on a human-like X-ray phantom and exposing them to radiation at 70- and 90-kV X-ray peaks during simulated endodontic radiography. The mean exposure dose was determined for each anatomical site. The results show that endodontic X-ray doses received by patients are low when compared with other radiographic procedures.

  16. PyRAT - python radiography analysis tool (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, Brian A; Buescher, Kevin L; Armstrong, Jerawan C

    2011-01-14

    PyRAT is a radiography analysis tool used to reconstruction images of unknown 1-0 objects. The tool is written in Python and developed for use on LINUX and Windows platforms. The tool is capable of performing nonlinear inversions of the images with minimal manual interaction in the optimization process. The tool utilizes the NOMAD mixed variable optimization tool to perform the optimization.

  17. Non-damaging, portable radiography: Applications in arms control verification

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.A.; Butterfield, K.B.; Apt, K.E.

    1992-08-01

    The state-of-the-technology necessary to perform portable radiography in support of arms control verification is evaluated. Specific requirements, such as accurate measurements of the location of features in a treaty-limited object and the detection of deeply imbedded features, are defined in three scenarios. Sources, detectors, portability, mensuration, and safety are discussed in relation to the scenarios. Examples are given of typical radiographic systems that would be capable of addressing the inspection problems associated with the three scenarios.

  18. X-Ray Radiography of Gas Turbine Ceramics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-20

    Microfocus X - ray equipment. 1a4ihe definition of equipment concepts for a computer assisted tomography (CAT) system; and 4ffthe development of a CAT...were obtained from these test coupons using Microfocus X - ray and image en- hancement techniques. A Computer Assisted Tomography (CAT) design concept...conventional ultrasonics (45 MHz), very high frequency ultrasonics (250 MHz), neutron radiography, Microfocus X - ray , image enhancement, microwave

  19. Leaded apron for use in panoramic dental radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Whitcher, B.L.; Gratt, B.M.; Sickles, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    The leaded aprons currently available for use during dental radiography do not protect the thyroid gland from radiation. Conventional aprons may produce artifacts when used with panoramic dental x-ray units. This study measures the dose reduction obtained with an experimental leaded apron designed for use with panoramic dental x-ray units. Skin exposures measured at the thyroid and at the sternum were reduced with the use of the apron. Films produced during the study were free from apron artifacts.

  20. Imaging Brunelleschi's cupola wall using muon scattering radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Guardincerri, Elena

    2015-09-16

    This PowerPoint presentation describes the cupola's structure and current reinforcements, reasoning behind why muon radiography would be helpful. A demonstration project is described where a similar wall was constructed to illustrate the potential benefits to Italian authorities; Requirements and a potential plan were created and collaboration to make it happen was deemed to be possible among LANL, Toshiba, the Parma and Florence Universities and the Opera del Duomo,

  1. Z-petawatt driven ion beam radiography development.

    SciTech Connect

    Schollmeier, Marius; Geissel, Matthias; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Sefkow, Adam B.

    2013-09-01

    Laser-driven proton radiography provides electromagnetic field mapping with high spatiotemporal resolution, and has been applied to many laser-driven High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) experiments. Our report addresses key questions about the feasibility of ion radiography at the Z-Accelerator (%E2%80%9CZ%E2%80%9D), concerning laser configuration, hardware, and radiation background. Charged particle tracking revealed that radiography at Z requires GeV scale protons, which is out of reach for existing and near-future laser systems. However, it might be possible to perform proton deflectometry to detect magnetic flux compression in the fringe field region of a magnetized liner inertial fusion experiment. Experiments with the Z-Petawatt laser to enhance proton yield and energy showed an unexpected scaling with target thickness. Full-scale, 3D radiation-hydrodynamics simulations, coupled to fully explicit and kinetic 2D particle-in-cell simulations running for over 10 ps, explain the scaling by a complex interplay of laser prepulse, preplasma, and ps-scale temporal rising edge of the laser.

  2. The implementation of digital sensors in maxillofacial radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Stelt, Paul F.

    2001-03-01

    Systems for intra-oral digital radiography in dentistry can be divided into two main groups: direct sensor systems and semi-direct or indirect sensor systems. Direct imaging is performed by a two-dimensional array of sensor elements. The size of a typical intra-oral CCD-sensor is approximately from 18 mm×24 mm to 30 mm×40 mm; the active area is somewhat smaller, because of the thickness of the packaging of the sensor. CCD-based imaging is now also available for panoramic and cephalometric radiography. Indirect (semi-direct) imaging is based on storage phosphor plates (SPP) imaging. The plate is positioned in the mouth of the patient behind the teeth, and exposed to radiation. The positioning of the sensor plate resembles very much the way conventional radiographic films are handled. SPP technology is also available for panoramic and cephalometric imaging. The purpose of radiography is to provide information to solve a particular diagnostic task. It is therefore very likely that the role of dedicated diagnostic software will become essential in the near future. The importance of dedicated software for diagnostic imaging will increase. As a result of worldwide research, more procedures will become available, for research as well as for use in general practice.

  3. A New Neutron Radiography / Tomography / Imaging Station DINGO at OPAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbe, U.; Randall, T.; Hughes, C.; Davidson, G.; Pangelis, S.; Kennedy, S. J.

    A new neutron radiography / tomography / imaging instrument DINGO was built to support the area of neutron imaging research (neutron radiography/tomography) at ANSTO. The instrument is designed for an international user community and for routine quality control for defense, industrial, cultural heritage and archaeology applications. In the industrial field it provides a useful tool for studying cracking and defects in steel or other metals. The instrument construction was completed at the end of June 2013 and it is currently in the hot commissioning stage. The usable neutron flux is mainly determined by the neutron source, but it depends on the instrument position and the resolution. The instrument position for DINGO is the thermal neutron beam port HB-2 in the reactor hall. The measured flux (using gold foil) for an L/D of approximately 500 at HB-2 is 5.3*107 [n/cm2s], which is in a similar range to other facilities. A special feature of DINGO is the in-pile collimator position in front of the main shutter at HB-2. The collimator offers two pinholes with a possible L/D of 500 and 1000. A secondary collimator separates the two beams by blocking one and positions another aperture for the other beam. The whole instrument operates in two different positions, one for high resolution and one for high speed. In the current configuration DINGO measured first radiography and tomography data sets on friendly user test samples.

  4. Detection of gastritis by single- and double-contrast radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Thoeni, R.F.; Goldberg, H.I.; Ominsky, S.; Cello, J.P.

    1983-09-01

    Sixty-eight patients with various types of gastritis, 23 patients with normal stomachs, and four patients with other gastric diseases were examined in a prospective study to assess the sensitivity and specificity of single-contrast (SC) and double-contrast (DC) upper gastrointestinal examinations in the evaluation of gastritis. All patients underwent endoscopy with biopsy followed first by DC and then by SC radiography. The respective sensitivities of SC and DC radiography were 58% and 72% for all examinations and 59% and 77% for adequate examinations only. The respective specificities were 59% and 55% based on all examinations. Useful radiographic features included polypoid defects and erosions detected by both methods, abnormal folds and flattened margins detected by the SC technique, and narrowed lumen and crenulated margins detected by the DC technique. In 93% of all cases, the correct diagnosis was based on two or more of these radiographic features. According to this study, the radiographic sensitivity in the detection of gastritis is reliable only in cases of moderate-to-severe disease and only when based on findings of the DC examination. Neither SC nor DC radiography should be used as the primary screening method for patients with suspected gastritis, and the radiographic diagnosis should be restricted to the terms ''erosive'' or ''nonerosive gastritis.''

  5. Proton radiography based on near-threshold Cerenkov radiation

    DOEpatents

    van Bibber, Karl A.; Dietrich, Frank S.

    2003-01-01

    A Cerenkov imaging system for charged particle radiography that determines the energy loss of the charged particle beam passing through an object. This energy loss information provides additional detail on target densities when used with traditional radiographic techniques like photon or x-ray radiography. In this invention a probe beam of 800 MeV to 50 GeV/c charged particles is passed through an object to be imaged, an imaging magnetic spectrometer, to a silicon aerogel Cerenkov radiator where the charged particles emitted Cerenkov light proportional to their velocity. At the same beam focal plane, a particle scintillator produces a light output proportional to the incident beam flux. Optical imaging systems relay the Cerenkov and scintillator information to CCD's or other measurement equipment. A ratio between the Cerenkov and scintillator is formed, which is directly proportional to the line density of the object for each pixel measured. By rotating the object, tomographic radiography may be performed. By applying pulses of beam, discrete time-step movies of dynamic objects may be made.

  6. Management of pediatric radiation dose using Agfa computed radiography.

    PubMed

    Schaetzing, R

    2004-10-01

    Radiation dose to patients and its management have become important considerations in modern radiographic imaging procedures, but they acquire particular significance in the imaging of children. Because of their longer life expectancy, children exposed to radiation are thought to have a significantly increased risk of radiation-related late sequelae compared to adults first exposed to radiation later in life. Therefore, current clinical thinking dictates that dose in pediatric radiography be minimized, while simultaneously ensuring sufficient diagnostic information in the image, and reducing the need for repeat exposures. Dose management obviously starts with characterization and control of the exposure technique. However, it extends farther through the imaging chain to the acquisition system, and even to the image processing techniques used to optimize acquired images for display. Further, other factors, such as quality control procedures and the ability to handle special pediatric procedures, like scoliosis exams, also come into play. The need for dose management in modern radiography systems has spawned a variety of different solutions, some of which are similar across different manufacturers, and some of which are unique. This paper covers the techniques used in Agfa Computed Radiography (CR) systems to manage dose in a pediatric environment.

  7. Advances in computed radiography systems and their physical imaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Cowen, A R; Davies, A G; Kengyelics, S M

    2007-12-01

    Radiological imaging is progressing towards an all-digital future, across the spectrum of medical imaging techniques. Computed radiography (CR) has provided a ready pathway from screen film to digital radiography and a convenient entry point to PACS. This review briefly revisits the principles of modern CR systems and their physical imaging characteristics. Wide dynamic range and digital image enhancement are well-established benefits of CR, which lend themselves to improved image presentation and reduced rates of repeat exposures. However, in its original form CR offered limited scope for reducing the radiation dose per radiographic exposure, compared with screen film. Recent innovations in CR, including the use of dual-sided image readout and channelled storage phosphor have eased these concerns. For example, introduction of these technologies has improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) by approximately 50 and 100%, respectively, compared with standard CR. As a result CR currently affords greater scope for reducing patient dose, and provides a more substantive challenge to the new solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors.

  8. Development of Side Impact Thoracic Injury Criteria and Their Application to the Modified ES-2 Dummy with Rib Extensions (ES-2re).

    PubMed

    Kuppa, Shashi; Eppinger, Rolf H; McKoy, Felicia; Nguyen, Thuvan; Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan

    2003-10-01

    Forty-two side impact cadaver sled tests were conducted at 24 and 32 km/h impact speeds into rigid and padded walls. The post-mortem human subjects were instrumented with accelerometers on the ribs and spine and chest bands around the thorax and abdomen to characterize their mechanical response during the impact. Load cells at the wall measured the impact force at the level of the thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities. The resulting injuries were determined through detailed autopsy and radiography. Rib fractures with or without associated hemo/pneumo thorax or flail chest were the most common injury with severity ranging from AIS=0 to 5. Full and half thorax deflections were computed from the chest band data. The cadaver test data was analyzed using ANOVA and logistic regression. The age of the subject at the time of death had influence on injury outcome while gender and mass of the subject had little or no influence on injury outcome. Existing side impact injury criteria were evaluated such as Thoracic Trauma Index (TTI), Average Spinal Acceleration (ASA), full and half thorax deflections, chest velocity and viscous criterion, and contact force. The analysis results indicate that maximum normalized average half thorax deflection was the best predictor of AIS>/=3 and AIS>/=4 thoracic injury. TTI and upper spine accelerations were also good predictors of thoracic injury. Sixteen side impact sled tests were also conducted with the modified ES-2 dummy with rib extensions (ES-2re) under similar impact conditions as the cadaver tests. The rib extensions were added to the original ES-2 dummy ribs to prevent the "seat grabbing" action of the back plate that was noticed in some side impact vehicle crash tests with the ES-2 dummy. A separate analysis was conducted using the injury response and subject characteristics from the cadaver tests and the physical parameters derived from measurements on the ES-2re dummy in sled tests under similar conditions as the cadaver

  9. [Perioperative pain management for abdominal and thoracic surgery].

    PubMed

    Englbrecht, J S; Pogatzki-Zahn, E M

    2014-06-01

    Abdominal and thoracic surgical procedures can result in significant acute postoperative pain. Present evidence shows that postoperative pain management remains inadequate especially after "minor" surgical procedures. Various therapeutic options including regional anesthesia techniques and systemic pharmacotherapy are available for effective treatment of postoperative pain. This work summarizes the pathophysiological background of postoperative pain after abdominal and thoracic surgery and discusses the indication, effectiveness, risks, and benefits of the different therapeutic options. Special focus is given to the controversial debate about the indication for epidural analgesia, as well as various alternative therapeutic options, including transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block, paravertebral block (PVB), wound infiltration with local anesthetics, and intravenous lidocaine. In additional, indications and contraindications of nonopioid analgesics after abdominal and thoracic surgery are discussed and recommendations based on scientific evidence and individual risk and benefit analysis are made. All therapeutic options discussed are eligible for clinical use and may contribute to improve postoperative pain outcome after abdominal and thoracic surgical procedures.

  10. Thoracic and respirable particle definitions for human health risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Provides estimates of the thoracic and respirable fractions, for adults and children during typical activities during both nasal and oral inhalation, that may be used in the design of experimental studies and interpretation of evidence of health effects.

  11. Acute thoracic aortic dissection: how to defuse a time bomb.

    PubMed

    McClarren-Curry, C; Shaughnessy, K

    1999-01-01

    Acute thoracic aortic dissection is frequently misdiagnosed, and even with surgical intervention, the mortality rate is 50%. This article focuses on assessment, interventions, and postoperative care of patients with aortic dissection.

  12. Minimally invasive thoracic surgery: new trends in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In Italy there exists quite a long and rich history in minimally invasive thoracic surgery. Pioneer Italian surgeons have been amongst those who first adopted video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) to perform procedures such as lobectomy and esophagectomy, respectively and quite many others have provided important contributions related to minimally invasive thoracic surgery and have proposed innovative ideas and creative technical refinements. According to a web search on recent studies published in Italy on minimally invasive thoracic surgery along the last 3 years, uniportal, nonintubated, and robotic VATS as well as VATS lobectomy have been found to represent the most frequently investigated issues. An ongoing active investigation in each of these sub-topics is contributing to a better definition of indications advantages and disadvantages of the various surgical strategies. In addition it is likely that combination strategies including adoption of uniportal and nonintubated approaches will lead to define novel ultra-minimally invasive treatment options. PMID:26605315

  13. Unilateral anhidrosis: A rare complication of thoracic epidural analgesia.

    PubMed

    Gulbahar, Gultekin; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Alkan, Güzide; Baysalman, Hatice Baran; Kaplan, Tevfik

    2016-02-01

    Management of pain following thoracotomy is an important issue for the control of early morbidity. We herein present the case of a patient who was referred to our hospital after a fall from a height. Right-sided multiple rib fractures, hemopneumothorax, and diaphragmatic rupture were detected. Thoracic epidural catheterization was performed for pain management just before thoracotomy. The patient developed unilateral anhidrosis postoperatively. We discuss this rare complication of thoracic epidural analgesia with a review of relevant literature.

  14. Increased incidence of thoracic wall deformities in related Bengal kittens.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Timothy M; Sturgess, Christopher P

    2012-06-01

    Clinical records made during routine vaccinations were compared between populations of domestic shorthair cats and Bengal kittens. An increased incidence (12/244) of thoracic wall deformity was detected amongst the Bengal kittens. Deformities detected were: pectus excavatum (five), unilateral thoracic wall concavity (six) and scoliosis (one). Five-generation pedigrees were analysed for the affected kittens that showed a high degree of common ancestry indicating the likelihood of a familial cause.

  15. Methodology for digital radiography simulation using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Souza, E M; Correa, S C A; Silva, A X; Lopes, R T; Oliveira, D F

    2008-05-01

    This work presents a methodology for digital radiography simulation for industrial applications using the MCNPX radiography tally. In order to perform the simulation, the energy-dependent response of a BaFBr imaging plate detector was modeled and introduced in the MCNPX radiography tally input. In addition, a post-processing program was used to convert the MCNPX radiography tally output into 16-bit digital images. Simulated and experimental images of a steel pipe containing corrosion alveoli and stress corrosion cracking were compared, and the results showed good agreement between both images.

  16. [Risk factors of suppurative complications in case of thoracic injury].

    PubMed

    Danielian, Sh N; Abakumov, M M; Vil'k, A P; Saprin, A A; Tatarinova, E V

    2015-01-01

    It was performed retrospective analysis of 463 cases of suppurative thoracic complications after injury (232) and closed thoracic trauma (231) for 20-year period. Incidence of purulent complications was 3.2% and 1.6% in case of injury and closed thoracic trauma respectively including pleural empyema in 1.5 and 1.3%, pulmonary abscess in 0.3 and 0.4%, mediastinitis in 0.35 and 0.12%, pericarditis in 1.5 and 0.26%, osteomyelitis in 0.4 and 0.18% respectively. Factors preceding suppurative complications in case of injuries and closed trauma have been considered as predictors. Multivariant regression analysis established significant risk factors of suppurative thoracic complications. Clotted hemothorax, mediastinal hemorrhage, heart injury, late appeal for medical assistance and mechanical ventilation over 5 days were identified irrespective of character of trauma. In case of thoracic injury there were damage of osteochondrous frame, hollow thoracic and abdominal organs, gunshot wound of lung, delirium and injuries severity over 20 scores according to ISS scale. Pulmonary bleeding, sternal fracture and Glasgow Coma Scale rate<12 scores were identified as risk factors in case of closed trauma.

  17. Donor to recipient sizing in thoracic organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, Michael; Reed, Robert M

    2016-03-24

    Donor-to-recipient organ size matching is a critical aspect of thoracic transplantation. In the United States potential recipients for lung transplant and heart transplant are listed with limitations on donor height and weight ranges, respectively. Height is used as a surrogate for lung size and weight is used as a surrogate for heart size. While these measures are important predictors of organ size, they are crude surrogates that fail to incorporate the influence of sex on organ size. Independent of other measures, a man's thoracic organs are approximately 20% larger than a woman's. Lung size can be better estimated using the predicted total lung capacity, which is derived from regression equations correcting for height, sex and age. Similarly, heart size can be better estimated using the predicted heart mass, which adjusts for sex, age, height, and weight. These refined organ sizing measures perform better than current sizing practice for the prediction of outcomes after transplantation, and largely explain the outcome differences observed after sex-mismatch transplantation. An undersized allograft is associated with worse outcomes. In this review we examine current data pertaining to size-matching in thoracic transplantation. We advocate for a change in the thoracic allocation mechanism from a height-or-weight-based strategy to a size-matching process that utilizes refined estimates of organ size. We believe that a size-matching approach based on refined estimates of organ size would optimize outcomes in thoracic transplantation without restricting or precluding patients from thoracic transplantation.

  18. Treatment of symptomatic thoracic disc herniations with lateral interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Rhiannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Symptomatic thoracic herniated discs have historically been treated using open exposures (i.e., thoracotomy), posing a clinical challenge given the approach related morbidity. Lateral interbody fusion (LIF) is one modern minimally disruptive alternative to thoracotomy. The direct lateral technique for lumbar pathologies has seen a sharp increase in procedural numbers; however application of this technique in thoracic pathologies has not been widely reported. Methods This study presents the results of three cases where LIF was used to treat symptomatic thoracic disc herniations. Indications for surgery included thoracic myelopathy, radiculopathy and discogenic pain. Patients were treated with LIF, without supplemental internal fixation, and followed for 24 months postoperatively. Results: Average length of hospital stay was 5 days. One patient experienced mild persistent neuropathic thoracic pain, which was managed medically. At 3 months postoperative all patients had returned to work and by 12 months all patients were fused. From preoperative to 24-month follow-up there were mean improvements of 83.3% in visual analogue scale (VAS), 75.3% in Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and 79.2% and 17.4% in SF-36 physical (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS), respectively. Conclusions LIF is a viable minimally invasive alternative to conventional approaches in treating symptomatic thoracic pathology without an access surgeon, rib resection, or lung deflation. PMID:27683683

  19. Thoracic and cardiovascular surgery in Japan during 2003: annual report by The Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kazui, Teruhisa; Wada, Hiromi; Fujita, Hiromasa

    2005-09-01

    The Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery has conducted annual surveys of thoracic surgery to reveal the statistics of the number of procedures according to the operative category throughout the country since 1986. Here we have summarized the results from our annual survey of thoracic surgery performed during 2003. The incidence of hospital mortality was added to this survey to determine the nationwide status that could be useful not only for surgeons to compare their work with that of others, but also for the association to gain a better understanding of present problems as well as future prospects. Thirty-day mortality (sometimes termed operative mortality) is death within 30 days of operation regardless of the patient's geographic location. Thirty-day mortality includes death within 30 days of operation even though the patient is discharged from the hospital within 30 days of operation. Hospital mortality is death within any time interval after operation if the patient is not discharged from the hospital. Hospital-to-hospital transfer is not considered discharge; transfer to a nursing home or a rehabilitation unit is considered hospital discharge unless the patient subsequently dies of complications of the operation (the definitions of terms are based on the published guidelines of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the American Association for Thoracic Surgery (Edmunds LH, et al. Ann Thorac Surg 1996; 62: 932-5)). Thoracic surgery was classified into three categories as cardiovascular, general thoracic and esophageal surgery, and the pertinent data were examined and analyzed in each group. Access to the computerized data is offered to all members of this association. We honor and value your continued kind support.

  20. [Thoracic manifestations of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, A; Zompatori, M; Chiodo, F; Costigliola, P; Ricchi, E; Colangeli, V; Canini, R; Gavelli, G

    1989-11-01

    AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) seems to be related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is characterized by severe T-helpers lymphocyte dysfunction. Many of the AIDS patients (47-70%) develop pulmonary manifestations, both infectious and neoplastic, in the course of their disease. In the Department of Infectious Diseases of our Hospital are studied many patients HIV+. Every year 246 seropositive new patients have been discovered. Among them we have studied 25 subjects with respiratory disease, by chest radiographs; successively, according to clinical picture, we have performed thoracic computed tomography, Gallium scintigraphy, fiberoptic bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy (TBB), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); the majority of these patients (68%) had AIDS, only 28% had ARC and 4% had PGL. In our experience, the diagnosed diseases were mainly infections (92%), and most frequently (52%) due to Pneumocystis carinii, alone or in association with other etiologic agents. We have not found pathognomonic radiographic abnormalities, but chest X-ray evaluated with clinical and laboratory data, may often be useful to obtain diagnostic indications and in order to determine a more specific and aggressive diagnostic approach.

  1. Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin After Thoracic Transplantation: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Paolo; Mohacsi, Paul; Szabolcs, Zoltán; Potena, Luciano

    2016-03-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a highly complex pathogen which, despite modern prophylactic regimens, continues to affect a high proportion of thoracic organ transplant recipients. The symptomatic manifestations of CMV infection are compounded by adverse indirect effects induced by the multiple immunomodulatory actions of CMV. These include a higher risk of acute rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy after heart transplantation, and potentially bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in lung transplant recipients, with a greater propensity for opportunistic secondary infections. Prophylaxis for CMV using antiviral agents (typically oral valganciclovir or intravenous ganciclovir) is now almost universal, at least in high-risk transplants (D+/R-). Even with extended prophylactic regimens, however, challenges remain. The CMV events can still occur despite antiviral prophylaxis, including late-onset infection or recurrent disease, and patients with ganciclovir-resistant CMV infection or who are intolerant to antiviral therapy require alternative strategies. The CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) and antiviral agents have complementary modes of action. High-titer CMVIG preparations provide passive CMV-specific immunity but also exert complex immunomodulatory properties which augment the antiviral effect of antiviral agents and offer the potential to suppress the indirect effects of CMV infection. This supplement discusses the available data concerning the immunological and clinical effects of CMVIG after heart or lung transplantation.

  2. Total Spinal Block after Thoracic Paravertebral Block

    PubMed Central

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Özocak, Hande; Ergönenç, Tolga; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Palabıyık, Onur

    2014-01-01

    Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) can be performed with or without general anaesthesia for various surgical procedures. TPVB is a popular anaesthetic technique due to its low side effect profile and high analgesic potency. We used 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine for a single injection of unilateral TPVB at the T7 level with neurostimulator in a 63 year old patient with co-morbid disease who underwent cholecystectomy. Following the application patient lost consciousness, and was intubated. Haemodynamic instability was normalised with rapid volume replacement and vasopressors. Anaesthetic drugs were stopped at the end of the surgery and muscle relaxant was antagonised. Return of mucle strenght was shown with neuromuscular block monitoring. Approximately three hours after TPVB, spontaneous breathing started and consciousness returned. A total spinal block is a rare and life-threatening complication. A total spinal block is a complication of spinal anaesthesia, and it can also occur after peripheral blocks. Clinical presentation is characterised by hypotension, bradicardia, apnea, and cardiac arrest. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is life saving. In this case report, we want to present total spinal block after TPVB. PMID:27366387

  3. Endovascular Management of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Fattori, Rossella Russo, Vincenzo; Lovato, Luigi; Buttazzi, Katia; Rinaldi, Giovanni

    2011-12-15

    The overall survival of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) has improved significantly in the past few years. Endovascular treatment, proposed as an alternative to surgery, has been considered a therapeutic innovation because of its low degree of invasiveness, which allows the treatment of even high-surgical risk patients with limited complications and mortality. A major limitation is the lack of adequate evidence regarding long-term benefit and durability because follow-up has been limited to just a few years even in the largest series. The combination of endovascular exclusion with visceral branch revascularization for the treatment of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms involving the visceral aorta has also been attempted. As an alternative, endografts with branches represent a technological evolution that allows treatment of complex anatomy. Even if only small numbers of patients and short follow-up are available, this technical approach, which has with limited mortality (<10%) and paraplegia rates, to expand endovascular treatment to TAA seems feasible. With improved capability to recognize proper anatomy and select clinical candidates, the choice of endovascular stent-graft placement may offer a strategy to optimize management and improve prognosis.

