Science.gov

Sample records for radioisotope laboratory safety

  1. Radioisotope Power System Delivery, Ground Support and Nuclear Safety Implementation: Use of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for the NASA's Mars Science Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    S.G. Johnson; K.L. Lively; C.C. Dwight

    2014-07-01

    Radioisotope power systems have been used for over 50 years to enable missions in remote or hostile environments. They are a convenient means of supplying a few milliwatts up to a few hundred watts of useable, long-term electrical power. With regard to use of a radioisotope power system, the transportation, ground support and implementation of nuclear safety protocols in the field is a complex process that requires clear identification of needed technical and regulatory requirements. The appropriate care must be taken to provide high quality treatment of the item to be moved so it arrives in a condition to fulfill its missions in space. Similarly it must be transported and managed in a manner compliant with requirements for shipment and handling of special nuclear material. This presentation describes transportation, ground support operations and implementation of nuclear safety and security protocols for a radioisotope power system using recent experience involving the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator for National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Mars Science Laboratory, which launched in November of 2011.

  2. Safety monitoring system for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoltan, A.

    1973-01-01

    System alerts personnel of hazards which may develop while they are performing tests on radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Remedial action is initiated to minimize damage. Five operating conditions are monitored: hot junction temperature, cold junction temperature, thermal shroud coolant flow, vacuum in test chamber, and alpha radiation.

  3. Radioisotope production and management at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.D.; Aaron, W.S.; Alexander, C.W.; Bigelow, J.E.; Parks, J.T.; Tracy, J.G.; Wham, R.M.

    1994-09-01

    The production of radioisotopes has been one of the basic activities at Oak Ridge since the end of World War II. The importance of this work was best described by Alvin Weinberg, former Laboratory Director, when he wrote ``... If God has a golden book and writes down what it is that Oak Ridge National Laboratory did that had the biggest influence on science, I would guess that was the production and distribution of isotopes.`` Radioisotopes production continues to be an important aspect of Oak Ridge programs today and of those planned for the future. Past activities, current projects, and future plans and potentials will be described briefly in this paper. Also, some of the major issues facing the continued production of radioisotopes will be described. The scope of the program has always been primarily that of process development, followed by special batch-type productions, where no other supply exists. The technology developed has been available for adoption by US commercial corporations, and in cases where this has occurred, Oak Ridge has withdrawn as a supplier of the particular isotopes involved. One method of production that will not be described is that of target bombardment with an accelerator. This method was used at Oak Ridge prior to 1978 in the 86-inch Cyclotron. However, this method has not been used at Oak Ridge since then for radioisotope production, except as a research tool.

  4. Laboratory Safety Manual for Alabama Schools. Bulletin 1975. No. 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This document presents the Alabama State Department of Education guidelines for science laboratory safety, equipment, storage, chemical safety, rocket safety, electrical safety, safety with radioisotopes, and safety with biologicals. Also included is a brief bibliography, a teacher's checklist, a listing of laser facts and regulations, and a…

  5. Safety in Science Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents 12 amendments to the second edition of Safety in Science Laboratories. Covers topics such as regular inspection of equipment, wearing safety glasses, dating stock chemicals, and safe use of chemicals. (MA)

  6. Laboratory Ventilation and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1965-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of both safety and economy, laboratory ventilation systems must effectively remove air-borne toxic and flammable materials and at the same time exhaust a minimum volume of air. Laboratory hoods are the most commonly used means of removing gases, dusts, mists, vapors, and fumed from laboratory operations. To be effective,…

  7. Laboratory safety handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, E.L.; Watterson, C.A.; Chemerys, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Safety, defined as 'freedom from danger, risk, or injury,' is difficult to achieve in a laboratory environment. Inherent dangers, associated with water analysis and research laboratories where hazardous samples, materials, and equipment are used, must be minimized to protect workers, buildings, and equipment. Managers, supervisors, analysts, and laboratory support personnel each have specific responsibilities to reduce hazards by maintaining a safe work environment. General rules of conduct and safety practices that involve personal protection, laboratory practices, chemical handling, compressed gases handling, use of equipment, and overall security must be practiced by everyone at all levels. Routine and extensive inspections of all laboratories must be made regularly by qualified people. Personnel should be trained thoroughly and repetitively. Special hazards that may involve exposure to carcinogens, cryogenics, or radiation must be given special attention, and specific rules and operational procedures must be established to deal with them. Safety data, reference materials, and texts must be kept available if prudent safety is to be practiced and accidents prevented or minimized.

  8. RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM CAPABILITIES AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY (INL)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Lively; Stephen Johnson; Eric Clarke

    2014-07-01

    --Idaho National Laboratory’s, Space Nuclear Systems and Technology Division established the resources, equipment and facilities required to provide nuclear-fueled, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) to Department of Energy (DOE) Customers. RPSs are designed to convert the heat generated by decay of iridium clad, 238PuO2 fuel pellets into electricity that is used to power missions in remote, harsh environments. Utilization of nuclear fuel requires adherence to governing regulations and the INL provides unique capabilities to safely fuel, test, store, transport and integrate RPSs to supply power—supporting mission needs. Nuclear capabilities encompass RPS fueling, testing, handling, storing, transporting RPS nationally, and space vehicle integration. Activities are performed at the INL and in remote locations such as John F. Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station to support space missions. This paper will focus on the facility and equipment capabilities primarily offered at the INL, Material and Fuel Complex located in a security-protected, federally owned, industrial area on the remote desert site west of Idaho Falls, ID. Nuclear and non-nuclear facilities house equipment needed to perform required activities such as general purpose heat source (GPHS) module pre-assembly and module assembly using nuclear fuel; RPS receipt and baseline electrical testing, fueling, vibration testing to simulate the launch environment, mass properties testing to measure the mass and compute the moment of inertia, electro-magnetic characterizing to determine potential consequences to the operation of vehicle or scientific instrumentation, and thermal vacuum testing to verify RPS power performance in the vacuum and cold temperatures of space.

  9. Chemistry laboratory safety manual available

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsbrock, R. G.

    1968-01-01

    Chemistry laboratory safety manual outlines safe practices for handling hazardous chemicals and chemistry laboratory equipment. Included are discussions of chemical hazards relating to fire, health, explosion, safety equipment and procedures for certain laboratory techniques and manipulations involving glassware, vacuum equipment, acids, bases, and volatile solvents.

  10. School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brundage, Patricia; Palassis, John

    2006-01-01

    The guide presents information about ordering, using, storing, and maintaining chemicals in the high school laboratory. The guide also provides information about chemical waste, safety and emergency equipment, assessing chemical hazards, common safety symbols and signs, and fundamental resources relating to chemical safety, such as Material…

  11. Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckenbaugh, Raymond W.

    1996-11-01

    Each organic chemistry student should become familiar with the educational and governmental laboratory safety requirements. One method for teaching laboratory safety is to assign each student to locate safety resources for a specific class laboratory experiment. The student should obtain toxicity and hazardous information for all chemicals used or produced during the assigned experiment. For example, what is the LD50 or LC50 for each chemical? Are there any specific hazards for these chemicals, carcinogen, mutagen, teratogen, neurotixin, chronic toxin, corrosive, flammable, or explosive agent? The school's "Chemical Hygiene Plan", "Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory" (National Academy Press), and "Laboratory Standards, Part 1910 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards" (Fed. Register 1/31/90, 55, 3227-3335) should be reviewed for laboratory safety requirements for the assigned experiment. For example, what are the procedures for safe handling of vacuum systems, if a vacuum distillation is used in the assigned experiment? The literature survey must be submitted to the laboratory instructor one week prior to the laboratory session for review and approval. The student should then give a short presentation to the class on the chemicals' toxicity and hazards and describe the safety precautions that must be followed. This procedure gives the student first-hand knowledge on how to find and evaluate information to meet laboartory safety requirements.

  12. [Safety in the Microbiology laboratory].

    PubMed

    Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Alados, Juan Carlos; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gómez G; Leiva, José; Pérez, José L

    2015-01-01

    The normal activity in the laboratory of microbiology poses different risks - mainly biological - that can affect the health of their workers, visitors and the community. Routine health examinations (surveillance and prevention), individual awareness of self-protection, hazard identification and risk assessment of laboratory procedures, the adoption of appropriate containment measures, and the use of conscientious microbiological techniques allow laboratory to be a safe place, as records of laboratory-acquired infections and accidents show. Training and information are the cornerstones for designing a comprehensive safety plan for the laboratory. In this article, the basic concepts and the theoretical background on laboratory safety are reviewed, including the main legal regulations. Moreover, practical guidelines are presented for each laboratory to design its own safety plan according its own particular characteristics.

  13. Masters Thesis- Criticality Alarm System Design Guide with Accompanying Alarm System Development for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory in Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, Bryce A.

    2009-12-01

    A detailed instructional manual was created to guide criticality safety engineers through the process of designing a criticality alarm system (CAS) for Department of Energy (DOE) hazard class 1 and 2 facilities. Regulatory and technical requirements were both addressed. A list of design tasks and technical subtasks are thoroughly analyzed to provide concise direction for how to complete the analysis. An example of the application of the design methodology, the Criticality Alarm System developed for the Radioisotope Production Laboratory (RPL) of Richland, Washington is also included. The analysis for RPL utilizes the Monte Carlo code MCNP5 for establishing detector coverage in the facility. Significant improvements to the existing CAS were made that increase the reliability, transparency, and coverage of the system.

  14. Biology Laboratory Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Christine L.

    The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends that schools prepare or adapt a biosafety manual, and that instructors develop a list of safety procedures applicable to their own lab and distribute it to each student. In this way, safety issues will be brought to each student's attention. This document is an example of such a manual. It contains…

  15. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety in the Analytical Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Galen W.

    1990-01-01

    Safety issues specifically related to the analytical laboratory are discussed including hazardous reagents, transferring samples, cleaning apparatus, eye protection, and equipment damage. Special attention is given to techniques which not only endanger the technician but also endanger expensive equipment. (CW)

  16. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    2003-05-07

    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  17. Gallium Safety in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2003-06-01

    A university laboratory experiment for the US Department of Energy magnetic fusion research program required a simulant for liquid lithium. The simulant choices were narrowed to liquid gallium and galinstan (Ga-In-Sn) alloy. Safety information on liquid gallium and galinstan were compiled, and the choice was made to use galinstan. A laboratory safety walkthrough was performed in the fall of 2002 to support the galinstan experiment. The experiment has been operating successfully since early 2002.

  18. Disposition of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators Currently Located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory - 12232

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, J.; Patterson, J.; DeRoos, K.; Patterson, J.E.; Mitchell, K.G.

