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Sample records for radioisotope intravascular radiation

  1. Radiant{trademark} Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Litvack, F.

    1998-01-16

    RADIANT{trademark} is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid {beta}-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid {beta}-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO{sub 4}), Rhenium-188 is primarily a {beta}-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the {beta}-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Champion{trademark} over-the-wire, and TNT{trademark} rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors.

  2. Lightweight Radiators Being Developed or Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Tew, Roy C.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2001-01-01

    The thermodynamic heat-to-electric power conversion efficiency of Stirling systems is 3 to 5 times higher than that of thermoelectric converters. Hence for unmanned deep space probes, Stirling advanced radioisotope power systems (ARPS) could deliver up to 5 times as much power as radioisotope thermoelectric generators for the same amount of radioisotope, or they could require one-third to one-fifth as much isotope inventory for the same power output. However, Stirling power systems reject unconverted heat at much lower temperatures than radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Normally, this requires larger and heavier heat-rejection subsystems because of the greater radiator areas, which are proportional to the first power of the heat rejected and the fourth power of the absolute heat-rejection temperature, as specified by the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation heat transfer law. The development of directly coupled disk radiators using very high conductivity encapsulated thermopyrolitic graphite materials represents a significant advance in Stirling ARPS space heat-rejection subsystem technology. A conceptual Stirling ARPS with two engines coupled to a radioisotope general-purpose heat source (GPHS) is shown in the illustration.

  3. Emitted radiation characteristics of plutonium dioxide radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingo, P. J.; Steyn, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    The nuclear and emitted radiation characteristics of the radioisotope elements and impurities in commercial grade plutonium dioxide are presented in detail. The development of the methods of analysis are presented. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) of 1575, 3468 and 5679 thermal watts are characterized with respect to neutron and gamma photon source strength as well as spatial and number flux distribution. The results are presented as a function of detector position and light element contamination concentration for fuel age ranging from 'fresh' to 18 years. The data may be used to obtain results for given O-18 and Pu-236 concentrations. The neutron and gamma photon flux and dose calculations compare favorably with reported experimental values for SNAP-27.

  4. Industrial radiation and radioisotope gauging techniques and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, R.P.

    1997-12-01

    The radiation and radioisotope gauging industry in the United States has primarily followed a path of development solely by the private sector. It has remained highly proprietary in nature, which is opposite to the path taken by many other countries. In other countries radiation gauge development has been controlled in large part by government-sponsored research and development, which has spawned many more publications in the open literature. Historically, some of the leaders have been Great Britain, Poland, France, Russia, and Australia. This has possibly led to the misconception that the development of this technology is being dominated by countries outside the United States. This is not a healthy situation-it would be good to see our industry begin to publish more in the open literature and to sponsor more research at universities. In efforts to promote more open-literature publication, the American Nuclear Society (ANS) sponsored a topical meeting on Industrial Radiation and Radioisotope Measurement Applications (IRRMA) in 1988 that was held again in 1992.

  5. Robust intravascular optical coherence elastography driven by acoustic radiation pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, Gijs; Bouchard, Richard R.; Mastik, Frits; de Jong, Nico; van der Steen, Anton F. W.

    2007-07-01

    High strain spots in the vessel wall indicate the presence of vulnerable plaques. The majority of acute cardiovascular events are preceded by rupture of such a plaque in a coronary artery. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be extended, in principle, to an elastography technique, mapping the strain in the vascular wall. However, the susceptibility of OCT to frame-to-frame decorrelation, caused by tissue and catheter motion, inhibits reliable tissue displacement tracking and has to date obstructed the development of OCT-based intravascular elastography. We introduce a new technique for intravascular optical coherence elastography, which is robust against motion artifacts. Using acoustic radiation force, we apply a pressure to deform the tissue synchronously with the line scan rate of the OCT instrument. Radial tissue displacement can be tracked based on the correlation between adjacent lines, instead of subsequent frames in conventional elastography. The viability of the method is demonstrated with a simulation study. The root mean square (rms) error of the displacement estimate is 0.55 μm, and the rms error of the strain is 0.6%. It is shown that high-strain spots in the vessel wall, such as observed at the sites of vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions, can be detected with the technique. Experiments to realize this new elastographic method are presented. Simultaneous optical and ultrasonic pulse-echo tracking demonstrate that the material can be put in a high-frequency oscillatory motion with an amplitude of several micrometers, more than sufficient for accurate tracking with OCT. The resulting data are used to optimize the acoustic pushing sequence and geometry.

  6. Delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes using nanoparticle platforms: potential benefit in systemic radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Longjiang; Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Liya; Liu, Tian; Yeh, Julie; Lu, Guangming; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective cancer treatment option in conjunction with chemotherapy and surgery. Emerging individualized internal and systemic radiation treatment promises significant improvement in efficacy and reduction of normal tissue damage; however, it requires cancer cell targeting platforms for efficient delivery of radiation sources. With recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology, there is great interest in developing nanomaterials as multifunctional carriers to deliver therapeutic radioisotopes for tumor targeted radiation therapy, to monitor their delivery and tumor response to the treatment. This paper provides an overview on developing nanoparticles for carrying and delivering therapeutic radioisotopes for systemic radiation treatment. Topics discussed in the review include: selecting nanoparticles and radiotherapy isotopes, strategies for targeting nanoparticles to cancers, together with challenges and potential solutions for the in vivo delivery of nanoparticles. Some examples of using nanoparticle platforms for the delivery of therapeutic radioisotopes in preclinical studies of cancer treatment are also presented. PMID:24198480

  7. Personal reflections on the highlights and changes in radiation and radioisotope measurement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Robin P.; Lee, Kyoung O.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes the recent changes that the authors have perceived in the use of radiation and radioisotope measurement applications. The first change is that due to the increased use of Monte Carlo simulation which has occurred from a normal evolutionary process. This is due in large part to the increased accuracy that is being obtained by the use of detector response functions (DRFs) and the simultaneous increased computational efficiency that has become available with these DRFs, the availability of a greatly improved weight windows variance reduction method, and the availability of inexpensive computer clusters. This first change is a happy one. The other change that is occurring is in response to recent terrorist activities. That change is the replacement or major change in the use of long-lived radioisotopes in radioisotope measurement and other radioisotope source applications. In general this can be done by improving the security of these radioisotope sources or by replacing them altogether by using machine sources of radiation. In either case one would like to preclude altogether or at least minimize the possibility of terrorists being able to obtain radioisotopes and use them for clandestine purposes.

  8. [Radiation hazard in the use of radioisotopic neutralizers of static electricity].

    PubMed

    Zhulanov, O V; Gromova, T I; Rudakova, S V; Smolianets, R I; Solov'eva, E I

    2002-01-01

    Spectrometry was used by means of an alpha-radiometer on a [symbol: see text]porpecc-[symbol: see text] hard-and-software complex to study the radioactive contamination of the surfaces of neutralizers with plutonium 239-based ionizing radiation sources, which are employed to remove electrical charges from electrifiable materials. While using the neutralizers, the operating personnel is shown to be exposed to radiation. The level of removed radioactive contamination during half-a-year exploitation of the neutralizers was greater than the maximum allowable values on the average by several times. Radiation hazard in the use of radioisotopic neutralizers of static electricity is outlined.

  9. Intravascular Ultrasound Catheter to Enhance Microbubble-Based Drug Delivery via Acoustic Radiation Force

    PubMed Central

    Kilroy, Joseph P.; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Wamhoff, Brian R.; Hossack, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that acoustic radiation force enhances intravascular microbubble adhesion to blood vessels in the presence of flow for molecular-targeted ultrasound imaging and drug delivery. A prototype acoustic radiation force intravascular ultrasound (ARFIVUS) catheter was designed and fabricated to displace a microbubble contrast agent in flow representative of conditions encountered in the human carotid artery. The prototype ARFIVUS transducer was designed to match the resonance frequency of 1.4- to 2.6-μm-diameter microbubbles modeled by an experimentally verified 1-D microbubble acoustic radiation force translation model. The transducer element was an elongated Navy Type I (hard) lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic designed to operate at 3 MHz. Fabricated devices operated with center frequencies of 3.3 and 3.6 MHz with −6-dB fractional bandwidths of 55% and 50%, respectively. Microbubble translation velocities as high as 0.86 m/s were measured using a high-speed streak camera when insonating with the ARFIVUS transducer. Finally, the prototype was used to displace microbubbles in a flow phantom while imaging with a commercial 45-MHz imaging IVUS transducer. A sustained increase of 31 dB in average video intensity was measured following insonation with the ARFIVUS, indicating microbubble accumulation resulting from the application of acoustic radiation force. PMID:23143566

  10. Organic Materials Ionizing Radiation Susceptibility for the Outer Planet/Solar Probe Radioisotope Power Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, Eric L.; Pepper, Stephen V.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy is considering the current Stirling Technology Corporation 55 We Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertor as a baseline option for an advanced radioisotope power source for the Outer Planets/Solar Probe project of Jet Propulsion Laboratory and other missions. However, since the Technology Demonstration Convertor contains organic materials chosen without any special consideration of flight readiness, and without any consideration of the extremely high radiation environment of Europa, a preliminary investigation was performed to address the radiation susceptibility of the current organic materials used in the Technology Demonstration Convertor. This report documents the results of the investigation. The results of the investigation show that candidate replacement materials have been identified to be acceptable in the harsh Europa radiation environment.

  11. Radioisotopes: Today's Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Radioisotopes are useful because of their three unique characteristics: (1) radiation emission; (2) predictable radioactive lives; and (3) the same chemical properties as the nonradioactive atoms of that element. Researchers are able to "order" a radioisotope with the right radiation, half-life, and chemical property to perform a given task with…

  12. Evidence for Radiation-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Major Cause of Radiation-Induced Death in Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Savage, Alexandria R.; Billings, Paul C.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives(s) The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events (SPEs), as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Methods and Materials Ferrets were exposed to 0 – 2 Gray (Gy) of whole body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. Results The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population, known as the LD50, of ferrets was established at ~ 1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 post-irradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early times post-irradiation when coagulopathies were present and progressively becoming more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Conclusions The data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD50 in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is solely due to the cell killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals. PMID:24495588

  13. Evidence for Radiation-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Major Cause of Radiation-Induced Death in Ferrets

    SciTech Connect

    Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Savage, Alexandria R.; Billings, Paul C.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events, as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Methods and Materials: Ferrets were exposed to 0 to 2 Gy of whole-body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. Results: The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population (LD{sub 50}) of the ferrets was established at ∼1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 postirradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early time points postirradiation when coagulopathies were present and becoming progressively more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Conclusions: Data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD{sub 50} in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is due solely to the cell-killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation-induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals.

  14. Radiation Environments and Exposure Considerations for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, William M.; Low, Nora M.; Zillmer, Andrew; Johnson, Gregory A.; Normand, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) is the next generation (RTG) being developed by DOE to provide reliable, long-life electric power for NASA's planetary exploration programs. The MMRTG is being developed by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne and Teledyne Energy Systems Incorporated (TESI) for use on currently planned and projected flyby, orbital and planet landing missions. This is a significant departure from the design philosophy of the past which was to match specific mission requirements to RTG design capabilities. Undefined mission requirements provide a challenge to system designers by forcing them to put a design envelope around ``all possible missions''. These multi-mission requirements include internal and external radiation sources. Internal sources include the particles ejected by decaying Pu-238 and its daughters plus particles resulting from the interaction of these particles with other MMRTG materials. External sources include the full spectrum of charged particle radiation surrounding planets with magnetic fields and the surfaces of extraterrestrial objects not shielded by magnetic fields. The paper presents the results of investigations into the environments outlined above and the impact of radiation exposure on potential materials to be used on MMRTG and ground support personnel. Mission requirements were also reviewed to evaluate total integrated dose and to project potential shielding requirements for materials. Much of the information on mission shielding requirements was provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The primary result is an ionizing radiation design curve which indicates the limits to which a particular mission can take the MMRTG in terms of ionizing radiation exposure. Estimates of personnel radiation exposure during ground handling are also provided.

  15. Radiation Environments and Exposure Considerations for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, William M.; Low, Nora M.; Zillmer, Andrew; Johnson, Gregory A.; Normand, Eugene

    2006-01-20

    The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) is the next generation (RTG) being developed by DOE to provide reliable, long-life electric power for NASA's planetary exploration programs. The MMRTG is being developed by Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne and Teledyne Energy Systems Incorporated (TESI) for use on currently planned and projected flyby, orbital and planet landing missions. This is a significant departure from the design philosophy of the past which was to match specific mission requirements to RTG design capabilities. Undefined mission requirements provide a challenge to system designers by forcing them to put a design envelope around 'all possible missions'. These multi-mission requirements include internal and external radiation sources. Internal sources include the particles ejected by decaying Pu-238 and its daughters plus particles resulting from the interaction of these particles with other MMRTG materials. External sources include the full spectrum of charged particle radiation surrounding planets with magnetic fields and the surfaces of extraterrestrial objects not shielded by magnetic fields. The paper presents the results of investigations into the environments outlined above and the impact of radiation exposure on potential materials to be used on MMRTG and ground support personnel. Mission requirements were also reviewed to evaluate total integrated dose and to project potential shielding requirements for materials. Much of the information on mission shielding requirements was provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The primary result is an ionizing radiation design curve which indicates the limits to which a particular mission can take the MMRTG in terms of ionizing radiation exposure. Estimates of personnel radiation exposure during ground handling are also provided.

  16. Evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation in a porcine model following radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krigsfeld, G. S.; Shah, J. B.; Sanzari, J. K.; Lin, L.; Kennedy, A. R.

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) plays an integral role in death at the LD50 dose of either gamma or solar particle event (SPE)-like proton radiation in ferrets. In these studies, Yucatan minipigs were evaluated to determine whether they were susceptible to the development of radiation induced DIC. Yucatan minipigs were exposed to a dose of 2.5 Gray (Gy) with X-rays and monitored over the course of 30 days. Evidence of DIC was evaluated by way of thromboelastometry parameters, platelet counts, fibrinogen concentration, and the d-dimer assay. Pigs exposed to X-rays developed signs of DIC within 2 days' post-irradiation. The development of DIC was exacerbated over the course of the studies, and one of the pigs died at day 14 and another had to be euthanized on day 16 post-irradiation. For both of these pigs, DIC was evident at the time of death. The following observations were indicated or were suggestive of DIC: whole blood clotting was impaired (as evidenced by thromboelastometry alterations), there were decreased platelet counts, elevated d-dimer concentrations in the blood, and/or hemorrhaging and the presence of fibrin in tissues observed during post-mortem examination. The extrapolation of data from these studies, in combination with other published data, have led to the hypothesis that there could be a correlation between the propensity to develop DIC, as indicated by hemorrhaging at death at relatively low doses of radiation, and the LD50 for a particular species. Our data suggest that the development of DIC may contribute to death at the LD50 dose in large mammals.

  17. Evidence of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in a Porcine Model Following Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Krigsfeld, G.S.; Shah, J.B.; Sanzari, J.K.; Lin, L.; Kennedy, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) plays an integral role in death at the LD50 dose of either gamma or solar particle event (SPE)-like proton radiation in ferrets. In these studies, Yucatan minipigs were evaluated to determine whether they were susceptible to the development of radiation induced DIC. Yucatan minipigs were exposed to a dose of 2.5 Gray (Gy) with x-rays and monitored over the course of 30 days. Evidence of DIC was evaluated by way of thromboelastometry parameters, platelet counts, fibrinogen concentration, and the d-dimer assay. Pigs exposed to x-rays developed signs of DIC within 2 days post-irradiation. The development of DIC was exacerbated over the course of the studies, and one of the pigs died at day 14 and another had to be euthanized on day 16 post-irradiation. For both of these pigs, DIC was evident at the time of death. The following observations were indicated or were suggestive of DIC: whole blood clotting was impaired (as evidenced by thromboelastometry alterations), there were decreased platelet counts, elevated d-dimer concentrations in the blood, and/or hemorrhaging and the presence of fibrin in tissues observed during post-mortem examination. The extrapolation of data from these studies, in combination with other published data, have led to the hypothesis that there could be a correlation between the propensity to develop DIC, as indicated by hemorrhaging at death at relatively low doses of radiation, and the LD50 for a particular species. Our data suggest that the development of DIC may contribute to death at the LD50 dose in large mammals. PMID:25197627

  18. An evaluation of the shielding effectiveness of lead aprons used in clinics for protection against ionising radiation from novel radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Deb, Pradip; Jamison, Robert; Mong, Lisa; U, Paul

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of personal radiation shields currently worn in hospital and other diagnostic environments. This study was performed with four different radioisotopes; (18)F, (99m)Tc, (124)I and (131)I. (18)F results showed a decrease in dose with 0.5-mm Pb shielding but the reduction provided does not warrant its use clinically. (124)I testing demonstrated that dose enhancement can occur in greater shield thicknesses. PET isotope (124)I can be adequately shielded using 0.25-mm Pb equivalent aprons but any higher thickness increase the wearer's dose. As a result more shielding does not always equal more protection. The (131)I test showed that no dose reduction occurred, even when tested with up to 1.25-mm Pb equivalent shielding. Novel radioisotopes being used in the laboratory and clinic should be individually tested as each requires specific shielding testing.

  19. Parametric Study of Radiator Concepts for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System Applicable to Deep Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Tew, Roy C.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a Stirling converter for an advanced radioisotope power system to provide spacecraft onboard electric power for NASA deep space missions. This high-efficiency converter is being evaluated as an alternative to replace the much lower efficiency radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The current power requirement (six years after beginning of mission (BOM) for a mission to Jupiter) is 210 W(sub e) (watts electric) to be generated by two separate power systems, one on each side of the spacecraft. Both two-converter and four-converter system designs are being considered, depending on the amount of required redundancy.

  20. [Investigation of the present management status of calibration source based on the law concerning prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Hirano, Kunihiro; Kawaharada, Yasuhiro; Igarashi, Hitoshi; Murase, Ken-ya; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2007-03-20

    An amendment concerning the enforcement of the law on the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes, etc., and the medical service law enforcement regulations were promulgated on June 1, 2005. This amendment concerned international basic safety standards and the sealing of radiation sources. Sealed radiation sources < or =3.7 MBq, which had been excluded from regulation, were newly included as an object of regulation. Investigation of the SPECT system instituted in hospitals indicated that almost all institutions adhere to the new amendment, and the calibration source, the checking source, etc., corresponding to this amendment were maintained appropriately. Any institutions planning to return sealed radioisotopes should refer to this report.

  1. Intravascular OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Joseph M.; Adler, Desmond; Xu, Chenyang

    Since the first coronary angioplasty was performed in the late 1970s, imaging has played a central role in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Today more than three million PCI procedures are performed worldwide to expand narrowed arteries and to clear blood clots that can cause debilitating symptoms of myocardial ischemia or fatal heart attacks. Although X-ray angiography is still the workhorse imaging modality in the field of interventional cardiology, intravascular imaging has become an indispensable tool for guiding complex PCI procedures. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are the two most commonly used catheter-based imaging technologies in coronary procedures. Since the first commercial intravascular OCT systems were introduced in Japan and the European Union in 2004 and in the United States in 2009, the application of intravascular OCT has grown rapidly [3, 15, 16].

  2. Progress in the Use of Isotopes: The Atomic Triad - Reactors, Radioisotopes and Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Libby, W. F.

    1958-08-04

    Recent years have seen a substantial growth in the use of isotopes in medicine, agriculture, and industry: up to the minute information on the production and use of isotopes in the U.S. is presented. The application of radioisotopes to industrial processes and manufacturing operations has expanded more rapidly than any one except its most ardent advocates expected. New uses and new users are numerous. The adoption by industry of low level counting techniques which make possible the use of carbon-14 and tritium in the control of industrial processes and in certain exploratory and research problems is perhaps most promising of current developments. The latest information on savings to industry will be presented. The medical application of isotopes has continued to develop at a rapid pace. The current trend appears to be in the direction of improvements in technique and the substitution of more effective isotopes for those presently in use. Potential and actual benefits accruing from the use of isotopes in agriculture are reviewed. The various methods of production of radioisotopes are discussed. Not only the present methods but also interesting new possibilities are covered. Although isotopes are but one of the many peaceful uses of the atom, it is the first to pay its way. (auth)

  3. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  4. Evaluating the intensity of the acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) in intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging: Preliminary in vitro results.

    PubMed

    Shih, Cho-Chiang; Lai, Ting-Yu; Huang, Chih-Chung

    2016-08-01

    The ability to measure the elastic properties of plaques and vessels is significant in clinical diagnosis, particularly for detecting a vulnerable plaque. A novel concept of combining intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging has recently been proposed. This method has potential in elastography for distinguishing between the stiffness of plaques and arterial vessel walls. However, the intensity of the acoustic radiation force requires calibration as a standard for the further development of an ARFI-IVUS imaging device that could be used in clinical applications. In this study, a dual-frequency transducer with 11MHz and 48MHz was used to measure the association between the biological tissue displacement and the applied acoustic radiation force. The output intensity of the acoustic radiation force generated by the pushing element ranged from 1.8 to 57.9mW/cm(2), as measured using a calibrated hydrophone. The results reveal that all of the acoustic intensities produced by the transducer in the experiments were within the limits specified by FDA regulations and could still displace the biological tissues. Furthermore, blood clots with different hematocrits, which have elastic properties similar to the lipid pool of plaques, with stiffness ranging from 0.5 to 1.9kPa could be displaced from 1 to 4μm, whereas the porcine arteries with stiffness ranging from 120 to 291kPa were displaced from 0.4 to 1.3μm when an acoustic intensity of 57.9mW/cm(2) was used. The in vitro ARFI images of the artery with a blood clot and artificial arteriosclerosis showed a clear distinction of the stiffness distributions of the vessel wall. All the results reveal that ARFI-IVUS imaging has the potential to distinguish the elastic properties of plaques and vessels. Moreover, the acoustic intensity used in ARFI imaging has been experimentally quantified. Although the size of this two-element transducer is unsuitable for IVUS imaging, the

  5. Radiation protection potential of MOX-fuel doped with 231Pa and Cs radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Kryuchkov, E F; Glebov, V B; Apse, V A; Shmelev, A N

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of MOX-fuel self-protection during full cycle of MOX-fuel management. Under conditions of the closed LWR cycle the proliferation-resistance levels were evaluated for fresh and spent MOX-fuel with 231Pa and Cs feed. As it follows from the paper results, combination of these two admixtures being doped into MOX-fuel is able to enhance the inherent radiation barrier and to weaken shortcomings of both proliferation deterrents.

  6. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRG) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high specific power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and DOE called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provide about 50 to 450 watts DC to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific power may be slightly lower than the ASRG and

  7. Naturally induced secondary radiation in interplanetary space: Preliminary analyses for gamma radiation and radioisotope production from thermal neutron activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza-Rosado, Heriberto

    1991-09-01

    Thermal neutron activation analyses were carried out for various space systems components to determine gamma radiation dose rates and food radiation contamination levels. The space systems components selected were those for which previous radiation studies existed. These include manned space vehicle radiation shielding, liquid hydrogen propellant tanks for a Mars mission, and a food supply used as space vehicle radiation shielding. The computational method used is based on the fast neutron distribution generated by the BRYNTRN and HZETRN transport codes for Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) at solar minimum conditions and intense solar flares in space systems components. The gamma dose rates for soft tissue are calculated for water and aluminum space vehicle slab shields considering volumetric source self-attenuation and exponential buildup factors. In the case of the lunar habitat with regolith shielding, a completely exposed spherical habitat was assumed for mathematical convenience and conservative calculations. Activation analysis of the food supply used as radiation shielding is presented for four selected nutrients: potassium, calcium, sodium, and phosphorus. Radioactive isotopes that could represent a health hazard if ingested are identified and their concentrations are identified. For nutrients soluble in water, it was found that all induced radioactivity was below the accepted maximum permissible concentrations.

  8. Naturally induced secondary radiation in interplanetary space: Preliminary analyses for gamma radiation and radioisotope production from thermal neutron activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaza-Rosado, Heriberto

    1991-01-01

    Thermal neutron activation analyses were carried out for various space systems components to determine gamma radiation dose rates and food radiation contamination levels. The space systems components selected were those for which previous radiation studies existed. These include manned space vehicle radiation shielding, liquid hydrogen propellant tanks for a Mars mission, and a food supply used as space vehicle radiation shielding. The computational method used is based on the fast neutron distribution generated by the BRYNTRN and HZETRN transport codes for Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) at solar minimum conditions and intense solar flares in space systems components. The gamma dose rates for soft tissue are calculated for water and aluminum space vehicle slab shields considering volumetric source self-attenuation and exponential buildup factors. In the case of the lunar habitat with regolith shielding, a completely exposed spherical habitat was assumed for mathematical convenience and conservative calculations. Activation analysis of the food supply used as radiation shielding is presented for four selected nutrients: potassium, calcium, sodium, and phosphorus. Radioactive isotopes that could represent a health hazard if ingested are identified and their concentrations are identified. For nutrients soluble in water, it was found that all induced radioactivity was below the accepted maximum permissible concentrations.

  9. Intravascular synovial sarcoma of the pulmonary artery with massive pleural effusion: report of a case with a favorable response to Ifosfamide chemotherapy and palliative radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Maekura, Toshiya; Shimizu, Shigeki; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Morimoto, Masahiro; Okuma, Tomohisa; Matsui, Hideo; Atagi, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) commonly arises in the para-articular soft tissue; however, very few cases of intravascular SS have so far been reported. We herein describe a case of pulmonary artery SS with massive pleural effusion. A biopsy of the pleural lesions showed uniform short spindle cell proliferation, while the SYT-SSX fusion gene, which is preceded by chromosomal translocation t(X;18)(p11;q11), was detected using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Treatment with ifosfamide chemotherapy and palliative radiation therapy was effective in reducing the growth of the tumor in the pulmonary artery and pleural lesions, indicating that this regimen may be useful for the treatment of unresectable SS in the pulmonary artery.

  10. Nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s through the mid-1970s and occupational radiation doses to technologists from diagnostic radioisotope procedures.

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Mettler, Fred A; Beckner, William M; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Kirchner, Peter T; Langan, James K; Reba, Richard C; Smith, Gary T; Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S; Melo, Dunstana R; Lee, Choonsik; Simon, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians and technologists who performed nuclear medicine procedures during those years. To better understand and characterize historical radiation exposures to technologists, the authors collected information on nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. To collect historical data needed to reconstruct doses to technologists, a focus group interview was held with experts who began using radioisotopes in medicine in the 1950s and the 1960s. Typical protocols and descriptions of clinical practices of diagnostic radioisotope procedures were defined by the focus group and were used to estimate occupational doses received by personnel, per nuclear medicine procedure, conducted in the 1950s to 1960s using radiopharmaceuticals available at that time. The radionuclide activities in the organs of the reference patient were calculated using the biokinetic models described in ICRP Publication 53. Air kerma rates as a function of distance from a reference patient were calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using a hybrid computational phantom. Estimates of occupational doses to nuclear medicine technologists per procedure were found to vary from less than 0.01 μSv (thyroid scan with 1.85 MBq of administered I-iodide) to 0.4 μSv (brain scan with 26 MBq of Hg-chlormerodin). Occupational doses for the same diagnostic procedures starting in the mid-1960s but using Tc were also estimated. The doses estimated in this study show that the introduction of Tc resulted in an increase in occupational doses per procedure.

  11. Radioisotope trithiol complexes

    DOEpatents

    Jurisson, Silvia S.; Cutler, Cathy S.; Degraffenreid, Anthony J.

    2016-08-30

    The present invention is directed to a series of stable radioisotope trithiol complexes that provide a simplified route for the direct complexation of radioisotopes present in low concentrations. In certain embodiments, the complex contains a linking domain configured to conjugate the radioisotope trithiol complex to a targeting vector. The invention is also directed to a novel method of linking the radioisotope to a trithiol compound to form the radioisotope trithiol complex. The inventive radioisotope trithiol complexes may be utilized for a variety of applications, including diagnostics and/or treatment in nuclear medicine.

  12. Silicon Carbide Radioisotope Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George C.

    2005-01-01

    The substantial radiation resistance and large bandgap of SiC semiconductor materials makes them an attractive candidate for application in a high efficiency, long life radioisotope battery. To evaluate their potential in this application, simulated batteries were constructed using SiC diodes and the alpha particle emitter Americium Am-241 or the beta particle emitter Promethium Pm-147. The Am-241 based battery showed high initial power output and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 16%, but the power output decayed 52% in 500 hours due to radiation damage. In contrast the Pm-147 based battery showed a similar power output level and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 0.6%, but no degradation was observed in 500 hours. However, the Pm-147 battery required approximately 1000 times the particle fluence as the Am-242 battery to achieve a similar power output. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of battery and suggestions for future improvements will be discussed.

  13. RADIOISOTOPE EXPERIMENTS IN HIGH SCHOOL BIOLOGY, AN ANNOTATED SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HURLBURT, EVELYN M.

    SELECTED REFERENCES ON THE USE OF RADIOISOTOPES IN BIOLOGY ARE CONTAINED IN THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS. MATERIALS INCLUDED WERE PUBLISHED AFTER 1960 AND DEAL WITH THE PROPERTIES OF RADIATION, SIMPLE RADIATION DETECTION PROCEDURES, AND TECHNIQUES FOR USING RADIOISOTOPES EXPERIMENTALLY. THE REFERENCES ARE LISTED IN…

  14. Radioisotopic heat source

    DOEpatents

    Sayell, E.H.

    1973-10-23

    A radioisotopic heat source is described which includes a core of heat productive, radioisotopic material, an impact resistant layer of graphite surrounding said core, and a shell of iridium metal intermediate the core and the impact layer. The source may also include a compliant mat of iridium between the core and the iridium shell, as well as an outer covering of iridium metal about the entire heat source. (Official Gazette)

  15. Intravascular ultrasound imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cavaye, D.M.; White, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    This book will give vascular surgeons, cardiologists, radiologists, and technologists a complete working knowledge of intravascular ultrasound imaging and the crucial role of this new technology in endovascular diagnosis and therapy. The book reviews the essential principles of vascular pathology and ultrasound imaging and then provides state-of-the-art information on intraluminal ultrasound imaging devices and techniques, including practical guidelines for using catheters, optimizing image quality, and avoiding artifacts. Image interpretation and computerized image reconstruction are also discussed in detail. The first section explains the diagnostic, therapeutic, and experimental applications of intravascular ultrasound, particularly as a adjunct to angioplasty and other current interventional procedures.

  16. Safety monitoring system for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoltan, A.

    1973-01-01

    System alerts personnel of hazards which may develop while they are performing tests on radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Remedial action is initiated to minimize damage. Five operating conditions are monitored: hot junction temperature, cold junction temperature, thermal shroud coolant flow, vacuum in test chamber, and alpha radiation.

  17. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators for implanted pacemakers

    SciTech Connect

    Pustovalov, A.A.; Bovin, A.V.; Fedorets, V.I.; Shapovalov, V.P.

    1986-08-01

    This paper discusses the development and application of long-life lithium batteries and the problems associated with miniature radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RITEG) with service lives of 10 years or longer. On eof the main problems encountered when devising a radioisotope heat source (RHS) for an RITEG is to obtain biomedical /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ with a specific neutron yield of 3.10/sup 3/-4.10/sup 3/ (g /SUP ./ sec)/sup -1/, equivalent to metallic Pu 238, and with a content of gamma impurities sufficient to ensure a permissible exposure a permissible exposure does rate (EDR) of a mixture of neutron and gamma radiation. After carrying out the isotope exchange and purifying the initial sample of its gamma impurity elements, the authors obtain biomedical Pu 238 satisfying the indicated requirements king suitable for use in the power packs of medical devices. Taking the indicated specifications into account, the Ritm-1o and gamma radioisotope heat sources were designed, built, tested in models and under natural conditions, and then into production as radioisotope thermoelectric generators designed to power the electronic circuits of implanted pacemakers. The Ritm-MT and Gemma radioisotope thermoelectric generators described are basic units, which can be used as self-contained power supplies for electronic equipment with power requirements in the micromilliwatt range.

  18. BEST medical radioisotope production cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabaiduc, Vasile; Milton, Bruce; Suthanthiran, Krishnan; Gelbart, W. Z.; Johnson, Richard R.

    2013-04-01

    Best Cyclotron Systems Inc (BCSI) is currently developing 14 MeV, 25 MeV, 35MeV and 70MeV cyclotrons for radioisotope production and research applications as well as the entire spectrum of targets and nuclear synthesis modules for the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and radiation therapy isotopes. The company is a subsidiary of Best Medical International, renowned in the field of medical instrumentation and radiation therapy. All cyclotrons have external negative hydrogen ion sources, four radial sectors with two dees in opposite valleys, cryogenic vacuum system and simultaneous beam extraction on opposite lines. The beam intensity ranges from 400 μA to 1000 μA, depending on the cyclotron energy and application [1].

  19. Cyclotron Production of Medical Radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Avila-Rodriguez, M. A.; Zarate-Morales, A.; Flores-Moreno, A.

    2010-08-04

    The cyclotron production of radioisotopes for medical applications is gaining increased significance in diagnostic molecular imaging techniques such as PET and SPECT. In this regard, radioisotope production has never been easier or more convenient until de introduction of compact medical cyclotrons in the last few decades, which allowed the use of short-lived radioisotopes in in vivo nuclear medicine studies on a routine basis. This review outlines some general considerations about the production of radioisotopes using charged particle accelerators.

  20. Intravascular ultrasound elastography.

    PubMed

    van der Steen, A F; de Korte, C L; Céspedes, E I

    1998-10-01

    Intravascular Ultrasound Blastography. The response of a tissue to mechanical excitation is a function of its mechanical properties. Excitation can be dynamic or quasistatic in nature. The response (e.g. displacement, velocity, compression) can be measured via ultrasound. This is the main principle underlying ultrasound elasticity imaging, sonoelasticity imaging, or ultrasound elastography. It is of great interest to know the local hardness of vessel wall and plaques. Intravascular elastography yields information unavailable or inconclusive if obtained from IVUS alone and thus contributes to more correct diagnosis. Potentially it can be used for therapy guidance. During the last decade several working groups used elastography in intravascular applications with varying success. In this paper we discuss the various approaches by different working groups. Focus will be on the approach of the Rotterdam group. Using a 30 MHz IVUS catheter, RF data are acquired from vessels in vitro at different intraluminal pressures. Local tissue displacement estimation by cross-correlation is followed by computation of the local strain. The resulting image supplies local information on the elastic properties of the vessel and plaque with high spatial resolution. Feasibility and usefulness are shown by means of phantom measurements. Furthermore, initial in vitro results of femoral arteries and correlation with histology are discussed. Phantom data show that the elastograms reveal information not presented by the echogram. In vitro artery data prove that in principle elastography is capable of identifying plaque composition where echography fails.

  1. Radioisotopic heat source

    DOEpatents

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  2. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946-1953.

    PubMed

    Creager, Angela N H

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear "piles," soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country's atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments-both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy-in the early Cold War.

  3. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946–1953

    PubMed Central

    Creager, Angela N. H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear “piles,” soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country’s atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments—both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy—in the early Cold War. PMID:20725612

  4. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Semba, Kentaro

    2006-09-01

    The use of radioisotopes to label specific molecules in a defined way has greatly furthered the discovery and dissection of biochemical pathways. The development of methods to synthesize such tagged biological compounds inexpensively on an industrial scale has enabled them to be used routinely in laboratory protocols, including many detailed in this manual. Although most of these protocols involve the use of only microcurie amounts of radioactivity, some (particularly those describing the metabolic labeling of proteins or nucleic acids within cells) require amounts on the order of millicuries. In all cases where radioisotopes are used, depending on the quantity and nature of the isotope, certain precautions must be taken to ensure the safety of the scientist. It is essential to use good safety practices and proper protection to handle radioactive substances. This unit discusses handling, storage, and disposal of the isotopes most frequently used in biological research.

  5. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Semba, Kentaro

    2006-06-01

    The use of radioisotopes to label specific molecules in a defined way has greatly furthered the discovery and dissection of biochemical pathways. The development of methods to synthesize such tagged biological compounds inexpensively on an industrial scale has enabled them to be used routinely in laboratory protocols, including many detailed in this manual. Although most of these protocols involve the use of only microcurie amounts of radioactivity, some (particularly those describing the metabolic labeling of proteins or nucleic acids within cells) require amounts on the order of millicuries. In all cases where radioisotopes are used, depending on the quantity and nature of the isotope, certain precautions must be taken to ensure the safety of the scientist. It is essential to use good safety practices and proper protection to handle radioactive substances. This unit discusses handling, storage, and disposal of the isotopes most frequently used in biological research.

  6. Taming Highly Charged Radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Usman; Eberhardt, Benjamin; Jang, Fuluni; Schultz, Brad; Simon, Vanessa; Delheij, Paul; Dilling, Jens; Gwinner, Gerald

    2012-10-01

    The precise and accurate mass of short-lived radioisotopes is a very important parameter in physics. Contribution to the improvement of nuclear models, metrological standard fixing and tests of the unitarity of the Caibbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix are a few examples where the mass value plays a major role. TRIUMF's ion trap for atomic and nuclear physics (TITAN) is a unique facility of three online ion traps that enables the mass measurement of short-lived isotopes with high precision (˜10-8). At present TITAN's electron beam ion trap (EBIT) increases the charge state to increase the precision, but there is no facility to significantly reduce the energy spread introduced by the charge breeding process. The precision of the measured mass of radioisotopes is linearly dependent on the charge state while the energy spread of the charged radioisotopes affects the precision adversely. To boost the precision level of mass measurement at TITAN without loosing too many ions, a cooler Penning trap (CPET) is being developed. CPET is designed to use either positively (proton) or negatively (electron) charged particles to reduce the energy spread via sympathetic cooling. Off-line setup of CPET is complete. Details of the working principles and updates are presented

  7. An intravascular protein osmometer.

    PubMed

    Henson, J W; Brace, R A

    1983-05-01

    Our purpose was to develop an intravascular osmometer for measuring the colloid (i.e., protein) osmotic pressure (COP) of circulating blood. A semipermeable hollow fiber from a Cordis Dow artificial kidney (C-DAK 4000) was attached to polyethylene tubing on one end, filled with saline, and sealed at the other end. This was small enough to be inserted into the vasculature of research animals. Protein osmotic pressure plus hydrostatic pressure was measured by a Statham pressure transducer attached to the hollow fiber. Simultaneously, a second catheter and transducer was used to measure hydrostatic pressure, which was subtracted from the pressure measured from the fiber with an on-line computer. The system was documented by a variety of tests. The colloid osmotic pressure vs. albumin concentration curve determined with the fiber is identical to the curve determined by standard membrane osmometry. The time constant for 2- and 8-cm fibers was 2.6 +/- 0.6 and 1.5 +/- 0.5 (+/- SD) min, respectively. The reflection coefficient (+/- SD) of the fiber for NaCl is 0.042 +/- 0.019 (n = 38); COP measured at varying temperatures (absolute scale) changed linearly as expected from COP = nCRT (i.e., van't Hoff's law). Finally, hollow-fiber osmometers were inserted into femoral veins of dogs and sheep, and blood COP was continuously recorded during osmotic manipulations. In conclusion, we attempted to develop and document a simple method for continuous measurement of intravascular colloid osmotic pressure.

  8. Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology program is developing next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power System (RPS) technology. Performance goals of advanced radioisotope power systems include improvement over the state-of-practice General Purpose Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator by providing significantly higher efficiency to reduce the number of radioisotope fuel modules, and increase specific power (watts/kilogram). Other Advanced RPS goals include safety, long-life, reliability, scalability, multi-mission capability, resistance to radiation, and minimal interference with the scientific payload. NASA has awarded ten contracts in the technology areas of Brayton, Stirling, Thermoelectric, and Thermophotovoltaic power conversion including five development contracts that deal with more mature technologies and five research contracts. The Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team includes members from NASA GRC, JPL, DOE and Orbital Sciences whose function is to review the technologies being developed under the ten Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology contracts and assess their relevance to NASA's future missions. Presented is an overview of the ten radioisotope power conversion technology contracts and NASA's Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team.

  9. Alternative Radioisotopes for Heat and Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, T.; Sarsfield, M.; Rice, T.

    Production of 238Pu requires considerable facilities including a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plants that are very expensive to build and operate. Thus, a more economical alternative is very attractive to the industry. There are many alternative radioisotopes that exist but few that satisfy the criteria of performance, availability and cost to produce. Any alternative to 238Pu must exist in a chemical form that is compatible with the materials required to safely encapsulate the heat source at the high temperatures of operation and potential launch failure scenarios. The chemical form must also have suitable thermal properties to ensure maximum energy conversion efficiencies when integrated into radioisotope thermoelectric generators over the required mission durations. In addition, the radiation dose must be low enough for operators during production and not so prohibitive that excessive shielding mass is required on the space craft. This paper will focus on the preferred European alternative of 241Am, and the issues that will need to be addressed.

  10. Plastic Gamma Sensors: An Application in Detection of Radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    S. Mukhopadhyay

    2003-06-01

    A brief survey of plastic scintillators for various radiation measurement applications is presented here. The utility of plastic scintillators for practical applications such as gamma radiation monitoring, real-time radioisotope detection and screening is evaluated in laboratory and field measurements. This study also reports results of Monte Carlo-type predictive responses of common plastic scintillators in gamma and neutron radiation fields. Small-size plastic detectors are evaluated for static and dynamic gamma-ray detection sensitivity of selected radiation sources.

  11. Radioisotope Power System Pool Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Bolotin, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for NASA deep space science missions have historically used static thermoelectric-based designs because they are highly reliable, and their radioisotope heat sources can be passively cooled throughout the mission life cycle. Recently, a significant effort to develop a dynamic RPS, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was conducted by NASA and the Department of Energy, because Stirling based designs offer energy conversion efficiencies four times higher than heritage thermoelectric designs; and the efficiency would proportionately reduce the amount of radioisotope fuel needed for the same power output. However, the long term reliability of a Stirling based design is a concern compared to thermoelectric designs, because for certain Stirling system architectures the radioisotope heat sources must be actively cooled via the dynamic operation of Stirling converters throughout the mission life cycle. To address this reliability concern, a new dynamic Stirling cycle RPS architecture is proposed called the RPS Pool Concept.

  12. Accelerated Decay of Radioisotopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    00-01 -2013 Technical June20 l l-June 2012 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER DTRA MIPR 11-2362M Accelerated Decay of Radioisotopes Sb...268 x E +2 4.788 026 x E -2 6.894 757 4.535 924 x E -1 4.214 011 x E -2 1.601 846 x E +1 1.000 000 x E -2 2.579 760 x E - 4 1.000 000 x E -8...c a y o f R a d i o i s o t o p e s " P r o p o s a l # B R C A L L 0 7 - N - 2 - 0 0 4 7 I l l u s t r a t i o n o f \\ P F R P a s p o

  13. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Bursik, Steve

    2010-04-01

    The pursuit of scientific knowledge has been considerably advanced by the use of biochemical molecules that incorporate radioisotopes at specific sites. The fate of these labeled molecules, and/or the radiolabeled products that result from biochemical reactions in which the parent molecule was involved, can be traced using a variety of instruments that detect radioactivity. This appendix begins with a discussion of the principles of radioactivity in order to provide the reader/user with knowledge on which to base a common sense approach to the safe use of isotopes. The characteristics of isotopes most commonly used in a molecular biology laboratory are then detailed, as well as the safety precautions and monitoring methods peculiar to each one. Detection and imaging methods used in experimental analysis are reviewed. Finally, an outline of an orderly response to a spill of radioactive material is presented.

  14. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Bursik, Steve

    2007-07-01

    The pursuit of scientific knowledge has been considerably advanced by the use of biochemical molecules that incorporate radioisotopes at specific sites. The fate of these labeled molecules, and/or the radiolabeled products that result from biochemical reactions in which the parent molecule was involved, can be traced using a variety of instruments that detect radioactivity. This appendix begins with a discussion of the principles of radioactivity in order to provide the reader/user with knowledge on which to base a common sense approach to the safe use of isotopes. The characteristics of isotopes most commonly used in a molecular biology laboratory are then detailed, as well as the safety precautions and monitoring methods peculiar to each one. Detection and imaging methods used in experimental analysis are reviewed. Finally, an outline of an orderly response to a spill of radioactive material is presented.

  15. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Bursik, Steve

    2008-08-01

    The pursuit of scientific knowledge has been considerably advanced by the use of biochemical molecules that incorporate radioisotopes at specific sites. The fate of these labeled molecules, and/or the radiolabeled products that result from biochemical reactions in which the parent molecule was involved, can be traced using a variety of instruments that detect radioactivity. This appendix begins with a discussion of the principles of radioactivity in order to provide the reader/user with knowledge on which to base a common sense approach to the safe use of isotopes. The characteristics of isotopes most commonly used in a molecular biology laboratory are then detailed, as well as the safety precautions and monitoring methods peculiar to each one. Detection and imaging methods used in experimental analysis are reviewed. Finally, an outline of an orderly response to a spill of radioactive material is presented.

  16. High efficiency radioisotope thermophotovoltaic prototype generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, James E.; Samaras, John E.; Fraas, Lewis M.; Ewell, Richard

    1995-01-01

    A radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator space power system (RTPV) is lightweight, low-cost alternative to the present radioisotope thermoelectric generator system (RTG). The fabrication of such an RTPV generator has recently become feasible as the result of the invention of the GaSb infrared sensitive photovoltaic cell. Herein, we present the results of a parametric study of emitters and optical filters in conjuction with existing data on gallium antimonide cells. We compare a polished tungsten emitter with an Erbia selective emitter for use in combination with a simple dielectric filter and a gallium antimonide cell array. We find that the polished tungsten emitter is by itself a very selective emitter with low emissivity beyond 4 microns. Given a gallium antimonide cell and a tungsten emitter, a simple dielectric filter can be designed to transmit radiant energy below 1.7 microns and to reflect radiant energy between 1.7 and 4 microns back to the emitter. Because of the low long wavelength emissivity associated with the polished tungsten emitter, this simple dielectric filter then yields very respectable system performance. Also as a result of the longer wavelength fall-off in the tungsten emissivity curve, the radiation energy peak for a polished tungsten emitter operating at 1300 K shifts to shorter wavelengths relative to the blackbody spectrum so that the radiated energy peak falls right at the gallium antimonide cell bandedge. The result is that the response of the gallium antimonide cell is well matched to a polished tungsten emitter. We propose, therefore, to fabricate an operating prototype of a near term radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator design consisting of a polished tungsten emitter, standard gallium antimonide cells, and a near-term dielectric filter. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory will design and build the thermal cavity, and JX Crystals will fabricate the gallium antimonide cells, dielectric filters, and resultant receiver panels. With

  17. Improved dosimetry techniques for intravascular brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehgal, Varun

    Coronary artery disease leads to the accumulation of atheromatous plaque leading to coronary stenosis. Coronary intervention techniques such as balloon angioplasty and atherectomy are used to address coronary stenosis and establish a stable lumen thus enhancing blood flow to the myocardium. Restenosis or re-blockage of the arteries is a major limitation of the above mentioned interventional techniques. Neointimal hyperplasia or proliferation of cells in response to the vascular injury as a result of coronary intervention is considered to be one of the major causes of restenosis. Recent studies indicated that irradiation of the coronary lesion site, with radiation doses ranging from 15 to 30 Gy, leads to diminishing neointimal hyperplasia with subsequent reduction in restenosis. The radiation dose is given by catheter-based radiation delivery systems using beta-emitters 90Sr/90Y, 32P and gamma-emitting 192Ir among others. However the dose schema used for dose prescription for these sources are relatively simplistic, and are based on calculations using uniform homogenous water or tissue media and simple cylinder geometry. Stenotic coronary vessels are invariably lined with atheromatous plaque of heterogeneous composition, the radiation dose distribution obtained from such dosimetry data can cause significant variations in the actual dose received by a given patient. Such discrepancies in dose calculation can introduce relatively large uncertainties in the limits of dose window for effective and safe application of intravascular brachytherapy, and consequently in the clinical evaluation of the efficacy of this modality. In this research study we investigated the effect of different geometrical and material heterogeneities, including residual plaque, catheter non-centering, lesion eccentricity and cardiac motion on the radiation dose delivered at the lesion site. Correction factors including dose perturbation factors and dose variation factors have been calculated

  18. Image Processing in Intravascular OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhao; Wilson, David L.; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Rollins, Andrew M.

    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in the world. Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) is rapidly becoming a promising imaging modality for characterization of atherosclerotic plaques and evaluation of coronary stenting. OCT has several unique advantages over alternative technologies, such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), due to its better resolution and contrast. For example, OCT is currently the only imaging modality that can measure the thickness of the fibrous cap of an atherosclerotic plaque in vivo. OCT also has the ability to accurately assess the coverage of individual stent struts by neointimal tissue over time. However, it is extremely time-consuming to analyze IVOCT images manually to derive quantitative diagnostic metrics. In this chapter, we introduce some computer-aided methods to automate the common IVOCT image analysis tasks.

  19. How to Handle Radioisotopes Safely.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulcoski, John W.

    This booklet is one in a series of instructional aids designed for use by elementary and secondary school science teachers. The various units and forms of radioactive materials used by teachers are first considered. Then, the quantities of radioisotopes that a person may possess without a license from the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) are…

  20. An in-cell alpha detection system for radioisotope component assembly operations

    SciTech Connect

    Carteret, B.A. ); Goles, R.W. )

    1991-09-01

    A remotely operated alpha detection system is being developed for use at the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. It will be used in hot cells being constructed to assemble components of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators for space power applications. The in-cell detection equipment will survey radiological swipe samples to determine smearable surface contamination levels on radioisotope fuel, fueled components, and hot-cell work areas. This system is potentially adaptable to other hot cell and glovebox applications where radiation dose rates and contamination levels are expected to be low. 2 figs.

  1. Efficient Radioisotope Energy Transfer by Gold Nanoclusters for Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Volotskova, Olga; Sun, Conroy; Stafford, Jason H; Koh, Ai Leen; Ma, Xiaowei; Cheng, Zhen; Cui, Bianxiao; Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei

    2015-08-26

    Beta-emitting isotopes Fluorine-18 and Yttrium-90 are tested for their potential to stimulate gold nanoclusters conjugated with blood serum proteins (AuNCs). AuNCs excited by either medical radioisotope are found to be highly effective ionizing radiation energy transfer mediators, suitable for in vivo optical imaging. AuNCs synthesized with protein templates convert beta-decaying radioisotope energy into tissue-penetrating optical signals between 620 and 800 nm. Optical signals are not detected from AuNCs incubated with Technetium-99m, a pure gamma emitter that is used as a control. Optical emission from AuNCs is not proportional to Cerenkov radiation, indicating that the energy transfer between the radionuclide and AuNC is only partially mediated by Cerenkov photons. A direct Coulombic interaction is proposed as a novel and significant mechanism of energy transfer between decaying radionuclides and AuNCs.

  2. [Intravascular lymphoma causing acute abdomen].

    PubMed

    Kröber, S M

    2007-02-01

    A 65-year old man presented with acute abdominal pain and fever. The initial diagnosis was small bowel gangrene. Pathology revealed small to large abdominal vessels obliterated by cells of intravascular B-cell-lymphoma (IVL). Visceral IVL involvement is common at autopsy but rarely reported in patients with acute abdomen. The subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy, which in typical cases is characterized by cephalic or cutaneous manifestation. Few cases showed involvement of large vessels which in combination to fibrin thrombi may lead to infarction of the organ involved. Thus IVL should be considered in cases of ischemic diseases with fever of unknown origin.

  3. Bioresorbable vascular scaffold restenosis: intravascular imaging evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fabris, Enrico; Kilic, Ismail Dogu; Caiazzo, Gianluca; Serdoz, Roberta; Foin, Nicolas; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Di Mario, Carlo

    2015-11-21

    The mechanism of restenosis in bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) may be different from that of metallic stents and it is still poorly investigated. Intravascular imaging techniques are useful tools for corroborating or excluding possible mechanisms of intra-scaffold restenosis. In these novel devices intravascular imaging should be systematically used for a better comprehension of the in-scaffold restenosis mechanism.

  4. HFIR-produced medical radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Alexander, C.W.

    1997-12-01

    We have experimentally determined the yields of a number of medical radioisotopes produced in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Hydraulic Tube (HT) facility. The HT facility is located in the very high flux region in the flux trap of the reactor, providing on-line access capability while the reactor is operating. The HT facility consists of nine vertically stacked capsules centered just adjacent to the core horizontal midplane. HFIR operates at a nominal power level of 85 MW. The capabilities of the HFIR-HT facilities offer increased efficiency, greater availability, and optimization of radioisotope production, and, as a result, the conservation of rare or expensive target isotopes.

  5. An Overview and Status of NASA's Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Wong, Wayne A.; Tuttle, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) development program is developing next generation radioisotope power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that can not be met by either photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power System (RPS) technology. The Advanced Power Conversion Research and Technology project of the Advanced RPS development program is funding research and technology activities through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) 02-OSS-01, "Research Opportunities in Space Science 2002" entitled "Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology" (RPCT), August 13, 2002. The objective of the RPCT NRA is to advance the development of radioisotope power conversion technologies to provide significant improvements over the state-of-practice General Purpose Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator by providing significantly higher efficiency to reduce the number of radioisotope fuel modules, and increase specific power (watts/kilogram). Other Advanced RPS goals include safety, long-life, reliability, scalability, multi-mission capability, resistance to radiation, and minimal interference with the scientific payload. Ten RPCT NRA contracts were awarded in 2003 in the areas of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectric (TE), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion technologies. This paper will provide an overview of the RPCT NRA, and a brief summary of accomplishments over the first 18 months but focusing on advancements made over the last 6 months.

  6. Radioisotope production and its utilization in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Yusof, A.b.A.

    1985-01-01

    The PUSPATI TRIGA MARK II research reactor in Malaysia was commissioned in 1982 and production of radioisotope commenced 2 years later. However, radioisotopes have been utilized in the country since 1960 with medical applications pioneering the field, and later followed by usage in industry and agricultural research. Currently, Malaysia spends more than M$1.5 million (US$0.65 million) annually on the import of radioisotopes and associated products. This paper briefly describes the present status of radioisotope utilization in Malaysia. Radioisotopes are being used in the fields of medicine, industry (NDT and quality control, nuclear gauging, radiotracer), agriculture (animal production, food irradiation, soil-plant relationship and mutation breeding studies) and also in environmental control and basic science research. The paper also gives an account of radioisotope production in Malaysia, its facilities and target handling technique.

  7. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985.

  8. Acute Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Ru-Wen; Tsoi, Daphne T.

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy is a common cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation and usually presents as a chronic disorder in solid organ tumours. We present a rare case of recurrent acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in neuroendocrine carcinoma after manipulation, firstly, by core biopsy and, later, by cytotoxic therapy causing a release of procoagulants and cytokines from lysed tumour cells. This is reminiscent of tumour lysis syndrome where massive quantities of intracellular electrolytes and nucleic acid are released, causing acute metabolic imbalance and renal failure. This case highlights the potential complication of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation after trauma to malignant cells. PMID:23139666

  9. Intravascular lymphoma and thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Katalinić, Darko; Valković, Toni; Lucin, Ksenija; Rudez, Josip

    2006-03-01

    Intravascular lymphoma (IVL) is a rare disease characterized by the proliferation of neoplastic cells in the small blood vessels that frequently goes undiagnosed until the time of autopsy. The neoplastic cells are usually of B-cell origin. The clinical course was examined to determine factors that would facilitate antemortem diagnosis. IVL is observed with clinical, histopathological and immunohystochemical methods. This is a unique case because the thyroid gland is a rare place for IVL. Accent is given on immunohystochemical methods and tissue biopsy in the differential diagnosis of IVL when nervous system and thyroid gland dysfunction occur This report indicates that micro-ecosystem of multinodular goitrous might influence the expression of chemokines and/or adhesion moleculs on endothelial and lymphoma cells, leading to heavy infiltration of thyroid gland. Concurrently, that may guide the physician to tissue biopsy facilitating antemortem diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy.