  4. Necropsy findings in neonatal asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Turkel, S B; Diehl, E J; Richmond, J A

    1985-01-01

    Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by an abnormally small thorax, variable shortening of the extremities, and pelvic anomalies. Renal and pancreatic symptoms are found in longer survivors, although most cases die in infancy of respiratory failure. Seven neonatal cases were studied at necropsy. These cases ranged in gestational age from 32 to 40 weeks. One was stillborn and the other six survived from 1 hour to 10 days. Two were sibs born to consanguineous parents. Dwarfing was not pronounced and the extremities were shortened in only one infant who also had polydactyly. All seven showed visceral changes in addition to abnormalities of bone. Endochondral ossification was irregular in sections of femur, vertebra, and rib. Pulmonary hypoplasia was associated with the small thorax typical of this disorder. Periportal fibrosis and bile duct proliferation were seen in sections of liver, and in one case cirrhosis was found. Pancreatic fibrosis was variable. These necropsy findings correlate with later clinical manifestations of the disease and emphasise the multisystem nature of this disorder. Images PMID:3989824

  5. The role of postoperative chest radiography in pediatric tracheotomy.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J S; Sulek, M; de Jong, A; Friedman, E M

    2001-07-30

    A postoperative chest radiograph has traditionally been obtained after tracheotomies to evaluate for the presence of a pneumothorax and to assess tube position. Several recent studies in adults have questioned the usefulness of routine postoperative chest radiography in uncomplicated cases, but the role of post-operative chest radiography in pediatric patients has not been previously reviewed. We performed this study to examine the clinical utility of post-tracheotomy chest radiography in pediatric patients and determine if this routine practice impacts patient management enough to merit continued usage. A retrospective review was performed of 200 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent tracheotomies by the otolaryngology service in a tertiary care pediatric hospital from January 1994 to June 1999. All patients received postoperative chest radiographs. Five of 200 patients had a new postoperative radiographic finding, with three requiring interventions. Two patients required chest tube placement for pneumothorax, and one patient required tracheostomy tube change for repositioning. Fifty-one patients, including both pneumothoraces, exhibited clinical signs of pneumothorax (decreased breath sounds or oxygen saturation) in the immediate postoperative period. Chest X-ray ruled out a pneumothorax in the remaining 49 patients. The majority of these 51 patients were less than 2 years old (94%, P=0.002) or weighed less than 17 kg (89%, P=0.004). Postoperative chest X-rays yielded clinically relevant information in 168 patients that fell into one or more of four high risk categories: age less than 2, weight less than 17 kg, emergent procedures, or concomitant central line placement. Avoiding chest X-rays in the remaining 32 patients would have resulted in potential savings of $5000, which does not reflect the actuarial cost of a missed complication. Since the majority of our patients (84%) fell into a high-risk category, we feel it would be prudent to continue

  6. Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chu-Lin; Perfect, Edmund; Kang, Misun; Voisin, Sophie; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Horita, Juske; Hussey, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

  7. Spectroscopic neutron radiography for a cargo scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahon, Jill; Danagoulian, Areg; MacDonald, Thomas D.; Hartwig, Zachary S.; Lanza, Richard C.

    2016-06-01

    Detection of cross-border smuggling of illicit materials and contraband is a challenge that requires rapid, low-dose, and efficient radiographic technology. The work we describe here is derived from a technique which uses monoenergetic gamma rays from low energy nuclear reactions, such as 11B(d,nγ)12C, to perform radiographic analysis of shipping containers. Transmission ratios of multiple monoenergetic gamma lines resulting from several gamma producing nuclear reactions can be employed to detect materials of high atomic number (Z), the details of which will be described in a separate paper. Inherent in this particular nuclear reaction is the production of fast neutrons which could enable neutron radiography and further characterization of the effective-Z of the cargo, especially within the range of lower Z. Previous research efforts focused on the use of total neutron counts in combination with X-ray radiography to characterize the hydrogenous content of the cargo. We present a technique of performing transmitted neutron spectral analysis to reconstruct the effective Z and potentially the density of the cargo. This is made possible by the large differences in the energy dependence of neutron scattering cross-sections between hydrogenous materials and those of higher Z. These dependencies result in harder transmission spectra for hydrogenous cargoes than those of non-hydrogenous cargoes. Such observed differences can then be used to classify the cargo based on its hydrogenous content. The studies presented in this paper demonstrate that such techniques are feasible and can provide a contribution to cargo security, especially when used in concert with gamma radiography.

  8. Divergent phenotype of rat thoracic and abdominal perivascular adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Nathan T.; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2013-01-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is implicated as a source of proatherogenic cytokines. Phenotypic differences in local PVAT depots may contribute to differences in disease susceptibility among arteries and even regions within an artery. It has been proposed that PVAT around the abdominal and thoracic aorta shares characteristics of white and brown adipose tissue (BAT), respectively; however, a detailed comparison of the phenotype of these PVAT depots has not been performed. Using young and older adult rats, we compared the phenotype of PVATs surrounding the abdominal and thoracic aorta to each other and also to epididymal white and subscapular BAT. Compared with young rats, older rats exhibited greater percent body fat (34.5 ± 3.1 vs. 10.4 ± 0.9%), total cholesterol (112.2 ± 7.5 vs. 58.7 ± 6.3 mg/dl), HOMA-insulin resistance (1.7 ± 0.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.1 a.u.), as well as reduced ACh-induced relaxation of the aorta (maximal relaxation: 54 ± 10 vs. 77 ± 6%) (all P < 0.05). Expression of inflammatory genes and markers of immune cell infiltration were greater in abdominal PVAT than in thoracic PVAT, and overall, abdominal and thoracic PVATs resembled the phenotype of white adipose tissue (WAT) and BAT, respectively. Histology and electron microscopy indicated structural similarity between visceral WAT and abdominal PVAT and between BAT and thoracic PVAT. Our data provide evidence that abdominal PVAT is more inflamed than thoracic PVAT, a difference that was by and large independent of sedentary aging. Phenotypic differences in PVAT between regions of the aorta may be relevant in light of the evidence in large animals and humans that the abdominal aorta is more vulnerable to atherosclerosis than the thoracic aorta. PMID:23389108

  9. RADIOGRAPHIC THORACIC ANATOMY OF THE RED PANDA (AILURUS FULGENS).

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N

    2016-09-01

    The red panda ( Ailurus fulgens ) is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The natural distribution of the red panda is in the Himalayas and southern China. Thoracic diseases such as dirofilariasis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, tracheal obstruction, lung worm infestation, and pneumonia have been reported in the red panda. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of captive red pandas as a species-specific reference for routine health examinations and clinical cases. Right lateral (RL) and dorsoventral (DV) inspiratory phase views of the thorax were obtained in 11 adult captive red pandas. Measurements were made and ratios calculated to establish reference ranges for the mean vertebral heart score on the RL (8.34 ± 0.25) and DV (8.78 ± 0.34) views and the mean ratios of the caudal vena cava diameter to the vertebral body length above tracheal bifurcation (0.67 ± 0.05) and tracheal diameter to the width of the third rib (2.75 ± 0.24). The majority of animals (10/11) had 14 thoracic vertebrae, except for one animal that had 15 thoracic vertebrae. Rudimentary clavicles were seen in 3/11 animals. The ovoid, oblique cardiac silhouette was more horizontally positioned and elongated in older animals. A redundant aortic arch was seen in the oldest animal. The trachea was seen with mineralized cartilage rings in all animals. The carina was clearly seen in the majority of animals (10/11). Variations exist in the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of different species. Knowledge of the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of the red panda should prove useful for routine health examinations and in the diagnosis of thoracic diseases.

  10. BBU design of linear induction accelerator cells for radiography application

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, C.C.; Chen, Y.J.; Gaporaso, G.J.; Houck, T.L.; Molau, N.E.; Focklen, J.; Gregory, S.

    1997-05-06

    There is an ongoing effort to develop accelerating modules for high-current electron accelerators for advanced radiography application. Accelerating modules with low beam-cavity coupling impedances along with gap designs with acceptable field stresses comprise a set of fundamental design criteria. We examine improved cell designs which have been developed for accelerator application in several radiographic operating regimes. We evaluate interaction impedances, analyze the effects of beam structure coupling on beam dynamics (beam break-up instability and corkscrew motion). We also provide estimates of coupling through interesting new high-gradient insulators and evaluate their potential future application in induction cells.

  11. X-ray vector radiography imaging for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Potdevin, Guillaume; Malecki, Andreas; Biernath, Thomas; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-07-31

    The non-invasive estimation of fracture risk in osteoporosis remains a challenge in the clinical routine and is mainly based on an assessment of bone density by dual X-ray absorption (DXA) although bone micro-architecture is known to play an important role for bone fragility. Here we report on 'X-ray vector Radiography' measurements able to provide a direct bone microstructure diagnostics on human bone samples, which we compare qualitatively and quantitatively with numerical analysis of high resolution radiographs.

  12. [A scientometric radiography of Revista Médica de Chile].

    PubMed

    Krauskopf, M

    1997-07-01

    In the context of a festschrift to commemorate the 125th anniversary of the Revista Médica de Chile, "radiography" of the journal has been depicted using several scientometric indicators. Among the mainstream journals in the category of Medicine, General & Internal and taking into account the wide editorial coverage and the language of the publication that fulfills the need for the required social appropriation of science that the country requires, the Revista Médica de Chile portrays healthy and quite relevant. Among the articles published between 1981 and 1995, some concerning public health have reached, particularly, an impact which surpasses their mean expected citation rate.

  13. Excretory urography using dual-energy scanned projection radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Soomer, F.G.; Brody, W.R.; Gross, D.; Macovski, A.; Hall, A.; Pelc, N.

    1981-11-01

    Excretory urograms of 10 patients were obtained using a GE 8800 CT scanner with Scout View which had been modified for dual-kVp scanned projection radiography. Using this system, it is possible to combine images obtained simultaneously at 85 and 135 kVp to create subtraction images from which substances of desired mean atomic number have been removed. This permits improved visualization of the genitourinary system on urograms by (a) eliminating obscuring bowel gas shadows and (b) enhancement of both iodinated contrast media and retroperitoneal fat planes.

  14. DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL TEST PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    HOWARD, BOYD

    2006-02-02

    The purpose of this document is to provide a brief introduction to digital radiography (DR), and a description of the DR configuration that was used to radiographically image the Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Test Packages before and after function tests that have been conducted. Also included are (1) Attachment 1, a comprehensive index that describes at which phase of the certification process that digital radiographic images were acquired, (2) digital radiographic images of each of the six packages at various stages of the certification process, and (3) Attachment 2, imaging instructions, that specify the setup procedures and detailed parameters of the DR imaging methodology that were used.

  15. Computers in dental radiography: a scenario for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, R.L.

    1985-09-01

    The recent emergence of cost-effective computing power makes it possible to integrate sophisticated data-sampling and image-interpretation techniques into dental radiography for the first time. A prototype system is being developed to permit clinical information expressed in three dimensions--plus time--to be made visible almost instantly. The associated X-ray dose for a complete three-dimensional survey of a selected dental region is predicted to be less than that required for a single conventional periapical radiograph exposed on D-speed film.

  16. X-ray vector radiography imaging for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potdevin, Guillaume; Malecki, Andreas; Biernath, Thomas; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2012-07-01

    The non-invasive estimation of fracture risk in osteoporosis remains a challenge in the clinical routine and is mainly based on an assessment of bone density by dual X-ray absorption (DXA) although bone micro-architecture is known to play an important role for bone fragility. Here we report on 'X-ray vector Radiography' measurements able to provide a direct bone microstructure diagnostics on human bone samples, which we compare qualitatively and quantitatively with numerical analysis of high resolution radiographs.

  17. Finding-specific display presets for computed radiography soft-copy reading.

    PubMed

    Andriole, K P; Gould, R G; Webb, W R

    1999-05-01

    Much work has been done to optimize the display of cross-sectional modality imaging examinations for soft-copy reading (i.e., window/level tissue presets, and format presentations such as tile and stack modes, four-on-one, nine-on-one, etc). Less attention has been paid to the display of digital forms of the conventional projection x-ray. The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of providing presets for computed radiography (CR) soft-copy display, based not on the window/level settings, but on processing applied to the image optimized for visualization of specific findings, pathologies, etc (i.e., pneumothorax, tumor, tube location). It is felt that digital display of CR images based on finding-specific processing presets has the potential to: speed reading of digital projection x-ray examinations on soft copy; improve diagnostic efficacy; standardize display across examination type, clinical scenario, important key findings, and significant negatives; facilitate image comparison; and improve confidence in and acceptance of soft-copy reading. Clinical chest images are acquired using an Agfa-Gevaert (Mortsel, Belgium) ADC 70 CR scanner and Fuji (Stamford, CT) 9000 and AC2 CR scanners. Those demonstrating pertinent findings are transferred over the clinical picture archiving and communications system (PACS) network to a research image processing station (Agfa PS5000), where the optimal image-processing settings per finding, pathologic category, etc, are developed in conjunction with a thoracic radiologist, by manipulating the multiscale image contrast amplification (Agfa MUSICA) algorithm parameters. Soft-copy display of images processed with finding-specific settings are compared with the standard default image presentation for 50 cases of each category. Comparison is scored using a 5-point scale with the positive scale denoting the standard presentation is preferred over the finding-specific processing, the negative scale denoting the finding

  18. Emergency thoracic ultrasound and clinical risk management

    PubMed Central

    Interrigi, Maria Concetta; Trovato, Francesca M; Catalano, Daniela; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Thoracic ultrasound (TUS) has been proposed as an easy-option replacement for chest X-ray (CXR) in emergency diagnosis of pneumonia, pleural effusion, and pneumothorax. We investigated CXR unforeseen diagnosis, subsequently investigated by TUS, considering its usefulness in clinical risk assessment and management and also assessing the sustainability of telementoring. Patients and methods This observational report includes a period of 6 months with proactive concurrent adjunctive TUS diagnosis telementoring, which was done using freely available smartphone applications for transfer of images and movies. Results Three hundred and seventy emergency TUS scans (excluding trauma patients) were performed and telementored. In 310 cases, no significant chest pathology was detected either by CXR, TUS, or the subsequent work-up; in 24 patients, there was full concordance between TUS and CXR (ten isolated pleural effusion; eleven pleural effusion with lung consolidations; and three lung consolidation without pleural effusion); in ten patients with lung consolidations, abnormalities identified by CXR were not detected by TUS. In 26 patients, only TUS diagnosis criteria of disease were present: in 19 patients, CXR was not diagnostic, ie, substantially negative, but TUS detected these conditions correctly, and these were later confirmed by computed tomography (CT). In seven patients, even if chest disease was identified by CXR, such diagnoses were significantly modified by ultrasound, and CT confirmed that TUS was more appropriate. The overall respective individual performances of CXR and TUS for the diagnosis of a pleural–pulmonary disease in emergency are good, with accuracy >95%. Conclusion About 20% of pneumonia cases were detectable only by CXR and 20% only by TUS and not by CXR; ie, about 40% of patients may have been misdiagnosed if, by chance, only one of the two tools had been used. The concurrent use of TUS and CXR increases the overall sensitivity and

  19. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  20. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  1. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  2. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  3. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography. 34.42 Section 34.42 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  4. 10 CFR 34.20 - Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment. 34.20 Section 34.20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND... meet the following minimum criteria: (a)(1) Each radiographic exposure device, source assembly...

  5. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  6. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  7. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  8. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  9. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  10. Dual Use Corrosion Inhibitor and Penetrant for Anomaly Detection in Neutron/X Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Phillip B. (Inventor); Novak, Howard L. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A dual purpose corrosion inhibitor and penetrant composition sensitive to radiography interrogation is provided. The corrosion inhibitor mitigates or eliminates corrosion on the surface of a substrate upon which the corrosion inhibitor is applied. In addition, the corrosion inhibitor provides for the attenuation of a signal used during radiography interrogation thereby providing for detection of anomalies on the surface of the substrate.

  11. 75 FR 57080 - In the Matter of Aerotest Operations, Inc. (Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor); Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Aerotest Operations, Inc. (Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor); Order... which authorizes the possession, use, and operation of the Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor... Regulations (10 CFR) Section 50.21(c) for research and development purposes. Aerotest is a wholly...

  12. 75 FR 27368 - Aerotest Operations, Inc., Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor; Notice of Consideration of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Aerotest Operations, Inc., Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor; Notice of Consideration of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Cindy Montgomery, Project Manager, Research and Test Reactors Licensing Branch, Division... Operating License No. R-98 for the Aerotest Radiography and Research Reactor (ARRR), currently held...

  13. 42 CFR 37.51 - Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs-digital radiography systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-digital radiography systems. 37.51 Section 37.51 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH..., and Submission of Chest Radiographs § 37.51 Interpreting and classifying chest radiographs—digital radiography systems. (a) For each chest radiograph obtained at an approved facility using a...

  14. Implementation of a PACS for radiography training and clinical service in a university setting through a multinational effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Fuk-hay; Law, Yuen Y.; Zhang, Jianguo; Liu, Hai L.; Chang, Tony; Matsuda, Koyo; Cao, Fei

    2001-08-01

    The Hong Kong Polytechnic University has a Radiography Division under the Development of Optometry and Radiography. The Division trains both diagnostic and therapeutic radiographers with 60 students/year and offers a B.Sc. degree. In addition the Division together with the University Health Service operates a radiography clinic with radiology consultation from radiologists from other hospitals and clinics. This paper describers the implementation of a PACS in the Division for radiography training, and for clinical service.

  15. Correlation of the clinical and physical image quality in chest radiography for average adults with a computed radiography imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Wood, T J; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the quality of visually graded patient (clinical) chest images and a quantitative assessment of chest phantom (physical) images acquired with a computed radiography (CR) imaging system. Methods: The results of a previously published study, in which four experienced image evaluators graded computer-simulated postero-anterior chest images using a visual grading analysis scoring (VGAS) scheme, were used for the clinical image quality measurement. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and effective dose efficiency (eDE) were used as physical image quality metrics measured in a uniform chest phantom. Although optimal values of these physical metrics for chest radiography were not derived in this work, their correlation with VGAS in images acquired without an antiscatter grid across the diagnostic range of X-ray tube voltages was determined using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: Clinical and physical image quality metrics increased with decreasing tube voltage. Statistically significant correlations between VGAS and CNR (R=0.87, p<0.033) and eDE (R=0.77, p<0.008) were observed. Conclusion: Medical physics experts may use the physical image quality metrics described here in quality assurance programmes and optimisation studies with a degree of confidence that they reflect the clinical image quality in chest CR images acquired without an antiscatter grid. Advances in knowledge: A statistically significant correlation has been found between the clinical and physical image quality in CR chest imaging. The results support the value of using CNR and eDE in the evaluation of quality in clinical thorax radiography. PMID:23568362

  16. Mechanism of the formation for thoracic impedance change.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ming-Xing; Xiao, Qiu-Jin; Cui, Chao-Ying; Kuang, Nan-Zhen; Hong, Wen-Qin; Hu, Ai-Rong

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of the formation for thoracic impedance change. On the basis of Ohm's law and the electrical field distribution in the cylindrical volume conductor, the formula about the thoracic impedance change are deduced, and they are demonstrated with the model experiment. The results indicate that the thoracic impedance change caused by single blood vessel is directly proportional to the ratio of the impedance change to the basal impedance of the blood vessel itself, to the length of the blood vessel appearing between the current electrodes, and to the basal impedance between two detective electrodes on the chest surface, while it is inversely proportional to the distance between the blood vessel and the line joining two detective electrodes. The thoracic impedance change caused by multiple blood vessels together is equal to the algebraic addition of all thoracic impedance changes resulting from the individual blood vessels. That is, the impedance changes obey the principle of adding scalars in the measurement of the electrical impedance graph. The present study can offer the theoretical basis for the waveform reconstruction of Impedance cardiography (ICG).

  17. Unified Database for Rejected Image Analysis Across Multiple Vendors in Radiography.

    PubMed

    Little, Kevin J; Reiser, Ingrid; Liu, Lili; Kinsey, Tiffany; Sánchez, Adrian A; Haas, Kateland; Mallory, Florence; Froman, Carmen; Lu, Zheng Feng

    2017-02-01

    Reject rate analysis has been part of radiography departments' quality control since the days of screen-film radiography. In the era of digital radiography, one might expect that reject rate analysis is easily facilitated because of readily available information produced by the modality during the examination procedure. Unfortunately, this is not always the case. The lack of an industry standard and the wide variety of system log entries and formats have made it difficult to implement a robust multivendor reject analysis program, and logs do not always include all relevant information. The increased use of digital detectors exacerbates this problem because of higher reject rates associated with digital radiography compared with computed radiography. In this article, the authors report on the development of a unified database for vendor-neutral reject analysis across multiple sites within an academic institution and share their experience from a team-based approach to reduce reject rates.

  18. Free-focus radiography using conventional films: Radiation exposures in a simulated clinical study

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, T.W.; Randall, G.J.; Goldberg, A.J.

    1980-07-01

    This study compared air exposures during conventional dental and maxillofacial radiography and similar views using free-focus radiography with conventional image receptors. The results show that periapical type surveys on nonscreen film placed extraorally or in the buccal fold may be carried out with an exposure to the surface tissues, which is similar to or less than conventional dental radiography. Extraoral survey type radiographs of the jaws may be carried out with significantly less surface exposure than lateral oblique views of the jaws. The least exposure was required, when the film was placed in the buccla fold instead of against the face during free-focus radiography. The exposures with film screen combinations were reduced by an order of magnitude when compared to the nonscreen techniques. Proper filtration of the beam of the miniaturized x-ray machines radiography in dentistry may thus be desirable and applications in other parts of the body encouraged.

  19. 46 CFR 54.25-8 - Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33... Radiography (modifies UW-11(a), UCS-57, UNF-57, UHA-33, and UHT-57). (a) Full radiography is required for all... requirements.) (b) Class II-L vessels shall be spot radiographed. The exemption provided in UW-11(c) of...

  20. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  1. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  2. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  3. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  4. Accuracy of direct digital radiography for detecting occlusal caries in primary teeth compared with conventional radiography and visual inspection: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Dias da Silva, P R; Martins Marques, M; Steagall, W; Medeiros Mendes, F; Lascala, C A

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The diagnosis of caries lesions is still a matter of concern in dentistry. The diagnosis of dental caries by digital radiography has a number of advantages over conventional radiography; however, this method has not been explored fully in the field of paediatric dentistry. This in vitro research evaluated the accuracy of direct digital radiography compared with visual inspection and conventional radiography in the diagnosis of occlusal caries lesions in primary molars. Methods 50 molars were selected and evaluated under standardized conditions by 2 previously calibrated examiners according to 3 diagnostic methods (visual inspection, conventional radiography and direct digital radiography). Direct digital radiographs were obtained with the Dixi3 system (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland) and the conventional radiographs with InSight film (Kodak Eastman Co., Rochester, NY). The images were scored and a reference standard was obtained histologically. The interexaminer reliability was calculated using Cohen's kappa test and the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of the methods were calculated. Results Examiner reliability was good. For lesions limited to the enamel, visual inspection showed significantly higher sensitivity and accuracy than both radiographic methods, but no significant difference was found in specificity. For teeth with dentinal caries, no significant differences were found for any parameter when comparing visual and radiographic evaluation. Conclusions Although less accurate than the visual method for detecting caries lesions confined to the enamel, the direct digital radiographic method is as effective as conventional radiographic examination and visual inspection of primary teeth with occlusal caries when the dentine is involved. PMID:20729186

  5. Inverse-collimated proton radiography for imaging thin materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Matthew S.; Allison, Jason; Andrews, Malcolm; Ferm, Eric; Goett, John J.; Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lopez, Julian; Mariam, Fesseha; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Martinez, Michael; Medina, Jason; Medina, Patrick; Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Chris L.; Murray, Matthew M.; Nedrow, Paul; Neukirch, Levi P.; Prestridge, Katherine; Rigg, Paolo; Saunders, Alexander; Schurman, Tamsen; Tainter, Amy; Trouw, Frans; Tupa, Dale; Tybo, Josh; Vogan-McNeil, Wendy; Wilde, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Relativistic, magnetically focused proton radiography was invented at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the 800 MeV LANSCE beam and is inherently well-suited to imaging dense objects, at areal densities >20 g cm-2. However, if the unscattered portion of the transmitted beam is removed at the Fourier plane through inverse-collimation, this system becomes highly sensitive to very thin media, of areal densities <100 mg cm-2. Here, this inverse-collimation scheme is described in detail and demonstrated by imaging Xe gas with a shockwave generated by an aluminum plate compressing the gas at Mach 8.8. With a 5-mrad inverse collimator, an areal density change of just 49 mg cm-2 across the shock front is discernible with a contrast-to-noise ratio of 3. Geant4 modeling of idealized and realistic proton transports can guide the design of inverse-collimators optimized for specific experimental conditions and show that this technique performs better for thin targets with reduced incident proton beam emittance. This work increases the range of areal densities to which the system is sensitive to span from ˜25 mg cm-2 to 100 g cm-2, exceeding three orders of magnitude. This enables the simultaneous imaging of a dense system as well as thin jets and ejecta material that are otherwise difficult to characterize with high-energy proton radiography.

  6. Inverse-collimated proton radiography for imaging thin materials.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Matthew S; Allison, Jason; Andrews, Malcolm; Ferm, Eric; Goett, John J; Kwiatkowski, Kris; Lopez, Julian; Mariam, Fesseha; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Martinez, Michael; Medina, Jason; Medina, Patrick; Merrill, Frank E; Morris, Chris L; Murray, Matthew M; Nedrow, Paul; Neukirch, Levi P; Prestridge, Katherine; Rigg, Paolo; Saunders, Alexander; Schurman, Tamsen; Tainter, Amy; Trouw, Frans; Tupa, Dale; Tybo, Josh; Vogan-McNeil, Wendy; Wilde, Carl

    2017-01-01

    Relativistic, magnetically focused proton radiography was invented at Los Alamos National Laboratory using the 800 MeV LANSCE beam and is inherently well-suited to imaging dense objects, at areal densities >20 g cm(-2). However, if the unscattered portion of the transmitted beam is removed at the Fourier plane through inverse-collimation, this system becomes highly sensitive to very thin media, of areal densities <100 mg cm(-2). Here, this inverse-collimation scheme is described in detail and demonstrated by imaging Xe gas with a shockwave generated by an aluminum plate compressing the gas at Mach 8.8. With a 5-mrad inverse collimator, an areal density change of just 49 mg cm(-2) across the shock front is discernible with a contrast-to-noise ratio of 3. Geant4 modeling of idealized and realistic proton transports can guide the design of inverse-collimators optimized for specific experimental conditions and show that this technique performs better for thin targets with reduced incident proton beam emittance. This work increases the range of areal densities to which the system is sensitive to span from ∼25 mg cm(-2) to 100 g cm(-2), exceeding three orders of magnitude. This enables the simultaneous imaging of a dense system as well as thin jets and ejecta material that are otherwise difficult to characterize with high-energy proton radiography.