    2012-07-01

    Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded SEC Federal Services Corporation (SEC) a 34-building demolition and disposal (D and D) project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that included the disposition of six Strontium (Sr-90) powered Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) stored outside of ORNL Building 3517. Disposition of the RTGs is very complex both in terms of complying with disposal facility waste acceptance criteria (WAC) and U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements for packaging and transportation in commerce. Two of the RTGs contain elemental mercury which requires them to be Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) compliant prior to disposal. In addition, all of the RTGs exceed the Class C waste concentration limits under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Waste Classification Guidelines. In order to meet the LDR requirements and Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) WAC, a site specific treatability variance for mercury was submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to allow macro-encapsulation to be an acceptable treatment standard for elemental mercury. By identifying and confirming the design configuration of the mercury containing RTGs, the SEC team proved that the current configuration met the macro-encapsulation standard of 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 268.45. The SEC Team also worked with NNSS to demonstrate that all radioisotope considerations are compliant with the NNSS low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility performance assessment and WAC. Lastly, the SEC team determined that the GE2000 Type B cask met the necessary size, weight, and thermal loading requirements for five of the six RTGs. The sixth RTG (BUP-500) required a one-time DOT shipment exemption request due to the RTG's large size. The DOT exemption justification for the BUP-500 relies on the inherent robust construction and material make-up of the BUP- 500 RTG. DOE-ORO, SEC, and

  19. SAFETY IN THE CHEMICAL LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEERE, NORMAN V.

    MONTHLY ARTICLES ON LABORATORY SAFETY THAT APPEARED IN THE "JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL EDUCATION" BETWEEN JANUARY 1964, AND JANUARY 1967, ARE COMBINED IN THIS MANUAL FOR HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE CHEMISTRY TEACHERS. A GENERAL SECTION DEALS WITH (1) RESPONSIBILITY FOR ACCIDENT PREVENTION, (2) SAFETY CONSIDERATION IN RESEARCH PROPOSALS, (3) A…

  20. Laser Safety in the Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichel, H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Deals with the subject of laser hazards, laser hazards control, and laser safety practices in the laboratory. Describes four categories of hazards: radiative, electrical, explosive, and toxic, and explains the status of federal regulations that seek to define lazer hazards and control safety standards. (Author/GS)

  1. Guide for Science Laboratory Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, John J.

    General and specific safety procedures and recommendations for secondary school science laboratories are provided in this guide. Areas of concern include: (1) chemicals (storage, disposal, toxicity, unstable and incompatible chemicals); (2) microorganisms; (3) plants; (4) animals; (5) electricity; (6) lasers; (7) rockets; (8) eye safety and…

  2. LABORATORY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAFETY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Safety Council, Chicago, IL. Campus Safety Association.

    THIS SET OF CONSIDERATIONS HAS BEEN PREPARED TO PROVIDE PERSONS WORKING ON THE DESIGN OF NEW OR REMODELED LABORATORY FACILITIES WITH A SUITABLE REFERENCE GUIDE TO DESIGN SAFETY. THERE IS NO DISTINCTION BETWEEN TYPES OF LABORATORY AND THE EMPHASIS IS ON GIVING GUIDES AND ALTERNATIVES RATHER THAN DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE--(1)…

  3. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: A Chemical Laboratory Safety Audit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Arthur R.; Harris, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    Presented is an inspection form developed for use by college students to perform laboratory safety inspections. The form lists and classifies chemicals and is used to locate such physical facilities as: fume hoods, eye-wash fountains, deluge showers, and flammable storage cabinets. (BT)

  4. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Semba, Kentaro

    2006-09-01

    The use of radioisotopes to label specific molecules in a defined way has greatly furthered the discovery and dissection of biochemical pathways. The development of methods to synthesize such tagged biological compounds inexpensively on an industrial scale has enabled them to be used routinely in laboratory protocols, including many detailed in this manual. Although most of these protocols involve the use of only microcurie amounts of radioactivity, some (particularly those describing the metabolic labeling of proteins or nucleic acids within cells) require amounts on the order of millicuries. In all cases where radioisotopes are used, depending on the quantity and nature of the isotope, certain precautions must be taken to ensure the safety of the scientist. It is essential to use good safety practices and proper protection to handle radioactive substances. This unit discusses handling, storage, and disposal of the isotopes most frequently used in biological research.

  5. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Semba, Kentaro

    2006-06-01

    The use of radioisotopes to label specific molecules in a defined way has greatly furthered the discovery and dissection of biochemical pathways. The development of methods to synthesize such tagged biological compounds inexpensively on an industrial scale has enabled them to be used routinely in laboratory protocols, including many detailed in this manual. Although most of these protocols involve the use of only microcurie amounts of radioactivity, some (particularly those describing the metabolic labeling of proteins or nucleic acids within cells) require amounts on the order of millicuries. In all cases where radioisotopes are used, depending on the quantity and nature of the isotope, certain precautions must be taken to ensure the safety of the scientist. It is essential to use good safety practices and proper protection to handle radioactive substances. This unit discusses handling, storage, and disposal of the isotopes most frequently used in biological research.

  6. Structural testing of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Bronowski, D.R.; Madsen, M.M.

    1991-06-01

    The Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container is a Type B packaging design currently under development by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Type B packaging for transporting radioactive material is required to maintain containment and shielding after being exposed to the normal and hypothetical accident environments defined in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A combination of testing and analysis is used to verify the adequacy of this package design. This report documents the test program portion of the design verification, using several prototype packages. Four types of testing were performed: 30-foot hypothetical accident condition drop tests in three orientations, 40-inch hypothetical accident condition puncture tests in five orientations, a 21 psi external overpressure test, and a normal conditions of transport test consisting of a water spray and a 4 foot drop test. 18 refs., 104 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Certification testing of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Bronowski, D.R.; Madsen, M.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping counter is a Type B packaging currently under development by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Type B packaging for transporting radioactive material is required to maintain containment and shielding after being exposed to normal and hypothetical accident environments defined in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A combination of testing and analysis is used to verify the adequacy of this packaging design. This report documents the testing portion of the design verification. Six tests were conducted on a prototype package: a water spray test, a 4-foot normal conditions drop test, a 30-foot drop test, a 40-inch puncture test, a 30-minute thermal test, and an 8-hour immersion test.

  8. Environmental safety analysis tests on the Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU)

    SciTech Connect

    Tate, R.E.; Land, C.C.

    1985-05-01

    A series of safety tests has been performed on the Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU), a /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled device designed to provide thermal energy at selected locations in a spacecraft. The tests simulate the thermal and mechanical environments postulated for spacecraft accidents on the launch pad and on reentry abort. The tests demonstrate almost complete containment of the fuel, or fuel simulant (depleted UO/sub 2/), in (1) an overpressure environment of 12.76 MPa (1850 psi), (2) on impact by an 18-g aluminum fuel-tank fragment at velocities greater than 750 m/s (2460 ft/s) but less than 900 m/s (2950 ft/s), (3) during a 10.5-min burn of a 0.9 x 0.9 x 0.9 m (3 x 3 x 3 ft) block of solid rocket motor propellant, (4) after impact at 49 m/s (161 ft/s) in four different orientations on a hard surface, and (5) during immersion in seawater for 1.75 years at both sea level pressure and at a pressure equivalent to 6000 m (19,700 ft) of ocean depth.

  9. OSHA Laboratory Standard: Driving Force for Laboratory Safety!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Laboratory Safety Standards as the major driving force in establishing and maintaining a safe working environment for teachers and students. (Author)

  10. Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This booklet provides guidelines for safety in the chemical laboratory. Part I, "Guides for Instructors and Administrators," includes safety rules, safety practices and facilities, preparation for emergencies, safety committees, accident reporting, fire insurance, and listings of some hazardous chemicals. Part II, "Student Guide to…

  11. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety in the Chemistry Laboratories: A Specific Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkern, Walter H.; Munchausen, Linda L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a safety program adopted by Southeastern Louisiana University. Students are given detailed instructions on laboratory safety during the first laboratory period and a test which must be completely correct before they are allowed to return to the laboratory. Test questions, list of safety rules, and a laboratory accident report form are…

  12. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Fire Safety and Fire Control in the Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbraham, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses fire safety and fire control in the chemistry laboratory. The combustion process, extinguishing equipment, extinguisher maintenance and location, and fire safety and practices are included. (HM)

  13. Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Heat Exchangers for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastropietro, A. J.; Beatty, John S.; Kelly, Frank P.; Bhandari, Pradeep; Bame, David P.; Liu, Yuanming; Birux, Gajanana C.; Miller, Jennifer R.; Pauken, Michael T.; Illsley, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The addition of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) to the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover requires an advanced thermal control system that is able to both recover and reject the waste heat from the MMRTG as needed in order to maintain the onboard electronics at benign temperatures despite the extreme and widely varying environmental conditions experienced both on the way to Mars and on the Martian surface. Based on the previously successful Mars landed mission thermal control schemes, a mechanically pumped fluid loop (MPFL) architecture was selected as the most robust and efficient means for meeting the MSL thermal requirements. The MSL heat recovery and rejection system (HRS) is comprised of two Freon (CFC-11) MPFLs that interact closely with one another to provide comprehensive thermal management throughout all mission phases. The first loop, called the Rover HRS (RHRS), consists of a set of pumps, thermal control valves, and heat exchangers (HXs) that enables the transport of heat from the MMRTG to the rover electronics during cold conditions or from the electronics straight to the environment for immediate heat rejection during warm conditions. The second loop, called the Cruise HRS (CHRS), is thermally coupled to the RHRS during the cruise to Mars, and provides a means for dissipating the waste heat more directly from the MMRTG as well as from both the cruise stage and rover avionics by promoting circulation to the cruise stage radiators. A multifunctional structure was developed that is capable of both collecting waste heat from the MMRTG and rejecting the waste heat to the surrounding environment. It consists of a pair of honeycomb core sandwich panels with HRS tubes bonded to both sides. Two similar HX assemblies were designed to surround the MMRTG on the aft end of the rover. Heat acquisition is accomplished on the interior (MMRTG facing) surface of each HX while heat rejection is accomplished on the exterior surface of

  14. Safety in the Physics Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullen, Brother T. G.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly defines the legal aspects of safety. Presents prominent safety hazards and procedures that should be followed when dealing with electricity, radioactive materials, lasers, poisons, and vacuum apparatus. (GS)

  15. An Analysis of Laboratory Safety in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Edward J.; Picucci, Ali Callicoatte; Collins, James W.; Swann, Philip

    This paper reports on a survey to discover the types of laboratory accidents that occur in Texas public schools, the factors associated with such accidents, and the practices of schools with regard to current laboratory safety requirements. The purpose of the survey is to better understand safety conditions in Texas public schools and to help…

  16. Safety Teams: An Approach to Engage Students in Laboratory Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaimo, Peter J.; Langenhan, Joseph M.; Tanner, Martha J.; Ferrenberg, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    We developed and implemented a yearlong safety program into our organic chemistry lab courses that aims to enhance student attitudes toward safety and to ensure students learn to recognize, demonstrate, and assess safe laboratory practices. This active, collaborative program involves the use of student "safety teams" and includes…

  17. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1969-01-01

    Presents the Safety Guide used in the Research Center at Monsanto Chemical Company (St. Louis). Topics include: general safety practices, safety glasses and shoes, respiratory protection, electrical wiring, solvent handling and waste disposal. Procedures are given for evacuating, "tagging out, and "locking out. Special mention is given to…

  18. ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BETTER SIMULATES ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF SPACE

    SciTech Connect

    J. C. Giglio; A. A. Jackson

    2012-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is preparing to fuel and test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), the next generation space power generator. The INL identified the thermal vacuum test chamber used to test past generators as inadequate. A second vacuum chamber was upgraded with a thermal shroud to process the unique needs and to test the full power capability of the new generator. The thermal vacuum test chamber is the first of its kind capable of testing a fueled power system to temperature that accurately simulate space. This paper outlines the new test and set up capabilities at the INL.