  10. [Application of radioisotopes for theranostics, a combination of diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Saji, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Radioisotopes emit radiation with various characteristics. These characteristics have been used for various applications of radioisotopes in clinical fields. For example, diagnostic nuclear medicine is a technique that uses gamma-emitted radionuclides with high permeability into the body and can visualize changes in physiological and biochemical processes throughout the distributed and interrelated systems of living tissues and organs. Therapeutic nuclear medicine is a technique that uses beta-emitted radionuclides with high radiation damage to the cell and can be used for internal radiation therapy. Therefore, a strategy in which the same ligand is labeled with beta-emitted or gamma-emitted radioisotopes, i.e., a theranostics approach, is useful because an extensive availability of diagnostics and therapeutics is possible. In this presentation, some examples of a theranostics approach for radiolabeled compounds will be reported, including the results of our recent research.

  11. Cosmogenic radioisotopes on LDEF surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Albrecht, A.; Herzog, G.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1992-01-01

    The radioisotope Be-7 was discovered in early 1990 on the front surface, and the front surface only, of the LDEF. A working hypothesis is that the isotope, which is known to be mainly produced in the stratosphere by spallation of nitrogen and oxygen nuclei with cosmic ray protons or secondary neutrons, diffuses upward and is absorbed onto metal surfaces of spacecraft. The upward transport must be rapid, that is, its characteristic time scale is similar to, or shorter than, the 53 day half-life of the isotope. It is probably by analogy with meteoritic metal atmospheric chemistry, that the form of the Be at a few 100 km altitude is as the positive ion Be(+) which is efficiently incorporated into the ionic lattice of oxides, such as Al2O3, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, etc., naturally occurring on surfaces of Al and stainless steel. Other radioisotopes of Be, Cl, and C are also produced in the atmosphere, and a search was begun to discover these. Of interest are Be-10 and C-14 for which the production cross sections are well known. The method of analysis is accelerator mass spectrometry. Samples from LDEF clamp plates are being chemically extracted, purified, and prepared for an accelerator run.

  12. Power from Radioisotopes, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.; Mead, Robert L.

    This 1971 revision deals with radioisotopes and their use in power generators. Early developments and applications for the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) and Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are reviewed. Present uses in space and on earth are included. Uses in space are as power sources in various satellites and space…

  13. Radioisotope penogram in diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Fanous, H.N.; Jevtich, M.J.; Chen, D.C.; Edson, M.

    1982-11-01

    A radioisotope technique to estimate penile blood flow is described. The radioisotope penogram is noninvasive and gives a dynamic evaluation of the arterial supply, venous drainage, and blood flow in the corporeal bodies. The penogram is a valuable adjunct in evaluation of patients with vasculogenic impotence.

  14. Radioisotope Power: A Key Technology for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George; Sutliff, Tom; Dudzinski, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    A Radioisotope Power System (RPS) generates power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes, such as Plutonium-238 (Pu-238), into electricity. First used in space by the U.S. in 1961, these devices have enabled some of the most challenging and exciting space missions in history, including the Pioneer and Voyager probes to the outer solar system; the Apollo lunar surface experiments; the Viking landers; the Ulysses polar orbital mission about the Sun; the Galileo mission to Jupiter; the Cassini mission orbiting Saturn; and the recently launched New Horizons mission to Pluto. Radioisotopes have also served as a versatile heat source for moderating equipment thermal environments on these and many other missions, including the Mars exploration rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. The key advantage of RPS is its ability to operate continuously, independent of orientation and distance relative to the Sun. Radioisotope systems are long-lived, rugged, compact, highly reliable, and relatively insensitive to radiation and other environmental effects. As such, they are ideally suited for missions involving long-lived, autonomous operations in the extreme conditions of space and other planetary bodies. This paper reviews the history of RPS for the U.S. space program. It also describes current development of a new Stirling cycle-based generator that will greatly expand the application of nuclear-powered missions in the future.

  15. Radioisotope Power: A Key Technology for Deep Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George R.; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Duddzinski, Leonard

    2009-01-01

    A Radioisotope Power System (RPS) generates power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes, such as Plutonium-238 (Pu-238), into electricity. First used in space by the U.S. in 1961, these devices have enabled some of the most challenging and exciting space missions in history, including the Pioneer and Voyager probes to the outer solar system; the Apollo lunar surface experiments; the Viking landers; the Ulysses polar orbital mission about the Sun; the Galileo mission to Jupiter; the Cassini mission orbiting Saturn; and the recently launched New Horizons mission to Pluto. Radioisotopes have also served as a versatile heat source for moderating equipment thermal environments on these and many other missions, including the Mars exploration rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. The key advantage of RPS is its ability to operate continuously, independent of orientation and distance relative to the Sun. Radioisotope systems are long-lived, rugged, compact, highly reliable, and relatively insensitive to radiation and other environmental effects. As such, they are ideally suited for missions involving long-lived, autonomous operations in the extreme conditions of space and other planetary bodies. This paper reviews the history of RPS for the U.S. space program. It also describes current development of a new Stirling cycle-based generator that will greatly expand the application of nuclear-powered missions in the future.

  16. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987.

  17. Radioisotope therapy of cystic craniopharyngeomas

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, L.; Sturm, V.; Georgi, P.; Schlegel, W.; Ostertag, H.; Clorius, J.H.; Van Kaick, G.

    1982-09-01

    Eighteen patients suffering from cystic craniopharyngeoma were treated with intracavitary irradiation. The beta-emitting radioisotope /sup 90/y (2.25 MeV) was instilled into the cyst following stereotactic puncture of the space-occupying lesion. The surgical approach was planned using angiograms and reconstructed transmission computer tomography (TCT) coronal and saggital sections. Therapy was devised to deliver 20,000 rad to the cyst's wall. Eleven patients received follow-up TCT examinations after four months. Eight of 11 patients had a significant volume decrease in the craniopharyngeoma cyst. In two patients, the cystic volume remained unchanged; one had progression of disease. It is concluded that the intracavitary treatment of cystic craniopharyngeoma will result in a reduction of the size of the space-occupying lesion.

  18. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems - Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.; Mccallum, Peter W.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program continues to plan and implement content to enable planetary exploration where such systems could be needed, and to prepare more advanced RPS technology for possible infusion into future power systems. The 2014-2015 period saw significant changes, and strong progress. Achievements of near-term objectives have enabled definition of a clear path forward in which payoffs from research investments and other sustaining efforts can be applied. The future implementation path is expected to yield a higher-performing thermoelectric generator design, a more isotope-fuel efficient system concept design, and a robust RPS infrastructure maintained effectively within both NASA and the Department of Energy. This paper describes recent work with an eye towards the future plans that result from these achievements.

  19. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    SciTech Connect

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A 200- to 500-..mu..A source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-..mu..A beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-..mu..A beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons.

  20. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1984-08-01

    This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Plant; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; lists of customers, suppliers and isotopes purchased; list of isotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer codes; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1983.

  1. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lamar, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1)isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1986.

  2. The use of radioisotopes for palliation of metastatic bone pain.

    PubMed

    Gkialas, I; Iordanidou, L; Galanakis, I; Giannopoulos, S

    2008-01-01

    Bone pain associated with advanced prostate and other cancers is a frequent and significant complication. Pharmaceutical therapy of bone pain includes nonsteroidal analgesics and opiates. While external beam radiation therapy remains the mainstay of pain palliation of solitary lesions, bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals have entered the armamentarium for the treatment of multiple osseous metastases. The 3 radioisotopes currently approved for treatment of pain (strontium-89/(89)Sr, samarium-153/(153)Sm and rhenium-186/(186)Re) are discussed in this review including the approved dose, method of administration and indications for use.

  3. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Lamar, D.A.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-08-01

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms, including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: 1) isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; 2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; 3) isotopes purchased cross- referenced with customer numbers; 4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and 5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1987.

  4. Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Geng, Steven M.; Schrieber, Jeffrey G.; Tobery, E. Wayne; Palko, Joseph L.

    2005-01-01

    One of the advantages of using a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for deep space or planetary surface missions is the readily available waste heat, which can be used to maintain electronic components within a controlled temperature range, to warm propulsion tanks and mobility actuators, and to gasify liquid propellants. Previous missions using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) dissipated a very large quantity of waste heat due to the relatively low efficiency of the thermoelectric conversion technology. The next generation RPSs, such as the 110-watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) will have much higher conversion efficiencies than their predecessors and therefore may require alternate approaches to transferring waste heat to the spacecraft. RTGs, with efficiencies of approx. 6 to 7% and 200 C housing surface temperatures, would need to use large and heavy radiator heat exchangers to transfer the waste heat to the internal spacecraft components. At the same time, sensitive spacecraft instruments must be shielded from the thermal radiation by using the heat exchangers or additional shields. The SRG110, with an efficiency around 22% and 50 C nominal housing surface temperature, can use the available waste heat more efficiently by more direct heat transfer methods such as heat pipes, thermal straps, or fluid loops. The lower temperatures allow the SRG110 much more flexibility to the spacecraft designers in configuring the generator without concern of overheating nearby scientific instruments, thereby eliminating the need for thermal shields. This paper will investigate using a high efficiency SRG110 for spacecraft thermal management and outline potential methods in several conceptual missions (Lunar Rover, Mars Rover, and Titan Lander) to illustrate the advantages with regard to ease of assembly, less complex interfaces, and overall mass savings.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Intravascular brachytherapy of the coronary arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, R. A.

    2002-02-01

    This is a review of the relatively recently developed field of intravascular brachytherapy of coronary arteries. It presents a brief overview of the discipline of coronary angioplasty describing the problem of restenosis and discusses the potential for ionizing radiation to overcome this problem. It examines the various methods that have been used to irradiate the coronary arteries comparing their advantages and disadvantages. Special consideration is given to seeds and wires in the artery, radioactive liquids in the angioplasty balloon and radioactive stents. Passing reference is made to a number of other methods that have also been proposed, but which are not commonly used to irradiate the coronary arteries at present. The dosimetry of each of the major techniques is discussed and the data from different laboratories compared. Specific consideration is given to the need for centring of the radioactive source and the factors affecting the selection of a dose prescription. A brief review of recent clinical trials is followed by an examination of possible future directions in this field including the use of intravascular ultrasound to improve dosimetry, the use of gas-filled balloons to enhance the penetration of beta-emitting sources and the use of gamma-emitting stents to overcome the problems associated with edge restenosis.

  6. An Overview and Status of NASA's Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Wong, Wayne A.; Tuttle, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) development program is developing next generation radioisotope power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that can not be met by either photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power System (RPS) technology. The Advanced Power Conversion Research and Technology project of the Advanced RPS development program is funding research and technology activities through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) 02- OSS-01, "Research Opportunities in Space Science 2002" entitled "Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology" (RPCT), 13 August 2002. The objective of the RPCT NRA is to advance the development of radioisotope power conversion technologies to provide significant improvements over the state-of-practice General Purpose Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator by providing significantly higher efficiency to reduce the number of radioisotope fuel modules, and increase specific power (watts/kilogram). Other Advanced RPS goals include safety, long-life, reliability, scalability, multi-mission capability, resistance to radiation, and minimal interference with the scientific payload. These advances would enable a factor of 2 to 4 decrease in the amount of fuel required to generate electrical power. The RPCT NRA selected advanced RPS power conversion technology research and development proposals in the following three areas: innovative RPS power conversion research, RPS power conversion technology development in a nominal 100We scale; and, milliwatt/multi-watt RPS (mWRPS) power conversion research. Ten RPCT NRA contracts were awarded in 2003 in the areas of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectric (TE), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion technologies. This paper will provide an overview of the RPCT NRA, and a brief summary of accomplishments over the first 18 months but focusing on advancements made over the last 6 months.

  7. High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.

    2009-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140 C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.

  8. Utilizing Radioisotope Power Systems for Human Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, Timothy M.

    2005-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration has a goal of sending crewed missions to the lunar surface as early as 2015 and no later than 2020. The use of nuclear power sources could aid in assisting crews in exploring the surface and performing In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) activities. Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) provide constant sources of electrical power and thermal energy for space applications. RPSs were carried on six of the crewed Apollo missions to power surface science packages, five of which still remain on the lunar surface. Future RPS designs may be able to play a more active role in supporting a long-term human presence. Due to its lower thermal and radiation output, the planned Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) appears particularly attractive for manned applications. The MCNPX particle transport code has been used to model the current SRG design to assess its use in proximity with astronauts operating on the surface. Concepts of mobility and ISRU infrastructure were modeled using MCNPX to analyze the impact of RPSs on crewed mobility systems. Strategies for lowering the radiation dose were studied to determine methods of shielding the crew from the RPSs.

  9. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  10. Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia of the foot.

    PubMed

    Cisco, R W; McCormac, R M

    1994-01-01

    Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia is a rare benign reactive lesion usually found in thrombosed subcutaneous blood vessels. The lesion resembles malignant angiosarcoma clinically and histopathologically, and must be diagnosed correctly to avoid inappropriate treatment. The following is a case presentation involving the foot.

  11. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland Paul

    2016-11-19

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  12. Development of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Jack; Wood, J. Gary; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2007-01-01

    Under the joint sponsorship of the Department of Energy and NASA, a radioisotope power system utilizing Stirling power conversion technology is being developed for potential future space missions. The higher conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle compared with that of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in previous missions (Viking, Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, and New Horizons) offers the advantage of a four-fold reduction in PuO2 fuel, thereby saving cost and reducing radiation exposure to support personnel. With the advancement of state-of-the-art Stirling technology development under the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) project, the Stirling Radioisotope Generator program has evolved to incorporate the advanced Stirling convertor (ASC), provided by Sunpower, into an engineering unit. Due to the reduced envelope and lighter mass of the ASC compared to the previous Stirling convertor, the specific power of the flight generator is projected to increase from 3.5 to 7 We/kg, along with a 25 percent reduction in generator length. Modifications are being made to the ASC design to incorporate features for thermal, mechanical, and electrical integration with the engineering unit. These include the heat collector for hot end interface, cold-side flange for waste heat removal and structural attachment, and piston position sensor for ASC control and power factor correction. A single-fault tolerant, active power factor correction controller is used to synchronize the Stirling convertors, condition the electrical power from AC to DC, and to control the ASCs to maintain operation within temperature and piston stroke limits. Development activities at Sunpower and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are also being conducted on the ASC to demonstrate the capability for long life, high reliability, and flight qualification needed for use in future missions.

  13. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems Program Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Hamley, John A.; McCallum, Peter W.; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program began formal implementation in December 2010. The RPS Program's goal is to make available RPS for the exploration of the solar system in environments where conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet mission needs. To meet this goal, the RPS Program manages investments in RPS system development and RPS technologies. The current keystone of the RPS Program is the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). This generator will be about four times more efficient than the more traditional thermoelectric generators, while providing a similar amount of power. This paper provides the status of the RPS Program and its related projects. Opportunities for RPS generator development and targeted research into RPS component performance enhancements, as well as constraints dealing with the supply of radioisotope fuel, are also discussed in the context of the next ten years of planetary science mission plans.

  14. Commercial Superconducting Electron Linac for Radioisotope Production

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, Terry Lee; Boulware, Charles H.; Hollister, Jerry L.; Jecks, Randall W.; Mamtimin, Mayir; Starovoitova, Valeriia

    2015-08-13

    The majority of radioisotopes used in the United States today come from foreign suppliers or are generated parasitically in large government accelerators and nuclear reactors. Both of these restrictions limit the availability of radioisotopes and discourage the development and evaluation of new isotopes and for nuclear medicine, science, and industry. Numerous studies have been recommending development of dedicated accelerators for production of radioisotopes for over 20 years (Institute of Medicine, 1995; Reba, et al, 2000; National Research Council, 2007; NSAC 2009). The 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan for Isotopes again identified electron accelerators as an area for continued research and development. Recommendation 1(c) from the 2015 NSAC Isotope report specifically identifies electron accelerators for continued funding for the purpose of producing medical and industrial radioisotopes. Recognizing the pressing need for new production methods of radioisotopes, the United States Congress passed the American Medical Isotope Production Act of 2012 to develop a domestic production of 99Mo and to eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the production of 99Mo. One of the advantages of high power electron linear accelerators (linacs) is they can create both proton- and neutron-rich isotopes by generating high energy x-rays that knock out protons or neutrons from stable atoms or by fission of uranium. This allows for production of isotopes not possible in nuclear reactors. Recent advances in superconducting electron linacs have decreased the size and complexity of these systems such that they are economically competitive with nuclear reactors and large, high energy accelerators. Niowave, Inc. has been developing a radioisotope production facility based on a superconducting electron linac with liquid metal converters.

  15. Investigation of the excitation functions for some medical radioisotopes production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılınç, Fatma; Karpuz, Nurdan; Çetin, Betül

    2016-11-01

    One of the main application fields of nuclear technology is medicine and radioisotopes are used in medicine. Production of those radioisotopes is important and in the production processes the cross section must be known. All the production of radioisotope used in medicine is based on the nuclear reactions means they are not natural. The decay time of produced radioisotopes is important as from production to hospital can take time and thus generally generator is used to produce some radioisotopes. Radioisotopes are widely produced in reactors or cyclotron type accelerator. Type of radioisotopes direct way to be used in production processes. Thus obtaining of cross section becomes crucial. For this purposes the theoretical calculation cross section of some radioisotopes used in medicine will be calculated in this study. The calculations will be done using Monte Carlo code of TALYS 1.6

  16. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, M.P.

    1983-08-01

    The radioisotope production and distribution activities by facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. are listed. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility, contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customs numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1982. (MHR)

  17. Mapping Intravascular Ultrasound Controversies in Interventional Cardiology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Maresca, David; Adams, Samantha; Maresca, Bruno; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound is a catheter-based imaging modality that was developed to investigate the condition of coronary arteries and assess the vulnerability of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in particular. Since its introduction in the clinic 20 years ago, use of intravascular ultrasound innovation has been relatively limited. Intravascular ultrasound remains a niche technology; its clinical practice did not vastly expand, except in Japan, where intravascular ultrasound is an appraised tool for guiding percutaneous coronary interventions. In this qualitative research study, we follow scholarship on the sociology of innovation in exploring both the current adoption practices and perspectives on the future of intravascular ultrasound. We conducted a survey of biomedical experts with experience in the technology, the practice, and the commercialization of intravascular ultrasound. The collected information enabled us to map intravascular ultrasound controversies as well as to outline the dynamics of the international network of experts that generates intravascular ultrasound innovations and uses intravascular ultrasound technologies. While the technology is praised for its capacity to measure coronary atherosclerotic plaque morphology and is steadily used in clinical research, the lack of demonstrated benefits of intravascular ultrasound guided coronary interventions emerges as the strongest factor that prevents its expansion. Furthermore, most of the controversies identified were external to intravascular ultrasound technology itself, meaning that decision making at the industrial, financial and regulatory levels are likely to determine the future of intravascular ultrasound. In light of opinions from the responding experts', a wider adoption of intravascular ultrasound as a stand-alone imaging modality seems rather uncertain, but the appeal for this technology may be renewed by improving image quality and through combination with complementary imaging

  18. Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara

    2009-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the converter stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, and also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) has been designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor in an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). When the Stirling convertor is turned off, the VCHP will activate when the temperatures rises 30 C above the setpoint temperature. A prototype VCHP with sodium as the working fluid was fabricated and tested in both gravity aided and against gravity conditions for a nominal heater head temperature of 790 C. The results show very good agreement with the predictions and validate the model. The gas front was located at the exit of the reservoir when heater head temperature was 790 C while cooling was ON, simulating an operating Advanced Stirling Converter (ASC). When cooling stopped, the temperature increased by 30 C, allowing the gas front to move past the radiator, which transferred the heat to the case. After resuming the cooling flow, the front returned at the initial location turning OFF the VCHP. The against gravity working conditions showed a colder reservoir and faster transients.

  19. A multi-functional electronic program for the management of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Ritchot, Nathalie; Santary, William

    2008-05-01

    Everyone will agree that specialized computer programs have done away with the many tedious tasks associated with manually keeping track of radioisotopes. Enhanced electronic programs have virtually cut the time of managing radioisotopes. Agriculture and Agri-Food, Canada's (AAFC) program for the management of radioisotopes, is somewhat different from most electronic programs. It is divided into three levels of management that are dependent on the roles that a user might have when applying the application. These roles include the Departmental Radiation Safety Officer (DRSO), Radiation Safety Officer (RSO), and authorized user, which meets the requirements of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The DRSO and authorized AAFC Radiation Safety Committee members have access to the first level of management. This is the highest level of control, and only the DRSO has permission to add a nuclear substance to the system with the approval of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). This level of management is also responsible for adding authorized users, locations, and managing the Internal Use Permits. The second level of management is for site-specific RSOs. They have access to all information regarding their center of activity, but they cannot change Internal Use Permit data. The RSOs can reset passwords, authorize new users, control the maximum activity limit, etc., but are limited to viewing only the information that relates to their internal use permit. However, they retain significant control within the permit. The third and last level of management is for authorized users who can access the radioisotope order-distribution-disposal section, waste or storage containers creation file, and leak/wipe test procedures. As in the case of the DRSO and RSO, they also have access to all reports and inventories for their center of activity but they cannot change Internal Use Permit or inventories data. This program has proven to be a valuable tool for scientific staff

  20. Structure and manual of radioisotope-production data base, ISOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Kentaro; Terunuma, Kusuo

    1994-02-01

    We planned on collecting the information of radioisotope production which was obtained from research works and tasks at the Department of Radioisotopes in JAERI, and constructed a proto-type data base ISOP after discussion of the kinds and properties of the information available for radioisotope production. In this report the structure and the manual of ISOP are described.

  1. Techniques for Intravascular Foreign Body Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, Joe B.; Uberoi, Raman

    2013-08-01

    As endovascular therapies increase in frequency, the incidence of lost or embolized foreign bodies is increasing. The presence of an intravascular foreign body (IFB) is well recognized to have the potential to cause serious complications. IFB can embolize and impact critical sites such as the heart, with subsequent significant morbidity or mortality. Intravascular foreign bodies most commonly result from embolized central line fragments, but they can originate from many sources, both iatrogenic and noniatrogenic. The percutaneous approach in removing an IFB is widely perceived as the best way to retrieve endovascular foreign bodies. This minimally invasive approach has a high success rate with a low associated morbidity, and it avoids the complications related to open surgical approaches. We examined the characteristics, causes, and incidence of endovascular embolizations and reviewed the various described techniques that have been used to facilitate subsequent explantation of such materials.

  2. Relief of vasospasm by intravascular ultraviolet irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Kanji; Morimoto, Yuji; Ito, Hirotaka; Kominami, Kimito; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1998-05-01

    We investigated the photovasorelaxation with intravascular transluminal irradiation using in vivo model. A 2.5 Fr. catheter was inserted in the femoral artery of a rabbit under anesthesia. A 400 micrometers diameter quartz fiber was inserted through the catheter. The catheter was withdrawn from the distal end to the proximal end of the exposed femoral artery without laser irradiation in order to observe the mechanical dilation by the procedure. The femoral artery lumen was irradiated by a Helium-Cadmium(He-Cd) laser (wavelength; 325 nm) with 8 mW through the fiber during 30 s. We carried out that the laser irradiation produced vasorelaxation (185% on the average) compared with mechanical vasodilation (150% on the average) with angiography. The results suggest that intravascular transluminal irradiation with low-power UV laser might be applicable to the relief of acute arterial vasospasm.

  3. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Burlison, J.S.

    1980-06-01

    The fifteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Division of Financial Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rocky Flats Area Office; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: Isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1979.

  4. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Burlison, J.S.

    1981-08-01

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980.

  5. NASA Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Development program is aimed at developing nuclear power and technologies that would improve the effectiveness of space science missions. The Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) is an important mechanism through which research and technology activities are supported in the Advanced Power Conversion Research and Technology project of the Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Development program. The purpose of the RPCT NRA is to advance the development of radioisotope power conversion technologies to provide higher efficiencies and specific powers than existing systems. These advances would enable a factor of two to four decrease in the amount of fuel and a reduction of waste heat required to generate electrical power, and thus could result in more cost effective science missions for NASA. The RPCT NRA selected advanced RPS power conversion technology research and development proposals in the following three areas: innovative RPS power conversion research, RPS power conversion technology development in a nominal 100 W(sub e) scale; and, milliwatt/multi-watt RPS (mWRPS) power conversion research. Ten RPCT NRA contracts were awarded in 2003 in the areas of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectric (TE), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion technologies. This paper will provide an overview of the RPCT NRA, a summary of the power conversion technologies approaches being pursued, and a brief digest of first year accomplishments.

  6. NASA Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Development program is aimed at developing nuclear power and technologies that would improve the effectiveness of space science missions. The Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) is an important mechanism through which research and technology activities are supported in the Advanced Power Conversion Research and Technology project of the Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Development program. The purpose of the RPCT NRA is to advance the development of radioisotope power conversion technologies to provide higher efficiencies and specific powers than existing systems. These advances would enable a factor of 2 to 4 decrease in the amount of fuel and a reduction of waste heat required to generate electrical power, and thus could result in more cost effective science missions for NASA. The RPCT NRA selected advanced RPS power conversion technology research and development proposals in the following three areas: innovative RPS power conversion research, RPS power conversion technology development in a nominal 100We scale; and, milliwatt/multi-watt RPS (mWRPS) power conversion research. Ten RPCT NRA contracts were awarded in 2003 in the areas of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectric (TE), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion technologies. This paper will provide an overview of the RPCT NRA, a summary of the power conversion technologies approaches being pursued, and a brief digest of first year accomplishments.

  7. Radioisotopes in management of metastatic prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Amar; Dan, Tu D.; Williams, Noelle L.; Pridjian, Andrew; Den, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Metastatic prostate cancer continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in men with prostate cancer. Over the last decade, the treatment landscape for patients with castrate-resistant disease has drastically changed, with several novel agents demonstrating an improvement in overall survival in large, multi-institutional randomized trials. Traditional treatment with radioisotopes has largely been in the palliative setting. However, the first in class radiopharmaceutical radium-223 has emerged as the only bone-directed treatment option demonstrating an improvement in overall survival. Methods: Medline publications from 1990 to 2016 were searched and reviewed to assess the use of currently approved radioisotopes in the management of prostate cancer including emerging data regarding integration with novel systemic therapies. New positron emission tomography-based radiotracers for advanced molecular imaging of prostate cancer were also queried. Results: Radioisotopes play a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the definitive and metastatic setting. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer and theranostics are currently being investigated in the clinical arena. Conclusions: The use of modern radioisotopes in selected patients with mCRPC is associated with improvements in overall survival, pain control, and quality of life. PMID:27843209

  8. ILLUSTRATIONS OF RADIOISOTOPES--DEFINITIONS AND APPLICATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    THIS PUBLICATION IS COMPOSED OF OVER 150 PAGES OF BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS DEALING WITH RADIOISOTOPES AND THEIR USES. THESE ILLUSTRATIONS CONSIST OF CHARTS, GRAPHS, AND PICTORIAL REPRESENTATIONS WHICH COULD BE PREPARED AS HANDOUTS, TRANSPARENCIES FOR OVERHEAD PROJECTION, OR WHICH COULD BE USED IN A NUMBER OF OTHER WAYS FOR PRESENTING SUCH…

  9. Radioisotope thermal generator (RTG) power conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, W. S.

    1974-01-01

    New regulator: (a) permits operation with high-impedance radioisotope thermal generators at conversion efficiencies typically above 90%; (b) does not require input filtering; (c) eliminates current spiking; and (d) is simple, efficient, and reliable. Converter-charger pair could be adapted for other power levels by changing transistor, diode, capacitor bank, and inductor.

  10. Monte Carlo calculations of dose distribution for intramural delivery of radioisotopes using a direct injection balloon catheter

    SciTech Connect

    Kassing, William M.; McGoron, Anthony J.; Thomas, Stephen R.; Elson, Howard R.; Pipes, David W

    2002-03-01

    Purpose: A unique method of delivering radiation dose to the coronary vessel wall to prevent restenosis is by direct injection of radioactive compounds into the vessel wall using a specially designed angioplasty balloon catheter. The radiation dose distribution resulting from such intramural delivery was investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. Materials and methods: The radioisotope source distribution was modeled for two configurations within the vessel wall: (1) uniform to a depth of 0.5 mm and (2) confined to discrete pools surrounding the delivery injection ports. Monte Carlo MCNP4B computer simulations were utilized to estimate the associated radiation dose distribution for the following radioisotopes: {sup 188}Re, {sup 186}Re, {sup 32}P, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I, and {sup 99m}Tc. Results: For the uniform case where the radioisotopes are distributed uniformly to the depth of 0.5 mm into the vessel wall, an essentially constant radiation dose is delivered within the source distribution. Outside of the source volume, the dose falls off at a rate depending on the emission properties of the particular radioisotope. The nonuniform case involving discrete pools of activity showed the dose distribution being confined largely to the regions surrounding the delivery ports with significant regions between these ports receiving very little dose. Conclusions: Direct injection of selected radioisotopes into the arterial wall appears to represent a potentially effective method for delivering radiation dose for the prevention of restenosis. Sufficiently high doses may be obtained from relatively low activity and the dose falls off rapidly outside of the target area for certain radioisotopes.

  11. Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Tobery, E. Wayne; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Palko, Joseph L.

    2005-01-01

    An advantage of using a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for deep space or planetary surface missions is the readily available waste heat, which can be used for a number of beneficial purposes including: maintaining electronic components within a controlled temperature range, warming propulsion tanks and mobility actuators, and maintaining liquid propellants above their freezing temperature. Previous missions using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) dissipated large quantities of waste heat due to the low efficiency of the thermoelectric conversion technology. The next generation RPSs, such as the 110-Watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) will have higher conversion efficiencies, thereby rejecting less waste heat at a lower temperature and may require alternate approaches to transferring waste heat to the spacecraft. RTGs, with efficiencies of 6 to 7 percent, reject their waste heat at the relatively high heat rejection temperature of 200 C. This is an advantage when rejecting heat to space; however, transferring heat to the internal spacecraft components requires a large and heavy radiator heat exchanger. At the same time, sensitive spacecraft instruments must be shielded from the thermal radiation of the RTG. The SRG110, with an efficiency around 22 percent and 50 C nominal housing surface temperature, can readily transfer the available waste heat directly via heat pipes, thermal straps, or fluid loops. The lower temperatures associated with the SRG110 avoid the chances of overheating other scientific components, eliminating the need for thermal shields. This provides the spacecraft designers more flexibility when locating the generator for a specific mission. A common misconception with high-efficiency systems is that there is not enough waste heat for spacecraft thermal management. This paper will dispel this misconception and investigate the use of a high-efficiency SRG110 for spacecraft thermal management and outline potential methods of

  12. High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.

    2009-03-16

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140 deg. C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.

  13. Hypothesis: Disseminated Intravascular Inflammation as the Inflammatory Counterpart to Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Brian S.; Bull, Maureen H.

    1994-08-01

    We have identified a leukocyte activation syndrome that is occasionally associated with the transfusion of intraoperatively recovered erythrocytes. This syndrome appears to result from intravascular damage caused by leukocytes activated during the erythrocyte salvage process. We hypothesize that this syndrome is part of a larger disease grouping: disseminated intravascular inflammation (DII). DII is the analog of the coagulation disorder disseminated intravascular coagulation. In disseminated intravascular coagulation, the organ damage results from uncontrolled activation of the clotting pathway; in DII the damage is caused by leukocytes that have become activated by direct contact with bacteria or in rare instances-such as erythrocyte salvage-in the absence of bacteria and bacterial products. Recent studies of the hazards associated with intraoperative blood salvage indicate that activation of leukocytes can be achieved by exposure to activated platelets alone. If such activated leukocytes are reinfused along with the washed erythrocytes, widespread organ damage may result. The lung is the organ most severely affected by activated leukocytes. Adult respiratory distress syndrome is one outcome. It is likely that DII is a presently unrecognized pathophysiological process that complicates a variety of primary disease states and increases their lethality.

  14. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Life Certification Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Zampino, Edward

    2013-01-01

    An Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) power supply is being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with NASA for potential future deep space science missions. Unlike previous radioisotope power supplies for space exploration, such as the passive MMRTG used recently on the Mars Curiosity rover, the ASRG is an active dynamic power supply with moving Stirling engine mechanical components. Due to the long life requirement of 17 years and the dynamic nature of the Stirling engine, the ASRG project faced some unique challenges trying to establish full confidence that the power supply will function reliably over the mission life. These unique challenges resulted in the development of an overall life certification plan that emphasizes long-term Stirling engine test and inspection when analysis is not practical. The ASRG life certification plan developed is described.

  15. Intravascular haemolysis in the recreational runner.

    PubMed Central

    Deitrick, R W

    1991-01-01

    Intravascular haemolysis has been found to result from prolonged endurance competition, rigorous military training and participation in impact sports. Haematological research involving the recreational runner is sparse. Recreational runners frequently vary their training to avoid monotony and improve endurance capacity. This study investigated the haematological effects of a typical day of increased distance training in 15 male recreational runners (62.4(3.1) ml kg-1 min-1 treadmill VO2max; 44.6(8.4) km per week training (means(s.d.)). Venous blood samples were collected before, immediately after, 1 day, 4 days, and 10 days after a 13-km training run (about twice the subjects' typical running distance) and analysed for changes in bilirubin, serum potassium, haematocrit, haemoglobin, red blood cell count, haptoglobin, poikilocytosis and reticulocytosis. Urine samples were collected at the same times as the blood samples and analysed for urobilinogen. Significant (P less than 0.05) 1-day and 4-day decreases in mean haemoglobin, red blood cell count, and haptoglobin values, compared to before training venous blood values and significant (P less than 0.05) post-training increases in bilirubin, serum potassium, urobilinogen and poikilocytosis provided evidence for increased intravascular haemolysis. After 10 days the values for haematocrit, bilirubin, serum potassium, red blood cell count, urobilinogen and poikilocytosis were not significantly (P less than 0.05) different from pre-training values while haemoglobin remained significantly (P less than 0.05) lower, exhibiting a constant but not significant increase over the period from 1 to 10 days. The results indicate that mild intravascular 'footstrike' haemolysis can occur in the recreational runner when typical training distance is increased. This condition appears to be transient and benign. PMID:1810610

  16. Multi-Frequency Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng; Yu, Mingyue; Chen, Zeyu; Fei, Chunlong; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2015-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is frequently associated with the sudden rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque within the coronary artery. Several unique physiological features, including a thin fibrous cap accompanied by a necrotic lipid core, are the targeted indicators for identifying the vulnerable plaques. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), a catheter-based imaging technology, has been routinely performed in clinics for more than 20 years to describe the morphology of the coronary artery and guide percutaneous coronary interventions. However, conventional IVUS cannot facilitate the risk assessment of ACS because of its intrinsic limitations, such as insufficient resolution. Renovation of the IVUS technology is essentially needed to overcome the limitations and enhance the coronary artery characterization. In this paper, a multi-frequency intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging system was developed by incorporating a higher frequency IVUS transducer (80 to 150 MHz) with the conventional IVUS (30–50 MHz) system. The newly developed system maintains the advantage of deeply penetrating imaging with the conventional IVUS, while offering an improved higher resolution image with IVUS at a higher frequency. The prototyped multi-frequency catheter has a clinically compatible size of 0.95 mm and a favorable capability of automated image co-registration. In vitro human coronary artery imaging has demonstrated the feasibility and superiority of the multi-frequency IVUS imaging system to deliver a more comprehensive visualization of the coronary artery. This ultrasonic-only intravascular imaging technique, based on a moderate refinement of the conventional IVUS system, is not only cost-effective from the perspective of manufacturing and clinical practice, but also holds the promise of future translation into clinical benefits. PMID:25585394

  17. Positron autoradiography for intravascular imaging: feasibility evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shikhaliev, Polad M; Xu, Tong; Ducote, Justin L; Easwaramoorthy, Balasubramaniam; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Molloi, Sabee

    2006-02-21

    Approximately 70% of acute coronary artery disease is caused by unstable (vulnerable) plaques with an inflammation of the overlying cap and high lipid content. A rupturing of the inflamed cap of the plaque results in propagation of the thrombus into the lumen, blockage of the artery and acute ischaemic syndrome or sudden death. Morphological imaging such as angiography or intravascular ultrasound cannot determine inflammation status of the plaque. A radiotracer such as 18F-FDG is accumulated in vulnerable plaques due to higher metabolic activity of the inflamed cap and could be used to detect a vulnerable plaque. However, positron emission tomography (PET) cannot detect the FDG-labelled plaques because of respiratory and heart motions, small size and low activity of the plaques. Plaques can be detected using a miniature particle (positron) detector inserted into the artery. In this work, a new detector concept is investigated for intravascular imaging of the plaques. The detector consists of a storage phosphor tip bound to the end of an intravascular catheter. It can be inserted into an artery, absorb the 18F-FDG positrons from the plaques, withdrawn from the artery and read out. Length and diameter of the storage phosphor tip can be matched to the length and the diameter of the artery. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental evaluations of coronary plaque imaging with the proposed detector were performed. It was shown that the sensitivity of the storage phosphor detector to the positrons of 18F-FDG is sufficient to detect coronary plaques with 1 mm and 2 mm sizes and 590 Bq and 1180 Bq activities in the arteries with 2 mm and 3 mm diameters, respectively. An experimental study was performed using plastic tubes with 2 mm diameter filled with an FDG solution, which simulates blood. FDG spots simulating plaques were placed over the surface of the tube. A phosphor tip was inserted into the tube and imaged the plaques. Exposure time was 1 min in all simulations and

  18. Positron autoradiography for intravascular imaging: feasibility evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M.; Xu, Tong; Ducote, Justin L.; Easwaramoorthy, Balasubramaniam; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Molloi, Sabee

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 70% of acute coronary artery disease is caused by unstable (vulnerable) plaques with an inflammation of the overlying cap and high lipid content. A rupturing of the inflamed cap of the plaque results in propagation of the thrombus into the lumen, blockage of the artery and acute ischaemic syndrome or sudden death. Morphological imaging such as angiography or intravascular ultrasound cannot determine inflammation status of the plaque. A radiotracer such as 18F-FDG is accumulated in vulnerable plaques due to higher metabolic activity of the inflamed cap and could be used to detect a vulnerable plaque. However, positron emission tomography (PET) cannot detect the FDG-labelled plaques because of respiratory and heart motions, small size and low activity of the plaques. Plaques can be detected using a miniature particle (positron) detector inserted into the artery. In this work, a new detector concept is investigated for intravascular imaging of the plaques. The detector consists of a storage phosphor tip bound to the end of an intravascular catheter. It can be inserted into an artery, absorb the 18F-FDG positrons from the plaques, withdrawn from the artery and read out. Length and diameter of the storage phosphor tip can be matched to the length and the diameter of the artery. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental evaluations of coronary plaque imaging with the proposed detector were performed. It was shown that the sensitivity of the storage phosphor detector to the positrons of 18F-FDG is sufficient to detect coronary plaques with 1 mm and 2 mm sizes and 590 Bq and 1180 Bq activities in the arteries with 2 mm and 3 mm diameters, respectively. An experimental study was performed using plastic tubes with 2 mm diameter filled with an FDG solution, which simulates blood. FDG spots simulating plaques were placed over the surface of the tube. A phosphor tip was inserted into the tube and imaged the plaques. Exposure time was 1 min in all simulations and

  19. Reactors are indispensable for radioisotope production.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    Radioisotopes can be produced by reactors and accelerators. For certain isotopes there could be an advantage to a certain production method. However, nowadays many reports suggest, that useful isotopes needed in medicine, industry and research could be produced efficiently and dependence on reactors using enriched U-235 may be eliminated. In my view reactors and accelerators will continue to play their role side by side in the supply of suitable and economical sources of isotopes.

  20. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute myocardial necrosis caused by lightning.

    PubMed

    Ekoé, J M; Cunningham, M; Jaques, O; Balague, F; Baumann, R P; Humair, L; de Torrenté, A

    1985-01-01

    A 24-year-old woman was struck by lightning and suffered 20% second degree burns. She was admitted after cardiac and respiratory arrest. Despite intensive supportive care she died 24 h later of cardiogenic shock complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation. At autopsy there was myocardial necrosis. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and myocardial necrosis are only rarely described as complications of lightning.

  1. NEW DIRECTIONS IN RADIOISOTOPE SPECTRUM IDENTIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Salaymeh, S.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-06-17

    Recent studies have found the performance of commercial handheld detectors with automatic RIID software to be less than acceptable. Previously, we have explored approaches rooted in speech processing such as cepstral features and information-theoretic measures. Scientific advances are often made when researchers identify mathematical or physical commonalities between different fields and are able to apply mature techniques or algorithms developed in one field to another field which shares some of the same challenges. The authors of this paper have identified similarities between the unsolved problems faced in gamma-spectroscopy for automated radioisotope identification and the challenges of the much larger body of research in speech processing. Our research has led to a probabilistic framework for describing and solving radioisotope identification problems. Many heuristic approaches to classification in current use, including for radioisotope classification, make implicit probabilistic assumptions which are not clear to the users and, if stated explicitly, might not be considered desirable. Our framework leads to a classification approach with demonstrable improvements using standard feature sets on proof-of-concept simulated and field-collected data.

  2. Stirling Convertor Technologies Being Developed for a Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company (STC), and the NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for NASA space science missions. The SRG is being developed for multimission use, including providing electric power for unmanned Mars rovers and deep space missions. On Mars, rovers with SRGs would be used for missions that might not be able to use photovoltaic power systems, such as exploration at high Martian latitudes and missions of long duration. The projected SRG system efficiency of 23 percent will reduce the required amount of radioisotope by a factor of 4 or more in comparison to currently used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. The Department of Energy recently named Lockheed Martin as the system integration contractor. Lockheed Martin has begun to develop the SRG engineering unit under contract to the Department of Energy, and has contract options to develop the qualification unit and the first flight units. The developers expect the SRG to produce about 114 Wdc at the beginning of mission, using two opposed Stirling convertors and two General Purpose Heat Source modules. STC previously developed the Stirling convertor under contract to the Department of Energy and is now providing further development as a subcontractor to Lockheed Martin. Glenn is conducting an in-house technology project to assist in developing the convertor for space qualification and mission implementation. A key milestone was recently reached with the accumulation of 12 000 hr of long-term aging on two types of neodymium-iron boron permanent magnets. These tests are characterizing any possible aging in the strength or demagnetization resistance of the magnets used in the linear alternator. Preparations are underway for a thermal/vacuum system demonstration and unattended operation during endurance testing of the 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertors. In addition, Glenn is developing a

  3. Pulsed liquid microjet for intravascular injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanker, Daniel V.; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Miller, Jason; Huie, Philip; Marmor, Michael; Blumenkranz, Mark S.

    2002-06-01

    Occlusions of the retinal veins and arteries are associated with common diseases such as hypertension and arteriosclerosis and usually cause severe and irreversible loss of vision. Treatments for these vascular diseases have been unsatisfactory to date in part because of the difficulty of delivering thrombolytic drugs locally within the eye. In this article we describe a pulsed liquid microjet for minimally invasive intra-vascular drug delivery. The microjet is driven by a vapor bubble following an explosive evaporation of saline, produced by a microsecond-long electric discharge in front of the 25 micrometers electrode inside the micronozzle. Expansion of the transient vapor bubble produces a water jet with a diameter equal to the diameter of the nozzle, and with a velocity and duration that are controlled by the pulse energy. We found that fluid could be injected through the wall of a 60-micrometers -diameter artery in choriallantoic membrane using a 15-micrometers diameter liquid jet traveling at more than 60 m/s. Histological analysis of these arteries showed that the width of the perforation is limited to the diameter of the micronozzle, and the penetration depth of the jet is controlled by the discharge energy. The pulsed liquid microjet offers a promising technique for precise and needle-free intravascular delivery of thrombolytic drugs for localized treatment of retinal vascular occlusions.

  4. Fast integrated intravascular photoacoustic/ultrasound catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Changhoon; Cho, Seunghee; Kim, Taehoon; Park, Sungjo; Park, Hyoeun; Kim, Jinmoo; Lee, Seunghoon; Kang, Yeonsu; Jang, Kiyuk; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    In cardiology, a vulnerable plaque is considered to be a key subject because it is strongly related to atherosclerosis and acute myocardial infarction. Because conventional intravascular imaging devices exhibit several limitations with regard to vulnerable plaque detection, the need for an effective lipid imaging modality has been continuously suggested. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a medical imaging technique with a high level of ultrasound (US) resolution and strong optical contrast. In this study, we successfully developed an integrated intravascular photoacoustic/ultrasound (IV-PAUS) imaging system with a catheter diameter of 1.2 mm for lipid-rich atherosclerosis imaging. An Nd:YAG pulsed laser with an excitation wavelength of 1064 nm was utilized. IV-PAUS offers 5-mm depth penetration and axial and lateral PA imaging resolutions of 94 μm and 203 μm, respectively, as determined by imaging a 6-μm carbon fiber. We initially obtained 3-dimensional (3D) co-registered PA/US images of metal stents. Subsequently, we successfully obtained 3D coregistered PA/US ex vivo images using an iliac artery from a rabbit atherosclerosis model. Accordingly, lipid-rich plaques were sufficiently differentiated from normal tissue in the ex vivo experiment. We validated these findings histologically to confirm the lipid content.

  5. Display Considerations For Intravascular Ultrasonic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessert, James M.; Krinke, Charlie; Mallery, John A.; Zalesky, Paul J.

    1989-08-01

    A display has been developed for intravascular ultrasonic imaging. Design of this display has a primary goal of providing guidance information for therapeutic interventions such as balloons, lasers, and atherectomy devices. Design considerations include catheter configuration, anatomy, acoustic properties of normal and diseased tissue, catheterization laboratory and operating room environment, acoustic and electrical safety, acoustic data sampling issues, and logistical support such as image measurement, storage and retrieval. Intravascular imaging is in an early stage of development so design flexibility and expandability are very important. The display which has been developed is capable of acquisition and display of grey scale images at rates varying from static B-scans to 30 frames per second. It stores images in a 640 X 480 X 8 bit format and is capable of black and white as well as color display in multiplevideo formats. The design is based on the industry standard PC-AT architecture and consists of two AT style circuit cards, one for high speed sampling and the other for scan conversion, graphics and video generation.

  6. INTRACORPOREAL HEAT DISSIPATION FROM A RADIOISOTOPE-POWERED ARTIFICIAL HEART

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Fred N.; Hagen, Kenneth G.; Whalen, Robert L.; Fuqua, John M.; Norman, John C.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of radioisotope-fueled circulatory support systems depends on the ability of the body to dissipate the reject heat from the power source driving the blood pump as well as to tolerate chronic intracorporeal radiation. Our studies have focused on the use of the circulating blood as a heat sink. Initial in vivo heat transfer studies utilized straight tube heat exchangers (electrically and radioisotope energized) to replace a segment of the descending aorta. More recent studies have used a left ventricular assist pump as a blood-cooled heat exchanger. This approach minimizes trauma, does not increase the area of prosthetic interface with the blood, and minimizes system volume. Heat rejected from the thermal engine (vapor or gas cycle) is transported from the nuclear power source in the abdomen to the pump in the thoracic cavity via hydraulic lines. Adjacent tissue is protected from the fuel capsule temperature (900 to 1200°F) by vacuum foil insulation and polyurethane foam. The in vivo thermal management problems have been studied using a simulated thermal system (STS) which approximates the heat rejection and thermal transport mechanisms of the nuclear circulatory support systems under development by NHLI. Electric heaters simulate the reject heat from the thermal engines. These studies have been essential in establishing the location, suspension, surgical procedures, and postoperative care for implanting prototype nuclear heart assist systems in calves. The pump has a thermal impedance of 0.12°C/watt. Analysis of the STS data in terms of an electrical analog model implies a heat transfer coefficient of 4.7 × 10−3 watt/cm2°C in the abdomen compared to a value of 14.9 × 10−3 watt/cm2°C from the heat exchanger plenum into the diaphragm. Images PMID:15215968

  7. Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

  8. Vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for immobilization of radioisotopes

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-04-05

    A method of immobilizing a radioisotope and vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) articles formed by the method are described. The method comprises combining a radioisotope-containing material, MgO, a source of phosphate, and optionally, a reducing agent, in water at a temperature of less than 100.degree. C. to form a slurry; curing the slurry to form a solid intermediate CBPC article comprising the radioisotope therefrom; comminuting the intermediate CBPC article, mixing the comminuted material with glass frits, and heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of about 900 to about 1500.degree. C. to form a vitrified CBPC article comprising the radioisotope immobilized therein.

  9. Spark Plasma Sintering of simulated radioisotope materials within tungsten cermets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, R. C.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Bannister, N. P.; Howe, S. D.; Atkinson, H. V.

    2009-08-01

    A Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) furnace was used to produce ceramic-metallic sinters (cermets) containing a simulated loading of radioisotope materials. CeO 2 was used to simulate loadings of PuO 2, UO 2 or AmO 2 within tungsten-based cermets due to the similar kinetic properties of these materials, in particular the respective melting points and Gibbs free energies. The work presented demonstrates the capability and suitability of the SPS process for the production of radioisotope encapsulates for nuclear fuels and other applications (including waste disposal and radioisotope power and heat source fabrication) where the mechanical capture of radioisotope materials is required.

  10. Markets for reactor-produced non-fission radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Current market segments for reactor produced radioisotopes are developed and reported from a review of current literature. Specific radioisotopes studied in is report are the primarily selected from those with major medical or industrial markets, or those expected to have strongly emerging markets. Relative market sizes are indicated. Special emphasis is given to those radioisotopes that are best matched to production in high flux reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory or the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A general bibliography of medical and industrial radioisotope applications, trends, and historical notes is included.

  11. The copper radioisotopes: a systematic review with special interest to 64Cu.

    PubMed

    Niccoli Asabella, Artor; Cascini, Giuseppe Lucio; Altini, Corinna; Paparella, Domenico; Notaristefano, Antonio; Rubini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an important trace element in humans; it plays a role as a cofactor for numerous enzymes and other proteins crucial for respiration, iron transport, metabolism, cell growth, and hemostasis. Natural copper comprises two stable isotopes, (63)Cu and (65)Cu, and 5 principal radioisotopes for molecular imaging applications ((60)Cu, (61)Cu, (62)Cu, and (64)Cu) and in vivo targeted radiation therapy ((64)Cu and (67)Cu). The two potential ways to produce Cu radioisotopes concern the use of the cyclotron or the reactor. A noncopper target is used to produce noncarrier-added Cu thanks to a chemical separation from the target material using ion exchange chromatography achieving a high amount of radioactivity with the lowest possible amount of nonradioactive isotopes. In recent years, Cu isotopes have been linked to antibodies, proteins, peptides, and nanoparticles for preclinical and clinical research; pathological conditions that influence Cu metabolism such as Menkes syndrome, Wilson disease, inflammation, tumor growth, metastasis, angiogenesis, and drug resistance have been studied. We aim to discuss all Cu radioisotopes application focusing on (64)Cu and in particular its form (64)CuCl2 that seems to be the most promising for its half-life, radiation emissions, and stability with chelators, allowing several applications in oncological and nononcological fields.

  12. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  13. High efficiency β radioisotope energy conversion using reciprocating electromechanical converters with integrated betavoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggirala, Rajesh; Li, Hui; Lal, Amit

    2008-04-01

    We demonstrate a 5.1% energy conversion efficiency Ni63 radioisotope power generator by integrating silicon betavoltaic converters with radioisotope actuated reciprocating piezoelectric unimorph cantilever converters. The electromechanical energy converter efficiently utilizes both the kinetic energy and the electrical charge of the 0.94μW β radiation from a 9mCi Ni63 thin film source to generate maximum (1) continuous betavoltaic electrical power output of 22nW and (2) pulsed piezoelectric electrical power output of 750μW at 0.07% duty cycle. The electromechanical converters can be potentially used to realize 100year lifetime power sources for powering periodic sampling remote wireless sensor microsystems.

  14. Medical Radioisotope Data Survey: 2002 Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, Edward R.

    2004-06-23

    A limited, but accurate amount of detailed information about the radioactive isotopes used in the U.S. for medical procedures was collected from a local hospital and from a recent report on the U.S. Radiopharmaceutical Markets. These data included the total number of procedures, the specific types of procedures, the specific radioisotopes used in these procedures, and the dosage administered per procedure. The information from these sources was compiled, assessed, pruned, and then merged into a single, comprehensive and consistent set of results presented in this report. (PIET-43471-TM-197)

  15. Intravascular ultrasound for angiographically indeterminant left main coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Parashara, D K; Jacobs, L E; Ledley, G S; Yazdanfar, S; Oline, J; Kotler, M N

    1994-01-01

    The precise diagnosis of the presence of significant left main coronary artery disease has profound prognostic and therapeutic implications. Coronary cineangiography has shown to be imprecise and inaccurate to determine the percent stenosis of the left main coronary artery. We report a case with significant left main coronary artery disease in whom coronary cineangiography was in discordance with the clinical data and intravascular ultrasonography. Based on the intravascular ultrasound findings, the patient underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Therefore, the intravascular ultrasonography may be the procedure of choice for assessing indeterminant left main coronary artery lesions by coronary angiography.

  16. Quinine-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Every drug comes with some side effect. It is the benefit/risk ratio that determines the medical use of the drug. Quinine, a known antimalarial drug, has been used for nocturnal leg cramps since the 1930s; it is associated with severe life-threatening hematological and cardiovascular side effects. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), albeit rare, is a known coagulopathy associated with Quinine. It is imperative to inquire about the Quinine intake in medication history in patients with coagulopathy, as most patients still consider it a harmless home remedy for nocturnal leg cramps. In this report, we present a case of coagulopathy in a middle-aged woman, who gave a history of taking Quinine for nocturnal leg cramps, as her home remedy. Early identification of the offending agent led to the diagnosis, prompt discontinuation of the medication, and complete recovery and prevented the future possibility of recurrence. PMID:27293443

  17. Prostate cancer: beware of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Mihir; John, Babbin; Evans, Gillian; Eddy, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a pathological systemic condition resulting from aberrant activation of the coagulation system. It is characterised by the release and activation of procoagulants into the blood, with an associated consumption coagulopathy. Its association with solid and haematological malignancies is well described in literature. This case describes an elderly man, known to have prostate cancer, who following transurethral resection of the prostate developed DIC with haematuria, spontaneous ecchymoses and mucosal bleeding. Subsequent investigations revealed a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >1000 µg/L, and staging CT showed multiple sclerotic metastatic lesions affecting the thoracic and lumbar vertebra, as well as infiltration into his left femur. Coagulation normalised with blood products and vitamin K within 1 week, and the patient responded to antiandrogen therapy with a reduction in pain and PSA on discharge. PMID:25819815

  18. Reliability Issues in Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2004-01-01

    Stirling power conversion is a potential candidate for use in a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for space science missions because it offers a multifold increase in the conversion efficiency of heat to electric power and reduced requirement of radioactive material. Reliability of an RPS that utilizes Stirling power conversion technology is important in order to ascertain long term successful performance. Owing to long life time requirement (14 years), it is difficult to perform long-term tests that encompass all the uncertainties involved in the design variables of components and subsystems comprising the RPS. The requirement for uninterrupted performance reliability and related issues are discussed, and some of the critical areas of concern are identified. An overview of the current on-going efforts to understand component life, design variables at the component and system levels, and related sources and nature of uncertainties are also discussed. Current status of the 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) reliability efforts is described. Additionally, an approach showing the use of past experience on other successfully used power systems to develop a reliability plan for the SRG110 design is outlined.