  7. Toward practical 3D radiography of pipeline girth welds

    SciTech Connect

    Wassink, Casper

    2015-03-31

    Digital radiography has made its way into in-the-field girth weld testing. With recent generations of detectors and x-ray tubes it is possible to reach the image quality desired in standards as well as the speed of inspection desired to be competitive with film radiography and automated ultrasonic testing. This paper will show the application of these technologies in the RTD Rayscan system. The method for achieving an image quality that complies with or even exceeds prevailing industrial standards will be presented, as well as the application on pipeline girth welds with CRA layers. A next step in development will be to also achieve a measurement of weld flaw height to allow for performing an Engineering Critical Assessment on the weld. This will allow for similar acceptance limits as currently used with Automated Ultrasonic Testing of pipeline girth welds. Although a sufficient sizing accuracy was already demonstrated and qualified in the TomoCAR system, testing in some applications is restricted to time limits. The paper will present some experiments that were performed to achieve flaw height approximation within these time limits.

  8. Using Digital Radiography To Image Liquid Nitrogen in Voids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Dwight; Blevins, Elana

    2007-01-01

    Digital radiography by use of (1) a field-portable x-ray tube that emits low-energy x rays and (2) an electronic imaging x-ray detector has been found to be an effective technique for detecting liquid nitrogen inside voids in thermal-insulation panels. The technique was conceived as a means of investigating cryopumping (including cryoingestion) as a potential cause of loss of thermal insulation foam from space-shuttle external fuel tanks. The technique could just as well be used to investigate cryopumping and cryoingestion in other settings. In images formed by use of low-energy x-rays, one can clearly distinguish between voids filled with liquid nitrogen and those filled with gaseous nitrogen or other gases. Conventional film radiography is of some value, but yields only non-real-time still images that do not show time dependences of levels of liquids in voids. In contrast, the present digital radiographic technique yields a succession of images in real time at a rate of about 10 frames per second. The digitized images can be saved for subsequent analysis to extract data on time dependencies of levels of liquids and, hence, of flow paths and rates of filling and draining. The succession of images also amounts to a real-time motion picture that can be used as a guide to adjustment of test conditions.

  9. Toward practical 3D radiography of pipeline girth welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassink, Casper; Hol, Martijn; Flikweert, Arjan; van Meer, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Digital radiography has made its way into in-the-field girth weld testing. With recent generations of detectors and x-ray tubes it is possible to reach the image quality desired in standards as well as the speed of inspection desired to be competitive with film radiography and automated ultrasonic testing. This paper will show the application of these technologies in the RTD Rayscan system. The method for achieving an image quality that complies with or even exceeds prevailing industrial standards will be presented, as well as the application on pipeline girth welds with CRA layers. A next step in development will be to also achieve a measurement of weld flaw height to allow for performing an Engineering Critical Assessment on the weld. This will allow for similar acceptance limits as currently used with Automated Ultrasonic Testing of pipeline girth welds. Although a sufficient sizing accuracy was already demonstrated and qualified in the TomoCAR system, testing in some applications is restricted to time limits. The paper will present some experiments that were performed to achieve flaw height approximation within these time limits.

  10. The sensitivity of radiography of the postoperative stomach

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, D.J.; Munitz, H.A.; Gelfand, D.W.; Lane, T.G.; Wu, W.C.

    1982-09-01

    The results of radiology and endoscopy were compared in 140 patients who had undergone gastric surgery for ulcer disease. Of 74 patients who were examined with single-contrast radiography, 37 had abnormalities that were demonstrated endoscopically. The radiographic sensitivities in these patients were: gastritis 2/22 (9%); ulcer 3/5 (60%); obstruction 8/8 (100%); and miscellaneous abnormalities 2/2 (100%). The predictive accuracy of a diagnois of ulcer was 38%. Of the 66 patients who were examined with double-contrast radiography, 33 abnormalities were found with endoscopy. The radiographic sensitivities were: gastritis 3/13 (23%); ulcer 7/10 (70%); obstruction 4/4 (100%); and miscellaneous abnormalities 6/6 (100%). The predictive accuracy of a diagnosis of ulcer was 44%. Radiology appears to be unreliable in diagnosing gastritis and recurrent ulceration in the post-operation stomach. The double-contrast technique does not offer significant improvement over the single-contrast method in evaluating these postoperative problems.

  11. Assessing The Impact Of Computed Radiography And PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedgcock, Marcus W.; Kehr, Katherine

    1989-05-01

    Our institution (San Francisco VA Medical Center) is a VA pilot center for total digital imaging and PACS. Quantitative information about PACS impact on health care is limited, because no centers have done rigorous preimplementation studies. We are gathering quantitative service delivery and cost data before, during, and after stepwise implementation of computed radiography and PACS at our institution to define the impact on imaging service delivery. We designed a simple audit method using the x-ray request and time clocks to determine patient waiting time, imaging time, film use, image availability to the radiologist, matching of current with previous images, image availability to clinicians, and time to final interpretation. Our department model is a multichannel, mulitserver patient queue. Our current radiograph file is space limited, containing only one year of images; older images are kept in a remote file area in another building. In addition, there are 16 subfile areas within the Radiology Service and the medical center. Our preimplementation audit showed some long waiting times (40 minutes, average 20) and immediate retrieval of prior films in only 42% of cases, with an average retrieval time of 22 hours. Computed radiography and the optical archive have the potential to improve these figures. The audit will be ongoing and automated as implementation of PACS progresses, to measure service improvement and learning curve with the new equipment. We present the audit format and baseline preimplementation figures.

  12. Building a cost efficient digital radiography system for educational purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Chris

    Due to the growing need for Medical Physicists, many universities are implementing a Medical Physics program into their academic catalog. To help establish a new program, feasible equipment may be needed to help academic departments provide a hands-on experience for students and help teach the basic concepts of Medical Physics. For example, clinical Digital Radiography Systems (DRS) are used to help teach the basic concepts of digital imaging. However, such systems can cost in excess of 100,000, creating a financial obstacle that will be difficult to overcome. Hence, the development of a cost efficient digital radiography system may be desired in order to eliminate the financial obstacle and give students a hands-on learning experience. This DRS uses three main components to develop an image, an x-ray source, an intensifying plate, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. All three components are housed in a lead-lined box. The purpose of this project is to find the limitations of our DRS and compare the price between our DRS and commercially available DRSs. At optimal settings, a SNR of 25 is shown across the intensifying screen that can identify objects as small as 0.42mm. A Contrast-detail phantom shows the ability to decipher the varying thickness of foam rubber squares. The total cost of our DRS comes to 17,000.00, a fractional price tag compared to a commercially available DRS.

  13. Grating Based, Phase Contrast Radiography with Bremsstrahlung Source

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher Goldin and Shaun Hampton

    2009-09-11

    Phase-contrast radiography (PCR) generates an image from gradients in the phase of the probing X-radiation induced by the radiographic object, and can therefore make visible features difficult or impossible to see with conventional, absorption-contrast (ACR) radiography. For any particular object, variations in either the real or imaginary parts of the index of refraction could be greater. Most practical difficulties of PCR arise from the very small deviation from unity (~10-5-10-6, depending of material and energy) of the real part of the index of refraction. In principal, straightforward shadowgraphy would provide a phase-contrast image, but in practice this is usually overwhelmed by the zero-order (bright field) signal. Eliminating this sets the phase-contrast signal against a dark field (as in Schlieren photography with visible light). One way to do this with X-rays is with a grating that produces a Talbot interference pattern. Minute variations in optical path lengths through the radiographic object can significantly shift the Talbot fringes, and these shifts constitute a dark-field signal separate from the zero-order wave. This technique has recently been investigated up to ~20keV [1-3]; this work addresses what sets the practical upper limit, and where that limit is. These appear to be grating fabrication, and ~60keV, respectively.

  14. A note on digital dental radiography in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Chiam, Sher-Lin

    2014-09-01

    Digital dental radiography, intraoral and extraoral, is becoming more popular in dental practice. It offers convenience, such as lower exposure to radiation, ease of storing of images, and elimination of chemical processing. However, it also has disadvantages and drawbacks. One of these is the potential for confusion of the orientation of the image. This paper outlines one example of this, namely, the lateral inversion of the image. This source of confusion is partly inherent in the older model of phosphor storage plates (PSPs), as they allow both sides to be exposed without clue to the fact that the image is acquired on the wrong side. The native software allows digital manipulation of the X-ray image, permitting both rotation and inversion. Attempts to orientate the X-ray according to the indicator incorporated on the plate can then sometimes lead to inadvertent lateral inversion of the image. This article discusses the implications of such mistakes in dental digital radiography to forensic odontology and general dental practice.

  15. Development of a Logging Tool for Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suenaga, H.; Kiho, K.; Miyakawa, K.; Tanaka, H.

    2012-04-01

    A research for high level radioactive waste disposal should investigate geological structure and saturation change of rock mass around a disposal cavern. In the CO2 geological storage and the underground storage of crude oil, natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), it is necessary to monitor an upward migration of a gaseous fluid which is stored in underground. For an investigation of slope stability, it is effective to evaluate a high saturation area in the ground's pore space as the area should be the same as that of a rainfall infiltration. Since these phenomena could be evaluated by a measurement of a density variation in underground rock, an application of muon radiography is highly prospective. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has a plan to conduct a field experiment to evaluate an applicability of the muon radiography to engineering geology in cooperation with Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. (J-POWER). The field experiment will be performed this year in slope topography. If the applicability will be revealed as a result of the field experiment, CRIEPI will start a research on development of a logging tool which can measure muon in a borehole. We plan to build a prototype of the logging tool in around three years and will put it into practical use in around five years.

  16. Multiple-Image Radiography for Human Soft Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Muehleman,C.; Li, J.; Zhong, Z.; Brankov, J.; Wernick, M.

    2006-01-01

    Conventional radiography only provides a measure of the X-ray attenuation caused by an object; thus, it is insensitive to other inherent informative effects, such as refraction. Furthermore, conventional radiographs are degraded by X-ray scatter that can obscure important details of the object being imaged. The novel X-ray technology diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) has recently allowed the visualization of nearly scatter-free images displaying both attenuation and refraction properties. A new method termed multiple-image radiography (MIR) is a significant improvement over DEI, corrects errors in DEI, is more robust to noise and produces an additional image that is entirely new to medical imaging. This new image, which portrays ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) conveys the presence of microstructure in the object, thus differentiating homogeneous tissues from tissues that are irregular on a scale of micrometers. The aim of this study was to examine the use of MIR for evaluation of soft tissue, and in particular to conduct a preliminary investigation of the USAXS image, which has not previously been used in tissue imaging.

  17. Dose measurements in intraoral radiography using thermoluminescent dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorín, C.; Azorín, J.; Aguirre, F.; Rivera, T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of X-ray in medicine demands to expose the patient and the professional to the lowest radiation doses available in agreement with ALARA philosophy. The reference level for intraoral dental radiography is 7 mGy and, in Mexico, a number of examinations of this type are performed annually. It is considered that approximately 25% of all the X-rays examinations carried out in our country correspond to intraoral radiographies. In other hand, most of the intraoral X-ray equipment correspond to conventional radiological systems using film, which are developed as much manual as automatically. In this work the results of determining the doses received by the patients in intraoral radiological examinations made with different radiological systems using LiF:Mg,Cu,P+PTFE thermoluminescent dosimeters are presented. In some conventional radiological systems using film, when films are developed manual or automatically, incident kerma up to 10.61 ± 0.74 mGv were determined. These values exceed that reference level suggested by the IAEA and in the Mexican standards for intraoral examinations.

  18. The need for skull radiography in patients presenting for CT

    SciTech Connect

    Tress, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    One thousand patients had both CT of the head and a conventional skull series of radiographs. Radiographic findings were abnormal in 250 patients (25%), but only 64 patients (6.4%) had diagnostically significant abnormalities at radiography that were not detected by CT. If the 163 patients who presented after acute trauma were excluded from the series, only 39 (4.7%) of the remaining patients had radiographically significant abnormal findings that were not seen at CT, and only two (0.2%) of these abnormalities could not be diagnosed by a lateral skull radiograph alone. In only five patients (0.5%) was the management actively changed because an abnormaltiy that was detected at skull radiography was not detected at CT. Thus, in nontrauma patients who have stroke, epilepsy, dementia, or non-specific symptoms without focal signs, or have recently undergone craniotomy, and who have been referred for CT, skull radiographs are not justified. In the patient with a history and findings that are strongly suggestive of a pathological disorder anywhere other than in the sella turcica, cerebello-pontine angle, and paranasal sinuses, only the lateral skull radiograph should be obtained after CT, and only if CT is equivocal.

  19. Value of radiography in the management of possible fishbone ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sundgren, P C; Burnett, A; Maly, P V

    1994-08-01

    A retrospective study was performed on 42 consecutive patients to examine the value of radiography in the management of complaints of fishbone ingestion. All patients underwent an oral examination followed by radiographic examination with plain films, barium swallows, barium and water swallows, and an endoscopic examination. All radiographs were reviewed by two unbiased, experienced radiologists. Of the 7 cases with fishbone found at endoscopic examination, only two (29%) bones were seen by the primary radiologist and 5 (71%) by the reviewing radiologists. Except for one case in which all three radiologists detected a fishbone that passed during the examination, and thereby was not found on endoscopy, no fishbones were found at the radiographic examination that were not seen on the endoscopic examination. Thus, radiography added no valuable information but only delayed the endoscopic examination with ensuing removal of the foreign body, which had to be performed regardless of the outcome of the radiographic examination. Therefore, we suggest that patients with a short history of complaints of fishbone ingestion, ie, 48 hours or less, should first be evaluated with oral and endoscopic examination.

  20. Low material budget floating strip Micromegas for ion transmission radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortfeldt, J.; Biebel, O.; Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Klitzner, F.; Lösel, Ph.; Magallanes, L.; Müller, R.; Parodi, K.; Schlüter, T.; Voss, B.; Zibell, A.

    2017-02-01

    Floating strip Micromegas are high-accuracy and discharge insensitive gaseous detectors, able to track single particles at fluxes of 7 MHz/cm2 with 100 μm resolution. We developed low-material-budget detectors with one-dimensional strip readout, suitable for tracking at highest particle rates as encountered in medical ion transmission radiography or inner tracker applications. Recently we additionally developed Kapton-based floating strip Micromegas with two-dimensional strip readout, featuring an overall thickness of 0.011 X0. These detectors were tested in high-rate proton and carbon-ion beams at the tandem accelerator in Garching and the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, operated with an optimized Ne:CF4 gas mixture. By coupling the Micromegas detectors to a new scintillator based range detector, ion transmission radiographies of PMMA and tissue-equivalent phantoms were acquired. The range detector with 18 layers is read out via wavelength shifting fibers, coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier. We present the performance of the Micromegas detectors with respect to timing and single plane track reconstruction using the μTPC method. We discuss the range resolution of the scintillator range telescope and present the image reconstruction capabilities of the combined system.

  1. High-ratio grid considerations in mobile chest radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Alexander W.; Gauntt, David M.; Yester, Michael V.; Barnes, Gary T.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: Grids are often not used in mobile chest radiography, and when used, they have a low ratio and are often inaccurately aligned. Recently, a mobile radiography automatic grid alignment system (MRAGA) was developed that accurately and automatically aligns the focal spot with the grid. The objective of this study is to investigate high-ratio grid tradeoffs in mobile chest radiography at fixed patient dose when the focal spot lies on the focal axis of the grid. Methods: The chest phantoms (medium and large) used in this study were modifications of the ANSI (American National Standards Institute) chest phantom and consisted of layers of Lucite Trade-Mark-Sign , aluminum, and air. For the large chest phantom, the amount of Lucite and aluminum was increased by 50% over the medium phantom. Further modifications included a mediastinum insert and the addition of contrast targets in the lung and mediastinum regions. Five high-ratio grids were evaluated and compared to the nongrid results at x-ray tube potentials of 80, 90, 100, and 110 kVp for both phantoms. The grids investigated were from two manufacturers: 12:1 and 15:1 aluminum interspace grids from one and 10:1, 13:1, and 15:1 fiber interspace grids from another. MRAGA was employed to align the focal spot with the grid. All exposures for a given kVp and phantom size were made using the same current-time product (CTP). The phantom images were acquired using computed radiography, and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and CNR improvement factors (k{sub CNR}) were determined from the resultant images. The noise in the targets and the contrast between the targets and their backgrounds were calculated using a local detrending correction, and the CNR was calculated as the ratio of the target contrast to the background noise. k{sub CNR} was defined as the ratio of the CNR imaged with the grid divided by the CNR imaged without a grid. Results: The CNR values obtained with a high-ratio grid were 4%-65% higher than those

  2. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database 2016 Annual Report.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Shahian, David M; Prager, Richard L; Edwards, Fred H; McDonald, Donna; Han, Jane M; D'Agostino, Richard S; Jacobs, Marshall L; Kozower, Benjamin D; Badhwar, Vinay; Thourani, Vinod H; Gaissert, Henning A; Fernandez, Felix G; Wright, Cameron D; Paone, Gaetano; Cleveland, Joseph C; Brennan, J Matthew; Dokholyan, Rachel S; Brothers, Leo; Vemulapalli, Sreekanth; Habib, Robert H; O'Brien, Sean M; Peterson, Eric D; Grover, Frederick L; Patterson, G Alexander; Bavaria, Joseph E

    2016-12-01

    The art and science of outcomes analysis, quality improvement, and patient safety continue to evolve, and cardiothoracic surgery leads many of these advances. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) National Database is one of the principal reasons for this leadership role, as it provides a platform for the generation of knowledge in all of these domains. Understanding these topics is a professional responsibility of all cardiothoracic surgeons. Therefore, beginning in January 2016, The Annals of Thoracic Surgery began publishing a monthly series of scholarly articles on outcomes analysis, quality improvement, and patient safety. This article provides a summary of the status of the STS National Database as of October 2016 and summarizes the articles about the STS National Database that appeared in The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 2016 series, "Outcomes Analysis, Quality Improvement, and Patient Safety."

  3. Update on anesthetic complications of robotic thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Campos, J; Ueda, K

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been increasing use of the da Vinci® robot surgical system to perform minimally invasive thoracic surgery. The robotic technology can be applied for surgery of the lungs, mediastinum, and esophagus. A number of case reports have been shown steep learning curve, and promising surgical outcome with this new technology. However, anesthesia management of the robotic thoracic surgery can be complex and requires further education. For example, most of the cases require sufficient lung collapse in order to provide adequate surgical field. In addition, a unique operative setting, such as patient positioning and capnothorax can make anesthesia management further challenging. Hence, anesthesiologists should have better awareness of adverse events or complications related to the robotic surgery to accomplish successful anesthesia management. This review will focus on the potential complications of robotic thoracic surgery involving the lungs, mediastinum and esophagus.

  4. Current Evidence and Insights about Genetics in Thoracic Aorta Disease

    PubMed Central

    Muneretto, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also sporadic forms have been found to be potentially associated with genetic disorders, as highlighted by the analysis of rare variants and expression of specific microRNAs. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive review of the role of genetic causes in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms, by analyzing in detail the current evidence of genetic alterations in syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehler-Danlos, familial or sporadic forms, or forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve. PMID:24453931

  5. Current evidence and insights about genetics in thoracic aorta disease.

    PubMed

    Bisleri, Gianluigi; Bagozzi, Lorenzo; Muneretto, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms have been historically considered to be caused by etiologic factors similar to those implied in abdominal aortic aneurysms. However, during the past decade, there has been increasing evidence that almost 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms may be associated with a genetic disease, often within a syndromic or familial disorder. Moreover, the presence of congenital anomalies, such as bicuspid aortic valve, may have a unique common genetic underlying cause. Finally, also sporadic forms have been found to be potentially associated with genetic disorders, as highlighted by the analysis of rare variants and expression of specific microRNAs. We therefore sought to perform a comprehensive review of the role of genetic causes in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms, by analyzing in detail the current evidence of genetic alterations in syndromes such as Marfan, Loeys-Dietz, and Ehler-Danlos, familial or sporadic forms, or forms associated with bicuspid aortic valve.

  6. MAT2A mutations predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S; Santos-Cortez, Regie L; Zhao, Ren; Cai, Bo; Veeraraghavan, Sudha; Prakash, Siddharth K; Johnson, Ralph J; Muilenburg, Ann; Willing, Marcia; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Moran, Rocio; Debacker, Julie; Bamshad, Michael J; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Leal, Suzanne M; Raman, C S; Swindell, Eric C; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2015-01-08

    Up to 20% of individuals who have thoracic aortic aneurysms or acute aortic dissections but who do not have syndromic features have a family history of thoracic aortic disease. Significant genetic heterogeneity is established for this familial condition. Whole-genome linkage analysis and exome sequencing of distant relatives from a large family with autosomal-dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms variably associated with the bicuspid aortic valve was used for identification of additional genes predisposing individuals to this condition. A rare variant, c.1031A>C (p.Glu344Ala), was identified in MAT2A, which encodes methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha (MAT IIα). This variant segregated with disease in the family, and Sanger sequencing of DNA from affected probands from unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease identified another MAT2A rare variant, c.1067G>A (p.Arg356His). Evidence that these variants predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections includes the following: there is a paucity of rare variants in MAT2A in the population; amino acids Glu344 and Arg356 are conserved from humans to zebrafish; and substitutions of these amino acids in MAT Iα are found in individuals with hypermethioninemia. Structural analysis suggested that p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His disrupt MAT IIα enzyme function. Knockdown of mat2aa in zebrafish via morpholino oligomers disrupted cardiovascular development. Co-transfected wild-type human MAT2A mRNA rescued defects of zebrafish cardiovascular development at significantly higher levels than mRNA edited to express either the Glu344 or Arg356 mutants, providing further evidence that the p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His substitutions impair MAT IIα function. The data presented here support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in MAT2A predispose individuals to thoracic aortic disease.

  7. MAT2A Mutations Predispose Individuals to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Zhao, Ren; Cai, Bo; Veeraraghavan, Sudha; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Johnson, Ralph J.; Muilenburg, Ann; Willing, Marcia; Jondeau, Guillaume; Boileau, Catherine; Pannu, Hariyadarshi; Moran, Rocio; Debacker, Julie; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Leal, Suzanne M.; Raman, C.S.; Swindell, Eric C.; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2015-01-01

    Up to 20% of individuals who have thoracic aortic aneurysms or acute aortic dissections but who do not have syndromic features have a family history of thoracic aortic disease. Significant genetic heterogeneity is established for this familial condition. Whole-genome linkage analysis and exome sequencing of distant relatives from a large family with autosomal-dominant inheritance of thoracic aortic aneurysms variably associated with the bicuspid aortic valve was used for identification of additional genes predisposing individuals to this condition. A rare variant, c.1031A>C (p.Glu344Ala), was identified in MAT2A, which encodes methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha (MAT IIα). This variant segregated with disease in the family, and Sanger sequencing of DNA from affected probands from unrelated families with thoracic aortic disease identified another MAT2A rare variant, c.1067G>A (p.Arg356His). Evidence that these variants predispose individuals to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections includes the following: there is a paucity of rare variants in MAT2A in the population; amino acids Glu344 and Arg356 are conserved from humans to zebrafish; and substitutions of these amino acids in MAT Iα are found in individuals with hypermethioninemia. Structural analysis suggested that p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His disrupt MAT IIα enzyme function. Knockdown of mat2aa in zebrafish via morpholino oligomers disrupted cardiovascular development. Co-transfected wild-type human MAT2A mRNA rescued defects of zebrafish cardiovascular development at significantly higher levels than mRNA edited to express either the Glu344 or Arg356 mutants, providing further evidence that the p.Glu344Ala and p.Arg356His substitutions impair MAT IIα function. The data presented here support the conclusion that rare genetic variants in MAT2A predispose individuals to thoracic aortic disease. PMID:25557781

  8. Is radiography justified for the evaluation of patients presenting with cervical spine trauma?

    SciTech Connect

    Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Chatzakis, Georgios; Damilakis, John

    2009-10-15

    Conventional radiography has been for decades the standard method of evaluation for cervical spine trauma patients. However, currently available helical multidetector CT scanners allow multiplanar reconstruction of images, leading to increased diagnostic accuracy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative benefit/risk ratio between cervical spine CT and cervical spine radiography and between cervical spine CT and cervical spine radiography, followed by CT as an adjunct for positive findings. A decision analysis model for the determination of the optimum imaging technique was developed. The sensitivity and specificity of CT and radiography were obtained by dedicated meta-analysis. Lifetime attributable risk of mortal cancer from CT and radiography was calculated using updated organ-specific risk coefficients and organ-absorbed doses. Patient organ doses from radiography were calculated using Monte Carlo techniques, simulated exposures performed on an anthropomorphic phantom, and thermoluminescence dosimetry. A prospective patient study was performed regarding helical CT scans of the cervical spine. Patient doses were calculated based on the dose-length-product values and Monte Carlo-based CT dosimetry software program. Three groups of patient risk for cervical spine fracture were incorporated in the decision model on the basis of hypothetical trauma mechanism and clinical findings. Radiation effects were assessed separately for males and females for four age groups (20, 40, 60, and 80 yr old). Effective dose from radiography amounts to 0.050 mSv and from a typical CT scan to 3.8 mSv. The use of CT in a hypothetical cohort of 10{sup 6} patients prevents approximately 130 incidents of paralysis in the low risk group (a priori fracture probability of 0.5%), 500 in the moderate risk group (a priori fracture probability of 2%), and 5100 in the high risk group (a priori fracture probability of 20%). The expense of this CT-based prevention is 15-32 additional

  9. Endovascular treatment for traumatic thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cases of an endovascular treatment for traumatic aortic injury are extremely rare. A prompt diagnosis of traumatic thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm through a 3-dimensional computed tomographic angiography of aorta and emergency repair are mandatory to rescue the life-threatening condition. An endovascular treatment is a trend for traumatic aortic injury because of lower invasivity, morbidity and mortality. We reported a rare case of traumatic aortic injury with thoracic aortic pseudoaneurysm definitively diagnosed by the reconstructional computed tomographic angiography of aorta and successfully treated with endovascular stent-graft. PMID:23452982

  10. Modified uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery in children

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Seims, Aaron D.