  19. Advanced Stirling Convertor Dual Convertor Controller Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Taylor, Linda M.; Bell, Mark E.; Dolce, James L.; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center developed a nonnuclear representation of a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) consisting of a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), Dual Convertor Controller (DCC) EMs (engineering models) 2 and 3, and associated support equipment, which were tested in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory (RSIL). The DCC was designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to actively control a pair of ASCs. The first phase of testing included a Dual Advanced Stirling Convertor Simulator (DASCS), which was developed by JHU/APL and simulates the operation and electrical behavior of a pair of ASCs in real time via a combination of hardware and software. RSIL provides insight into the electrical interactions between a representative radioisotope power generator, its associated control schemes, and realistic electric system loads. The first phase of integration testing included the following spacecraft bus configurations: capacitive, battery, and super-capacitor. A load profile, created based on data from several missions, tested the RPS's and RSIL's ability to maintain operation during load demands above and below the power provided by the RPS. The integration testing also confirmed the DCC's ability to disconnect from the spacecraft when the bus voltage dipped below 22 volts or exceeded 36 volts. Once operation was verified with the DASCS, the tests were repeated with actual operating ASCs. The goal of this integration testing was to verify operation of the DCC when connected to a spacecraft and to verify the functionality of the newly designed RSIL. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  20. Advanced Stirling Convertor Dual Convertor Controller Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Taylor, Linda M.; Bell, Mark E.; Dolce, James L.; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David P.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) developed a non-nuclear representation of a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) consisting of a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC), a Dual Convertor Controller (DCC) EM (engineering model) 2 & 3, and associated support equipment, which were tested in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory (RSIL). The DCC was designed by the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to actively control a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC). The first phase of testing included a Dual Advanced Stirling Convertor Simulator (DASCS) which was developed by JHU/APL and simulates the operation and electrical behavior of a pair of ASC's in real time via a combination of hardware and software. RSIL provides insight into the electrical interactions between a representative radioisotope power generator, its associated control schemes, and realistic electric system loads. The first phase of integration testing included the following spacecraft bus configurations: capacitive, battery, and supercapacitor. A load profile, created based on data from several missions, tested the RPS and RSIL ability to maintain operation during load demands above and below the power provided by the RPS. The integration testing also confirmed the DCC's ability to disconnect from the spacecraft when the bus voltage dipped below 22 V or exceeded 36 V. Once operation was verified with the DASCS, the tests were repeated with actual operating ASC's. The goal of this integration testing was to verify operation of the DCC when connected to a spacecraft and to verify the functionality of the newly designed RSIL. The results of these tests are presented in this paper.

  1. Laboratory Safety and Chemical Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Toxicology/chemical hazards, safety policy, legal responsibilities, adequacy of ventilation, chemical storage, evaluating experimental hazards, waste disposal, and laws governing chemical safety were among topics discussed in 10 papers presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Several topics…

  2. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety Showers and Eyewash Fountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronaugh, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews safety and emergency equipment in their application to chemical laboratories. Discusses American National Standards (ANSI) for equipment. Presents practical considerations for the placement and purchase of equipment. (MVL)

  3. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety in the Laboratory: Are We Making Any Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKusick, Blaine C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews trends in laboratory safety found in both industrial and academic situations. Reports that large industrial labs generally have excellent safety programs but that, although there have been improvements, academia still lags behind industry in safety. Includes recommendations for improving lab safety. (ML)

  4. Safety Concepts for Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chlad, Frank L.; Hardy, James K.

    1983-01-01

    Safety procedures used by Department of Chemistry at the University of Akron are discussed. These include policy that no chemicals are stored in the teaching laboratories. Instead, dispensing stockrooms are used to service the laboratories. Other aspects discussed include ventilation procedures and development of microprocessor use in stockrooms.…

  5. Environmental, health and safety assessment of decommissioning radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) in northwest Russia.

    PubMed

    Standring, W J F; Dowdall, M; Sneve, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Amundsen, I

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents findings from public health and environmental assessment work that has been conducted as part of a joint Norwegian-Russian project to decommission radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) in northwest Russia. RTGs utilise heat energy from radioactive isotopes, in this case 90Sr and its daughter nuclide 90Y, to generate electricity as a power source. Different accident scenarios based on the decommissioning process for RTGs are assessed in terms of possible radiation effects to humans and the environment. Doses to humans and biota under the worst-case scenario were lower than threshold limits given in ICRP and IAEA literature.

  6. An Innovative Multimedia Approach to Laboratory Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. B.; Constant, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach for teaching safe laboratory practices has been developed for materials science laboratories at Iowa State university. Students are required to complete a computerized safety tutorial and pass an exam before working in the laboratory. The safety tutorial includes sections on chemical, electrical, radiation, and high temperature safety. The tutorial makes use of a variety of interactions, including 'assembly' interactions where a student is asked to drag and drop items with the mouse (either labels or pictures) to an appropriate place on the screen (sometimes in a specific order). This is extremely useful for demonstrating safe lab practices and disaster scenarios. Built into the software is a record tracking scheme so that a professor can access a file that records which students have completed the tutorial and their scores on the exam. This paper will describe the development and assessment of the safety tutorials.

  7. Laboratory Design for Microbiological Safety

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, G. Briggs; Runkle, Robert S.

    1967-01-01

    Of the large amount of funds spent each year in this country on construction and remodeling of biomedical research facilities, a significant portion is directed to laboratories handling infectious microorganisms. This paper is intended for the scientific administrators, architects, and engineers concerned with the design of new microbiological facilities. It develops and explains the concept of primary and secondary barriers for the containment of microorganisms. The basic objectives of a microbiological research laboratory, (i) protection of the experimenter and staff, (ii) protection of the surrounding community, and (iii) maintenance of experimental validity, are defined. In the design of a new infectious-disease research laboratory, early identification should be made of the five functional zones of the facility and their relation to each other. The following five zones and design criteria applicable to each are discussed: clean and transition, research area, animal holding and research area, laboratory support, engineering support. The magnitude of equipment and design criteria which are necessary to integrate these five zones into an efficient and safe facility are delineated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:4961771

  8. Safety analysis for the Galileo Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    The Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) will be used on the NASA Galileo Mission to provide thermal energy to the various systems on the orbiter and probe that are adversely affected by the low temperature a spacecraft encounters during a long interplanetary mission. Using these plutonia-fueled sources in 1-W increments permits employment of a single design and provides the spacecraft user the option of how many to use and where to position them to satisfy the proper thermal environment for components requiring such consideration. The use of the radioisotope {sup 238}Pu in these devices necessitates the assessment of postulated radiological risks which might be experienced in case of accidents or malfunctions of the space shuttle or the spacecraft during phases of the mission in the vicinity of the earth. Included are data for the design, mission descriptions, postulated accidents with their consequences, test data, and the derived source terms and personnel exposures for the various events. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Bursik, Steve

    2010-04-01

    The pursuit of scientific knowledge has been considerably advanced by the use of biochemical molecules that incorporate radioisotopes at specific sites. The fate of these labeled molecules, and/or the radiolabeled products that result from biochemical reactions in which the parent molecule was involved, can be traced using a variety of instruments that detect radioactivity. This appendix begins with a discussion of the principles of radioactivity in order to provide the reader/user with knowledge on which to base a common sense approach to the safe use of isotopes. The characteristics of isotopes most commonly used in a molecular biology laboratory are then detailed, as well as the safety precautions and monitoring methods peculiar to each one. Detection and imaging methods used in experimental analysis are reviewed. Finally, an outline of an orderly response to a spill of radioactive material is presented.

  10. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Bursik, Steve

    2007-07-01

    The pursuit of scientific knowledge has been considerably advanced by the use of biochemical molecules that incorporate radioisotopes at specific sites. The fate of these labeled molecules, and/or the radiolabeled products that result from biochemical reactions in which the parent molecule was involved, can be traced using a variety of instruments that detect radioactivity. This appendix begins with a discussion of the principles of radioactivity in order to provide the reader/user with knowledge on which to base a common sense approach to the safe use of isotopes. The characteristics of isotopes most commonly used in a molecular biology laboratory are then detailed, as well as the safety precautions and monitoring methods peculiar to each one. Detection and imaging methods used in experimental analysis are reviewed. Finally, an outline of an orderly response to a spill of radioactive material is presented.

  11. Safe use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Jill; Bursik, Steve

    2008-08-01

    The pursuit of scientific knowledge has been considerably advanced by the use of biochemical molecules that incorporate radioisotopes at specific sites. The fate of these labeled molecules, and/or the radiolabeled products that result from biochemical reactions in which the parent molecule was involved, can be traced using a variety of instruments that detect radioactivity. This appendix begins with a discussion of the principles of radioactivity in order to provide the reader/user with knowledge on which to base a common sense approach to the safe use of isotopes. The characteristics of isotopes most commonly used in a molecular biology laboratory are then detailed, as well as the safety precautions and monitoring methods peculiar to each one. Detection and imaging methods used in experimental analysis are reviewed. Finally, an outline of an orderly response to a spill of radioactive material is presented.

  12. Quality and safety aspects in histopathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Adyanthaya, Soniya; Jose, Maji

    2013-09-01

    Histopathology is an art of analyzing and interpreting the shapes, sizes and architectural patterns of cells and tissues within a given specific clinical background and a science by which the image is placed in the context of knowledge of pathobiology, to arrive at an accurate diagnosis. To function effectively and safely, all the procedures and activities of histopathology laboratory should be evaluated and monitored accurately. In histopathology laboratory, the concept of quality control is applicable to pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical activities. Ensuring safety of working personnel as well as environment is also highly important. Safety issues that may come up in a histopathology lab are primarily those related to potentially hazardous chemicals, biohazardous materials, accidents linked to the equipment and instrumentation employed and general risks from electrical and fire hazards. This article discusses quality management system which can ensure quality performance in histopathology laboratory. The hazards in pathology laboratories and practical safety measures aimed at controlling the dangers are also discussed with the objective of promoting safety consciousness and the practice of laboratory safety.