  19. Cosmogenic radioisotopes in Gebel Kamil meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taricco, C.; Colombetti, P.; Bhandari, N.; Sinha, N.; Di Martino, M.; Vivaldo, G.

    2012-04-01

    Recently a small (45 m in diameter) and very young (< 5,000 years) impact crater was discovered in Egypt (Folco et al., 2010, 2011); it was generated by an iron meteorite named Gebel Kamil (Meteoritical Bulletin No. 98, Weisberg et al. 2010). During systematic searches, many specimens were found in the area surrounding the crater. We present the gamma-activity measurement of a 672 g fragment using a highly selective Ge-NaI spectrometer operating at Monte dei Cappuccini Laboratory (IFSI, INAF) in Torino, Italy. This apparatus allows to reveal the radioisotope activity generated by cosmic rays in the meteoroids as they travel through the interplanetary space before falling on the Earth. From the 26Al activity measurement and its depth production profiles, we infer (i) that the radius of the meteoroid should be about 1 m, constraining to 30-40 ton the range of pre-atmospheric mass previously proposed and (ii) that the fragment should have been located deeply inside the meteoroid, at a depth > 0.7 m. The 44Ti activity is under the detection threshold of the apparatus; using the depth production profiles of this radioisotope and its half-life T1/2 = 59.2 y, we deduce an upper limit to the date of fall.

  20. Rhenium Radioisotopes for Therapeutic Radiopharmaceutical Development

    SciTech Connect

    Beets, A.L.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Kropp, J.; Lin, W.-Y.; Pinkert, J.; Wang, S.-Y.

    1999-01-18

    The availability of therapeutic radioisotopes at reasonable costs is important for applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology, Rhenium-186 (Re-186) and rhenium-1 88 (Re-188) are two reactor-produced radioisotope which are attractive for a variety of therapeutic applications, Rhenium-186 has a half-life of 90 hours and decays with emission of a &particle with a maximum energy of 1.08 MeV and a 135 keV (9Yo) gamma which permits imaging. In contrast, Re- 188 has a much shorter half-life of 16.9 hours and emits a p-particle with a much higher energy of 2.12 MeV (Em=) and a 155 keV gamma photon (15Yo) for imaging. While Re-186 is unavailable from a generator system and must be directly produced in a nuclear reactor, Re-188 can also be directly produced in a reactor with high specific activity, but is more conveniently and cost-effectively available as carrier-free sodium perrhenate by saline elution of the alumina-based tungsten-188 (W1 88)/Re-l 88 generator system [1-2]. Since a comprehensive overviewofRe-186 and Re-188 therapeutic agents is beyond the scope of this &tended Abstrac4 the goal is to provide key examples of various agents currently in clinical use and those which are being developed for important clinical applications.

  1. Actinium radioisotope products of enhanced purity

    SciTech Connect

    Meikrantz, David Herbert; Todd, Terry Allen; Tranter, Troy Joseph; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2010-06-15

    A product includes actinium-225 (.sup.225Ac) and less than about 1 microgram (.mu.g) of iron (Fe) per millicurie (mCi) of actinium-225. The product may have a radioisotopic purity of greater than about 99.99 atomic percent (at %) actinium-225 and daughter isotopes of actinium-225, and may be formed by a method that includes providing a radioisotope mixture solution comprising at least one of uranium-233 (.sup.233U) and thorium-229 (.sup.229Th), extracting the at least one of uranium-233 and thorium-229 into an organic phase, substantially continuously contacting the organic phase with an aqueous phase, substantially continuously extracting actinium-225 into the aqueous phase, and purifying the actinium-225 from the aqueous phase. In some embodiments, the product may include less than about 1 nanogram (ng) of iron per millicurie (mCi) of actinium-225, and may include less than about 1 microgram (.mu.g) each of magnesium (Mg), Chromium (Cr), and manganese (Mn) per millicurie (mCi) of actinium-225.

  2. Preparing for Harvesting Radioisotopes from FRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Peaslee, Graham F.; Lapi, Suzanne E.

    2015-02-02

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is the next generation accelerator facility under construction at Michigan State University. FRIB will produce a wide variety of rare isotopes by a process called projectile fragmentation for a broad range of new experiments when it comes online in 2020. The accelerated rare isotope beams produced in this facility will be more intense than any current facility in the world - in many cases by more than 1000-fold. These beams will be available to the primary users of FRIB in order to do exciting new fundamental research with accelerated heavy ions. In the standard mode of operation, this will mean one radioisotope will be selected at a time for the user. However, the projectile fragmentation process also yields hundreds of other radioisotopes at these bombarding energies, and many of these rare isotopes are long-lived and could have practical applications in medicine, national security or the environment. This project developed new methods to collect these long-lived rare isotopes that are by-products of the standard FRIB operation. These isotopes are important to many areas of research, thus this project will have a broad impact in several scientific areas including medicine, environment and homeland security.

  3. U.S. Space Radioisotope Power Systems and Applications: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Bennett, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) have been essential to the U.S. exploration of outer space. RPS have two primary uses: electrical power and thermal power. To provide electrical power, the RPS uses the heat produced by the natural decay of a radioisotope (e.g., plutonium-238 in U.S. RPS) to drive a converter (e.g., thermoelectric elements or Stirling linear alternator). As a thermal power source the heat is conducted to whatever component on the spacecraft needs to be kept warm; this heat can be produced by a radioisotope heater unit (RHU) or by using the excess heat of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). As of 2010, the U.S. has launched 41 RTGs on 26 space systems. These space systems have ranged from navigational satellites to challenging outer planet missions such as Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini and the New Horizons mission to Pluto. In the fall of 2011, NASA plans to launch the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that will employ the new Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) as the principal power source. Hundreds of radioisotope heater units (RHUs) have been launched to provide warmth to Apollo 11, used to provide heating of critical components in a seismic experiment package, Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo, Cassini, Mars Pathfinder, MER rovers, etc. to provide temperature control to critical spacecraft electronics and other mechanical devices such as propulsion system propellant valves. A radioisotope (electrical) power source or system (RPS) consists of three basic elements: (1) the radioisotope heat source that provides the thermal power, (2) the converter that transforms the thermal power into electrical power and (3) the heat rejection radiator. Figure 1 illustrates the basic features of an RPS. The idea of a radioisotope power source follows closely after the early investigations of radioactivity by researchers such as Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), Marie Curie (1867-1935), Pierre Curie (1859

  4. Intravascular probe for detection of vulnerable plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Tull, Carolyn R.; Janecek, Martin; Hoffman, Edward J.; Strauss, H. William; Tsugita, Ross; Ghazarossian, Vartan

    2001-12-01

    Coronary angiography is unable to define the status of the atheroma, and only measures the luminal dimensions of the blood vessel, without providing information about plaque content. Up to 70% of heart attacks are caused by minimally obstructive vulnerable plaques, which are too small to be detected adequately by angiography. We have developed an intravascular imaging detector to identify vulnerable coronary artery plaques. The detector works by sensing beta or conversion electron radiotracer emissions from plaque-binding radiotracers. The device overcomes the technical constraints of size, sensitivity and conformance to the intravascular environment. The detector at the distal end of the catheter uses six 7mm long by 0.5mm diameter scintillation fibers coupled to 1.5m long plastic fibers. The fibers are offset from each other longitudinally by 6mm and arranged spirally around a guide wire in the catheter. At the proximal end of the catheter the optical fibers are coupled to an interface box with a snap on connector. The interface box contains a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) to decode the individual fibers. The whole detector assembly fits into an 8-French (2.7 mm in diameter) catheter. The PSPMT image is further decoded with software to give a linear image, the total instantaneous count rate and an audio output whose tone corresponds to the count rate. The device was tested with F-18 and Tl-204 sources. Spectrometric response, spatial resolution, sensitivity and beta to background ratio were measured. System resolution is 6 mm and the sensitivity is >500 cps / micrometers Ci when the source is 1 mm from the detector. The beta to background ratio was 11.2 for F-18 measured on a single fiber. The current device will lead to a system allowing imaging of labeled vulnerable plaque in coronary arteries. This type of signature is expected to enable targeted and cost effective therapies to prevent acute coronary artery diseases such as: unstable angina

  5. Specification for strontium-90 500-watt(e) radioisotopic thermoelectric generator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, T.; Himes, J.; Lieberman, A.; McGrew, J.; Owings, D.; Schumann, F.

    1983-04-01

    A conceptual design for a demonstration 500-watt(e) radioisotopic thermoelectric generator has been created for the Department of Energy. The design effort was divided into two tasks, viz., create a design specification for a capsule strength member that utilizes a standard Strontium-90 fluoride-filled WESF inner liner, and create a conceptual design for a 500-watt(e) RTG. Both tasks have been accomplished. The strength-member specification was designed to survive an external pressure of 24,500 psi and meet the requirements of special-form radioisotope heat sources. Therefore the capsule can, if desired, be licensed for domestic and international transport. The design for the RTG features a radioisotopic heat source, an array of nine capsules in a tungsten biological shield, four current-technology series-connected thermoelectric-conversion modules, low-conductivity thermal insulation, and a passive finned-housing radiator for waste-heat dissipation. The preliminary RTG specification formulated previous to contract award has been met or exceeded. The power source will generate the required power for the required service period at 28 volts dc with a conversion efficiency of 8%, provided the existing in-pool capsules at WESF meet the assumed thermal-inventory requirements.

  6. Gamma radiation characteristics of plutonium dioxide fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingo, P. J.

    1969-01-01

    Investigation of plutonium dioxide as an isotopic fuel for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators yielded the isotopic composition of production-grade plutonium dioxide fuel, sources of gamma radiation produced by plutonium isotopes, and the gamma flux at the surface.

  7. Comparison of acute and long-term results and underlying mechanisms from sirolimus-eluting stent implantation for the treatment of in-stent restenosis and recurrent in-stent restenosis in patients in whom intracoronary radiation failed as assessed by intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Thomas M; Rieber, Johannes; König, Andreas; Leibig, Marcus; Erhard, Isabelle; Theisen, Karl; Siebert, Uwe; Klauss, Volker

    2004-10-01

    In-stent restenosis (ISR), especially after vascular brachytherapy, is a therapeutic challenge. Sirolimus-eluting stent implantation is a promising new option for the treatment of patients with ISR. The efficacy of sirolimus-eluting stent implantation for the treatment of patients with their first episodes of ISR and with recurrent ISR due to the failure of vascular brachytherapy was compared using intravascular ultrasound imaging.

  8. Collinear laser spectroscopy of radioisotopes of zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, H. L.; Billowes, J.; Campbell, P.; Dendooven, P.; Flanagan, K. T.; Forest, D. H.; Griffith, J. A. R.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Moore, R.; Nieminen, A.; Tungate, G.; Zemlyanoi, S.; Äystö, J.

    2003-09-01

    Isotope shifts and hyperfine structures have been measured for radioisotopes of ionic zirconium using on-line laser spectroscopy at the IGISOL facility in Jyväskylä, where the installation of an ion beam cooler/buncher has significantly improved the experimental sensitivity. Measurements have been made on all the neutron-deficient isotopes from 87Zr to 90Zr, including the isomers 87m,89mZr, and the neutron-rich isotopes from 96Zr to 102Zr. The change in mean square charge radii between the isotopes and the nuclear moments of the odd isotopes have been extracted. The data show a sudden increase in the mean square charge radius at mass A = 100, consistent with an onset of nuclear deformation which has been observed in the gamma ray spectroscopy of isotope chains in this region of the nuclear chart.

  9. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    SciTech Connect

    Sy, Amy; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Johnson, Rolland; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  10. Radioisotope Power Systems Program: A Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program continues to plan, mature research in energy conversion, and partners with the Department of Energy (DOE) to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet potential future mission needs. Recent programs responsibilities include providing investment recommendations to NASA stakeholders on emerging thermoelectric and Stirling energy conversion technologies and insight on NASA investments at DOE in readying a generator for the Mars 2020 mission. This presentation provides an overview of the RPS Program content and status and the approach used to maintain the readiness of RPS to support potential future NASA missions.

  11. Induced radioisotopes in a linac treatment hall.

    PubMed

    Vega-Carrillo, Héctor René; de Leon-Martinez, Héctor Asael; Rivera-Perez, Esteban; Luis Benites-Rengifo, Jorge; Gallego, Eduardo; Lorente, Alfredo

    2015-08-01

    When linacs operate above 8MV an undesirable neutron field is produced whose spectrum has three main components: the direct spectrum due to those neutrons leaking out from the linac head, the scattered spectrum due to neutrons produced in the head that collides with the nuclei in the head losing energy and the third spectrum due to room-return effect. The third category of spectrum has mainly epithermal and thermal neutrons being constant at any location in the treatment hall. These neutrons induce activation in the linac components, the concrete walls and in the patient body. Here the induced radioisotopes have been identified in concrete samples located in the hall and in one of the wedges. The identification has been carried out using a gamma-ray spectrometer.

  12. Thermophotovoltaic Converter Design for Radioisotope Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, Christopher J.; Elkouh, Nabil A.; Murray, Susan; Murray, Christopher

    2004-02-04

    The development of lightweight, efficient power for emerging NASA missions and recent advances in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion technology have renewed interest in combining radioisotope heat sources with photovoltaic energy conversion. Thermophotovoltaic power conversion uses advanced materials able to utilize a broader, spectrally tuned range of wavelengths for more efficient power conversion than solar cells. Spectral control, including selective emitters, TPV module, and filters, are key to high-efficiency operation. This paper outlines the mechanical, thermal, and optical designs for the converter, including the heat source, the selective emitter, filters, photovoltaic (PV) cells, and optical cavity components. Focus is on the emitter type and the band-gap of InGaAs PV cells in developing the design. Any component and converter data available at the time of publication will also be presented.

  13. Status of the NASA Stirling Radioisotope Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2007-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling power conversion has been considered a candidate for radioisotope power systems for space for more than a decade. Prior to the free-piston Stirling architecture, systems were designed with kinematic Stirling engines that used linkages and rotary alternators to convert heat to electricity. These systems were able to achieve long life by lightly loading the linkages; however, the live was nonetheless limited. When the free-piston configuration was initially proposed, it was thought to be attractive due to the relatively high conversion efficiency, acceptable mass, and the potential for long life and high reliability based on wear-free operation. These features have consistently been recognized by teams that have studied technology options for radioisotope space power systems. Since free-piston Stirling power conversion was first considered for space power applications, there have been major advances in three general areas of development: hardware that has demonstrated long-life and reliability, the success achieved by Stirling cryocoolers in space, and the overall developmental maturity of the technology for both space and terrestrial applications. Based on these advances, free-piston Stirling convertors are currently being developed for space power, and for a number of terrestrial applications. They commonly operate with the power, efficiency, life, and reliability as intended, and much of the development now centers on system integration. This paper will summarize the accomplishments of free-piston Stirling power conversion technology over the past decade, review the status of development with regard to space power, and discuss the challenges that remain.

  14. Production of medical radioisotopes with linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Starovoitova, Valeriia N; Tchelidze, Lali; Wells, Douglas P

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we discuss producing radioisotopes using linear electron accelerators and address production and separation issues of photoneutron (γ,n) and photoproton (γ,p) reactions. While (γ,n) reactions typically result in greater yields, separating product nuclides from the target is challenging since the chemical properties of both are the same. Yields of (γ,p) reactions are typically lower than (γ,n) ones, however they have the advantage that target and product nuclides belong to different chemical species so their separation is often not such an intricate problem. In this paper we consider two examples, (100)Mo(γ,n)(99)Mo and (68)Zn(γ,p)(67)Cu, of photonuclear reactions. Monte-Carlo simulations of the yields are benchmarked with experimental data obtained at the Idaho Accelerator Center using a 44MeV linear electron accelerator. We propose using a kinematic recoil method for photoneutron production. This technique requires (100)Mo target material to be in the form of nanoparticles coated with a catcher material. During irradiation, (99)Mo atoms recoil and get trapped in the coating layer. After irradiation, the coating is dissolved and (99)Mo is collected. At the same time, (100)Mo nanoparticles can be reused. For the photoproduction method, (67)Cu can be separated from the target nuclides, (68)Zn, using standard exchange chromatography methods. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed and the (99)Mo activity was predicted to be about 7MBq/(g(⁎)kW(⁎)h) while (67)Cu activity was predicted to be about 1MBq/(g(⁎)kW(⁎)h). Experimental data confirm the predicted activity for both cases which proves that photonuclear reactions can be used to produce radioisotopes. Lists of medical isotopes which might be obtained using photonuclear reactions have been compiled and are included as well.

  15. Voyager electronic parts radiation program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft is subject to radiation from external natural space, from radioisotope thermoelectric generators and heater units, and from the internal environment where penetrating electrons generate surface ionization effects in semiconductor devices. Methods for radiation hardening and tests for radiation sensitivity are described. Results of characterization testing and sample screening of over 200 semiconductor devices in a radiation environment are summarized.

  16. Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William G.; Tarau, Calin

    2008-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) was designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. A VCHP turns on with a delta T of 30 C, which is high enough to not risk standard ASRG operation but low enough to save most heater head life. This VCHP has a low mass, and low thermal losses for normal operation. In addition to the design, a proof-of-concept NaK VCHP was fabricated and tested. While NaK is normally not used in heat pipes, it has an advantage in that it is liquid at the reservoir operating temperature, while Na or K alone would freeze. The VCHP had two condensers, one simulating the heater head, and the other simulating the radiator. The experiments successfully demonstrated operation with the simulated heater head condenser off and on, while allowing the reservoir temperature to vary over 40 to 120 C, the maximum range expected. In agreement with previous NaK heat pipe tests, the evaporator delta T was roughly 70 C, due to distillation of the NaK in the evaporator.

  17. Toward a Continuous Intravascular Glucose Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Brooke; Musick, Katherine; Matsumoto, Akira; Panitch, Alyssa; Nauman, Eric; Irazoqui, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Proof-of-concept studies that display the potential of using a glucose-sensitive hydrogel as a continuous glucose sensor are presented. The swelling ratio, porosity, and diffusivity of the hydrogel increased with glucose concentration. In glucose solutions of 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/dL, the hydrogel swelling ratios were 4.9, 12.3, 15.9, and 21.7, respectively, and the swelling was reversible. The impedance across the hydrogel depended solely on the thickness and had an average increase of 47 Ω/mm. The hydrogels exposed to a hyperglycemic solution were more porous than the hydrogels exposed to a normal glycemic solution. The diffusivity of 390 Da MW fluorescein isothiocyanate in hydrogels exposed to normal and hyperglycemic solutions was examined using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and was found to be 9.3 × 10−14 and 41.4 × 10−14 m2/s, respectively, compared to 6.2 × 10−10 m2/s in glucose solution. There was no significant difference between the permeability of hydrogels in normal and hyperglycemic glucose solutions with averages being 5.26 × 10−17 m2 and 5.80 × 10−17 m2, respectively, which resembles 2–4% agarose gels. A prototype design is presented for continuous intravascular glucose monitoring by attaching a glucose sensor to an FDA-approved stent. PMID:22344366

  18. Heterogeneous Intravascular Ultrasound Findings of Stent Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Morofuji, Toru; Inaba, Shinji; Aisu, Hiroe; Takahashi, Kayo; Saito, Makoto; Higashi, Haruhiko; Yoshii, Toyofumi; Sumimoto, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The underlying mechanisms of stent thrombosis are not completely understood. Methods We experienced 12 definite stent thrombosis cases (1 early, 1 late, and 10 very late) at our hospital from July 2011 to April 2016 and evaluated the possible causes of stent thrombosis by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Results Five different potential morphological causes of stent thrombosis (neoatherosclerosis, stent malapposition, stent fracture, edge dissection, and stent underexpansion) were detected by IVUS in 10 cases (83.3%); in 1 of the remaining 2 cases, the discontinuation of antithrombotic drugs resulted in early stent thrombosis without abnormal IVUS findings. Of the 12 stent thrombosis cases, 4 occurred at a bare-metal stent (average time from stent implantation, 106 months); in all 12, significant neointimal hyperplasia was observed on IVUS, and 2 had plaque ruptures at an in-stent or proximal reference. Malapposed stent struts were observed in three very-late stent thromboses, and all of these underwent sirolimus-eluting stent implantation. Stent thrombosis due to mechanical (stent fracture) or procedure-related complications (edge dissection and stent underexpansion) was observed in three cases. Conclusion In patients with stent thrombosis, heterogeneous findings were observed in IVUS. This IVUS case series illustrates the possible mechanisms of stent thrombosis. PMID:28154268

  19. Immunological characterization of pulmonary intravascular macrophages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitko-McKown, C. G.; Reddy, D. N.; Chapes, S. K.; McKown, R. D.; Blecha, F.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) are lung macrophages found apposed to the endothelium of pulmonary capillaries. In many species, they are responsible for the clearance of blood-borne particulates and pathogens; however, little else is known about their roles as immunologic effector cells. We compared PIMs with pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) to determine the relative immunological activities of these two cell populations. Our results suggested that both populations possess similar phagocytic and bactericidal activities. In assays measuring cytotoxicity, PIMs were more cytotoxic than PAMs against virally infected target cells; however, differences between these macrophage populations were not as marked when noninfected targets were used. LPS-stimulated PIMs produced more T-cell proliferative cytokines than PAMs, and both populations of nonstimulated macrophages produced similar amounts of the cytokines. In contrast, PAMs produced more TNF alpha and NO2- than PIMs when both populations were stimulated with LPS; however, nonstimulated PAMs and PIMs produced similar amounts of TNF alpha and NO2. These data suggest that bovine PIMs are immunologically active. Differences between the degrees of activity of PIMs and PAMs indicate that these macrophage populations may have different roles in lung surveillance.

  20. Report on audit of funding for advanced radioisotope power systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (Department) Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Program maintains the sole national capability and facilities to produce radioisotope power systems for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense, and other Federal agencies. Projects are conducted with these agencies in accordance with written agreements and are dependent on cost sharing by the user agencies. For the past seven years the program emphasis has been on providing power systems for NASA`s Cassini mission to Saturn, which was launched earlier this month. We initiated this audit to determine whether the Department received proper reimbursement from NASA for the radioisotope power systems produced.

  1. Radioisotope Reduction Using Solar Power for Outer Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2008-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems have historically been (and still are) the power system of choice from a mass and size perspective for outer planetary missions. High demand for and limited availability of radioisotope fuel has made it necessary to investigate alternatives to this option. Low mass, high efficiency solar power systems have the potential for use at low outer planetary temperatures and illumination levels. This paper documents the impacts of using solar power systems instead of radioisotope power for all or part of the power needs of outer planetary spacecraft and illustrates the potential fuel savings of such an approach.

  2. Fast treatment planning with IVUS imaging in intravascular brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novario, Raffaele; Bianchi, Carla; Lorusso, Rita; Sampietro, Chiara; Tanzi, Fabio; Conte, Leopoldo; Vescovi, Mario; Caccia, Massimo; Alemi, Mario; Cappellini, Chiara

    2004-05-01

    The planned target volume in intracoronary brachytherapy is the vessel wall. The success of the treatment is based on the need of delivering doses possibly not lower than 8 and not higher than 30 Gy. An automatic procedure in order to acquire intravascular ultrasound images of the whole volume to be irradiated is pointed out; a motor driven pullback device, with velocity of the catheter of 0.5 and 1 mm/s allows to acquire the entire target volume of the vessel with a number of slices normally ranging from 400 to 1600. A semiautomatic segmentation and classification of the different structures in each slice of the vessel is proposed. The segmentation and the classification of the structures allows the calculation of their volume; this is very useful in particular for plaque volume assessment in the follow-up of the patients. A 3D analyser tool was developed in order to visualize the walls and the lumen of the vessel. The knowledge, for each axial slice, of the position of the source (in the centre of the catheter) and the position of the target (vessel walls) allows the calculation of a set of source-target distances. Given a time of irradiation, and a type of source a dose volume histogram (DVH) describing the distribution of the doses in the whole target can be obtained. The whole procedure takes few minutes and then is compatible with a safe treatment of the patient, giving an important indication about the quality of the radiation treatment selected.

  3. Radioisotope tracer studies in the NASA Skylab ethothermic brazing experiment M-552

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braski, D. N.; Adair, H. L.; Kobisk, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    The first use of radioisotope tracer for mapping flow patterns during brazing of metal components in a space environment (near-zero gravity) proved successful. A nickel ferrule was brazed to a nickel tube with Lithobraze BT (71.8% Ag, 28% Cu, 0.2% Li) which contained a trace amount of radioactive Ag-110. Mapping of the flow of the braze alloy in the annulus formed between the tube and the concentric ferrule was determined by counting the radiation intensity as a function of position in the braze joint. Significant information concerning the thermal history of the braze was determined.

  4. Environmental, health and safety assessment of decommissioning radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) in northwest Russia.

    PubMed

    Standring, W J F; Dowdall, M; Sneve, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Amundsen, I

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents findings from public health and environmental assessment work that has been conducted as part of a joint Norwegian-Russian project to decommission radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) in northwest Russia. RTGs utilise heat energy from radioactive isotopes, in this case 90Sr and its daughter nuclide 90Y, to generate electricity as a power source. Different accident scenarios based on the decommissioning process for RTGs are assessed in terms of possible radiation effects to humans and the environment. Doses to humans and biota under the worst-case scenario were lower than threshold limits given in ICRP and IAEA literature.

  5. Environmental assessment of decommissioning radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) in northwest Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, A.; Standring, W.J.F.; Brown, J.E.; Dowdall, M.; Amundsen, I.B.

    2007-07-01

    This article presents some results from assessment work conducted as part of a joint Norwegian-Russian project to decommission radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) in Northwest Russia. Potential worst case accident scenarios, based on the decommissioning procedures for RTGs, were assessed to study possible radiation effects to the environment. Close contact with exposed RTG sources will result in detrimental health effects. However, doses to marine biota from ingestion of radioactivity under the worst-case marine scenario studied were lower than threshold limits given in IAEA literature. (authors)

  6. Monte Carol-Based Dosimetry of Beta-Emitters for Intravascular Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, C.K.

    2002-06-25

    Monte Carlo simulations for radiation dosimetry and the experimental verifications of the simulations have been developed for the treatment geometry of intravascular brachytherapy, a form of radionuclide therapy for occluded coronary disease (restenosis). Monte Carlo code, MCNP4C, has been used to calculate the radiation dose from the encapsulated array of B-emitting seeds (Sr/Y-source train). Solid water phantoms have been fabricated to measure the dose on the radiochromic films that were exposed to the beta source train for both linear and curved coronary vessel geometries. While the dose difference for the 5-degree curved vessel at the prescription point of f+2.0 mm is within the 10% guideline set by the AAPM, however, the difference increased dramatically to 16.85% for the 10-degree case which requires additional adjustment for the acceptable dosimetry planning. The experimental dose measurements agree well with the simulation results

  7. A power conditioning system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) as the primary source of energy in unmanned spacecraft is discussed. RTG output control, power conditioning system requirements, the electrical design, and circuit performance are also discussed.

  8. Determining Molar Combining Ratios Using Radioisotopes--A Student Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Jerry A.

    1976-01-01

    Outlines an experimental procedure in which an iodine radioisotope is used to determine molar combining ratios of lead and silver with the iodine. Tables and graphs show the definitive results that should be attainable. (CP)

  9. Therapeutic clinical applications of reactor-produced radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    One of the most rapidly growing areas of clinical nuclear medicine is the therapeutic use of radioisotopes for applications in oncology, rheumatology and, more recently, interventional cardiology. With the rapidly increasing development and evaluation of new agents, their introduction into clinical use, and commercialization, the availability of high levels of therapeutic reactor-produced neutron-rich radioisotopes is of increasing importance. The goals of this paper are to discuss the issues associated with optimization of the production and processing of reactor-produced radioisotopes for therapy, with special emphasis on {sup 188}W, and the optimization of the use of the {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator. In addition, other key examples of therapeutic radioisotopes of current interest and their specific clinical applications are discussed.

  10. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) for Selected Interplanetary Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Cupples, Mike; Belcher, Jeremy; Witzberger, Kevin; Fiehler, Douglas; Artis, Gwen

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation analyzes small body targets (Trojan Asteroids), Medium Outer Planet Class (Jupiter Polar Orbiter with Probes), and Main Belt Asteroids and Comets (Comet Surface Sample Return), for Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP).

  11. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of three-dimensional thermal power model of advanced stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG). The performance of the ASRG is presented for different scenario, such as Venus flyby with or without the auxiliary cooling system.

  12. Efficiency of Pm-147 direct charge radioisotope battery.

    PubMed

    Kavetskiy, A; Yakubova, G; Yousaf, S M; Bower, K; Robertson, J D; Garnov, A

    2011-05-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented here of the efficiency of direct charge radioisotope batteries based on the efficiency of the radioactive source, the system geometry, electrostatic repulsion of beta particles from the collector, the secondary electron emission, and backscattered beta particles from the collector. Efficiency of various design batteries using Pm-147 sources was experimentally measured and found to be in good agreement with calculations. The present approach can be used for predicting the efficiency for different designs of direct charge radioisotope batteries.

  13. A Review of Intravascular Ultrasound–Based Multimodal Intravascular Imaging: The Synergistic Approach to Characterizing Vulnerable Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng; Zhou, Bill; Hsiai, Tzung K.; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Catheter-based intravascular imaging modalities are being developed to visualize pathologies in coronary arteries, such as high-risk vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques known as thin-cap fibroatheroma, to guide therapeutic strategy at preventing heart attacks. Mounting evidences have shown three distinctive histopathological features—the presence of a thin fibrous cap, a lipid-rich necrotic core, and numerous infiltrating macrophages—are key markers of increased vulnerability in atherosclerotic plaques. To visualize these changes, the majority of catheter-based imaging modalities used intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) as the technical foundation and integrated emerging intravascular imaging techniques to enhance the characterization of vulnerable plaques. However, no current imaging technology is the unequivocal “gold standard” for the diagnosis of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Each intravascular imaging technology possesses its own unique features that yield valuable information although encumbered by inherent limitations not seen in other modalities. In this context, the aim of this review is to discuss current scientific innovations, technical challenges, and prospective strategies in the development of IVUS-based multi-modality intravascular imaging systems aimed at assessing atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. PMID:26400676

  14. Reliability of Radioisotope Stirling Convertor Linear Alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ashwin; Korovaichuk, Igor; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    Onboard radioisotope power systems being developed and planned for NASA s deep-space missions would require reliable design lifetimes of up to 14 years. Critical components and materials of Stirling convertors have been undergoing extensive testing and evaluation in support of a reliable performance for the specified life span. Of significant importance to the successful development of the Stirling convertor is the design of a lightweight and highly efficient linear alternator. Alternator performance could vary due to small deviations in the permanent magnet properties, operating temperature, and component geometries. Durability prediction and reliability of the alternator may be affected by these deviations from nominal design conditions. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effect of these uncertainties in predicting the reliability of the linear alternator performance. This paper presents a study in which a reliability-based methodology is used to assess alternator performance. The response surface characterizing the induced open-circuit voltage performance is constructed using 3-D finite element magnetic analysis. Fast probability integration method is used to determine the probability of the desired performance and its sensitivity to the alternator design parameters.

  15. Radioisotopic heater units warm an interplanetary spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Ferreira, E.A.; Rinehart, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    The Cassini orbiter and Huygens probe, which were successfully launched on October 15, 1997, constitute NASA`s last grand-scale interplanetary mission of this century. The mission, which consists of a four-year, close-up study of Saturn and its moons, begins in July 2004 with Cassini`s 60 orbits of Saturn and about 33 fly-bys of the large moon Titan. The Huygens probe will descend and land on Titan. Investigations will include Saturn`s atmosphere, its rings and its magnetosphere. The atmosphere and surface of Titan and other icy moons also will be characterized. Because of the great distance of Saturn from the sun, some of the instruments and equipment on both the orbiter and the probe require external heaters to maintain their temperature within normal operating ranges. These requirements are met by Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) designed, fabricated and safety tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. An improved gas tungsten arc welding procedure lowered costs and decreased processing time for heat units for the Cassini spacecraft.

  16. Implanted artificial heart with radioisotope power source.

    PubMed

    Shumakov, V I; Griaznov, G M; Zhemchuzhnikov, G N; Kiselev, I M; Osipov, A P

    1983-02-01

    An atomic artificial heart for orthotopic implantation was developed with the following characteristics: volume, 1.2 L; weight, 1.5 kg; radioisotope power, 45 W; operating life, up to 5 years; hemodynamics, similar to natural hemodynamics. The artificial heart includes a thermal drive with systems for regulating power, feeding steam into the cylinders, return of the condensate to the steam generator, and delivery of power to the ventricles and heat container. The artificial heart is placed in an artificial pericardium partially filled with physiologic solution. It uses a steam engine with two operating cylinders that separately drive the left and right ventricles. There is no electronic control system in the proposed design. The operation of the heat engine is controlled, with preservation of autoregulation by the vascular system of the body. The separate drives for the ventricles is of primary importance as it provides for operation of the artificial heart through control of cardiac activity by venous return. Experimental testing on a hydromechanical bench demonstrated effective autoregulation.

  17. Some geophysical considerations in radioisotope dating applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Radioisotope dating only assumes radioactive decay laws are taking place allowing closed form solutions to be obtained in generating a sample date estimate. To be discussed in this work is the isotopic distribution expected in geological samples due to mass diffusion superimposed on that from simple radioactive decay. By taking into consideration the isotope effect (differential mass diffusion rates) when measuring isotopic ratios from very old samples, the distribution dependency will cause a bias if isotopic diffusion rates are not identical throughout a material (or at least across the boundaries of all samples measured). The isotope effect being that isotopes having a smaller atomic mass will diffuse faster in a medium than will their heavier counterparts causing concentration gradients of their ratios even when there are no contributions from radioactive decay which will tend to bias all sample ages (slopes of the isochron) to have a more linear distribution. The application to Sr/Rb dating is evaluated and shown to result in expected age overestimates. Suggested methods to test for this effect along with sample preparation techniques to minimize it are discussed. Special thanks the NCSU Nuclear Engineering Department.

  18. Comparative analysis of 11 different radioisotopes for palliative treatment of bone metastases by computational methods

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra Liberal, Francisco D. C. E-mail: adriana-tavares@msn.com; Tavares, Adriana Alexandre S. E-mail: adriana-tavares@msn.com; Tavares, João Manuel R. S.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Throughout the years, the palliative treatment of bone metastases using bone seeking radiotracers has been part of the therapeutic resources used in oncology, but the choice of which bone seeking agent to use is not consensual across sites and limited data are available comparing the characteristics of each radioisotope. Computational simulation is a simple and practical method to study and to compare a variety of radioisotopes for different medical applications, including the palliative treatment of bone metastases. This study aims to evaluate and compare 11 different radioisotopes currently in use or under research for the palliative treatment of bone metastases using computational methods. Methods: Computational models were used to estimate the percentage of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage (fast Monte Carlo damage algorithm), the probability of correct DNA repair (Monte Carlo excision repair algorithm), and the radiation-induced cellular effects (virtual cell radiobiology algorithm) post-irradiation with selected particles emitted by phosphorus-32 ({sup 32}P), strontium-89 ({sup 89}Sr), yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y ), tin-117 ({sup 117m}Sn), samarium-153 ({sup 153}Sm), holmium-166 ({sup 166}Ho), thulium-170 ({sup 170}Tm), lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu), rhenium-186 ({sup 186}Re), rhenium-188 ({sup 188}Re), and radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra). Results: {sup 223}Ra alpha particles, {sup 177}Lu beta minus particles, and {sup 170}Tm beta minus particles induced the highest cell death of all investigated particles and radioisotopes. The cell survival fraction measured post-irradiation with beta minus particles emitted by {sup 89}Sr and {sup 153}Sm, two of the most frequently used radionuclides in the palliative treatment of bone metastases in clinical routine practice, was higher than {sup 177}Lu beta minus particles and {sup 223}Ra alpha particles. Conclusions: {sup 223}Ra and {sup 177}Lu hold the highest potential for palliative treatment of bone metastases of all

  19. 21 CFR 880.5965 - Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port and catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion... Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5965 Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port and catheter. (a) Identification. A subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port...

  20. 21 CFR 880.5970 - Percutaneous, implanted, long-term intravascular catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Percutaneous, implanted, long-term intravascular... and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5970 Percutaneous, implanted, long-term intravascular catheter. (a) Identification. A percutaneous, implanted, long-term intravascular catheter is a device...

  1. 21 CFR 880.5965 - Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port and catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion... Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5965 Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port and catheter. (a) Identification. A subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port...

  2. 21 CFR 880.5965 - Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port and catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion... Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5965 Subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port and catheter. (a) Identification. A subcutaneous, implanted, intravascular infusion port...

  3. Incidental Intravascular Lipoleiomyomatosis in A Hysterectomy Specimen: How To Manage?

    PubMed Central

    Aslanova, Rakhshanda; Can, Nuray; Okten, Sabri Berkem; Aslan, Mehmet Musa

    2015-01-01

    Leiomyomas are common benign tumors in female gynaecologic surgery. They are originated from smooth muscle cells of the uterus and/or sometimes of the uterine vessels. Intravascular lipoleiomyomatosis is a very rare form of leiomyomas which grow within veins and can extend up to vena cava inferior and right heart chamber with cardiac symptoms and is diagnosed by cardiovascular surgeons. We report a case of incidental intravascular lipoleiomyomatosis which was confined to the uterus being diagnosed after a total abdominal hysterectomy by pathology and its management strategy. PMID:25738043

  4. Extremely refractory Kawasaki disease with disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Koh, Young Kwon; Lee, Jae Hee; Park, Yeong Bong

    2017-03-07

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a rare complication of Kawasaki disease and appears in <0.1% of Kawasaki disease patients. We report a case of refractory Kawasaki disease complicated with disseminated intravascular coagulation and giant coronary aneurysm. A 5-month-old boy presented with Kawasaki disease with coagulopathy. Although the coagulopathy improved after fresh-frozen plasma and antithrombin-III administration, the fever persisted despite two rounds of intravenous immunoglobulin, along with intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy and infliximab administration. Despite all efforts to treatment, the patient had giant coronary aneurysms and died suddenly.

  5. Development of a radioisotope heat source for the two-watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Edwin I.; McNeil, Dennis C.; Amos, Wayne R.

    1992-01-01

    Described is a radioisotope heat source for the Two-Watt Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) which is being considered for possible application by the U.S. Navy and for other Department of Defense applications. The heat source thermal energy (75 Wt) is produced from the alpha decay of plutonium-238 which is in the form of high-fired plutonium dioxide. The capsule is non-vented and consists of three domed cylindrical components each closed with a corresponding sealed end cap. Surrounding the fuel is the liner component, which is fabricated from a tantalum-based alloy, T-111. Also fabricated from T-111 is the next component, the strength member, which serves to meet pressure and impact criteria. The outermost component, or clad, is the oxidation- and corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy, Hastelloy S. This paper defines the design considerations, details the hardware fabrication and welding processes, discusses the addition of yttrium to the fuel to reduce liner embrittlement, and describes the testing that has been conducted or is planned to assure that there is fuel containment not only during the heat source operational life, but also in case of an accident environment.

  6. ARAS: an automated radioactivity aliquoting system for dispensing solutions containing positron-emitting radioisotopes

    DOE PAGES

    Dooraghi, Alex A.; Carroll, Lewis; Collins, Jeffrey; ...

    2016-03-09

    Automated protocols for measuring and dispensing solutions containing radioisotopes are essential not only for providing a safe environment for radiation workers but also to ensure accuracy of dispensed radioactivity and an efficient workflow. For this purpose, we have designed ARAS, an automated radioactivity aliquoting system for dispensing solutions containing positron-emitting radioisotopes with particular focus on fluorine-18 (18F). The key to the system is the combination of a radiation detector measuring radioactivity concentration, in line with a peristaltic pump dispensing known volumes. Results show the combined system demonstrates volume variation to be within 5 % for dispensing volumes of 20 μLmore » or greater. When considering volumes of 20 μL or greater, the delivered radioactivity is in agreement with the requested amount as measured independently with a dose calibrator to within 2 % on average. In conclusion, the integration of the detector and pump in an in-line system leads to a flexible and compact approach that can accurately dispense solutions containing radioactivity concentrations ranging from the high values typical of [18F]fluoride directly produced from a cyclotron (~0.1-1 mCi μL-1) to the low values typical of batches of [18F]fluoride-labeled radiotracers intended for preclinical mouse scans (~1-10 μCi μL-1).« less

  7. InfuShield: a shielded enclosure for administering therapeutic radioisotope treatments using standard syringe pumps.

    PubMed

    Rushforth, Dominic P; Pratt, Brenda E; Chittenden, Sarah J; Murray, Iain S; Causer, Louise; Grey, Matthew J; Gear, Jonathan I; Du, Yong; Flux, Glenn D

    2017-03-01

    The administration of radionuclide therapies presents significant radiation protection challenges. The aim of this work was to develop a delivery system for intravenous radioisotope therapies to substantially moderate radiation exposures to staff and operators. A novel device (InfuShield) was designed and tested before being used clinically. The device consists of a shielded enclosure which contains the therapeutic activity and, through the hydraulic action of back-to-back syringes, allows the activity to be administered using a syringe pump external to the enclosure. This enables full access to the pump controls while simultaneously reducing dose to the operator. The system is suitable for use with all commercially available syringe pumps and does not require specific consumables, maximising both the flexibility and economy of the system. Dose rate measurements showed that at key stages in an I mIBG treatment procedure, InfuShield can reduce dose to operators by several orders of magnitude. Tests using typical syringes and infusion speeds show no significant alteration in administered flow rates (maximum of 1.2%). The InfuShield system provides a simple, safe and low cost method of radioisotope administration.

  8. InfuShield: a shielded enclosure for administering therapeutic radioisotope treatments using standard syringe pumps

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Brenda E.; Chittenden, Sarah J.; Murray, Iain S.; Causer, Louise; Grey, Matthew J.; Gear, Jonathan I.; Du, Yong; Flux, Glenn D.

    2017-01-01

    The administration of radionuclide therapies presents significant radiation protection challenges. The aim of this work was to develop a delivery system for intravenous radioisotope therapies to substantially moderate radiation exposures to staff and operators. A novel device (InfuShield) was designed and tested before being used clinically. The device consists of a shielded enclosure which contains the therapeutic activity and, through the hydraulic action of back-to-back syringes, allows the activity to be administered using a syringe pump external to the enclosure. This enables full access to the pump controls while simultaneously reducing dose to the operator. The system is suitable for use with all commercially available syringe pumps and does not require specific consumables, maximising both the flexibility and economy of the system. Dose rate measurements showed that at key stages in an 131I mIBG treatment procedure, InfuShield can reduce dose to operators by several orders of magnitude. Tests using typical syringes and infusion speeds show no significant alteration in administered flow rates (maximum of 1.2%). The InfuShield system provides a simple, safe and low cost method of radioisotope administration. PMID:28187040

  9. ARAS: an automated radioactivity aliquoting system for dispensing solutions containing positron-emitting radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Dooraghi, Alex A.; Carroll, Lewis; Collins, Jeffrey; van Dam, R. Michael; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

    2016-03-09

    Automated protocols for measuring and dispensing solutions containing radioisotopes are essential not only for providing a safe environment for radiation workers but also to ensure accuracy of dispensed radioactivity and an efficient workflow. For this purpose, we have designed ARAS, an automated radioactivity aliquoting system for dispensing solutions containing positron-emitting radioisotopes with particular focus on fluorine-18 (18F). The key to the system is the combination of a radiation detector measuring radioactivity concentration, in line with a peristaltic pump dispensing known volumes. Results show the combined system demonstrates volume variation to be within 5 % for dispensing volumes of 20 μL or greater. When considering volumes of 20 μL or greater, the delivered radioactivity is in agreement with the requested amount as measured independently with a dose calibrator to within 2 % on average. In conclusion, the integration of the detector and pump in an in-line system leads to a flexible and compact approach that can accurately dispense solutions containing radioactivity concentrations ranging from the high values typical of [18F]fluoride directly produced from a cyclotron (~0.1-1 mCi μL-1) to the low values typical of batches of [18F]fluoride-labeled radiotracers intended for preclinical mouse scans (~1-10 μCi μL-1).

  10. Concept for a radioisotope powered dual mode lunar rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John O.; Schriener, Timothy M.; Coste, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Over three decades ago, the Apollo missions manifestly demonstrated the value of a lunar rover to expand the exploration activities of lunar astronauts. The stated plan of the new Vision for Space Exploration to establish a permanent presence on the moon in the next decades gives new impetus to providing long range roving and exploration capability in support of the siting, construction, and maintenance of future human bases. The incorporation of radioisotope power systems and telerobotic capability in the design has the potential to significantly expand the capability of such a rover, allowing continuous operation during the full lunar day/night cycle, as well as enabling exploration in permanently shadowed regions that may be of interest to humans for the resources they may hold. This paper describes a concept that builds on earlier studies originated in the Apollo program for a Dual Mode (crewed and telerobotic) Lunar Roving Vehicle (DMLRV). The goal of this vehicle would be to provide a multipurpose infrastructure element and remote science platform for the exploration of the moon. The DMLRV would be essential for extending the productivity of human exploration crews, and would provide a unique capability for diverse long-range, long-duration science exploration between human visits. With minimal reconfiguration this vehicle could also provide the basic platform to support a range of site survey and preparation activities in anticipation of the establishment of a permanent human presence on the moon. A conceptual design is presented for the DMLRV, including discussion of mission architecture, vehicle performance, representative science payload accommodation, and equipment and crew radiation considerations.

  11. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, Gamal

    2016-08-31

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostic and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015, allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing, and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoretical projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn- 62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using (a) a subcritical aqueous target system and (b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator-generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011; due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory, it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.

  12. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, Gamal

    2016-10-28

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostics and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015, allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing, and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoretical projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn-62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using a) a subcritical aqueous target system and b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011 and due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Intravascularly Administered (65)Zinc in Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, Mace G.; Schultz, Irvin R. ); Newman, Michael E.

    1999-12-01

    We compared the pharmacokinetics of the radioisotope 65Zinc (65Zn) in blood, plasma, and whole body of adult channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) following intravascular (iv) administration. A two compartment model described the pharmacokinetics of 65Zn in plasma and blood during the first 40 days following iv administration, but was unable to describe the long-term disposition of 65Zn. Whole body counting revealed that approximately half of the 65Zn dose was sequestered in a slowly exchangeable pool with a half-life of 1.5 years. Greater than 99% of the circulating 65Zn was bound to plasma proteins, whereas there was less than 1% binding to red blood cells. Synthesis of the results for channel catfish and existing data in other species indicates three phases in the pharmacokinetics of zinc. The first phase consists of initial distribution outside the vascular system to kidney, liver, and other organs (alpha phase in blood and plasma; t1/2 of 4 to 5 hours). The second phase involves distribution from organs to a slowly exchangeable zinc pool, likely consisting of bone (beta phase in blood and plasma; alpha phase in whole body; t1/2 of 4 to 20 days). The third phase appears to involve a slow turnover of sequestered zinc (t1/2 greater than 1 year). Blood sampling or short-term whole body measurements will underestimate the persistence of zinc in fish, thus prolonged sampling and measurement of whole body concentrations are necessary to characterize the pharmacokinetics of zinc.

  14. Chemistry of Cosmogenic Radioisotopes in the Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, F. S.

    2003-12-01

    Bombardment of Earth's atmosphere by Gev cosmic ray protons produces two neutrons/cm2/second, which react with 14N nuclei to form 14C. The initial stratospheric reaction of the bare 14C atom with O2 forms 14CO, which is subsequently oxidized to 14CO2 by HO. The 14CO2 is then the basis for age-dating studies of inorganic carbon, and of organic carbon after incorporation by photosynthesis. Proton spallation of light nuclei (chiefly 14N, 16O) produces various isotopic fragments, many of them radioactive, containing 8 or fewer protons and 10 or fewer neutrons. For geophysical studies, the most important of the radioisotopes so produced are 3H, 7Be, and 10Be. Proton spallation of 40Ar produces many isotopes with atomic weight less than 40, including 34Cl, 36Cl, 38Cl, 39Cl, 35S, 38S, 22Na, 24Na, 32Si, 32P, and 33P, all of which have been detected in the atmosphere. The "million year" isotopes (10Be, 36Cl) are useful for geological dating. The short-lived isotopes were collected both from rainwater captured at ground level, and on filter paper at 18 kilometers altitude carried by an RB-57 aircraft (1970, J. A. Young, C. W. Thomas, N. A. Wogman and R. W. Perkins, JGR, 75, 2385). The radioisotopes were measured with multidimensional gamma ray spectroscopy, which was able to detect 24Na and 38Cl without prior chemical separation. Count rates as low as 0.1 count/minute were monitored, even in the presence of 107 counts/minute of fallout fission products from nuclear testing in the atmosphere. This fallout background is now greatly reduced because of the four decades old ban on nuclear testing in the atmosphere. The stratospheric collection of 24Na (15 hour half-life) was interpreted as scavenging of the radiosodium by particulate matter, and retention on filter paper with an efficiency of 100 percent within the statistical accuracy in comparison with its production in argon tanks carried on the aircraft. The efficiency of collection of radiochlorine atoms was only about 1

  15. [Potential radiation hazard in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Guilabert, Nadine; Ricard, Marcel; Chamoulaud, Karen; Mazelier, Carole; Schlumberger, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear medicine uses unsealed radioisotopes. The potential radiation hazards depend on the amount of radioactivity administered and the type of radionucleide. Thus, radiation safety instructions will minimize radiation exposure and contamination as low as reasonably achievable. National nuclear safety authority requires rules, regulations and exposure limits for both patients and workers. Good practices and training staff contribute to optimize the radioprotection.

  16. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1981-04-01

    DOE is developing a new generation of radioisotope-fueled 1-watt heaters, for initial use on NASA's upcoming Galileo and International Solar-Polar Missions. Each heater must contain passive safety provisions to ensure fuel retention under all credible accident conditions. Initial design reviews raised some concern about the accuracy of the predicted peak reenetry temperature, and about the adequacy of the safety margin under certain unlikely - but not impossible-reentry modes. Of particular concern was the possile release of the accumulated helium inventory from the fuel during the reentry heat pulse, and the potential effect of enhanced heat conduction due to helium buildup in gaps. The latter problem had not been addressed in previous studies. Fairchild carried out a large number of reentry thermal analyses to resolve the analytical uncertainties, and proposed design changes to reduce the thermal coupling between the aeroshell and the fuel capsule. For the computed reentry temperature history of the modified design, the rate of helium buildup in the gaps was analyzed. The analysis accounted for temperature-dependent helium diffusion through the fuel pellet and for leakage to space through the permeable aeroshell. It showed that most of the helium inventory leaves the fuel during reentry, but that it never reaches a continuum pressure in the gaps, and therefore has no significant thermal effect. Under these conditions, the Fairchild-modified design provides ample safety margin against clad failure, even for very unlikely reenty trajectories. The modified design was successfully vibration-tested and was subsequently adopted by the project. Cross Reference CID #8517. There are two copies in the file.

  17. 21 CFR 870.3375 - Cardiovascular intravascular filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiovascular intravascular filter. 870.3375 Section 870.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices §...

  18. 21 CFR 870.3375 - Cardiovascular intravascular filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiovascular intravascular filter. 870.3375 Section 870.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices §...

  19. 21 CFR 882.5150 - Intravascular occluding catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intravascular occluding catheter. 882.5150 Section 882.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5150...

  20. 21 CFR 882.5150 - Intravascular occluding catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intravascular occluding catheter. 882.5150 Section 882.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5150...

  1. 21 CFR 882.5150 - Intravascular occluding catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intravascular occluding catheter. 882.5150 Section 882.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5150...

  2. 21 CFR 882.5150 - Intravascular occluding catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intravascular occluding catheter. 882.5150 Section 882.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5150...

  3. 21 CFR 882.5150 - Intravascular occluding catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intravascular occluding catheter. 882.5150 Section 882.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5150...

  4. 21 CFR 880.5210 - Intravascular catheter securement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intravascular catheter securement device. 880.5210 Section 880.5210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal...

  5. 21 CFR 880.5210 - Intravascular catheter securement device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intravascular catheter securement device. 880.5210 Section 880.5210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal...

  6. 21 CFR 870.3375 - Cardiovascular intravascular filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiovascular intravascular filter. 870.3375 Section 870.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... side of the heart and the pulmonary circulation. (b) Classification. Class II. The special controls...

  7. 21 CFR 870.3375 - Cardiovascular intravascular filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiovascular intravascular filter. 870.3375 Section 870.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... side of the heart and the pulmonary circulation. (b) Classification. Class II. The special controls...

  8. 21 CFR 870.3375 - Cardiovascular intravascular filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiovascular intravascular filter. 870.3375 Section 870.3375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... side of the heart and the pulmonary circulation. (b) Classification. Class II. The special controls...

  9. A Prognostic Dilemma of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intravascular Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Castley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy; however, it very rarely metastasizes. Despite the low mortality caused by this cancer, once it spreads, it has dim prognosis. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma with rare intravascular invasion and review the literature for risk factors and management of metastasis. PMID:27757356

  10. Radiation imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Immel, David M.; Bobbit, III, John T.; Plummer, Jean R.; Folsom, Matthew D.; Serrato, Michael G.

    2016-03-22

    A radiation imaging system includes a casing and a camera disposed inside the casing. A first field of view through the casing exposes the camera to light from outside of the casing. An image plate is disposed inside the casing, and a second field of view through the casing to the image plate exposes the image plate to high-energy particles produced by a radioisotope outside of the casing. An optical reflector that is substantially transparent to the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope is disposed with respect to the camera and the image plate to reflect light to the camera and to allow the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope to pass through the optical reflector to the image plate.

  11. Radiation imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bobbitt, III, John T.; Immel, David M.; Folsom, Matthew D.; Plummer, Jean R.; Serrato, Michael G.

    2016-06-28

    A radiation imaging system includes a casing and a camera disposed inside the casing. A first field of view through the casing exposes the camera to light from outside of the casing. An image plate is disposed inside the casing, and a second field of view through the casing to the image plate exposes the image plate to high-energy particles produced by a radioisotope outside of the casing. An optical reflector that is substantially transparent to the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope is disposed with respect to the camera and the image plate to reflect light to the camera and to allow the high-energy particles produced by the radioisotope to pass through the optical reflector to the image plate.