    2016-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has been traditionally performed by a multi-port approach, but uniportal VATS is gaining popularity among thoracic surgeons. The use of only one intercostal space may result in less pain, but competition among camera and operating instruments may be a disadvantage. In children, the limited space in the thorax makes the uniportal VATS difficult to accomplish. We present a modification of the uniportal VATS, using a single skin incision but placing the thoracoscope in the superior or inferior intercostal space relative to the working instruments to increase instrument range of motion within a single intercostal space. PMID:27251823

  11. Skeletal Dysplasias That Cause Thoracic Insufficiency in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    İpek, Mehmet Sah; Akgul Ozmen, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Skeletal dysplasias are a heterogeneous group of conditions associated with various abnormalities of the skeleton. Some of them are perinatally lethal and can be diagnosed at birth. Lethality is usually due to thoracic underdevelopment and lung hypoplasia. A correct diagnosis and typing of the skeletal disorder is essential for the prognosis as is genetic counseling of the family. A retrospective review of 12 cases of clinico-radiologic diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia, leading to thoracic insufficiency, was conducted. We aimed to make differential diagnosis with special emphasis on radiological findings, and to emphasize the importance of parental counseling. PMID:27057899

  12. Prevention and Management of Nerve Injuries in Thoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Auchincloss, Hugh G; Donahue, Dean M

    2015-11-01

    Nerve injuries can cause substantial morbidity after thoracic surgical procedures. These injuries are preventable, provided that the surgeon has a thorough understanding of the anatomy and follows important surgical principles. When nerve injuries occur, it is important to recognize the options available in the immediate and postoperative settings, including expectant management, immediate nerve reconstruction, or auxiliary procedures. This article covers the basic anatomy and physiology of nerves and nerve injuries, an overview of techniques in nerve reconstruction, and a guide to the nerves most commonly involved in thoracic operative procedures.

  13. Isolated Esophageal Injury Following Blunt Thoracic Trauma: A Rarity

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Satish; Dalal, Nityasha; Goyal, Pawan

    2009-01-01

    Esophageal injury following blunt trauma to chest is an extremely rare event, with only a limited number of cases being reported in the world literature. We report a case of perforation of the lower thoracic esophagus following a crush injury to the chest in a 14 year old child. An appropriately placed chest drain and decompression gastrostomy resulted in complete resolution of the esophageal leak within four weeks. This case report demonstrates that a conservative approach to lower thoracic esophageal perforations can be carried out successfully without the added morbidity of thoracotomy and risks of direct repair. PMID:27956976

  14. Osteoid osteoma of the rib presenting as thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Saeed; Arefanian, Saeed; Ghasemi, Afsaneh; Binesh, Fariba; Heiranizadeh, Naeimeh

    2013-12-01

    Osteoid osteoma of the rib is a rare condition mostly mentioned in case report studies as lesions involving posterior region of the rib causing scoliosis. This report presents a 22-year-old man who complained of neurologic thoracic outlet syndrome symptoms. The pathologic study of the resected mass of the first rib confirmed the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. This unique presentation of the osteoid osteoma as thoracic outlet syndrome suggests that this pathologic involvement of the ribs is not confined to the symptoms of pain and scoliosis.

  15. Practical guidelines for radiographers to improve computed radiography image quality.

    PubMed

    Pongnapang, N

    2005-10-01

    Computed Radiography (CR) has become a major digital imaging modality in a modern radiological department. CR system changes workflow from the conventional way of using film/screen by employing photostimulable phosphor plate technology. This results in the changing perspectives of technical, artefacts and quality control issues in radiology departments. Guidelines for better image quality in digital medical enterprise include professional guidelines for users and the quality control programme specifically designed to serve the best quality of clinical images. Radiographers who understand technological shift of the CR from conventional method can employ optimization of CR images. Proper anatomic collimation and exposure techniques for each radiographic projection are crucial steps in producing quality digital images. Matching image processing with specific anatomy is also important factor that radiographers should realise. Successful shift from conventional to fully digitised radiology department requires skilful radiographers who utilise the technology and a successful quality control program from teamwork in the department.

  16. Inspection of an artificial heart by the neutron radiography technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliesi, R.; Geraldo, L. P.; Andrade, M. L. G.; Menezes, M. O.,; Pereira, M. A. S.; Maizato, M. J. S.

    1999-11-01

    The neutron radiography technique was employed to inspect an artificial heart prototype which is being developed to provide blood circulation for patients expecting heart transplant surgery. The radiographs have been obtained by the direct method with a gadolinium converter screen along with the double coated Kodak-AA emulsion film. The artificial heart consists of a flexible plastic membrane located inside a welded metallic cavity, which is employed for blood pumping purposes. The main objective of the present inspection was to identify possible damages in this plastic membrane, produced during the welding process of the metallic cavity. The obtained radiographs were digitized as well as analysed in a PC and the improved images clearly identify several damages in the plastic membrane, suggesting changes in the welding process.

  17. [Information technologies for scanning X-ray radiography].

    PubMed

    Kretov, V V; Ukraintsev, Iu G

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies have been widely used in X-rays diagnostics, including computer tomography, magnetic-resonance tomography, digital radiography etc. Digital technologies for image analysis essentially change all arrangements and procedures of preventive examinations made at patient-care facilities. As for digital fluorography, the basic principles of fluorography diagnostic room are standard but for one arrangement-the unit is controlled via a computer-assisted working place (CAWP) by the radiologist assistant; the room of radiologist is also equipped with CAWP. Admittedly, a key issue in general fluorographic examinations is registration of patients and preparation of them for the procedure. Contemplated in the paper are new potentialities of digital fluorography of big number of patients by low-dose fluorography (LDF, equipment manufacturer/Orel, Russia) which enhance the rate and quality of diagnostics.

  18. Bone Texture Characterization for Osteoporosis Diagnosis using Digital Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Keni; Makrogiannis, Sokratis

    2017-01-01

    We introduce texture classification techniques to effectively diagnose osteoporosis in bone radiography data. Osteoporosis is an age-related systemic bone skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass and bone structure deterioriation that results in increased bone fragility and higher fracture risk. Therefore, early diagnosis can effectively predict fracture risk and prevent the disease. Automated diagnosis from digital radiographs is very challenging since the scans of healthy and osteoporotic subjects show little or no visual differences, and their density histograms mostly overlap. We designed a system to separate healthy from osteoporotic subjects using high-dimensional textural feature representations computed from radiographs. These features were then reduced using feature selection to obtain the more discriminant subset that was finally classified by our methods. The top performing approach yields 79.3% accuracy and 81% area under the ROC over 116 bone radiographs. PMID:28268501

  19. Dosimetry and image quality assessment in a direct radiography system

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Paixão, Lucas; Teixeira, Maria Helena Araújo; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the mean glandular dose with a solid state detector and the image quality in a direct radiography system, utilizing phantoms. Materials and Methods Irradiations were performed with automatic exposure control and polymethyl methacrylate slabs with different thicknesses to calculate glandular dose values. The image quality was evaluated by means of the structures visualized on the images of the phantoms. Results Considering the uncertainty of the measurements, the mean glandular dose results are in agreement with the values provided by the equipment and with internationally adopted reference levels. Results obtained from images of the phantoms were in agreement with the reference values. Conclusion The present study contributes to verify the equipment conformity as regards dose values and image quality. PMID:25741119

  20. Measurement Of Gas Bubbles In Mercury Using Proton Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Riemer, Bernie; Bingham, Philip R; Mariam, Fesseha G; Merrill, Frank E

    2007-01-01

    An experiment using proton radiography on a small mercury loop for testing gas bubble injection was conducted at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in December 2006. Small gas bubble injection is one of the approaches under development to reduce cavitation damage in the U.S. Spallation Neutron Source mercury target vessel. Several hundred radiograph images were obtained as the test loop was operated over range of conditions that included two jet type bubble generators, two needle type bubble generators, various mercury flow speeds and gas injection rates, and use of helium, argon and xenon. This paper will describe the analysis of the radiograph images and present the obtained bubble measurement data.

  1. Reduction of absorbed doses in radiography of the facial skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.

    1984-11-01

    Radiation absorbed doses from radiography of the paranasal sinuses and the facial skeleton were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) on a phantom head using high-sensitivity screens in an Orbix stand. The entrance doses to the skin of the head ranged from 0.31 to 2.9 mGy per exposure. The absorbed dose from a full series of sinus exposures averaged 0.33 mGy for the oral mucous membrane, 0.33 mGy for the maxillary sinus mucous membrane, 0.11 MgY for the parotid gland, 0.15 MgY for the submandibular gland, 0.61 mGy for the eye lens, and 0.75 mGy for the thyroid gland region. A leaded soft collar adapted to the thyroid region reduced the thyroid doses by more than one order of magnitude, but also reduced the image field.

  2. Digital neutron radiography using plane converters with multiwire proportional chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, S.N.; Director, B.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Valentine, K.H.

    1981-12-01

    The work described here was completed more than three years ago, and represents, in large part the PhD and MS thesis research of two of the present authors. Much of it has been reported previously elsewhere. It constitutes an effort to develop and study a moderately low cost, moderate resolution, high sensitivity, on-line method for digital neutron radiography, intended for use where neutron fluence was limited by source strength, or received dose. The basic imaging system consisted of a position-sensitive gas proportional chamber together with its associated imaging electronics, and a plane neutron converter. Enriched-boron, gadolinium, and polyethylene (for fast neutrons) converters were analyzed and tested. Some work was done on digital data enhancement, and efforts to improve spatial resolution included pressurizing the proportional-chamber gas to reduce the track lengths of the neutron-interaction products.

  3. A third generation mobile high energy radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.A.; Valdez, J.E.; Johnson, C.S.; Kimerly, H.J.; Vananne, J.R.

    1997-12-01

    A third generation mobile high energy radiographic capability has been completed and put into service by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The system includes a 6 MeV linac x-ray generator, Co-60 gamma source, all-terrain transportation, on-board power, real-time radiography (RTR), a control center, and a complete darkroom capability. The latest version includes upgraded and enhanced portability, flexibility, all-terrain operation, all-weather operation, and ease of use features learned from experience with the first and second generation systems. All systems were required to have the following characteristics; all-terrain, all-weather operation, self-powered, USAF airlift compatible, reliable, simple to setup, easy to operate, and all components two-person portable. The systems have met these characteristics to differing degrees, as is discussed in the following section, with the latest system being the most capable.

  4. Wrist rhythm during wrist joint motion evaluated by dynamic radiography.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Hiroki; Tada, Kaoru; Suganuma, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Sanada, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that wrist joint motion involves a "wrist rhythm" similar to the scapulohumeral rhythm. Therefore, we used a flat-panel detector to evaluate the ratio of radiolunate and capitolunate joint motions during wrist joint motion by dynamic radiography. The subjects were 20 healthy men. Dynamic imaging of the wrist joint was performed during active exercise for a total of ten seconds. In this study, we defined the radiocarpal (RL angle) and midcarpal joint angle (CL angle) as the wrist joint angle in the obtained images and measured the variation of these angles. The average curve was plotted and regression lines calculated from the average curve. The ratio was calculated from the slopes of the regression lines of the RL CL angles. These findings indicated that the ratio of the RL and CL angle motions was approximately 1:4 during palmar flexion and approximately 2:1 during dorsiflexion.

  5. Plasma-flash radiography utilizing a molybdenum target in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mariko; Takabe, Akihito; Sakamaki, Kimio; Sato, Eiichi; Takahashi, Kei; Sagae, Michiaki; Oizumi, Teiji; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Sasaki, Katsuaki; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu; Yanagisawa, Toru

    1995-09-01

    The construction and the radiographic characteristics of a plasma flash x-ray generator having a molybdenum-target (anode tip) triode are described. This generator was primarily designed in order to perform soft radiography in dental medicine and employed the following essential components: a high-voltage power supply, a low-impedance coaxial transmission line with a gap switch, a coaxial oil condenser of 0.2 (mu) F, a turbo-molecular pump, a Krytron pulser as a trigger device, and a flash x-ray tube. The high-voltage main condenser of 0.2 (mu) F was charged from 40 to 60 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser were discharged to the tube after closing the gap switch. Because this tube employed a long target, the plasma x-ray source which consists of molybdenum ions and electrons was easily produced by the target evaporating. The maximum tube voltage was nearly equivalent to the initial charge voltage of the main condenser, and the maximum current had a value of about 25 kA with a charging voltage of 60 kV. The average width of flash x rays was less than 1 microsecond(s) , and the time-integrated x-ray intensity with a charging voltage of 60 kV was approximately 20 (mu) C/kg at 1.0 m per pulse. The characteristic K-series intensity substantially increased according to increases in the charged voltage. High-speed dental radiography was performed using a laser timing switch and a trigger-delay device.

  6. Paediatric entrance doses from exposure index in computed radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, E.; Martinez, D.; Fernandez, J. M.; Ordiales, J. M.; Prieto, C.; Floriano, A.; Ten, J. I.

    2008-06-01

    Over the last two years we have evaluated paediatric patient doses in projection radiography derived from exposure level (EL) in computed radiography (CR) in a large university hospital. Entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for 3501 paediatric examinations was calculated from the EL, which is a dose index parameter related to the light emitted by the phosphor-stimulable plate, archived in the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) header of the images and automatically transferred to a database using custom-built dedicated software. Typical mean thicknesses for several age bands of paediatric patients was estimated to calculate ESAK from the EL values, using results of experimental measurements with phantoms for the typical x-ray beam qualities used in paediatric examinations. Mean/median ESAK values (in µGy) for the age bands of <1 year, 1-5 years, 6-10 years and 11-15 years have been obtained for chest without a bucky: 51/41, 57/34, 91/54 and 122/109; chest with a bucky (for only the last three age bands): 114/87, 129/105 and 219/170; abdomen: 119/91, 291/225, 756/600 and 1960/1508 and pelvis: 65/48, 455/314, 943/707 and 2261/1595. Sample sizes of clinical images used for the (indirect) measurements were 1724 for chest without a bucky, 799 for chest with a bucky, 337 for abdomen and 641 for pelvis. The methodology we describe could be applicable to other centres using CR as an imaging modality for paediatrics. Presently, this method is the only practical approach to automatically extract parameters contained in the DICOM header, for the calculation of patient dose values for the CR modality.

  7. Single-exposure dual-energy computed radiography.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B K; Huang, H K

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on analysis and development of a single-exposure dual-energy digital radiographic method using computed radiography (Fuji FCR-101 storage phosphor system). A detector sandwich consisting of storage phosphor imaging plates and an interdetector filter is used. The goal of this process is to provide a simple dual-energy method using typical plane-projection radiographic equipment and techniques. This approach exploits the transparency of the storage phosphor plates, using radiographic information that would be otherwise lost, to provide energy selective information essentially as a by-product of the radiographic examination. In order to effectively make use of the large dynamic range of the storage phosphor imaging plates (10,000:1), a computed radiography image reading mode of fixed analog-to-digital converter gain and variable photomultiplier sensitivity provides image data which can be related to relative incident exposure for export to the decomposition algorithm. Scatter rejection requirements necessitated crossed 12:1 grids for a field size of 36 x 36 cm. Optimal technique parameters obtained from computer simulation through minimization of the aluminum and Plexiglas equivalent image uncertainty under conditions of constant absorbed does resulted as: 100 kVp using a 0.15-mm-thick tin (Sn) interdetector filter for the lung field. This yields a surface exposure of 23 mR and a surface absorbed dose of 0.26 mGy for a 23-cm-thick chest. Clinical application in evaluation of the solitary pulmonary nodule is discussed, along with an image set demonstrating this application.

  8. Plasma-flash radiography utilizing a molybdenum target in dentistry

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Mariko; Takabe, Akihito; Sakamaki, Kimio

    1995-12-31

    The construction and the radiographic characteristics of a plasma flash x-ray generator having a molybdenum-target (anode tip) triode are described. This generator was primarily designed in order to perform soft radiography in dental medicine and employed the following essential components: a high-voltage power supply, a low-impedance coaxial transmission line with a gap switch, a coaxial oil condenser of 0.2 {micro}F, a turbo-molecular pump, a Krytron pulser as a trigger device, and a flash x-ray tube. The high-voltage main condenser of 0.2 {micro}F was charged from 40 to 60 kV by the power supply, and the electric charges in the condenser were discharged to the tube after closing the gap switch. Because this tube employed a long target, the plasma x-ray source which consists of molybdenum ions and electrons was easily produced by the target evaporating. The maximum tube voltage was nearly equivalent to the initial charging voltage of the main condenser, and the maximum current had a value of about 25 kA with a charging voltage of 60 kV. The average width of flash x rays was less than 1 {micro}s, and the time-integrated x-ray intensity with a charging voltage of 60 kV was approximately 20 {micro}C/kg at 1.0 m per pulse. The characteristic K-series intensity substantially increased according to increases in the charging voltage. High-speed dental radiography was performed by using a laser timing switch and a trigger-delay device.

  9. Thoracic outlet syndrome in musicians - an approach to treatment.

    PubMed

    Campbell, R M

    1996-01-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) can affect the skill of instrumental musicians. This paper details the way in which symptomatic TOS affects the musician and describes two cases of symptomatic TOS in a drummer and a violinist. Evaluation tools and treatment techniques are described.

  10. Flexion myelopathy of the thoracic spine. Case report.

    PubMed

    Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Neo, Masashi; Nakamura, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of surgically treated symptomatic thoracic kyphosis caused by dynamic compression in an elderly man. Myelopathy due to thoracic kyphosis has been reported in patients with congenital kyphosis, Scheuermann dorsal kyphosis, and Cushing disease, but to the authors' knowledge this is the first report of dynamic kyphosis in an elderly person. This otherwise healthy 84-year-old man presented with a 2-year history of progressive difficulty in walking and bilateral leg dysesthesia. Despite several cervical and lumbar surgeries, his symptoms gradually worsened. A radiological examination revealed severe thoracic kyphosis, with a lateral Cobb angle of 59 degrees from T-2 to T-12. On a dynamic computed tomography (CT) myelogram, severe thoracic spinal cord draping and stretching on flexion was demonstrated. On extension, however, imaging studies failed to show draping or stretching. Posterior corrective fusion was performed with instrumentation from T-2 to T-9. Postoperative CT myelography demonstrated no significant spinal cord compression with restoration of the cerebrospinal fluid space anterior to the spinal cord, and the successful correction of the kyphosis to 44 degrees. The patient's neurological sequelae gradually resolved throughout 6 months of follow up.

  11. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for acute thoracic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Michael; Lewis, Jaime; Guitron, Julian; Reed, Michael; Pritts, Timothy; Starnes, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Operative intervention for thoracic trauma typically requires thoracotomy. We hypothesized that thoracoscopy may be safely and effectively utilized for the acute management of thoracic injuries. Materials and Methods: The Trauma Registry of a Level I trauma center was queried from 1999 through 2010 for all video-assisted thoracic procedures within 24 h of admission. Data collected included initial vital signs, operative indication, intraoperative course, and postoperative outcome. Results: Twenty-three patients met inclusion criteria: 3 (13%) following blunt injury and 20 (87%) after penetrating trauma. Indications for urgent thoracoscopy included diaphragmatic/esophageal injury, retained hemothorax, ongoing hemorrhage, and open/persistent pneumothorax. No conversions to thoracotomy were required and no patient required re-operation. Mean postoperative chest tube duration was 2.9 days and mean length of stay was 5.6 days. Conclusion: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is safe and effective for managing thoracic trauma in hemodynamically stable patients within the first 24 h post-injury. PMID:23723618

  12. Management of massive calcified transdural thoracic disk herniation.

    PubMed

    Al-Barbarawi, Mohammed; Sekhon, Lali H S

    2003-11-01

    Thoracic disk herniation is a not uncommon pathology faced by the spinal surgeon. The management of massive intradural thoracic disk herniation with ventral cord compression is problematic both in terms of obtaining adequate decompression and ensuring no subsequent leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. A 54-year-old woman presented with a 10 year history of back pain and left leg pain. Over the past 6 months she experienced a progressive spastic paraparesis in both legs with recent urinary incontinence. A left anterolateral thoracotomy for excision of T8/9 thoracic disk protrusion was affected. A transdural decompression was performed with resection of the calcified dura and performance of a Gore-Tex duraplasty and pleuroplasty. A free muscle graft was placed in the intervening space and the chest drains were placed on non-suction. A spinal drain was maintained for 5 days. She made an excellent neurological recovery. Avoidance of cerebrospinal leakage is paramount when performing transthoracic approaches as negative intrapleural pressure can lead to persistence of leakage. This report documents a safe and reliable way to deal with massive intradural thoracic disk rupture with avoidance of subsequent spinal fluid leak.

  13. Research and education in thoracic surgery: the European trainees' perspective.

    PubMed

    Ilonen, Ilkka K; McElnay, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    Thoracic surgery training within Europe is diverse and a consensus may help to harmonise the training. Currently, training for thoracic surgery compromises thoracic, cardiothoracic and aspects of general surgical training. The recognition of specialist degrees should be universal and equal. Between different nations significant differences in training exist, especially in general surgery rotations and in the role of oesophageal surgery. The European board examination for thoracic surgery is one of the key ways to achieve harmonisation within the European Union (EU) and internationally. Further support and encouragement may be beneficial to promote diverse and engaging fellowships and clinical exchange programmes between nations. International fellowships may even benefit young residents, in both clinical and academic settings. Many studies currently would benefit from multi-centre and multi-national design, enhancing the results and giving better understanding of clinical scenarios. Educational content provided by independent organisations should be more recognised as an integral part in both resident training and continuing development throughout surgeons' careers. During annual society meetings, trainees should have some sessions that are aimed at enhancing their training and establishing networks of international peers.

  14. Hereditary Influence in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection.

    PubMed

    Isselbacher, Eric M; Lino Cardenas, Christian Lacks; Lindsay, Mark E

    2016-06-14

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm is a potentially life-threatening condition in that it places patients at risk for aortic dissection or rupture. However, our modern understanding of the pathogenesis of thoracic aortic aneurysm is quite limited. A genetic predisposition to thoracic aortic aneurysm has been established, and gene discovery in affected families has identified several major categories of gene alterations. The first involves mutations in genes encoding various components of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling cascade (FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFB2, TGFB3, SMAD2, SMAD3 and SKI), and these conditions are known collectively as the TGF-β vasculopathies. The second set of genes encode components of the smooth muscle contractile apparatus (ACTA2, MYH11, MYLK, and PRKG1), a group called the smooth muscle contraction vasculopathies. Mechanistic hypotheses based on these discoveries have shaped rational therapies, some of which are under clinical evaluation. This review discusses published data on genes involved in thoracic aortic aneurysm and attempts to explain divergent hypotheses of aneurysm origin.

  15. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm: Reading the Enemy’s Playbook

    PubMed Central

    Elefteriades, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: At the Yale University Center for Thoracic Aortic Disease, we have been using our clinical experience and laboratory investigations to shed light on the pathophysiology of thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA), the clinical behavior of thoracic aortic aneurysm, and the optimal clinical management. Materials and Methods: The Yale database contains information on 3,000 patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm, with 9,000 patient-years of follow-up and 9,000 imaging studies. Advanced statistical techniques were applied to this information. Results: Analysis yielded the following Yale-generated observations: (1) TAA is a genetic disease with a predominantly autosomal dominant mode of inheritance; (2) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes are activated in the pathogenesis of TAA; (3) wall tension in TAA approaches the tensile limits of aortic tissue at a diameter of 6 cm; (4) by the time a TAA reaches a clinical diameter of 6 cm, 34 percent of affected patients have suffered dissection or rupture; (5) extreme physical exertion or severe emotion often precipitate acute dissection; and (6) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and RNA expression profile changes are being identified that predispose a patient to TAA and can serve as biomarkers for screening for this virulent disease. Conclusions: The “playbook” of TAA is gradually being read, with the help of scientific investigations, positioning practitioners to combat this lethal disease more effectively than ever before. PMID:19099048

  16. Prospective assessment of thoracic kyphosis in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Roux, Christian; Fechtenbaum, Jacques; Kolta, Sami; Said-Nahal, Roula; Briot, Karine; Benhamou, Claude-Laurent

    2010-02-01

    We attempt to assess quantitatively thoracic kyphosis and its influence on incident fractures and quality of life over three years in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and the effect of strontium ranelate on thoracic kyphosis progression. This study was performed on women with postmenopausal osteoporosis from the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention (SOTI) and Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis (TROPOS) studies. Vertebral fractures were assessed on lateral thoracic radiographs performed at baseline and at three years according to standardized procedure. Kyphosis index (KI, %), was defined as the percentage ratio between the maximum depth of thoracic curvature and the height measured from the T4 to the T12 vertebrae. Baseline characteristics of the 3218 patients (1594 strontium ranelate, 1624 placebo) were mean age 73.3 years, spine bone mineral density (BMD) T-score (L2-4) -3.1, femoral neck T-score -3.0, and KI 25.4%. In the placebo group, patients with the highest baseline KI experienced significantly more vertebral fractures than those with medium KIs [relative risk (RR) = 1.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.96, p < .001) or the lowest KIs (RR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.32-2.21, p < .001), even after adjusting for the presence of prevalent fractures, age, body mass index (BMI), and BMD. There was no difference in the risk of nonvertebral fractures according to baseline KI. Three-year changes in quality-of-life physical scores reflected significantly better status for patients in the lowest tertile of KI compared with those in the highest at baseline. Over three years, the KI increased for all patients, indicating worsening of thoracic kyphosis, whatever the presence of prevalent or incident vertebral fractures. This KI progression was lower in the strontium ranelate group than in the placebo group. Thoracic kyphosis is a risk factor for vertebral fractures over three years and influences physical capacity changes in postmenopausal women with

  17. Image quality of mixed convolution kernel in thoracic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Jakob; Spira, Eva Maria; Strube, Juliane; Langer, Mathias; Voss, Christian; Kotter, Elmar

    2016-11-01

    The mixed convolution kernel alters his properties geographically according to the depicted organ structure, especially for the lung. Therefore, we compared the image quality of the mixed convolution kernel to standard soft and hard kernel reconstructions for different organ structures in thoracic computed tomography (CT) images.Our Ethics Committee approved this prospective study. In total, 31 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced thoracic CT studies were included after informed consent. Axial reconstructions were performed with hard, soft, and mixed convolution kernel. Three independent and blinded observers rated the image quality according to the European Guidelines for Quality Criteria of Thoracic CT for 13 organ structures. The observers rated the depiction of the structures in all reconstructions on a 5-point Likert scale. Statistical analysis was performed with the Friedman Test and post hoc analysis with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test.Compared to the soft convolution kernel, the mixed convolution kernel was rated with a higher image quality for lung parenchyma, segmental bronchi, and the border between the pleura and the thoracic wall (P < 0.03). Compared to the hard convolution kernel, the mixed convolution kernel was rated with a higher image quality for aorta, anterior mediastinal structures, paratracheal soft tissue, hilar lymph nodes, esophagus, pleuromediastinal border, large and medium sized pulmonary vessels and abdomen (P < 0.004) but a lower image quality for trachea, segmental bronchi, lung parenchyma, and skeleton (P < 0.001).The mixed convolution kernel cannot fully substitute the standard CT reconstructions. Hard and soft convolution kernel reconstructions still seem to be mandatory for thoracic CT.

  18. Penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign body: can video-assisted thoracic surgery take up the leading role in acute management?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peter S. Y.; Chan, Herman H. M.; Lau, Rainbow W. H.; Capili, Freddie G.; Underwood, Malcolm J.