  13. Safety in the SEM laboratory--1981 update

    SciTech Connect

    Bance, G.N.; Barber, V.C.; Sholdice, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The article reviews recent information on hazards as they relate to safety in SEM laboratories. The first section lists the safety equipment that should be available in a SEM laboratory. Flammable and combustible liquids are discussed, and particular warnings are given concerning the fire and explosion risks associated with diethyl ether and diisopropyl ether. The possible hazards associated with electrical equipment, and the risk of X-ray emissions from EM's are briefly outlined. The hazards associated with acute and chronic toxicity of chemicals used in the EM laboratory are discussed. The need to reduce exposure to a growing list of recognizable hazardous chemicals is emphasized. This reduction can be accomplished by more extensive use of functioning fume hoods, and the use of more appropriate and effective protective gloves. Allergies and the hazards of dangerous pathogens in the SEM laboratory are discussed. The explosion and other hazards associated with cryogens, vacuum evaporators, critical point dryers, and compressed gas cylinders are emphasized.

  14. Safety in the Science Laboratory, A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Floyd T.

    The bulletin was prepared as a general guide to encourage the use of safe practices in science laboratories in Florida schools. The guide begins with an outline of recommended emergency procedures. Chapter I discusses the importance of safety in the science program. Chapter II discusses handling and storage of equipment, and designing laboratory…

  15. Radiation safety education for laboratory animal science.

    PubMed

    Emrich, J; Lambert, K

    2000-08-01

    Students enrolled in the laboratory animal science graduate program at MCP Hahnemann University seek to gain entrance to veterinary school or to manage an animal facility within an academic institution, pharmaceutical or biotechnology company conducting biomedical research. Ongoing interaction between faculty in the radiation oncology, radiation safety, and lab animal science disciplines revealed an acute need for radiation safety education for laboratory animal science students who will likely interact with researchers either designing and writing protocols for animal studies using radiation or radioactive materials, or veterinary staff who will use sources of radiation to diagnose and/or treat possible animal injuries and diseases. A core course in the Radiation Sciences graduate program was modified to address the needs of these students, instructing them in radiation safety, detection and counting instrumentation, and radiation biology. These fundamental areas were integrated to help the students gain a sound, basic knowledge of radiation and radioactive materials used in biomedical research.

  16. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: An Undergraduate Chemical Laboratory Safety Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, L. Jewel

    1982-01-01

    Describes a two-quarter hour college chemistry course focusing on laboratory safety. Includes lists of topics/assignments, problem sets (toxicology, storage, and energy) and videotapes, films, and slide sets used in the course. (JN)

  17. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Laboratory Chemical Reports: The First Step in Chemical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.; Tenpas, Carl J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a prelab activity, the chemistry report, that acquaints college students with the nature of the chemical(s) they are using in the laboratory. Methodology, experimental procedures and safety rules are emphasized, with particular emphasis on potential hazards, safety requirements and emergency procedures. (CS)

  18. FLEXIBLE NEUTRON SHIELDING FOR A GLOVEBOX WITHIN THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie Walsh

    2007-07-01

    Neutron shielding was desired to reduce worker exposure during handling of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) in a glovebox at the Idaho National Laboratory. Due to the unusual shape of the glovebox, standard methods of neutron shielding were impractical and would have interfered with glovebox operations. A silicon-based, boron-impregnated material was chosen due to its flexibility. This paper discusses the material, the installation, and the results from neutron source testing.

  19. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit Final Safety Analysis Report (LWRHU FSAR): Volume 3, Nuclear Risk Analysis Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-30

    The Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), Volume 2, Accident Model Document (AMD) describes potential accident scenarios during the Galileo mission and evaluates the response of the LWRHUs to the associated accident environments. Any resulting source terms, consisting of PuO2 (with Pu-238 the dominant radionuclide), are then described in terms of curies released, particle size distribution, release location, and probabilities. This volume (LWRHU-FSAR, Volume 3, Nuclear Risk Analysis Document (NRAD)) contains the radiological analyses which estimate the consequences of the accident scenarios described in the AMD. It also contains the quantification of mission risks resulting from the LWRHUs based on consideration of all accident scenarios and their probabilities. Estimates of source terms and their characteristics derived in the AMD are used as inputs to the analyses in the NRAD. The Failure Abort Sequence Trees (FASTs) presented in the AMD define events for which source terms occur and quantify them. Based on this information, three types of source term cases (most probable, maximum, and expectation) for each mission phase were developed for use in evaluating the radiological consequences and mission risks. 4 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. SAFETY IN THE DESIGN OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES AND BUILDING CODES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOROWITZ, HAROLD

    THE DESIGN OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS USED FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IS DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF LABORATORY SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES AND REGULATIONS. MAJOR TOPIC AREAS ARE--(1) SAFETY RELATED DESIGN FEATURES OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES, (2) LABORATORY SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES, AND (3) EVIDENCE OF UNSAFE DESIGN. EXAMPLES EMPHASIZE…

  1. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Learning How to Run Safer Undergraduate Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrig, Jerry R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses responsibilities for providing safe experiments and for teaching about safety. Provides lists of references on chemical safety and regulated/potential carcinogens. Also discusses general laboratory safety procedures including waste disposal and recycling of solvents. (JM)

  2. Safety in the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses undetected hazards that may have potential for injuring staff and students. Cites examples of chemical hazards in the lab. Stresses the need for laboratory safety education. Gives examples of safety publications for secondary and college science laboratories. Comments on the changing nature of chemical safety standards. (CW)

  3. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1984-08-01

    This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Plant; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; lists of customers, suppliers and isotopes purchased; list of isotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer codes; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1983.

  4. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit Safety Analysis Report (LWRHU-SAR). Volume II. Accident model document

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W.

    1985-10-01

    Purposes of this volume (AMD), are to: Identify all malfunctions, both singular and multiple, which can occur during the complete mission profile that could lead to release outside the clad of the radioisotopic material contained therein; provide estimates of occurrence probabilities associated with these various accidents; evaluate the response of the LWRHU (or its components) to the resultant accident environments; and associate the potential event history with test data or analysis to determine the potential interaction of the released radionuclides with the biosphere.

  5. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Developing Departmental Safety Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.; Palladino, George F.

    1980-01-01

    Presents rationale and guidelines for development of Safety Standard Operating Procedures (Safety SOP) specific for local conditions. Includes an outline of a Safety SOP developed for a department primarily focused on undergraduate education with a wide variety of expertise from common laborer to PhD with 20 years experience. (Author/JN)

  6. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Chemical Safety and Emergency Response in Small Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for safety programs in small colleges/universities and secondary schools, addressing objectives of such programs and major program components. Sample forms are included (hazardous materials log sheet, laboratory class safety checklist, laboratory room safety checklist, injury accident report, noninjury accident report, and room…

  7. HEW to Set Laboratory Safety Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) proposed guidelines for laboratories using chemical carcinogens. The guidelines are designed to provide protection for laboratory workers and their environment from exposure to all types of carcinogenic agents. (GA)

  8. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit final safety analysis report (LWRHU-FSAR): Volume 2: Accident Model Document (AMD)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this volume of the LWRHU SAR, the Accident Model Document (AMD), are to: Identify all malfunctions, both singular and multiple, which can occur during the complete mission profile that could lead to release outside the clad of the radioisotopic material contained therein; Provide estimates of occurrence probabilities associated with these various accidents; Evaluate the response of the LWRHU (or its components) to the resultant accident environments; and Associate the potential event history with test data or analysis to determine the potential interaction of the released radionuclides with the biosphere.

  9. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, M.P.

    1983-08-01

    The radioisotope production and distribution activities by facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. are listed. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility, contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customs numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1982. (MHR)

  10. Ames Laboratory integrated safety management self-assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The implementation of Integrated Safety Management (ISM) at Ames Laboratory began with the signing of the ISM Implementation Charter on February 24, 1997 (see Appendix A). The first step toward implementation of ISM at Ames Laboratory is the performance of a Self-Assessment (SA). In preparation for the SA, a workshop on ISM was provided to the Laboratory`s Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Coordinators, Safety Review Committee members, and the Environment, Safety, Health and Assurance (ESH&A) staff. In addition, a briefing was given to the Laboratory`s Executive Council and Program Directors. Next, an SA Team was organized. The Team was composed of four Ames Laboratory and four Department of Energy-Chicago Operations Office (DOE-CH) staff members. The purpose of this SA was to determine the current status of ES&H management within Ames Laboratory, as well as to identify areas which need to be improved during ISM implementation. The SA was conducted by reviewing documents, interviewing Ames Laboratory management and staff, and performing walkthroughs of Laboratory areas. At the conclusion of this SA, Ames Laboratory management was briefed on the strengths, weaknesses, and the areas of improvement which will assist in the implementation of ISM.

  11. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Flood Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Bruce D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes events leading to a flood in the Wehr Chemistry Laboratory at Marquette University, discussing steps taken to minimize damage upon discovery. Analyzes the problem of flooding in the chemical laboratory and outlines seven steps of flood control: prevention; minimization; early detection; stopping the flood; evaluation; clean-up; and…

  12. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Safety Course for Chemical Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Kathleen A.

    1987-01-01

    Describes two courses in chemical safety required as a part of a two-year program in chemical technology offered by the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (Canada). Lists the topics covered in each course. Provides descriptions of hand-outs, audiovisual materials, demonstrations, assignments, and examinations used in the courses. (TW)

  13. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Lab Safety as a Collateral Duty in Small Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Examines reasons why individuals in academic institutions do not feel the same safety-related pressures as individuals in nonacademic institutions. Also lists elements that should be included in any basic safety/health program and describes the steps taken at one college to improve laboratory safety. (JN)

  14. Health and safety in medical laboratories*

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    There has been a large increase in the number of persons employed in medical laboratories in the last 25 years. These workers are exposed to a variety of infective agents in the course of their work, the most important being Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella typhi, Brucella spp., and serum hepatitis virus. Chemical and physical hazards include toxic chemicals, lacerations, skin disease, and possibly cancer. Current knowledge of safe working practice in laboratories leaves much to be desired and there is an urgent need for both internationally agreed codes of safe practice and the development of guidelines for the medical surveillance of laboratory workers. The World Health Organization is developing such guidelines in an attempt to protect the health of workers employed in the investigation of ill health in others. PMID:6979421

  15. Handbook of Science Laboratory Practices and Safety. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, Clifford T.