  12. NASA Radioisotope Power System Program - Technology and Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA sometimes conducts robotic science missions to solar system destinations for which the most appropriate power source is derived from thermal-to-electrical energy conversion of nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes. Typically the use of a radioisotope power system (RPS) has been limited to medium and large-scale missions, with 26 U,S, missions having used radioisotope power since 1961. A research portfolio of ten selected technologies selected in 2003 has progressed to a point of maturity, such that one particular technology may he considered for future mission use: the Advanced Stirling Converter. The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator is a new power system in development based on this Stirling cycle dynamic power conversion technology. This system may be made available for smaller, Discovery-class NASA science missions. To assess possible uses of this new capability, NASA solicited and funded nine study teams to investigate unique opportunities for exploration of potential destinations for small Discovery-class missions. The influence of the results of these studies and the ongoing development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator system are discussed in the context of an integrated Radioisotope Power System program. Discussion of other and future technology investments and program opportunities are provided.

  13. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin, Xiu-Jing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-08-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ((232)Th, (228)Th, (230)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, and (40)K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: (232)Th, 0.00-0.23; (228)Th, 0.00-2.04; (230)Th, 0.00-0.26; (228)Ra, 0.02-2.73; (226)Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and (40)K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 muSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was (40)K. These values were same level compiled in other countries.

  14. NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Sankovic, John; Wilt, David; Abelson, Robert D.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS) project is developing the next generation of radioisotope power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either photovoltaic systems or by current radioisotope power systems (RPSs). Requirements of advanced RPSs include high efficiency and high specific power (watts/kilogram) in order to meet future mission requirements with less radioisotope fuel and lower mass so that these systems can meet requirements for a variety of future space applications, including continual operation surface missions, outer-planetary missions, and solar probe. These advances would enable a factor of 2 to 4 decrease in the amount of fuel required to generate electrical power. Advanced RPS development goals also include long-life, reliability, and scalability. This paper provides an update on the contractual efforts under the Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) for research and development of Stirling, thermoelectric, and thermophotovoltaic power conversion technologies. The paper summarizes the current RPCT NRA efforts with a brief description of the effort, a status and/or summary of the contractor's key accomplishments, a discussion of upcoming plans, and a discussion of relevant system-level benefits and implications. The paper also provides a general discussion of the benefits from the development of these advanced power conversion technologies and the eventual payoffs to future missions (discussing system benefits due to overall improvements in efficiency, specific power, etc.).

  15. Methods of Fabricating Scintillators with Radioisotopes for Beta Battery Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Squillante, Michael R.; Tieman, Timothy C.; Higgins, William; Shiriwadkar, Urmila

    2013-01-01

    to low-energy photons to electric current). The geometric advantage partially offsets this as well, since the absorption depth of high-energy beta radiation is much larger than the depth of a p-n junction. Thus, in a p-n junction device, much of the radiation is absorbed far away from the junction, and the electron- hole pairs are not all effectively collected. In contrast, with a transparent scintillator the radiation can be converted to light in a larger volume, and all of the light can be collected in the active region of the photodiode. Finally, the new device is more practical because it can be used at much higher power levels without unduly shortening its lifetime. While the crystal structure of scintillators is also subject to radiation damage, their performance is far more tolerant of defects than that of semiconductor junctions. This allows the scintillator- based approach to use both higher energy isotopes and larger quantities of the isotopes. It is projected that this technology has the potential to produce a radioisotope battery with up to twice the efficiency of presently used systems.

  16. Radioisotope Power Systems with Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Saber, Hamed H.

    2005-02-01

    The performance and specific electrical powers of Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) with Skutterudite-based Thermoelectric Arrays (SKTAs) of 2×7 and 4×7 unicouples connected electrically in series are calculated as functions of load voltage from 24 to 38 VDC. The p-legs of the unicouples are made of CeFe3.5Co0.5Sb12 and the n-legs are made of CoSb3, and the optimized cross-section areas of these legs for maximum efficiency operation are calculated as functions of the RPS terminal voltage. The RPS employs five General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) bricks, generating 1250 Wth at BOM, and 40 SKTAs, which are connected in series in two or four parallel strings. The peak electrical power and peak conversion efficiency of the SKTAs (20 mm long) occurs at the same electrical current because the unicouples operate at constant hot junction temperature (973 K) and constant input thermal power. The cold junction temperature of the unicouples and the radiator base temperature are determined from coupling the unicouples performance optimization model with a detailed radiation thermal analysis for sizing the aluminum fins for rejecting waste heat into space. The calculated peak specific powers and the corresponding electrical powers of the RPSs at Beginning-Of Mission (BOM) are compared with those calculated at the peak electric power at different load voltages. Results indicated that the value of the load voltage strongly affects the performance of the RPS. Both the RPS peak specific powers and those corresponding to the peak conversion efficiency / peak electrical power increase with increasing the load voltage up to certain values then drop with further increasing that voltage. The highest BOM specific powers of the RPS is ˜ 6.859 -6.973 We/kg, ˜ 43.3% and 45.7% higher than that of the RTG (4.786 We/kg) with 7 GPHS brick and SiGe unicouples. Such specific electrical powers of the RPS with SKTAs are attainable with 28.6% less 238PuO2 fuel and 2.85% to 11.62% more BOM

  17. High Efficiency Thermoelectric Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed; Saber, Hamed; Caillat, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    The work performed and whose results presented in this report is a joint effort between the University of New Mexico s Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies (ISNPS) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. In addition to the development, design, and fabrication of skutterudites and skutterudites-based segmented unicouples this effort included conducting performance tests of these unicouples for hundreds of hours to verify theoretical predictions of the conversion efficiency. The performance predictions of these unicouples are obtained using 1-D and 3-D models developed for that purpose and for estimating the actual performance and side heat losses in the tests conducted at ISNPS. In addition to the performance tests, the development of the 1-D and 3-D models and the development of Advanced Radioisotope Power systems for Beginning-Of-Life (BOM) power of 108 We are carried out at ISNPS. The materials synthesis and fabrication of the unicouples are carried out at JPL. The research conducted at ISNPS is documented in chapters 2-5 and that conducted at JP, in documented in chapter 5. An important consideration in the design and optimization of segmented thermoelectric unicouples (STUs) is determining the relative lengths, cross-section areas, and the interfacial temperatures of the segments of the different materials in the n- and p-legs. These variables are determined using a genetic algorithm (GA) in conjunction with one-dimensional analytical model of STUs that is developed in chapter 2. Results indicated that when optimized for maximum conversion efficiency, the interfacial temperatures between various segments in a STU are close to those at the intersections of the Figure-Of-Merit (FOM), ZT, curves of the thermoelectric materials of the adjacent segments. When optimizing the STUs for maximum electrical power density, however, the interfacial temperatures are different from those at the intersections of the ZT curves, but

  18. Investigation of Miniaturized Radioisotope Thermionic Power Generation for General Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duzik, Adam J.; Choi, Sang H.

    2016-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) running off the radioisotope Pu238 are the current standard in deep space probe power supplies. While reliable, these generators are very inefficient, operating at only approx.7% efficiency. As an alternative, more efficient radioisotope thermionic emission generators (RTIGs) are being explored. Like RTGs, current RTIGs concepts use exotic materials for the emitter, limiting applicability to space and other niche applications. The high demand for long-lasting mobile power sources would be satisfied if RTIGs could be produced inexpensively. This work focuses on exposing several common materials, such as Al, stainless steel, W, Si, and Cu, to elevated temperatures under vacuum to determine the efficiency of each material as inexpensive replacements for thermoelectric materials.

  19. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  20. Realistic Specific Power Expectations for Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2006-01-01

    Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being considered for a wide range of future NASA space science and exploration missions. Generally, RPS offer the advantages of high reliability, long life, and predictable power production regardless of operating environment. Previous RPS, in the form of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), have been used successfully on many NASA missions including Apollo, Viking, Voyager, and Galileo. NASA is currently evaluating design options for the next generation of RPS. Of particular interest is the use of advanced, higher efficiency power conversion to replace the previous thermoelectric devices. Higher efficiency reduces the quantity of radioisotope fuel and potentially improves the RPS specific power (watts per kilogram). Power conversion options include Segmented Thermoelectric (STE), Stirling, Brayton, and Thermophotovoltaic (TPV). This paper offers an analysis of the advanced 100 watt-class RPS options and provides credible projections for specific power. Based on the analysis presented, RPS specific power values greater than 10 W/kg appear unlikely.

  1. Radiation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  2. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, H.E.; Bearden, T.E.

    1990-10-01

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable US Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a DOE Alternative.'' The US Department of Transportation has special double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Effect of Inert Cover Gas on Performance of Radioisotope Stirling Space Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Robert; Kumar, V; Ore, C; Schock, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an updated Orbital design of a radioisotope Stirling power system and its predicted performance at the beginning and end of a six-year mission to the Jovian moon Europa. The design is based on General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules identical to those previously developed and safety-qualified by the Department of Energy (DOE) which were successfully launched to Jupiter and Saturn by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In each generator, the heat produced by the decay of the Pu-238 isotope is converted to electric power by two free-piston Stirling engines and linear alternators developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC), and their rejected waste heat is transported to radiators by heat pipes. The principal difference between the proposed system design and previous Orbital designs (Or et al. 2000) is the thermal insulation between the heat source and the generator's housing. Previous designs had employed multifoil insulation, whereas the design described here employs Min-K-1800 thermal insulation. Such insulation had been successfully used by Teledyne and GE in earlier RTGs (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators). Although Min-K is a much poorer insulator than multifoil in vacuum and requires a substantially greater thickness for equivalent performance, it offers compensating advantages. Specifically it makes it possible to adjust the generator's BOM temperatures by filling its interior volume with inert cover gas. This makes it possible to meet the generator's BOM and EOM performance goals without exceeding its allowable temperature at the beginning of the mission.

  4. The effects of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine on diagnostic radioimmunoassay testing. Is there any significant interference

    SciTech Connect

    Riccio, J.A.; Maturani, D.; Wright, J.; Fleetwood, M.K. )

    1990-11-01

    The administration of radioisotopes for diagnostic nuclear medicine scans and therapeutic procedures is quite prevalent today. A period of interference with the counting of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) test may occur with the serum of a patient receiving an in vivo radionuclide that decays by gamma emission. Because the logistics of precounting all specimens may be cumbersome and prohibitive, it is important to determine the degree of this interference. In this study, the authors evaluate the potential interference of the most commonly used radioisotopes with RIA studies. For two months (March and August 1988) 10,650 patient serum specimens were counted for significant background gamma radiation before RIA testing. Forty-three patients, on whom 105 RIA tests were performed, were identified as having preassay gamma radiation in their serum. With the use of selective energy windows for each different interfering radionuclide, proportional determinations were made as to the amount of interfering gamma radiation spilling into the iodine 125 test marker window. It was shown that initial whole serum pretest gamma counts as high as 111,000 counts/minute did not significantly affect the results of the RIA. Because of the meticulous washing and decanting procedures required in modern RIA and the monoclonal nature of most antibodies used currently, it appears the degree of nonspecific binding of this potentially interfering radiation is minuscule. The energy level of cobalt 57, however, and many of the other commonly used radioisotopes, overlaps so closely that it is difficult to window for this interference. It is possible, therefore, that this distinction cannot be made and folate and vitamin B12 test systems using cobalt 57 markers may have to be routinely prescreened.

  5. Intravascular near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Thukkani, Arun K; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2013-01-01

    Novel imaging modalities are required to better identify vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques before their dire consequences of myocardial infarction, sudden death, and stroke. Moving beyond traditional diagnostic methods, the field of molecular imaging offers an innovative approach to report upon critical in vivo biological features of high-risk plaques. Molecular imaging employs engineered, targeted imaging agents in conjunction with sophisticated, high-resolution detection systems. While various modalities have been investigated for this purpose, intravascular near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) strategies are uniquely poised to provide high-resolution readouts of human coronary artery plaques. To date, preclinical animal studies have demonstrated feasibility of both standalone NIRF intravascular imaging as well as dual-modality approaches detecting inflammation and fibrin deposition in coronary-sized arteries. This translatable catheter-based approach is positioned to advance the identification of biologically vulnerable coronary plaques and coronary stents at risk of thrombosis. PMID:23638334

  6. Intravascular photoacoustic tomography for characterization of atherosclerotic lipid and inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Qin, Huan; Shi, Yujiao; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2014-09-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a fast growing imaging technology depending on its high optical resolution of optics while taking the advantage of the high penetration depth of ultrasound. In this paper, we demonstrate the new progress in the photoacoustic imaging. Atherosclerosis is characterized by a progressive build-up of lipid in the arterial wall, which is known as plaque. Histological studies demonstrate that the primary cause of acute cardiovascular events is the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. Lipid and inflammation within the plaque are related to influence the propensity of plaques to disrupt. Photoacoustic intravascular tomography (IVPAT) holds a great advantage in providing comprehensive morphological and functional information of plaques. Lipid relative concentration maps of atherosclerotic aorta were obtained and compared with histology. Furthermore, by selectively targeting the intravascular inflammatory cytokines, IVPAT is also capable of mapping the inflamed area and determining the degree of inflammation.

  7. Integrated intravascular optical coherence tomography ultrasound imaging system.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jiechen; Yang, Hao-Chung; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Qifa; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K Kirk; Chen, Zhongping

    2010-01-01

    We report on a dual-modality optical coherence tomography (OCT) ultrasound (US) system for intravascular imaging. To the best of our knowledge, we have developed the first integrated OCT-US probe that combines OCT optical components with an US transducer. The OCT optical components mainly consist of a single-mode fiber, a gradient index lens for light-beam focusing, and a right-angled prism for reflecting light into biological tissue. A 40-MHz piezoelectric transducer (PZT-5H) side-viewing US transducer was fabricated to obtain the US image. These components were integrated into a single probe, enabling both OCT and US imaging at the same time. In vitro OCT and ultrasound images of a rabbit aorta were obtained using this dual-modality imaging system. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an OCT-US system for intravascular imaging, which is expected to have a prominent impact on early detection and characterization of atherosclerosis.

  8. Characterization of coronary atherosclerosis by intravascular imaging modalities

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Satoshi; Kanaya, Tomoaki; Noguchi, Teruo; Ogawa, Hisao; Yasuda, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is highly prevalent in Western countries and is associated with morbidity, mortality, and a significant economic burden. Despite the development of anti-atherosclerotic medical therapies, many patients still continue to suffer from coronary events. This residual risk indicates the need for better risk stratification and additional therapies to achieve more reductions in cardiovascular risk. Recent advances in imaging modalities have contributed to visualizing atherosclerotic plaques and defining lesion characteristics in vivo. This innovation has been applied to refining revascularization procedure, assessment of anti-atherosclerotic drug efficacy and the detection of high-risk plaques. As such, intravascular imaging plays an important role in further improvement of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with CAD. The current article reviews available intravascular imaging modalities with regard to its method, advantage and disadvantage. PMID:27500094

  9. Intravascular magnetic resonance imaging using a loopless catheter antenna.

    PubMed

    Ocali, O; Atalar, E

    1997-01-01

    Recently, intravascular catheter probes have been developed to increase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for MR imaging of blood vessels. Miniaturization of these catheter probes without degrading their performances is very critical in imaging small vessels such as coronary arteries. Catheter coils have a loop incorporated in their structure and have limitations in physical dimensions and electromagnetic properties. The use of a loopless intravascular catheter antenna is proposed to overcome these problems. The catheter antenna is essentially a dipole, which makes a very thin diameter possible, and its electronic circuitry can be placed outside the blood vessels without performance degradation. The theoretical foundation for the design and operation of the catheter antenna is presented. Several catheter antennae, as small as 1.5 French, were constructed and tested on phantoms and rabbits with great success. The catheter antenna has a simple structure and is easy to design, implement, and operate.

  10. Integrated intravascular optical coherence tomography ultrasound imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jiechen; Yang, Hao-Chung; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Qifa; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K. Kirk; Chen, Zhongping

    2010-01-01

    We report on a dual-modality optical coherence tomography (OCT) ultrasound (US) system for intravascular imaging. To the best of our knowledge, we have developed the first integrated OCT-US probe that combines OCT optical components with an US transducer. The OCT optical components mainly consist of a single-mode fiber, a gradient index lens for light-beam focusing, and a right-angled prism for reflecting light into biological tissue. A 40-MHz piezoelectric transducer (PZT-5H) side-viewing US transducer was fabricated to obtain the US image. These components were integrated into a single probe, enabling both OCT and US imaging at the same time. In vitro OCT and ultrasound images of a rabbit aorta were obtained using this dual-modality imaging system. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an OCT-US system for intravascular imaging, which is expected to have a prominent impact on early detection and characterization of atherosclerosis. PMID:20210424

  11. Look away: arterial and venous intravascular embolisation following shotgun injury.

    PubMed

    Vedelago, John; Dick, Elizabeth; Thomas, Robert; Jones, Brynmor; Kirmi, Olga; Becker, Jennifer; Alavi, Afshin; Gedroyc, Wladyslaw

    2014-01-01

    We describe two cases of intravascular embolization of shotgun pellets found distant to the entry site of penetrating firearm injury. The cases demonstrate antegrade embolization of a shotgun pellet from neck to right middle cerebral artery, and antegrade followed by retrograde venous embolization through the left lower limb to pelvis. Radiologists and Trauma Physicians should be aware that post shotgun injury, the likelihood of an embolised shot pellet is increased compared to other types of firearm missile injury, and should therefore search away from the site of injury to find such missiles. Shotgun pellets may travel in an antegrade or a retrograde intravascular direction - both were seen in these cases - and may not be clinically obvious. This underscores the importance of a meticuluous search through all images, including CT scout images, for evidence of their presence.

  12. Targets for the production of radioisotopes and method of assembly

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, Thomas C.

    1976-01-01

    A target for preparation of radioisotopes by nuclear bombardment, and a method for its assembly are provided. A metallic sample to be bombarded is enclosed within a metallic support structure and the resulting target subjected to heat and pressure to effect diffusion bonds therebetween. The bonded target is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure to nuclear bombardment without thermal damage to the sample.

  13. A Concept for a Radioisotope Powered Lunar CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    2016-11-01

    Presented is a concept for a small lander or cubesat lunar mission that would benefit from a low-power milli-watt radioisotope power source (RPS). A RPS would provide long-lived electrical and thermal power enabling a long-lived lunar mission.

  14. Radioisotope production and management at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.D.; Aaron, W.S.; Alexander, C.W.; Bigelow, J.E.; Parks, J.T.; Tracy, J.G.; Wham, R.M.

    1994-09-01

    The production of radioisotopes has been one of the basic activities at Oak Ridge since the end of World War II. The importance of this work was best described by Alvin Weinberg, former Laboratory Director, when he wrote ``... If God has a golden book and writes down what it is that Oak Ridge National Laboratory did that had the biggest influence on science, I would guess that was the production and distribution of isotopes.`` Radioisotopes production continues to be an important aspect of Oak Ridge programs today and of those planned for the future. Past activities, current projects, and future plans and potentials will be described briefly in this paper. Also, some of the major issues facing the continued production of radioisotopes will be described. The scope of the program has always been primarily that of process development, followed by special batch-type productions, where no other supply exists. The technology developed has been available for adoption by US commercial corporations, and in cases where this has occurred, Oak Ridge has withdrawn as a supplier of the particular isotopes involved. One method of production that will not be described is that of target bombardment with an accelerator. This method was used at Oak Ridge prior to 1978 in the 86-inch Cyclotron. However, this method has not been used at Oak Ridge since then for radioisotope production, except as a research tool.

  15. Anthropogenic radioisotopes to estimate rates of soil redistribution by wind

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erosion of soil by wind and water is a degrading process that affects millions of hectares worldwide. Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons and the resulting fallout of anthropogenic radioisotopes, particularly Cesium 137, has made possible the estimation of mean soil redistribution rates. The pe...

  16. Central Venous Catheter Intravascular Malpositioning: Causes, Prevention, Diagnosis, and Correction.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Carlos J; Paniagua, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Despite the level of skill of the operator and the use of ultrasound guidance, central venous catheter (CVC) placement can result in CVC malpositioning, an unintended placement of the catheter tip in an inadequate vessel. CVC malpositioning is not a complication of central line insertion; however, undiagnosed CVC malpositioning can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this review were to describe factors associated with intravascular malpositioning of CVCs inserted via the neck and chest and to offer ways of preventing, identifying, and correcting such malpositioning. A literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, and MD Consult was performed in June 2014. By searching for "Central line malposition" and then for "Central venous catheters intravascular malposition," we found 178 articles written in English. Of those, we found that 39 were relevant to our objectives and included them in our review. According to those articles, intravascular CVC malpositioning is associated with the presence of congenital and acquired anatomical variants, catheter insertion in left thoracic venous system, inappropriate bevel orientation upon needle insertion, and patient's body habitus variants. Although plain chest radiography is the standard imaging modality for confirming catheter tip location, signs and symptoms of CVC malpositioning even in presence of normal or inconclusive conventional radiography findings should prompt the use of additional diagnostic methods to confirm or rule out CVC malpositioning. With very few exceptions, the recommendation in cases of intravascular CVC malpositioning is to remove and relocate the catheter. Knowing the mechanisms of CVC malpositioning and how to prevent, identify, and correct CVC malpositioning could decrease harm to patients with this condition.

  17. Treatment of Vertebro-Basilar Dissecting Aneurysms Using Intravascular Stents

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Kawano, Y.; Yoshimura, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Hara, M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Endovascular surgery is an established primary therapeutic modality for dissecting aneurysms at vertebro-basilar arteries. Intravascular stents can be used to treat the dissecting aneurysms for which simple obliteration procedures cannot be used. In such cases, stent implantation alone or a combination of stents and coils need to be selected properly by taking into consideration the site and shape of dissections. In this report, three patterns of stent application are described and their method of selection is discussed. PMID:20569619

  18. Vascular wall stress during intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cuiru; Yang, Victor

    2015-03-01

    Biomechanical properties of arterial wall is crucial for understanding the changes in the cardiovascular system. Catheters are used during intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) imaging. The presence of a catheter alters the flow field, pressure distribution and frictional resistance to flow in an artery. In this paper, we first study the transmural stress distribution of the catheterized vessel. COMSOL (COMSOL 4.4) was used to simulate the blood flow induced deformation in a catheterized vessel. Blood is modeled as an incompressible Newtonian fluid. Stress distribution from an three-layer vascular model with an eccentric catheter are simulated, which provides a general idea about the distribution of the displacement and the stress. Optical coherence elastography techniques were then applied to porcine carotid artery samples to look at the deformation status of the vascular wall during saline or water injection. Preliminary simulation results show nonuniform stress distribution in the circumferential direction of the eccentrically catheterized vascular model. Three strain rate methods were tested for intravascular OCE application. The tissue Doppler method has the potential to be further developed to image the vascular wall biomechnical properties in vivo. Although results in this study are not validated quantitatively, the experiments and methods may be valuable for intravascular OCE studies, which may provide important information for cardiovascular disease prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Intravascular foreign bodies: danger of unretrieved fragmented medical devices.

    PubMed

    Tateishi, Minori; Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2009-01-01

    A warning on the danger of unretrieved device fragments and recommendations to mitigate the danger were issued by the Food and Drug Administration in January 2008. The causes of intravascular foreign bodies are classified into three main categories: improper manipulation and usage, device defects, and others, such as patient and anatomical factors. Device failure after long-term use is rarely predicted at the time of approval, since device abnormality is rarely experienced in animal studies and clinical trials conducted during development of the device. Stent fracture due to metal fatigue is one example. Complex complications could occur from simultaneous use of two or more devices with diverse characteristics. The success rate of percutaneous retrieval of intravascular foreign bodies has improved with the advances in commercially available devices. However, the procedure is not always successful and sometimes surgical removal becomes necessary. Appropriate device selection and acquisition of experience in using the device are important. When an intravascular foreign body cannot be retrieved, the risk of complication could be high. Magnetic resonance imaging examination sometimes causes adverse events, including burns due to the heat generated by metal movement. Such information should be correctly recorded. Furthermore, it is necessary to provide patients with adequate information about the characteristics of implanted devices and unretrieved fragments. We reviewed the literature on unretrieved medical device fragments and include articles that describe the Japanese experience.

  20. Combined frequency domain photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging for intravascular applications

    PubMed Central

    Castelino, Robin F.; Hynes, Michael; Munding, Chelsea E.; Telenkov, Sergey; Foster, F. Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging has the potential to characterize lipid-rich structures based on the optical absorption contrast of tissues. In this study, we explore frequency domain photoacoustics (FDPA) for intravascular applications. The system employed an intensity-modulated continuous wave (CW) laser diode, delivering 1W over an intensity modulated chirp frequency of 4-12MHz. We demonstrated the feasibility of this approach on an agar vessel phantom with graphite and lipid targets, imaged using a planar acoustic transducer co-aligned with an optical fibre, allowing for the co-registration of IVUS and FDPA images. A frequency domain correlation method was used for signal processing and image reconstruction. The graphite and lipid targets show an increase in FDPA signal as compared to the background of 21dB and 16dB, respectively. Use of compact CW laser diodes may provide a valuable alternative for the development of photoacoustic intravascular devices instead of pulsed laser systems. PMID:27895986

  1. Renal denervation by intravascular ultrasound: Preliminary in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; McClain, Steve; Zou, Yong; Smith, David; Warnking, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound denervation has recently become a subject of intense research in connection with the treatment of complex medical conditions including neurological conditions, development of pain management, reproduction of skin sensation, neuropathic pain and spasticity. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of intravascular ultrasound to produce nerve damage in renal sympathetic nerves without significant injury to the renal artery. This technique may potentially be used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Ultrasound was applied to renal nerves of the swine model for histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic ultrasound energy was delivered circumferentially by an intravascular catheter maneuvered into the renal arteries. Fluoroscopic imaging was conducted pre-and post-ultrasound treatment. Animals were recovered and euthanized up to 30 hours post procedure, followed by necropsy and tissue sample collection. Histopathological examination showed evidence of extensive damage to renal nerves, characterized by nuclear pyknosis, hyalinization of stroma and multifocal hemorrhages, with little or no damage to renal arteries. This study demonstrates the feasibility of intravascular ultrasound as a minimally invasive renal denervation technique. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of this technique and its related clinical significance.

  2. Intravascular Talcosis due to Intravenous Drug Use Is an Underrecognized Cause of Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Christopher C.; Raval, Jay S.; Nichols, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous injection of illegal drugs or medications meant for oral administration can cause granulomatous disease of the lung. This intravascular talcosis results in pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. Nine cases of histologically confirmed intravascular talcosis were reviewed with specific attention given to the clinical histories in these patients. Five autopsy cases were included in this series with detailed investigation in the anatomic features associated with intravascular talcosis and pulmonary hypertension. All nine patients showed perivascular and/or intravascular deposition of polarizable foreign material in their lungs. Intravascular talcosis as a result of previous intravenous drug use was not clinically suspected in any patient despite clinically diagnosed pulmonary hypertension in five. All patients showed dilatation of the right and left heart, but none had dilatation of the aortic valve. Congestive heart failure with hepatosplenomegaly was also common. We conclude that intravascular talcosis is an underdiagnosed cause of pulmonary hypertension in patients with known history of intravenous drug use. PMID:22645680

  3. Intravascular Talcosis due to Intravenous Drug Use Is an Underrecognized Cause of Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Christopher C; Raval, Jay S; Nichols, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous injection of illegal drugs or medications meant for oral administration can cause granulomatous disease of the lung. This intravascular talcosis results in pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. Nine cases of histologically confirmed intravascular talcosis were reviewed with specific attention given to the clinical histories in these patients. Five autopsy cases were included in this series with detailed investigation in the anatomic features associated with intravascular talcosis and pulmonary hypertension. All nine patients showed perivascular and/or intravascular deposition of polarizable foreign material in their lungs. Intravascular talcosis as a result of previous intravenous drug use was not clinically suspected in any patient despite clinically diagnosed pulmonary hypertension in five. All patients showed dilatation of the right and left heart, but none had dilatation of the aortic valve. Congestive heart failure with hepatosplenomegaly was also common. We conclude that intravascular talcosis is an underdiagnosed cause of pulmonary hypertension in patients with known history of intravenous drug use.

  4. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. ); Schenter, R.E. )

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted.

  5. Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Beets, A.L.

    1995-02-01

    Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ``neutron rich`` and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture and those available from beta-decay of reactorproduced radioisotopes. Generators prepared from reactorproduced radioisotopes are of particular interest since repeated elution inexpensively provides many patient doses. The development of the alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator system is discussed in detail.

  6. Operations of a Radioisotope-based Propulsion System Enabling CubeSat Exploration of the Outer Planets

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Steven Howe; Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru

    2014-05-01

    Exploration to the outer planets is an ongoing endeavor but in the current economical environment, cost reduction is the forefront of all concern. The success of small satellites such as CubeSats launched to Near-Earth Orbit has lead to examine their potential use to achieve cheaper science for deep space applications. However, to achieve lower cost missions; hardware, launch and operations costs must be minimized. Additionally, as we push towards smaller exploration beds with relative limited power sources, allowing for adequate communication back to Earth is imperative. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Research are developing the potential of utilizing an advanced, radioisotope-based system. This system will be capable of providing both the propulsion power needed to reach the destination and the additional requirements needed to maintain communication while at location. Presented here are a basic trajectory analysis, communication link budget and concept of operations of a dual-mode (thermal and electric) radioisotope-based propulsion system, for a proposed mission to Enceladus (Saturnian icy moon) using a 6U CubeSat payload. The radioisotope system being proposed will be the integration of three sub-systems working together to achieve the overall mission. At the core of the system, stored thermal energy from radioisotope decay is transferred to a passing propellant to achieve high thrust – useful for quick orbital maneuvering. An auxiliary closed-loop Brayton cycle can be operated in parallel to the thrusting mode to provide short bursts of high power for high data-rate communications back to Earth. Additionally, a thermal photovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system will use radiation heat losses from the core. This in turn can provide the electrical energy needed to utilize the efficiency of ion propulsion to achieve quick interplanetary transit times. The intelligent operation to handle all functions of this system under optimized conditions adds

  7. Design, construction, and validation of a rotary multifunctional intravascular diagnostic catheter combining multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Bec, Julien; Xie, Hongtao; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Zhou, Feifei; Sun, Yang; Ghata, Narugopal; Aldredge, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We report the development and validation of an intravascular rotary catheter for bimodal interrogation of arterial pathologies. This is based on a point-spectroscopy scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy technique enabling reconstruction of fluorescence lifetime images (FLIm) and providing information on arterial intima composition and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) providing information on arterial wall morphology. The catheter design allows for independent rotation of the ultrasonic and optical channels within an 8 Fr outer diameter catheter sheath and integrates a low volume flushing channel for blood removal in the optical pathways. In the current configuration, the two channels consist of (a) a standard 3 Fr IVUS catheter with single element transducer (40 MHz) and (b) a side-viewing fiber optic (400 μm core). Experiments conducted in tissue phantoms showed the ability of the catheter to operate in an intraluminal setting and to generate coregistered FLIm and IVUS in one pull-back scan. Current results demonstrate the feasibility of the catheter for simultaneous bimodal interrogation of arterial lumen and for generation of robust fluorescence lifetime data under IVUS guidance. These results facilitate further development of a FLIm-IVUS technique for intravascular diagnosis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases including vulnerable plaques. PMID:23224011

  8. Design, construction, and validation of a rotary multifunctional intravascular diagnostic catheter combining multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bec, Julien; Xie, Hongtao; Yankelevich, Diego R.; Zhou, Feifei; Sun, Yang; Ghata, Narugopal; Aldredge, Ralph; Marcu, Laura

    2012-10-01

    We report the development and validation of an intravascular rotary catheter for bimodal interrogation of arterial pathologies. This is based on a point-spectroscopy scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy technique enabling reconstruction of fluorescence lifetime images (FLIm) and providing information on arterial intima composition and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) providing information on arterial wall morphology. The catheter design allows for independent rotation of the ultrasonic and optical channels within an 8 Fr outer diameter catheter sheath and integrates a low volume flushing channel for blood removal in the optical pathways. In the current configuration, the two channels consist of (a) a standard 3 Fr IVUS catheter with single element transducer (40 MHz) and (b) a side-viewing fiber optic (400 μm core). Experiments conducted in tissue phantoms showed the ability of the catheter to operate in an intraluminal setting and to generate coregistered FLIm and IVUS in one pull-back scan. Current results demonstrate the feasibility of the catheter for simultaneous bimodal interrogation of arterial lumen and for generation of robust fluorescence lifetime data under IVUS guidance. These results facilitate further development of a FLIm-IVUS technique for intravascular diagnosis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases including vulnerable plaques.

  9. Design, construction, and validation of a rotary multifunctional intravascular diagnostic catheter combining multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging and intravascular ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Bec, Julien; Xie, Hongtao; Yankelevich, Diego R; Zhou, Feifei; Sun, Yang; Ghata, Narugopal; Aldredge, Ralph; Marcu, Laura

    2012-10-01

    We report the development and validation of an intravascular rotary catheter for bimodal interrogation of arterial pathologies. This is based on a point-spectroscopy scanning time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy technique enabling reconstruction of fluorescence lifetime images (FLIm) and providing information on arterial intima composition and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) providing information on arterial wall morphology. The catheter design allows for independent rotation of the ultrasonic and optical channels within an 8 Fr outer diameter catheter sheath and integrates a low volume flushing channel for blood removal in the optical pathways. In the current configuration, the two channels consist of (a) a standard 3 Fr IVUS catheter with single element transducer (40 MHz) and (b) a side-viewing fiber optic (400 μm core). Experiments conducted in tissue phantoms showed the ability of the catheter to operate in an intraluminal setting and to generate coregistered FLIm and IVUS in one pull-back scan. Current results demonstrate the feasibility of the catheter for simultaneous bimodal interrogation of arterial lumen and for generation of robust fluorescence lifetime data under IVUS guidance. These results facilitate further development of a FLIm-IVUS technique for intravascular diagnosis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases including vulnerable plaques.

  10. Cross section calculations of medical 103Pd radioisotope using α and 3He induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Bayram; Sarpün, Ismail Hakkı; Dogan, Yunus Emre

    2016-11-01

    One of the most popular radioisotopes used in the prostate brachytherapy is Palladium-103 (103Pd). The radioactive plaque is sewn onto the eye as to cover the intraocular tumor shadow with a 2-3 mm margin. These plaques are temporary and radiation is continuously delivered over 5 to 7 days. At the end of treatment, the plaque is removed from eye. In this study, production cross-section calculations of 103Pd radionuclide used in brachytherapy produced by 101Ru(α,2n), 100Ru(α,n), 102Ru(3He,2n) and 101Ru(3He,n) reactions have been investigated in the different incident energy range up to 35 MeV. Twocomponent Exciton model and Generalized Superfluid model of the TALYS 1.6 code used to perform calculations and calculation results were compared with experimental results reported in the literature.

  11. Radioimmunotherapy: a specific treatment protocol for cancer by cytotoxic radioisotopes conjugated to antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) represents a selective internal radiation therapy, that is, the use of radionuclides conjugated to tumor-directed monoclonal antibodies (including those fragments) or peptides. In a clinical field, two successful examples of this treatment protocol are currently extended by (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) and (131)I-tositumomab (Bexxar), both of which are anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies coupled to cytotoxic radioisotopes and are approved for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients. In addition, some beneficial observations are obtained in preclinical studies targeting solid tumors. To date, in order to reduce the unnecessary exposure and to enhance the therapeutic efficacy, various biological, chemical, and treatment procedural improvements have been investigated in RIT. This review outlines the fundamentals of RIT and current knowledge of the preclinical/clinical trials for cancer treatment.

  12. Radioimmunotherapy: A Specific Treatment Protocol for Cancer by Cytotoxic Radioisotopes Conjugated to Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) represents a selective internal radiation therapy, that is, the use of radionuclides conjugated to tumor-directed monoclonal antibodies (including those fragments) or peptides. In a clinical field, two successful examples of this treatment protocol are currently extended by 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) and 131I-tositumomab (Bexxar), both of which are anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies coupled to cytotoxic radioisotopes and are approved for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients. In addition, some beneficial observations are obtained in preclinical studies targeting solid tumors. To date, in order to reduce the unnecessary exposure and to enhance the therapeutic efficacy, various biological, chemical, and treatment procedural improvements have been investigated in RIT. This review outlines the fundamentals of RIT and current knowledge of the preclinical/clinical trials for cancer treatment. PMID:25379535

  13. Determination of Radioisotope Content by Measurement of Waste Package Dose Rates - 13394

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, Daiane Cristini B.; Gimenes Tessaro, Ana Paula; Vicente, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this communication is to report the observed correlation between the calculated air kerma rates produced by radioactive waste drums containing untreated ion-exchange resin and activated charcoal slurries with the measured radiation field of each package. Air kerma rates at different distances from the drum surface were calculated with the activity concentrations previously determined by gamma spectrometry of waste samples and the estimated mass, volume and geometry of solid and liquid phases of each waste package. The water content of each waste drum varies widely between different packages. Results will allow determining the total activity of wastes and are intended to complete the previous steps taken to characterize the radioisotope content of wastes packages. (authors)

  14. ``Hot'' particles of the Yenisei River: Radioisotope composition, structure, and behavior in natural conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuguevskii, A. V.; Sukhorukov, F. V.; Mel'Gunov, M. S.; Makarova, I. V.; Titov, A. T.

    2010-01-01

    The radioisotope compositions, structure, and behavior of “hot” particles under the natural conditions of the Yenisei River in the nearby influence zone of Krasnoyarsk mining and chemical combine were examined in this study. By the composition of gamma-radiating isotopes, all particles are divided into three groups: mono-isotopic, bi-isotopic and poly-isotopic. Mono-isotopic “hot” particles, containing only 60Co were discovered for the first time. Transuranium elements (241Am and 243Cm) were revealed in poly-isotopic particles. Investigation of poly-isotopic particles by means of a scan electron microscope showed that the presence of UO2 together with the lack of activation of 152Eu testifies to the reactor origin of this particle. Experiments showed that in natural conditions “hot” particles under the influence of filtrating water and moisture of pore solutions are gradually dissolved and radionuclides are repeatedly drawn into migration.

  15. 10 CFR Part 35: changes to the NRC rule governing the medical use of radioisotopes and implications for radiologic practice.

    PubMed

    Foens, Cassandra S; Fairobent, Lynne A; Guiberteau, Milton J

    2006-02-01

    In the spring of 2005, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission completed its revision of Title 10, Part 35, of the Code of Federal Regulations, its regulatory framework for the medical use of radioisotopes. Because of the complexity of the regulation and the lengthy period over which the revisions were accomplished, many radiologists remain uninformed regarding changes in the rule. This article highlights some of the more important of these changes as they relate to the practice of radiology, radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, and medical physics.

  16. Handheld CZT radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Murray, William S.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.; Baird, William

    2004-08-24

    A handheld CZT radiation detector having a CZT gamma-ray sensor, a multichannel analyzer, a fuzzy-logic component, and a display component is disclosed. The CZT gamma-ray sensor may be a coplanar grid CZT gamma-ray sensor, which provides high-quality gamma-ray analysis at a wide range of operating temperatures. The multichannel analyzer categorizes pulses produce by the CZT gamma-ray sensor into channels (discrete energy levels), resulting in pulse height data. The fuzzy-logic component analyzes the pulse height data and produces a ranked listing of radioisotopes. The fuzzy-logic component is flexible and well-suited to in-field analysis of radioisotopes. The display component may be a personal data assistant, which provides a user-friendly method of interacting with the detector. In addition, the radiation detector may be equipped with a neutron sensor to provide an enhanced mechanism of sensing radioactive materials.

  17. The Natural Radiation Environment, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Jacob

    The somatic and genetic effects of naturally occurring radiation are described in this illustrated booklet. Internal sources of radiation from food, water, and air and external sources including radioisotopes in rock, brick, water, and air and cosmic radiation are tabulated. Detection methods are described, and their use in biological and physical…

  18. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power System (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  19. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion for Fast Outer Planetary Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven; Benson, Scott; Gefert, Leon; Patterson, Michael; Schreiber, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Recent interest in outer planetary targets by the Office of Space Science has spurred the search for technology options to enable relatively quick missions to outer planetary targets. Several options are being explored including solar electric propelled stages combined with aerocapture at the target and nuclear electric propulsion. Another option uses radioisotope powered electric thrusters to reach the outer planets. Past work looked at using this technology to provide faster flybys. A better use for this technology is for outer planet orbiters. Combined with medium class launch vehicles and a new direct trajectory these small, sub-kilowatt ion thrusters and Stirling radioisotope generators were found to allow missions as fast as 5 to 12 years for objects from Saturn to Pluto, respectively. Key to the development is light spacecraft and science payload technologies.

  20. Outer Planet Exploration with Advanced Radioisotope Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven; Gefert, Leon; Patterson, Michael; Schreiber, Jeffrey; Benson, Scott; McAdams, Jim; Ostdiek, Paul

    2002-01-01

    In response to a request by the NASA Deep Space Exploration Technology Program, NASA Glenn Research Center conducted a study to identify advanced technology options to perform a Pluto/Kuiper mission without depending on a 2004 Jupiter Gravity Assist, but still arriving before 2020. A concept using a direct trajectory with small, sub-kilowatt ion thrusters and Stirling radioisotope power systems was shown to allow the same or smaller launch vehicle class as the chemical 2004 baseline and allow a launch slip and still flyby in the 2014 to 2020 timeframe. With this promising result the study was expanded to use a radioisotope power source for small electrically propelled orbiter spacecraft for outer planet targets such as Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.

  1. Process for radioisotope recovery and system for implementing same

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Tranter, Troy J.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2009-10-06

    A method of recovering daughter isotopes from a radioisotope mixture. The method comprises providing a radioisotope mixture solution comprising at least one parent isotope. The at least one parent isotope is extracted into an organic phase, which comprises an extractant and a solvent. The organic phase is substantially continuously contacted with an aqueous phase to extract at least one daughter isotope into the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is separated from the organic phase, such as by using an annular centrifugal contactor. The at least one daughter isotope is purified from the aqueous phase, such as by ion exchange chromatography or extraction chromatography. The at least one daughter isotope may include actinium-225, radium-225, bismuth-213, or mixtures thereof. A liquid-liquid extraction system for recovering at least one daughter isotope from a source material is also disclosed.

  2. Process for radioisotope recovery and system for implementing same

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Tranter, Troy J.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2007-01-02

    A method of recovering daughter isotopes from a radioisotope mixture. The method comprises providing a radioisotope mixture solution comprising at least one parent isotope. The at least one parent isotope is extracted into an organic phase, which comprises an extractant and a solvent. The organic phase is substantially continuously contacted with an aqueous phase to extract at least one daughter isotope into the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is separated from the organic phase, such as by using an annular centrifugal contactor. The at least one daughter isotope is purified from the aqueous phase, such as by ion exchange chromatography or extraction chromatography. The at least one daughter isotope may include actinium-225, radium-225, bismuth-213, or mixtures thereof. A liquid-liquid extraction system for recovering at least one daughter isotope from a source material is also disclosed.

  3. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome: contribution of radioisotope cisternography.

    PubMed

    Suárez, J P; Domínguez, M L; Gómez, M A; Muñoz, J L

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a clinical syndrome caused by a loss of cerebrospinal fluid volume, usually secondary to leaking through structural defects of the spinal dura mater. Radioisotope cisternography (RC) can confirm the diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension, especially in doubtful or atypical case presentations. A retrospective study was conducted on 8 patients who underwent RC because spontaneous intracranial hypotension was suspected, and they presented with atypical clinical manifestations and/or inconclusive findings in other imaging techniques. RC detected paradural extravasation of cerebrospinal fluid in 7 patients. Moreover, there was indirect evidence of cerebrospinal fluid leaks in all 8 patients (early appearance of radioactivity in the bladder, soft tissue uptake of radioisotope and/or reduction in the amount of radiotracer in the brain at 24hours). RC had a significant impact on the diagnosis of 6 patients, and on the therapeutic management of 4 patients.

  4. Metal matrix composite fuel for space radioisotope energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H. R.; Ning, H.; Reece, M. J.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Bannister, N. P.; Stephenson, K.

    2013-02-01

    Radioisotope fuels produce heat that can be used for spacecraft thermal control or converted to electricity. They must retain integrity in the event of destruction or atmospheric entry of the parent spacecraft. Addition of a metal matrix to the actinide oxide could yield a more robust fuel form. Neodymium (III) oxide (Nd2O3) - niobium metal matrix composites were produced using Spark Plasma Sintering; Nd2O3 is a non-radioactive surrogate for americium (III) oxide (Am2O3). Two compositions, 70 and 50 wt% Nd2O3, were mechanically tested under equibiaxial (ring-on-ring) flexure according to ASTM C1499. The addition of the niobium matrix increased the mean flexural strength by a factor of about 2 compared to typical ceramic nuclear fuels, and significantly increased the Weibull modulus to over 20. These improved mechanical properties could result in reduced fuel dispersion in severe accidents and improved safety of space radioisotope power systems.

  5. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high-temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  6. Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Salas, A. Rangel; Viloria, T.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Palacios, D.

    2007-10-26

    Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families.

  7. Isotope Identification in the GammaTracker Handheld Radioisotope Identifier

    SciTech Connect

    Batdorf, Michael T.; Hensley, Walter K.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Erikson, Luke E.; Jordan, David V.

    2009-11-13

    GammaTracker is a portable handheld radioisotope identifier using position sensitive CdZnTe crystals. The device uses a peak-based method for isotope identification implemented on an embedded computing platform within the device. This paper presents the run-time optimized algorithms used in this peak-based approach. Performance of the algorithms is presented using measured data from gamma-ray sources.

  8. Radioisotope powered alkali metal thermoelectric converter design for space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sievers, R. K.; Bankston, C. P.

    1988-01-01

    The design concept of an alkali-metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) for 15-30-percent-efficient conversion of heat from the General Purpose (radioisotope) Heat Source (GPHS) on spacecraft is presented. The basic physical principles of the conversion cycle are outlined; a theoretical model is derived; a modular design is described and illustrated with drawings; and the overall AMTEC/GPHS system design is characterized. Predicted performance data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail.

  9. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.A.

    1994-11-10

    This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan.

  10. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. A.

    1994-11-01

    This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan.

  11. Bothrops jararaca envenomation: Pathogenesis of hemostatic disturbances and intravascular hemolysis

    PubMed Central

    Senise, Luana V; Yamashita, Karine M

    2015-01-01

    To attain fully functional biological activity, vitamin-K dependent coagulation factors (VKDCF) are γ-carboxylated prior to secretion from liver. Warfarin impairs the γ-carboxylation, and consequently their physiological function. Bothrops jararaca snake venom (BjV) contains several activators of blood coagulation, especially procoagulant enzymes (prothrombin and factor X activators) and thrombin-like enzymes. In order to clarify the relative contribution of prothrombin and factor X activators to the hemostatic disturbances occurring during experimental B. jararaca envenomation, warfarin was used to deplete VKDCF, prior to BjV administration. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with saline (Sal) or warfarin (War) and inoculated subsequently with BjV or saline, thus forming four groups: Sal + Sal (negative control), Sal + BjV (positive control), War + Sal (warfarinization control), and War + BjV. Three hours after inoculation, prothrombin and factor X levels fell 40% and 50%, respectively; levels of both factors decreased more than 97% in the War + Sal and War + BjV groups. Platelet counts dropped 93% and 76% in Sal + BjV and War + BjV, respectively, and plasma fibrinogen levels decreased 86% exclusively in Sal + BjV. After 6 and 24 h, platelet counts and fibrinogen levels increased progressively. A dramatic augmentation in plasma hemoglobin levels and the presence of schizocytes and microcytes in the Sal + BjV group indicated the development of intravascular hemolysis, which was prevented by warfarin pretreatment. Our findings show that intravascular thrombin generation has the foremost role in the pathogenesis of coagulopathy and intravascular hemolysis, but not in the development of thrombocytopenia, in B. jararaca envenomation in rats; in addition, fibrinogenases (metalloproteinases) may contribute to coagulopathy more than thrombin-like enzymes. PMID:26080462

  12. Effectiveness Evaluation of Skin Covers against Intravascular Brachytherapy Sources Using VARSKIN3 Code

    PubMed Central

    Baghani, H R; Nazempour, A R; Aghamiri, S M R; Hosseini Daghigh, S M; Mowlavi, A A

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: The most common intravascular brachytherapy sources include 32P, 188Re, 106Rh and 90Sr/90Y. In this research, skin absorbed dose for different covering materials in dealing with these sources were evaluated and the best covering material for skin protection and reduction of absorbed dose by radiation staff was recognized and recommended. Method: Four materials including polyethylene, cotton and two different kinds of plastic were proposed as skin covers and skin absorbed dose at different depths for each kind of the materials was calculated separately using the VARSKIN3 code. Results: The results suggested that for all sources, skin absorbed dose was minimized when using polyethylene. Considering this material as skin cover, maximum and minimum doses at skin surface were related to 90Sr/90Y and 106Rh, respectively. Conclusion: polyethylene was found the most effective cover in reducing skin dose and protecting the skin. Furthermore, proper agreement between the results of VARSKIN3 and other experimental measurements indicated that VRASKIN3 is a powerful tool for skin dose calculations when working with beta emitter sources. Therefore, it can be utilized in dealing with the issue of radiation protection. PMID:25505758

  13. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems Planning and Potential Future Systems Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June F.; Woerner, Dave F.; Cairns-Gallimore, Dirk; Johnson, Stephen G.; Qualls, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program is to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet the needs of the missions. To meet this goal, the RPS Program, working closely with the Department of Energy, performs mission and system studies (such as the recently released Nuclear Power Assessment Study), assesses the readiness of promising technologies to infuse in future generators, assesses the sustainment of key RPS capabilities and knowledge, forecasts and tracks the Program's budgetary needs, and disseminates current information about RPS to the community of potential users. This process has been refined and used to determine the current content of the RPS Program's portfolio. This portfolio currently includes an effort to mature advanced thermoelectric technology for possible integration into an enhanced Multi-Mission Radioisotope Generator (eMMRTG), sustainment and production of the currently deployed MMRTG, and technology investments that could lead to a future Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). This paper describes the program planning processes that have been used, the currently available MMRTG, and one of the potential future systems, the eMMRTG.

  14. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Centaur Orbiter Spacecraft Design Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steve; McGuire, Melissa; Sarver-Verhey, Tim; Juergens, Jeff; Parkey, Tom; Dankanich, John; Fiehler, Doug; Gyekenyesi, John; Hemminger, Joseph; Gilland, Jim; Colozza, Tony; Packard, Tom; Nguyen, Thahn; Schmitz, Paul; Ostdiek, Paul; Gold, Rob; Lisse, Carey; Hibbits, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) has been shown in past studies to enable missions to outerplanetary bodies including the orbiting of Centaur asteroids. Key to the feasibility for REP missions are long life, low power electric propulsion (EP) devices, low mass radioisotope power systems (RPS) and light spacecraft (S/C) components. In order to determine what are the key parameters for EP devices to perform these REP missions a design study was completed to design an REP S/C to orbit a Centaur in a New Frontiers cost cap. The design shows that an orbiter using several long lived (approximately 200 kg Xenon throughput), low power (approximately 700 W) Hall thrusters teamed with six (150 W each) Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRG) can deliver 60 kg of science instruments to a Centaur in 10 yr within the New Frontiers cost cap. Optimal specific impulses for the Hall thrusters were found to be around 2000 sec with thruster efficiencies over 40%. Not only can the REP S/C enable orbiting a Centaur (when compared to an all chemical mission only capable of flybys) but the additional power from the REP system can be reused to enhance science and simplify communications.

  15. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors.

  16. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems Planning and Potential Future Systems Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June F.; Woerner, Dave F.; Cairns-Gallimore, Dirk; Johnson, Stephen G.; Qualis, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program is to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet the needs of the missions. To meet this goal, the RPS Program, working closely with the Department of Energy, performs mission and system studies (such as the recently released Nuclear Power Assessment Study), assesses the readiness of promising technologies to infuse in future generators, assesses the sustainment of key RPS capabilities and knowledge, forecasts and tracks the Programs budgetary needs, and disseminates current information about RPS to the community of potential users. This process has been refined and used to determine the current content of the RPS Programs portfolio. This portfolio currently includes an effort to mature advanced thermoelectric technology for possible integration into an enhanced Multi-Mission Radioisotope Generator (eMMRTG), sustainment and production of the currently deployed MMRTG, and technology investments that could lead to a future Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). This paper describes the program planning processes that have been used, the currently available MMRTG, and one of the potential future systems, the eMMRTG.

  17. Stimulus sensitive gel with radioisotope and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Weller, Richard E [Selah, WA; Lind, Michael A [Kent, WA; Fisher, Darrell R [Richland, WA; Gutowska, Anna [Richland, WA; Campbell, Allison A [Kennewick, WA

    2001-10-02

    The present invention is a thermally reversible stimulus-sensitive gel or gelling copolymer radioisotope carrier that is a linear random copolymer of an [meth]acrylamide derivative and a hydrophilic comonomer, wherein the linear random copolymer is in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff. Addition of a biodegradable backbone and/or a therapeutic agent imparts further utility. The method of the present invention for making a thermally reversible stimulus-sensitive gelling copolymer radionuclcide carrier has the steps of: (a) mixing a stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling copolymer with an aqueous solvent as a stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling solution; and (b) mixing a radioisotope with said stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling solution as said radioisotope carrier. The gel is enhanced by either combining it with a biodegradable backbone and/or a therapeutic agent in a gelling solution made by mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent.

  18. Stimulus sensitive gel with radioisotope and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Weller, Richard E.; Lind, Michael A.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gutowska, Anna; Campbell, Allison A.

    2005-03-22

    The present invention is a thermally reversible stimulus-sensitive gel or gelling copolymer radioisotope carrier that is a linear random copolymer of an [meth-]acrylamide derivative and a hydrophilic comonomer, wherein the linear random copolymer is in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff. Addition of a biodegradable backbone and/or a therapeutic agent imparts further utility. The method of the present invention for making a thermally reversible stimulus-sensitive gelling copolymer radionuclcide carrier has the steps of: (a) mixing a stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling copolymer with an aqueous solvent as a stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling solution; and (b) mixing a radioisotope with said stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling solution as said radioisotope carrier. The gel is enhanced by either combining it with a biodegradable backbone and/or a therapeutic agent in a gelling solution made by mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent.

  19. Generation of Radioisotopes with Accelerator Neutrons by Deuterons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yasuki; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Saeki, Hideya; Motoishi, Shoji; Sato, Nozomi; Kawabata, Masako; Harada, Hideo; Kin, Tadahiro; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Sato, Tetsuya K.; Minato, Futoshi; Iwamoto, Osamu; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Seki, Yohji; Yokoyama, Kenji; Shiina, Takehiko; Ohta, Akio; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro; Kawauchi, Yukimasa; Sato, Norihito; Yamabayashi, Hisamichi; Adachi, Yoshitsugu; Kikuchi, Yuji; Mitsumoto, Toshinori; Igarashi, Takashi

    2013-06-01

    A new system proposed for the generation of radioisotopes with accelerator neutrons by deuterons (GRAND) is described by mainly discussing the production of 99Mo used for nuclear medicine diagnosis. A prototype facility of this system consists of a cyclotron to produce intense accelerator neutrons from the \\text{natC(d,n) reaction with 40 MeV 2 mA deuteron beams, and a sublimation system to separate \\text{99mTc from an irradiated 100MoO3 sample. About 8.1 TBq/week of 99Mo is produced by repeating irradiation on an enriched 100Mo sample (251 g) with accelerator neutrons for two days three times. It meets about 10% of the 99Mo demand in Japan. The characteristic feature of the system lies in its capability to reliably produce a wide variety of high-quality, carrier-free, carrier-added radioisotopes with a minimum level of radioactive waste without using uranium. The system is compact in size, and easy to operate; therefore it could be used worldwide to produce radioisotopes for medical, research, and industrial applications.