    2016-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is widely adopted in acute management of patient with thoracic trauma, but its use in penetrating thoracic injuries with retained foreign bodies were rarely reported. We described three of such cases using VATS as the first line approach. Identification of injuries, control of bleeders, clot evacuation, resection of damaged lung parenchyma and safe retrieval of foreign bodies were all performed via complete VATS within short operative time. Patient were uneventfully discharged during early post-operative period. We suggest that, for haemodynamically stable patients, VATS offers a safe and minimally-invasive alternative to conventional thoracotomy for penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign bodies. PMID:27621884

  19. An official American Thoracic Society workshop report: tobacco control initiatives within the American Thoracic Society.

    PubMed

    Wewers, Mary Ellen; Bailey, William C; Carlsen, Kai-Häkon; Eisner, Mark D; Folan, Patricia; Heath, Janie; Klinnert, Mary D; Kovesi, Tom; Pien, Grace W; Reichart, Virginia C; Talwar, Arunabh; Thompson, Katherine

    2010-02-01

    Cigarette smoking represents the single most preventable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the United States and the burden of tobacco use is apparent world-wide. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the third leading cause of death in the United States in 2004. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) and its members have contributed significantly to an understanding of the biological and pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for the development and management of tobacco-attributable disease and disability. The society's active involvement in tobacco control advocacy and policy-related initiatives are central to its mission. Within the ATS, there is also increased interest in accelerating the society's efforts to understand the mechanisms responsible for the uptake, persistence, and cessation of tobacco use. Scientific, clinical, and educational activities that include an examination of these underlying mechanisms are warranted. This paper describes findings from an ATS initiative that developed a preliminary strategy for enhancing scientific, clinical, educational, and policy-related tobacco control efforts that are consistent with the vision of the ATS. The specific aims of this project included the identification of existing mechanisms, as well as the current governance in place within the ATS infrastructure, to address tobacco control issues related to scientific inquiry, policy initiatives, and advocacy for tobacco control. This assessment generated recommendations to inform the ATS leadership with regard to the future development of relevant tobacco control initiatives.

  20. Effect of thoracic and cervical joint mobilization on pulmonary function in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sang-Hun; Bang, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to conduct thoracic and cervical mobilization in stroke patients and determine its effects on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one stroke patients were studied. Subjects were divided into a control group (control group, n=11) who did not undergo thoracic and cervical joint mobilization, and an experimental group (thoracic and cervical mobilization group, n=10) who underwent thoracic and cervical joint mobilization. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second, well-known indicators of respiratory capabilities, were measured. Peak cough flow was measured as an indicator of cough capability. [Results] After the exercise, respiratory function in the thoracic and cervical mobilization group showed statistically significant improvements demonstrated by increases in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second, and peak cough flow. [Conclusion] The findings indicate that thoracic and cervical mobilization can improve the thoracic movements of stroke patients resulting in improved pulmonary function. PMID:26957769

  1. Effect of thoracic and cervical joint mobilization on pulmonary function in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sang-Hun; Bang, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to conduct thoracic and cervical mobilization in stroke patients and determine its effects on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one stroke patients were studied. Subjects were divided into a control group (control group, n=11) who did not undergo thoracic and cervical joint mobilization, and an experimental group (thoracic and cervical mobilization group, n=10) who underwent thoracic and cervical joint mobilization. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second, well-known indicators of respiratory capabilities, were measured. Peak cough flow was measured as an indicator of cough capability. [Results] After the exercise, respiratory function in the thoracic and cervical mobilization group showed statistically significant improvements demonstrated by increases in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second, and peak cough flow. [Conclusion] The findings indicate that thoracic and cervical mobilization can improve the thoracic movements of stroke patients resulting in improved pulmonary function.

  2. Novel joint source-channel coding for wireless transmission of radiography images.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Katsuhiro; Takizawa, Kenichi; Ikegami, Tetsushi

    2010-01-01

    A wireless technology is required to realize robust transmission of medical images like a radiography image over noisy environment. The use of error correction technique is essential for realizing such a reliable communication, in which a suitable channel coding is introduced to correct erroneous bits caused by passing through a noisy channel. However, the use of a channel code decreases its efficiency because redundancy bits are also transmitted with information bits. This paper presents a joint source-channel coding which maintains the channel efficiency during transmission of medical images like a radiography image. As medical images under the test, we use typical radiography images in this paper. The joint coding technique enjoys correlations between pixels of the radiography image. The results show that the proposed joint coding provides capability to correcting erroneous bits without increasing the redundancy of the codeword.

  3. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Thoracic Duct Anatomy and Function in Open Surgery and Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Eiichi; Stockdale, Alan; Choi, Hak Soo; Frangioni, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Chylothorax resulting from damage to the thoracic duct is often difficult to identify and repair. We hypothesized that near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light could provide sensitive, real-time, high-resolution intraoperative imaging of thoracic duct anatomy and function. Methods In 16 rats (n=16), four potential NIR fluorescent lymphatic tracers were compared in terms of signal strength and imaging time: indocyanine green (ICG), the carboxylic acid of CW800, ICG adsorbed to human serum albumin (HSA), and CW800 conjugated covalently to HSA (HSA800). The optimal agent was validated in eight pigs approaching the size of humans, n = 6 by open surgery using the Fluorescence-Assisted Resection and Exploration (FLARE) imaging system and n = 2 by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) using the minimally invasive imaging system (m-FLARE). Lymphatic tracer injection site, dose, and timing were optimized. Results For signal strength, sustained imaging time, and clinical translatability, the best lymphatic tracer was ICG, which is already FDA-approved for other indications. In pigs, a simple subcutaneous injection of ICG into the lower leg, at a dose ≥36 μg/kg, provided thoracic duct imaging with an onset of 5 min after injection, sustained imaging for at least 60 min after injection, and a signal-to-background ratio ≥2. Using this technology, normal thoracic duct flow, collateral flow, injury models, and repair models could all be observed under direct visualization. Conclusions NIR fluorescent light could provide sensitive, sustained, real-time imaging of thoracic duct anatomy and function during both open surgery and VATS in animal models. PMID:21477818

  4. Time resolved analysis of water drainage in porous asphalt concrete using neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Poulikakos, L D; Sedighi Gilani, M; Derome, D; Jerjen, I; Vontobel, P

    2013-07-01

    Porous asphalt as a road surface layer controls aquaplaning as rain water can drain through its highly porous structure. The process of water drainage through this permeable layer is studied using neutron radiography. Time-resolved water configuration and distribution within the porous structure are reported. It is shown that radiography depicts the process of liquid water transport within the complex geometry of porous asphalt, capturing water films, filled dead end pores and water islands.

  5. Application of Digital Radiography to Weld Inspection for the Space Shuttle External Fuel Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ussery, Warren

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of digital radiography to inspect the welds of the external tanks used to hold the cryogenic fuels for the Space Shuttle Main Engines. NASA has had a goal of replacing a significant portion of film used to inspect the welds, with digital radiography. The presentation reviews the objectives for converting to a digital system from film, the characteristics of the digital system, the Probability of detection study, the qualification and implementation of the system.

  6. Digital Radiography and X-ray Computed Tomography Slice Inspection of an Aluminum Truss Section

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    3. Results The DR and XCT scans of the specimen were done using the 225-keV microfocus x - ray tube and II/CCD camera setup in centered rotate-only...Digital Radiography and X - ray Computed Tomography Slice Inspection of an Aluminum Truss Section by William H. Green ARL-MR-791 September...Digital Radiography and X - ray Computed Tomography Slice Inspection of an Aluminum Truss Section William H. Green Weapons and Materials

  7. Radiographic detection of thoracic lesions in adult cows: A retrospective study of 42 cases (1995–2002)

    PubMed Central

    Masseau, Isabelle; Fecteau, Gilles; Breton, Luc; Hélie, Pierre; Beauregard, Guy; Blond, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Medical records of 42 cows that underwent both thoracic radiographic and postmortem examinations within a period of 7 days were reviewed to develop an evaluation grid to interpret bovine thoracic radiographs and to determine the sensitivity and the specificity of thoracic radiographs for detection of thoracic lesions, based on postmortem examination. Most cows (64%) had clinical signs of respiratory disease, whereas 19% showed signs of cardiac problems. The sensitivity and specificity of radiographs for identifying cows with thoracic lesions were 94% and 50%, respectively. In this study, with a prevalence of thoracic lesions of 86%, the positive- and negative-predictive values were 92% and 57%, respectively. This study provides an evaluation grid that allows standardization of the reading of bovine thoracic radiographs and the identification of most thoracic lesions. Bovine thoracic radiographs are useful in detecting thoracic lesions in cows. PMID:18390098

  8. A transportable neutron radiography system based on a SbBe neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantidis, J. G.; Nicolaou, G. E.; Tsagas, N. F.

    2009-07-01

    A transportable neutron radiography system, incorporating a SbBe neutron source, has been simulated using the MCNPX code. Design provisions have allowed two radiography systems to be utilised using the same SbBe neutron source. In this respect, neutron radiographies can be carried out using the photoneutrons produced when the 124Sb is surrounded by the Be target. Alternatively, γ-radiography can be utilised with the photons from the 124Sb with the target removed. Appropriate collimators were simulated for each of the radiography modes. Apart from Be, the materials considered were compatible with the European Union Directive on 'Restriction of Hazardous Substances' (RoHS) 2002/95/EC, hence excluding the use of cadmium and lead. Bismuth was chosen as the material for γ-radiation shielding and the proposed system allowed a maximum activity of the 124Sb up to 1.85×1013 Bq. The system simulated allows different object sizes to be studied with a wide range of radiography parameters.

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Periapical Radiography in Internal Root Resorption

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Zahrasadat; Moudi, Ehsan; Bijani, Ali; Mahmoudi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and periapical (PA) radiography in detecting internal root resorption. Methods and Materials: Eighty single rooted human teeth with visible pulps in PA radiography were split mesiodistally along the coronal plane. Internal resorption like lesions were created in three areas (cervical, middle and apical) in labial wall of the canals in different diameters. PA radiography and CBCT images were taken from each tooth. Two observers examined the radiographs and CBCT images to evaluate the presence of resorption cavities. The data were statistically analyzed and degree of agreement was calculated using Cohen’s kappa (k) values. Results: The mean±SD of agreement coefficient of kappa between the two observers of the CBCT images was calculated to be 0.681±0.047. The coefficients for the direct, mesial and distal PA radiography were 0.405±0.059, 0.421±0.060 and 0.432±0.056, respectively (P=0.001). The differences in the diagnostic accuracy of resorption of different sizes were statistically significant (P<0.05); however, the PA radiography and CBCT, had no statistically significant differences in detection of internal resorption lesions in the cervical, middle and apical regions. Conclusion: Though, CBCT has a higher sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value in comparison with conventional radiography, this difference was not significant. PMID:26843878

  10. Dynamic chest radiography: flat-panel detector (FPD) based functional X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie

    2016-07-01

    Dynamic chest radiography is a flat-panel detector (FPD)-based functional X-ray imaging, which is performed as an additional examination in chest radiography. The large field of view (FOV) of FPDs permits real-time observation of the entire lungs and simultaneous right-and-left evaluation of diaphragm kinetics. Most importantly, dynamic chest radiography provides pulmonary ventilation and circulation findings as slight changes in pixel value even without the use of contrast media; the interpretation is challenging and crucial for a better understanding of pulmonary function. The basic concept was proposed in the 1980s; however, it was not realized until the 2010s because of technical limitations. Dynamic FPDs and advanced digital image processing played a key role for clinical application of dynamic chest radiography. Pulmonary ventilation and circulation can be quantified and visualized for the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. Dynamic chest radiography can be deployed as a simple and rapid means of functional imaging in both routine and emergency medicine. Here, we focus on the evaluation of pulmonary ventilation and circulation. This review article describes the basic mechanism of imaging findings according to pulmonary/circulation physiology, followed by imaging procedures, analysis method, and diagnostic performance of dynamic chest radiography.

  11. Noncardiac thoracic surgery in Abidjan, from 1977 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kendja, Flavien; Yangni-Angate, Hervé; Demine, Blaise; Ouédé, Raphaël; Kouacou, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Background To report and analyze noncardiac thoracic operations performed at the Cardiology Institute of Abidjan (Institut de Cardiologie d’Abidjan) from 1977 to 2015. Methods This is a retrospective and descriptive study covering 39 years, from 1977 to 2015. This study period was divided into three periods of 13 years each: P1 from 1977 to 1989, P2 from 1990 to 2002 and P3 from 2003 to 2015. Medical records of 2014 operated patients were analyzed: 414 patients for P1, 464 patients for P2, 1,136 patients for P3. The records destroyed in a fire in 1997 were not included in the study. The age, sex, pathologies, types of operations, post-operative complications and mortality were analyzed with usual statistical tests. Results The average age varied from 35 years in P1 to 31.6 years in P3. Men predominate in all periods. Distribution of important groups of pathologies observed varies significantly over the three periods; In particular, we note an increase in trauma cases (tripling between P1 and P2, 140% between P2 and P3), and a decrease in tumors percentages, and infections and pulmonary sequelae of tuberculosis. Surgical management of thoracic trauma has increased (56.9% in P3) followed by the pleural surgery (21.3%) and pulmonary resections (13.9%). Persistent air leak >7 days was the predominant complication over the three periods. Postoperative empyema increased in P3 (14.7%). Close chest drainage-irrigation is the most frequent procedure performed to sterilize a major complication like postoperative empyema without bronchopleural fistula. Overall mortality decreased from 5.3% in P1 to 3.4% in P3. Conclusions Noncardiac thoracic surgery operations still concern infections, pulmonary sequelae of tuberculosis, thoracic tumors and many more thoracic trauma caused by current armed conflicts and terrorist attacks. But access to thoracic surgical care remains difficult for our population secondary to low economic status, and lack of a health insurance system

  12. Neutron Computed Tomography Using Real-Time Neutron Radiography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulcoski, Mark Francis

    Conventional neutron radiography of an object records a two-dimensional distribution of the neutron beam intensity after it has passed through an object. The neutron radiograph, whether static film or real-time, may be considered a "shadow graph" of the object. In a shadow graph, internal structures in an object may mask one another making it difficult or impossible to precisely define the internals of the object. This problem can be solved by tomographic imaging. A real-time neutron radiography facility was constructed including the capability of neutron tomography. The neutron beam was measured for total neutron flux ((1.0 (+OR-) 0.2) x 10('11) n/(m('2)-sec)), gold cadmium ratio (52 (+OR-) 3) and effective neutron temperature (83(DEGREES)C (+OR -) 8(DEGREES)C). The angular divergence or nonparallelism of the neutron beam was measured to be \\2.3(DEGREES) (+OR -) 0.1(DEGREES) thereby providing a means of quantifying the collimator effectiveness. The resolution capabilities of both static film and real-time neutron radiographs were quantified using a Fourier transform algorithm to calculate the modulation transfer function of both types of radiographs. The contrast sensitivity of both types of radiographs was measured as 3.1% for film and 4.0% for real-time radiographs. Two tomography algorithms, the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT) and the convolution method, were programmed on an Intellect 100 Image Processing System. The SIRT algorithm was found to be too large and slow on the Intellect 100 to produce useful tomographs. The convolution method produced results near the theoretical resolution limits for a given number of projections. A tomographic resolution of at least 1.3 mm was demonstrated using 200 projections. Computer running time for the convolution method was found to be (TURN)30 seconds for each projection used. A series of experiments were conducted using the convolution method investigating the effect of high and low pass

  13. EOS imaging versus current radiography: A health technology assessment study

    PubMed Central

    Mahboub-Ahari, Alireza; Hajebrahimi, Sakineh; Yusefi, Mahmoud; Velayati, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: EOS is a 2D/3D muscle skeletal diagnostic imaging system. The device has been developed to produce a high quality 2D, full body radiographs in standing, sitting and squatting positions. Three dimensional images can be reconstructed via sterEOS software. This Health Technology Assessment study aimed to investigate efficacy, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of new emerged EOS imaging system in comparison with conventional x-ray radiographic techniques. Methods: All cost and outcome data were assessed from Iran's Ministry of Health Perspective. Data for clinical effectiveness was extracted using a rigorous systematic review. As clinical outcomes the rate of x-ray emission and related quality of life were compared with Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR). Standard costing method was conducted to find related direct medical costs. In order to examine robustness of the calculated Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) we used two-way sensitivity analysis. GDP Per capita of Islamic Republic of Iran (2012) adopted as cost-effectiveness threshold. Results: Review of related literature highlighted the lack of rigorous evidence for clinical outcomes. Ultra low dose EOS imaging device is known as a safe intervention because of FDA, CE and CSA certificates. The rate of emitted X-ray was 2 to 18 fold lower for EOS compared to the conventional techniques (p<0.001). The Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio for EOS relative to CR calculated $50706 in baseline analysis (the first scenario) and $50714, $9446 respectively for the second and third scenarios. Considering the value of neither $42146 as upper limit, nor the first neither the second scenario could pass the cost-effectiveness threshold for Iran. Conclusion: EOS imaging technique might not be considered as a cost-effective intervention in routine practice of health system, especially within in-patient wards. Scenario analysis shows that, only in an optimum condition such as lower

  14. Patient safety in thoracic surgery and European Society of Thoracic Surgeons checklist.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Nuria M

    2015-04-01

    Improving patient safety seems to be a new interesting clinical subject but, in fact, it is no new. It has to do with one of the oldest ethical principles of our profession: curing and not harming. The important research that has been done in a short period of time has brought in new insight to this complex area that is fast developing. The creation of safety managing systems will allow coordinating efforts from very different, although complementary, areas to create real safety culture and safety climate in every organization. In the surgical settings, teamwork is basic to provide good quality of care. Safety leaders in every team have an important role in establishing priorities, summarizing proposals, coordinating efforts, launching new initiatives and transmitting that safety efforts are worth taken. Preparedness and anticipation are key points for avoiding most of the diverse types of patient harm that can occur. As has been published, a great number of errors can be avoided simply using crosscheck based on specialized checklist that reviews every important detail of the procedure. This strategy has been demonstrated very useful at other high risk industries such as aviation, nuclear or food management. The Safe Surgery Saves Lives program launched in 2002 by the WHO has taught us that improvement is possible using a simple checklist. More complex and detail checklist can be more adequate for more complex procedures and settings. The proposed ESTS checklist reviews different areas of possible error in deeper detail allowing the finest adjustment of the patient before the skin incision. It has been recently released to the general thoracic community and monitors its use and usefulness has to be warrantied.

  15. Distal thoracic oesophageal perforation secondary to blunt trauma: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Dirk C; Tandon, Ruchi; Mason, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Background Traumatic perforation of the distal oesophagus due to blunt trauma is a very rare condition and is still associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. This is further exacerbated by delayed diagnosis and management as symptoms and signs are often masked by or ascribed to more common blunt thoracic injuries. Case report We present a case of a distal oesophageal perforation, secondary to a fall from a third storey window, which was masked by concomitant thoracic injuries and missed on both computed tomography imaging and laparotomy. The delay in his diagnosis significantly worsened the patient's recovery by allowing the development of an overwhelming chest sepsis that contributed to his death. Conclusion Early identification of an intrathoracic oesophageal perforation requires deliberate consideration and is essential to ensure a favorable outcome. Treatment should be individualised taking into account the nature of the oesophageal defect, time elapsed from injury and the patient's general condition. PMID:17374175

  16. Long thoracic nerve injury due to an electric burn.

    PubMed

    Still, J M; Law, E J; Duncan, J W; Hughes, H F

    1996-01-01

    A 19-year-old white man was burned over 7.5% of his body when he sustained an electric injury from a transformer. There was no associated fall or loss of consciousness. Debridement and grafting were required. The patient had some transient weakness of the muscles of his right arm associated with lower cervical nerve-root injury. This subsequently improved. He also was found to have paralysis of the serratus anterior muscle, with winging of the scapula due to long thoracic nerve injury. This has not improved. A surgical procedure suggested to improve function of the shoulder was rejected by the patient. This is only the second case reported of long thoracic nerve injury due to an electric burn of which we are aware.

  17. Bilateral Thoracic Ganglion Cyst : A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kazanci, Burak; Tehli, Ozkan; Guclu, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Ganglion cysts usually arise from the tissues around the facet joints. It is usually associated with degenerative cahanges in facet joints. Bilateral thoracic ganglion cysts are very rare and there is no previous case that located in bilateral intervertebral foramen compressing the L1 nerve root associated with severe radiculopathy. We report a 53 years old woman who presented with bilateral groin pain and severe numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral cystic mass in the intervertebral foramen between 12th thoracal and 1st lumbar vertebrae. The cystic lesions were removed after bilateral exposure of Th12-L1 foramens. The result of hystopathology confirmed the diagnosis as ganglion cyst. The ganglion cyst may compromise lumbar dorsal ganglion when it located in the intervertebral foramen. The surgeon should keep this rare entity in their mind for differential diagnosis. PMID:23908708

  18. Thoracic injury potential of basic competition taekwondo kicks.

    PubMed

    Serina, E R; Lieu, D K

    1991-01-01

    A major concern in competition taekwondo is the injury potential posed by many of the powerful kicks used. An investigation of the kinetics of four kicks frequently used in competition was performed with high speed video. Velocities were measured, and energy was calculated. Typical values for basic swing kicks were 15 ms-1 and 200 J. Basic thrust kicks possessed 45% less velocity but 28% more energy than swing kicks. Linkage models were developed to simulate the motion and kinetics of the kicking leg. Injury potential was evaluated through thoracic compression and viscous criterion models. These models predict a significant probability of serious injury with all kicks, with thoracic deflections from 3 to 5 cm and peak viscous tolerance values from 0.9-1.4 ms-1, when no protective body equipment is used.

  19. Caring for patients with traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Collins, Angela Smith; Dinsmore, David

    2007-01-01

    Trauma is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States, with blunt traumatic injuries of the thoracic aorta continuing to occur despite the increased use of seatbelts and airbags. Emerging from crash analysis are effective interventions and provides increased awareness of the occult nature of these types of injuries. This article describes those interventions that healthcare providers must embed throughout the continuum of care for patients experiencing thoracic aortic injuries. Outcomes will be dependent upon the healthcare provider's knowledge of the physics of the event and the urgency of the diagnosis, as well as the ability to assess and manage all the variables involved. Current procedural issues are delineated and case studies are used to illustrate the processes of care needed by these patients.

  20. Treatment of Descending Thoracic Aneurysm with an Intraaortic Occluder

    PubMed Central

    Liotta, Domingo; Frank, L.; Del Rio, M.; Gallo, A.; Navia, J.; Bertolozzi, E.; Bracco, D.; Cesareo, V.

    1987-01-01

    Elective treatment of descending thoracic aneurysms involves direct surgery, with Dacron graft replacement of the diseased aortic segment. When the patient's condition contraindicates major surgery, however, the surgeon should consider using an extraanatomic approach—implanting an ascending aorta-to-abdominal aorta Dacron bypass graft in a ventral position and leaving the diseased segment undisturbed. After such a procedure, the descending thoracic aorta must be excluded from the normal circulation. For this purpose, we have designed an intraaortic occluding technique in which an umbrella-like device is implanted immediately distal to the left subclavian artery. This technique has proved safe and uncomplicated in canine experiments and is ready for clinical trials. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1987; 14:196-205) Images PMID:15229741

  1. Photodynamic Therapy in Non-Gastrointestinal Thoracic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kidane, Biniam; Hirpara, Dhruvin; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-21

    Photodynamic therapy has a role in the management of early and late thoracic malignancies. It can be used to facilitate minimally-invasive treatment of early endobronchial tumours and also to palliate obstructive and bleeding effects of advanced endobronchial tumours. Photodynamic therapy has been used as a means of downsizing tumours to allow for resection, as well as reducing the extent of resection necessary. It has also been used successfully for minimally-invasive management of local recurrences, which is especially valuable for patients who are not eligible for radiation therapy. Photodynamic therapy has also shown promising results in mesothelioma and pleural-based metastatic disease. As new generation photosensitizers are being developed and tested and methodological issues continue to be addressed, the role of photodynamic therapy in thoracic malignancies continues to evolve.

  2. Acquired thoracic scoliosis following minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum.

    PubMed

    Niedbala, Angela; Adams, Michael; Boswell, William C; Considine, John M

    2003-06-01

    The minimally invasive pectus excavatum repair as described by Nuss et al. is rapidly gaining acceptance as an effective method of repair of severe pectus excavatum deformities in the pediatric population. It potentially offers several advantages over previous techniques. The incidence of major complications of the procedure has been reduced by recent modifications including utilization of video-assisted thoracoscopy during placement of the Lorenz pectus bar as well as utilizing the pectus bar stabilizer that provides more rigid fixation of the strut. We report two cases of acquired thoracic scoliosis following minimally invasive repair of severe pectus excavatum deformity. This particular complication has not been reported in previous literature and warrants concern. In both cases the thoracic scoliosis slowly improved with physical therapy and range-of-motion exercises.

  3. Endovascular repair of traumatic thoracic aortic injuries: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peter H; Huynh, Tam T; Kougias, Panagiotis; Wall, Mathew J; Coselli, Joseph S; Mattox, Kenneth L

    2008-08-01

    Blunt trauma to the thoracic aorta is life-threatening, with instant fatality in at least 75% of victims. If left untreated, nearly half of those who survive the initial injury will die within the first 24 hours. Surgical repair has been the standard treatment of blunt aortic injury, but immediate operative intervention is frequently difficult due to concomitant injuries. Although endovascular treatment of traumatic aortic disruption is less invasive than conventional repair via thoracotomy, this strategy remains controversial in young patients due to anatomical considerations and device limitations. This article reviews the likely advantages of endovascular interventions for blunt thoracic aortic injuries. Potential limitations and clinical outcomes of this minimally invasive technique are also discussed.

  4. Rosai-Dorfman Disease Isolated to the Thoracic Epidural Spine

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Benjamin; Talbott, Jason; Uzelac, Alina; Rehani, Bhavya

    2015-01-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare benign histiocytic disease that infrequently presents in the spine. We report a case of Rosai-Dorfman disease isolated to the epidural thoracic spine in a 26-year-old male. To our knowledge, this is the 15th reported case of isolated spinal disease and only the fourth case of isolated thoracic epidural disease. Given its rarity as well as non-specific symptoms and imaging findings, Rosai-Dorfman disease is often not considered and misdiagnosed on imaging studies. To help improve awareness of Rosai-Dorfman spinal disease, we review the literature and discuss the epidemiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment considerations for this condition. PMID:27252790

  5. [Biomedicine in thoracic surgery: state of the art].