    This handbook, written specially for the San Diego Public School System, contains detailed discussions on first aid, good laboratory practices, safety in the laboratory, and laws regulating the care and use of animals. The section on "First Aid" presents, in addition to standard first aid information, a discussion of first-aid kits for…

  16. Robot safety training at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.T.; Sievers, R.H.

    1992-10-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is developing applications of commercially available and advanced robotics. These involve multiple installations of test and demonstration robots and extensive concurrent research and development projects. LLNL robotic applications use many researchers and technicians requiring access to the equipment on tight schedules, using sophisticated support and auxiliary equipment, with concurrent programming and hardware installation and modification. The early recognition of the special safety problems inherent with the equipment and development operations mandated a strict compliance with the best available safety guidance. This has resulted in safety input in the system design, equipment layout, means of safeguarding, and safety training as described in the current and proposed American National Standard for Industrial Robots and Robot Systems-Safety Requirements. LLNL has implemented a model robot safety training program that is required for all employees that interact with the fixed robotic systems. The LLNL experience and performance has led to the Laboratory being made responsible for preparation of the industrial robots safety chapter for the Department of Energy Technical Safety Reference Manual. This paper describes the robotic installations, the safety training courses, lessons learned from the training, and recommendations for future robot safety training.

  17. The Laser Safety Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hyer, R.

    1997-02-01

    The Laser Safety Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was formalized in April, 1991, with the publication of a document, {open_quotes}Lasers,{close_quotes} modeled on the ANSIZ136.1 standard. This program has received such wide acceptance by the laser community and line managers that the original Laser Safety Program document has become a Laboratory standard on lasers. As a benchmark of the success of this program is that the Laboratory has experienced no disabling eye injuries because of laser operations since July, 1990, to be compared with a disabling laser eye injury that used to average one every eighteen months prior to the time the formal program was established. The Laboratory Laser Safety Program and program elements will be presented and discussed.

  18. Current safety practices in nano-research laboratories in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Guoyu

    2014-06-01

    China has become a key player in the global nanotechnology field, however, no surveys have specifically examined safety practices in the Chinese nano-laboratories in depth. This study reports results of a survey of 300 professionals who work in research laboratories that handle nanomaterials in China. We recruited participants at three major nano-research laboratories (which carry out research in diverse fields such as chemistry, material science, and biology) and the nano-chemistry session of the national meeting of the Chinese Chemical Society. Results show that almost all nano-research laboratories surveyed had general safety regulations, whereas less than one third of respondents reported having nanospecific safety rules. General safety measures were in place in most surveyed nano-research laboratories, while nanospecific protective measures existed or were implemented less frequently. Several factors reported from the scientific literature including nanotoxicology knowledge gaps, technical limitations on estimating nano-exposure, and the lack of nano-occupational safety legislation may contribute to the current state of affairs. With these factors in mind and embracing the precautionary principle, we suggest strengthening or providing nanosafety training (including raising risk awareness) and establishing nanosafety guidelines in China, to better protect personnel in the nano-workplace.

  19. Radioisotope trithiol complexes

    DOEpatents

    Jurisson, Silvia S.; Cutler, Cathy S.; Degraffenreid, Anthony J.

    2016-08-30

    The present invention is directed to a series of stable radioisotope trithiol complexes that provide a simplified route for the direct complexation of radioisotopes present in low concentrations. In certain embodiments, the complex contains a linking domain configured to conjugate the radioisotope trithiol complex to a targeting vector. The invention is also directed to a novel method of linking the radioisotope to a trithiol compound to form the radioisotope trithiol complex. The inventive radioisotope trithiol complexes may be utilized for a variety of applications, including diagnostics and/or treatment in nuclear medicine.

  20. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Burlison, J.S.

    1980-06-01

    The fifteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Division of Financial Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rocky Flats Area Office; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: Isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1979.

  1. Laboratory glassware rack for seismic safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A rack for laboratory bottles and jars for chemicals and medicines has been designed to provide the maximum strength and security to the glassware in the event of a significant earthquake. The rack preferably is rectangular and may be made of a variety of chemically resistant materials including polypropylene, polycarbonate, and stainless steel. It comprises a first plurality of parallel vertical walls, and a second plurality of parallel vertical walls, perpendicular to the first. These intersecting vertical walls comprise a self-supporting structure without a bottom which sits on four legs. The top surface of the rack is formed by the top edges of all the vertical walls, which are not parallel but are skewed in three dimensions. These top edges form a grid matrix having a number of intersections of the vertical walls which define a number of rectangular compartments having varying widths and lengths and varying heights.

  2. Viruses Causing Hemorrhagic Fever. Safety Laboratory Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Cobo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers are diseases caused by viruses which belong to different families, many of them causing severe diseases. These viruses may produce different symptomatology together with a severe multisystem syndrome, and the final result might be the production of hemorrhages in several sites of the body. The majority of them have no other treatment than supportive therapy, although some antiviral drugs can be used in some circumstances. Transmission of VHF has been demonstrated through contact with animal vectors or person-to-person through the contact with body fluids. No risk of transmission has been found during the incubation period, but when the viral load is high the risk of transmission is greatest. Both health care and clinical laboratory workers must safely handle patients and specimens by taking all required precautions during their management. PMID:27014378

  3. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987.

  4. Technical Safety Appraisal of the Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of the Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) was to assess the effectiveness of representative safety and health programs at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) through the evaluation of activities at selected facilities and in selected safety disciplines. The TSA was conducted in accordance with established procedures. The following BNL safety and health program elements were reviewed as a part of this TSA: Organization and Administration, Operations, Maintenance, Training and Certification, Nuclear Criticality Safety, Auxiliary Systems, Technical Support, Site/Facility Safety Review, Emergency Preparedness, Radiological Protection, Industrial Hygiene, Occupational Safety, Fire Protection, Quality Verification, and Medical Services. The TSA was conducted from March 26--April 12, 1990. The evaluation was conducted by a team of experts assembled by EH, Office of Safety Appraisals (OSA). TSAs are operationally focused. As such, in terms of safety, health, and quality verification, the site and selected facilities were appraised relative to operations, and the condition of equipment and facilities. The evaluation thus addresses whether current operations are being conducted within the operational safety procedures established for specific facilities and activities.

  5. Beyond laser safety glasses: augmented reality in optics laboratories.

    PubMed

    Quercioli, Franco

    2017-02-01

    Blocking visibility of a laser beam after a pair of safety goggles have been worn is always an unpleasant experience. Working blindly is hard, sometimes even dangerous, and safety could be again at risk. A safe, clear view of the laser beam path would be highly desirable. This paper presents a technique for laboratory laser safety, using a smartphone's camera and display, in conjunction with an augmented reality headset to allow clear viewing of laser experiments without any risk of laser eye injury. Use of the technique is demonstrated, and strengths and weaknesses of the solution are discussed.

  6. Current trends in nuclear safety programs at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.; Duffey, R.B.; Baron, S.

    1993-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts nuclear safety research and technical assistance programs for the U.S. nuclear regulatory commission and for the Department of Energy. This includes experimental and analytical studies in the following areas: risk assessment associated with low power and shutdown of Pressurized water reactors (PWR`S); development of guidelines for accidental management related to containment and radiological releases; experiments on hydrogen combustion; plant aging and life extension; human reliability and management factors related to safety; reactor safety assessment of advanced reactor concepts; reactor physics analysis; structural analysis; and radiation protection of workers.

  7. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Burlison, J.S.

    1981-08-01

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980.

  8. The F1 Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) : a Power Subsystem Enabler for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Loren; Moreno, Victor; Zimmerman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft carrying the Curiosity rover launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) on November 26, 2011. Following an 8.5-month cruise and after a successful Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) phase, the Curiosity rover arrived at the surface of Mars on August 6, 2012 UTC. At the core of the Curiosity rover power subsystem is the F1 Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) supplied by the Department of Energy. Integration of the F1 MMRTG into the MSL spacecraft has provided the first opportunity to architect a power subsystem that also included a Solar Array (during the cruise phase of the mission and up to the initial stage of the EDL phase) and secondary Li-ion batteries for operation during the planned one Martian year surface phase of the mission. This paper describes the F1 MMRTG functional features as an enabler of the MSL mission and as a novel component of the MSL power subsystem architecture.

  9. Final deactivation report on the radioisotope production Lab-D, Building 3031, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of Bldg. 3031 after completion of deactivation activities as outlined by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) guidance documentation. This report outlines the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) Program. This report provides a profile of Bldg. 3031 before and after deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Postdeactivation Surveillance & Maintenance Plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided in the Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) Turnover package, are discussed. Building 3031 will require access to facilitate required surveillance and maintenance activities to maintain the building safety envelope. Building 3031 was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 program, only a minimal surveillance and maintenance effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. Other than the minimal surveillance and maintenance activities, the building will be unoccupied and the exterior doors locked to prevent unauthorized access. The building will be entered only to perform the required surveillance and maintenance. All materials have been removed from the building and the hot cell, and all utility systems, piping, and alarms have been deactivated.

  10. Final deactivation report on the radioisotope area services, Building 3034, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of Bldg. 3034, after completion of deactivation activities as outlined by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) guidance documentation. This report outlines the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) Program. This report provides a history and profile of Bldg. 3034 before commencement of deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities. Turnover, items, such as the Postdeactivation Surveillance & Maintenance Plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, quality assurance, facility operations, an supporting documentation provided in the Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) Turnover Package, are discussed. Building 3034 will require access to facilitate required surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities to maintain the building safety envelope. Building 3034 was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 program, only a minimal S&M effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. In addition to the minimal S&M activities, the building will be occupied by the maintenance coordinator and the S&M supervisor for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project. The exterior doors are locked when unoccupied to prevent unauthorized access. All materials have been removed from the building. Piping and alarms have been deactivated.

  11. Final deactivation report on the Radioisotope Production Lab-E, Building 3032, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the condition of Bldg. 3032, after completion of deactivation activities as outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Materials and Facility Stabilization Program (EM-60) guidance documentation. This report outlines the activities conducted to place the facility in a safe and environmentally sound condition for transfer to the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration Program (EM-40). This report provides a history and profile of Bldg. 3032 prior to commencing deactivation activities and a profile of the building after completion of deactivation activities. Turnover items, such as the Postdeactivation Surveillance & Maintenance Plan, remaining hazardous materials, radiological controls, Safeguards and Security, quality assurance, facility operations, and supporting documentation provided in the EM-60 turnover package are discussed. Building 3032 will be used as the Health Physics Office for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Program area and will require access for these offices and to facilitate required surveillance and maintenance (S&M) activities to maintain the building safety envelope. Bldg. 3032 was stabilized during deactivation so that when transferred to the EM-40 program, only a minimal S&M effort would be required to maintain the building safety envelope. All materials have been removed from the building, and all utility systems, piping, and alarms have been deactivated except electricity and steam needed for the office areas.

  12. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: What Fate for Laboratory Safety Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Kenneth G.; DeLoach, Will S.