  20. Why Have So Many Intravascular Glucose Monitoring Devices Failed?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, John L.; Rice, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary to the inherent limitations of both point-of-care and central laboratory glucose technologies, continuous glucose measurement has recently enjoyed a high level of investment. Because of the perceived advantages by some of measuring in the intravascular space compared to the subcutaneous tissue, a number of technologies have been developed. In this review, we evaluate nine systems that have shown promise, although only one of these has been cleared for sale in the United States. The detection methodology, regulatory status, technical issues, and company circumstance surrounding each technology are examined. PMID:26129733

  1. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation after Surgery for Facial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Hirohiko; Ishikawa, Shigeo; Yusa, Kazuyuki; Kitabatake, Kenichirou; Iino, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A case of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) presenting after surgery for facial trauma associated with multiple facial bone fractures is described. With regard to the oral and maxillofacial region, DIC has been described in the literature following head trauma, infection, and metastatic disease. Until now, only 5 reports have described DIC after surgery for facial injury. DIC secondary to facial injury is thus rare. The patient in this case was young and had no medical history. Preoperative hemorrhage or postoperative septicemia may thus induce DIC. PMID:27313913

  2. Implantable ventricular assist device exchange with focused intravascular deairing techniques.

    PubMed

    Woo, Y Joseph; Acker, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    As ventricular assist devices are increasingly adopted and widely implemented as a highly effective therapy for end-stage heart disease, extended utilization periods for destination therapy or bridge-to-transplantation have created the possibility of device failure, infection, or thrombosis, requiring challenging implant exchanges. A major problem in these operations is the risk of air embolization, particularly in a nonsternotomy approach that precludes access to the outflow aortic graft and to the ascending aorta. We report a minimally invasive, nonsternotomy HeartMate II implantable left ventricular assist device (LVAD) exchange, using peripheral cardiopulmonary support and a novel approach to continuous intravascular ascending aortic air removal.

  3. Adhesive Tape and Intravascular-Catheter-Associated Infections

    PubMed Central

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Livesley, Nigel J

    1999-01-01

    Adhesive tape is placed in close contact with intravascular catheters for extended periods and could theoretically contribute to local infections. We found that 74% of specimens of tape collected in one hospital were colonized by pathogenic bacteria. However, only 5% of specimens had significant growth from an inner layer obtained by discarding the outside layer from each roll. We suggest that adhesive tape is a potential source of pathogenic bacteria and that discarding the outer layer from a partially used roll might be a simple method for reducing the risk of infection to patients. PMID:10354258

  4. Laser-activated shape memory polymer intravascular thrombectomy device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Ward, IV; Wilson, Thomas S.; Benett, William J.; Loge, Jeffrey M.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2005-10-01

    A blood clot (thrombus) that becomes lodged in the arterial network supplying the brain can cause an ischemic stroke, depriving the brain of oxygen and often resulting in permanent disability. As an alternative to conventional clot-dissolving drug treatment, we are developing an intravascular laser-activated therapeutic device using shape memory polymer (SMP) to mechanically retrieve the thrombus and restore blood flow to the brain. Thermal imaging and computer simulation were used to characterize the optical and photothermal behavior of the SMP microactuator. Deployment of the SMP device in an in vitro thrombotic vascular occlusion model demonstrated the clinical treatment concept.

  5. Removal of Chronic Intravascular Blood Clots using Liquid Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jae-Chul; Choi, Myeong; Koo, Il; Yu, Zengqi; Collins, George

    2011-10-01

    An electrical embolectomy device for removing chronic intravascular blood clots using liquid plasma under saline environment was demonstrated. We employed a proxy experimental blood clot model of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and actual equine blood clot. Thermal damage to contiguous tissue and the collagen denaturing via the plasma irradiation were investigated by histological analysis using birefringence of the tissue and verified by FT-IR spectroscopic study, respectively, which showed the high removal rate up to 2 mm per minute at room temperature and small thermal damage less than 200 μm.

  6. [Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma with massive pulmonary lesions].

    PubMed

    Higashiyama, Asumi; Hashino, Satoshi; Onozawa, Masahiro; Takahata, Mutsumi; Okada, Kohei; Kahata, Kaoru; Taniguchi, Natsuko; Nasuhara, Yasuyuki; Kubota, Kanako; Fujimoto, Nozomu; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Masahiro; Asaka, Masahiro

    2010-05-01

    A 61-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with dyspnea on effort. Neither computed tomography scan nor chest X-ray film detected any specific findings that could explain hypoxemia. Since (67)Ga scintigraphy showed abnormal uptake in the bilateral lungs, transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) was performed. The TBLB specimen was diagnosed as intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL). There was no involvement of any other organ considered typical of IVLBCL. In cases showing clinical findings such as hypoxia despite mild pulmonary radiographic changes, a definitive diagnosis should be made using methods such as TBLB with consideration given to the possibility of IVLBCL.

  7. Intravascular eosinophilic deposits-when common knowledge is insufficient to render a diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Kenneth S

    2009-05-01

    In the course of daily sign-out, the diagnoses within a histopathologist's armamentarium are limited by the scope of the histopathologist's knowledge, that is, one cannot diagnose what one does not know. The subject of homogeneous intravascular eosinophilic deposits is used to illustrate this point. A histopathologist unaware that a tick bite reaction can induce intravascular eosinophilic deposits may misdiagnose the specimen as representing a manifestation of cryoglobulinemia. Furthermore, conventional teaching imparts that monoclonal cryoglobulinemia shows intravascular eosinophilic deposits (cryoprecipitates) histopathologically, whereas mixed cryoglobulinemia is histopathologically manifested as leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Although it is not well known, this is not always the case because mixed cryoglobulinemia may histopathologically present itself as intravascular eosinophilic deposits without leukocytoclastic vasculitis. In addition, it is not common knowledge that intravascular cryoprecipitates, when present, may be associated with an increased number of blood vessels. Examples of these phenomena are presented in conjunction with a discussion of relevant issues/lessons learned from such cases.

  8. Gadolinium neutron capture brachytherapy (GdNCB), a new treatment method for intravascular brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Enger, Shirin A.; Rezaei, Arash; Munck af Rosenschoeld, Per; Lundqvist, Hans

    2006-01-15

    Restenosis is a major problem after balloon angioplasty and stent implantation. The aim of this study is to introduce gadolinium neutron capture brachytherapy (GdNCB) as a suitable modality for treatment of stenosis. The utility of GdNCB in intravascular brachytherapy (IVBT) of stent stenosis is investigated by using the GEANT4 and MCNP4B Monte Carlo radiation transport codes. To study capture rate, Kerma, absorbed dose and absorbed dose rate around a Gd-containing stent activated with neutrons, a 30 mm long, 5 mm diameter gadolinium foil is chosen. The input data is a neutron spectrum used for clinical neutron capture therapy in Studsvik, Sweden. Thermal neutron capture in gadolinium yields a spectrum of high-energy gamma photons, which due to the build-up effect gives an almost flat dose delivery pattern to the first 4 mm around the stent. The absorbed dose rate is 1.33 Gy/min, 0.25 mm from the stent surface while the dose to normal tissue is in order of 0.22 Gy/min, i.e., a factor of 6 lower. To spare normal tissue further fractionation of the dose is also possible. The capture rate is relatively high at both ends of the foil. The dose distribution from gamma and charge particle radiation at the edges and inside the stent contributes to a nonuniform dose distribution. This will lead to higher doses to the surrounding tissue and may prevent stent edge and in-stent restenosis. The position of the stent can be verified and corrected by the treatment plan prior to activation. Activation of the stent by an external neutron field can be performed days after catherization when the target cells start to proliferate and can be expected to be more radiation sensitive. Another advantage of the nonradioactive gadolinium stent is the possibility to avoid radiation hazard to personnel.

  9. Work Began on Contracts for Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has had a history of successful space flight missions that depended on radioisotope-fueled power systems. These Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) converted the heat generated from the decay of radioisotope material into useful electrical power. An RPS is most attractive in applications where photovoltaics are not optimal, such as deep-space applications where the solar flux is too low or extended applications on planets such as Mars where the day/night cycle, settling of dust, and life requirements limit the usefulness of photovoltaics. NASA s Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) Program is developing next-generation power-conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by the two RPS flight systems currently being developed by the Department of Energy for NASA: the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG).

  10. Development of catheters for combined intravascular ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpiouk, Andrei B.; Wang, Bo; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2009-02-01

    Coronary atherosclerosis is a complex disease accompanied by the development of plaques in the arterial wall. Since the vulnerability of the plaques depends on their composition, the appropriate treatment of the arteriosclerosis requires a reliable characterization of the plaques' geometry and content. The intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is capable of providing structural details of the plaques as well as some functional information. In turn, more functional information about the same plaques can be obtained from intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) images since the optical properties of the plaque's components differ from that of their environment. The combined IVUS/IVPA imaging is capable of simultaneously detecting and differentiating the plaques, thus determining their vulnerability. The potential of combined IVUS/IVPA imaging has already been demonstrated in phantoms and ex-vivo experiments. However, for in-vivo or clinical imaging, an integrated IVUS/IVPA catheter is required. In this paper, we introduce two prototypes of integrated IVUS/IVPA catheters for in-vivo imaging based on a commercially available single-element IVUS imaging catheter. The light delivery systems are developed using multimode optical fibers with custom-designed distal tips. Both prototypes were tested and compared using an arterial mimicking phantom. The advantages and limitations of both designs are discussed. Overall, the results of our studies suggest that both designs of integrated IVUS/IVPA catheter have a potential for in-vivo IVPA/IVUS imaging of atherosclerotic plaques.

  11. Focused intravascular ultrasonic probe using dimpled transducer elements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Qiu, W B; Lam, K H; Liu, B Q; Jiang, X P; Zheng, H R; Luo, H S; Chan, H L W; Dai, J Y

    2015-02-01

    High-frequency focused intravascular ultrasonic probes were fabricated in this study using dimple technique based on PMN-PT single crystal and lead-free KNN-KBT-Mn ceramic. The center frequency, bandwidth, and insertion loss of the PMN-PT transducer were 34 MHz, 75%, and 22.9 dB, respectively. For the lead-free probe, the center frequency, bandwidth, and insertion loss were found to be 40 MHz, 72%, and 28.8 dB, respectively. The ultrasonic images of wire phantom and vessels with good resolution were obtained to evaluate the transducer performance. The -6 dB axial and lateral resolutions of the PMN-PT probe were determined to be 58 μm and 131 μm, respectively. For the lead-free probe, the axial and lateral resolutions were found to be 44 μm and 125 μm, respectively. These results suggest that the mechanical dimpling technique has good potential in preparing focused transducers for intravascular ultrasound applications.

  12. Dual-element needle transducer for intravascular ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sangpil; Kim, Min Gon; Williams, Jay A.; Yoon, Changhan; Kang, Bong Jin; Cabrera-Munoz, Nestor; Shung, K. Kirk; Kim, Hyung Ham

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A dual-element needle transducer for intravascular ultrasound imaging has been developed. A low-frequency element and a high-frequency element were integrated into one device to obtain images which conveyed both low- and high-frequency information from a single scan. The low-frequency element with a center frequency of 48 MHz was fabricated from the single crystal form of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate solid solution with two matching layers (MLs) and the high frequency element with a center frequency of 152 MHz was fabricated from lithium niobate with one ML. The measured axial and lateral resolutions were 27 and 122  μm, respectively, for the low-frequency element, and 14 and 40  μm, respectively, for the high-frequency element. The performance of the dual-element needle transducer was validated by imaging a tissue-mimicking phantom with lesion-mimicking area, and ex vivo rabbit aortas in water and rabbit whole blood. The results suggest that a low-frequency element effectively provides depth resolved images of the whole vessel and its adjacent tissue, and a high-frequency element visualizes detailed structure near the surface of the lumen wall in the presence of blood within the lumen. The advantages of a dual-element approach for intravascular imaging are also discussed. PMID:26158118

  13. High speed intravascular photoacoustic imaging of atherosclerotic arteries (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Zhonglie; Ma, Teng; Qu, Yueqiao; Li, Jiawen; Yu, Mingyue; He, Youmin; Shung, K. Kirk; Zhou, Qifa; Kim, Chang-Seok; Chen, Zhongping

    2016-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the industrialized nations. Accurate quantification of both the morphology and composition of lipid-rich vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque are essential for early detection and optimal treatment in clinics. In previous works, intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging for detection of lipid-rich plaque within coronary artery walls has been demonstrated in ex vivo, but the imaging speed is still limited. In order to increase the imaging speed, a high repetition rate laser is needed. In this work, we present a high speed integrated IVPA/US imaging system with a 500 Hz optical parametric oscillator laser at 1725 nm. A miniature catheter with 1.0 mm outer diameter was designed with a 200 μm multimode fiber and an ultrasound transducer with 45 MHz center frequency. The fiber was polished at 38 degree and enclosed in a glass capillary for total internal reflection. An optical/electrical rotary junction and pull-back mechanism was applied for rotating and linearly scanning the catheter to obtain three-dimensional imaging. Atherosclerotic rabbit abdominal aorta was imaged as two frame/second at 1725 nm. Furthermore, by wide tuning range of the laser wavelength from 1680 nm to 1770 nm, spectroscopic photoacoustic analysis of lipid-mimicking phantom and an human atherosclerotic artery was performed ex vivo. The results demonstrated that the developed IVPA/US imaging system is capable for high speed intravascular imaging for plaque detection.

  14. The syndrome of pneumococcemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation and asplenia.

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, M E; MacKenzie, C R

    1979-01-01

    A 58-year-old man who survived an episode of fulminant pneumococcal septicemia with disseminated intravascular coagulation had undergone splenectomy 23 years previously. In the literature there are 25 reported cases of fulminant septicemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with asplenia in adults (excluding cases in which corticosteroid or immunosuppressive therapy was given). The pneumococcus was responsible for all of these cases as well. The mortality in this series was more than 90%, and death occurred within 24 hours of presentation at hospital in almost 70% of the fatal cases and was associated with high-density bacteremia and adrenal hemorrhage. Gram-staining of the buffy coat of the peripheral blood or the exudate from purpuric skin lesions was carried out in only 6 of the 26 cases but yielded positive results in all but 1. It is concluded that a diagnosis of septicemia in asplenic adults can be established within a short time of presentation on the basis of statistical probability and the results of Gram-staining of the peripheral blood and exudate from the skin lesions. Prevention appears to be the cornerstone of management because of the variable interval from splenectomy to the onset of the syndrome and the high mortality. Images FIG. 1 PMID:38002

  15. A short contemporary history of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Levi, Marcel; van der Poll, Tom

    2014-11-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic intravascular activation of coagulation, leading to a widespread deposition of fibrin in the circulation. There is ample experimental and pathological evidence that the fibrin deposition contributes to multiple organ failure. The massive and ongoing activation of coagulation may result in depletion of platelets and coagulation factors, which may cause bleeding (consumption coagulopathy). The syndrome of DIC is well known in the medical literature for centuries, although a more precise description of the underlying mechanisms had to await the 20th century. Initial ideas on a role of the contact activation system as the primary trigger for the systemic activation of coagulation as well as a presumed hyperfibrinolytic response in DIC have been found to be misconceptions. Experimental and clinical evidence now indicate that the initiation of coagulation in DIC is caused by tissue factor expression, which in combination with downregulated physiological anticoagulant pathways and impaired fibrinolysis leads to widespread fibrin deposition. In addition, an extensive bidirectional interaction between coagulation and inflammation may further contribute to the pathogenesis of DIC.

  16. [Disseminated intravascular coagulation. Case series and literature review].

    PubMed

    Del Carpio-Orantes, Luis; García-Ortiz, Jorge José

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la coagulación intravascular diseminada es una entidad caracteriza por activación de la cascada de la coagulación y fibrinólisis endógena, que puede provocar la muerte. Nuestros objetivos fueron identificar la incidencia de coagulación intravascular diseminada, sus agentes etiológicos y la correlación entre la puntuación de la escala Apache II y la propuesta por la Sociedad Internacional de Trombosis y Hemostasia para el diagnóstico de esta entidad. MÉTODOS: estudio retrospectivo, observacional y descriptivo de pacientes atendidos en una unidad de cuidados intensivos en un periodo de 17 meses. Se analizó etiología, edad, sexo, conteo de plaquetas, coagulograma, niveles de fibrinógeno sérico y cuantificación del dímero D. Se calculó la puntuación de la escala propuesta por la Sociedad Internacional de Trombosis y Hemostasia y de la escala APACHE II.

  17. Conditionally cleavable radioimmunoconjugates: a novel approach for the release of radioisotopes from radioimmunoconjugates.

    PubMed

    Beeson, Craig; Butrynski, James E; Hart, Michael J; Nourigat, Cynthia; Matthews, Dana C; Press, Oliver W; Senter, Peter D; Bernstein, Irwin D

    2003-01-01

    One of the limitations of therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is that significant toxicities can arise from circulating non-tumor-bound radiolabeled conjugate. Here, we describe a new method to reduce systemic radiation exposure from radiolabeled mAbs involving the attachment of the radioisotope through a linker that can be cleaved by an administered enzyme. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, we prepared a conditionally cleavable radioimmunoconjugate (RIC) composed of (131)I-labeled cephalosporin conjugated to Tositumomab, a mAb against the CD20 antigen. The cleavable RIC bound antigen identically to directly iodinated antibody, and in the presence of beta-lactamase, about 80-85% of the radioisotope was released. In vivo studies in mice revealed that the cleavable RIC and the directly iodinated anti-CD20 antibody had similar biodistribution patterns. Systemically administered beta-lactamase induced a 2-3-fold decrease in the percent injected dose (ID) of the cleavable RIC/g of blood, marrow, spleen, lung, and liver 1 h after enzyme treatment, and a 4-6-fold decrease 20 h after enzyme treatment. This was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in % ID/g in urine 1 h after enzyme treatment, indicating that the released radiolabel was rapidly excreted through the kidneys. In mice with human tumor xenografts, there was no decrease in the %ID/g in tumor 1 h after enzyme treatment, but by 4 h after enzyme injection, decreases in tumor radioactive content began to diminish the targeting advantage. These studies demonstrate that the cleavable RIC substrate is able to bind to tumor antigens and localize within human tumor xenografts and that accelerated systemic clearance can be induced with beta-lactamase.

  18. An intravascular MRI contrast agent based on Gd(DO3A-Lys) for tumor angiography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-Tong; Chandrasekharan, Prashant; He, Tao; Poh, Zihan; Raju, Anandhkumar; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Robins, Edward G

    2014-01-01

    An intravascular MRI contrast agent Gd(DO3A-Lys), Gadolinium(III) (2,2',2″-(10-(3-(5-benzamido-6-methoxy-6-oxohexylamino)-3-oxopropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triyl)triacetate), has been studied for tumor angiography based on its high relaxivity and long blood half-life. The preparation procedures of the contrast agent have been modified in order to achieve higher yield and improve the synthetic reproducibility. High relaxivity of Gd(DO3A-Lys) has been confirmed by measurements at 3 T, 7 T and 9.4 T magnetic fields. The relaxivity-dependent albumin binding study indicated that Gd(DO3A-Lys) partially bound to albumin protein. In vitro cell viability in HK2 cell indicated low cytotoxicity of Gd(DO3A-Lys) up to 1.2 mM [Gd] concentration. In vivo toxicity studies demonstrated no toxicity of Gd(DO3A-Lys) on kidney tissues up to 0.2 mM [Gd]. While the toxicity on liver tissue was not observed at low dosage (1.0 mM [Gd]), Gd(DO3A-Lys) cause certain damage on hepatic tissue at high dosage (2.0 mM [Gd]). The DO3A-Lys has been labeled with (68)Ga radioisotope for biodistribution studies. (68)Ga(DO3A-Lys) has high uptake in both HT1080 and U87MG xenograft tumors, and has high accumulation in blood. Contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) in mice bearing U87MG xenograft tumor demonstrated that Gd(DO3A-Lys) could enhance vascular microenvironment around the tumor, and displays promising characteristics of an MRI contrast agent for tumor angiography.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of DNA damage induction by x-rays and selected radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Y; Stewart, R D

    2008-01-07

    To better assess the potential biological consequences of diagnostic x-rays and selected gamma-emitting radioisotopes used in brachytherapy, we used the PENELOPE Monte Carlo radiation transport code to estimate the spectrum of initial electrons produced by photons in single cells and in an irradiation geometry similar to those used in cell culture experiments. We then combined estimates of the initial spectrum of electrons from PENELOPE with DNA damage yields for monoenergetic electrons from the fast Monte Carlo damage simulation (MCDS). The predicted absolute yields (Gbp(-1) Gy(-1)) and RBE values for single-strand break (SSB) and double-strand break (DSB) induction by 220 kVp x-rays are within 1% of the results from detailed track-structure simulations (Friedland et al 1999 Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 38 39). The measured RBE for DSB induction reported by Kühne et al (2005 Radiat. Res. 164 669) for gamma-rays from (60)Co and for 29 kVp x-rays with a 50 microm Rh (mammography) filter are in excellent agreement (1.15 versus 1.16). DSB yields predicted by the MCDS also agree to within 7% with the absolute DSB yields reported by de Lara et al (2001 Radiat. Res. 155 440) and Botchway et al (1997 Radiat. Res. 148 317) for the irradiation of V79 cells by low energy (<2 keV) characteristic x-rays. The predicted RBE for DSB induction by gamma-rays from bare (169)Yb and (131)Cs to (60)Co are 1.06 and 1.14, respectively. Tabulated RBE values for the single-cell and monolayer cell culture geometries differ by at most 15%. The proposed methodology is computationally efficient and may also be useful for the prediction of damage yields for mixtures of other types of charged particles, such as those found in proton therapy, space applications or internal dosimetry.

  20. Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging of Peripheral Arteries as an Adjunct to Balloon Angioplasty and Atherectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Korogi, Yukunori; Hirai, Toshinori; Takahashi, Mutsumasa

    1996-11-15

    This article reviews many of the applications of intravascular ultrasound (US) imaging for peripheral arterial diseases. In vitro studies demonstrate an excellent correlation between ultrasound measurements of lumen and plaque crossectional area compared with histologic sections. In vivo clinical studies reveal the enhanced diagnostic capabilities of this technology compared with angiography. Intravascular US imaging can provide valuable information on the degree, eccentricity, and histologic type of stenosis before intervention, and on the morphological changes in the arterial wall and the extent of excision after intervention. Intravascular US may also serve as a superior index for gauging the diameter of balloon, stent, laser probe, and/or atherectomy catheter appropriate for a proposed intervention. Significant new insights into the mechanisms of balloon angioplasty and atherectomy have been established by intravascular US findings. Intravascular US imaging has been shown to be a more accurate method than angiography for determining the cross-sectional area of the arterial lumen, and for assessing severity of stenosis. Quantitative assessment of the luminal cross-sectional area after the balloon dilatation should be more accurate than angiography as intimal tears or dissections produced by the dilatation may not be accurately evaluated with angiography. At the present time, intravascular US is still a controversial imaging technique. Outcome studies are currently being organized to assess the clinical value and cost effectiveness of intravascular ultrasound in the context of these interventional procedures.

  1. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 5 copies in the file.

  2. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 2 copies in the file.

  3. Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies - Neptune System Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. Omair; Amini, Rashied; Ervin, Joan; Lang, Jared; Landau, Damon; Oleson, Steven; Spilker, Thomas; Strange, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Neptune System Explorer (NSE) mission concept study assessed opportunities to conduct Cassini-like science at Neptune with a radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) based spacecraft. REP is based on powering an electric propulsion (EP) engine with a radioisotope power source (RPS). The NSE study was commissioned under the Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies (JREPS) project, which sought to determine the technical feasibility of flagship class REP applications. Within JREPS, special emphasis was given toward identifying tall technology tent poles, as well as recommending any new RPS technology developments that would be required for complicated REP missions. Based on the goals of JREPS, multiple RPS (e.g. thermoelectric and Stirling based RPS) and EP (e.g. Hall and ion engines) technology combinations were traded during the NSE study to determine the most favorable REP design architecture. Among the findings from the study was the need for >400We RPS systems, which was driven by EP operating powers and the requirement for a long-lived mission in the deep solar system. Additionally multiple development and implementation risks were identified for the NSE concept, as well as REP missions in general. Among the strengths of the NSE mission would be the benefits associated with RPS and EP use, such as long-term power (approx. 2-3kW) at Neptune and flexible trajectory options for achieving orbit or tours of the Neptune system. Although there are still multiple issues to mitigate, the NSE concept demonstrated distinct advantages associated with using REP for deep space flagship-class missions.

  4. Milliwatt radioisotope power supply for the PASCAL Mars surface stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Daniel T.; Murbach, Marcus S.

    2001-02-01

    A milliwatt power supply is being developed based on the 1 watt Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (RHU), which has already been used to provide heating alone on numerous spacecraft. In the past year the power supply has been integrated into the design of the proposed PASCAL Mars Network Mission, which is intended to place 24 surface climate monitoring stations on Mars. The PASCAL Mars mission calls for the individual surface stations to be transported together in one spacecraft on a trajectory direct from launch to orbit around Mars. From orbit around Mars each surface station will be deployed on a SCRAMP (slotted compression ramp) probe and, after aerodynamic and parachute deceleration, land at a preselected location on the planet. During descent sounding data and still images will be accumulated, and, once on the surface, the station will take measurements of pressure, temperature and overhead atmospheric optical depth for a period of 10 Mars years (18.8 Earth years). Power for periodic data acquisition and transmission to orbital then to Earth relay will come from a bank of ultracapacitors which will be continuously recharged by the radioisotope power supply. This electronic system has been designed and a breadboard built. In the ultimate design the electronics will be arrayed on the exterior surface of the radioisotope power supply in order to take advantage of the reject heat. This assembly in turn is packaged within the SCRAMP, and that assembly comprises the surface station. An electrically heated but otherwise prototypical power supply was operated in combination with the surface station breadboard system, which included the ultracapacitors. Other issues addressed in this work have been the capability of the generator to withstand the mechanical shock of the landing on Mars and the effectiveness of the generator's multi-foil vacuum thermal insulation. .

  5. Analytical predictions of RTG power degradation. [Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noon, E. L.; Raag, V.

    1979-01-01

    The DEGRA computer code that is based on a mathematical model which predicts performance and time-temperature dependent degradation of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator is discussed. The computer code has been used to predict performance and generator degradation for the selenide Ground Demonstration Unit (GDS-1) and the generator used in the Galileo Project. Results of parametric studies of load voltage vs generator output are examined as well as the I-V curve and the resulting predicted power vs voltage. The paper also discusses the increased capability features contained in DEGRA2 and future plans for expanding the computer code performance.

  6. Nuclear reactors for research and radioisotope production in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    In Argentina, the construction, operation, and use of research and radioisotope production reactors is and has been an important method of personnel preparation for the nuclear power program. Moreover, it is a very suitable means for technology transfer to countries developing their own nuclear programs. At present, the following research reactors are in operation in Argentina: Argentine Reactor 0 (RA-0); Argentine Reactor 1 (RA-1); Argentine Reactor 2 (RA-2); Argentine Reactor 3 (RA-3); Argentine Reactor 4 (RA-4). The Argentine Reactor 6 (RA-6), under construction, should reach criticality in 1981.

  7. ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

    2010-09-01

    The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

  8. Parametric System Model for a Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    A Parametric System Model (PSM) was created in order to explore conceptual designs, the impact of component changes and power level on the performance of Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). Using the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS approximately 250 watt thermal) modules as the thermal building block around which a SRG is conceptualized, trade studies are performed to understand the importance of individual component scaling on isotope usage. Mathematical relationships based on heat and power throughput, temperature, mass and volume were developed for each of the required subsystems. The PSM uses these relationships to perform component and system level trades.

  9. Parametric System Model for a Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    A Parametric System Model (PSM) was created in order to explore conceptual designs, the impact of component changes and power level on the performance of the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). Using the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS approximately 250 Wth) modules as the thermal building block from which a SRG is conceptualized, trade studies are performed to understand the importance of individual component scaling on isotope usage. Mathematical relationships based on heat and power throughput, temperature, mass, and volume were developed for each of the required subsystems. The PSM uses these relationships to perform component- and system-level trades.

  10. NASA GRC Technology Development Project for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Stirling Technology Company (STC) are developing a Stirling convertor for an advanced radioisotope power system to provide spacecraft on-board electric power for NASA deep space missions. NASA GRC is conducting an in-house project to provide convertor, component, and materials testing and evaluation in support of the overall power system development. A first characterization of the DOE/STC 55-We Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) under the expected launch random vibration environment was recently completed in the NASA GRC Structural Dynamics Laboratory. Two TDCs also completed an initial electromagnetic interference (EMI) characterization at NASA GRC while being tested in a synchronized, opposed configuration. Materials testing is underway to support a life assessment of the heater head, and magnet characterization and aging tests have been initiated. Test facilities are now being established for an independent convertor performance verification and technology development. A preliminary Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA), initial finite element analysis (FEA) for the linear alternator, ionizing radiation survivability assessment, and radiator parametric study have also been completed. This paper will discuss the status, plans, and results to date for these efforts.

  11. Optical imaging of radioisotopes: a novel multimodal approach to molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A E; Marengo, M; Calandrino, R; Sbarbati, A; Boschi, F

    2012-06-01

    In this review there will be presented an overview of the literature about the recent developments on radiotracers imaging using optical methods and their applications. We will begin with a short summary regarding the discovery of Cerenkov radiation (CR) and then focus on the early developments and experimental validation of planar Cerenkov luminescence imaging. A significant improvement in Cerenkov luminescence imaging was given by the development of tomographic methods in order to obtain in vivo whole body 3D images of Cerenkov sources. An interesting and original application discussed in this review is the use of CR as the excitation source of quantum dots and fluorophores. We will also present some recent experimental results on in vivo radio luminescence imaging of alpha and gamma emitters. All these results make optical radioisotopes imaging an interesting cost-effective tool for the screening of new probes for both imaging and therapeutic applications. Other interesting aspects are the uses of Cerenkov radiation for radiotherapy and for radiopharmaceuticals synthesis applications. We will conclude by summarising the most important results and the future challenges.

  12. Final Progress Report: Isotope Identification Algorithm for Rapid and Accurate Determination of Radioisotopes Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Bounds, John Alan; Brumby, Steven P.; Prasad, Lakshman; Sullivan, John P.

    2012-04-30

    This is the final report of the project titled, 'Isotope Identification Algorithm for Rapid and Accurate Determination of Radioisotopes,' PMIS project number LA10-HUMANID-PD03. The goal of the work was to demonstrate principles of emulating a human analysis approach towards the data collected using radiation isotope identification devices (RIIDs). It summarizes work performed over the FY10 time period. The goal of the work was to demonstrate principles of emulating a human analysis approach towards the data collected using radiation isotope identification devices (RIIDs). Human analysts begin analyzing a spectrum based on features in the spectrum - lines and shapes that are present in a given spectrum. The proposed work was to carry out a feasibility study that will pick out all gamma ray peaks and other features such as Compton edges, bremsstrahlung, presence/absence of shielding and presence of neutrons and escape peaks. Ultimately success of this feasibility study will allow us to collectively explain identified features and form a realistic scenario that produced a given spectrum in the future. We wanted to develop and demonstrate machine learning algorithms that will qualitatively enhance the automated identification capabilities of portable radiological sensors that are currently being used in the field.

  13. [Freshly frozen preserved plasma for the treatment of intravascular coagulation in polytraumatized patients].

    PubMed

    Hehne, H J; Nyman, D; Burri, H; Wolff, G

    1976-05-15

    Coagulation disorders in hemorrhagic shock need not represent an isolated intravascular coagulation. They may also occur as a complex of local disseminated intravascular consumption, extravascular consumption, dilution, and reduced synthesis of coagulation factors. In the severely bleeding patient with hemorrhagic diathesis heparin is contraindicated because it does not normalize coagulability. Therefore, it fails to stop hemorrhage and shock remains untreatable. Fresh frozen plasma, however, has proved to be suitable as simultaneous substitution therapy of coagulopathy and of hypovolemic shock. 11 patients suffering from traumatic-hemorrhagic shock associated with intravascular coagulation and hemorrhagic diathesis were successfully treated with fresh frozen plasma, after conventional shock therapy had failed over a period of hours.

  14. Image-based dosimetry of an implanted radioactive stent using intravascular ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Stephen W.

    Angioplasty has become an increasingly popular and effective treatment for heart disease. Unfortunately, restenosis, a cellular and biological reaction to the procedure, has hindered its effectiveness. Two of the most successful methods of inhibiting restenosis are radiation and stents. The combination of these two components, radioactive stents, is not as common as some of the other methods, yet still has potential of slowing restenosis. Investigation into source characteristics and artery wall radiobiology may illuminate some possible solutions to the problems of restenosis. This work has developed a calculational method to look at in-vivo images of implanted stents and determine the dose to the artery walls in order to test different source characteristics. The images are Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) cross-sectional slices of the stent and the artery. From these images, it is possible to determine the implanted stent structure. The pieces of the stent are identified in the images and modeled in a Monte Carlo simulation, using MCNP4c3. The simulation results were combined with the images to give three-dimensional absolute dose contours of the stent. The absolute dose values were verified using radiochromic film and 198Au-plated stents. This work was able to successfully verify the dose results and create a three-dimensional dose map of the implanted stent.

  15. [Management of intravascular catheters for prevention of perioperative cross infections].

    PubMed

    Okubo, Takashi; Ohara, Eiko; Nakamura, Akishige; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Manabe, Tadao

    2004-11-01

    Bloodstream infection derived from an intravascular catheter occupies an important position among the various types of nosocomial infection. It is therefore necessary to establish a system for preventing catheter infection not only as measures for each separate infection, but also for the entire hospital. Catheter infections are mainly caused by contamination of the connecting part of a transfusion line during the infusion of drug solution as well as by contamination of the part of the catheter inserted. Consequently, the greatest possible care should be taken in the preparation of aseptic transfusion and the prevention of contamination when connecting a transfusion line. In particular, there are problems with three-way stopcocks, management of hubs, frequency of transfusion line exchange, fat emulsion injection method, and blood preparation. It is most important to consider effective nutritional management methods that do not require the insertion of a central venous catheter.

  16. [Kidney donor with severe disseminated intravascular coagulation: transplantation however successful].

    PubMed

    Keeris, Lodewijk M; Bergmans, Dennis C J J; van der Sande, Frank M; Wind, Tineke J; van Suylen, Robert Jan; van Mook, Walther N K A

    2009-01-01

    A 41-year-old male, with no previous medical history, was admitted to our intensive care unit with severe isolated neurotrauma and a Glasgow Coma Scale of E1-M1-V1, mid-dilated unreactive pupils and severe abnormalities on the brain CT-scan. A severe syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and non-oliguric renal insufficiency developed. Following clinical and neurophysiological examination the patient was declared brain-dead, and the family gave permission for organ donation. The left kidney was transplanted and functioned well immediately. However, in view of the DIC and renal function disorders the right kidney was not considered usable for transplantation elsewhere. Pathological examination revealed many fibrin thrombi in the glomerular capillaries and acute tubular necrosis. This case supports the view that thrombotic microangiopathy in kidneys of patients with DIS, even with renal function impairment, is not an a priori reason for excluding donation.

  17. Adaptive Estimation of Intravascular Shear Rate Based on Parameter Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Takeda, Naoto

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between the intravascular wall shear stress, controlled by flow dynamics, and the progress of arteriosclerosis plaque have been clarified by various studies. Since the shear stress is determined by the viscosity coefficient and shear rate, both factors must be estimated accurately. In this paper, an adaptive method for improving the accuracy of quantitative shear rate estimation was investigated. First, the parameter dependence of the estimated shear rate was investigated in terms of the differential window width and the number of averaged velocity profiles based on simulation and experimental data, and then the shear rate calculation was optimized. The optimized result revealed that the proposed adaptive method of shear rate estimation was effective for improving the accuracy of shear rate calculation.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Intravascular Blood Coagulation under Wall Shear Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rukhlenko, Oleksii S.; Dudchenko, Olga A.; Zlobina, Ksenia E.; Guria, Georgy Th.

    2015-01-01

    Increased shear stress such as observed at local stenosis may cause drastic changes in the permeability of the vessel wall to procoagulants and thus initiate intravascular blood coagulation. In this paper we suggest a mathematical model to investigate how shear stress-induced permeability influences the thrombogenic potential of atherosclerotic plaques. Numerical analysis of the model reveals the existence of two hydrodynamic thresholds for activation of blood coagulation in the system and unveils typical scenarios of thrombus formation. The dependence of blood coagulation development on the intensity of blood flow, as well as on geometrical parameters of atherosclerotic plaque is described. Relevant parametric diagrams are drawn. The results suggest a previously unrecognized role of relatively small plaques (resulting in less than 50% of the lumen area reduction) in atherothrombosis and have important implications for the existing stenting guidelines. PMID:26222505

  19. Automatic classification of atherosclerotic plaques imaged with intravascular OCT

    PubMed Central

    Rico-Jimenez, Jose J.; Campos-Delgado, Daniel U.; Villiger, Martin; Otsuka, Kenichiro; Bouma, Brett E.; Jo, Javier A.

    2016-01-01

    Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT) allows evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques; however, plaque characterization is performed by visual assessment and requires a trained expert for interpretation of the large data sets. Here, we present a novel computational method for automated IV-OCT plaque characterization. This method is based on the modeling of each A-line of an IV-OCT data set as a linear combination of a number of depth profiles. After estimating these depth profiles by means of an alternating least square optimization strategy, they are automatically classified to predefined tissue types based on their morphological characteristics. The performance of our proposed method was evaluated with IV-OCT scans of cadaveric human coronary arteries and corresponding tissue histopathology. Our results suggest that this methodology allows automated identification of fibrotic and lipid-containing plaques. Moreover, this novel computational method has the potential to enable high throughput atherosclerotic plaque characterization. PMID:27867716

  20. Intravascular Optical Imaging Technology for Investigating the Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Melissa J.; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.; Weisz, Giora; Tanaka, Atsushi; Jaffer, Farouc A.; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2012-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing demand for new imaging methods that can provide additional information about the coronary wall to better characterize and stratify high-risk plaques, and to guide interventional and pharmacologic management of patients with coronary artery disease. While there are a number of imaging modalities that facilitate the assessment of coronary artery pathology, this review paper focuses on intravascular optical imaging modalities that provide information on the microstructural, compositional, biochemical, biomechanical, and molecular features of coronary lesions and stents. The optical imaging modalities discussed include angioscopy, optical coherence tomography, polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography, laser speckle imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging. Given the wealth of information that these techniques can provide, optical imaging modalities are poised to play an increasingly significant role in the evaluation of the coronary artery in the future. PMID:21920342

  1. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: a syndrome of intravascular platelet consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Neame, P. B.; Hirsh, J.; Browman, G.; Denburg, J.; D'Souza, T. J.; Gallus, A.; Brain, M. C.

    1976-01-01

    In four of five patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in whom serial tests of hemostatic function were performed, severe thrombocytopenia, normal plasma fibrinogen concentrations and mildly increased concentrations of fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products were observed. Widespread platelet thrombi were found in arterioles and capillaries. Fibrin could be seen around some of the platelet clumps and was the main component in a small number of the thrombi in two patients. The observations show that TTP is a disorder in which intravascular platelet consumption results in disseminated platelet thrombosis. The coagulation system is apparently activated secondarily to platelet aggregation and variable quantities of fibrin are incorporated into the thrombi. Clinical improvement resulted from combined therapy with corticosteroids, heparin and drugs that suppress platelet function. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:1084215

  2. Real-time simulator for intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abkai, Ciamak; Becherer, Nico; Hesser, Jürgen; Männer, Reinhard

    2007-03-01

    Intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS) plays a significant role in diagnostics of atherosclerotic diseases. Simulation of imaging techniques promises a better understanding of the physical background and segmentation strategies. Most simulation approaches describe ultrasonic backscattering using wave-equation based simplifications. More complicated real-time simulation techniques are not available so far. In this paper, we present an empirical model derived from wave-equations given by the Rayleigh integration method. According to boundary conditions and weak scatterers, a hybrid approach including the Beer-Lambert law to model attenuation is introduced. Scatterers are described by a 4D vessel-system model based on elastic tubes. Sophisticated discretization and numerical simplifications in addition to a highly optimized implementation of the model yields a real-time and realistic IVUS simulation with 20 frames/s on a 3.2 GHz Pentium 4 PC.

  3. Basic studies on intravascular low-intensity laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Duan, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Xi; Liu, Jiang; Cui, Li-Ping; Jin, Hua; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-09-01

    Intravascular low intensity laser therapy (ILILT) was originally put forward in USA in 1982, but popularized in Russia in 1980s and in China in 1990s, respectively. A randomized placebo-controlled study has shown ILILT clinical efficacy in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis. As Chinese therapeutic applications of ILILT were the most widely in the world, its basic research, such as intracellular signal transduction research, blood research in vitro, animal blood research in vivo, human blood research in vivo and traditional Chinese medicine research, was also very progressive in China. Its basic studies will be reviewed in terms of the biological information model of photobiomodulation in this paper. ILILT might work in view of its basic studies, but the further randomized placebo-controlled trial and the further safety research should be done.

  4. Asian-variant intravascular large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Pasch, Whitney; Costales, Cristina; Siddiqi, Imran; Mohrbacher, Ann

    2017-01-01

    Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare and deadly malignancy involving the growth of lymphoma cells within vessel lumina of all organ types. IVLBCL is further divided into the hemophagocytic Asian variant and a classical Western variant. Both variants are difficult to diagnose by imaging, and although diagnostic criteria have been developed to guide workup, histopathological examination remains imperative. Treatment of IVLBCL remains difficult given the high mortality of the disease, but rituximab has emerged as a promising therapeutic option when combined with various cytotoxic regimens. The two main variants of IVLBCL generally manifest in their respective Asian or Western populations, and crossover between ethnicities is rare. We present the second described case of Asian-variant IVLBCL in an African American individual.

  5. Advanced Congestive Heart Failure Associated With Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Sarcon, Annahita; Liu, Xiaoli; Ton, David; Haywood, James; Hitchcock, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Background. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) is a complication of an underlying disease and not a primary illness. It is most commonly associated with sepsis, trauma, obstetrical complications, and malignancies. There are very few cases in the literature illustrating the association between DIC and congestive heart failure. Findings. In this report, we present a case of severe congestive heart failure, leading to biventricular thrombi and subsequently DIC. Conclusion. We suggest that the association between congestive heart failure and DIC is an underrecognized one. Congestive heart failure continues to remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality despite advances in medical therapies. Thus far, the precise role of coagulation factors in congestive heart failure is unknown. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of congestive heart failure and coagulation factors.

  6. The Development of a Continuous Intravascular Glucose Monitoring Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Barry C.; Barwell, Nicholas P.; Gopal, Palepu; Gopichand, Mannam; Higgs, Timothy; James, Tony D.; Jones, Christopher M.; Mackenzie, Alasdair; Mulavisala, Krishna Prasad; Paterson, William

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glycemic control in hospital intensive care units (ICU) has been the subject of numerous research publications and debate over the past 2 decades. There have been multiple studies showing the benefit of ICU glucose control in reducing both morbidity and mortality. GlySure Ltd has developed a glucose monitor based on a diboronic acid receptor that can continuously measure plasma glucose concentrations directly in a patient’s vascular system. The goal of this study was to validate the performance of the GlySure CIGM system in different patient populations. Methods: The GlySure Continuous Intravascular Glucose Monitoring (CIGM) System was evaluated in both the Cardiac ICU (33 patients) and MICU setting (14 patients). The sensor was placed through a custom CVC and measured the patients’ blood glucose concentration every 15 seconds. Comparison blood samples were taken at 2 hourly then 4 hourly intervals and measured on a YSI 2300 STAT Plus or an i-STAT. Results: Consensus error grid analysis of the data shows that the majority of the data (88.2% Cardiac, and 95.0% MICU) fell within zone A, which is considered to be clinically accurate and all data points fell within zones A and B. The MARD of the Cardiac trial was 9.90% and the MICU trial had a MARD of 7.95%. Data analysis showed no significant differences between data generated from Cardiac and MICU patients or by time or glucose concentration. Conclusions: The GlySure CIGM System has met the design challenges of measuring intravascular glucose concentrations in critically ill patients with acceptable safety and performance criteria and without disrupting current clinical practice. The accuracy of the data is not affected by the patients’ condition. PMID:26033921

  7. Chitosan and radiation chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2010-03-01

    Chitosan as a raw material with special properties has drawn attention of scientists working in the field of radiation processing and natural polymer products development, and also of specialists working in the field of radiation protection and oncologists. Especially the applications concern reduced molecular weight chitosan which still retain its chemical structure; such form of the compound is fostering biological, physical and chemical reactivity of the product. Chitosan degrades into fragments under γ-ray or electron beam irradiation. Antibacterial properties of the product are applied in manufacturing hydrogel for wound dressing and additional healing properties can be achieved by incorporating in the hydrogel matrix chitosan bonded silver clusters. Another possible application of chitosan is in reducing radiation damage to the radiation workers or radiation cured patients. In the case of radioisotopes oral or respiratory chitosan-based materials can be applied as chelators. Applications of chitosan in oncology are also reported.

  8. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System Program

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.C.; Becker, D.L.

    1996-03-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The U.S. Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration{close_quote}s Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent major changes in the U.S. Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System Program

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The US Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent ma or changes in the US Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined.

  10. Strontium iodide instrument development for gamma spectroscopy and radioisotope identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, P. R.; Cherepy, N. J.; Payne, S. A.; Swanberg, E. L.; Nelson, K. E.; Thelin, P. A.; Fisher, S. E.; Hunter, S.; Wihl, B. M.; Shah, K. S.; Hawrami, R.; Burger, A.; Boatner, L. A.; Momayezi, M.; Stevens, K. T.; Randles, M. H.; Solodovnikov, D.

    2014-09-01

    Development of the Europium-doped Strontium Iodide scintillator, SrI2(Eu2+), has progressed significantly in recent years. SrI2(Eu2+) has excellent material properties for gamma ray spectroscopy: high light yield (<80,000 ph/MeV), excellent light yield proportionality, and high effective atomic number (Z = 49) for high photoelectric cross-section. High quality 1.5" and 2" diameter boules are now available due to rapid advances in SrI2(Eu) crystal growth. In these large SrI2(Eu) crystals, optical self-absorption by Eu2+ degrades the energy resolution as measured by analog electronics, but we mitigate this effect through on-the-fly correction of the scintillation pulses by digital readout electronics. Using this digital correction technique we have demonstrated energy resolution of 2.9% FWHM at 662 keV for a 4 in3 SrI2(Eu) crystal, over 2.6 inches long. Based on this digital readout technology, we have developed a detector prototype with greatly improved radioisotope identification capability compared to Sodium Iodide, NaI(Tl). The higher resolution of SrI2(Eu) yields a factor of 2 to 5 improvement in radioisotope identification (RIID) error rate compared to NaI(Tl).

  11. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Niholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) 140-W radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor E3 (ASC-E3) Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth-generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency; quantification of control authority of the controller; disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude; and measurement of the effect of spacecraft direct current (DC) bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  12. Strontium Iodide Instrument Development for Gamma Spectroscopy and Radioisotope Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, P; Cherepy, Nerine; Payne, Stephen A.; Swanberg, E.; Nelson, K.; Thelin, P; Fisher, S E; Hunter, Steve; Wihl, B; Shah, Kanai; Hawrami, Rastgo; Burger, Arnold; Boatner, Lynn A; Momayezi, M; Stevens, K; Randles, M H; Solodovnikov, D

    2014-01-01

    Development of the Europium-doped Strontium Iodide scintillator, SrI2(Eu), has progressed significantly in recent years. SrI2(Eu) has excellent material properties for gamma ray spectroscopy: high light yield (>80,000 ph/MeV), excellent light yield proportionality, and high effective atomic number (Z=49) for high photoelectric cross-section. High quality 1.5 and 2 diameter boules are now available due to rapid advances in SrI2(Eu) crystal growth. In these large SrI2(Eu) crystals, optical self-absorption by Eu2+ degrades the energy resolution as measured by analog electronics, but we mitigate this effect through on-the-fly correction of the scintillation pulses by digital readout electronics. Using this digital correction technique we have demonstrated energy resolution of 2.9% FWHM at 662 keV for a 4 in3 SrI2(Eu) crystal, over 2.6 inches long. Based on this digital readout technology, we have developed a detector prototype with greatly improved radioisotope identification capability compared to Sodium Iodide, NaI(Tl). The higher resolution of SrI2(Eu) yields a factor of 2 to 5 improvement in radioisotope identification (RIID) error rate compared to NaI(Tl).

  13. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion for Deep Space Sample Return

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Robert J.; /SLAC

    2009-07-14

    The need to answer basic questions regarding the origin of the Solar System will motivate robotic sample return missions to destinations like Pluto, its satellite Charon, and objects in the Kuiper belt. To keep the mission duration short enough to be of interest, sample return from objects farther out in the Solar System requires increasingly higher return velocities. A sample return mission involves several complicated steps to reach an object and obtain a sample, but only the interplanetary return phase of the mission is addressed in this paper. Radioisotope electric propulsion is explored in this parametric study as a means to propel small, dedicated return vehicles for transferring kilogram-size samples from deep space to Earth. Return times for both Earth orbital rendezvous and faster, direct atmospheric re-entry trajectories are calculated for objects as far away as 100 AU. Chemical retro-rocket braking at Earth is compared to radioisotope electric propulsion but the limited deceleration capability of chemical rockets forces the return trajectories to be much slower.

  14. Technology Development for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Qiu, Songgang; White, Maurice A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and the Department of Energy are developing a Stirling convertor for an advanced radioisotope power system to provide spacecraft on-board electric power for NASA deep space missions. NASA Glenn is addressing key technology issues through the use of two NASA Phase II SBIRs with Stirling Technology Company (STC) of Kennewick, WA. Under the first SBIR, STC demonstrated a synchronous connection of two thermodynamically independent free-piston Stirling convertors and a 40 to 50 fold reduction in vibrations compared to an unbalanced convertor. The second SBIR is for the development of an Adaptive Vibration Reduction System (AVRS) that will essentially eliminate vibrations over the mission lifetime, even in the unlikely event of a failed convertor. This paper presents the status and results for these two SBIR projects and also discusses a new NASA Glenn in-house project to provide supporting technology for the overall Stirling radioisotope power system development. Tasks for this new effort include convertor performance verification, controls development, heater head structural life assessment, magnet characterization and thermal aging tests, FEA analysis for a lightweight alternator concept, and demonstration of convertor operation under launch and orbit transfer load conditions.

  15. Retention of Radium-225 and Its Daughter Radioisotopes in Bone

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Garland, Marc A; Kennel, Steve J

    2008-01-01

    The natural bone seeking tendency of Ra+2, similar to the other alkali metal ions, coupled with the short range high LET of -particle emissions are an ideal combination for localized therapy, and recently 11.4 d 223Ra has been studied for therapy of bone tumors in rats and humans [1,2]. Actinium-225 is also an attractive radioisotope for endo-radiotherapy in a single decay chain from 225Ac, over 26 MeV (~70% of total) is carried by four - particles ranging in energy from 5.7 to 8.4 MeV [3,4]. Although Ac+3 does not home naturally to bone (rather to liver) [5,6], its parent, 225Ra ( -, t1/2 = 15 d), can be used as an in vivo source for 225Ac. A pivotal question for the 225Ra/225Ac in vivo generator system is whether translocation of the daughter nuclei occurs prior to or following the uptake of 225Ra by the bone. In order to assess potential collateral damage to soft tissue organs it is essential to quantitate the extent to which 225Ac is retained in organs following the uptake of 225Ra. We have attempted to answer these questions by investigating the extent of translocation of 225Ac and 213Bi, two daughter radioisotopes of 225Ra, following retention of initially pure 225Ra in bone in normal mice.

  16. Multi-Watt Small Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Conceptual Design Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Determan, William R.; Otting, William; Frye, Patrick; Abelson, Robert; Ewell, Richard; Miyake, Bob; Synder, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A need has been identified for a small, light-weight, reliable power source using a radioisotope heat source, to power the next generation of NASA's small surface rovers and exploration probes. Unit performance, development costs, and technical risk are key criteria to be used to select the best design approach. Because safety can be a major program cost and schedule driver, RTG designs should utilize the DOE radioisotope safety program's data base to the maximum extent possible. Other aspects important to the conceptual design include: 1) a multi-mission capable design for atmospheric and vacuum environments, 2) a module size based on one GPHS Step 2 module, 3) use of flight proven thermoelectric converter technologies, 4) a long service lifetime of up to 14 years, 5) maximize unit specific power consistent with all other requirements, and 6) be ready by 2013. Another critical aspect of the design is the thermal integration of the RTG with the rover or probe's heat rejection subsystem and the descent vehicle's heat rejection subsystem. This paper describes two multi-watt RTG design concepts and their integration with a MER-class rover.

  17. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, John C.; Becker, David L.

    1996-03-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The U.S. Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent major changes in the U.S. Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined.

  18. GRC Supporting Technology for NASA's Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2008-01-01

    From 1999 to 2006, the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) supported a NASA project to develop a high-efficiency, nominal 110-We Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for potential use on NASA missions. Lockheed Martin was selected as the System Integration Contractor for the SRG110, under contract to the Department of Energy (DOE). The potential applications included deep space missions, and Mars rovers. The project was redirected in 2006 to make use of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) that was being developed by Sunpower, Inc. under contract to GRC, which would reduce the mass of the generator and increase the power output. This change would approximately double the specific power and result in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The SRG110 supporting technology effort at GRC was replanned to support the integration of the Sunpower convertor and the ASRG. This paper describes the ASRG supporting technology effort at GRC and provides details of the contributions in some of the key areas. The GRC tasks include convertor extended-operation testing in air and in thermal vacuum environments, heater head life assessment, materials studies, permanent magnet characterization and aging tests, structural dynamics testing, electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility characterization, evaluation of organic materials, reliability studies, and analysis to support controller development.

  19. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator EU2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a 140-watt radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA GRC recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's ASC-E3 Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included: measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency, quantification of control authority of the controller, disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude, and measurement of the effect of spacecraft DC bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  20. Future planetary missions potentially requiring Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondt, Jack F.; Nesmith, Bill J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the potential Radioisotope Power System, (RPS), technology requirements for future missions being planned for NASA's Solar System Exploration (SSE) theme. Many missions to the outer planets (Jupiter and beyond) require completion of the work on advanced radioisotope power systems (ARPS) now underway in NASA's Deep Space Systems Technology Program. The power levels for the ARPS can be divided into four classes. Forty to one hundred milliwatt-class provides both thermal and electric power for small in situ science laboratories on the surface of bodies in the solar system. One to two watt class for surface and aerobot science laboratories. Ten to twenty-watt class for micro satellites in orbit, surface science stations and aerobots. One hundred to two hundred watt class for orbiter science spacecraft, for drilling core samples, for powering subsurface hydrobots and cryobots on accessible bodies and for data handling and communicating data from small orbiters, surface laboratories, aerobots and hydrobots back to Earth. Using the most optimistic solar-based power system instead of advanced RPSs pushes the launch masses of these missions beyond the capability of affordable launch vehicles. Advanced RPS is also favored over solar power for obtaining comet samples on extended-duration missions. .