    PubMed

    Leistner, M; Steinke, M; Walles, T

    2013-06-01

    Biomedicine represents a new scientific field at the interface of human, molecular and cell biology and medicine. Comprising the diverse disciplines of stem cell research, tissue engineering and material sciences, biomedicine gives rise to new approaches in research and therapy for - to date - unmet medical issues. Biomedical research is currently conducted in many medical, especially surgical subspecialties, and a number of successful developments have already been brought to clinical application. Concerning thoracic surgery, biomedical approaches are pursued primarily for tissue and organ replacement of the upper airways, lung and thoracic wall. In spite of a comparatively small research foundation, five different concepts have been clinically implemented worldwide, due to a lack of established treatment options in the case of extensive disease of the greater airways. In this review, the clinical background and the tissue-specific basics of tracheobronchial biomedicine are presented.

  6. Photodynamic Therapy in Non-Gastrointestinal Thoracic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kidane, Biniam; Hirpara, Dhruvin; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has a role in the management of early and late thoracic malignancies. It can be used to facilitate minimally-invasive treatment of early endobronchial tumours and also to palliate obstructive and bleeding effects of advanced endobronchial tumours. Photodynamic therapy has been used as a means of downsizing tumours to allow for resection, as well as reducing the extent of resection necessary. It has also been used successfully for minimally-invasive management of local recurrences, which is especially valuable for patients who are not eligible for radiation therapy. Photodynamic therapy has also shown promising results in mesothelioma and pleural-based metastatic disease. As new generation photosensitizers are being developed and tested and methodological issues continue to be addressed, the role of photodynamic therapy in thoracic malignancies continues to evolve. PMID:26805818

  7. Thoracic Vertebral Actinomycosis Secondary to a Pulmonary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Thango, Nqobile S; Ben Husein, Mohamed; Welsh, David

    2015-01-01

    Actinomycosis is a chronic infection caused by a gram-positive anaerobic bacteria from the species Actinomycesand causes a chronic colliquative inflammatory reaction known as actinomycotic granuloma, which is characterized macroscopically by suppuration, sinus tract formation, and purulent discharge containing yellowish sulfur granules. It can invade any part of the human body. This is a case report of a 40-year-old male patient known to the cardiothoracic team due to a sarcoma of the left lung. He presented with progressive thoracic myelopathy. Initially, the diagnosis was thought to be a spinal metastasis from the lung lesion. Further investigation revealed a thoracic actinomycosis with epidural granuloma tissue causing a spinal compression. PMID:26719834

  8. Spinal accessory neuropathy, droopy shoulder, and thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al-Shekhlee, Amer; Katirji, Bashar

    2003-09-01

    Droopy shoulder has been proposed as a cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. Two patients developed manifestations of neurovascular compression upon arm abduction, associated with unilateral droopy shoulder and trapezius muscle weakness caused by iatrogenic spinal accessory neuropathies following cervical lymph node biopsies. The first patient developed a cold, numb hand with complete axillary artery occlusion when his arm was abducted to 90 degrees. The second patient complained of paresthesias in digits 4 and 5 of the right hand, worsened by elevation of the arm, with nerve conduction findings of right lower trunk plexopathy (low ulnar and medial antebrachial cutaneous sensory nerve action potentials). Spinal accessory nerve grafting (in the first patient) coupled with shoulder strengthening physical exercises in both patients resulted in gradual improvement of symptoms in 2 years. These two cases demonstrate that unilateral droopy shoulder secondary to trapezius muscle weakness may cause compression of the thoracic outlet structures.

  9. Gallium-67 thoracic scan and pleural disease in asbestos workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, R.; Bisson, G.; Lamoureux, G.; Begin, R.

    1985-06-01

    The authors have recently reported that /sup 67/Ga scanning in asbestos workers can document excessive uptake of the marker among workers without sufficient criteria for asbestosis, but in their initial report they could not exclude definitely that /sup 67/Ga uptake could be related to pleural disease. To further test this hypothesis, they analyzed the /sup 67/Ga thoracic scan in relation to profusion scores of pleural disease on chest roentgenogram and CT scan of the thorax in 171 asbestos workers. They found no significant correlation between the /sup 67/Ga lung uptake and the radiographic scores of pleural disease. They concluded that pleural plaques are not an active site of /sup 67/Ga accumulation and do not contribute significantly to the thoracic uptake of the marker.

  10. Ultrasonographic measurement of thoracic diameters of the early gestating fetus.

    PubMed

    Hata, T; Hata, K; Yamane, Y; Osamu, T; Kitao, M

    1989-08-01

    Eighty-two ultrasonographic examinations were performed on 60 of our pregnant patients with regular menstrual cycles and no complications. The pregnancies ranged from 7 to 13 weeks of gestation. Thoracic anteroposterior diameter (ETAPD), transverse diameter (ETTD), cross-sectional area (ETA) and crown-rump length (CRL) were measured on each ultrasonogram. A high correlation between CRL and gestational age was firstly confirmed in this study. ETAPD, ETTD and ETA correlated well with the gestational age and CRL, respectively. Correlations between ETAPD/CRL and ETTD/CRL ratios with the gestational age were negative. A positive correlation of ETA/CRL ratio with the gestational age was evident. Ultrasonographic measurement of the thoracic diameters of the fetus in utero should be a useful parameter to evaluate the gestational age and for early detection of growth retardation in utero.

  11. Thoracic outlet syndrome caused by synostosis of the first and second thoracic ribs: 2 case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Reidler, Jay S; Das De, Soumen; Schreiber, Joseph J; Schneider, Darren B; Wolfe, Scott W

    2014-12-01

    We present 2 cases of combined arterial and neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome triggered by trauma in patients with congenital synostoses of the first and second ribs. These patients were successfully treated with supraclavicular resection of the first and second ribs and scalenectomy. We review these cases and the associated literature on thoracic outlet syndrome and rib synostosis.

  12. Image segmentation and registration algorithm to collect thoracic skeleton semilandmarks for characterization of age and sex-based thoracic morphology variation.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Nguyen, Callistus M; Schoell, Samantha L; Maldjian, Joseph A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-12-01

    Thoracic anthropometry variations with age and sex have been reported and likely relate to thoracic injury risk and outcome. The objective of this study was to collect a large volume of homologous semilandmark data from the thoracic skeleton for the purpose of quantifying thoracic morphology variations for males and females of ages 0-100 years. A semi-automated image segmentation and registration algorithm was applied to collect homologous thoracic skeleton semilandmarks from 343 normal computed tomography (CT) scans. Rigid, affine, and symmetric diffeomorphic transformations were used to register semilandmarks from an atlas to homologous locations in the subject-specific coordinate system. Homologous semilandmarks were successfully collected from 92% (7077) of the ribs and 100% (187) of the sternums included in the study. Between 2700 and 11,000 semilandmarks were collected from each rib and sternum and over 55 million total semilandmarks were collected from all subjects. The extensive landmark data collected more fully characterizes thoracic skeleton morphology across ages and sexes. Characterization of thoracic morphology with age and sex may help explain variations in thoracic injury risk and has important implications for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly.

  13. Study of 433 Operated Cases of Thoracic Trauma.

    PubMed

    Çakmak, Muharrem; Nail Kandemir, Mehmet

    2016-12-01

    Patients with thoracic trauma constitute one third of all the trauma cases. Of traumatic patients, 20-25 % die because of thoracic trauma. Our aim was to compare our clinical experience and the results with the related literature. Four hundred thirty-three patients, who underwent surgical interventions due to thoracic trauma, were evaluated. The latest form of treatment applied were taken as the criteria for the quantitative detection of patients. Continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, while categorical variables were explained as number and percentage. The significance of the analysis results was evaluated using Fisher's exact test. p values <0.05 were considered as significant. Penetrating injuries were found in 258 (59 %) of the patients, and blunt trauma was identified in 175 (41 %). Depending on the trauma, pneumothorax was discovered in 130 patients (30.02 %), hemothorax in 117 (27.02 %), hemopneumothorax in 61 (14.08 %), pulmonary contusion in 110 (45 %), pneumomediastinum in 14 (3.23 %), and pericardial tamponade in 1 patient (0.23 %). It was demonstrated that 385 of 433 patients examined in the study underwent tube thoracostomy, 41 were treated with thoracotomy, while 6 of them underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), and 1 underwent sternotomy. No correlation was observed between mortality, morbidity, and gender and type of trauma and location of trauma (p > 0.05). However, statistically significant correlation was found between mortaxlity, morbidity, and the presence of concomitant injuries, the duration between injury and admission being more than 1 h (p < 0.05). Urgent intervention, early diagnosis, and fast transport are vital for patients with thoracic injuries.

  14. Transient cortical blindness after thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Raghuveer; Jim, Jeffrey; Derdeyn, Colin P; Sanchez, Luis A

    2011-05-01

    We report a patient who presented with transient cortical blindness 12 hours after completion of a thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair. Computed tomography of the brain demonstrated no acute findings. The patient's symptoms resolved spontaneously after 72 hours. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transient cortical blindness after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. This is an uncommon diagnosis that is important to recognize in a modern vascular surgery practice.

  15. Video-assisted thoracic surgery--state of the art.

    PubMed

    Weissberg, D; Schachner, A

    2000-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is one of the main medical revolutions of the past decade. For its satisfactory performance, the following prerequisites are essential: (1) knowledge and experience in thoracic surgery; (2) team of experienced anesthesiologists; (3) preoperative assessment of respiratory function; (4) adequate postoperative care; and (5) instruments specially designed for thoracoscopic surgery. VATS is routinely performed under general anesthesia with double lumen endotracheal intubation for separate control of each lung. Insufflation of carbon dioxide must not exceed 1-3 mm Hg. Too high pressure may cause harmful reduction of venous return and mediastinal shift with impairment of ventilation. Presence of adhesions should be determined by finger exploration of the pleural cavity. Operative ports should be placed carefully, avoiding damage to the intercostal nerves and vessels. The video technique can be used with efficiency for the following indications: pneumothorax, resection of pulmonary nodules, biopsies of lung, pleura and mediastinal structures, resection of mediastinal tumors, management of empyema, and hemostasis and closure of lacerations after trauma. Indications for esophageal procedures include esophagomyotomy for achalasia and resections of benign lesions. Repair of perforated esophagus is a matter of controversy, but in early stages it can be done thoracoscopically. Although video-pericardioscopy has been performed by some surgeons, this procedure can be done easier and faster using the direct approach without the video equipment. There are differences of opinion with regard to major pulmonary and esophageal resections for cancer. The apparent advantage of diminished pain is offset by inadequate resection, spread of malignant cells and potential damage to the resected specimen with loss of important information concerning pathology. Complications of VATS are few, and include prolonged air leak, dysrhythmia, respiratory failure

  16. [Surgical treatment of congenital deformities of the thoracic wall].

    PubMed

    Coman, C

    1977-01-01

    The author describes an original procedure for the correction of deformities of the antero-lateral thoracic wall, stressing the tactical and technical principles. The mandatory operational steps are the following: wide chondrectomy, borad retrosternal separation of the periost, transversal osteotomy of the sternum and contention by metalic blades placed behind the sternum. The author stresses the surgical indications in all anterolateral deformities of the thorax and considers that the best age for performing the correction is after 10-12 years.

  17. Immediate effects of upper thoracic spine manipulation on hypertensive individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ward, John; Tyer, Ken; Coats, Jesse; Williams, Gabbrielle; Kulcak, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine if there were any statistically significant immediate effects of upper thoracic spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) on cardiovascular physiology in hypertensive individuals. Introduction: Preliminary research suggests that SMT to various regions of the spine may be capable of lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. Further studies are warranted to corroborate or refute these findings as well as measure how other attributes of cardiovascular physiology are impacted by SMT. Methods: Fifty hypertensive participants (age = 45.5±13.9 years, height = 1.69±0.10 m, body mass = 93.9±21.5 kg: mean±standard deviation (SD)) were equally randomized into a single-blind, controlled trial involving two study groups: supine diversified anterior upper thoracic SMT of T1–4, or a ‘no T-spine contact’ control. Outcome measures were electrocardiogram, bilateral pulse oximetry, and bilateral blood pressure measurement performed at baseline, post 1-minute intervention, and post 10-minute intervention. An independent samples t-test was used to compare between-group differences at baseline. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare within-group changes over time. Results: Within-group changes in PR interval and QRS duration demonstrated that the atria were transiently less active post-SMT and the ventricles were more active post-SMT, however the changes were clinically minimal. Conclusion: The results of this study, and the limited existing normotensive, thoracic-specific SMT research in this field, suggest that cardiovascular physiology, short-term, is not affected by upper thoracic spine SMT in hypertensive individuals to a clinically relevant level. PMID:26309381

  18. Veins of the thoracic limb of the Van cat.

    PubMed

    Ozüdoğru, Z; Aksoy, G; Soygüder, Z; Ozmen, E

    2003-04-01

    The drainage of the thoracic limb of the Van cat was performed by the superficial and deep vein systems. The superficial system was constituted by the cephalic vein and its branches. The deep vein system was constituted by the axillary vein and its branches. The two vein systems anastomosed with each other at various points along their courses. The cephalic vein emerged from the external jugular vein together with the superficial cervical vein. The axillary vein continued the subclavian vein. It ran caudoventrally and gave off the subscapular vein, at the level of the shoulder joint, then gave off two independent branches, which were the external thoracic veins. Then the rest of the vessel continued as the brachial vein. The thoracodorsal vein was formed by the communicate ramus vein which arose between the subscapular vein and the brachial vein. The cranial circumflex humeral vein arose double from the subscapular vein. One of them anastomosed with the deep brachial vein and the other one drained the biceps and the deep pectoral muscles. The cranial interosseous vein from the caudal aspects of the brachial vein and passed the interosseous space of the antebrachium then ran to the lateral aspect of the forearm. The caudal interosseous vein arose from the ulnar vein (in two specimens) and the median vein together with the ulnar vein (in two specimens) or independently from the median vein (in one specimen). Although many similarities were found in the veins of the thoracic limb of the Van cat as compared with the domestic cat, some significant differences were noted in the origin, course, anastomosing and ramification of veins of the thoracic limb.

  19. A rare case of ectopic thoracic kidney and spleen.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Babu; Lakshminarayanan, P; Sudhakar, M K; Vishwanathan, K N

    2011-07-01

    A 23-year-old male presented with fever of 5 days duration. His peripheral smear was positive for Plasmodium vivax. He was treated for malaria and responded. During investigation with USG it was found that he had absent left kidney. An abdominal contrast enhanced CT scan revealed ectopic kidney and spleen in the left hemithorax. This was a rare case of ectopic thoracic kidney and spleen.

  20. Neurological Complications Following Endoluminal Repair of Thoracic Aortic Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, J. P.; Taylor, P. R.; Bell, R. E.; Chan, Y. C.; Sabharwal, T.; Carrell, T. W. G.; Reidy, J. F.

    2007-09-15

    Open surgery for thoracic aortic disease is associated with significant morbidity and the reported rates for paraplegia and stroke are 3%-19% and 6%-11%, respectively. Spinal cord ischemia and stroke have also been reported following endoluminal repair. This study reviews the incidence of paraplegia and stroke in a series of 186 patients treated with thoracic stent grafts. From July 1997 to September 2006, 186 patients (125 men) underwent endoluminal repair of thoracic aortic pathology. Mean age was 71 years (range, 17-90 years). One hundred twenty-eight patients were treated electively and 58 patients had urgent procedures. Anesthesia was epidural in 131, general in 50, and local in 5 patients. Seven patients developed paraplegia (3.8%; two urgent and five elective). All occurred in-hospital apart from one associated with severe hypotension after a myocardial infarction at 3 weeks. Four of these recovered with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage. One patient with paraplegia died and two had permanent neurological deficit. The rate of permanent paraplegia and death was 1.6%. There were seven strokes (3.8%; four urgent and three elective). Three patients made a complete recovery, one had permanent expressive dysphasia, and three died. The rate of permanent stroke and death was 2.1%. Endoluminal treatment of thoracic aortic disease is an attractive alternative to open surgery; however, there is still a risk of paraplegia and stroke. Permanent neurological deficits and death occurred in 3.7% of the patients in this series. We conclude that prompt recognition of paraplegia and immediate insertion of a CSF drain can be an effective way of recovering spinal cord function and improving the prognosis.

  1. Salmonella spondylodiscitis of the thoracic vertebrae mimicking spine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Muhamad Effendi, Ferdhany; Ibrahim, Mohd Ikraam; Mohd Miswan, Mohd Fairudz

    2016-07-05

    Extraintestinal Salmonella infection involving the thoracic spine is very rare. It commonly presents with non-specific chronic back pain and can occur with no gastrointestinal manifestation. Blood test results and imaging findings are often indistinguishable from more common chronic spine infections such as spine tuberculosis. Culture studies remain the key to establishing a definitive diagnosis and subsequently successful treatment. We report a case in which a patient presented with symptoms and signs suggestive of spine tuberculosis, yet the culture examination revealed otherwise.

  2. A conceptual optimisation strategy for radiography in a digital environment.

    PubMed

    Båth, Magnus; Håkansson, Markus; Hansson, Jonny; Månsson, Lars Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Using a completely digital environment for the entire imaging process leads to new possibilities for optimisation of radiography since many restrictions of screen/film systems, such as the small dynamic range and the lack of possibilities for image processing, do not apply any longer. However, at the same time these new possibilities lead to a more complicated optimisation process, since more freedom is given to alter parameters. This paper focuses on describing an optimisation strategy that concentrates on taking advantage of the conceptual differences between digital systems and screen/film systems. The strategy can be summarised as: (a) always include the anatomical background during the optimisation, (b) perform all comparisons at a constant effective dose and (c) separate the image display stage from the image collection stage. A three-step process is proposed where the optimal setting of the technique parameters is determined at first, followed by an optimisation of the image processing. In the final step the optimal dose level-given the optimal settings of the image collection and image display stages-is determined.

  3. Detection of fissionable materials in cargoes using monochromatic photon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danagoulian, Areg; Lanza, Richard; O'Day, Buckley; LNSP Team

    2015-04-01

    The detection of Special Nuclear Materials (e.g. Pu and U) and nuclear devices in the commercial cargo traffic is one of the challenges posed by the threat of nuclear terrorism. Radiography and active interrogation of heavily loaded cargoes require ~ 1 - 10MeV photons for penetration. In a proof-of-concept system under development at MIT, the interrogating monochromatic photon beam is produced via a 11B(d , nγ) 12C reaction. To achieve this, a boron target is used along with the 3 MeV d+ RFQ accelerator at MIT-Bates. The reactions results in the emission of very narrow 4.4 MeV and 15.1 MeV gammas lines. The photons, after traversing the cargo, are detected by an array of NaI(Tl) detectors. A spectral analysis of the transmitted gammas allows to independently determine the areal density and the atomic number (Z) of the cargo. The proposed approach could revolutionize cargo inspection, which, in its current fielded form has to rely on simple but high dose bremsstrahlung sources. Use of monochromatic sources would significantly reduce the necessary dose and allow for better determination of the cargo's atomic number. The general methodology will be described and the preliminary results from the proof-of-concept system will be presented and discussed. Supported by NSF/DNDO Collaborative Research ARI-LA Award ECCS-1348328.

  4. Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography (DRCT) Product Improvement Plan (PIP)

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Roney; Bob Pink; Karen Wendt; Robert Seifert; Mike Smith

    2010-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing and deploying x-ray inspection systems for chemical weapons containers for the past 12 years under the direction of the Project Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel (PMNSCM). In FY-10 funding was provided to advance the capabilities of these systems through the DRCT (Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography) Product Improvement Plan (PIP), funded by the PMNSCM. The DRCT PIP identified three research tasks; end user study, detector evaluation and DRCT/PINS integration. Work commenced in February, 2010. Due to the late start and the schedule for field inspection of munitions at various sites, it was not possible to spend sufficient field time with operators to develop a complete end user study. We were able to interact with several operators, principally Mr. Mike Rowan who provided substantial useful input through several discussions and development of a set of field notes from the Pueblo, CO field mission. We will be pursuing ongoing interactions with field personnel as opportunities arise in FY-11.

  5. Image quality evaluation of a desktop computed radiography system.

    PubMed

    Fetterly, K A; Hangiandreou, N J

    2000-12-01

    The modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the Lumisys ACR-2000 desktop computed radiography (CR) reader were measured and compared to equivalent measurements acquired from a Fuji AC-3 CR system. The one-dimensional (1D) MTF was measured from an image of a sharp edge and the 1D NPS was derived from a 2D NPS measured from a uniform field exposure. The energy dependent ideal input signal to noise ratio of the incident x-ray beams was estimated using published x-ray spectra and attenuation coefficients. Measurements were acquired using Agfa, Fuji, and Kodak storage phosphor plates and it was concluded that use of the Fuji plates resulted in the highest system DQE for the ACR-2000. The DQE was measured using exposures of 0.10, 1.0, and 10.0 mR from 70 and 120 kVp x-ray beams filtered with aluminum. The DQE of the Lumisys ACR-2000 was lower than that of the Fuji AC-3.

  6. Photon counting detector for the personal radiography inspection system "SIBSCAN"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babichev, E. A.; Baru, S. E.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Leonov, V. V.; Oleynikov, V. P.; Porosev, V. V.; Savinov, G. A.

    2017-02-01

    X-ray detectors operating in the energy integrating mode are successfully used in many different applications. Nevertheless the direct photon counting detectors, having the superior parameters in comparison with the integrating ones, are rarely used yet. One of the reasons for this is the low value of the electrical signal generated by a detected photon. Silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) based scintillation counters have a high detection efficiency, high electronic gain and compact dimensions. This makes them a very attractive candidate to replace routinely used detectors in many fields. More than 10 years ago the digital scanning radiography system based on multistrip ionization chamber (MIC) was suggested at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. The detector demonstrates excellent radiation resistance and parameter stability after 5 year operations and an imaging of up to 1000 persons per day. Currently, the installations operate at several Russian airports and at subway stations in some cities. At the present time we design a new detector operating in the photon counting mode, having superior parameters than the gas one, based on scintillator - SiPM assemblies. This detector has close to zero noise, higher quantum efficiency and a count rate capability of more than 5 MHz per channel (20% losses), which leads to better image quality and improved detection capability. The suggested detector technology could be expanded to medical applications.

  7. Evaluation of entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porto, L.; Lunelli, N.; Paschuk, S.; Oliveira, A.; Ferreira, J. L.; Schelin, H.; Miguel, C.; Denyak, V.; Kmiecik, C.; Tilly, J.; Khoury, H.

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the entrance surface air kerma in pediatric chest radiography. An evaluation of 301 radiographical examinations in anterior-posterior (AP) and posterior-anterior (PA) (166 examinations) and lateral (LAT) (135 examinations) projections was performed. The analyses were performed on patients grouped by age; the groups included ages 0-1 y, 1-5 y, 5-10 y, and 10-15 y. The entrance surface air kerma was determined with DoseCal software (Radiological Protection Center of Saint George's Hospital, London) and thermoluminescent dosimeters. Two different exposure techniques were compared. The doses received by patients who had undergone LAT examinations were 40% higher, on average, those in AP/PA examinations because of the difference in tube voltage. A large high-dose “tail” was observed for children up to 5 y old. An increase in tube potential and corresponding decrease in current lead to a significant dose reduction. The difference between the average dose values for different age ranges was not practically observed, implying that the exposure techniques are still not optimal. Exposure doses received using the higher tube voltage and lower current-time product correspond to the international diagnostic reference levels.

  8. Micro-radiography of biological samples with medical contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammer, J.; Weyda, F.; Benes, J.; Sopko, V.; Gelbic, I.

    2013-12-01

    Micro-radiography is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to study the internal structures of objects. This fast and easy imaging tool is based on differential X-ray attenuation by various tissues and structures within biological samples. The experimental setup described is based on the semiconductor pixel X-ray detector Medipix2 and X-ray micro-focus tube. Our micro-radiographic system has been recently used not only for the examination of internal structures of various arthropods and other biological objects but also for tracing some processes in selected model species (we used living larvae of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus). Low concentrations of iodine, lanthanum or gold particles were used as a tracer (contrast agent). Such contrast agents increase the absorption of X-rays and allow a better visibility of internal structures of model organisms (especially the various cavities, pores, etc.). In addition, the movement of tracers in selected timing experiments demonstrates some physiological functions of digestive and excretory system.

  9. Linear inductive voltage adders (IVA) for advanced hydrodynamic radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Boyes, J.D.; Johnson, D.L.

    1998-09-01

    The electron beam which drifts through the multiple cavities of conventional induction linacs (LIA) is replaced in an IVA by a cylindrical metal conductor which extends along the entire length of the device and effectuates the addition of the accelerator cavity voltages. In the approach to radiography, the linear inductive voltage adder drives a magnetically immersed electron diode with a millimeter diameter cathode electrode and a planar anode/bremsstrahlung converter. Both anode and cathode electrodes are immersed in a strong (15--50 T) solenoidal magnetic field. The electron beam cross section is approximately of the same size as the cathode needle and generates a similar size, very intense x-ray beam when it strikes the anode converter. An IVA driven diode can produce electron beams of equal size and energy as a LIA but with much higher currents (40--50 kA versus 4--5 kA), simpler hardware and thus lower cost. The authors present here first experimental validations of the technology utilizing HERMES 3 and SABRE IVA accelerators. The electron beam voltage and current were respectively of the order of 10 MV and 40 kA. X-ray doses of up to 1 kR {at} 1 m and spot sizes as small as 1.7 mm (at 200 R doses) were measured.

  10. Scale analysis using X-ray microfluorescence and computed radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeias, J. P.; de Oliveira, D. F.; dos Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.

    2014-02-01

    Scale deposits are the most common and most troublesome damage problems in the oil field and can occur in both production and injection wells. They occur because the minerals in produced water exceed their saturation limit as temperatures and pressures change. Scale can vary in appearance from hard crystalline material to soft, friable material and the deposits can contain other minerals and impurities such as paraffin, salt and iron. In severe conditions, scale creates a significant restriction, or even a plug, in the production tubing. This study was conducted to qualify the elements present in scale samples and quantify the thickness of the scale layer using synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence (SRμXRF) and computed radiography (CR) techniques. The SRμXRF results showed that the elements found in the scale samples were strontium, barium, calcium, chromium, sulfur and iron. The CR analysis showed that the thickness of the scale layer was identified and quantified with accuracy. These results can help in the decision making about removing the deposited scale.

  11. Performance characterization of computed radiography based mammography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Abhinav; Desai, Nikunj; Valentino, Daniel J.