    1988-01-01

    Argues for the introduction of a college level safety course for chemistry majors and surveys college catalog offerings to determine course status in American Chemical Society approved departments. Concludes that six percent of approved departments offer a formal safety course. (ML)

  13. Chemical Safety. Part II: Tips for Dealing with Laboratory Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of involving students in assessing the risks versus the benefits of specific laboratory activities, completing accident/incident reports, and performing periodic safety inspections. Concludes that involving students enhances their awareness of both hazards and precautions that must be taken. Provides them another avenue…

  14. Safety and Liability in the New Technology Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, W. J., III

    2009-01-01

    All laboratories, even modern high-tech ones, have some degree of hazard potential. It is the teacher's responsibility to make the lab as safe as possible and to do all that is reasonable and prudent to prevent accidents. The teacher's goal should be to insure the safety of every student. This goal is met best via well-planned instruction and…

  15. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory. Chemical Laboratory Safety: The Academic Anomaly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretherick, Leslie

    1990-01-01

    Discussed are accidents that occur in the laboratories of highly trained chemists. Four examples are provided to illustrate potential hazards that are often overlooked in chemistry laboratories, molten inorganic salt baths, the reaction of acetone and hydrogen peroxide, halogenated acetylene compounds, and the reaction of hydrogen peroxide and…

  16. Technical Safety Appraisal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This report documents the results of the Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) (including the Site 300 area), Livermore, California, conducted from February 26 to April 5, 1990. The purpose of the assessment was to provide the Secretary of Energy with the status of Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) Programs at LLNL. LLNL is operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy (DOE), and is a multi-program, mission-oriented institution engaged in fundamental and applied research programs that require a multidisciplinary approach. 1 fig.

  17. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety Concerns at the Local Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the presentations of chemical demonstrations, hands-on experiments, and magic shows. Presents 12 guidelines to follow when presenting chemical demonstrations. Points out the obligations of the presenters for the safety concerns of the general public. Notes information available from the American Chemical Society. (MVL)

  18. Markets for reactor-produced non-fission radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    Current market segments for reactor produced radioisotopes are developed and reported from a review of current literature. Specific radioisotopes studied in is report are the primarily selected from those with major medical or industrial markets, or those expected to have strongly emerging markets. Relative market sizes are indicated. Special emphasis is given to those radioisotopes that are best matched to production in high flux reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory or the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A general bibliography of medical and industrial radioisotope applications, trends, and historical notes is included.

  19. Health, safety and environmental risk management in laboratory fields

    PubMed Central

    Yarahmadi, Rasoul; Moridi, Parvin; Roumiani, YarAllah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research project risks are uncertain contingent events or situations that, if transpire, will have positive or negative effects on objectives of a project. The Management of Health and Safety at Work (MHSW) Regulations 1999 require all employers and the self-employed persons to assess the risks from their work on anyone who may be affected by their activities. Risk assessment is the first step in risk-management procedure, and due to its importance, it has been deemed to be a vital process while having a unique place in the researchbased management systems. Methods: In this research, a two-pronged study was carried out. Firstly, health and safety issues were studied and analyzed by means of ISO 14121. Secondly, environmental issues were examined with the aid of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. Both processes were utilized to determine the risk level independently for each research laboratory and corrective measure priorities in each field (laboratory). Results: Data analysis showed that the total main and inherent risks in laboratory sites reduced by 38% to 86%. Upon comparing the average risk levels before and after implementing the control and protective actions utilizing risk management approaches which were separate from health, safety and environmental aspects, a highly effective significance (p<0.001) was obtained for inherent risk reduction. Analysis of health, safety and environmental control priorities with the purpose of comparing the ratio of the number of engineering measures to the amount of management ones showed a relatively significant increase. Conclusion: The large number of engineering measures was attributed to the employment of a variety of timeworn machinery (old technologies) along with using devices without basic protection components. PMID:27284544

  20. HFIR-produced medical radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, S.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Alexander, C.W.

    1997-12-01

    We have experimentally determined the yields of a number of medical radioisotopes produced in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Hydraulic Tube (HT) facility. The HT facility is located in the very high flux region in the flux trap of the reactor, providing on-line access capability while the reactor is operating. The HT facility consists of nine vertically stacked capsules centered just adjacent to the core horizontal midplane. HFIR operates at a nominal power level of 85 MW. The capabilities of the HFIR-HT facilities offer increased efficiency, greater availability, and optimization of radioisotope production, and, as a result, the conservation of rare or expensive target isotopes.

  1. Radioisotopes: Today's Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Radioisotopes are useful because of their three unique characteristics: (1) radiation emission; (2) predictable radioactive lives; and (3) the same chemical properties as the nonradioactive atoms of that element. Researchers are able to "order" a radioisotope with the right radiation, half-life, and chemical property to perform a given task with…

  2. X-ray safety at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, J.A.

    1986-11-01

    An organized and structured safety program for x-ray generating devices was initiated in October, 1979. An X-ray Device Control Office was established to manage the program that currently oversees the activities of 201 x-ray generating devices and to provide SOP reviews, perform shielding calculations, and provide training for both the operators and health physics x-ray device surveyors. The new program also establishes controls for procurement of new equipment, requires the writing of Standard Operating Procedures, requires training for operators and provides routine and non-routine safety inspections of x-ray generating devices. Prior to this program going into effect, the Laboratory had recorded nine documented x-ray related exposure accidents. Since then, there have been none. Program elements and experiences of interest to other x-ray device users are discussed. 3 refs.

  3. Specimen rejection in laboratory medicine: Necessary for patient safety?

    PubMed Central

    Dikmen, Zeliha Gunnur; Pinar, Asli; Akbiyik, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The emergency laboratory in Hacettepe University Hospitals receives specimens from emergency departments (EDs), inpatient services and intensive care units (ICUs). The samples are accepted according to the rejection criteria of the laboratory. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the sample rejection ratios according to the types of pre-preanalytical errors and collection areas. Materials and methods The samples sent to the emergency laboratory were recorded during 12 months between January to December, 2013 in which 453,171 samples were received and 27,067 specimens were rejected. Results Rejection ratios was 2.5% for biochemistry tests, 3.2% for complete blood count (CBC), 9.8% for blood gases, 9.2% for urine analysis, 13.3% for coagulation tests, 12.8% for therapeutic drug monitoring, 3.5% for cardiac markers and 12% for hormone tests. The most frequent rejection reasons were fibrin clots (28%) and inadequate volume (9%) for biochemical tests. Clotted samples (35%) and inadequate volume (13%) were the major causes for coagulation tests, blood gas analyses and CBC. The ratio of rejected specimens was higher in the EDs (40%) compared to ICUs (30%) and inpatient services (28%). The highest rejection ratio was observed in neurology ICU (14%) among the ICUs and internal medicine inpatient service (10%) within inpatient clinics. Conclusions We detected an overall specimen rejection rate of 6% in emergency laboratory. By documentation of rejected samples and periodic training of healthcare personnel, we expect to decrease sample rejection ratios below 2%, improve total quality management of the emergency laboratory and promote patient safety. PMID:26527231

  4. Radioisotopic heat source

    DOEpatents

    Sayell, E.H.

    1973-10-23

    A radioisotopic heat source is described which includes a core of heat productive, radioisotopic material, an impact resistant layer of graphite surrounding said core, and a shell of iridium metal intermediate the core and the impact layer. The source may also include a compliant mat of iridium between the core and the iridium shell, as well as an outer covering of iridium metal about the entire heat source. (Official Gazette)

  5. Radiation Safety System for Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J

    2004-03-12

    Radiation Safety System (RSS) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is summarized and reviewed. The RSS, which is designed to protect people from prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operation, consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Beam Containment System (BCS). The ACS prevents people from being exposed to the lethal radiation level inside the shielding housing (called a PPS area at SLAC). The ACS for a PPS area consists of the shielding housing, beam inhibiting devices, and a standard entry module at each entrance. The BCS protects people from the prompt radiation hazards outside a PPS area under both normal and abnormal beam loss situations. The BCS consists of the active power (current/energy) limiting devices, beam stoppers, shielding, and an active radiation monitor system. The policies and practices in setting up the RSS at SLAC are illustrated.

  6. Methodology assessment and recommendations for the Mars science laboratory launch safety analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Metzinger, Kurt Evan; Powers, Dana Auburn; Atcitty, Christopher B.; Robinson, David B; Hewson, John C.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Dodson, Brian W.; Potter, Donald L.; Kelly, John E.; MacLean, Heather J.; Bergeron, Kenneth Donald (Sala & Associates); Bessette, Gregory Carl; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2006-09-01

    The Department of Energy has assigned to Sandia National Laboratories the responsibility of producing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the plutonium-dioxide fueled Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) proposed to be used in the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) is anticipating a launch in fall of 2009, and the SAR will play a critical role in the launch approval process. As in past safety evaluations of MMRTG missions, a wide range of potential accident conditions differing widely in probability and seventy must be considered, and the resulting risk to the public will be presented in the form of probability distribution functions of health effects in terms of latent cancer fatalities. The basic descriptions of accident cases will be provided by NASA in the MSL SAR Databook for the mission, and on the basis of these descriptions, Sandia will apply a variety of sophisticated computational simulation tools to evaluate the potential release of plutonium dioxide, its transport to human populations, and the consequent health effects. The first step in carrying out this project is to evaluate the existing computational analysis tools (computer codes) for suitability to the analysis and, when appropriate, to identify areas where modifications or improvements are warranted. The overall calculation of health risks can be divided into three levels of analysis. Level A involves detailed simulations of the interactions of the MMRTG or its components with the broad range of insults (e.g., shrapnel, blast waves, fires) posed by the various accident environments. There are a number of candidate codes for this level; they are typically high resolution computational simulation tools that capture details of each type of interaction and that can predict damage and plutonium dioxide release for a range of choices of controlling parameters. Level B utilizes these detailed results to study many

  7. Major Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Laboratories --Implications for Health and Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Paul A.; Sartor, Dale A.; Bell, Geoffrey C.; Drummond,David

    2007-04-27

    Laboratory facilities present a unique challenge for energy efficient design, partly due to their health and safety requirements. Recent experience has shown that there is significant energy efficiency potential in laboratory buildings. However, there is often a misperception in the laboratory community that energy efficiency will inherently compromise safety. In some cases, energy efficiency measures require special provisions to ensure that safety requirements are met. In other cases, efficiency measures actually improve safety. In this paper we present five major, yet under-utilized, energy efficiency strategies for ventilation-intensive laboratories and discuss their implications for health and safety. These include: (a) optimizing ventilation rates; (b) reducing laboratory chemical hood energy use; (c) low-pressure drop HVAC design; (d) right-sizing HVAC systems; and (e) reducing simultaneous heating and cooling. In all cases, the successful design and implementation of these strategies requires active and informed participation by health and safety personnel.