  1. Massive intravascular hemolysis with mechanical rheolytic thrombectomy of a hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Louis A; Reddy, Rachita; Pamoukian, Vicken N; Michelis, Michael F; DeVita, Maria V; Rosenstock, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    A 57-year-old man with chronic kidney disease stage 5 presented for ambulatory evaluation of his arteriovenous fistula. He underwent rheolytic thrombectomy with tissue plasminogen activator infusion, angioplasty, and brachial artery stenting under local sedation. His immediate postoperative course was complicated by hypotension, cardiac dysrhythmias and hyperkalemia requiring emergent hemodialysis, due to severe intravascular hemolysis. This case illustrates that mechanical thrombectomy can cause clinically significant intravascular hemolysis, thus careful postoperative monitoring is recommended.

  2. Radio-isotope production scale-up at the University of Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Nickles, Robert Jerome

    2014-06-19

    Our intent has been to scale up our production capacity for a subset of the NSAC-I list of radioisotopes in jeopardy, so as to make a significant impact on the projected national needs for Cu-64, Zr-89, Y-86, Ga-66, Br-76, I-124 and other radioisotopes that offer promise as PET synthons. The work-flow and milestones in this project have been compressed into a single year (Aug 1, 2012- July 31, 2013). The grant budget was virtually dominated by the purchase of a pair of dual-mini-cells that have made the scale-up possible, now permitting the Curie-level processing of Cu-64 and Zr-89 with greatly reduced radiation exposure. Mile stones: 1. We doubled our production of Cu-64 and Zr-89 during the grant period, both for local use and out-bound distribution to ≈ 30 labs nationwide. This involved the dove-tailing of beam schedules of both our PETtrace and legacy RDS cyclotron. 2. Implemented improved chemical separation of Zr-89, Ga-66, Y-86 and Sc-44, with remote, semi-automated dissolution, trap-and-release separation under LabView control in the two dual-mini-cells provided by this DOE grant. A key advance was to fit the chemical stream with miniature radiation detectors to confirm the transfer operations. 3. Implemented improved shipping of radioisotopes (Cu-64, Zr-89, Tc-95m, and Ho-163) with approved DOT 7A boxes, with a much-improved FedEx shipping success compared to our previous steel drums. 4. Implemented broad range quantitative trace metal analysis, employing a new microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometer (Agilent 4200) capable of ppb sensitivity across the periodic table. This new instrument will prove essential in bringing our radiometals into FDA compliance needing CoA’s for translational research in clinical trials. 5. Expanded our capabilities in target fabrication, with the purchase of a programmable 1600 oC inert gas tube furnace for the smelting of binary alloy target materials. A similar effort makes use of our RF induction furnace, allowing

  3. Space radioisotope power source requirements update and technology status

    SciTech Connect

    Mondt, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    The requirements for a space advanced radioisotope power source are based on potential deep space missions being investigated for the NASA Advanced Space Systems Development Program. Since deep space missions have not been approved, updating requirements is a continuos parallel process of designing the spacecraft and the science instruments to accomplish the potential missions and developing the power source technology to meet changing requirements. There are at least two potential missions, Pluto/Kuiper Express and Europa Orbiter, which may require space advanced radioisotope power sources. The Europa Orbiter has been selected as the preferred first potential mission. However the final decision will depend on the technology readiness of all the subsystems and the project must be able to switch to Pluto Kuiper Express as the first mission as late as the beginning of fiscal year 2000. Therefore the requirements for the power source will cover both potential missions. As the deep space spacecraft design evolves to meet the science requirements and the Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric (AMTEC) technology matures the advanced radioisotope power source design requirements are updated The AMTEC technology developed to date uses stainless steel for the sodium containment material. The higher efficiency required for the space power system dictates that the AMTEC technology must operate at a higher temperature than possible with stainless steel. Therefore refractory materials have been selected as the baseline material for the AMTEC cell. These refractory materials are Nb1Zr for the hot side and Nb1Zr or Nb10Hf1Ti for the cold side. These materials were selected so the AMTEC cell can operate at 1150K to 1350K hot side temperature and 600K to 700K cold side temperature and meet the present power and mass requirements using four to six general purpose heat source modules as the heat source. The new containment materials and brazes will be evaluated as to lifetime

  4. Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma: A Difficult Diagnostic Challenge.

    PubMed

    Khan, Maria S; McCubbin, Mark; Nand, Sucha

    2014-01-01

    Case Presentation. A 69-year-old Hispanic male, with a past history of diabetes and coronary disease, was admitted for fever, diarrhea, and confusion of 4 weeks duration. Physical examination showed a disoriented patient with multiple ecchymoses, possible ascites, and bilateral scrotal swelling. Hemoglobin was 6.7, prothrombin time (PT) 21.4 seconds with international normalized ratio 2.1, partial thromboplastin time (PTT) 55.6 seconds, fibrin split 10 µg/L, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 1231 IU/L. Except for a positive DNA test for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, extensive diagnostic workup for infections, malignancy, or a neurological cause was negative. Mixing studies revealed a nonspecific inhibitor of PT and PTT but Factor VIII levels were normal. The patient was empirically treated with antibiotics but developed hypotension and died on day 27 of admission. At autopsy, patient was found to have intravascular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving skin, testes, lung, and muscles. The malignant cells were positive for CD20, CD791, Mum-1, and Pax-5 and negative for CD3, CD5, CD10, CD30, and Bcl-6. The malignant cells were 100% positive for Ki-67. Discussion. Intravascular large cell B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is rare form of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and tends to proliferate within small blood vessels, particularly capillaries and postcapillary venules. The cause of its affinity for vascular bed remains unknown. In many reports, IVLBCL was associated with HIV, HHV8, and EBV infections. The fact that our case showed evidence of EBV infection lends support to the association of this diagnosis to viral illness. The available literature on this subject is scant, and in many cases, the diagnosis was made only at autopsy. The typical presentation of this disorder is with B symptoms, progressive neurologic deficits, and skin findings. Bone marrow, spleen, and liver are involved in a minority of patients. Nearly all patients have elevated LDH, and about 65% are

  5. RTGs - The powering of Ulysses. [Radio-isotope Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastal, E. F.; Campbell, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    The radio-isotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) for Ulysses' electronic supply is described noting that lack of sufficient sunlight renders usual solar cell power generation ineffective due to increased distance from sun. The history of the RTG in the U.S.A. is reviewed citing the first RTG launch in 1961 with an electrical output of 2.7 W and the improved Ulysses RTG, which provides 285 W at mission beginning and 250 W at mission end. The RTG concept is discussed including the most recent RTG technology developed by the DOE, the General Purpose Heat Source RTG (GPHS-RTG). The system relies upon heat generated by radioactive decay using radioactive plutonium-238, which is converted directly to energy using the Seebeck method.

  6. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1998-12-31

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the convertor housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  7. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hhinckley, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of [sup 238]Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  8. AMTEC radioisotope power system for the Pluto Express mission

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanenok, J.F. III; Sievers, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    The Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) technology has made substantial advances in the last 3 years through design improvements and technical innovations. In 1993 programs began to produce an AMTEC cell specifically for the NASA Pluto Express Mission. A set of efficiency goals was established for this series of cells to be developed. According to this plan, cell {number_sign}8 would be 17% efficient but was actually 18% efficient. Achieving this goal, as well as design advances that allow the cell to be compact, has resulted in pushing the cell from an unexciting 2 W/kg and 2% efficiency to very attractive 40 W/kg and 18% measured efficiency. This paper will describe the design and predict the performance of a radioisotope powered AMTEC system for the Pluto Express mission.

  9. .sup.82 Sr-.sup.82 Rb Radioisotope generator

    DOEpatents

    Grant, Patrick M.; Erdal, Bruce R.; O'Brien, Harold A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved .sup.82 Sr-.sup.82 Rb radioisotope generator system, based upon the complexing ion exchange resin Chelex-100, has been developed. Columns of this material can be easily and rapidly milked, and the Rb-Sr separation factor for a fresh generator was found to be > 10.sup.7. Approximately 80 percent of the .sup.82 Rb present was delivered in a 15-ml volume of aqueous 0.2 M NH.sub.4 Cl solution. After more than 6 liters of eluant had been put through the generator, the Rb-Sr separation factor was still observed to be > 10.sup.5, and no unusual strontium breakthrough behavior was seen in the system over nearly three .sup.82 Sr half lives.

  10. Development and Buildup of a Stirling Radioisotope Generator Electrical Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Greer, Lawrence C.; Flatico, Joseph M.; Spina, Dan C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) Simulator for use in a prototype lunar robotic rover. The SRG developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is a promising power source for the robotic exploration of the sunless areas of the moon. The simulator designed provides a power output similar to the SRG output of 5.7 A at 28 Vdc, while using ac wall power as the input power source. The designed electrical simulator provides rover developers the physical and electrical constraints of the SRG supporting parallel development of the SRG and rover. Parallel development allows the rover design team to embrace the SRG s unique constraints while development of the SRG is continued to a flight qualified version.

  11. Analysis of a case of internal contamination with cobalt radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Vrba, T; Malatova, I; Jurochova, B

    2007-01-01

    Internal contamination by compounds of cobalt radioisotopes occurs time to time at nuclear power plants. Intakes and committed effective doses are estimated by biokinetic models described in ICRP publications. The paper deals with a case of internal contamination of a worker engaged in a maintenance task at NPP Dukovany. In this case significant discrepancy was observed between intakes based on various datasets (whole body counting, analysis of urine and faeces) when default model setting was used. The reason of this phenomenon was searched for. Three different least square methods of fits were used to find out possible effect of a fitting method. The measured data were fitted by set of biokinetic functions, which covered all intake ways (ingestion and inhalation) and types (M, S, different AMADs and different f1) of the contaminant. The biokinetic model of cobalt needs further improvements as to find better agreement between data fit from direct measurements and bioassay.

  12. Testing to Characterize the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward; Schreiber, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a high efficiency generator, is being considered for space missions. Lockheed Martin designed and fabricated an engineering unit (EU), the ASRG EU, under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently undergoing extended operation testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. It has also undergone performance tests to characterize generator operation while varying control parameters and system inputs. This paper summarizes and explains test results in the context of designing operating strategies for the generator during a space mission and notes expected differences between the EU performance and future generators.

  13. Reliability Demonstration Approach for Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, CHuong; Zampino, Edward; Penswick, Barry; Spronz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Developed for future space missions as a high-efficiency power system, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) has a design life requirement of 14 yr in space following a potential storage of 3 yr after fueling. In general, the demonstration of long-life dynamic systems remains difficult in part due to the perception that the wearout of moving parts cannot be minimized, and associated failures are unpredictable. This paper shows a combination of systematic analytical methods, extensive experience gained from technology development, and well-planned tests can be used to ensure a high level reliability of ASRG. With this approach, all potential risks from each life phase of the system are evaluated and the mitigation adequately addressed. This paper also provides a summary of important test results obtained to date for ASRG and the planned effort for system-level extended operation.

  14. Advanced Stirling Convertor Development for NASA Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott D.; Collins, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Sunpower Inc.'s Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) initiated development under contract to the NASA Glenn Research Center and after a series of successful demonstrations, the ASC began transitioning from a technology development project to a flight development project. The ASC has very high power conversion efficiency making it attractive for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) in order to make best use of the low plutonium-238 fuel inventory in the United States. In recent years, the ASC became part of the NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Integrated Project. Sunpower held two parallel contracts to produce ASCs, one with the DOE and Lockheed Martin to produce the ASC-F flight convertors, and one with NASA Glenn for the production of ASC-E3 engineering units, the initial units of which served as production pathfinders. The integrated ASC technical team successfully overcame various technical challenges that led to the completion and delivery of the first two pairs of flightlike ASC-E3 by 2013. However, in late fall 2013, the DOE initiated termination of the Lockheed Martin ASRG flight development contract driven primarily by budget constraints. NASA continues to recognize the importance of high-efficiency ASC power conversion for RPS and continues investment in the technology including the continuation of ASC-E3 production at Sunpower and the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit #2. This paper provides a summary of ASC technical accomplishments, overview of tests at Glenn, plans for continued ASC production at Sunpower, and status of Stirling technology development.

  15. Radioisotope synoviorthesis with Holmium-166-chitosan complex in haemophilic arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y J; Kim, K I; Chun, Y S; Rhyu, K H; Kwon, B K; Kim, D Y; Yoo, M C

    2010-07-01

    Radiosynoviorthesis is a safe and easy method for synovectomy in haemophilic arthropathy. Various agents have been used in radiosynoviorthesis, especially newly developed agent Holmium-166-chitosan complex has good clinical outcome. This study analysed clinical results and radiologic evaluation of radioisotope synoviorthesis using Holmium-166-chitosan complex in haemophilic arthropathy. From March 2001 to December 2003, 58 radiosynoviorthesis were performed in 53 haemophiliacs. The average age at procedure was 13.8 years. The Arnold and Hilgartner stage of the patients was from I to IV. Holmium-166-chitosan complex was injected in 31 ankle joints, 19 elbow joints and 8 knee joints. Average follow-up was 33 months since primary procedure. The range of motion of each joint, frequency of intra-articular bleeding and factor dose used were analysed for clinical assessment. There was no significant improvement of range of motion in affected joints. After procedure, the average frequency of bleeding of the elbow joint has decreased from 3.76 to 0.47 times per month, the knee joint from 5.87 to 1.12 times per month, and the ankle joint from 3.62 to 0.73 times per month respectively (P < 0.05). After treatment, the average coagulation factor dose injected was significantly decreased to 779.3 units per month from 2814.8 units per month before treatment (P < 0.001). Radioisotope synoviorthesis with Holmium-166-chitosan complex in haemophilic arthropathy is a very safe and simple procedure with the expectation of a satisfactory outcome without serious complication. It has excellent bleeding control effect on target joint and the need for substitution of coagulation factor concentrate can be reduced.

  16. Phosphorus-32 in the Phage Group: radioisotopes as historical tracers of molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Creager, Angela N H

    2009-03-01

    The recent historiography of molecular biology features key technologies, instruments and materials, which offer a different view of the field and its turning points than preceding intellectual and institutional histories. Radioisotopes, in this vein, became essential tools in postwar life science research, including molecular biology, and are here analyzed through their use in experiments on bacteriophage. Isotopes were especially well suited for studying the dynamics of chemical transformation over time, through metabolic pathways or life cycles. Scientists labeled phage with phosphorus-32 in order to trace the transfer of genetic material between parent and progeny in virus reproduction. Initial studies of this type did not resolve the mechanism of generational transfer but unexpectedly gave rise to a new style of molecular radiobiology based on the inactivation of phage by the radioactive decay of incorporated phosphorus-32. These 'suicide experiments', a preoccupation of phage researchers in the mid-1950s, reveal how molecular biologists interacted with the traditions and practices of radiation geneticists as well as those of biochemists as they were seeking to demarcate a new field. The routine use of radiolabels to visualize nucleic acids emerged as an enduring feature of molecular biological experimentation.

  17. Phosphorus-32 in the Phage Group: radioisotopes as historical tracers of molecular biology

    PubMed Central

    Creager, Angela N.H.

    2009-01-01

    The recent historiography of molecular biology features key technologies, instruments and materials, which offer a different view of the field and its turning points than preceding intellectual and institutional histories. Radioisotopes, in this vein, became essential tools in postwar life science research, including molecular biology, and are here analyzed through their use in experiments on bacteriophage. Isotopes were especially well suited for studying the dynamics of chemical transformation over time, through metabolic pathways or life cycles. Scientists labeled phage with phosphorus-32 in order to trace the transfer of genetic material between parent and progeny in virus reproduction. Initial studies of this type did not resolve the mechanism of generational transfer but unexpectedly gave rise to a new style of molecular radiobiology based on the inactivation of phage by the radioactive decay of incorporated phosphorus-32. These ‘suicide experiments’, a preoccupation of phage researchers in the mid-1950s, reveal how molecular biologists interacted with the traditions and practices of radiation geneticists as well as those of biochemists as they were seeking to demarcate a new field. The routine use of radiolabels to visualize nucleic acids emerged as an enduring feature of molecular biological experimentation. PMID:19268872

  18. Acoustic determination of early stages of intravascular blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Uzlova, Svetlana G; Guria, Konstantin G; Guria, Georgy Th

    2008-10-13

    The blood coagulation system (BCS) is a complex biological system playing a principal role in the maintenance of haemostasis. Insufficient activity of the BCS may lead to bleeding and blood loss (e.g. in the case of haemophilia). On the other hand, excessive activity may cause intravascular blood coagulation, thromboses and embolization. Most of the methods currently used for BCS monitoring suffer from the major disadvantage of being invasive. The purpose of the present work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using ultrasonic methods for non-invasive registration of the early stages of blood coagulation processes in intensive flows. With this purpose, a special experimental set-up was designed, facilitating the simultaneous detection of optical and acoustic signals during the clotting process. It was shown that (i) as microemboli appear in the flow during the early stage of blood coagulation, the intensity of the Doppler signal increases twofold, and (ii) microemboli formation in the early stages of blood clotting always reveals itself through an acoustic contrast. Both of these effects are well defined, so we hope that they may be used for non-invasive BCS monitoring in clinical practice.

  19. Monolithic CMUT on CMOS Integration for Intravascular Ultrasound Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zahorian, Jaime; Hochman, Michael; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Gurun, Gokce; Karaman, Mustafa; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important promises of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology is integration with electronics. This approach is required to minimize the parasitic capacitances in the receive mode, especially in catheter based volumetric imaging arrays where the elements need to be small. Furthermore, optimization of the available silicon area and minimized number of connections occurs when the CMUTs are fabricated directly above the associated electronics. Here, we describe successful fabrication and performance evaluation of CMUT arrays for intravascular imaging on custom designed CMOS receiver electronics from a commercial IC foundry. The CMUT on CMOS process starts with surface isolation and mechanical planarization of the CMOS electronics to reduce topography. The rest of the CMUT fabrication is achieved by modifying a low temperature micromachining process through the addition of a single mask and developing a dry etching step to produce sloped sidewalls for simple and reliable CMUT to CMOS interconnection. This CMUT to CMOS interconnect method reduced the parasitic capacitance by a factor of 200 when compared with a standard wire bonding method. Characterization experiments indicate that the CMUT on CMOS elements are uniform in frequency response and are similar to CMUTs simultaneously fabricated on standard silicon wafers without electronics integration. Experiments on a 1.6 mm diameter dual-ring CMUT array with a 15 MHz center frequency show that both the CMUTs and the integrated CMOS electronics are fully functional. The SNR measurements indicate that the performance is adequate for imaging CTOs located 1 cm away from the CMUT array. PMID:23443701

  20. Heartbeat OCT: in vivo intravascular megahertz-optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianshi; Pfeiffer, Tom; Regar, Evelyn; Wieser, Wolfgang; van Beusekom, Heleen; Lancee, Charles T; Springeling, Geert; Krabbendam, Ilona; van der Steen, Antonius F W; Huber, Robert; van Soest, Gijs

    2015-12-01

    Cardiac motion artifacts, non-uniform rotational distortion and undersampling affect the image quality and the diagnostic impact of intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT). In this study we demonstrate how these limitations of IV-OCT can be addressed by using an imaging system that we called "Heartbeat OCT", combining a fast Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser, fast pullback, and a micromotor actuated catheter, designed to examine a coronary vessel in less than one cardiac cycle. We acquired in vivo data sets of two coronary arteries in a porcine heart with both Heartbeat OCT, working at 2.88 MHz A-line rate, 4000 frames/s and 100 mm/s pullback speed, and with a commercial system. The in vivo results show that Heartbeat OCT provides faithfully rendered, motion-artifact free, fully sampled vessel wall architecture, unlike the conventional IV-OCT data. We present the Heartbeat OCT system in full technical detail and discuss the steps needed for clinical translation of the technology.

  1. Heartbeat OCT: in vivo intravascular megahertz-optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianshi; Pfeiffer, Tom; Regar, Evelyn; Wieser, Wolfgang; van Beusekom, Heleen; Lancee, Charles T.; Springeling, Geert; Krabbendam, Ilona; van der Steen, Antonius F.W.; Huber, Robert; van Soest, Gijs

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac motion artifacts, non-uniform rotational distortion and undersampling affect the image quality and the diagnostic impact of intravascular optical coherence tomography (IV-OCT). In this study we demonstrate how these limitations of IV-OCT can be addressed by using an imaging system that we called “Heartbeat OCT”, combining a fast Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser, fast pullback, and a micromotor actuated catheter, designed to examine a coronary vessel in less than one cardiac cycle. We acquired in vivo data sets of two coronary arteries in a porcine heart with both Heartbeat OCT, working at 2.88 MHz A-line rate, 4000 frames/s and 100 mm/s pullback speed, and with a commercial system. The in vivo results show that Heartbeat OCT provides faithfully rendered, motion-artifact free, fully sampled vessel wall architecture, unlike the conventional IV-OCT data. We present the Heartbeat OCT system in full technical detail and discuss the steps needed for clinical translation of the technology. PMID:26713214

  2. Intra-Vascular Neural Interface with Nano-Wire Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Hirobumi; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Nakao, Masayuki; Walton, Kerry; Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    A less-invasive recording technique capable of simultaneously monitoring the activity of significant number (103 ∼ 104) of neurons is a vital step in developing an effective brain-machine interface. Although there are many excellent techniques for recording activities of a single neuron or a group of neurons, there is no methodology for accessing large number of cells in a behaving experimental animal or human individual. Brain vascular parenchyma offers the promising candidate to solve this problem. We have proposed the use of myriad of nano-wire-electrodes that are introduced into the Central Nervous System through the vascular system to address any brain area. In this study we design a microcatheter for ex vivo experiments. Using a Wollaston platinum wire we design a submicron-scale electrode, and develop the fabrication method. We then evaluate the mechanical property of the electrode to flow into the intricacies of the capillary bed in ex vivo Xenopus laevis. Furthermore, we demonstrate the feasibility of intravascular recording in the spinal cord of Xenopus laevis.

  3. Light intensity matching between different intravascular optical coherence tomography systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengnan; Eggermont, Jeroen; Nakatani, Shimpei; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Dijkstra, Jouke

    2016-02-01

    Currently two commercial intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) systems are available: Illumien Optis from St. Jude Medical (SJM) and Lunawave from Terumo. Both systems store the light intensity data in a raw vendor specific polar format. However, whereas SJM uses 16-bits per pixel Terumo uses 8-bits meaning the intensity values are in different ranges. This complicates quantitative light intensity based analysis when comparing results based on data from both systems. Therefore, this work aims to find an intensity transformation function from Terumo's 8-bit OFDI data to SJM's 16-bit range. The data consists of 8 pullbacks, 4 acquired with each system in the same arteries of 2 different patents pre- and post-stenting implantation. A total of 133 matching sections without stent struts from the two sets of pullbacks were identified based on landmarks such as side-branches and calcified regions. Since the main region of interest in the image is the tissue region only the pixels within 2mm behind the lumen border are used. In order to match the SJM data range, the Terumo data was rescaled and cumulative distribution functions (CDF) were calculated based on the histogram distributions. Comparing these CDFs, the transformation function can be determined. Application of this transformation function not only improves the visual similarity of matching slices it can also be used for further quantitative analysis.

  4. Cerebral Blood Volume MRI with Intravascular Superparamagentic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Gi; Harel, Noam; Jin, Tao; Kim, Tae; Lee, Phil; Zhao, Fuqiang

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) is a crucial physiological indicator of tissue viability and vascular reactivity. Thus, non-invasive CBV mapping has been of great interest. For this, ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) including monocrystalline iron oxide nanoparticles (MION) can be used as long half-life, intravascular susceptibility agents of CBV MRI measurements. Also, CBV-weighted fMRI with USPIO provides enhanced sensitivity, reduced large vessel contribution, and improved spatial specificity compared to conventional blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI, and measures a single physiological parameter that is easily interpretable. We review physiochemical and magnetic properties as well as pharmacokinetics of USPIO in brief. We then extensively discuss quantifications of baseline CBV, vessel size index, and functional CBV change. We also provide reviews of dose-dependent sensitivity, vascular filter function, specificity, characteristics, and impulse response function of CBV fMRI. Examples of CBV fMRI specificity at the laminar and columnar resolution are provided. Finally, we briefly review application of CBV measurements to functional and pharmacological studies in animals. Overall, the use of USPIO can determine baseline CBV and its changes induced by functional activity and pharmacological interventions. PMID:23208650

  5. Trombocytopenia: one of the markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, Hugo

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a complication of a variety of severe underlying diseases and a contributing factor in multi-organ failure and death. DIC is diagnosed on the basis of clinical findings (organ failure, bleeding) and laboratory abnormalities. The laboratory data include (repeated) measurements of platelet count and global clotting tests, to which more specific and sensitive tests for activated coagulation are added. The focus of this paper is on thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100 x 103/microl) as a marker in DIC. First, in patients with suspected DIC it is imperative to consider alternative causes of thrombocytopenia,such as related to heparin use (heparin induced thrombocytopenia II) or thrombocytopenic purpura. Second, the observation of thrombocytopenia in relation to DIC should be interpreted as a marker of advanced or overt DIC and not as an early indicator. According to recommended guidelines measurements of platelet counts should always be coupled to a panel of coagulation markers and not be used as single marker of DIC (or other syndromes). In general, thrombocytopenia should not trigger platelet transfusions except in patients with severe bleeding complications.

  6. Biochemistry and pathophysiology of intravascular and intracellular lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Young, Stephen G.; Zechner, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    All organisms use fatty acids (FAs) for energy substrates and as precursors for membrane and signaling lipids. The most efficient way to transport and store FAs is in the form of triglycerides (TGs); however, TGs are not capable of traversing biological membranes and therefore need to be cleaved by TG hydrolases (“lipases”) before moving in or out of cells. This biochemical process is generally called “lipolysis.” Intravascular lipolysis degrades lipoprotein-associated TGs to FAs for their subsequent uptake by parenchymal cells, whereas intracellular lipolysis generates FAs and glycerol for their release (in the case of white adipose tissue) or use by cells (in the case of other tissues). Although the importance of lipolysis has been recognized for decades, many of the key proteins involved in lipolysis have been uncovered only recently. Important new developments include the discovery of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), the molecule that moves lipoprotein lipase from the interstitial spaces to the capillary lumen, and the discovery of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) as crucial molecules in the hydrolysis of TGs within cells. This review summarizes current views of lipolysis and highlights the relevance of this process to human disease. PMID:23475957

  7. Radioisotope electric propulsion of sciencecraft to the outer solar system and near-interstellar space

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.J.

    1998-08-01

    Recent results are presented in the study of radioisotope electric propulsion as a near-term technology for sending small robotic sciencecraft to the outer Solar System and near-interstellar space. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems are low-thrust, ion propulsion units based on radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. Powerplant specific masses are expected to be in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW of thrust power. Planetary rendezvous missions to Pluto, fast missions to the heliopause (100 AU) with the capability to decelerate an orbiter for an extended science program and prestellar missions to the first gravitational lens focus of the Sun (550 AU) are investigated.

  8. Characterization of front-end electronics for CZT based handheld radioisotope identifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombigit, L.; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Yazid, Khairiah; Jaafar, Zainudin

    2016-01-01

    A radioisotope identifier device based on large volume Co-planar grid CZT detector is current under development at Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This device is planned to be used for in-situ identification of radioisotopes based on their unique energies. This work reports on electronics testing performed on the front-end electronics (FEE) analog section comprising charge sensitive preamplifier-pulse shaping amplifier chain. This test involves measurement of charge sensitivity, pulse parameters and electronics noise. This report also present some preliminary results on the spectral measurement obtained from gamma emitting radioisotopes.

  9. Characterization of front-end electronics for CZT based handheld radioisotope identifier

    SciTech Connect

    Lombigit, L.; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Yazid, Khairiah; Jaafar, Zainudin

    2016-01-22

    A radioisotope identifier device based on large volume Co-planar grid CZT detector is current under development at Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This device is planned to be used for in-situ identification of radioisotopes based on their unique energies. This work reports on electronics testing performed on the front-end electronics (FEE) analog section comprising charge sensitive preamplifier-pulse shaping amplifier chain. This test involves measurement of charge sensitivity, pulse parameters and electronics noise. This report also present some preliminary results on the spectral measurement obtained from gamma emitting radioisotopes.

  10. High efficiency direct thermal to electric energy conversion from radioisotope decay using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Flood, Dennis J.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1993-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1200K. Both selective emitter and filter system TPV systems are feasible. However, requirements on the filter system are severe in order to attain high efficiency. A thin-film of a rare-earth oxide is one method for producing an efficient, rugged selective emitter. An efficiency of 0.14 and power density of 9.2 W/KG at 1200K is calculated for a hypothetical thin-film neodymia (Nd2O3) selective emitter TPV system that uses radioisotope decay as the thermal energy source.

  11. A NEW ALGORITHM FOR RADIOISOTOPE IDENTIFICATION OF SHIELDED AND MASKED SNM/RDD MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffcoat, R.

    2012-06-05

    Detection and identification of shielded and masked nuclear materials is crucial to national security, but vast borders and high volumes of traffic impose stringent requirements for practical detection systems. Such tools must be be mobile, and hence low power, provide a low false alarm rate, and be sufficiently robust to be operable by non-technical personnel. Currently fielded systems have not achieved all of these requirements simultaneously. Transport modeling such as that done in GADRAS is able to predict observed spectra to a high degree of fidelity; our research is focusing on a radionuclide identification algorithm that inverts this modeling within the constraints imposed by a handheld device. Key components of this work include incorporation of uncertainty as a function of both the background radiation estimate and the hypothesized sources, dimensionality reduction, and nonnegative matrix factorization. We have partially evaluated performance of our algorithm on a third-party data collection made with two different sodium iodide detection devices. Initial results indicate, with caveats, that our algorithm performs as good as or better than the on-board identification algorithms. The system developed was based on a probabilistic approach with an improved approach to variance modeling relative to past work. This system was chosen based on technical innovation and system performance over algorithms developed at two competing research institutions. One key outcome of this probabilistic approach was the development of an intuitive measure of confidence which was indeed useful enough that a classification algorithm was developed based around alarming on high confidence targets. This paper will present and discuss results of this novel approach to accurately identifying shielded or masked radioisotopes with radiation detection systems.

  12. Calculation of intravascular signal in dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI using adaptive complex independent component analysis.

    PubMed

    Mehrabian, Hatef; Chopra, Rajiv; Martel, Anne L

    2013-04-01

    Assessing tumor response to therapy is a crucial step in personalized treatments. Pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling provides quantitative information about tumor perfusion and vascular permeability that are associated with prognostic factors. A fundamental step in most PK analyses is calculating the signal that is generated in the tumor vasculature. This signal is usually inseparable from the extravascular extracellular signal. It was shown previously using in vivo and phantom experiments that independent component analysis (ICA) is capable of calculating the intravascular time-intensity curve in dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI. A novel adaptive complex independent component analysis (AC-ICA) technique is developed in this study to calculate the intravascular time-intensity curve and separate this signal from the DCE-MR images of tumors. The use of the complex-valued DCE-MRI images rather than the commonly used magnitude images satisfied the fundamental assumption of ICA, i.e., linear mixing of the sources. Using an adaptive cost function in ICA through estimating the probability distribution of the tumor vasculature at each iteration resulted in a more robust and accurate separation algorithm. The AC-ICA algorithm provided a better estimate for the intravascular time-intensity curve than the previous ICA-based method. A simulation study was also developed in this study to realistically simulate DCE-MRI data of a leaky tissue mimicking phantom. The passage of the MR contrast agent through the leaky phantom was modeled with finite element analysis using a diffusion model. Once the distribution of the contrast agent in the imaging field of view was calculated, DCE-MRI data was generated by solving the Bloch equation for each voxel at each time point. The intravascular time-intensity curve calculation results were compared to the previously proposed ICA-based intravascular time-intensity curve calculation method that applied ICA to the magnitude of the DCE-MRI data

  13. HHV-8 and EBV-positive intravascular lymphoma: an unusual presentation of extracavitary primary effusion lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Genevieve M.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Shirley, Courtney M.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Kasamon, Yvette L.; Taube, Janis M.; Borowitz, Michael J.; Duffield, Amy S.

    2014-01-01

    Intravascular lymphomas are rare and aggressive hematolymphoid tumors. Here we describe a human herpesvirus type-8/Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8/KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive intravascular lymphoma. The patient was a 59 year-old HIV-positive man who presented with diarrhea, abdominal pain, fevers, night sweats, and weight loss. Radiographic studies of the abdomen and pelvis revealed numerous subcentimeter nodules within the subcutaneous fat that lacked connection to the skin. An excisional biopsy demonstrated large atypical cells within vessels in the deep subcutaneous fat, and many of the vessels contained extensive organizing thrombi. The atypical cells lacked strong expression of most B-cell markers but were positive for MUM-1 and showed partial expression of several T-cell markers. An immunohistochemical stain for HHV-8 and an in situ hybridization for EBV were both positive in the neoplastic cells. The disease had a rapidly progressive and fatal course. This lymphoma appears to represent an entirely intravascular form of primary effusion lymphoma, and highlights the propensity for HHV-8 and EBV-positive lymphoid neoplasms to show aberrant expression of T-cell markers, illustrates the utility of skin biopsies for the diagnosis of intravascular lymphoma, and suggests that biopsies to evaluate for intravascular lymphoma should be relatively deep and include subcutaneous fat. PMID:24525514

  14. Platelets and neutrophil extracellular traps collaborate to promote intravascular coagulation during sepsis in mice.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Braedon; Davis, Rachelle P; Kim, Seok-Joo; Tse, Mandy; Esmon, Charles T; Kolaczkowska, Elzbieta; Jenne, Craig N

    2017-03-09

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs; webs of DNA coated in antimicrobial proteins) are released into the vasculature during sepsis where they contribute to host defense, but also cause tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Various components of NETs have also been implicated as activators of coagulation. Using multicolor confocal intravital microscopy in mouse models of sepsis, we observed profound platelet aggregation, thrombin activation, and fibrin clot formation within (and downstream of) NETs in vivo. NETs were critical for the development of sepsis-induced intravascular coagulation regardless of the inciting bacterial stimulus (gram-negative, gram-positive, or bacterial products). Removal of NETs via DNase infusion, or in peptidylarginine deiminase-4-deficient mice (which have impaired NET production), resulted in significantly lower quantities of intravascular thrombin activity, reduced platelet aggregation, and improved microvascular perfusion. NET-induced intravascular coagulation was dependent on a collaborative interaction between histone H4 in NETs, platelets, and the release of inorganic polyphosphate. Real-time perfusion imaging revealed markedly improved microvascular perfusion in response to the blockade of NET-induced coagulation, which correlated with reduced markers of systemic intravascular coagulation and end-organ damage in septic mice. Together, these data demonstrate, for the first time in an in vivo model of infection, a dynamic NET-platelet-thrombin axis that promotes intravascular coagulation and microvascular dysfunction in sepsis.

  15. Percutaneous Retrieval of Misplaced Intravascular Foreign Objects with the Dormia Basket: An Effective Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, Rahul Someshwar, Vimal; Warawdekar, Gireesh

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. We report our experience of the retrieval of intravascular foreign body objects by the percutaneous use of the Gemini Dormia basket. Methods. Over a period of 2 years we attempted the percutaneous removal of intravascular foreign bodies in 26 patients. Twenty-six foreign bodies were removed: 8 intravascular stents, 4 embolization coils, 9 guidewires, 1 pacemaker lead, and 4 catheter fragments. The percutaneous retrieval was achieved with a combination of guide catheters and the Gemini Dormia basket. Results. Percutaneous retrieval was successful in 25 of 26 patients (96.2%). It was possible to remove all the intravascular foreign bodies with a combination of guide catheters and the Dormia basket. No complication occurred during the procedure, and no long-term complications were registered during the follow-up period, which ranged from 6 months to 32 months (mean 22.4 months overall). Conclusion. Percutaneous retrieval is an effective and safe technique that should be the first choice for removal of an intravascular foreign body.

  16. Extraforaminal needle tip position reduces risk of intravascular injection in CT-fluoroscopic lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Robinson K.; Ghodadra, Anish; Agarwal, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Background Lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection is a common and effective tool for managing lumbar radicular pain, although accidental intravascular injection can rarely result in paralysis. The purpose of this study is to determine the safest needle tip position for computed tomography (CT)-guided lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections as determined by incidence of intravascular injection. Methods Three radiologists, in consensus, reviewed procedural imaging for consecutive CT-fluoroscopic lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections performed during a 16-month period. Intravascular injections were identified and categorized by needle tip position, vessel type injected, intravascular injection volume and procedural phase containing the intravascular injection. Pearson chi-square and logistic regression testing were used to assess differences between groups, as appropriate. Results Intravascular injections occurred in 9% (52/606) of injections. The intravascular injection rate was significantly lower (P<0.001) for extraforaminal needle position (0%, 0/109) compared to junctional (8%, 27/319) and foraminal (14%, 25/178) needle tip positions. Of the intravascular injections, 4% (2/52) were likely arterial, 35% (18/52) were likely venous, and 62% (32/52) were indeterminate for vessel type injected. 46% (24/52) of intravascular injections were large volume, 33% (17/52) were small volume, and 21% (11/52) were trace volume. 56% (29/52) of intravascular injections occurred with the contrast trial dose, 29% (15/52) with the steroid/analgesic cocktail, and 15% (8/52) with both. Conclusions An extraforaminal needle position for CT-fluoroscopic lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections decreases the risk of intravascular injection and therefore may be safer than other needle tip positions. PMID:28097241

  17. Kuiper Belt Object Orbiter Using Advanced Radioisotope Power Sources and Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Dankanich, John; Colozza, Anthony; Schmitz, Paul; Khan, Omair; Drexler, Jon; Fittje, James

    2011-01-01

    A joint NASA GRC/JPL design study was performed for the NASA Radioisotope Power Systems Office to explore the use of radioisotope electric propulsion for flagship class missions. The Kuiper Belt Object Orbiter is a flagship class mission concept projected for launch in the 2030 timeframe. Due to the large size of a flagship class science mission larger radioisotope power system building blocks were conceptualized to provide the roughly 4 kW of power needed by the NEXT ion propulsion system and the spacecraft. Using REP the spacecraft is able to rendezvous with and orbit a Kuiper Belt object in 16 years using either eleven (no spare) 420 W advanced RTGs or nine (with a spare) 550 W advanced Stirling Radioisotope systems. The design study evaluated integrating either system and estimated impacts on cost as well as required General Purpose Heat Source requirements.

  18. Estimates for production of radioisotopes of medical interest at Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wen; Bobeica, Mariana; Gheorghe, Ioana; Filipescu, Dan M.; Niculae, Dana; Balabanski, Dimiter L.

    2016-01-01

    We report Monte Carlo simulations of the production of radioisotopes of medical interest through photoneutron reactions using the high-brilliance γ-beam of the Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility. The specific activity for three benchmark radioisotopes, 99Mo/99Tc, 225Ra/225Ac and 186Re, was obtained as a function of target geometry, irradiation time and γ-beam energy. Optimized conditions for the generation of these radioisotopes of medical interest with the ELI-NP γ-beams were discussed. We estimated that a saturation specific activity of the order of 1-2 mCi/g can be achieved for thin targets with about one gram of mass considering a γ-beam flux of 10^{11} photons/s. Based on these results, we suggest that the ELI-NP facility can provide a unique possibility for the production of radioisotopes in sufficient quantities for nuclear medicine research.

  19. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP): A Near-Term Approach to Nuclear Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George R.; Manzella, David H.; Kamhawi, Hani; Kremic, Tibor; Oleson, Steven R.; Dankanich, John W.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies over the last decade have shown radioisotope-based nuclear electric propulsion to be enhancing and, in some cases, enabling for many potential robotic science missions. Also known as radioisotope electric propulsion (REP), the technology offers the performance advantages of traditional reactor-powered electric propulsion (i.e., high specific impulse propulsion at large distances from the Sun), but with much smaller, affordable spacecraft. Future use of REP requires development of radioisotope power sources with system specific powers well above that of current systems. The US Department of Energy and NASA have developed an advanced Stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG) engineering unit, which was subjected to rigorous flight qualification-level tests in 2008, and began extended lifetime testing later that year. This advancement, along with recent work on small ion thrusters and life extension technology for Hall thrusters, could enable missions using REP sometime during the next decade.

  20. 77 FR 21592 - Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for the Production of Radioisotopes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Chapters 7-18 of Draft Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) NPR-ISG-2011-002, augmenting NUREG-1537, Part 1...,'' for the production of radioisotopes. The ISG augmenting NUREG-1537, Parts 1 & 2, Chapters 1-6...

  1. Imminent Cardiac Risk Assessment via Optical Intravascular Biochemical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, D.; Wetzel, L; Wetzel, M; Lodder, R

    2009-01-01

    Heart disease is by far the biggest killer in the United States, and type II diabetes, which affects 8% of the U.S. population, is on the rise. In many cases, the acute coronary syndrome and/or sudden cardiac death occurs without warning. Atherosclerosis has known behavioral, genetic and dietary risk factors. However, our laboratory studies with animal models and human post-mortem tissue using FT-IR microspectroscopy reveal the chemical microstructure within arteries and in the arterial walls themselves. These include spectra obtained from the aortas of ApoE-/- knockout mice on sucrose and normal diets showing lipid deposition in the former case. Also pre-aneurysm chemical images of knockout mouse aorta walls, and spectra of plaque excised from a living human patient are shown for comparison. In keeping with the theme of the SPEC 2008 conference Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Disease this paper describes the background and potential value of a new catheter-based system to provide in vivo biochemical analysis of plaque in human coronary arteries. We report the following: (1) results of FT-IR microspectroscopy on animal models of vascular disease to illustrate the localized chemical distinctions between pathological and normal tissue, (2) current diagnostic techniques used for risk assessment of patients with potential unstable coronary syndromes, and (3) the advantages and limitations of each of these techniques illustrated with patent care histories, related in the first person, by the physician coauthors. Note that the physician comments clarify the contribution of each diagnostic technique to imminent cardiac risk assessment in a clinical setting, leading to the appreciation of what localized intravascular chemical analysis can contribute as an add-on diagnostic tool. The quality of medical imaging has improved dramatically since the turn of the century. Among clinical non-invasive diagnostic tools, laboratory tests of body fluids, EKG, and physical examination are

  2. RADIOISOTOPE IDENTIFICATION OF SHIELDED AND MASKED SNM RDD MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Salaymeh, S.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-06-17

    Sonar and speech techniques have been investigated to improve functionality and enable handheld and other man-portable, mobile, and portal systems to positively detect and identify illicit nuclear materials, with minimal data and with minimal false positives and false negatives. RadSonar isotope detection and identification is an algorithm development project funded by NA-22 and employing the resources of Savannah River National Laboratory and three University Laboratories (JHU-APL, UT-ARL, and UW-APL). Algorithms have been developed that improve the probability of detection and decrease the number of false positives and negatives. Two algorithms have been developed and tested. The first algorithm uses support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to determine the most prevalent nuclide(s) in a spectrum. It then uses a constrained weighted least squares fit to estimate and remove the contribution of these nuclide(s) to the spectrum, iterating classification and fitting until there is nothing of significance left. If any Special Nuclear Materials (SNMs) were detected in this process, a second tier of more stringent classifiers are used to make the final SNM alert decision. The second algorithm is looking at identifying existing feature sets that would be relevant in the radioisotope identification context. The underlying philosophy here is to identify parallels between the physics and/or the structures present in the data for the two applications (speech analysis and gamma spectroscopy). The expectation is that similar approaches may work in both cases. The mel-frequency cepstral representation of spectra is widely used in speech, particularly for two reasons: approximation of the response of the human ear, and simplicity of channel effect separation (in this context, a 'channel' is a method of signal transport that affects the signal, examples being vocal tract shape, room echoes, and microphone response). Measured and simulated gamma-ray spectra from a hand

  3. Potential medical applications of the plasma focus in the radioisotope production for PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshan, M. V.; Razaghi, S.; Asghari, F.; Rawat, R. S.; Springham, S. V.; Lee, P.; Lee, S.; Tan, T. L.

    2014-06-01

    Devices other than the accelerators are desired to be investigated for generating high energy particles to induce nuclear reaction and positron emission tomography (PET) producing radioisotopes. The experimental data of plasma focus devices (PF) are studied and the activity scaling law for External Solid Target (EST) activation is established. Based on the scaling law and the techniques to enhance the radioisotopes production, the feasibility of generating the required activity for PET imaging is studied.

  4. Mechanotransductional Basis of Endothelial Cell Response to Intravascular Bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Alexandra L.; Pichette, Benjamin; Sobolewski, Peter; Eckmann, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular air embolism resulting from too rapid decompression is a well-known risk in deep-sea diving, aviation and space travel. It is also a common complication during surgery or other medical procedures when air or other endogenously administered gas is entrained in the circulation. Preventive and post-event treatment options are extremely limited for this dangerous condition, and none of them address the poorly understood pathophysiology of endothelial response to intravascular bubble presence. Using a novel apparatus allowing precise manipulation of microbubbles in real time fluorescence microscopy studies, we directly measure human umbilical vein endothelial cell responses to bubble contact. Strong intracellular calcium transients requiring extracellular calcium are observed upon cell-bubble interaction. The transient is eliminated both by the presence of the stretch activated channel inhibitor, gadolinium, and the transient receptor potential vanilliod family inhibitor, ruthenium red. No bubble induced calcium upsurge occurs if the cells are pretreated with an inhibitor of actin polymerization, cytochalasin-D. This study explores the biomechanical mechanisms at play in bubble interfacial interactions with endothelial surface layer (ESL) macromolecules, reassessing cell response after selective digestion of glycocalyx glycosoaminoglycans, hyaluran (HA) and heparin sulfate (HS). HA digestion causes reduction of cell-bubble adherence and a more rapid induction of calcium influx after contact. HS depletion significantly decreases calcium transient amplitudes, as does pharmacologically induced sydencan ectodomain shedding. The surfactant perfluorocarbon oxycyte abolishes any bubble induced calcium transient, presumably through direct competition with ESL macromolecules for interfacial occupancy, thus attenuating the interactions that trigger potentially deleterious biochemical pathways. PMID:21931900

  5. Central respiratory and circulatory depression caused by intravascular saxitoxin

    PubMed Central

    Borison, H.L.; Culp, W.J.; Gonsalves, S.F.; McCarthy, L.E.

    1980-01-01

    1 In cats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone and vagotomized, observations were made on the phrenic nerve action potential and the diaphragm electromyogram (EMG) at constant end-tidal Pco2. Arterial blood pressure was stabilized by intravenous infusions of noradrenaline. 2 Intravenous administration of saxitoxin (STX) initially abolished respiratory activity in the EMG and caused a slowing of oscillation in the central phrenic neurogram. Additional STX produced apneustic phrenic discharges followed by a progressive loss of nerve action potentials. 3 The inspiratory centre in the medulla oblongata was stimulated electrically to evoke a sustained phrenic nerve discharge. STX, given intravenously, resulted in the elimination of spontaneous nerve activity without interfering with the evoked response. 4 The cephalic intravascular infusion of STX into a carotid or vertebral artery depressed spontaneous respiratory activity while sparing EMG activity evoked by electrical stimulation of the intact phrenic nerve. 5 Spontaneous respiratory discharge in the phrenic nerve was eliminated by smaller doses of STX administered intra-arterially than were required intravenously. In addition, onset of and recovery from neural silence occurred faster following intra-arterial injection of STX. 6 Depressant effects on arterial blood pressure coincided with those on respiration when STX was given intra-arterially. 7 An electrophysiological assay on frog sartorius muscle was used to measure STX in the cerebrospinal fluid. Levels of STX detected were proportional to amounts of the toxin infused intra-arterially. 8 It is concluded that STX exchanges rapidly between blood and brain to bring about central depression and this adds to its peripheral paralytic actions. PMID:7357210

  6. Protection against high intravascular pressure in giraffe legs.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Karin K; Hørlyck, Arne; Ostergaard, Kristine H; Andresen, Joergen; Broegger, Torbjoern; Skovgaard, Nini; Telinius, Niklas; Laher, Ismael; Bertelsen, Mads F; Grøndahl, Carsten; Smerup, Morten; Secher, Niels H; Brøndum, Emil; Hasenkam, John M; Wang, Tobias; Baandrup, Ulrik; Aalkjaer, Christian

    2013-11-01

    The high blood pressure in giraffe leg arteries renders giraffes vulnerable to edema. We investigated in 11 giraffes whether large and small arteries in the legs and the tight fascia protect leg capillaries. Ultrasound imaging of foreleg arteries in anesthetized giraffes and ex vivo examination revealed abrupt thickening of the arterial wall and a reduction of its internal diameter just below the elbow. At and distal to this narrowing, the artery constricted spontaneously and in response to norepinephrine and intravascular pressure recordings revealed a dynamic, viscous pressure drop along the artery. Histology of the isolated median artery confirmed dense sympathetic innervation at the narrowing. Structure and contractility of small arteries from muscular beds in the leg and neck were compared. The arteries from the legs demonstrated an increased media thickness-to-lumen diameter ratio, increased media volume, and increased numbers of smooth muscle cells per segment length and furthermore, they contracted more strongly than arteries from the neck (500 ± 49 vs. 318 ± 43 mmHg; n = 6 legs and neck, respectively). Finally, the transient increase in interstitial fluid pressure following injection of saline was 5.5 ± 1.7 times larger (n = 8) in the leg than in the neck. We conclude that 1) tissue compliance in the legs is low; 2) large arteries of the legs function as resistance arteries; and 3) structural adaptation of small muscle arteries allows them to develop an extraordinary tension. All three findings can contribute to protection of the capillaries in giraffe legs from a high arterial pressure.

  7. Monolithic CMUT-on-CMOS integration for intravascular ultrasound applications.

    PubMed

    Zahorian, Jaime; Hochman, Michael; Xu, Toby; Satir, Sarp; Gurun, Gokce; Karaman, Mustafa; Degertekin, F Levent

    2011-12-01

    One of the most important promises of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology is integration with electronics. This approach is required to minimize the parasitic capacitances in the receive mode, especially in catheter-based volumetric imaging arrays, for which the elements must be small. Furthermore, optimization of the available silicon area and minimized number of connections occurs when the CMUTs are fabricated directly above the associated electronics. Here, we describe successful fabrication and performance evaluation of CMUT arrays for intravascular imaging on custom-designed CMOS receiver electronics from a commercial IC foundry. The CMUT-on-CMOS process starts with surface isolation and mechanical planarization of the CMOS electronics to reduce topography. The rest of the CMUT fabrication is achieved by modifying a low-temperature micromachining process through the addition of a single mask and developing a dry etching step to produce sloped sidewalls for simple and reliable CMUT-to-CMOS interconnection. This CMUT-to-CMOS interconnect method reduced the parasitic capacitance by a factor of 200 when compared with a standard wire-bonding method. Characterization experiments indicate that the CMUT-on-CMOS elements are uniform in frequency response and are similar to CMUTs simultaneously fabricated on standard silicon wafers without electronics integration. Ex- periments on a 1.6-mm-diameter dual-ring CMUT array with a center frequency of 15 MHz show that both the CMUTs and the integrated CMOS electronics are fully functional. The SNR measurements indicate that the performance is adequate for imaging chronic total occlusions located 1 cm from the CMUT array.

  8. Hepatic abscess-associated Clostridial bacteraemia presenting with intravascular haemolysis and severe hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Andrew George; Rudd, Kristina Elizabeth; Halliday, Melissa; Hess, John Rider

    2016-01-01

    Summary Clostridium perfringens bacteraemia is a potentially fatal condition, and its early identification is paramount to maximise chances of survival. Prompt recognition of intravascular haemolysis, a known complication of C. perfringens bacteraemia, can help guide clinical decision-making before microbiology data becomes available. We present a novel finding of severe hypertension in a fatal case of Clostridial bacteraemia with massive haemolysis. A 58-year-old man with no known medical history presented to the emergency department with malaise, fever and hypertension. He developed abdominal pain and a hepatic abscess was identified on CT imaging. Within 4 h of presentation, he developed massive intravascular haemolysis, extreme hypertension, pulmonary oedema and respiratory failure. He died less than 8 h after presentation. His blood cultures subsequently grew C. perfringens. This case underscores the importance of early recognition of intravascular haemolysis complicating C. perfringens bacteraemia, and discusses the rare complication of hypertensive emergency in this setting. PMID:26823354

  9. Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of SMA intravascular stent under radial stochastic loads.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Qingxin; Xu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of shape memory alloy (SMA) intravascular stent under radial stochastic loads were studied in this paper. Von de Pol item was improved to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of SMA, and the nonlinear dynamic model of SMA intravascular stent under radial stochastic loads was developed. The conditions of stochastic stability of the system were obtained in singular boundary theory. The steady-state probability density function of the dynamic response of the system was given, and the stochastic Hopf bifurcation characteristics of the system were analyzed. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that the stability of the trivial solution varies with bifurcation parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation appears in the process, which can cause stent fracture or loss. The results of this paper are helpful to application of SMA intravascular stent in biomedical engineering fields.

  10. Intracoronary optical coherence tomography: Clinical and research applications and intravascular imaging software overview.

    PubMed

    Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Albuquerque, Felipe N; Sotomi, Yohei; Zeng, Yaping; Suwannasom, Pannipa; Tateishi, Hiroki; Cavalcante, Rafael; Ishibashi, Yuki; Nakatani, Shimpei; Abdelghani, Mohammad; Dijkstra, Jouke; Bourantas, Christos; Collet, Carlos; Karanasos, Antonios; Radu, Maria; Wang, Ancong; Muramatsu, Takashi; Landmesser, Ulf; Okamura, Takayuki; Regar, Evelyn; Räber, Lorenz; Guagliumi, Giulio; Pyo, Robert T; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Serruys, Patrick W

    2017-01-21

    By providing valuable information about the coronary artery wall and lumen, intravascular imaging may aid in optimizing interventional procedure results and thereby could improve clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a light-based technology with a tissue penetration of approximately 1 to 3 mm and provides near histological resolution. It has emerged as a technological breakthrough in intravascular imaging with multiple clinical and research applications. OCT provides detailed visualization of the vessel following PCI and provides accurate assessment of post-procedural stent performance including detection of edge dissection, stent struts apposition, tissue prolapse, and healing parameters. Additionally, it can provide accurate characterization of plaque morphology and provides key information to optimize post-procedural outcomes. This manuscript aims to review the current clinical and research applications of intracoronary OCT and summarize the analytic OCT imaging software packages currently available. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. High-sensitivity intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid–laden plaque with a collinear catheter design

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yingchun; Hui, Jie; Kole, Ayeeshik; Wang, Pu; Yu, Qianhuan; Chen, Weibiao; Sturek, Michael; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2016-01-01

    A highly sensitive catheter probe is critical to catheter-based intravascular photoacoustic imaging. Here, we present a photoacoustic catheter probe design on the basis of collinear alignment of the incident optical wave and the photoacoustically generated sound wave within a miniature catheter housing for the first time. Such collinear catheter design with an outer diameter of 1.6 mm provided highly efficient overlap between optical and acoustic waves over an imaging depth of >6 mm in D2O medium. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaque and perivascular fat was demonstrated, where a lab-built 500 Hz optical parametric oscillator outputting nanosecond optical pulses at a wavelength of 1.7 μm was used for overtone excitation of C-H bonds. In addition to intravascular imaging, the presented catheter design will benefit other photoacoustic applications such as needle-based intramuscular imaging. PMID:27121894

  12. Toward high performance radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems using spectral control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiawa; Chan, Walker; Stelmakh, Veronika; Celanovic, Ivan; Fisher, Peter

    2016-12-01

    This work describes RTPV-PhC-1, an initial prototype for a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) system using a two-dimensional photonic crystal emitter and low bandgap thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell to realize spectral control. We validated a system simulation using the measurements of RTPV-PhC-1 and its comparison setup RTPV-FlatTa-1 with the same configuration except a polished tantalum emitter. The emitter of RTPV-PhC-1 powered by an electric heater providing energy equivalent to one plutonia fuel pellet reached 950 °C with 52 W of thermal input power and produced 208 mW output power from 1 cm2 TPV cell. We compared the system performance using a photonic crystal emitter to a polished flat tantalum emitter and found that spectral control with the photonic crystal was four times more efficient. Based on the simulation, with more cell areas, better TPV cells, and improved insulation design, the system powered by a fuel pellet equivalent heat source is expected to reach an efficiency of 7.8%.