    2010-04-01

    Computed Radiography (CR) is a cost-effective technology for digital mammography. In order to optimize the quality of images obtained using CR Mammography, we characterized the effect on image quality of the electrooptical components of the CR imaging chain. The metrics used to assess the image quality included the Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR), Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Noise Power Spectrum (NPS), Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) and Contrast Detail Response Phantom (CDMAM 3.4 Artinis Medical Systems). An 18×24 cm high-resolution granular phosphor imaging plate (AGFA MM3.0) was used to acquire the images. Contrast detail was measured using a GUI developed for the CDMAM phantom that was scored by independent observers. The range of theoretically acceptable values measured for the CR laser was (5-36) mW and voltage range for PMT's was (4-8) V. The light detection amplifier was investigated, and the optimal Laser Power and PMT gain used for scanning was measured. The tools that we used (CNR, MTF, NPS, DQE and Contrast-detail phantom) provided an effective means of selecting optimal values for the electro-optical components of the system. The procedure enabled us to obtain good quality CR mammograms that have less noise and improved contrast.

  12. Reduction of absorbed doses in radiography of the facial skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Julin, P.; Kraepelien, T.

    1984-11-01

    Radiation absorbed doses from radiography of the paranasal sinuses and the facial skeleton were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) on a phantom head using high-sensitivity screens in an Orbix stand. The entrance doses to the skin of the head ranged from 0.31 to 2.9 mGy per exposure. The absorbed dose from a full series of sinus exposures averaged 0.33 mGy for the oral mucous membrane, 0.33 mGy for the maxillary sinus mucous membrane, 0.11 mGy for the parotid gland, 0.15 mGy for the submandibular gland, 0.61 mGy for the eye lens, and 0.75 mGy for the thyroid gland region. A leaded soft collar adapted to the thyroid region reduced the thyroid doses by more than one order of magnitude, but also reduced the image field. The mean energy imparted from a full series of paranasal sinus projections was 4.8 mJ and from a total series of the facial skeleton, 7.9 mJ.

  13. Micro-pattern gas detectors for digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunbas, Mustafa Cem

    The gas proportional counter technology has seen vast changes in the last decade and has lead to the introduction of micro-pattern gas detectors that offer much more improved x-ray counting rate capability and better position resolution than traditional wire chambers. In this study, we investigated the Gas Electron Multiplier, a member of micro-pattern gas detector generation, as an energy sensitive, single photon-counting x-ray detector for digital radiography. We built a high pressure detector with two cascaded Gas Electron Multipliers to evaluate its performance characteristics in Neon, Argon, Krypton and Xenon mixtures. The determination of detector gain as a function of pressure and the filling gas formed the major part of this evaluation. In the second part of the study, we employed position sensitive electronics to demonstrate the imaging capability of the detector. For the first time, we acquired 2D images and examined the spatial resolution of the detector for Krypton and Xenon mixtures as a function of gas pressure using double and quadruple GEM configurations up to 7 atmospheres gas pressure. Besides the experimental studies, we constructed a theoretical model based on the Cascaded Linear Systems approach to study the imaging performance of single photon counting gas detectors. In the model, we gave the emphasis to the intrinsic properties of the gas absorber; therefore we considered the contribution of quantum efficiency, primary electron range and reabsorption of K fluorescence photons on detector MTF and DQE.

  14. Quantitative shadowgraphy and proton radiography for large intensity modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Muhammad Firmansyah; Ceurvorst, Luke; Ratan, Naren; Sadler, James; Chen, Nicholas; Sävert, Alexander; Trines, Raoul; Bingham, Robert; Burrows, Philip N.; Kaluza, Malte C.; Norreys, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Shadowgraphy is a technique widely used to diagnose objects or systems in various fields in physics and engineering. In shadowgraphy, an optical beam is deflected by the object and then the intensity modulation is captured on a screen placed some distance away. However, retrieving quantitative information from the shadowgrams themselves is a challenging task because of the nonlinear nature of the process. Here, we present a method to retrieve quantitative information from shadowgrams, based on computational geometry. This process can also be applied to proton radiography for electric and magnetic field diagnosis in high-energy-density plasmas and has been benchmarked using a toroidal magnetic field as the object, among others. It is shown that the method can accurately retrieve quantitative parameters with error bars less than 10%, even when caustics are present. The method is also shown to be robust enough to process real experimental results with simple pre- and postprocessing techniques. This adds a powerful tool for research in various fields in engineering and physics for both techniques.

  15. Modeling and measurement of root canal using stereo digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Mostafa; Krisnamurthy, Satthya; Brown, Cecil

    2000-04-01

    Determining root canal length is a crucial step in success of root canal treatment. Root canal length is commonly estimated based on pre-operation intraoral radiography. 2D depiction of a 3D object is the primary source of error in this approach. Techniques based on impedance measurement are more accurate than radiographic approaches, but do not offer a method for depicting the shape of canal. In this study, we investigated a stererotactic approach for modeling and measurement of root canal of human dentition. A weakly perspective model approximated the projectional geometry. A series of computer-simulated objects was used to test accuracy of this model as the first step. The, to assess the clinical viability of such an approach, endodontic files inserted in the root canal phantoms were fixed on an adjustable platform between a radiographic cone and an image receptor. Parameters of projection matrix were computed based on the relative positions of image receptors, focal spot, and test objects. Rotating the specimen platform from 0 to 980 degrees at 5-degree intervals set relative angulations for stereo images. Root canal is defined as the intersection of two surfaces defined by each projection. Computation of error for length measurement indicates that for angulations greater than 40 degrees the error is within clinically acceptable ranges.

  16. Patient exposure trends in medical and dental radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.W.; Goetz, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Patient exposure to medical and dental x rays has long been of interest to the radiological health community. With the cooperation of state and local agencies and professional groups, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health has conducted three major surveys of patient exposure to x rays. The latest of these surveys, the Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT), collected x-ray exposure data for each year starting in 1972. Two earlier studies, the 1964 and 1970 X-ray Exposure Studies collected x-ray data during the years these surveys were conducted. Exposure trends presented are based on results of all three studies. Major improvements in beam limitation are seen for medical and dental radiography. Since 1964, when the first nationwide survey was conducted, dental exposures have decreased about 75%. Decreases of up to one-third occurred in exposures for medical examinations. The current exposure data presented continue to show a wide variation in medical exposures. Also presented are organ doses for four organs (ovaries, testes, thyroid and active bone marrow).

  17. Location of mental foramen using digital panoramic Radiography

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Ajmal; Nataraj, Kannan; Mathew, Vinod B.; Varma, Beena; Mohamed, Shamil; Valappila, Nidhin J.; Meena, Aravind S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comparative evaluation of the location of mental foramen in different age groups. Determine the variation in position of mental foramen with gender using digital panoramic radiography. Materials and Methods: Digital panoramic radiographs of 250 patients were reviewed. The study population was divided into five age groups with 50 patients each. Radiographic position of mental foramen was evaluated in each radiograph based on three parameters. Measurements were taken in each radiograph using Planmeca Dimaxis pro version 4.4.0 (Helsinki, Finland). The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis using paired Student's t-test. Results: The mean distance of position of mental foramen showed a significant variation within the five age groups. In the first group, female patients showed an increase in mean distance of mental foramen position in relation to three parameters. From the second to fifth groups, male patient showed an increase in the mean distance of mental foramen position. The first and fifth group showed a reduced mean distance of mental foramen position when compared to other age groups. Conclusion: This study concluded that the position of mental foramen varies with age. There was a gender-related variation in position of mental foramen within the population too. PMID:27555723

  18. Long line positioning in neonates: does computed radiography improve visibility?

    PubMed Central

    Evans, A; Natarajan, J; Davies, C

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the use of soft copy reporting of computed radiography (CR) images in determining intravenous long line tip position in neonates and compare visibility rates with hard copy printed images. Method: A retrospective study of all long lines inserted on the neonatal unit over a period of one year was performed. Forty five lines were inserted in 30 neonates over this time. Assessment of the CR images was made by three independent observers by reviewing the films on the viewing console and as hard copy printed films. Results: Accurate identification of the line tip could be made in 66.7% of cases (κ = 0.9) using hard copy images and 95.6% cases (κ = 1.0) using soft copy reporting (significant difference: p = 0.002). The difference in percentage visibility using the two techniques was 28.9% (95% confidence interval 10.2% to 36.7%). Conclusion: The use of soft copy review of CR image improves the visibility of the line tip position compared with hard copy films and reduces the need for repeat radiographs with/without intravenous contrast. PMID:14711855

  19. Optimization of the radiological protection of patients undergoing digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menglong; Chu, Cunkun

    2012-02-01

    Because of a much higher dynamic range of flat panel detectors, patient dose can vary without change of image quality being perceived by radiologists. This condition makes optimization (OT) of radiation protection undergoing digital radiography (DR) more complex, while a chance to reduced patient dose also exists. In this study, we evaluated the difference of patient radiation and image rejection before and after OT to identify if it is necessary to carry out an OT procedure in a routine task with DR. The study consisted of a measurement of the dose area product (DAP) and entrance surface dose (ESD) received by a reference group of patients for eight common radiographic procedures using the DR system before and after OT. Meanwhile image rejection data during two 2-month periods were collected and sorted according to reason. For every radiographic procedure, t tests showed significant difference in average ESD and DAP before and after OT (p < 0.005). The ESDs from most examinations before OT were three times higher than that after OT. For DAPs, the difference is more significant. Image rejection rate after OT is significantly lower than that before OT (χ (2) = 36.5, p < 0.005). The substantial reductions of dose after OT resulted from appropriate mAs and exposure field. For DR patient dose, less than recommended diagnostic reference level can meet quality criteria and clinic diagnosis.

  20. Instantaneous Respiratory Estimation from Thoracic Impedance by Empirical Mode Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fu-Tai; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Wang, Chun-Li; Jian, Hung-Ming; Lin, Sheng-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Impedance plethysmography provides a way to measure respiratory activity by sensing the change of thoracic impedance caused by inspiration and expiration. This measurement imposes little pressure on the body and uses the human body as the sensor, thereby reducing the need for adjustments as body position changes and making it suitable for long-term or ambulatory monitoring. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) can decompose a signal into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) that disclose nonstationary components as well as stationary components and, similarly, capture respiratory episodes from thoracic impedance. However, upper-body movements usually produce motion artifacts that are not easily removed by digital filtering. Moreover, large motion artifacts disable the EMD to decompose respiratory components. In this paper, motion artifacts are detected and replaced by the data mirrored from the prior and the posterior before EMD processing. A novel intrinsic respiratory reconstruction index that considers both global and local properties of IMFs is proposed to define respiration-related IMFs for respiration reconstruction and instantaneous respiratory estimation. Based on the experiments performing a series of static and dynamic physical activates, our results showed the proposed method had higher cross correlations between respiratory frequencies estimated from thoracic impedance and those from oronasal airflow based on small window size compared to the Fourier transform-based method. PMID:26198231

  1. Effect of Massage on Pain Management for Thoracic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dion, Liza; Rodgers, Nancy; Cutshall, Susanne M.; Cordes, Mary Ellen; Bauer, Brent; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cha, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Integrative therapies such as massage have gained support as interventions that improve the overall patient experience during hospitalization. Thoracic surgery patients undergo long procedures and commonly have postoperative back, neck, and shoulder pain. Purpose: Given the promising effects of massage therapy for alleviation of pain, we studied the effectiveness and feasibility of massage therapy delivered in the postoperative thoracic surgery setting. Methods: Patients who received massage in the postoperative setting had pain scores evaluated pre and post massage on a rating scale of 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible pain). Results: In total, 160 patients completed the pilot study and received massage therapy that was individualized. Patients receiving massage therapy had significantly decreased pain scores after massage (p ≤ .001), and patients’ comments were very favorable. Patients and staff were highly satisfied with having massage therapy available, and no major barriers to implementing massage therapy were identified. Conclusions: Massage therapy may be an important additional pain management component of the healing experience for patients after thoracic surgery. PMID:21847428

  2. Penetrating thoracic injuries - treatment of two patients after suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Greberski, Krzysztof; Bugajski, Paweł; Rzymski, Stanisław; Jarząbek, Radosław; Olczak, Bogumił; Kalawski, Ryszard

    2015-03-01

    Thoracic injuries are usually caused by penetrating or blunt trauma. The primary method of treatment is surgery. This study describes two cases of male patients with stab wounds of the chest resulting from suicide attempts. The first case involved a 29-year-old patient transported and admitted to the hospital with a knife still in his chest; its blade extended from the jugular notch to the 5(th) thoracic vertebra but did not damage any important structures. The applied treatment, limited to evacuating the knife, resulted in a satisfactory outcome, and the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU) in good condition. The second patient reached the hospital on his own. On admission, he did not reveal the real cause of the wound; however, in view of his deteriorating condition, he admitted that the knife penetrated deeply into the mediastinum. In this case, sternotomy was necessary to stop the bleeding of the pulmonary trunk and internal thoracic artery. After completion of treatment, the patient was discharged in good condition. The described management of life-threatening situations conducted by a multidisciplinary team of consultants enabled the choice of optimal treatment methods and resulted in successful outcomes.

  3. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-Chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S; Reynolds, Corey L; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K; Kwartler, Callie S; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A; Santos-Cortez, Regie L; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M; Majesky, Mark W; Swindell, Eric C; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M

    2016-03-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3-/- mice with p53-/- mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease.

  4. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S.; Reynolds, Corey L.; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Kwartler, Callie S.; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M.; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M.; Majesky, Mark W.; Swindell, Eric C.; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3–/– mice with p53–/– mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease. PMID:26854927

  5. CT and MR imaging of the thoracic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Splendiani, Alessandra; Barile, Antonio; Squillaci, Ettore; Di Cesare, Annamaria; Brunese, Luca; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract At present time, both CT and MRI are valuable techniques in the study of the thoracic aorta. Nowadays, CT represents the most widely employed technique for the study of the thoracic aorta. The new generation CTs show sensitivities up to 100% and specificities of 98-99%. Sixteen and wider row detectors provide isotropic pixels, mandatory for the ineludible longitudinal reconstruction. The main limits are related to the X-ray dose expoure and the use of iodinated contrast media. MRI has great potential in the study of the thoracic aorta. Nevertheless, if compared to CT, acquisition times remain longer and movement artifact susceptibility higher. The main MRI disadvantages are claustrophobia, presence of ferromagnetic implants, pacemakers, longer acquisition times with respect to CT, inability to use contrast media in cases of renal insufficiency, lower spatial resolution and less availability than CT. CT is preferred in the acute aortic disease. Nevertheless, since it requires iodinated contrast media and X-ray exposure, it may be adequately replaced by MRI in the follow up of aortic diseases. The main limitation of MRI, however, is related to the scarce visibility of stents and calcifications. PMID:28352783

  6. Instantaneous Respiratory Estimation from Thoracic Impedance by Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fu-Tai; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Wang, Chun-Li; Jian, Hung-Ming; Lin, Sheng-Hsiung

    2015-07-07

    Impedance plethysmography provides a way to measure respiratory activity by sensing the change of thoracic impedance caused by inspiration and expiration. This measurement imposes little pressure on the body and uses the human body as the sensor, thereby reducing the need for adjustments as body position changes and making it suitable for long-term or ambulatory monitoring. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) can decompose a signal into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) that disclose nonstationary components as well as stationary components and, similarly, capture respiratory episodes from thoracic impedance. However, upper-body movements usually produce motion artifacts that are not easily removed by digital filtering. Moreover, large motion artifacts disable the EMD to decompose respiratory components. In this paper, motion artifacts are detected and replaced by the data mirrored from the prior and the posterior before EMD processing. A novel intrinsic respiratory reconstruction index that considers both global and local properties of IMFs is proposed to define respiration-related IMFs for respiration reconstruction and instantaneous respiratory estimation. Based on the experiments performing a series of static and dynamic physical activates, our results showed the proposed method had higher cross correlations between respiratory frequencies estimated from thoracic impedance and those from oronasal airflow based on small window size compared to the Fourier transform-based method.

  7. Endovascular Repair of Contained Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Robert; Loosemore, Tom; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2002-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of stent-grafts for the treatment of acute rupture of the thoracic aorta. Methods: Four patients with acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta were treated by insertion of stent-grafts. The underlying aortic lesions were aneurysm, acute aortic ulcer, acute type B dissection and giant cell aortitis. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia in three patients and local anesthesia in one patient. Results: All stent-grafts were successfully deployed. All patients survived the procedure and are now alive and well at follow-up (mean 6.3 months, range 44 days-16 months). One patient underwent a second stent procedure 10 days after the first procedure because of a proximal endoleak. All hemothoraces have resolved. There were no complications. Conclusion:Treatment of acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta by the insertion of stent-grafts is feasible. The technical success rates,complication rates and patient survival compare favorably with emergency surgery.

  8. A review of enhanced recovery for thoracic anaesthesia and surgery.

    PubMed

    Jones, N L; Edmonds, L; Ghosh, S; Klein, A A

    2013-02-01

    During the past decade, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of thoracic surgical procedures carried out in the UK. The current financial climate dictates that more efficient use of resources is necessary to meet escalating demands on healthcare. One potential means to achieve this is through the introduction of enhanced recovery protocols, designed to produce productivity savings by driving reduction in length of stay. These have been promoted by government bodies in a number of surgical specialties, including colorectal, gynaecological and orthopaedic surgery. This review focuses on aspects of peri-operative care that might be incorporated into such a programme for thoracic anaesthesia, for which an enhanced recovery programme has not yet been introduced in the UK, and a review of the literature specific to this area of practice has not been published before. We performed a comprehensive search for published work relating to the peri-operative management and optimisation of patients undergoing thoracic surgery, and divided these into appropriate areas of practice. We have reviewed the specific interventions that may be included in an enhanced recovery programme, including: pre-optimisation; minimising fasting time; thrombo-embolic prophylaxis; choice of anaesthetic and analgesic technique and surgical approach; postoperative rehabilitation; and chest drain management. Using the currently available evidence, the design and implementation of an enhanced recovery programme based on this review in selected patients as a package of care may reduce morbidity and length of hospital stay, thus maximising utilisation of available resources.

  9. Combination Treatment of Perioperative Rehabilitation and Psychoeducation Undergoing Thoracic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takayuki; Nagaya, Motoki; Ito, Satoru; Nakajima, Hiroki; Hattori, Keiko; Kadono, Izumi; Yokoi, Kohei; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative pulmonary complications are a risk associated with thoracic surgery. However, there have been few reports on cases at high risk of postoperative complications. Cancer patients often have negative automatic thoughts about illness, and these negative automatic thoughts are associated with reduced health behavior and physical activity. This case series demonstrates the successful combination treatment of perioperative rehabilitation and psychoeducation for negative automatic thoughts in two cancer patients who underwent thoracic surgery. One patient underwent pneumonectomy with laryngeal recurrent nerve paralysis; the other patient, who had a history of recurrent hepatic encephalopathy and dialysis, underwent S6 segmentectomy. Both patients had negative automatic thoughts about cancer-related stress and postoperative pain. The physical therapists conducted a perioperative rehabilitation program in which the patients were educated to replace their maladaptive thoughts with more adaptive thoughts. After rehabilitation, the patients had improved adaptive thoughts, increased physical activity, and favorable recovery without pulmonary complications. This indicates that the combination treatment of perioperative rehabilitation and psychoeducation was useful in two thoracic cancer surgery patients. The psychoeducational approach should be expanded to perioperative rehabilitation of patients with cancer. PMID:28280511

  10. Giant Thoracic Schwannoma in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Derron A; Bell, Todd M; Benton, Carrie; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Stevens, Edward L

    2010-01-01

    A 15-y-old male rhesus macaque with a 3-d history of labored breathing, was culled from a nonhuman primate research colony after thoracic radiographs and exploratory surgery revealed a 10-cm, well-circumscribed space-occupying mass in the posterior thoracic cavity. The multilobulated cystic and necrotic neoplasm was composed of interlacing streams and fascicles of neoplastic spindle cells arranged in Antoni A, and less commonly, Antoni B patterns. Verocay bodies were present also. The neoplasm was encapsulated mostly, and histomorphologic features were benign. Immunohistochemistry indicated that neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin, S100, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and nerve growth factor receptor. Reticulin histochemical staining and immunohistochemical stains for collagen IV and laminin showed a prominent basal lamina surrounding the neoplastic cells. The histologic features and results of the immunohistochemical stains confirmed peripheral nerve origin and were consistent with schwannoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of thoracic schwannoma in a rhesus macaque and the second reported case of schwannoma in a nonhuman primate. PMID:21205456

  11. Pulmonary Complications following Thoracic Spinal Surgery: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gabel, Brandon C.; Schnell, Eric C.; Dettori, Joseph R.; Jeyamohan, Shiveindra; Oskouian, Rod

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Objective To determine the frequency of pulmonary effusion, pneumothorax, and hemothorax in adult patients undergoing thoracic corpectomy or osteotomy for any condition and to determine if these frequencies vary by surgical approach (i.e., anterior, posterior, or lateral). Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched through September 21, 2015, to identify studies specifically evaluating the frequency of pulmonary effusion, pneumothorax, and hemothorax in patients undergoing thoracic spine surgery. Results Fourteen studies, 13 retrospective and 1 prospective, met inclusion criteria. The frequency across studies of pulmonary effusion ranged from 0 to 77%; for hemothorax, 0 to 77%; and for pneumothorax, 0 to 50%. There was no clear pattern of pulmonary complications with respect to surgical approach. Conclusions There is insufficient data to determine the risk of pulmonary complications following anterior, posterior, or lateral approaches to the thoracic spine. Methods for assessing pulmonary complications were not well reported, and data is sparse. PMID:27099821

  12. Thoracic wall reconstruction using ultrasound images to model/bend the thoracic prosthesis for correction of pectus excavatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, João Gomes; Moreira, Antonio H. J.; Rodrigues, Pedro L.; Fonseca, Jaime C.; Pinho, A. C. M.; Correia-Pinto, Jorge; Rodrigues, Nuno F.; Vilaça, João L.

    2012-03-01

    Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital deformity of the anterior thoracic wall. The surgical correction of such deformity, using Nuss procedure, consists in the placement of a personalized convex prosthesis into sub-sternal position to correct the deformity. The aim of this work is the CT-scan substitution by ultrasound imaging for the pre-operative diagnosis and pre-modeling of the prosthesis, in order to avoid patient radiation exposure. To accomplish this, ultrasound images are acquired along an axial plane, followed by a rigid registration method to obtain the spatial transformation between subsequent images. These images are overlapped to reconstruct an axial plane equivalent to a CT-slice. A phantom was used to conduct preliminary experiments and the achieved results were compared with the corresponding CT-data, showing that the proposed methodology can be capable to create a valid approximation of the anterior thoracic wall, which can be used to model/bend the prosthesis.

  13. Thoracic ROM measurement system with visual bio-feedback: system design and biofeedback evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ando, Takeshi; Kawamura, Kazuya; Fujitani, Junko; Koike, Tomokazu; Fujimoto, Masashi; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2011-01-01

    Patients with diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) need to improve their thorax mobility. Thoracic ROM is one of the simplest and most useful indexes to evaluate the respiratory function. In this paper, we have proposed the prototype of a simple thoracic ROM measurement system with real-time visual bio-feedback in the chest expansion test. In this system, the thoracic ROM is measured using a wire-type linear encoder whose wire is wrapped around the thorax. In this paper, firstly, the repeatability and reliability of measured thoracic ROM was confirmed as a first report of the developed prototype. Secondly, we analyzed the effect of the bio-feedback system on the respiratory function. The result of the experiment showed that it was easier to maintain a large and stable thoracic ROM during deep breathing by using the real-time visual biofeedback system of the thoracic ROM.

  14. Post-operative care to promote recovery for thoracic surgical patients: a nursing perspective

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The change in patient population leads to an inevitable transformation among the healthcare system. Over the past decades, thoracic surgical technique has been evolving from conventional open thoracotomy to minimally invasive video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Thoracic nursing team of Prince of Wales Hospital (PWH) grows together with the evolution and aims at providing holistic and quality care to patients require thoracic operation. In order to enhance patient post-operative recovery, few strategies have been implemented including early mobilization, staff training and clinical audit. On the other hand, nursing case management approach was proved to be a cost-effective method in managing patients. It is also suitable for thoracic patients, especially for those who are suffering from thoracic neoplasm. It is believed that, the introduction of nursing case management approach would provide a better holistic care to the thoracic patients. PMID:26941973

  15. Mycobacterium fortuitum thoracic empyema: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Tomii, Keisuke

    2015-10-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is a rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterium. This microorganism is an uncommon etiological agent of lung lesions; among lung lesions caused by M. fortuitum, thoracic empyema is particularly rare. A 61-year-old man who had been treated for chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure with noninvasive ventilation was admitted because of breathing difficulty and was found to have M. fortuitum thoracic empyema. He improved after the administration of amikacin, imipenem/cilastatin, and clarithromycin following sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and clarithromycin. This is the first report of M. fortuitum thoracic empyema in a patient without human immunodeficiency virus infection. The thoracic empyema may have developed via a pulmonary fistula in this case. This case highlights the fact that we must be aware of the possibility of M. fortuitum thoracic empyema, especially in patients with M. fortuitum lung infection and treatment with noninvasive ventilation. Multidrug therapy may be effective and important to the resolution of M. fortuitum thoracic empyema.

  16. Early removal of urinary catheters in patients with thoracic epidural catheters.

    PubMed

    Tripepi-Bova, Kathleen A; Sun, Zhiyuan; Mason, David; Albert, Nancy M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether early removal of urinary catheters in patients with thoracic epidurals resulted in urinary retention (>500 mL by bladder scanner). Patients were given up to 8 hours to void before further intervention. Of 61 patients, only 4 (6.6%) required urinary catheter reinsertion due to urinary retention. Early removal of urinary catheters after thoracic surgery in patients with thoracic epidurals was safe, with minimal urinary retention.

  17. Thoracic Aortic Stent-Graft Placement for Safe Removal of a Malpositioned Pedicle Screw

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hongtao; Shin, Ji Hoon Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Cho, Young Jun; Ko, Gi-Young; Yoon, Hyun-Ki

    2010-10-15

    We describe a case of percutaneous placement of a thoracic aortic stent-graft for safe removal of a malpositioned pedicle screw in a 52-year-old man. The patient had undergone posterior thoracic spinal instrumentation for pyogenic spondylitis and spinal deformity 8 months previously. Follow-up CT images showed a malpositioned pedicle screw which was abutting the thoracic aorta at the T5 level. After percutaneous stent-graft placement, the malpositioned pedicle screw was safely and successfully removed.

  18. Bochdalek hernia presenting with initial local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity in a leukemic child.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhen; Min, Xiangde; Wang, Liang

    2017-03-01

    Local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity is a rare initial presentation of Bochdalek hernia. We report a case of Bochdalek hernia in a child with leukemia that demonstrated initial local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity on computed tomography scan and progressed to an obvious diaphragmatic hernia on subsequent follow-up. We suggest that initial local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity on computed tomography scan may indicate a potential diaphragmatic hernia.