  8. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  9. Radioisotopic heater units warm an interplanetary spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Franco-Ferreira, E.A.; Rinehart, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    The Cassini orbiter and Huygens probe, which were successfully launched on October 15, 1997, constitute NASA`s last grand-scale interplanetary mission of this century. The mission, which consists of a four-year, close-up study of Saturn and its moons, begins in July 2004 with Cassini`s 60 orbits of Saturn and about 33 fly-bys of the large moon Titan. The Huygens probe will descend and land on Titan. Investigations will include Saturn`s atmosphere, its rings and its magnetosphere. The atmosphere and surface of Titan and other icy moons also will be characterized. Because of the great distance of Saturn from the sun, some of the instruments and equipment on both the orbiter and the probe require external heaters to maintain their temperature within normal operating ranges. These requirements are met by Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) designed, fabricated and safety tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. An improved gas tungsten arc welding procedure lowered costs and decreased processing time for heat units for the Cassini spacecraft.

  10. Cyclotron Production of Medical Radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Avila-Rodriguez, M. A.; Zarate-Morales, A.; Flores-Moreno, A.

    2010-08-04

    The cyclotron production of radioisotopes for medical applications is gaining increased significance in diagnostic molecular imaging techniques such as PET and SPECT. In this regard, radioisotope production has never been easier or more convenient until de introduction of compact medical cyclotrons in the last few decades, which allowed the use of short-lived radioisotopes in in vivo nuclear medicine studies on a routine basis. This review outlines some general considerations about the production of radioisotopes using charged particle accelerators.

  11. Radioisotopic heat source

    DOEpatents

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  12. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit Safety Analysis Report (LWRHU-SAR). Volume I. A. Introduction and executive summary. B. Reference Design Document (RDD)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W.

    1985-10-01

    The orbiter and probe portions of the NASA Galileo spacecraft contain components which require auxiliary heat during the mission. To meet these needs, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Special Nuclear Projects (OSNP) has sponsored the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-watt encapsulated plutonium dioxide-fueled thermal heater named the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU). This report addresses the radiological risks which might be encountered by people both at the launch area and worldwide should postulate mission failures or malfunctions occur, which would result in the release of the LWRHUs to the environment. Included are data from the design, mission descriptions, postulated accidents with their consequences, test data, and the derived source terms and personnel exposures for the various events.

  13. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit final safety analysis report (LWRHU-FSAR): Volume 1: A. Introduction and executive summary: B. Reference Design Document (RDD)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W.

    1988-10-01

    The orbiter and probe portions of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Galileo spacecraft contain components which require auxiliary heat during the mission. To meet these needs, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Special Applications (OSA) has sponsored the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-watt encapsulated plutonium dioxide-fueled thermal heater named the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU). This report, prepared by Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC), addresses the radiological risks which might be encountered by people both at the launch area and worldwide should postulated mission failures or malfunctions occur, resulting in the release of the LWRHUs to the environment. Included are data from the design, mission descriptions, postulated accidents with their consequences, test data, and the derived source terms and personnel exposures for the various events. 11 refs., 44 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Radioisotope-powered cardiac pacemaker program. Clinical studies of the nuclear pacemaker model NU-5. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Beginning in February, 1970, the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC) undertook a program to design, develop and manufacture a radioisotope powered cardiac pacemaker system. The scope of technical work was specified to be: establish system, component, and process cost reduction goals using the prototype Radioisotope Powered Cardiac Pacemaker (RCP) design and develop production techniques to achieve these cost reduction objectives; fabricate radioisotope powered fueled prototype cardiac pacemakers (RCP's) on a pilot production basis; conduct liaison with a Government-designated fueling facility for purposes of defining fueling requirements, fabrication and encapsulation procedures, safety design criteria and quality control and inspection requirements; develop and implement Quality Assurance and Reliability Programs; conduct performance, acceptance, lifetime and reliability tests of fueled RCP's in the laboratory; conduct liaison with the National Institutes of Health and with Government specified medical research institutions selected for the purpose of undertaking clinical evaluation of the RCP in humans; monitor and evaluate, on a continuing basis, all test data; and perform necessary safety analyses and tests. Pacemaker designs were developed and quality assurance and manufacturing procedures established. Prototype pacemakers were fabricated. A total of 126 radioisotope powered units were implanted and have been followed clinically for approximately seven years. Four (4) of these units have failed. Eighty-three (83) units remain implanted and satisfactorily operational. An overall failure rate of less than the target 0.15% per month has been achieved.

  15. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRG) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high specific power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and DOE called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provide about 50 to 450 watts DC to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific power may be slightly lower than the ASRG and

  16. Liability of Science Educators for Laboratory Safety. NSTA Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory investigations are essential for the effective teaching and learning of science. A school laboratory investigation ("lab") is an experience in the laboratory, classroom, or the field that provides students with opportunities to interact directly with natural phenomena or with data collected by others using tools, materials, data…

  17. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety in Academic Departments with Graduate and Undergraduate Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landgrebe, John A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the University of Kansas chemistry department's safety program. Comprehensive regulation, undergraduate regulations, safety equipment, handling accidents, inspections, and training are addressed. (JN)

  18. Design of a limited-access facility and safety program for a genetic toxicology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Inmon, J; Vaughan, T; Morris, J

    1985-06-01

    A limited-access facility has been designed as a result of the need for laboratories for testing hazardous materials found in the environment. The facility design features include room air flow and filtration, hood types, sink design and placement, design of countertops, type of flooring and wall sealant, and traffic flow within the laboratories. These laboratories required the diversity to handle weighing of stock hazardous materials, preparation and handling of aliquots, maintenance of dosed animals as well as sterile conditions required for tissue culture and continuous cell culture methods. A safety and health program was also developed which included specific dress (e.g., scrub suit, TYVEK jumpsuit, gloves, safety glasses and safety shoes), safety advisory group, safety response group, medical monitoring program and training of current and new staff members. The design and use of the facility are continuously reevaluated and changes are made as necessitated by either research needs or improved safety methods.

  19. Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology program is developing next generation power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either the ubiquitous photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power System (RPS) technology. Performance goals of advanced radioisotope power systems include improvement over the state-of-practice General Purpose Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator by providing significantly higher efficiency to reduce the number of radioisotope fuel modules, and increase specific power (watts/kilogram). Other Advanced RPS goals include safety, long-life, reliability, scalability, multi-mission capability, resistance to radiation, and minimal interference with the scientific payload. NASA has awarded ten contracts in the technology areas of Brayton, Stirling, Thermoelectric, and Thermophotovoltaic power conversion including five development contracts that deal with more mature technologies and five research contracts. The Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team includes members from NASA GRC, JPL, DOE and Orbital Sciences whose function is to review the technologies being developed under the ten Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology contracts and assess their relevance to NASA's future missions. Presented is an overview of the ten radioisotope power conversion technology contracts and NASA's Advanced RPS Systems Assessment Team.

  20. Taming Highly Charged Radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Usman; Eberhardt, Benjamin; Jang, Fuluni; Schultz, Brad; Simon, Vanessa; Delheij, Paul; Dilling, Jens; Gwinner, Gerald

    2012-10-01

    The precise and accurate mass of short-lived radioisotopes is a very important parameter in physics. Contribution to the improvement of nuclear models, metrological standard fixing and tests of the unitarity of the Caibbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix are a few examples where the mass value plays a major role. TRIUMF's ion trap for atomic and nuclear physics (TITAN) is a unique facility of three online ion traps that enables the mass measurement of short-lived isotopes with high precision (˜10-8). At present TITAN's electron beam ion trap (EBIT) increases the charge state to increase the precision, but there is no facility to significantly reduce the energy spread introduced by the charge breeding process. The precision of the measured mass of radioisotopes is linearly dependent on the charge state while the energy spread of the charged radioisotopes affects the precision adversely. To boost the precision level of mass measurement at TITAN without loosing too many ions, a cooler Penning trap (CPET) is being developed. CPET is designed to use either positively (proton) or negatively (electron) charged particles to reduce the energy spread via sympathetic cooling. Off-line setup of CPET is complete. Details of the working principles and updates are presented

  1. Recommended safety guides for industrial laboratories and shops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, W. W.

    1971-01-01

    Booklet provides references to 29 publications providing information on hazard control and approved safety practices. Areas include pressurized gas and vacuum systems. Guidelines are presented for safeguarding facilities where machinery, equipment, electrical devices, or hazardous chemicals are used.

  2. Nuclear criticality safety staff training and qualifications at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, S.P.; McLaughlin, T.P.

    1997-05-01

    Operations involving significant quantities of fissile material have been conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory continuously since 1943. Until the advent of the Laboratory`s Nuclear Criticality Safety Committee (NCSC) in 1957, line management had sole responsibility for controlling criticality risks. From 1957 until 1961, the NCSC was the Laboratory body which promulgated policy guidance as well as some technical guidance for specific operations. In 1961 the Laboratory created the position of Nuclear Criticality Safety Office (in addition to the NCSC). In 1980, Laboratory management moved the Criticality Safety Officer (and one other LACEF staff member who, by that time, was also working nearly full-time on criticality safety issues) into the Health Division office. Later that same year the Criticality Safety Group, H-6 (at that time) was created within H-Division, and staffed by these two individuals. The training and education of these individuals in the art of criticality safety was almost entirely self-regulated, depending heavily on technical interactions between each other, as well as NCSC, LACEF, operations, other facility, and broader criticality safety community personnel. Although the Los Alamos criticality safety group has grown both in size and formality of operations since 1980, the basic philosophy that a criticality specialist must be developed through mentoring and self motivation remains the same. Formally, this philosophy has been captured in an internal policy, document ``Conduct of Business in the Nuclear Criticality Safety Group.`` There are no short cuts or substitutes in the development of a criticality safety specialist. A person must have a self-motivated personality, excellent communications skills, a thorough understanding of the principals of neutron physics, a safety-conscious and helpful attitude, a good perspective of real risk, as well as a detailed understanding of process operations and credible upsets.

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory site data for safety-analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, F.C.

    1982-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory site data contained herein were compiled in support of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office Order OR 5481.1. That order sets forth assignment of responsibilities for safety analysis and review responsibilities and provides guidance relative to the content and format of safety analysis reports. The information presented in this document is intended for use by reference in individual safety analysis reports where applicable to support accident analyses or the establishment of design bases of significance to safety, and it is applicable only to Oak Ridge National Laboratory facilities in Bethel and Melton Valleys. This information includes broad descriptions of the site characteristics, radioactive waste handling and monitoring practices, and the organization and operating policies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The historical background of the Laboratory is discussed briefly and the overall physical situation of the facilities is described in the following paragraphs.