  13. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry for Measurement of Long-Lived Radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, David; Phillips, Fred M.

    1987-05-01

    Particle accelerators, such as those built for research in nuclear physics, can also be used together with magnetic and electrostatic mass analyzers to measure rare isotopes at very low abundance ratios. All molecular ions can be eliminated when accelerated to energies of millions of electron volts. Some atomic isobars can be eliminated with the use of negative ions; others can be separated at high energies by measuring their rate of energy loss in a detector. The long-lived radioisotopes 10Be, 14C, 26Al, 36Cl, and 129I can now be measured in small natural samples having isotopic abundances in the range 10-12 to 10-15 and as few as 105 atoms. In the past few years, research applications of accelerator mass spectrometry have been concentrated in the earth sciences (climatology, cosmochemistry, environmental chemistry, geochronology, glaciology, hydrology, igneous petrogenesis, minerals exploration, sedimentology, and volcanology), in anthropology and archeology (radiocarbon dating), and in physics (searches for exotic particles and measurement of half-lives). In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry may become an important tool for the materials and biological sciences.

  14. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Missions Utilizing a Common Spacecraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiehler, Douglas; Oleson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted that shows how a single Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) spacecraft design could be used for various missions throughout the solar system. This spacecraft design is based on a REP feasibility design from a study performed by NASA Glenn Research Center and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The study also identifies technologies that need development to enable these missions. The mission baseline for the REP feasibility design study is a Trojan asteroid orbiter. This mission sends an REP spacecraft to Jupiter s leading Lagrange point where it would orbit and examine several Trojan asteroids. The spacecraft design from the REP feasibility study would also be applicable to missions to the Centaurs, and through some change of payload configuration, could accommodate a comet sample-return mission. Missions to small bodies throughout the outer solar system are also within reach of this spacecraft design. This set of missions, utilizing the common REP spacecraft design, is examined and required design modifications for specific missions are outlined.

  15. Radioisotope Power Systems Reference Book for Mission Designers and Planners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young; Bairstow, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The RPS Program's Program Planning and Assessment (PPA) Office commissioned the Mission Analysis team to develop the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Reference Book for Mission Planners and Designers to define a baseline of RPS technology capabilities with specific emphasis on performance parameters and technology readiness. The main objective of this book is to provide RPS technology information that could be utilized by future mission concept studies and concurrent engineering practices. A progress summary from the major branches of RPS technology research provides mission analysis teams with a vital tool for assessing the RPS trade space, and provides concurrent engineering centers with a consistent set of guidelines for RPS performance characteristics. This book will be iterated when substantial new information becomes available to ensure continued relevance, serving as one of the cornerstone products of the RPS PPA Office. This book updates the original 2011 internal document, using data from the relevant publicly released RPS technology references and consultations with RPS technologists. Each performance parameter and RPS product subsection has been reviewed and cleared by at least one subject matter representative. A virtual workshop was held to reach consensus on the scope and contents of the book, and the definitions and assumptions that should be used. The subject matter experts then reviewed and updated the appropriate sections of the book. The RPS Mission Analysis Team then performed further updates and crosschecked the book for consistency. Finally, a second virtual workshop was held to ensure all subject matter experts and stakeholders concurred on the contents.

  16. Novel production techniques of radioisotopes using electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Daniel Robert

    Non-traditional radioisotope production techniques using a compact, high power linear electron accelerator have been demonstrated and characterized for the production of 18F, 47Sc, 147 Pm, and 99mTc from a variety of target candidates. These isotopes are used extensively in the medical field as diagnostic and therapy radioisotopes, as well as the space industry as RTG's. Primary focus was placed on 99mTc as it constitutes approximately 80% of all diagnostic procedures in the medical community that use radioactive tracers. It was also the prime focus due to recent events at the Chalk River nuclear reactor, which caused global shortages of this isotope a few years ago. A Varian K15 LINAC was first used to show proof of principle in Las Vegas. Various samples were then taken to the Idaho Accelerator Center where they were activated using an electron LINAC capable of electron energies from 4 to 25 MeV at a beam power of approximately 1 kW. Production rates, cross sections, and viability studies were then performed and conducted to assess the effectiveness of the candidate target and the maximum production rate for each radioisotope. Production rates for 18F from lithium fluoride salts were shown to be ideal at 21MeV, namely 1.7 Ci per kg of LiF salt, per kW of beam current, per 10 hour irradiation time. As the typical hospital consumption of 18F is around 500 mCi per day, it is clear that a large amount of 18F can be made from a small (300 gram) sample of LiF salt. However, since there is no current separation process for 18F from 19F, the viability of this technique is limited until a separations technique is developed. Furthermore, the calculated cross section for this reaction is in good agreement with literature, which supports the techniques for the isotopes mentioned below. Production rates for 47Sc from vanadium oxide targets were shown to be a maximum at 25 MeV with a production rate of 2 mCi per day, assuming a 2 kW beam and a 10 kg target. While this

  17. Thermal vacuum life test facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaton, R. L.; Goebel, C. J.; Amos, W. R.

    In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) assigned Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility, now operated by EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, the responsibility for assembling and testing General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Assembled and tested were five RTGs, which included four flight units and one non-flight qualification unit. Figure 1 shows the RTG, which was designed by General Electric AstroSpace Division (GE/ASD) to produce 285 W of electrical power. A detailed description of the processes for RTG assembly and testing is presented by Amos and Goebel (1989). The RTG performance data are described by Bennett, et al., (1986). The flight units will provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter (two RTGs) and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun (one RTG). The remaining flight unit will serve as the spare for both missions, and a non-flight qualification unit was assembled and tested to ensure that performance criteria were adequately met.

  18. Production of medical Sc radioisotopes with an alpha particle beam.

    PubMed

    Szkliniarz, Katarzyna; Sitarz, Mateusz; Walczak, Rafał; Jastrzębski, Jerzy; Bilewicz, Aleksander; Choiński, Jarosław; Jakubowski, Andrzej; Majkowska, Agnieszka; Stolarz, Anna; Trzcińska, Agnieszka; Zipper, Wiktor

    2016-12-01

    The internal α-particle beam of the Warsaw Heavy Ion Cyclotron was used to produce research quantities of the medically interesting Sc radioisotopes from natural Ca and K and isotopically enriched (42)Ca targets. The targets were made of metallic calcium, calcium carbonate and potassium chloride. New data on the production yields and impurities generated during the target irradiations are presented for the positron emitters (43)Sc, (44g)Sc and (44m)Sc. The different paths for the production of the long lived (44m)Sc/(44g)Sc in vivo generator, proposed by the ARRONAX team, using proton and deuteron beams as well as alpha-particle beams are discussed. Due to the larger angular momentum transfer in the formation of the compound nucleus in the case of the alpha particle induced reactions, the isomeric ratio of (44m)Sc/(44g)Sc at a bombarding energy of 29MeV is five times larger than previously determined for a deuteron beam and twenty times larger than for proton induced reactions on enriched CaCO3 targets. Therefore, formation of this generator via the alpha-particle route seems a very attractive way to form these isotopes. The experimental data presented here are compared with theoretical predictions made using the EMPIRE evaporation code. Reasonable agreement is generally observed.

  19. Target optimization for the photonuclear production of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Howard, Sean; Starovoitova, Valeriia N

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the optimum shape of a target for photonuclear production of radioisotopes using an electron linear accelerator. Different target geometries such as right cylinder, conical frustum, Gaussian volume of revolution and semi-ellipsoid have been considered for the production of (67)Cu via (68)Zn(γ,p)(67)Cu photonuclear reaction. The specific activity (SA) of (67)Cu was simulated for each target shape. Optimum ratio of radius to height for cylindrical targets was found to be between 0.2 and 0.25 for target masses ranging from 20 g to 100 g. It was shown that while some unconventional target shapes, such as semi-elliptical volume of revolution, result in slightly higher specific activities than cylindrical targets, the advantage is not significant and is outweighed by the complexity of the target production and handling. Power deposition into the target was modeled and the trade-off between the maximization of (67)Cu yield and the minimization of target heating has been discussed. The (67)Cu case can easily be extended for production of many other isotopes.

  20. Accelerator mass spectrometry for measurement of long-lived radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Elmore, D; Phillips, F M

    1987-05-01

    Particle accelerators, such as those built for research in nuclear physics, can also be used together with magnetic and electrostatic mass analyzers to measure rare isotopes at very low abundance ratios. All molecular ions can be eliminated when accelerated to energies of millions of electron volts. Some atomic isobars can be eliminated with the use of negative ions; others can be separated at high energies by measuring their rate of energy loss in a detector. The long-lived radioisotopes (10)Be, (14)C,(26)A1, 36Cl, and (129)1 can now be measured in small natural samples having isotopic abundances in the range 10(-12) to 10(- 5) and as few as 10(5) atoms. In the past few years, research applications of accelerator mass spectrometry have been concentrated in the earth sciences (climatology, cosmochemistry, environmental chemistry, geochronology, glaciology, hydrology, igneous petrogenesis, minerals exploration, sedimentology, and volcanology), in anthropology and archeology (radiocarbon dating), and in physics (searches for exotic particles and measurement of halflives). In addition, accelerator mass spectrometry may become an important tool for the materials and biological sciences.

  1. Neptune Orbiters Utilizing Solar and Radioisotope Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiehler, Douglas I.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2004-01-01

    In certain cases, Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP), used in conjunction with other propulsion systems, could be used to reduce the trip times for outer planetary orbiter spacecraft. It also has the potential to improve the maneuverability and power capabilities of the spacecraft when the target body is reached as compared with non-electric propulsion spacecraft. Current missions under study baseline aerocapture systems to capture into a science orbit after a Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) stage is jettisoned. Other options under study would use all REP transfers with small payloads. Compared to the SEP stage/Aerocapture scenario, adding REP to the science spacecraft as well as a chemical capture system can replace the aerocapture system but with a trip time penalty. Eliminating both the SEP stage and the aerocapture system and utilizing a slightly larger launch vehicle, Star 48 upper stage, and a combined REP/Chemical capture system, the trip time can nearly be matched while providing over a kilowatt of science power reused from the REP maneuver. A Neptune Orbiter mission is examined utilizing single propulsion systems and combinations of SEP, REP, and chemical systems to compare concepts.

  2. "Stereo Compton cameras" for the 3-D localization of radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, K.; Kataoka, J.; Nishiyama, T.; Fujita, T.; Kishimoto, A.; Ohsuka, S.; Nakamura, S.; Adachi, S.; Hirayanagi, M.; Uchiyama, T.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kato, T.

    2014-11-01

    The Compton camera is a viable and convenient tool used to visualize the distribution of radioactive isotopes that emit gamma rays. After the nuclear disaster in Fukushima in 2011, there is a particularly urgent need to develop "gamma cameras", which can visualize the distribution of such radioisotopes. In response, we propose a portable Compton camera, which comprises 3-D position-sensitive GAGG scintillators coupled with thin monolithic MPPC arrays. The pulse-height ratio of two MPPC-arrays allocated at both ends of the scintillator block determines the depth of interaction (DOI), which dramatically improves the position resolution of the scintillation detectors. We report on the detailed optimization of the detector design, based on Geant4 simulation. The results indicate that detection efficiency reaches up to 0.54%, or more than 10 times that of other cameras being tested in Fukushima, along with a moderate angular resolution of 8.1° (FWHM). By applying the triangular surveying method, we also propose a new concept for the stereo measurement of gamma rays by using two Compton cameras, thus enabling the 3-D positional measurement of radioactive isotopes for the first time. From one point source simulation data, we ensured that the source position and the distance to the same could be determined typically to within 2 meters' accuracy and we also confirmed that more than two sources are clearly separated by the event selection from two point sources of simulation data.

  3. Assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for radioisotope heat sources

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.; Mangeng, C.A.

    1985-06-01

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source to electricity is examined. The systems studies were Stirling; Brayton Cycle; three organic Rankines (ORCs) (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW); and an organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multiattribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 C, case II with a BOL source temperature of 745/sup 0/C, and case III with a BOL source temperature of 945/sup 0/C. The Stirling engine system was the top-ranked system of cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in case I and ORC plus thermoelectrics in case II. The Brayton cycle system was top-ranked for case III, with the Stirling engine system a close second. The use of /sup 238/Pu in heat source sizes of 7500 W(t) was examined and found to be questionable because of cost and material availability and because of additional requirements for analysis of safeguards and critical mass.

  4. Radioisotope tracer study in a sludge hygienization research irradiator (SHRI).

    PubMed

    Pant, H J; Thýn, J; Zitný, R; Bhatt, B C

    2001-01-01

    A radioisotope tracer study has been carried out in a batch type sludge hygienization research irradiator with flow from top to bottom, the objective being to measure flow rate, circulation and mixing times and to investigate the hydrodynamic behaviour of the irradiator for identifying the cause(s) of malfunction. A stimulus-response technique with NH4(82)Br as a tracer was used to measure the above parameters. Experiments were carried out at three different flow rates, i.e 1.0, 0.64 and 0.33 m3/min. Three combined models based on a set of differential equations are proposed and used to simulate the measured tracer concentration curves. The obtained parameters were used to estimate dead volume and analyse hydrodynamic behaviour of the irradiator. The nonlinear regression problem of model parameter estimation was solved using the Marquardt-Levenberg method. The measured flow rate was found to be in good agreement with the values shown by the flow meter. The circulation times were found to be half of the mixing times. A simple approach for estimation of dose based on a known vertical dose-rate profile inside the irradiator is presented. About one-fourth of the volume of the irradiator was found to be dead at lower flow rates and this decreased with increase in flow rate. At higher flow rates, a semi stagnant volume was found with slow exchange of flow between the active and dead volumes.

  5. Radioisotope-based Nuclear Power Strategy for Exploration Systems Development

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, George R.; Houts, Michael G.

    2006-01-20

    Nuclear power will play an important role in future exploration efforts. Its benefits pertain to practically all the different timeframes associated with the Exploration Vision, from robotic investigation of potential lunar landing sites to long-duration crewed missions on the lunar surface. However, the implementation of nuclear technology must follow a logical progression in capability that meets but does not overwhelm the power requirements for the missions in each exploration timeframe. It is likely that the surface power infrastructure, particularly for early missions, will be distributed in nature. Thus, nuclear sources will have to operate in concert with other types of power and energy storage systems, and must mesh well with the power architectures envisioned for each mission phase. Most importantly, they must demonstrate a clear advantage over other non-nuclear options (e.g., solar power, fuel cells) for their particular function. This paper describes a strategy that does this in the form of three sequential system developments. It begins with use of radioisotope generators currently under development, and applies the power conversion technology developed for these units to the design of a simple, robust reactor power system. The products from these development efforts would eventually serve as the foundation for application of nuclear power systems for exploration of Mars and beyond.

  6. A case of intravascular lymphoma complicated with Fournier's syndrome due to multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Hiroyasu; Yoshida, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Fournier's syndrome is the fulminant necrotizing fasciitis of the external genitalia. The occurrence of Fournier's syndrome in patients with hematologic malignancies has been reported. Here we report a case of an intravascular lymphoma complicated with Fournier's syndrome due to multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP). A 71-year-old Japanese man received intensive chemotherapy for recurring intravascular lymphoma. Blood culture revealed MDRP, and physical examination led to the diagnosis of Fournier's syndrome. Aggressive treatment that comprised granulocyte transfusion, granulocyte stimulating factor, endotoxin filtration, appropriate antibiotic coverage, and aggressive surgical therapy was administered, and this lead to the successful recovery from sepsis and Fournier's syndrome.

  7. Leiomyosarcoma of the Uterus with Intravascular Tumor Extension and Pulmonary Tumor Embolism

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Douglas K.; Kalva, Sanjeeva P. Fan, C.-M.; Vasilyev, Aleksandr

    2007-02-15

    We report the case of a 48-year-old woman presenting with recurrent uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) associated with right iliac vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) invasion and left lower lobe pulmonary tumor embolus. Because the prognosis and treatment differ from that of thrombotic pulmonary emboli, the differentiating imaging characteristics of intravascular tumor embolism are reviewed. To our knowledge, only two other cases of intravenous uterine leiomyosarcomatosis have been described in the existing literature, and this is the first reported case of the entity with associated intravascular tumor embolism.

  8. Radioisotope Power System Delivery, Ground Support and Nuclear Safety Implementation: Use of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the NASA's Mars Science Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2014-07-01

    Radioisotope power systems have been used for over 50 years to enable missions in remote or hostile environments. They are a convenient means of supplying a few milliwatts up to a few hundred watts of useable, long-term electrical power. With regard to use of a radioisotope power system, the transportation, ground support and implementation of nuclear safety protocols in the field is a complex process that requires clear identification of needed technical and regulatory requirements. The appropriate care must be taken to provide high quality treatment of the item to be moved so it arrives in a condition to fulfill its missions in space. Similarly it must be transported and managed in a manner compliant with requirements for shipment and handling of special nuclear material. This presentation describes transportation, ground support operations and implementation of nuclear safety and security protocols for a radioisotope power system using recent experience involving the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars Science Laboratory, which launched in November of 2011.

  9. Rifampicin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation in pulmonary tuberculosis treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo; He, Jian-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) induced by daily rifampicin therapy is rare, especially the patient is absent of malignancy, severe infection, and prior exposure to rifampicin. Patient concerns: We report a case of DIC induced by daily rifampicin treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis. A 22-year-old, previously healthy man received an anti-tuberculosis therapy consisting of isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide on the daily dose recommended by the World Health Organization tuberculosis guidelines after a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Two weeks later, he was transferred to the West China Hospital with nasal hemorrhage for 1 week, hematochezia, hematuria, and petechiae for 5 days. Diagnoses: Laboratory data and symptoms on admission indicated DIC. Interventions: The anti-tuberculosis drugs were discontinued after admission and he was initiated with targeted treatment for DIC, omeprazole and polyene hosphatidylcholine infusion, as well as nutrition supportive treatment. Five days after admission, ethambutol, moxifloxacin, and amikacin were added to the patient without further active hemorrhage. Eight days after admission, the platelet count had risen gradually. Isoniazid was administered on 24 days after admission, while his liver function tests and platelet counts returned to normal. No recurrence of DIC occurred. The diagnosis of rifampicin-induced DIC was confirmed. Outcomes: The patient recovered and left hospital with isoniazid, ethambutol, levofloxacin, and streptomycin after 4 weeks of hospitalization. There was no recurrence of DIC or hemorrhage during the 8 months of follow-up. The literature review revealed that there were 10 other cases of rifampicin-induced DIC. Only 4 cases received rifampicin on a daily basis for pulmonary tuberculosis treatment and the others were on intermittent dosing schedule for pulmonary tuberculosis or leprosy treatment. Lessons: As a rare adverse effect, DIC induced by

  10. Meta-analysis on intravascular low energy laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shu-Dong; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Wang, Yan-Fang; Liu, Song-Hao

    2008-12-01

    Intravascular low energy laser therapy (ILELT) was put forward for cardiocirculatory diseases in USA in 1982, was popular in Russia in 1980s, and then in China in 1990s. The therapeutic effects of ILELT and drugs in comparison with drugs only on Chinese patients and their blood parameters were analyzed with meta-analyses and reported as (OR, 95%CI) for patient improvement and (WMD, 95% CI) for blood parameter improvement, where 95%CI, OR and WMD denoted 95% confidence intervals, odds ratio and weighted mean difference, respectively. It was found that the patients of cerebral infarction (2.39, 2.09~2.74) and cerebrovascular diseases (2.97, 1.69~2.53) were cured, respectively, (P < 0.01), and the symptom improvement of patients of cerebral infarction, cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes were significant (3.13, 2.79~3.51), (4.92, 3.39~7.14) , and (3.80, 2.79~5.18), and mild (3.66, 3.15~4.24), (4.95, 2.77~8.84), and (7.11, 4.54~11.13), respectively, (P < 0.01). It was also found that the blood parameters such as cholesterol (-0.78, -1.32~-0.24), total cholesterol (-1.08, -1.80~-0.36), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (-0.6, -1.01~-0.19), triacylglycerol (0.63, -0.83~-0.42), high density lipoprotein (0.34, 0.10~0.59), erythrocyte aggregation index (-0.24, -0.27~-0.21), erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (-4.57, -7.26~-1.89), fibrinogen (-0.76, -1.31~-0.21), whole blood contrast viscosity (-0.40, -0.69~-0.12), low cut blood viscosity (-1.2, -1.93~-0.48), high cut blood viscosity (-0.62, -0.92~-0.32), whole blood viscosity(-1.2, -1.85~-0.54) and plasma blood contrast viscosity(-0.07, -0.12~-0.03) were found improved (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the patients of cerebral infarction, cerebrovascular diseases and diabetes might be improved with ILELT, which might be mediated by blood parameter improvement.

  11. Catheter-related infections: diagnosis and intravascular treatment.

    PubMed

    Bouza, E; Burillo, A; Muñoz, P

    2001-11-01

    catheter infections, diagnosed without catheter withdrawal, can be handled nowadays with the so-called "antibiotic lock-in technique", which consists in locking the infected catheter lumen with a solution containing antibiotics. A high proportion of infected catheters, mainly those with coagulase-negative staphylococci, can be maintained in place and sterilized with this technique, including catheters in patients with therapeutic failure after receiving conventional intravenous antibiotic therapy. New diagnostic and therapeutic techniques may avoid the unnecessary withdrawal of thousands of efficient, difficult to replace and expensive intravascular lines.

  12. Radioisotope electric propulsion of sciencecraft to the outer Solar System and near-interstellar space

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.J.

    1999-11-01

    Radioisotopes have been used successfully for more than 25 years to supply the heat for thermoelectric generators on various deep-space probes. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems have been proposed as low-thrust ion propulsion units based on radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. The perceived liability of radioisotope electric generators for ion propulsion is their high mass. Conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators have a specific mass of about 200 kg/kW of electric power. Many development efforts have been undertaken with the aim of reducing the specific mass of radioisotope electric systems. Recent performance estimates suggest that specific masses of 50 kg/kW may be achievable with thermophotovoltaic and alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion generators. Powerplants constructed from these near-term radioisotope electric generators and long-life ion thrusters will likely have specific masses in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW of thrust power if development continues over the next decade. In earlier studies, it was concluded that flight times within the Solar System are indeed insensitive to reductions in the powerplant specific mass, and that a timely scientific program of robotic planetary rendezvous and near-interstellar space missions is enabled by primary electric propulsion once the powerplant specific mass is in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW. Flight times can be substantially reduced by using hybrid propulsion schemes that combine chemical propulsion, gravity assist, and electric propulsion. Hybrid schemes are further explored in this article to illustrate how the performance of REP is enhanced for Pluto rendezvous, heliopause orbiter, and gravitational lens missions.

  13. Interplanetary Sample Return Missions Using Radioisotope Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R.; Gao, Y.; Kluever, C. A.; Capples, M.; Belcher, J.

    2005-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) is being used for a variety of planetary missions sponsored by ESA, JAXA, and NASA and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) is being considered for future, flagship-class interplanetary missions. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) has recently been shown to effectively complement SEP and NEP for missions to high-AU targets with modest payload requirements. This paper investigates the application of an advanced REP for a sample return from the comet Tempel 1. A set of mission and system parameters are varied with the goal of quantifying their impact on total mission payload. Mission parameters considered include trip-time and Earth return entry interface speed of the sample return system. System parameters considered include launch vehicle, power level of spacecraft at beginning of mission, and thruster specific impulse. For the baseline case of Atlas 401 and REP power level of 750 W, the mission time was 12 years, the payload was 144 kg, and the missions optimized to a single specific impulse generally within Hall ion thruster range. Other cases were investigated in support of graduate studies, and include the larger Atlas 551 launch vehicle and extended power level to 1 kW. The Atlas 551 cases tended to optimize dual specific impulses generally in the Hall ion thruster range for both legs of the mission. A power level of at least 1-kW and trip-time of approximately 11 years was required to obtain a total science payload close to 320 kg for the Atlas 401 launch vehicle. An Atlas 551 launch vehicle yielded a science payload of approximately 540 kg for the case of 1-kW of power and an 11-year trip time, and nearly 250 kg of science payload for the case of 1-kW of power and a 6-year trip time. Results are also reported indicating the performance ramifications of meeting a reduced Earth entry interface velocity constraint.

  14. Improving power density and efficiency of miniature radioisotopic thermoelectric generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Scott A.; Apblett, Christopher A.; Aselage, Terrence L.

    We have built and tested a prototype miniaturized thermoelectric power source that generates 450 μW of electrical power in a system volume of 4.3 cm 3. The measured power density of 104 μW cm -3 exceeds that of any previously reported thermoelectric power system of equivalent size. This improvement was achieved by implementing a novel thermopile design in which wagon wheel-shaped thermoelectric elements contact the entire circumference of the heat source whereas traditional approaches utilize only one heat source surface. The thermopile consists of 22 wagon wheel-shaped elements (11 P-N thermocouples) fabricated from 215-μm thick bismuth-telluride wafers having ZT = 0.97 at 30 °C. The power source operates on a 150 mW thermal input provided by an electrical resistance heater that simulates a capsule containing 0.4 g of 238PuO 2 located at the center of the device. Our primary research objective was to develop and demonstrate a prototype thermopile and radioisotopic thermoelectric generator (RTG) architecture with improved power density at small scales. Output power from this device, while optimized for efficiency, was not optimized for output voltage, and the maximum power was delivered at 41 mV. We also discuss modifications to our prototype design that result in significantly improved voltage and power. Numerical predictions show that a power output of 1.4 mW, power density of 329 μW cm -3, and voltage of 362 mV, is possible in the same package size.

  15. Small Radioisotope Power System Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugala, Gina; Bell, Mark; Oriti, Salvatore; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David; Duven, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    In April 2009, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) formed an integrated product team (IPT) to develop a Small Radioisotope Power System (SRPS) utilizing a single Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) with passive balancer. A single ASC produces approximately 80 We making this system advantageous for small distributed lunar science stations. The IPT consists of Sunpower, Inc., to provide the single ASC with a passive balancer, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL) to design an engineering model Single Convertor Controller (SCC) for an ASC with a passive balancer, and NASA GRC to provide technical support to these tasks and to develop a simulated lunar lander test stand. The single ASC with a passive balancer, simulated lunar lander test stand, and SCC were delivered to GRC and were tested as a system. The testing sequence at GRC included SCC fault tolerance, integration, electromagnetic interference (EMI), vibration, and extended operation testing. The SCC fault tolerance test characterized the SCCs ability to handle various fault conditions, including high or low bus power consumption, total open load or short circuit, and replacing a failed SCC card while the backup maintains control of the ASC. The integrated test characterized the behavior of the system across a range of operating conditions, including variations in cold-end temperature and piston amplitude, including the emitted vibration to both the sensors on the lunar lander and the lunar surface. The EMI test characterized the AC and DC magnetic and electric fields emitted by the SCC and single ASC. The vibration test confirms the SCCs ability to control the single ASC during launch. The extended operation test allows data to be collected over a period of thousands of hours to obtain long term performance data of the ASC with a passive balancer and the SCC. This paper will discuss the results of each of these tests.

  16. RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM CAPABILITIES AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY (INL)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Lively; Stephen Johnson; Eric Clarke

    2014-07-01

    --Idaho National Laboratory’s, Space Nuclear Systems and Technology Division established the resources, equipment and facilities required to provide nuclear-fueled, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) to Department of Energy (DOE) Customers. RPSs are designed to convert the heat generated by decay of iridium clad, 238PuO2 fuel pellets into electricity that is used to power missions in remote, harsh environments. Utilization of nuclear fuel requires adherence to governing regulations and the INL provides unique capabilities to safely fuel, test, store, transport and integrate RPSs to supply power—supporting mission needs. Nuclear capabilities encompass RPS fueling, testing, handling, storing, transporting RPS nationally, and space vehicle integration. Activities are performed at the INL and in remote locations such as John F. Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station to support space missions. This paper will focus on the facility and equipment capabilities primarily offered at the INL, Material and Fuel Complex located in a security-protected, federally owned, industrial area on the remote desert site west of Idaho Falls, ID. Nuclear and non-nuclear facilities house equipment needed to perform required activities such as general purpose heat source (GPHS) module pre-assembly and module assembly using nuclear fuel; RPS receipt and baseline electrical testing, fueling, vibration testing to simulate the launch environment, mass properties testing to measure the mass and compute the moment of inertia, electro-magnetic characterizing to determine potential consequences to the operation of vehicle or scientific instrumentation, and thermal vacuum testing to verify RPS power performance in the vacuum and cold temperatures of space.

  17. Small Radioisotope Power System at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David P.; Duven, Dennis; Shamkovich, Andrei; Ambrose, Hollis; Meer, David W.

    2012-01-01

    In April 2009, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) formed an integrated product team (IPT) to develop a Small Radioisotope Power System (SRPS) utilizing a single Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) with passive balancer for possible use by the International Lunar Network (ILN) program. The ILN program is studying the feasibility of implementing a multiple node seismometer network to investigate the internal lunar structure. A single ASC produces approximately 80 W(sub e) and could potentially supply sufficient power for that application. The IPT consists of Sunpower, Inc., to provide the single ASC with balancer, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to design an engineering model Single Convertor Controller (SCC) for an ASC with balancer, and NASA GRC to provide technical support to these tasks and to develop a simulated lunar lander test stand. A controller maintains stable operation of an ASC. It regulates the alternating current produced by the linear alternator of the convertor, provides a specified output voltage, and maintains operation at a steady piston amplitude and hot end temperature. JHU/APL also designed an ASC dynamic engine/alternator simulator to aid in the testing and troubleshooting of the SCC. This paper describes the requirements, design, and development of the SCC, including some of the key challenges and the solutions chosen to overcome those issues. In addition, it describes the plans to analyze the effectiveness of a passive balancer to minimize vibration from the ASC, characterize the effect of ASC vibration on a lunar lander, characterize the performance of the SCC, and integrate the single ASC, SCC, and lunar lander test stand to characterize performance of the overall system.

  18. [Cancer therapy using unsealed radioisotopes-the present and future].

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Katsuyuki

    2014-12-01

    Iodine-131 (I-131) has been used for the ablation of residual thyroid remnants and cancer cells in well-differentiated thyroid cancers. It has also been used for metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancers, especially lung and bone metastases. For small lung metastases, I-131 treatment has curative potential, particularly in young patients. Suppression of the thyroid stimulating hormone is also important for prolonging the survival of thyroid cancer patients. Strontium-89 (Sr-89) chloride has a mechanism similar to calcium, and it has been used for the treatment of bone metastases, especially osteoblastic metastases. It has been reported to have analgesic effects in an average of 76% of cases, and it is more effective if used in the early bone metastatic phase. Ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin) is an anti-CD20 mouse monoclonal antibody labeled with Yttrium-90 (Y-90). It is used for treatment-resistant low grade or follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and mantle lymphomas. Recently, radium-223 (Ra-223) has been used for bone metastases from castration resistant prostate cancers, and in a phase III trial, it has been proven to prolong survival of these patients. Cancer therapy using unsealed radioisotopes has been thought to be promising because it exhibits more targeted therapy than external beam irradiation. Therefore, if many more ideal targeting agents are developed in the future, this treatment might be used more commonly. As many agents such as I-131, Sr-89, and Ra-223 are available for treating bone metastasis, the combined use of other treatments such as high precision radiotherapy, bisphosphonates, hormonal agents, and molecular targeted agents should be investigated.

  19. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents recent thermal model results of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The three-dimensional (3D) ASRG thermal power model was built using the Thermal Desktop(trademark) thermal analyzer. The model was correlated with ASRG engineering unit test data and ASRG flight unit predictions from Lockheed Martin's (LM's) I-deas(trademark) TMG thermal model. The auxiliary cooling system (ACS) of the ASRG is also included in the ASRG thermal model. The ACS is designed to remove waste heat from the ASRG so that it can be used to heat spacecraft components. The performance of the ACS is reported under nominal conditions and during a Venus flyby scenario. The results for the nominal case are validated with data from Lockheed Martin. Transient thermal analysis results of ASRG for a Venus flyby with a representative trajectory are also presented. In addition, model results of an ASRG mounted on a Cassini-like spacecraft with a sunshade are presented to show a way to mitigate the high temperatures of a Venus flyby. It was predicted that the sunshade can lower the temperature of the ASRG alternator by 20 C for the representative Venus flyby trajectory. The 3D model also was modified to predict generator performance after a single Advanced Stirling Convertor failure. The geometry of the Microtherm HT insulation block on the outboard side was modified to match deformation and shrinkage observed during testing of a prototypic ASRG test fixture by LM. Test conditions and test data were used to correlate the model by adjusting the thermal conductivity of the deformed insulation to match the post-heat-dump steady state temperatures. Results for these conditions showed that the performance of the still-functioning inboard ACS was unaffected.

  20. Laboratory Training Manual on the Use of Isotopes and Radiation in Entomology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    This publication should be useful for those who are interested in the theory and application of isotopes and radiation in agriculture and entomology. There are two main parts in the publication. Part I, entitled Basic Part, includes topics which an individual should know about radioisotopes and radiation. There are laboratory exercises included in…

  1. Low-level He-Ne laser in intravascular irradiation treatment of schizophrenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu-Xue; Fu, Zheng-Hua

    1998-11-01

    Intravascular low level He-Ne laser irradiation is a new therapy developed in recent years. In our hospital it was applied in the treatment and observation of 220 cases of schizophrenia, among which certain effect was achieved and about which the detail was collated and elaborated.

  2. Recanalized chronic coronary thrombus: unraveling a hazy coronary lesion by intravascular ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Chotai, Shayna; Khokhar, Azhar A.; Kelly, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Hazy lesions in coronary angiography can often be a puzzle for the interventional cardiologist. Recanalized chronic coronary thrombus, although rare, is one of the potential diagnoses. Intracoronary imaging with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are tools that can guide to the correct diagnosis. We present the images of a case where IVUS was used to unravel such a lesion. PMID:27054109

  3. Disseminated intravascular coagulation due to IgM-mediated autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Bleakly, N Teresa; Fontaine, Magali J; Pate, Lisa L; Sutherland, Scott M; Jeng, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) due to red cell hemolysis has been previously attributed to transfusion-related hemolytic reactions, but not to autoimmune hemolytic anemia. We report a case of DIC in a child with complement-fixing IgM-mediated cold-agglutinin autoimmune hemolysis, which resulted in arterial thrombosis and gangrene of the upper and lower extremities.

  4. Research of epidermal cellular vegetal cycle of intravascular low level laser irradiation in treatment of psoriasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Bao, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Mei-Jue

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To research epidermal cellular vegetal cycle and the difference of DNA content between pre and post Intravascular Low Level Laser Irradiation treatment of psoriasis. Method: 15 patients suffered from psoriasis were treated by intravascular low level laser irradiation (output power: 4-5mw, 1 hour per day, a course of treatment is 10 days). We checked the different DNA content of epidermal cell between pre and post treatment of psoriasis and 8 natural human. Then the percentage of each phase among the whole cellular cycle was calculated and the statistical analysis was made. Results: The mean value of G1/S phase is obviously down while G2+M phase increased obviously. T test P<0.05.The related statistical analysis showed significant difference between pre and post treatments. Conclusions: The Intravascular Low Level Laser Irradiation (ILLLI) in treatment of psoriasis is effective according to the research of epidermal cellular vegetal cycle and the difference DNA content of Intravascular Low Level Laser Irradiation between pre and post treatment of psoriasis

  5. Microfluidics in the Undergraduate Laboratory: Device Fabrication and an Experiment to Mimic Intravascular Gas Embolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jablonski, Erin L.; Vogel, Brandon M.; Cavanagh, Daniel P.; Beers, Kathryn L.

    2010-01-01

    A method to fabricate microfluidic devices and an experimental protocol to model intravascular gas embolism for undergraduate laboratories are presented. The fabrication process details how to produce masters on glass slides; these masters serve as molds to pattern channels in an elastomeric polymer that can be adhered to a substrate, resulting in…

  6. Multi-mode Intravascular RF Coil for MRI-guided Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Kurpad, Krishna N.; Unal, Orhan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of using a single intravascular RF probe connected to the external MRI system via a single coaxial cable to perform active tip tracking and catheter visualization, and high SNR intravascular imaging. Materials and Methods A multi-mode intravascular RF coil was constructed on a 6F balloon catheter and interfaced to a 1.5T MRI scanner via a decoupling circuit. Bench measurements of coil impedances were followed by imaging experiments in saline and phantoms. Results The multi-mode coil behaves as an inductively-coupled transmit coil. Forward looking capability of 6mm is measured. Greater than 3-fold increase in SNR compared to conventional imaging using optimized external coil is demonstrated. Simultaneous active tip tracking and catheter visualization is demonstrated. Conclusions It is feasible to perform 1) active tip tracking, 2) catheter visualization, and 3) high SNR imaging using a single multi-mode intravascular RF coil that is connected to the external system via a single coaxial cable. PMID:21448969

  7. Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator: An Imperative Solution for the Future of NASA Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, F. J.

    A new generation of radioisotope thermoelectrical generator is proposed for very long space exploration missions. The Advanced Subcritical Assistance Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (ASA-RTG) amplify the power from natural decay of pu-238 by a small subcritical multiplication produced from the small neutron background generated from (α, n) reactions between the α particles from Pu-238 and beryllium, lithium or other low-Z isotope, extracting the maximum advantage and performance from the precious α disintegration, and then of the very scarce pu-238. The process is self controlled by the natural decay of Pu-238 with the progressive reduction of the power output (RTG) and additionally and simultaneously compensate by the natural decay of a neutronic poisson which increase simultaneously the subcritical multiplication resulting in a contrary effect, i.e., causing an increase in the power. ASA-RTG is not in conflict with previous RTG, and could fit within the type of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator developed for NASA space missions as the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) and the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG).

  8. Planning For Multiple NASA Missions With Use Of Enabling Radioisotope Power

    SciTech Connect

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2013-02-01

    Since the early 1960’s the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have provided radioisotope power systems (RPS) to NASA as an enabling technology for deep space and various planetary missions. They provide reliable power in situations where solar and/or battery power sources are either untenable or would place an undue mass burden on the mission. In the modern era of the past twenty years there has been no time that multiple missions have been considered for launching from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) during the same year. The closest proximity of missions that involved radioisotope power systems would be that of Galileo (October 1989) and Ulysses (October 1990). The closest that involved radioisotope heater units would be the small rovers Spirit and Opportunity (May and July 2003) used in the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission. It can be argued that the rovers sent to Mars in 2003 were essentially a special case since they staged in the same facility and used a pair of small launch vehicles (Delta II). This paper examines constraints on the frequency of use of radioisotope power systems with regard to launching them from Kennedy Space Center using currently available launch vehicles. This knowledge may be useful as NASA plans for its future deep space or planetary missions where radioisotope power systems are used as an enabling technology. Previous descriptions have focused on single mission chronologies and not analyzed the timelines with an emphasis on multiple missions.

  9. Feasibility Study of a Three-Stage Radioisotope-Powered Mars Ascent Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalpek, T. M.; Allen, R. E.; Guan, J. Y.; Rao, S. S.; Howe, S. D.

    Recent advancements in methods of housing radioisotopes at the Center for Space Nuclear Research have led to the concept of a radioisotope thermal rocket--a rocket powered by the accumulated heat of radioisotope decay. Heat energy from the decay can be accumulated over long periods of time in a material of high heat capacity to create a thermal capacitor. The capacitor can then be discharged at such a rate as to provide high power for short periods of time; in this case, the heat is transferred to a gas propellant. This paper explores the feasibility of using a radioisotope thermal rocket with in-situ atmospheric CO2 propellant to deliver a 10 kg payload from the Martian surface to a 200 km circular orbit about Mars. Models of heat transfer, gas dynamics, and ascent mechanics are constructed to test performance of different core materials and geometries. Of the configurations tested, the best simulation results fail to meet the altitude and velocity requirements by 12 km and 50 m/s respectively. The proximity to success indicates that the given models are capable of reaching orbital parameters if optimization algorithms and closed-loop guidance methods are employed. It is believed, however, that the current models underestimate expansion losses to the degree that if more realistic and computationally-intensive models are incorporated, the effect will definitively disprove the concept with currently available technology. Based on this preliminary research, radioisotope thermal rockets utilizing current technology are not capable of serving as Mars ascent vehicles.

  10. Status of NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Anderson, David J.; Tuttle, Karen L.; Tew, Roy C.

    2006-01-01

    NASA s Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) development program is funding the advancement of next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that can not be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS). Requirements of advanced radioisotope power systems include high efficiency and high specific power (watts/kilogram) in order to meet mission requirements with less radioisotope fuel and lower mass. Other Advanced RPS development goals include long-life, reliability, and scalability so that these systems can meet requirements for a variety of future space applications including continual operation surface missions, outer-planetary missions, and solar probe. This paper provides an update on the Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Project which awarded ten Phase I contracts for research and development of a variety of power conversion technologies consisting of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectrics, and thermophotovoltaics. Three of the contracts continue during the current Phase II in the areas of thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion. The accomplishments to date of the contractors, project plans, and status will be summarized.

  11. Asian variant of intravascular large B cell lymphoma causes patients to frequently develop the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Chie; Ikejiri, Fumiyoshi; Kawakami, Koshi; Miyake, Takaaki; Kumanomido, Satoshi; Inoue, Masaya; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Junko; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu; Suzumiya, Junji

    2011-11-01

    The Asian variant of intravascular large B cell lymphoma is a special type of intravascular lymphoma with hemophagocytic syndrome and hypercytokinemia including interleukin-6, which stimulates antidiuretic hormone synthesis in the hypothalamus. We present here that the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion frequently occurs in patients with the Asian variant of intravascular large B cell lymphoma. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion was found in eight of 118 (6.8%) lymphoma patients at the first diagnosis. Although there were six (5.1%) among 118 lymphoma patients with the Asian variant of intravascular large B cell lymphoma, four of the six patients (66.7%) developed the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. In four patients with the Asian variant of intravascular large B cell lymphoma with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, elevated serum interleukin-6 and low sodium levels were almost normalized after chemotherapy. The Asian variant of intravascular large B cell lymphoma patients frequently develop the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and interleukin-6 might play a role in the occurrence of this disease. We should pay attention to hyponatremia caused by the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in patients with the Asian variant of intravascular large B cell lymphoma.

  12. Guidelines for the management of intravascular catheter-related infections.

    PubMed

    Mermel, L A; Farr, B M; Sherertz, R J; Raad, I I; O'Grady, N; Harris, J S; Craven, D E

    2001-01-01

    These guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American College of Critical Care Medicine (for the Society of Critical Care Medicine), and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America contain recommendations for the management of adults and children with, and diagnosis of infections related to, peripheral and nontunneled central venous catheters (CVCs), pulmonary artery catheters, tunneled central catheters, and implantable devices. The guidelines, written for clinicians, contain IDSA evidence-based recommendations for assessment of the quality and strength of the data. Recommendations are presented according to the type of catheter, the infecting organism, and the associated complications. Intravascular catheter-related infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, aerobic gram-negative bacilli, and Candida albicans most commonly cause catheter-related bloodstream infection. Management of catheter-related infection varies according to the type of catheter involved. After appropriate cultures of blood and catheter samples are done, empirical i.v. antimicrobial therapy should be initiated on the basis of clinical clues, the severity of the patient's acute illness, underlying disease, and the potential pathogen(s) involved. In most cases of nontunneled CVC-related bacteremia and fungemia, the CVC should be removed. For management of bacteremia and fungemia from a tunneled catheter or implantable device, such as a port, the decision to remove the catheter or device should be based on the severity of the patient's illness, documentation that the vascular-access device is infected, assessment of the specific pathogen involved, and presence of complications, such as endocarditis, septic thrombosis, tunnel infection, or metastatic seeding. When a catheter-related infection is documented and a specific pathogen is identified, systemic antimicrobial

  13. Evaluation of Intravascular Hemolysis With Erythrocyte Creatine in Patients With Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Tetsuro; Okumiya, Toshika; Kubo, Toru; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Yoshihisa

    2016-07-27

    Chronic intravascular hemolysis has been identified in patients with cardiac valve prostheses, but only a few case reports have evaluated intravascular hemolysis in patients with native valvular heart disease. To detect intravascular hemolysis in patients with aortic stenosis, erythrocyte creatine was evaluated with hemodynamic indices obtained by echocardiography.Erythrocyte creatine, a marker of erythrocyte age, was assayed in 30 patients with aortic stenosis and 10 aged matched healthy volunteers. Peak flow velocity of the aortic valve was determined by continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography. Twenty of 30 patients with aortic stenosis had high erythrocyte creatine levels (> 1.8 µmol/g Hb) and erythrocyte creatine was significantly higher as compared with control subjects (1.98 ± 0.49 versus 1.52 ± 0.19 µmol/g Hb, P = 0.007). Peak transvalvular pressure gradient ranged from 46 to 142 mmHg and peak flow velocity ranged from 3.40 to 5.95 m/second. Patients with aortic stenosis had a significantly lower erythrocyte count (387 ± 40 versus 436 ± 42 × 10(4) µL, P = 0.002) and hemoglobin (119 ± 11 versus 135 ± 11 g/L, P < 0.001) as compared with control subjects. Erythrocyte creatine had a fair correlation with peak flow velocity (r = 0.55, P = 0.002).In conclusion, intravascular hemolysis due to destruction of erythrocytes was detected in patients with moderate to severe aortic stenosis and the severity of intravascular hemolysis was related to valvular flow velocity of the aortic valve.

  14. Design considerations for combined radiation effects facilities for twelve year outer planet spacecraft voyages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.

    1972-01-01

    The design considerations influencing the choice and utility of environmental simulation methods and facilities are described, insofar as they relate to the requirements imposed on outer planet spacecraft because of radiation environments to be expected. Possible means for duplicating the radioisotope thermoelectric generator radiation environment, and for duplicating the effects of the trapped radiation belt environment are described, together with an assessment of radiation levels to be expected in the vicinity of an environmental testing chamber when in use.

  15. Progress on 241Am Production for Use in Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, S. R.; Bell, K. J.; Brown, J.; Carrigan, C.; Carrott, M. J.; Gregson, C.; Clough, M.; Maher, C. J.; Mason, C.; Rhodes, C. J.; Rice, T. G.; Sarsfield, M. J.; Stephenson, K.; Taylor, R. J.; Tinsley, T. P.; Woodhead, D. A.; Wiss, T.

    2014-08-01

    Electrical power sources used in outer planet missions are a key enabling technology for data acquisition and communications. Power sources generate electricity from the thermal energy from alpha decay of the radioisotope 238Pu via thermo-electric conversion. Production of 238Pu requires specialist facilities including a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plants that are expensive to build and operate, so naturally, a more economical alternative is attractive to the industry. Within Europe 241Am is a feasible alternative to 238Pu that can provide a heat source for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and radioisotope heating units (RHUs). As a daughter product of 241Pu decay, 241Am is present at 1000s kg levels within the UK civil plutonium stockpile.A chemical separation process is required to extract the 241Am in a pure form and this paper describes such a process, successfully developed to the proof of concept stage.

  16. Nanocluster metal films as thermoelectric material for radioisotope mini battery unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisyuk, P. V.; Krasavin, A. V.; Tkalya, E. V.; Lebedinskii, Yu. Yu.; Vasiliev, O. S.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Kozlova, T. I.; Fetisov, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    The paper is devoted to studying the thermoelectric and structural properties of films based on metal nanoclusters (Au, Pd, Pt). The experimental results of the study of single nanoclusters' tunneling conductance obtained with scanning tunneling spectroscopy are presented. The obtained data allowed us to evaluate the thermoelectric power of thin film consisting of densely packed individual nanoclusters. It is shown that such thin films can operate as highly efficient thermoelectric materials. A scheme of miniature thermoelectric radioisotope power source based on the thorium-228 isotope is proposed. The efficiency of the radioisotope battery using thermoelectric converters based on nanocluster metal films is shown to reach values up to 1.3%. The estimated characteristics of the device are comparable with the parameters of up-to-date radioisotope batteries based on nickel-63.

  17. Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator and Its Application to the Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred; Mukunda, Meera; Or, Chuen T; Kumar, Vasanth; Summers, G.

    1994-01-16

    This paper describes the results of a DOE-sponsored design study of a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator. Instead of conducting a generic study, it was decided to focus the design by directing it at a specific space mission, Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF). That mission, under study by JPL, envisages a direct eight-year flight to Pluto (the only unexplored planet in the solar system), followed by comprehensive mapping, surface composition, and atmospheric structure measurements during a brief flyby of the planet and its moon Charon, and transmission of the recorded science data to Earth during a one-year post-encounter cruise. Because of Pluto's long distance from the sun (30-50 A.U.) and the mission's large energy demand, JPL has baselined the use of a radioisotope power system for the PFF spacecraft. The chief advantage of Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) power systems over current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) is their much higher conversion efficiency, which greatly reduces the mass and cost of the required radioisotope heat source. Those attributes are particularly important for the PFF mission, which - like all NASA missions under current consideration - is severely mass- and cost-limited. The paper describes the design of the radioisotope heat source, the thermophotovoltaic converter, and the heat rejection system; and presents the results of the thermal, electrical, and structural analysis and the design optimization of the integrated RTPV system. It briefly summarizes the RTPV system's current technology status, and lists a number of factors that my greatly reduce the need for long-term tests to demonstrate generator lifetime. Our analytical results show very substantial performance improvements over an RTG designed for the same mission, and suggest that the RTPV generator, when developed by DOE and/or NASA, would be quite valuable not only for the PFF mission but also for other future missions requiring small, long-lived, low

  18. Contributions and Future of Radioisotopes in Medical, Industrial and Space Applications

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Tingey, G. L.; Dix, G. P.; Wahlquist, E. J.

    1990-11-01

    There are 333 isotopes that have a half-life between 1 day and 100,000 years that have a wide variety of applications including public health, medicine,industrial technology, food technology and packaging, agriculture, energy supply, and national security. This paper provides an overview of some of the most extensive applications of radioisotopes including some observations of future uses. Examples are discussed that indicate that the use of radioisotopes is almost unlimited and will continue to grow. There is a growing need for future applications development and production. 12 refs., 1 tab. (BM)

  19. Contributions and future of radioisotopes in medical, industrial and space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, G.L.; Dix, G.P.; Wahlquist, E.J.

    1990-11-01

    There are 333 isotopes that have a half-life between 1 day and 100,000 years that have a wide variety of applications including public health, medicine,industrial technology, food technology and packaging, agriculture, energy supply, and national security. This paper provides an overview of some of the most extensive applications of radioisotopes including some observations of future uses. Examples are discussed that indicate that the use of radioisotopes is almost unlimited and will continue to grow. There is a growing need for future applications development and production. 12 refs., 1 tab. (BM)

  20. Radioisotopes "economy of promises": on the limits of biomedicine in public legitimization of nuclear activities.

    PubMed

    Boudia, Soraya

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the rise and the fall of biomedicine in the public legitimization of the development of nuclear energy. Until the late 1950s, biological and medical applications of radioisotopes were presented as the most important successes of the peaceful uses of atomic energy. I will argue that despite the major financial investment, the development of the uses of radioisotopes and their important impact on biology and clinical practices, the assessment of medical uses remained relatively limited. As consequence, the place of biomedicine in the public legitimization of financial investment and civilian uses of nuclear energy began to decline from the late 1950s.

  1. Radioisotope Power Systems for In-situ Exploration of Titan and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the timeline for the robotic in situ investigation of Titan and Venus, and the use of radioisotope power systems in this exploration. The atmospheric and surface conditions of both sites are reviewed. The presentation also examines the conceptual design of the Venus Mobile Explorer and the Titan orbiter and in situ explorer. After this the presentation reviews the radioisotope power systems for each of the vehicles, with some explanation of the different requirements based on the vastly different environments that they would be investigating

  2. An alternate approach to the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Auria, John M.; Keller, Roderich; Ladouceur, Keith; Lapi, Suzanne E.; Ruth, Thomas J.; Schmor, Paul

    2013-03-01

    There is a growing need for the production of radioisotopes for both diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. Radioisotopes that are produced using the (n,γ) or (γ,n) reactions, however, typically result in samples with low specific activity (radioactivity/gram) due to the high abundance of target material of the same element. One method to effectively remove the isotopic impurity is electro-magnetic mass separation. An Ion Source Test Facility has been constructed at TRIUMF to develop high-intensity, high-efficiency, reliable ion sources for purification of radioactive isotopes, particularly those used in nuclear medicine. In progress studies are presented.

  3. An alternate approach to the production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine applications.

    PubMed

    D'Auria, John M; Keller, Roderich; Ladouceur, Keith; Lapi, Suzanne E; Ruth, Thomas J; Schmor, Paul

    2013-03-01

    There is a growing need for the production of radioisotopes for both diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. Radioisotopes that are produced using the (n,γ) or (γ,n) reactions, however, typically result in samples with low specific activity (radioactivity∕gram) due to the high abundance of target material of the same element. One method to effectively remove the isotopic impurity is electro-magnetic mass separation. An Ion Source Test Facility has been constructed at TRIUMF to develop high-intensity, high-efficiency, reliable ion sources for purification of radioactive isotopes, particularly those used in nuclear medicine. In progress studies are presented.

  4. Radioisotope x-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient pottery from Tel Kouzama site in Damascus, Syria.

    PubMed

    Bakraji, Elias Hanna; Romeié, Mouhammad; Issa, Haissam

    2006-01-01

    The radioisotope X-ray fluorescence method has been utilized in the analysis of thirty nine archaeological pottery fragment samples from Tel Kouzama site, Damascus city, Syria. The samples were irradiated by a 109Cd radioisotope source (-9 10(8) Bq) for 1000 s. 17 chemical elements were determined. These elemental concentrations have been processed using two multivariate statistical methods, cluster and factor analysis in order to determine similarities and correlation between the various samples. Factor analysis confirms that samples were correctly classified by cluster analysis. These two methods suggest that samples can be considered to be manufactured using four different sources of raw material.

  5. Atomic radiations in the decay of medical radioisotopes: a physics perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, B Q; Kibédi, T; Stuchbery, A E; Robertson, K A

    2012-01-01

    Auger electrons emitted in nuclear decay offer a unique tool to treat cancer cells at the scale of a DNA molecule. Over the last forty years many aspects of this promising research goal have been explored, however it is still not in the phase of serious clinical trials. In this paper, we review the physical processes of Auger emission in nuclear decay and present a new model being developed to evaluate the energy spectrum of Auger electrons, and hence overcome the limitations of existing computations.