  19. Variation in emergency department use of cervical spine radiography for alert, stable trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Stiell, I G; Wells, G A; Vandemheen, K; Laupacis, A; Brison, R; Eisenhauer, M A; Greenberg, G H; MacPhail, I; McKnight, R D; Reardon, M; Verbeek, R; Worthington, J; Lesiuk, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To, assess the emergency department use of cervical spine radiography for alert, stable adult trauma patients in terms of utilization, yield for injury and variation in practices among hospitals and physicians. DESIGN: Retrospective survey of health records. SETTING: Emergency departments of 6 teaching and 2 community hospitals in Ontario and British Columbia. PATIENTS: Consecutive alert, stable adult trauma patients seen with potential cervical spine injury between July 1, 1994, and June 30, 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total number of eligible patients, referral for cervical spine radiography (overall, by hospital and by physician), presence of cervical spine injury, patient characteristics and hospitals associated with use of radiography. RESULTS: Of 6855 eligible patients, cervical spine radiography was ordered for 3979 (58.0%). Only 60 (0.9%) patients were found to have an acute cervical spine injury (fracture, dislocation or ligamentous instability); 98.5% of the radiographic films were negative for any significant abnormality. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients were similar across the 8 hospitals, and no cervical spine injuries were missed. Significant variation was found among the 8 hospitals in the rate of ordering radiography (p < 0.0001), from a low of 37.0% to a high of 72.5%. After possible differences in case severity and patient characteristics at each hospital were controlled for, logistic regression analysis revealed that 6 of the hospitals were significantly associated with the use of radiography. At 7 hospitals, there was significant variation in the rate of ordering radiography among the attending emergency physicians (p < 0.05), from a low of 15.6% to a high of 91.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Despite considerable variation among institutions and individual physicians in the ordering of cervical spine radiography for alert, stable trauma patients with similar characteristics, no cervical spine injuries were missed. The

  20. Automatic readout for nuclear emulsions in muon radiography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, A.; Bozza, C.; Consiglio, L.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Kose, U.; Lauria, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Miyamoto, S.; Montesi, C.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Russo, A.; Sirignano, C.; Stellacci, S. M.; Strolin, P.; Tioukov, V.

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear emulsions are an effective choice in many scenarios of volcano radiography by cosmic-ray muons. They are cheap and emulsion-based detectors require no on-site power supply. Nuclear emulsion films provide sub-micrometric tracking precision and intrinsic angular accuracy better than 1 mrad. Imaging the inner structure of a volcano requires that the cosmic-ray absorption map be measured on wide angular range. High-absorption directions can be probed by allowing for large statistics, which implies a large overall flux, i.e. wide surface for the detector. A total area of the order of a few m2 is nowadays typical, thanks to the automatic readout tools originally developed for high-energy physics experiments such as CHORUS, PEANUT, OPERA. The European Scanning System is now being used to read out nuclear emulsion films exposed to cosmic rays on the side of volcanoes. The structure of the system is described in detail with respect to both hardware and software. Its present scanning speed of 20 cm2/h/side/microscope is suitable to fulfil the needs of the current exposures of nuclear emulsion films for muon radiograph, but it is worth to notice that applications in volcano imaging are among the driving forces pushing to increase the performances of the system. Preliminary results for the Unzen volcano of a joint effort by research groups in Italy and Japan show that the current system is already able to provide signal/background ratio in the range 100÷10000:1, depending on the quality cuts set in the off-line data analysis. The size of the smallest detectable structures in that experimental setup is constrained by the available statistics in the region of highest absorption to about 50 mrad, or 22 m under the top of the mountain. Another exposure is currently taking data at the Stromboli volcano. Readout of the exposed films is expected to begin in March 2012, and preliminary results will be available soon after. An effort by several universities and INFN has

  1. Inspection of Alpine glaciers with cosmic-ray muon radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Ariga, Akitaka; Ariga, Tomoko; Ereditato, Antonio; Lechmann, Alessandro; Mair, David; Scampoli, Paola; Schlunegger, Fritz; Vladymyrov, Mykhailo

    2016-04-01

    Radiography using cosmic-ray muons represents a challenging method for probing the bedrock topography beneath Alpine glaciers. We present the current status of our feasibility study at Eiger glacier, situated on the western flank of the Eiger in the Jungfrau region, Central Swiss Alps. The muon radiography is a technique that has been recently developed to investigate the internal density profiles of geoscientific targets. It is based on the measurement of the absorption of the cosmic-ray muons inside a material. Because the energy spectrum of cosmic-ray muons and the energy dependence of muon range have been studied well during the past years, the attenuation of the muon flux can be used to derive the column density, i.e. the density integrated along the muon trajectories, of geoscientific targets. This technique has recently been applied for non-invasive inspection of volcanoes, nuclear reactors, seismic faults, caves and etc. The greatest advantage of the method in the field of glacier studies is that it yields a unique solution of the density underneath a glacier without any assumption of physical properties inside the target. Large density contrasts, as expected between glacier ice (˜ 1.0g/cm3) and bedrock (˜ 2.5g/cm3), would allow us to elucidate the shape of the bedrock in high resolution. Accordingly, this technology will provide for the first time information on the bedrock surface beneath a steep and non-accessible Alpine glacier, in a complementary way with respect to other exploration methods (drilling, ground penetrating radar, seismic survey, gravity explorations and etc.). Our first aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of the method through a case study at the Eiger glacier, situated in the Central Swiss Alps. The Eiger glacier straddles the western flank of the Eiger between 3700 and 2300 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The glacier has shortened by about 150 m during the past 30 years in response to the ongoing global warming, causing a concern for

  2. Measurement and analysis of release isentropes using proton radiography (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Cynthia L; Rigg, Paulo A; Cherne, Frank J; Hixson, Rob S; Greff, Carl W

    2011-01-25

    Off-Hugoniot measurements are needed to further develop predictive models that accurately describe the behavior of metals undergoing phase transitions. Predictive modeling of phase transitions is essential for LANL to meet its programmatic objectives. Understanding the dynamic evolution of density as a function of time during the release process is important to developing high fidelity equation of state models. This is particularly true for metals that have a degree of complexity, such as a solid-solid phase transition. The equations-of-state (EOS) for metals with complexity are more difficult to measure and to model, and states far away from where measurements are easily made can be poorly known. Accurate density measurements can provide us with additional fundamental information that can be used to further constrain the equation of state for a material. Currently release isentrope information is obtained from shock experiments at a sample window interface using optical velocimetry. This data is highly convoluted due to wave interactions between the sample window-interface making it difficult to infer physical processes happening within the material. Proton radiography has the ability to probe the release waves in-situ before these wave interactions can take place. Since multiple radiographs are obtained in each experiment, pRad provides the unique capability of being able to measure both density and wave evolution within the material. The measurement of release wave densities, however, presents new challenges for pRad since the release wave of a shocked transition is not a step function but instead a ramped wave. Previous pRad experiments have generally measured density jumps over step transitions; therefore, new analysis techniques will have to be developed to measure the ramped density change of a release isentrope. Once developed, these new analysis techniques can also be used for experiments that involve ramped compression. This kind of compression is being

  3. Monochromatic flash embossed radiography using clean K photons from a spherical-plasma target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Akihiro; Sato, Eiichi; Oda, Yasuyuki; Abudurexiti, Abulajiang; Abderym, Purkhet; Hagiwara, Osahiko; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Nagao, Jiro; Sato, Shigehiro; Ogawa, Akira; Onagawa, Jun

    2011-04-01

    Embossed radiography is an important technique for imaging target region by decreasing absorption contrast of objects. The monochromatic flash embossed radiography (M-FER) system consists of a computed radiography system, an intense plasma flash X-ray generator, and a two-dimensional subtraction program for shifting the image pixel. In the flash X-ray generator, a high-voltage condenser of 150 nF is charged to 80 kV, and the electric charges in the condenser are discharged to the flash X-ray tube through a four-cable transmission line after closing the gap switch. The molybdenum-target evaporation leads to the formation of weakly ionized spherical plasma, and intense molybdenum K-series characteristic X-rays (K-rays) were produced utilizing angular dependence of bremsstrahlung X-ray intensity. High-speed monochromatic radiography was performed using molybdenum flash K-rays, and M-FER was carried out utilizing single-energy subtraction after the image shifting. The spatial resolutions of the horizontal and vertical directions were both 125 μm, and monochromatic concavoconvex radiography such as phase-differential imaging was performed with X-ray durations of approximately 100 ns.

  4. [Image quality and detection performance of a direct digital radiography system].

    PubMed

    Ideguchi, Tadamitsu; Matsuda, Katsuhiko; Himuro, Kazuhiko; Kuwahara, Rie; Miyazaki, Hidetsune; Hazeyama, Hiroyuki; Kumazawa, Seiji; Kawaji, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Akira; Matsumoto, Masao; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2006-03-20

    The physical characteristics of a direct amorphous Selenium (a-Se) digital fluoroscopy and radiography system were investigated. Pre-sampled modulation transfer functions (MTF) were measured using a slit method. Noise power spectra were determined for different input exposures by fast Fourier transform of uniformly exposed samples. The MTFs of direct digital radiography systems showed significantly higher values than those of indirect digital radiography and screen-film systems. The direct digital radiography systems showed higher noise levels compared with those of indirect systems under roughly the same exposure conditions. Contrast-detail analysis was performed to compare detection by direct digital radiography systems with that of the screen-film (FUJI HG-M2/UR2) systems. The average contrast-detail curves of digital and film images were obtained from the results of observation. Image quality figures (IQF) were also calculated from the individual observer performance tests. The results indicated that digital contrast-detail curves and IQF are, on average, are equal those of the screen-film system.

  5. Remote x-ray operator radiography: a case study in interprofessional rural clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tony; Jones, Peter

    2007-06-01

    In Australia, some radiographic examinations may be performed by rural and remote nurses and general practitioners (GPs), so called remote x-ray operators, where a radiographer is unavailable. This study aimed to investigate the experiences and perceptions of remote x-ray operator radiography from the perspective of rural radiographers, nurses and GPs in New South Wales. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were performed with 20 radiographers, 10 nurses and 7 GPs. Interviews explored the informants' knowledge, opinions and values, experience and behaviour, and attitudes and feelings about remote operator radiography. Data analysis led to the emergence of three interrelated key concepts, with their relevant themes and sub-themes. The primary concept, "Dimensions of Practice", includes the core principles of remote x-ray operator radiography. The concept of "Service Provision and Equity of Access" includes the realities of rural and remote healthcare, and "Professional Roles and Relationships" the interprofessional interactions that occur. Remote x-ray operator radiography takes place at the intersection of the occupational worlds of rural radiographers, nurses and GPs. Remote operators provide a valuable service but the quality of their radiography is below expected standards. Better teamwork could improve service quality but interprofessional collaboration is stifled by hierarchical relationships. This case study may inform the development of new models of healthcare.

  6. The relationship between contrast, resolution and detectability in accelerator-based fast neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosi, R. M.; Watterson, J. I. W.

    1999-06-10

    Fast neutron radiography as a method for non destructive testing is a fast growing field of research. At the Schonland Research Center for Nuclear Sciences we have been engaged in the formulation of a model for the physics of image formation in fast neutron radiography (FNR). This involves examining all the various factors that affect image formation in FNR by experimental and Monte Carlo methods. One of the major problems in the development of a model for fast neutron radiography is the determination of the factors that affect image contrast and resolution. Monte Carlo methods offer an ideal tool for the determination of the origin of many of these factors. In previous work the focus of these methods has been the determination of the scattered neutron field in both a scintillator and a fast neutron radiography facility. As an extension of this work MCNP has been used to evaluate the role neutron scattering in a specimen plays in image detectability. Image processing of fast neutron radiographs is a necessary method of enhancing the detectability of features in an image. MCNP has been used to determine the part it can play in indirectly improving image resolution and aiding in image processing. The role noise plays in fast neutron radiography and its impact on image reconstruction has been evaluated. All these factors aid in the development of a model describing the relationship between contrast, resolution and detectability.

  7. General Dental Practitioners’ Concept towards Using Radiography and Apex-Locators in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Maryam; Heidaripour, Maryam; Shahravan, Arash; Haghani, Jahangir; Afkham, Arash; Razifar, Mahsa; Mohammadizadeh, Sakineh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite being the gold standard as well as a routine technique in endodontics, radiographic working length (WL) determination owns many drawbacks. Electronic apex-locators (EALs) are recommended to complement radiographies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of Iranian general dental practitioners (GDPs) towards using radiography and EAL. Methods and Materials: Three hundred and ninety one GDPs attending the 53th Iranian Dental Association Congress completed a questionnaire focusing on the use of radiography and EALs during the various stages of root canal treatment. The data was analyzed with the chi-square test with the level of significance set at 0.05. The results were then calculated as frequencies and percentages. Results: More than half of the GDPs reported using radiographs as the sole method for WL determination. A total of 30.4% of the practitioners were using the combined approach during root canal therapy of a single-rooted tooth, while 38.9% used this method in multi-rooted teeth. Approximately half of the respondents would not order follow-up radiographies after root canal treatment. Conclusion: Radiography continues to be the most common method for WL determination in Iran. PMID:25386209

  8. Proposed power upgrade of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility's neutron radiography reactor. [NRAD reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pruett, D.P.; Richards, W.J.; Heidel, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Hot Fuel Examination Facility, HFEF, is one of several facilities located at the Argonne Site. HFEF comprises a large hot cell where both non-destructive and destructive examination of highly-irradiated reactor fuels are conducted in support of the LMFBR program. One of the non-destructive examination techniques utilized at HFEF is neutron radiography. Neutron radiography is provided by the NRAD reactor facility, which is located beneath the HFEF hot cell. The NRAD reactor is a TRIGA reactor and is operated at a steady state power level of 250 kW solely for neutron radiography and the development of radiography techniques. When the NRAD facility was designed and constructed, an operating power level of 250 kW was considered to be adequate for obtaining radiographs of the type of specimens envisaged at that time. A typical radiograph required approximately a twenty-minute exposure time. Specimens were typically single fuel rods placed in an aluminum tray. Since that time, however, several things have occurred that have tended to increase radiography exposure times to as much as 90 minutes each. In order to decrease exposure times, the reactor power level is to be increased from 250 kw to 1 MW. This increase in power will necessitate several engineering and design changes. These changes are described.

  9. An evaluation of author productivity in international radiography journals 2004–2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snaith, Beverly A

    2013-09-15

    Radiography, the allied health profession, has changed beyond recognition over the last century; however, in academic terms radiography is a relatively young profession. It is therefore still establishing its professional knowledge base. This article uses peer-review author productivity distribution to evaluate its scholarly maturity. Four peer-reviewed journals in medical radiation sciences were examined over an 8-year period (2004–2011) and author productivity was compared to Lotka's law. Further analysis of the most prolific authors provided an evaluation of their characteristics. The 1306 unique authors contributed 835 articles during the study period. Of these, 1012 (77.5%) contributed only one article to the journals studied, with an inverse power relationship of author productivity. At the 0.1 level of significance, radiography does not fit Lotka's law (n = −2.334; c = 0.712; D{sub max} = 0.0627; Critical threshold = 0.0337). There was a significant correlation between the most prolific authors and collaboration (P = 0.002), although variation was noted in author discipline and location. The results of this study add to the discussion of radiography scholarship and demonstrate that the radiography authors have similar productivity distribution to other professions, but do not follow Lotka's law.

  10. Analysis of sculptures using XRF and X-ray radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calza, C.; Oliveira, D. F.; Freitas, R. P.; Rocha, H. S.; Nascimento, J. R.; Lopes, R. T.

    2015-11-01

    This work reports the analysis of two sacred images on polychrome wood using X-ray Radiography and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. The first case is the analysis of a sculpture portraying Saint Sebastian, the patron saint of Rio de Janeiro, which is considered the second most ancient sacred image of Brazil. This sculpture was made in Portugal and was transported to Brazil by Estácio Sá, founder of the city of Rio de Janeiro, in 1565. Nowadays, it is located on the main altar of the Church of Capuchin Friars. The second case is the analysis of a sculpture representing Our Lady of Conception, which is located in the D. João VI Museum (EBA/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro). The objective of these analyses was to evaluate the general conditions of the sculptures, identifying possible problems and internal damages, areas that revealed signs of previous retouchings and the materials and pigments employed by the artists, in order to assist its restoration procedures. EDXRF measurements were carried out with a portable system, developed at the Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, consisting of a Si-PIN XR-100CR detector from Amptek and an Oxford TF3005 X-ray tube with W anode. An X-ray source, a CR System GE CR50P and IP detectors were used to perform the radiographs. The XRF analysis of the sculptures identified the original pigments in both cases and the radiographic images revealed details of the manufacture; restored regions; extensive use of lead white; presence of cracks on the wood; use of nails and spikes, etc.

  11. Bayesian Abel Inversion in Quantitative X-Ray Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, Marylesa; Fowler, Michael; Luttman, Aaron; Mitchell, Stephen E.; Hock, Margaret C.

    2016-05-19

    A common image formation process in high-energy X-ray radiography is to have a pulsed power source that emits X-rays through a scene, a scintillator that absorbs X-rays and uoresces in the visible spectrum in response to the absorbed photons, and a CCD camera that images the visible light emitted from the scintillator. The intensity image is related to areal density, and, for an object that is radially symmetric about a central axis, the Abel transform then gives the object's volumetric density. Two of the primary drawbacks to classical variational methods for Abel inversion are their sensitivity to the type and scale of regularization chosen and the lack of natural methods for quantifying the uncertainties associated with the reconstructions. In this work we cast the Abel inversion problem within a statistical framework in order to compute volumetric object densities from X-ray radiographs and to quantify uncertainties in the reconstruction. A hierarchical Bayesian model is developed with a likelihood based on a Gaussian noise model and with priors placed on the unknown density pro le, the data precision matrix, and two scale parameters. This allows the data to drive the localization of features in the reconstruction and results in a joint posterior distribution for the unknown density pro le, the prior parameters, and the spatial structure of the precision matrix. Results of the density reconstructions and pointwise uncertainty estimates are presented for both synthetic signals and real data from a U.S. Department of Energy X-ray imaging facility.

  12. Bayesian Abel Inversion in Quantitative X-Ray Radiography

    DOE PAGES

    Howard, Marylesa; Fowler, Michael; Luttman, Aaron; ...

    2016-05-19

    A common image formation process in high-energy X-ray radiography is to have a pulsed power source that emits X-rays through a scene, a scintillator that absorbs X-rays and uoresces in the visible spectrum in response to the absorbed photons, and a CCD camera that images the visible light emitted from the scintillator. The intensity image is related to areal density, and, for an object that is radially symmetric about a central axis, the Abel transform then gives the object's volumetric density. Two of the primary drawbacks to classical variational methods for Abel inversion are their sensitivity to the type andmore » scale of regularization chosen and the lack of natural methods for quantifying the uncertainties associated with the reconstructions. In this work we cast the Abel inversion problem within a statistical framework in order to compute volumetric object densities from X-ray radiographs and to quantify uncertainties in the reconstruction. A hierarchical Bayesian model is developed with a likelihood based on a Gaussian noise model and with priors placed on the unknown density pro le, the data precision matrix, and two scale parameters. This allows the data to drive the localization of features in the reconstruction and results in a joint posterior distribution for the unknown density pro le, the prior parameters, and the spatial structure of the precision matrix. Results of the density reconstructions and pointwise uncertainty estimates are presented for both synthetic signals and real data from a U.S. Department of Energy X-ray imaging facility.« less

  13. Thoracic duct cyst of posterior mediastinum: a “challenging” differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Electra, Michalopoulou-Manoloutsiou; Evangelia, Athanasiou; Mattheos, Bobos; Dimitris, Hatzibougias I.; Tsavlis, Drosos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Charalampidis, Chralampos; Fassiadis, Nikolaos; Mparmpetakis, Nikolaos; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Andreas, Mpakas; Stamatis, Arikas; Alexandros, Kolettas; Kosmas, Tsakiridis

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic duct cysts of the mediastinum are extremely rare entities and their pathogenesis still remains unknown. Imaging methods are not specific and show a cystic mass, however the real nature of the lesion is confirmed only with the help of histopathological examination after surgical excision. Here, we present a case of thoracic cyst in a 28-year-old female, lining in posterior lower mediastinum. The cyst was removed by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and the histopathological findings were that of thoracic duct cyst. Through this case, we propose an ideal surgical approach and diagnostic procedure. PMID:27275479

  14. TEVAR for Flash Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm to Pulmonary Artery Fistula.

    PubMed

    Bornak, Arash; Baqai, Atif; Li, Xiaoyi; Rey, Jorge; Tashiro, Jun; Velazquez, Omaida C

    2016-01-01

    Enlarging aneurysms in the thoracic aorta frequently remain asymptomatic. Fistulization of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) to adjacent structures or the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus and TAA may lead to irreversible cardiopulmonary sequelae. This article reports on a large aneurysm of the thoracic aorta with communication to the pulmonary artery causing pulmonary edema and cardiorespiratory failure. The communication was ultimately closed after thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair allowing rapid symptom resolution. Early diagnosis and closure of such communication in the presence of TAA are critical for prevention of permanent cardiopulmonary damage.

  15. From Diagnosis to Treatment: Clinical Applications of Nanotechnology in Thoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Digesu, Christopher S; Hofferberth, Sophie C; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging field with potential as an adjunct to cancer therapy, particularly thoracic surgery. Therapy can be delivered to tumors in a more targeted fashion, with less systemic toxicity. Nanoparticles may aid in diagnosis, preoperative characterization, and intraoperative localization of thoracic tumors and their lymphatics. Focused research into nanotechnology's ability to deliver both diagnostics and therapeutics has led to the development of nanotheranostics, which promises to improve the treatment of thoracic malignancies through enhanced tumor targeting, controlled drug delivery, and therapeutic monitoring. This article reviews nanoplatforms, their unique properties, and the potential for clinical application in thoracic surgery.

  16. Small cervical incision facilitates minimally invasive resection of non-invasive thoracic inlet tumor

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Han-Yu; Li, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Yun-Cang; Li, Gang; Liu, Lun-Xu

    2016-01-01

    Background A challenge for resection of thoracic inlet tumors lies in that high risk of injuring vital blood vessels and brachial plexus still exists during the resection. And the standard surgical approach for resection of thoracic inlet tumors has not yet been well established. Methods Small cervical incision-assisted minimally invasive surgical technique was developed and carried out in patients with non-invasive thoracic inlet tumor in our department. Results We successfully performed the small cervical incision-assisted minimally invasive surgery in two patients with thoracic inlet tumors. The thoracic inlet tumors of the two patients were removed completely without any postoperative complications, and the patients achieved quick rehabilitation after surgery. This combined approach compensates the blind area of thoracoscope in visualizing the superior end of thoracic inlet tumors, and thus enables us to complete the resection safely and confidently. Conclusions Small cervical incision did facilitate the minimally invasive resection of non-invasive thoracic inlet tumor. Hopefully, this combined approach of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) with small cervical incision could be widely utilized in resecting thoracic inlet tumors by general thoracic surgeon. PMID:27867570

  17. JAG tearing technique with radiofrequency guide wire for aortic fenestration in thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Carmelo; Ceccherini, Claudio; Leonini, Sara; Cini, Marco; Vigni, Francesco; Neri, Eugenio; Tucci, Enrico; Benvenuti, Antonio; Tommasino, Giulio; Sassi, Carlo

    2012-02-01

    An innovative approach, the JAG tearing technique, was performed during thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair in a patient with previous surgical replacement of the ascending aorta with a residual uncomplicated type B aortic dissection who developed an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta with its lumen divided in two parts by an intimal flap. The proximal landing zone was suitable to place a thoracic stent graft. The distal landing zone was created by cutting the intimal flap in the distal third of the descending thoracic aorta with a radiofrequency guide wire and intravascular ultrasound catheter.

  18. JAG Tearing Technique with Radiofrequency Guide Wire for Aortic Fenestration in Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, Carmelo; Ceccherini, Claudio Leonini, Sara; Cini, Marco; Vigni, Francesco; Neri, Eugenio; Tucci, Enrico; Benvenuti, Antonio; Tommasino, Giulio; Sassi, Carlo

    2012-02-15

    An innovative approach, the JAG tearing technique, was performed during thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair in a patient with previous surgical replacement of the ascending aorta with a residual uncomplicated type B aortic dissection who developed an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta with its lumen divided in two parts by an intimal flap. The proximal landing zone was suitable to place a thoracic stent graft. The distal landing zone was created by cutting the intimal flap in the distal third of the descending thoracic aorta with a radiofrequency guide wire and intravascular ultrasound catheter.

  19. Brighter Screens for Nondestructive Digital X-ray Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Jr., A. C.; Bell, Z. W.; Carpenter, D. A.

    2003-09-15

    Fine resolution, bright X-ray screens are needed for digital radiography and material characterization at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Current technology is simply not adequate for transferring high-energy X-ray images to visible light for demanding digital applications. Low energy radiography and especially emerging tomographic technologies are severely hampered for Y-12 nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications by dim screens with poor resolution. Also, the development of more advanced materials characterization techniques, such as electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), is driven by a design agency desire for tighter specifications and more uniform materials. Brighter screens would allow us to probe materials on a finer scale, leading to a better understanding of material behavior. A number of X-ray screen materials were studied that would be suitable for direct replacement in existing digital imaging systems. Spectroscopic evaluations were first made for a several candidates and indicated that lutetium orthosilicate (LSO) would be a promising candidate for MeV images. A relative comparison of brightness at various energies was then completed which showed that cesium iodide (CsI) could increase brightness by over an order of magnitude. Since image quality is also important for better screens, the resolving capabilities of candidate materials were measured. Resolution measurements were completed at X-ray peak energies up to 420KeV with magnified optical imaging systems, and indicated that LSO and Industrial Quality Incorporated glass (IQI) exhibited higher resolution than the CsI screen. The results give a choice of materials that can be tailored to the particular test under consideration. If high-speed images are necessary and some resolution can be sacrificed, the CsI screen will be a good choice. The screen can be replaced by an IQI or LSO unit if higher resolution is needed later, for instance to focus in on a region of interest. A number of

  20. Action research in radiography: What it is and how it can be conducted

    PubMed Central

    Munn, Zachary; Pearson, Alan; Jordan, Zoe; Murphy, Frederick; Pilkington, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Action research is a form of research that investigates and describes a social or work situation with the aim of achieving a change which results in improvement. This article emphasizes the potential for action research to be a useful research method in radiography. A search was conducted to determine the extent to which action research has been utilized in radiography. Although action research has been used in a number of health-care settings, there are no published examples of action research being utilized in a clinical medical imaging department. Action research is discussed in detail, along with an example guide for an action research study. Action research has been identified as a useful way to affect change, to involve radiographers in the research process, and to introduce evidence-based practice to radiography. PMID:26229607