  6. Atomic Radiations in the Decay of Medical Radioisotopes: A Physics Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lee, B. Q.; Kibédi, T.; Stuchbery, A. E.; Robertson, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    Auger electrons emitted in nuclear decay offer a unique tool to treat cancer cells at the scale of a DNA molecule. Over the last forty years many aspects of this promising research goal have been explored, however it is still not in the phase of serious clinical trials. In this paper, we review the physical processes of Auger emission in nuclear decay and present a new model being developed to evaluate the energy spectrum of Auger electrons, and hence overcome the limitations of existing computations. PMID:22924061

  7. Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging system for intravascular diagnostics with ultrasound guidance: in vivo validation in swine arteries.

    PubMed

    Bec, Julien; Ma, Dinglong M; Yankelevich, Diego R; Liu, Jing; Ferrier, William T; Southard, Jeffrey; Marcu, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Fluorescence lifetime technique has demonstrated potential for analysis of atherosclerotic lesions and for complementing existing intravascular imaging modalities such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in identifying lesions at high risk of rupture. This study presents a multimodal catheter system integrating a 40 MHz commercial IVUS and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIm) using fast helical motion scanning (400 rpm, 0.75 mm/s), able to acquire in vivo in pulsatile blood flow the autofluorescence emission of arterial vessels with high precision (5.08 ± 0.26 ns mean average lifetime over 13 scans). Co-registered FLIm and IVUS data allowed 3D visualization of both biochemical and morphological vessel properties. Current study supports the development of clinically compatible intravascular diagnostic system integrating FLIm and demonstrates, to our knowledge, the first in vivo intravascular application of a fluorescence lifetime imaging technique.

  8. Code for Analyzing and Designing Spacecraft Power System Radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert

    2005-01-01

    GPHRAD is a computer code for analysis and design of disk or circular-sector heat-rejecting radiators for spacecraft power systems. A specific application is for Stirling-cycle/linear-alternator electric-power systems coupled to radioisotope general-purpose heat sources. GPHRAD affords capabilities and options to account for thermophysical properties (thermal conductivity, density) of either metal-alloy or composite radiator materials.

  9. Evaluation of in vivo detection properties of 22Na, 65Zn, 86Rb, 109Cd and 137Cs in plant tissues using real-time radioisotope imaging system.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Natsuko I; Hirose, Atsushi; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2014-02-21

    In plant research, radioisotope imaging provides useful information about physiological activities in various tissues and elemental transport between plant organs. To expand the usage of imaging techniques, a new system was developed to visualize beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays emitted from plant bodies. This real-time radioisotope imaging system (RRIS) visualizes radioactivity after conversion into light with a CsI(Tl) scintillator plate. Herein, the RRIS detection properties of the gamma-ray emitters (22)Na, (65)Zn, (86)Rb, (109)Cd and (137)Cs were evaluated in comparison with those of radioluminography (RLG) using an imaging plate. The lower quantitative detection limit (Bq mm(-2)) during a 15 min period ranged from 0.1 to 4, depending on the nuclide, similar to that of RLG. When the quantitative ability to detect radiation from various Arabidopsis tissues was analyzed, the quantitative capability in silique and the thick internode tended to be low. In an EGS5 simulation, beta particles were the greatest contributors to RRIS imaging of (22)Na, (86)Rb and (137)Cs, and low-energy x-rays contributed significantly to (65)Zn and (109)Cd detection. Thus, both self-absorption and air space between the sample and scintillator surface could impair quantitative RRIS imaging. Despite these issues, RRIS is suggested for quantitative time-course measurements of radionuclide motion within plants.

  10. 78 FR 15009 - Consideration of Withdrawal From Commercial Production and Distribution of the Radioisotope...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Consideration of Withdrawal From Commercial Production and Distribution of the Radioisotope Germanium-68 AGENCY... comment and information from the public to assist in its consideration of DOE withdrawal from the... summary, DOE's evaluation will include consideration of: a demonstrable private capability to produce...

  11. Thermal Analysis of Step 2 GPHS for Next Generation Radioisotope Power Source Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantano, David R.; Hill, Dennis H.

    2005-02-01

    The Step 2 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a slightly larger and more robust version of the heritage GPHS modules flown on previous Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) missions like Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini. The Step 2 GPHS is to be used in future small radioisotope power sources, such as the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) and the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). New features include an additional central web of Fine Weave Pierced Fabric (FWPF) graphite in the aeroshell between the two Graphite Impact Shells (GIS) to improve accidental reentry and impact survivability and an additional 0.1-inch of thickness to the aeroshell broad faces to improve ablation protection. This paper details the creation of the thermal model using Thermal Desktop and AutoCAD interfaces and provides comparisons of the model to results of previous thermal analysis models of the heritage GPHS. The results of the analysis show an anticipated decrease in total thermal gradient from the aeroshell to the iridium clads compared to the heritage results. In addition, the Step 2 thermal model is investigated under typical SRG110 boundary conditions, with cover gas and gravity environments included where applicable, to provide preliminary guidance for design of the generator. Results show that the temperatures of the components inside the GPHS remain within accepted design limits during all envisioned mission phases.

  12. The radioisotope complex project "RIC-80" at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute.

    PubMed

    Panteleev, V N; Barzakh, A E; Batist, L Kh; Fedorov, D V; Ivanov, V S; Moroz, F V; Molkanov, P L; Orlov, S Yu; Volkov, Yu M

    2015-12-01

    The high current cyclotron C-80 capable of producing 40-80 MeV proton beams with a current of up to 200 μA has been constructed at Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. One of the main goals of the C-80 is the production of a wide spectrum of medical radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy. The project development of the radioisotope complex RIC-80 (radioisotopes at the cyclotron C-80) at the beam of C-80 has been completed. The RIC-80 complex is briefly discussed in this paper. The combination of the mass-separator with the target-ion source device, available at one of the new target stations for on-line or semi on-line production of a high purity separated radioisotopes, is explored in greater detail. The results of target and ion source tests for a mass-separator method for the production of high purity radioisotopes (82)Sr and (223,224)Ra are also presented.

  13. Method for detection of long-lived radioisotopes in small biochemical samples

    SciTech Connect

    Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Vogel, John S.; Felton, James S.; Gledhill, Barton L.; Davis, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for detection of long-lived radioisotopes in small bio-chemical samples, comprising: a. selecting a biological host in which radioisotopes are present in concentrations equal to or less than those in the ambient biosphere, b. preparing a long-lived radioisotope labeled reactive chemical specie, c. administering said chemical specie to said biologist host in doses sufficiently low to avoid significant overt damage to the biological system thereof, d. allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and interaction of said chemical specie with said host throughout said biological system of said host, e. isolating a reacted fraction of the biological substance from said host in a manner sufficient to avoid contamination of said substance from extraneous sources, f. converting said fraction of biological substance by suitable means to a material which efficiently produces charged ions in at least one of several possible ion sources without introduction of significant isotopic fractionation, and, g. measuring the radioisotope concentration in said material by means of direct isotopic counting.

  14. The radioisotope complex project “RIC-80” at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Panteleev, V. N. Barzakh, A. E.; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Moroz, F. V.; Molkanov, P. L.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2015-12-15

    The high current cyclotron C-80 capable of producing 40-80 MeV proton beams with a current of up to 200 μA has been constructed at Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. One of the main goals of the C-80 is the production of a wide spectrum of medical radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy. The project development of the radioisotope complex RIC-80 (radioisotopes at the cyclotron C-80) at the beam of C-80 has been completed. The RIC-80 complex is briefly discussed in this paper. The combination of the mass-separator with the target-ion source device, available at one of the new target stations for on-line or semi on-line production of a high purity separated radioisotopes, is explored in greater detail. The results of target and ion source tests for a mass-separator method for the production of high purity radioisotopes {sup 82}Sr and {sup 223,224}Ra are also presented.

  15. Radioisotope electric propulsion for robotic science missions to near-interstellar space

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.J.

    1994-10-01

    The use of radioisotope electric propulsion for sending small robotic probes on fast science missions several hundred astronomical units (AU) from the Sun is investigated. Such missions would address a large variety of solar, interstellar, galactic and cosmological science themes from unique vantage points at 100 to 600 AU, including parallax distance measurements for the entire Milky Way Galaxy, sampling of the interstellar medium and imaging of cosmological objects at the gravitational lens foci of the Sun ({ge} 550 AU). Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems are low-thrust, ion propulsion units based on multi-hundred watt, radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. In a previous work, the flight times for rendezvous missions to the outer planets (< 30 AU) using REP were found to be less than fifteen years. However fast prestellar missions to several hundred AU are not possible unless the probe`s energy can be substantially increased in the inner Solar System so as to boost the final hyperbolic excess velocity. In this paper an economical hybrid propulsion scheme combining chemical propulsion and gravity assist in the inner Solar System and radioisotope electric propulsion in the outer Solar System is studied which enables fast prestellar missions. Total hyperbolic excess velocities of 15 AU/year and flight times to 550 AU of about 40 years are possible using REP technology that may be available in the next decade.

  16. Clouds, airplanes, trucks and people: carrying radioisotopes to and across Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Gisela; Suárez-Díaz, Edna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the early stages of Mexican nuclearization that took place in contact with radioisotopes. This history requires a multilayered narrative with an emphasis in North-South asymmetric relations, and in the value of education and training in the creation of international asymmetrical networks. Radioisotopes were involved in exchanges with the United States since the late 1940s, but also with Canada. We also describe the context of implementation of Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace initiative in Mexico that opened the door to training programs at both the Comisión Nacional de Energía Nuclear and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Radioisotopes became the best example of the peaceful applications of atomic energy, and as such they fitted the Mexican nuclearization process that was and still is defined by its commitment to pacifism. In 1955 Mexico became one of the 16 members of the atomic fallout network established by the United Nations. As part of this network, the first generation of Mexican (women) radio-chemists was trained. By the end of the 1960s, radioisotopes and biological markers were being produced in a research reactor, prepared and distributed by the CNEN within Mexico. We end up this paper with a brief reflection on North-South nuclear exchanges and the particularities of the Mexican case.

  17. Diffusion and decay chain of radioisotopes in stagnant water in saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Juan; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Escarela-Pérez, Rafael; Vargas, Raúl Alejandro

    2014-09-01

    The analysis of the diffusion of radioisotopes in stagnant water in saturated porous media is important to validate the performance of barrier systems used in radioactive repositories. In this work a methodology is developed to determine the radioisotope concentration in a two-reservoir configuration: a saturated porous medium with stagnant water is surrounded by two reservoirs. The concentrations are obtained for all the radioisotopes of the decay chain using the concept of overvalued concentration. A methodology, based on the variable separation method, is proposed for the solution of the transport equation. The novelty of the proposed methodology involves the factorization of the overvalued concentration in two factors: one that describes the diffusion without decay and another one that describes the decay without diffusion. It is possible with the proposed methodology to determine the required time to obtain equal injective and diffusive concentrations in reservoirs. In fact, this time is inversely proportional to the diffusion coefficient. In addition, the proposed methodology allows finding the required time to get a linear and constant space distribution of the concentration in porous mediums. This time is inversely proportional to the diffusion coefficient. In order to validate the proposed methodology, the distributions in the radioisotope concentrations are compared with other experimental and numerical works.

  18. Natural radioisotope210Pb as an indicator of origin of fine-grained sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Distribution of210Pb in sediments on the South Texas Continental Shelf is related to dynamics of the sedimentary transport processes. This radioisotope, whose concentration is time-dependent, defines three depocenters on the shelf. In addition, the variation of210Pb activity at the sediment/water interface delineates areas of terrigenous sedimentation from hemipelagic sedimentation. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  19. RADIOISOTOPE TECHNIQUES FOR INSTRUCTION IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, A LIST OF ANNOTATED REFERENCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HURLBURT, EVELYN M.

    REFERENCES TO BIOLOGICAL EXPERIMENTS THAT EMPHASIZE THE USE OF RADIOISOTOPES AS TRACERS ARE INCLUDED IN THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY. MATERIALS INCLUDED ARE CONSIDERED TO BE READILY AVAILABLE AND WERE PUBLISHED AFTER 1960. SECTION I IS COMPOSED OF SELECTED SOURCES. ENTRIES INCLUDE (1) COMPLETE CITATIONS, (2) A BRIEF ANNOTATION, AND (3) LISTS OF…

  20. Fractal Dimensions for Radioisotope Pollution Patterns by Nuclear Power Plant Accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, K.; Ogawa, S.

    2015-04-01

    The radioisotope pollution shows two types of patterns: dry and wet deposits for nuclear power plant accidents. Two surface pollution patterns were analysed by fractal. In Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, surface pollution by wet deposits was estimated to occur. However, actually it was no rain and white crystals were observed on the surface. Then, fractal analysis was carried out for the spatial distribution patterns of radio isotopes on the surface to judge the types of deposits. As a reference, Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was checked for the spatial distribution patterns of radioisotopes on the surface. The objective patterns by fractal analysis were the surface pollution maps in Fukushima and Chernobyl, Abukuma river watershed map, and NOAA/AVHRR. The calculation of fractal dimensions was carried out with the box counting for binarized images. Fractal analysis results suggested the next conclusions. The radioisotope pollution in Fukushima might occur in both dry and wet deposits. The dry deposit might make the pollution pattern similar to the watershed, while the wet deposit might make the pollution pattern similar to cloud images. Moreover, most radioisotope contaminants might flow on the road in the forest valley and deposit on forest with and without rainfall in Fukushima.

  1. Method for detection of long-lived radioisotopes in small biochemical samples

    DOEpatents

    Turteltaub, K.W.; Vogel, J.S.; Felton, J.S.; Gledhill, B.L.; Davis, J.C.

    1994-11-22

    Disclosed is a method for detection of long-lived radioisotopes in small biochemical samples, comprising: a. selecting a biological host in which radioisotopes are present in concentrations equal to or less than those in the ambient biosphere, b. preparing a long-lived radioisotope labeled reactive chemical specie, c. administering the chemical specie to the biologist host in doses sufficiently low to avoid significant overt damage to the biological system, d. allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and interaction of the chemical specie with the host throughout the biological system of the host, e. isolating a reacted fraction of the biological substance from the host in a manner sufficient to avoid contamination of the substance from extraneous sources, f. converting the fraction of biological substance by suitable means to a material which efficiently produces charged ions in at least one of several possible ion sources without introduction of significant isotopic fractionation, and, g. measuring the radioisotope concentration in the material by means of direct isotopic counting. 5 figs.

  2. [Radioisotope thermoelectric generators and ancillary activities]. Monthly technical progress report, 1 April--28 April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Tehnical progress achieved during this period on radioisotope thermoelectric generators is described under the following tasks: engineering support, safety analysis, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication/assembly/test, RTG shipping/launch support, design/review/mission applications, and project management/quality assurance/reliability.

  3. Radioisotope imaging for the evaluation of thyroid neoplasia and hypothyroidism in a dog

    SciTech Connect

    Branam, J.E.; Leighton, R.L.; Hornof, W.J.

    1982-05-01

    An 11-year-old dog was diagnosed as having concurrent unilateral follicular thyroid carcinoma and hypothyroidism. Radioisotope imaging with /SUP 99m/Tc as sodium pertechnatate identified the extent of thyroid tissue involvement. A combination of surgical resection and hormonal supplementation resulted in a favorable clinical response.

  4. Pyroshock Testing of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woerner, David; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Bennett, Russell; Hammel, Tom; Otting, William

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, or MMRTG, was developed by the Department Of Energy to a set of requirements from multiple NASA mission concepts. Those concepts included deep space missions to the outer planets as well as missions to Mars. The synthesis of that diverse set of requirements addressed functional as well as environmental requirements.

  5. Planetary Protection Concerns During Pre-Launch Radioisotope Power System Final Integration Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Fei; McKay, Terri; Spry, James A.; Colozza, Anthony J.; DiStefano, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is a next-generation radioisotope-based power system that is currently being developed as an alternative to the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Power sources such as these may be needed for proposed missions to solar system planets and bodies that have challenging Planetary Protection (PP) requirements (e.g. Mars, Europa, Enceladus) that may support NASA s search for life, remnants of past life, and the precursors of life. One concern is that the heat from the ASRG could potentially create a region in which liquid water may occur. As advised by the NASA Planetary Protection Officer, when deploying an ASRG to Mars, the current COSPAR/NASA PP policy should be followed for Category IVc mission. Thus, sterilization processing of the ASRG to achieve bioburden reduction would be essential to meet the Planetary Protection requirements. Due to thermal constraints and associated low temperature limits of elements of the ASRG, vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) was suggested as a candidate alternative sterilization process to complement dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) for the assembled ASRG. The following proposed sterilization plan for the ASRG anticipates a mission Category IVc level of cleanliness. This plan provides a scenario in which VHP is used as the final sterilization process. Keywords: Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), Planetary Protection (PP), Vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) sterilization.

  6. An intravascular immune response to Borrelia burgdorferi involves Kupffer cells and iNKT cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo-Yong; Moriarty, Tara J; Wong, Connie H Y; Zhou, Hong; Strieter, Robert M; van Rooijen, Nico; Chaconas, George; Kubes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Here we investigate the dynamics of the hepatic intravascular immune response to a pathogen relevant to invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells). Immobilized Kupffer cells with highly ramified extended processes into multiple sinusoids could effectively capture blood-borne, disseminating Borrelia burgdorferi, creating a highly efficient surveillance and filtering system. After ingesting B. burgdorferi, Kupffer cells induced chemokine receptor CXCR3–dependent clustering of iNKT cells. Kupffer cells and iNKT cells formed stable contacts via the antigen-presenting molecule CD1d, which led to iNKT cell activation. An absence of iNKT cells caused B. burgdorferi to leave the blood and enter the joints more effectively. B. burgdorferi that escaped Kupffer cells entered the liver parenchyma and survived despite Ito cell responses. Kupffer cell–iNKT cell interactions induced a key intravascular immune response that diminished the dissemination of B. burgdorferi. PMID:20228796

  7. Distal polyneuropathy after canine heartworm disease therapy complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Dillon, A R; Braund, K G

    1982-08-01

    A 3-year-old male Setter-type dog had a progressive distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy characterized by weakness, bilateral atrophy of distal appendicular musculature, and reduced response to tactile stimuli. The diagnosis of a distal axonopathy was supported by electromyographic findings of fibrillation potentials, positive sharp waves in distal limb muscles, and absence of evoked action potentials, myopathic changes of atrophic angular fibers, and myelinated nerve fiber depletion in distal parts of peripheral nerves. The neuropathy appeared 5 weeks after 38 days of heparin therapy for disseminated intravascular coagulation. The disseminated intravascular coagulation, a complication of thiacetarsamide therapy for heartworm disease, had resolved 40 days after the end of heparin therapy. The cause of the neuropathy was not determined.

  8. A Whitacre-type spinal needle does not prevent intravascular injection during cervical nerve root injections.

    PubMed

    Candido, Kenneth D; Ghaly, Ramsis F; Mackerley, Sara; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2010-07-01

    We present a case of intravascular injection in a 41-year-old female during cervical selective nerve root injection using a 22-gauge 3.5-inch Whitacre-type pencil-point subarachnoid needle with a curve placed at the distal tip positioned using continual live fluoroscopic guidance. After negative aspiration for blood and cerebrospinal fluid and no elicited paresthesias during the procedure, 1 mL of contrast was injected. Initial imaging at C6 captured the outline of the nerve root along with a significant amount of transient vascular runoff. This case report demonstrates that Whitacre-type spinal needles do not prevent vascular injection, and that aspiration of the needle is not a reliable sign of intravascular injection.

  9. [Decision-making while implantation of biodegradable vascular scaffolds ABSORB based on methods of intravascular visualization].

    PubMed

    Buzaev, I V; Plechev, V V; Nikolaeva, I E; Zagitov, I G; Oleĭnik, B A

    A series of studies demonstrated comparability of the incidence rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in the middle-term postoperative period following implantation of last-generation drug-coated stents and biodegradable intravascular scaffolds. It was noted observed that these complications may be associated with malposition and inadequate inappropriate preparation of the lesion. We carried out a total of 16 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with implantation of absorbable vascular scaffolds (Absorb, Abbott Vascular) under the guidance of optical coherent tomography. Besides, a further 16 PCIs were performed without intravascular visualization (control group). As experience was gathered, the algorithm of carrying out optical coherent tomography was subjected to changes, resulting in proposal of an optimal algorithm for choice of intraoperative policy based on the findings obtained in optical coherent tomography.

  10. Enhanced glucose tolerance by intravascularly administered piceatannol in freely moving healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Oritani, Yukihiro; Okitsu, Teru; Nishimura, Eisaku; Sai, Masahiko; Ito, Tatsuhiko; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-02-12

    Piceatannol is a phytochemical in the seeds of passion fruit that has a hypoglycemic effect when orally administered. To elucidate the contribution of intact and metabolites of piceatannol after gastro-intestinal absorption to hypoglycemic effect, we examined the influence of piceatannol and isorhapontigenin on blood glucose concentrations during fasting and glucose tolerance tests by administering them intravascularly to freely moving healthy rats. We found that intravascularly administered piceatannol reduced the blood glucose concentrations during both fasting and glucose tolerance tests, but isorhapontigenin did not during either of them. Furthermore, we found that piceatannol increased the insulinogenic index during glucose tolerance tests and that piceatannol had no influence on insulin sensitivity by performing hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping tests. These results suggest that piceatannol orally intaken may enhance glucose tolerance by the effect of intact piceatannol through enhanced early-phase secretion of insulin. Therefore, oral intake of piceatannol might contribute to proper control of postprandial glycemic excursions in healthy subjects.

  11. Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Heat Exchangers for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastropietro, A. J.; Beatty, John S.; Kelly, Frank P.; Bhandari, Pradeep; Bame, David P.; Liu, Yuanming; Birux, Gajanana C.; Miller, Jennifer R.; Pauken, Michael T.; Illsley, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The addition of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) to the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover requires an advanced thermal control system that is able to both recover and reject the waste heat from the MMRTG as needed in order to maintain the onboard electronics at benign temperatures despite the extreme and widely varying environmental conditions experienced both on the way to Mars and on the Martian surface. Based on the previously successful Mars landed mission thermal control schemes, a mechanically pumped fluid loop (MPFL) architecture was selected as the most robust and efficient means for meeting the MSL thermal requirements. The MSL heat recovery and rejection system (HRS) is comprised of two Freon (CFC-11) MPFLs that interact closely with one another to provide comprehensive thermal management throughout all mission phases. The first loop, called the Rover HRS (RHRS), consists of a set of pumps, thermal control valves, and heat exchangers (HXs) that enables the transport of heat from the MMRTG to the rover electronics during cold conditions or from the electronics straight to the environment for immediate heat rejection during warm conditions. The second loop, called the Cruise HRS (CHRS), is thermally coupled to the RHRS during the cruise to Mars, and provides a means for dissipating the waste heat more directly from the MMRTG as well as from both the cruise stage and rover avionics by promoting circulation to the cruise stage radiators. A multifunctional structure was developed that is capable of both collecting waste heat from the MMRTG and rejecting the waste heat to the surrounding environment. It consists of a pair of honeycomb core sandwich panels with HRS tubes bonded to both sides. Two similar HX assemblies were designed to surround the MMRTG on the aft end of the rover. Heat acquisition is accomplished on the interior (MMRTG facing) surface of each HX while heat rejection is accomplished on the exterior surface of

  12. Automatic lumen contour detection in intravascular OCT images using Otsu binarization and intensity curve.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Min; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Chungkeun; Ha, Jong-Won; Yoon, Young-Ro

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic method for the detection of lumen contours in intravascular OCT images with guide wire shadow artifacts. This algorithm is divided into five main procedures: pre-processing, an Otsu binarization approach, an intensity curve approach, a lumen contour position correction, and image reconstruction and contour extraction. The 30 IVOCT images from six anonymous patients were used to verify this method and we obtained 99.2% sensitivity and 99.7% specificity with this algorithm.

  13. Evaluation of intravascular microdialysis for continuous blood glucose monitoring in hypoglycemia: an animal model.

    PubMed

    Schierenbeck, Fanny; Wallin, Mats; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Liska, Jan

    2014-07-01

    We have previously shown that intravascular microdialysis in a central vein is an accurate method for continuous glucose monitoring in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, no hypoglycemia occurred in our earlier studies, prompting further evaluation of the accuracy of intravascular microdialysis in the hypoglycemic range. Thus, this animal study was performed. A porcine model was developed; hypoglycemia was induced using insulin injections. The pigs were monitored with intravascular microdialysis integrated in a triple-lumen central venous catheter. As reference, venous blood gas samples were taken every 5 minutes and analyzed in a blood gas analyzer. Ethical permission for the animal experiments was obtained from the Stockholm Regional Ethical Committee, reference no N397/09. A total of 213 paired samples were obtained for analysis, and 126 (59.2%) of these were in the hypoglycemic range (<74 mg/dl). Using Clarke error grid analysis, 100% of the paired samples were in region AB and 99% in region A. The ISO standard (ISO15197) was met. Bland-Altman analysis showed bias (mean difference) ± limits of agreement was -0.18 ± 16.2 mg/dl. No influence from glucose infusions was seen. The microdialysis monitoring system was found to be very responsive in rapid changes in blood glucose concentration. This study shows that intravascular microdialysis in a central vein is an accurate method for continuous glucose monitoring in hypoglycemia in a porcine experimental model. Furthermore, the system was not influenced by glucose administration and was found to be responsive in rapid blood glucose fluctuations.

  14. Effect of intravascular irradiation of He-Ne laser on cerebral infarction: Hemorrheology and apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian; Liang, Min-yi; Cao, Hao-cai; Li, Xiao-Yuan; Li, Shao-ming; Li, Shun-hao; Li, Wen-qi; Zhang, Jin-hong; Liu, Lei; Lai, Jian-hong

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To explore the efficacy of He-Ne laser intravascular irradiation on infarction and hemorrheology. To observe the effects of intravascular low level He-Ne laser irradiation (ILLLI) of blood on cell proliferation, apoptosis and chromosome in lymphocyte from cerebral infarction Methods: Seventy cases with cerebral infarction were randomly divided into groups control group (35 cases) treated only with common drugs and therapeutic group (35 cases) treated besides common drugs also by He-Ne laser intravascular irradiation. Their hemorrheology index and treatment results were observed and compared. The blood lymphocytes of cerebral infarction were cultured before and after treatment. After that, the mitosis index (MI), cell kinetics index (CKI), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) frequencies and apoptosis were determined. Results The therapeutic group was better than the control one. The effective rate in the therapeutic group was 88.6%, in the control one was 65.7%. The viscosity and fibrinogen, etc were better than that in the control group with significant difference (P<0.01). The lymphocyte proliferation index was significantly two increased than the control one (P>0.05) in cerebral infarction patients after treatment; The CKI of lymphocytes had no obvious difference among groups (P>0.05) SCE frequencies of lymphocytes had no statistic significance between control group and ILLLI on (P>0.05). It showed the apoptosis rate of lymphocytes in cerebral infarction patients after ILLLI treatment increased significantly compared with the control group, (P<0.001). There was a significant difference of apoptosis rate of lymphocytes in cerebral infarction patients than the control (P<0.001). Conclusions: During the He-Ne laser intravascular irradiation of the cerebral infarction, the low level He-Ne by ILLLI can increase the proliferation of lymphocytes, and can induce lymphocytes to apoptosis, but has no mutagenicity of cells.

  15. Laparoscopic manipulation of a probe-based confocal laser endomicroscope using a steerable intravascular catheter.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Crispin; Desjardins, Adrien E; Gurusamy, Kurinchi; Hawkes, David J; Davidson, Brian R

    2015-04-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy is an emerging imaging modality that enables visualization of histologic details during endoscopy and surgery. A method of guiding the probe with millimeter accuracy is required to enable imaging in all regions of the abdomen accessed during laparoscopy. On the basis of a porcine model of laparoscopic liver resection, we report our experience of using a steerable intravascular catheter to guide a probe-based confocal laser endomicroscope.

  16. Laparoscopic Manipulation of a Probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscope Using a Steerable Intravascular Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Desjardins, Adrien E.; Gurusamy, Kurinchi; Hawkes, David J.; Davidson, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy is an emerging imaging modality that enables visualization of histologic details during endoscopy and surgery. A method of guiding the probe with millimeter accuracy is required to enable imaging in all regions of the abdomen accessed during laparoscopy. On the basis of a porcine model of laparoscopic liver resection, we report our experience of using a steerable intravascular catheter to guide a probe-based confocal laser endomicroscope. PMID:25807277

  17. Surgical management of Wilms tumor with intravascular extension: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Aspiazu, Diego; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Cabello, Rosa; Ramirez, Gema; Alvarez-Madrid, Antonio; De Agustin, Juan Carlos

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the clinical presentation, treatment, and outcomes of children with Wilms tumor (WT) and intravascular extension who were treated at a single institution. A retrospective review was conducted of medical records of all children with Wilms tumor and intravascular extension treated at Virgen del Rocio Children's Hospital between 1992 and 2010. Seven patients (median age 3.4 years, range 2-8.1 years) were identified. At diagnosis, 6 of the 7 patients (85.7%) presented with tumor thrombus that reached the right atrium (RA) and 1 patient with infrahepatic inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombus. All patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (SIOP 2001 protocol) with vincristine, doxorubicin, and actinomycin D. Regression of the intravascular extension of the tumor was documented in all patients. Postchemotherapy level of extension was suprahepatic IVC in 1 patient, infrahepatic IVC in 2 patients, renal vein (RV) in 1 patient, and RA in 3 patients. Nephrectomy and thrombectomy were performed in all cases, requiring cardiopulmonary bypass for the 4 patients who presented with suprahepatic IVC and RA thrombus. The other 3 patients with infrahepatic IVC and RV involvement underwent cavotomy and thrombus extraction. Computed tomography, ultrasonography, and echocardiography were used for diagnosis and follow-up. All patients remain disease-free with a median follow-up of 6.3 years (range, 2-19 years). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for WT with intravascular extension may facilitate the resection by decreasing the extent of the tumor thrombus. Cardiopulmonary bypass is indicated for suprahepatic IVC and RA involvement. Accurate diagnostic imaging is necessary.

  18. [Interest of an intensive chemotherapy for intravascular large B cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Baldolli, Aurélie; Chuffart, Marie; Geffray, Loik; Verneuil, Laurence; Reman, Oumédaly

    2013-04-01

    We describe three cases of intravascular lymphoma B with different clinical presentation: one case of a cutaneous variant and two cases with surrenal and cutaneous localisation. All patients are in complete remission after chemotherapy alone or after chemotherapy and autologous stem cells transplantation. The review of the literature as well as our cases specify the interest of an aggressive chemotherapy with autologous of peripheral stem cells if it was possible.

  19. Thromboelastographic profile for a dog with hypocoagulable and hyperfibrinolytic phase of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Vilar-Saavedra, P; Hosoya, K

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study is to report the use of thromboelastography as a diagnostic tool for the hyperfibrinolytic phase of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy in a dog with metastatic haemangiosarcoma. We established a cytological (i.e. fine needle aspirate) and histopathological (i.e. excisional surgical biopsy) diagnosis of haemangiosarcoma in a 10-year-old male castrated Bichon Frise with multiple dark purple dermoepidermal nodules on the ventral abdomen and medial stifle areas, multiple small pulmonary nodules and a solitary liver mass. The dog was treated with chemotherapy (AC protocol). Forty-nine days after completion of four treatment cycles, the dog was presented for recheck. Complete blood count revealed anaemia and mild thrombocytopenia. Chemistry profile showed no significant abnormalities. Analysis of haemostasis consisted of prolonged clotting times (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time), mild hypofibrinogenaemia and increased D-dimers. A presumptive diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy was made. A re-calcified thromboelastography was simultaneously done to confirm the coagulopathy. Thromboelastographic tracings correlated with the plasma-based test results showing hypocoagulability (prolonged clotting times and prolonged thromboelastography clot kinetics; weaker clot with decreased fibrinogen levels, platelet count and lower thromboelastography tracing amplitude) and hyperfibrinolysis (increased D-dimers and increased D-dimers and increased thromboelastography lysis parameters). Based on these results, the dog was considered to be in the hyperfibrinolytic phase of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Results of the conventional haemostasis tests supported those obtained on thromboelastography. Humane euthanasia was performed because of poor prognosis and progressive disease, making further follow-up unavailable. As demonstrated in this case report, thromboelastography was found to be a helpful

  20. Intravascular haemolysis during prolonged running on asphalt and natural grass in long and middle distance runners.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, Kamal; Shenoy, Shweta; Sandhu, Jaspal Singh

    2011-09-01

    Surface features such as uneven playing surfaces, low impact absorption capacity and inappropriate friction/traction characteristics are connected with injury prevalence whereas force impact during foot strike has been suggested to be an important mechanism of intravascular haemolysis during running. We aimed to evaluate intravascular haemolysis during running and compare the effect of running on two different types of surfaces on haemolysis. We selected two surfaces (asphalt and grass) on which these athletes usually run. Participants were randomly assigned to group A (asphalt) or group B (grass) with 10 athletes in each group. Each athlete completed one hour of running at the calculated target heart rate (60-70%). Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after running. We measured unconjugated bilirubin (UBR) (mg · dl(-1)), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (μ · ml(-1)), haemoglobin (g · l(-1)) and serum ferritin (ng · ml(-1)) as indicators of haemolysis. Athletes who ran on grass demonstrated an increase in the haematological parameters (UBR: P < 0.01, LDH: P < 0.05) when compared to athletes who ran on asphalt (UBR: P < 0.05, LDH: P = 0.241). Our findings indicate that intravascular haemolysis occurs significantly after prolonged running. Furthermore, we conclude that uneven grass surface results in greater haemolysis compared to asphalt road.

  1. Intravascular near-infrared fluorescence catheter with ultrasound guidance and blood attenuation correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Adam J.; Hossack, John A.

    2013-05-01

    Intravascular near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging offers a new approach for characterizing atherosclerotic plaque, but random catheter positioning within the vessel lumen results in variable light attenuation and can yield inaccurate measurements. We hypothesized that NIRF measurements could be corrected for variable light attenuation through blood by tracking the location of the NIRF catheter with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). In this study, a combined NIRF-IVUS catheter was designed to acquire coregistered NIRF and IVUS data, an automated image processing algorithm was developed to measure catheter-to-vessel wall distances, and depth-dependent attenuation of the fluorescent signal was corrected by an analytical light propagation model. Performance of the catheter sensing distance correction method was evaluated in coronary artery phantoms and ex vivo arteries. The correction method produced NIRF estimates of fluorophore concentrations, in coronary artery phantoms, with an average root mean square error of 17.5%. In addition, the correction method resulted in a statistically significant improvement in correlation between spatially resolved NIRF measurements and known fluorophore spatial distributions in ex vivo arteries (from r=0.24 to 0.69, p<0.01, n=6). This work demonstrates that catheter-to-vessel wall distances, measured from IVUS images, can be employed to compensate for inaccuracies caused by variable intravascular NIRF sensing distances.

  2. The lateral neostriatum is necessary for compensatory ingestive behaviour after intravascular dehydration in female rats.

    PubMed

    Lelos, M J; Harrison, D J; Rosser, A E; Dunnett, S B

    2013-12-01

    Aberrant striatal function results in an array of physiological symptoms, including impaired consummatory and regulatory behaviours, which can lead to weight loss and dehydration. It was hypothesised, therefore, that cell loss in the neostriatum may contribute to altered fluid intake by regulating physiological signals related to dehydration status. To test this theory, rats with lesions of the lateral neostriatum and sham controls underwent a series of physiological challenges, including the experimental induction of intracellular and intravascular dehydration. No baseline differences in prandial or non-prandial drinking were observed, nor were differences in locomotor activity evident between groups. Furthermore, intracellular dehydration increased water intake in lesion rats in a manner comparable to sham rats. Interestingly, a specific impairment was evident in lesion rats after subcutaneous injection of poly-ethylene glycol was used to induce intravascular dehydration, such that lesion rats failed to adapt their water intake to this physiological change. The results suggest that the striatal lesions resulted in regulatory dysfunction by impairing motivational control over compensatory ingestive behaviour after intravascular hydration, while the physiological signals related to dehydration remain intact. Loss of these cells in neurodegenerative disorders, such Huntington's disease, may contribute to regulatory changes evident in the course of the disease.

  3. High frame-rate intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Han Saem; Jang, Sun-Joo; Kim, Kyunghun; Dan-Chin-Yu, Alexey V.; Shishkov, Milen; Bouma, Brett E.; Oh, Wang-Yuhl

    2013-01-01

    Intravascular optical frequency-domain imaging (OFDI), a second-generation optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology, enables imaging of the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of the vessel wall following a short and nonocclusive clear liquid flush. Although 3D vascular visualization provides a greater appreciation of the vessel wall and intraluminal structures, a longitudinal imaging pitch that is several times bigger than the optical imaging resolution of the system has limited true high-resolution 3D imaging, mainly due to the slow scanning speed of previous imaging catheters. Here, we demonstrate high frame-rate intravascular OFDI in vivo, acquiring images at a rate of 350 frames per second. A custom-built, high-speed, and high-precision fiber-optic rotary junction provided uniform and high-speed beam scanning through a custom-made imaging catheter with an outer diameter of 0.87 mm. A 47-mm-long rabbit aorta was imaged in 3.7 seconds after a short contrast agent flush. The longitudinal imaging pitch was 34 μm, comparable to the transverse imaging resolution of the system. Three-dimensional volume-rendering showed greatly enhanced visualization of tissue microstructure and stent struts relative to what is provided by conventional intravascular imaging speeds. PMID:24466489

  4. Use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute to improve intravascular optical coherence tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Khiet C.; Edris, Ahmad; Su, Jianping; Mukai, David S.; Mahon, Sari; Petrov, Artiom D.; Kern, Morton; Ashan, Chowdhury; Chen, Zhongping; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Narula, Jagat; Brenner, Matthew

    2009-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a catheter-based imaging technology with powerful resolution capable of identifying vulnerable plaques and guiding coronary intervention. However, a significant limitation of intravascular OCT imaging is its attenuation by blood. We propose that the use of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute could potentially optimize OCT image quality. Surgical isolation of the descending thoracic aorta of six rabbits is performed, followed by intravascular OCT imaging of the abdominal aorta. Perfluorodecalin (PFD) is oxygenated using a bubble-through technique with 100% oxygen. OCT imaging is performed and compared using three different flushing modalities: PFD; saline; and blood. OCT imaging of the rabbit abdominal aorta is successful in all of the subjects. In each of the six studied subjects, flushing with PFD consistently provides dramatically better imaging of the vessel wall tissue structures. OCT image quality is highly dependent on the ability of the flushing modality to remove blood from the imaging field. From this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that endovascular flushing with an oxygen-carrying blood substitute (PFD) is optically superior to saline flushing for intravascular imaging.

  5. A novel dual-frequency imaging method for intravascular ultrasound applications.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Weibao; Chen, Yan; Wong, Chi-Man; Liu, Baoqiang; Dai, Jiyan; Zheng, Hairong

    2015-03-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), which is able to delineate internal structures of vessel wall with fine spatial resolution, has greatly enriched the knowledge of coronary atherosclerosis. A novel dual-frequency imaging method is proposed in this paper for intravascular imaging applications. A probe combined two ultrasonic transducer elements with different center frequencies (36 MHz and 78 MHz) is designed and fabricated with PMN-PT single crystal material. It has the ability to balance both imaging depth and resolution, which are important imaging parameters for clinical test. A dual-channel imaging platform is also proposed for real-time imaging, and this platform has been proven to support programmable processing algorithms, flexible imaging control, and raw RF data acquisition for IVUS applications. Testing results show that the -6 dB axial and lateral imaging resolutions of low-frequency ultrasound are 78 and 132 μm, respectively. In terms of high-frequency ultrasound, axial and lateral resolutions are determined to be as high as 34 and 106 μm. In vitro intravascular imaging on healthy swine aorta is conducted to demonstrate the performance of the dual-frequency imaging method for IVUS applications.

  6. The intravascular low level laser irradiation (ILLLI) in treatment of psoriasis clinically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Nie, Fan; Shi, Hong-Min

    2005-07-01

    Objective: The title is research curative effect of intravascular low level laser irradiation (ILLLI) in treatment of psoriasis. Method: 478 patients with psoriasis from five groups to observe their efficacy. Group1 were treated by He-Ne laser combined with drug. Group 2 were treated by semi-conductor laser combined with drug. Group 3 were treated only by He-He laser. Group 4 were treated by semi-conductor laser. Group 5 were treated only by drug. The Ridit statistical analysis was applied to all of these data. The treatment of intravascular low level laser irradiation is as follow: laser power:4-5mw, 1 hour per day and 10 days as a period combined with vit C 2.0 g iv and inhalation of O2. Results: The clinical results: the near efficient rate was 100%, in group1-4, if combined with drugs it would be better. Ridit statistical analysis showed no significant difference between group1-4, p>0.05. The efficient rate 72.97% in group5.There were showed very significant difference with group1-4, p<0.01. 2.There were no significant differences between He-Ne laser (632.8nm) and semiconductor laser(650nm); 3.The efficacy of ILLLI in psoriasis was positive correlation to the ILLLI times. Conclusions: It can improve curative effect of intravascular low levellaser irradiation (ILLLI) in treatment of psoriasis.

  7. Stochastic bifurcation characteristics of SMA intravascular stent subjected to radial and axial excitations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Wendi; Xu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    A kind of shape memory alloy (SMA) hysteretic nonlinear model is developed, and the stochastic bifurcation characteristics of SMA intravascular stents subjected to radial and axial excitations are studied in this paper. A new nonlinear differential item is introduced to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of SMA strain-stress curves, and the dynamic model of SMA intravascular stent subjected to radial and axial stochastic excitations is established. The conditions of the system's stochastic stability are determined, and the probability density function of the system response is obtained. Finally, the stochastic Hopf bifurcation characteristics of the system are analyzed. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation show that the system stability varies with bifurcation parameters, and stochastic Hopf bifurcation occurs in the process; there are two limit cycles in the stationary probability density of the system response in some cases, which means that there are two vibration amplitudes whose probability are both very high; jumping phenomena between the two vibration amplitudes appears with the change of conditions, which may cause stent fracture or loss. The results of this paper are helpful for application of SMA intravascular stent in biomedical engineering fields.

  8. Radioisotope thermophotovoltaic system design and its application to an illustrative space mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, A.; Kumar, V.

    1995-01-05

    The paper describes the results of a DOE-sponsored design study of a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator (RTPV), to complement similar studies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and Stirling Generators (RSGs) previously published by the author. Instead of conducting a generic study, it was decided to focus the design effort by directing it at a specific illustrative space mission, Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF). That mission, under study by JPL, envisages a direct eight-year flight to Pluto (the only unexplored planet in the solar system), followed by comprehensive mapping, surface composition, and atmospheric structure measurements during a brief flyby of the planet and its moon Charon, and transmission of the recorded science data to Earth during a post-encounter cruise lasting up to one year. Because of Pluto`s long distance from the sun (30--50 A.U.) and the mission`s large energy demand, JPL has baselined the use of a radioisotope power system for the PFF spacecraft. TRGs have been tentatively selected, because they have been successfully flown on many space missions, and have demonstrated exceptional reliability and durability. The only reason for exploring the applicability of the far less mature RTPV systems is their potential for much higher conversion efficiencies, which would greatly reduce the mass and cost of the required radioisotope heat source. Those attributes are particularly important for the PFF mission, which---like all NASA missions under current consideration---is severely mass- and cost-limited. The paper describes the design of the radioisotope heat source, the thermophotovoltaic converter, and the heat rejection system; and depicts its integration with the PFF spacecraft.

  9. Use of anthropogenic radioisotopes to estimate rates of soil redistribution by wind I: Historic use of 137Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Pelt, R. Scott

    2013-06-01

    Wind erosion is increasingly scrutinized as a causative factor in soil degradation and fugitive dust emissions. Although models have been developed to predict wind erosion and dust emissions, they are not accurate in all locations. The temporal and spatial variability of aeolian processes makes local estimates of long-term average erosion costly and time consuming. Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and 1960s resulted in anthropogenic radioisotopes that had not previously existed being injected into stratospheric global circulation and subsequently deposited on the Earth's surface. Many of these radioisotopes are strongly adsorbed to soil particles and their movement on the landscape is a powerful method for investigating soil redistribution by wind, water, and tillage. 137Cs is the most commonly used anthropogenic radioisotope used to assess soil redistribution rates. Models have been developed to equate differences of radioisotope inventories with rates of soil redistribution and these models have been employed globally to assess soil redistribution on agricultural and natural landscapes. The radioisotope method for assessing soil redistribution rates has many advantages, but also a few limitations. One of the major limitations occurs when local sources of radioisotope contamination, particularly 137Cs, mask the pulse from global fallout, making temporal estimates of redistribution difficult or impossible. In this paper, I explore the importance, history, and applications of the radioisotopic technique using 137Cs, particularly as it applies to soil redistribution by wind.

  10. FISH analysis of translocations induced by chronic exposure to Sr radioisotopes: second set of analysis of the Techa River Cohort.

    PubMed

    Vozilova, Alexandra V; Shagina, Natalia B; Degteva, Marina O; Moquet, Jayne; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Darroudi, Firouz

    2014-06-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridisation analysis of stable translocations was performed for 26 residents living along the Techa River (Russia), who were predominantly (95%) exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes ((89)Sr and (90)Sr) resulting in exposure of their red bone marrow (RBM). Analysis was conducted at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Public Health England and Leiden University Medical Center. Each laboratory scored 1000 cells per donor, which resulted in ∼1000 genome equivalents (GE) per donor. The age-dependent spontaneous level of translocations for each donor was evaluated on the basis of data published by Sigurdson et al. (International study of factors affecting human chromosome. Mutat. Res. 2008;652: :112-121). Reconstruction of doses was performed with the 'Techa River Dosimetry System' developed in 2009. In the studied donors, the range of individual cumulated RBM dose was from 0.3 to 3.7 Gy. Analysis of the yield of stable translocations dependent on the individual RBM dose from (89,90)Sr showed a linear dose-response relationship of 0.007 ± 0.002 translocation/GE cell/Gy (R = 0.61, p = 0.001). This set of results was in a good agreement with the previous data reported for 18 donors by Vozilova et al. (Preliminary FISH-based assessment of external dose for residents exposed on the Techa River.

  11. Intravascular brachytherapy with radioactive stents produced by ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombeck, M.-A.; Heise, S.; Schloesser, K.; Schuessler, B.; Schweickert, H.

    2003-05-01

    About 1 million patients are treated for stenosis of coronary arteries by percutaneous balloon angioplasty annually worldwide. In many cases a so called stent is inserted into the vessel to keep it mechanically open. Restenosis is observed in about 20-30% of these cases, which can be treated by irradiating the stented vessel segment. In our approach, we utilized the stent itself as radiation source by ion implanting 32P. Investigations of the surface properties were performed with special emphasis on activity retention. Clinical data of about 400 patients showed radioactive stents can suppress instent restenosis, but a so called edge effect appeared, which can be avoided by the new "drug eluting stents".

  12. Projection of needs for gamma radiation sources and other radioisotopes and assessment of alternatives for providing radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Jensen, G.A.; Clark, L.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Jarrett, J.H.; Katayama, Y.B.; McKee, R.W.; Morgan, L.G.; Nealey, S.M.; Platt, A.M.; Tingey, G.L.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the projected uses and demands for a variety of nuclear byproducts. Because the major large-scale near-term demand is for gamma irradiation sources, this report concentrates on the needs for gamma sources and evaluates the options for providing the needed material. Projections of possible growth in the irradiation treatment industry indicate that there will be a need for 180 to 320 MCi of /sup 60/Co (including /sup 137/Cs equivalent) in service in the year 2000. The largest current and projected use of gamma irradiation is for the sterilization of medical devices and disposable medical supplies. Currently, 40% of US disposable medical products are treated by irradiation, and within 10 years it is expected that 90% will be treated in this manner. Irradiation treatment of food for destruction of pathogens or parasites, disinfestation, or extension of allowable storage periods is estimated to require an active inventory of 75 MCi of /sup 60/Co-equivalent gamma source in about a decade. 90 refs., 7 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Noninvasive in vivo plasma volume and hematocrit in humans: observing long-term baseline behavior to establish homeostasis for intravascular volume and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dent, Paul; Deng, Bin; Goodisman, Jerry; Peterson, Charles M.; Narsipur, Sriram; Chaiken, J.

    2016-04-01

    A new device incorporating a new algorithm and measurement process allows simultaneous noninvasive in vivo monitoring of intravascular plasma volume and red blood cell volume. The purely optical technique involves probing fingertip skin with near infrared laser light and collecting the wavelength shifted light, that is, the inelastic emission (IE) which includes the unresolved Raman and fluorescence, and the un-shifted emission, that is, the elastic emission (EE) which includes both the Rayleigh and Mie scattered light. Our excitation and detection geometry is designed so that from these two simultaneous measurements we can calculate two parameters within the single scattering regime using radiation transfer theory, the intravascular plasma volume fraction and the red blood cell volume fraction. Previously calibrated against a gold standard FDA approved device, 2 hour monitoring sessions on three separate occasions over a three week span for a specific, motionless, and mostly sleeping individual produced 3 records containing a total of 5706 paired measurements of hematocrit and plasma volume. The average over the three runs, relative to the initial plasma volume taken as 100%, of the plasma volume±1σ was 97.56+/-0.55 or 0.56%.For the same three runs, the average relative hematocrit (Hct), referenced to an assumed initial value of 28.35 was 29.37+/-0.12 or stable to +/-0.4%.We observe local deterministic circulation effects apparently associated with the pressure applied by the finger probe as well as longer timescale behavior due to normal ebb and flow of internal fluids due to posture changes and tilt table induced gravity gradients.

  14. Nanoscintillators for radiation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Ryan Gregory

    In the search for faster, more effective methods for detection of and protection against radiological weapons, advances in materials for radiation detection are a critical component of any successful strategy. This work focuses on producing inexpensive, but highly sensitive, nanoparticle alternatives to existing single-crystal installations. Attention is given to particular types of promising inorganic scintillators: LaF3, yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG), and SrF2, each one an inorganic host doped with additional elements that encourage luminescent decay and increase effective Z-value. I examine the possible routes to synthesize these compounds, and the difficulties and benefits of each method. After synthesizing these materials, testing was performed to determine comparative performance against each other and commercial solutions, identify structural and compositional characteristics, and explore routes for fixing the scintillators into a detector assembly. The unifying goal is to develop a scintillating material suitable for consistent dosimetry and radio-isotope identification applications.

  15. Impact of gender and age on in vivo virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound imaging plaque characterization (from the global Virtual Histology Intravascular Ultrasound [VH-IVUS] registry).

    PubMed

    Qian, Jie; Maehara, Akiko; Mintz, Gary S; Margolis, M Pauliina; Lerman, Amir; Rogers, Jason; Banai, Shuel; Kazziha, Samer; Castellanos, Celia; Dani, Lokesh; Fahy, Martin; Stone, Gregg W; Leon, Martin B

    2009-05-01

    Virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) analyses were performed in the first 990 patients enrolled in the 3,000+ patient global VH-IVUS Registry to assess the impact of gender and age on in vivo VH-IVUS plaque characterization. The 990 patients were divided into 3 age group terciles (<58, 58 to 68, and >68 years) and again divided according to gender. In conclusion, (1) both women and men had an increase in plaque with increasing age; (2) at any age, men had more plaque than women; (3) percentages of dense calcium and necrotic core increased with increasing patient age in both men and women; and (4) gender differences were lowest in the oldest tercile (>68 years).

  16. Development of a beam line for radio-isotope production at the KOMAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han-Sung

    2016-09-01

    A new beam line of the 100-MeV proton linac at the KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex), aiming for RI (radioisotope) production has been constructed reflecting the increasing demands for various RIs (radioisotopes), such as Sr-82 and Cu-67 for medical applications. Proton beam with beam energy of 100 MeV and an average current of 0.6 mA is directed to the 100-mm-diameter production target through a beam window made of aluminum-beryllium alloy. Major components of the newly-installed beam line include electromagnets for bending and focusing, beam diagnostic systems such as a BPM (beam position monitor) and a BCM (beam current monitor), and a vacuum pumping system based on an ion pump. In this paper, the design features and the installation of the RI-production beam line at the KOMAC are given.

  17. Effect of amplified spontaneous emission on selectivity of laser photoionisation of the 177Lu radioisotope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'yachkov, A. B.; Gorkunov, A. A.; Labozin, A. V.; Mironov, S. M.; Panchenko, V. Ya; Firsov, V. A.; Tsvetkov, G. O.

    2016-06-01

    A significant deselecting effect of amplified spontaneous emission has been observed in the experiments on selective laser photoionisation of the 177Lu radioisotope according to the scheme 5d6s2 2D3/2 → 5d6s6p 4Fo5/2 (18505 cm-1) → 5d6s7s 4D3/2(37194 cm-1) → autoionisation state (53375 cm-1). The effect is conditioned by involvement of non-target isotopes from the lower metastable level 5d6s2 2D5/2(1994 cm-1) into the ionisation process. Spectral filtering of spontaneous emission has allowed us to significantly increase the selectivity of the photoionisation process of the radioisotope and to attain a selectivity value of 105 when using saturating light intensities.

  18. Light weight radioisotope heater unit (LWRHU): a technical description of the reference design

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU), a new radioisotope heater unit for use in space missions, is a /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled unit designed to provide a thermal watt in dispersed locations on a spacecraft. The LWRHU is required to maintain the temperature of a component at a level where the component will function reliably in space. Two major constraints are placed on the unit's design; it must be as light as possible and must provide enough protection to immobilize the plutonium fuel to the maximum extent in all phases of the unit's lifetime. The four components are pelletized fuel, platinum-alloy encapsulation, pyrolytic graphite thermal insulation, and high-technology graphite ablation shell. The LWRHU is a cylinder 32 mm (1.26 in.) high and 26 mm (1.02 in.) in diameter. It weighs slightly less than 40 g(.09 lb).

  19. Radioisotope thermal photovoltaic application of the GaSb solar cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, M. D.; Horne, W. E.; Day, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    An examination of a RTVP (radioisotopic thermophotovoltaic) conceptual design has shown a high potential for power densities well above those achievable with radioisotopic thermoelectric generator (RTG) systems. An efficiency of 14.4 percent and system specific power of 9.25 watts/kg were predicted for a system with sixteen GPHS (general purpose heat source) sources operating at 1100 C. The models also showed a 500 watt system power by the strontium-90 isotope at 1200 C at an efficiency of 17.0 percent and a system specific power of 11.8 watts/kg. The key to this level of performance is a high-quality photovoltaic cell with narrow bandgap and a reflective rear contact. Recent work at Boeing on GaSb cells and transparent back GaAs cells indicate that such a cell is well within reach.

  20. Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) Generator and Its Applicability to an Illustrative Space Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, A.; Mukunda, M.; Or, T.; Kumar, V.; Summers, G.

    1994-02-14

    The paper describes the results of a DOE-sponsored design study of a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator (RTPV), to complement similar studies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and Stirling Generators (RSGs) previously published by the author. Instead of conducting a generic study, it was decided to focus the design effort by directing it at a specific illustrative space mission, Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF). That mission, under study by JPL, envisages a direct eight-year flight to Pluto (the only unexplored planet in the solar system), followed by comprehensive mapping, surface composition, and atmospheric structure measurements during a brief flyby of the planet and its moon Charon, and transmission of the recorded science data to Earth during a post-encounter cruise lasting up to one year.