  4. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Safety Appendix to the 1983 CPT Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renfrew, Malcolm M., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents an appendix to the Committee on Professional Training (CPT) of the Division of Chemical Health and Safety of the American Chemical Society. The information is applicable to chemical health and safety policies and practices within the chemistry department of an academic institution. Includes lists of references with safety information. (JN)

  5. Integration of Behaviour-Based Safety Programme into Engineering Laboratories and Workshops Conceptually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Kean Eng; Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md; Zainal, Siti Rohaida Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual research framework is to develop and integrate a safety training model using a behaviour-based safety training programme into laboratories for young adults, during their tertiary education, particularly in technical and vocational education. Hence, this research will be investigating the outcome of basic safety…

  6. Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories: Volume 2. Accident Prevention for Faculty and Administrators, 7th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This book contains volume 2 of 2 and describes safety guidelines for academic chemistry laboratories to prevent accidents for college and university students. Contents include: (1) "Organizing for Accident Prevention"; (2) "Personal Protective Equipment"; (3) "Labeling"; (4) "Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs)"; (5) "Preparing for Medical…

  7. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, April 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1985-10-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Covered are: general-purpose heat source testing and recovery, and safety technology program (biaxial testing, iridium chemistry).

  8. Quality Indicators in Laboratory Medicine: the status of the progress of IFCC Working Group "Laboratory Errors and Patient Safety" project.

    PubMed

    Sciacovelli, Laura; Lippi, Giuseppe; Sumarac, Zorica; West, Jamie; Garcia Del Pino Castro, Isabel; Furtado Vieira, Keila; Ivanov, Agnes; Plebani, Mario

    2017-03-01

    The knowledge of error rates is essential in all clinical laboratories as it enables them to accurately identify their risk level, and compare it with those of other laboratories in order to evaluate their performance in relation to the State-of-the-Art (i.e. benchmarking) and define priorities for improvement actions. Although no activity is risk free, it is widely accepted that the risk of error is minimized by the use of Quality Indicators (QIs) managed as a part of laboratory improvement strategy and proven to be suitable monitoring and improvement tools. The purpose of QIs is to keep the error risk at a level that minimizes the likelihood of patients. However, identifying a suitable State-of-the-Art is challenging, because it calls for the knowledge of error rates measured in a variety of laboratories throughout world that differ in their organization and management, context, and the population they serve. Moreover, it also depends on the choice of the events to keep under control and the individual procedure for measurement. Although many laboratory professionals believe that the systemic use of QIs in Laboratory Medicine may be effective in decreasing errors occurring throughout the total testing process (TTP), to improve patient safety as well as to satisfy the requirements of International Standard ISO 15189, they find it difficult to maintain standardized and systematic data collection, and to promote continued high level of interest, commitment and dedication in the entire staff. Although many laboratories worldwide express a willingness to participate to the Model of QIs (MQI) project of IFCC Working Group "Laboratory Errors and Patient Safety", few systematically enter/record their own results and/or use a number of QIs designed to cover all phases of the TTP. Many laboratories justify their inadequate participation in data collection of QIs by claiming that the number of QIs included in the MQI is excessive. However, an analysis of results suggests

  9. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Flameless Organic Teaching Laboratories are Safer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Frederick J.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of many colleges is to make the organic chemistry laboratory completely flameless by using electric heating equipment. Benefits of eliminating the Bunsen burner, electrical heating equipment and accessories, hazards remaining in flameless laboratories, and design standards related to laboratory liability are the major topic areas…

  10. Establishing a national biological laboratory safety and security monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Blaine, James W

    2012-12-01

    The growing concern over the potential use of biological agents as weapons and the continuing work of the Biological Weapons Convention has promoted an interest in establishing national biological laboratory biosafety and biosecurity monitoring programs. The challenges and issues that should be considered by governments, or organizations, embarking on the creation of a biological laboratory biosafety and biosecurity monitoring program are discussed in this article. The discussion focuses on the following questions: Is there critical infrastructure support available? What should be the program focus? Who should be monitored? Who should do the monitoring? How extensive should the monitoring be? What standards and requirements should be used? What are the consequences if a laboratory does not meet the requirements or is not willing to comply? Would the program achieve the results intended? What are the program costs? The success of a monitoring program can depend on how the government, or organization, responds to these questions.

  11. [The contribution of critical laboratory values to patients' safety and care].

    PubMed

    Guzmán D, Ana María; Lagos L, Marcela

    2009-04-01

    Critical values are those laboratory values that are so abnormal that may threaten the life of a patient unless immediate corrective or therapeutic actions are undertaken. Among laboratory procedures, this definition has been incorporated to standards that watch over patients' safety. Health institutions should incorporate this practice and monitor its effectiveness.

  12. Laboratory Safety Needs of Kentucky School-Based Agricultural Mechanics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucier, P. Ryan; Vincent, Stacy K.; Anderson, Ryan G.

    2014-01-01

    The frequency and severity of accidents that occur in the agricultural mechanics laboratory can be reduced when these facilities are managed by educators who are competent in the area of laboratory safety and facility management (McKim & Saucier, 2011). To ensure teachers are technically competent and prepared to manage an agricultural…

  13. Site Safety Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CERCLA investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Bainer, R.; Duarte, J.

    1993-07-01

    The safety policy of LLNL is to take every reasonable precaution in the performance of work to protect the environment and the health and safety of employees and the public, and to prevent property damage. With respect to hazardous agents, this protection is provided by limiting human exposures, releases to the environment, and contamination of property to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). It is the intent of this Plan to supply the broad outline for completing environmental investigations within ALARA guidelines. It may not be possible to determine actual working conditions in advance of the work; therefore, planning must allow the opportunity to provide a range of protection based upon actual working conditions. Requirements will be the least restrictive possible for a given set of circumstances, such that work can be completed in an efficient and timely fashion. Due to the relatively large size of the LLNL Site and the different types of activities underway, site-specific Operational Safety Procedures (OSPs) will be prepared to supplement activities not covered by this Plan. These site-specific OSPs provide the detailed information for each specific activity and act as an addendum to this Plan, which provides the general plan for LLNL Main Site operation.

  14. Integrating environment, safety and health training at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    In a multi-purpose research laboratory, innovation and creativity are required to satisfy the training requirements for hazards to people and the environment. A climate that encourages excellence in research and enhances hazard minimization skills is created by combining technical expertise with instructional design talent.

  15. Integrating environment, safety and health training at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    In a multi-purpose research laboratory, innovation and creativity are required to satisfy the training requirements for hazards to people and the environment. A climate that encourages excellence in research and enhances hazard minimization skills is created by combining technical expertise with instructional design talent.

  16. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Chemical Wastes in Academic Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Wendy A.

    1987-01-01

    Encourages instruction about disposal of hazardous wastes in college chemistry laboratories as an integral part of experiments done by students. Discusses methods such as down-the-drain disposal, lab-pack disposal, precipitation and disposal, and precipitation and recovery. Suggests that faculty and students take more responsibility for waste…

  17. Radioisotope Power System Pool Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Bolotin, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for NASA deep space science missions have historically used static thermoelectric-based designs because they are highly reliable, and their radioisotope heat sources can be passively cooled throughout the mission life cycle. Recently, a significant effort to develop a dynamic RPS, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was conducted by NASA and the Department of Energy, because Stirling based designs offer energy conversion efficiencies four times higher than heritage thermoelectric designs; and the efficiency would proportionately reduce the amount of radioisotope fuel needed for the same power output. However, the long term reliability of a Stirling based design is a concern compared to thermoelectric designs, because for certain Stirling system architectures the radioisotope heat sources must be actively cooled via the dynamic operation of Stirling converters throughout the mission life cycle. To address this reliability concern, a new dynamic Stirling cycle RPS architecture is proposed called the RPS Pool Concept.

  18. Accelerated Decay of Radioisotopes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    00-01 -2013 Technical June20 l l-June 2012 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER DTRA MIPR 11-2362M Accelerated Decay of Radioisotopes Sb...268 x E +2 4.788 026 x E -2 6.894 757 4.535 924 x E -1 4.214 011 x E -2 1.601 846 x E +1 1.000 000 x E -2 2.579 760 x E - 4 1.000 000 x E -8...c a y o f R a d i o i s o t o p e s " P r o p o s a l # B R C A L L 0 7 - N - 2 - 0 0 4 7 I l l u s t r a t i o n o f \\ P F R P a s p o

  19. Silicon Carbide Radioisotope Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George C.

    2005-01-01

    The substantial radiation resistance and large bandgap of SiC semiconductor materials makes them an attractive candidate for application in a high efficiency, long life radioisotope battery. To evaluate their potential in this application, simulated batteries were constructed using SiC diodes and the alpha particle emitter Americium Am-241 or the beta particle emitter Promethium Pm-147. The Am-241 based battery showed high initial power output and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 16%, but the power output decayed 52% in 500 hours due to radiation damage. In contrast the Pm-147 based battery showed a similar power output level and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 0.6%, but no degradation was observed in 500 hours. However, the Pm-147 battery required approximately 1000 times the particle fluence as the Am-242 battery to achieve a similar power output. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of battery and suggestions for future improvements will be discussed.

  20. Habits of Mind for the Science Laboratory: Establishing Proper Safety Habits in the Laboratory Will Help Minimize the Risk of Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Lisa; Smith, Margaret; Eick, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Lab safety begins with the teacher. Teachers must make learning how to be safe an integral and important part of their professional development and work. Teachers who are unfamiliar with laboratory instruction should take whatever steps necessary to prepare for the unique challenges associated with safety in conducting laboratory investigations…

  1. Assessment of patient safety culture in clinical laboratories in the Spanish National Health System

    PubMed Central

    Giménez-Marín, Angeles; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; García-Raja, Ana M.; Venta-Obaya, Rafael; Fusté-Ventosa, Margarita; Caballé-Martín, Inmaculada; Benítez-Estevez, Alfonso; Quinteiro-García, Ana I.; Bedini, José Luis; León-Justel, Antonio; Torra-Puig, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is increasing awareness of the importance of transforming organisational culture in order to raise safety standards. This paper describes the results obtained from an evaluation of patient safety culture in a sample of clinical laboratories in public hospitals in the Spanish National Health System. Material and methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among health workers employed in the clinical laboratories of 27 public hospitals in 2012. The participants were recruited by the heads of service at each of the participating centers. Stratified analyses were performed to assess the mean score, standardized to a base of 100, of the six survey factors, together with the overall patient safety score. Results 740 completed questionnaires were received (88% of the 840 issued). The highest standardized scores were obtained in Area 1 (individual, social and cultural) with a mean value of 77 (95%CI: 76-78), and the lowest ones, in Area 3 (equipment and resources), with a mean value of 58 (95%CI: 57-59). In all areas, a greater perception of patient safety was reported by the heads of service than by other staff. Conclusions We present the first multicentre study to evaluate the culture of clinical safety in public hospital laboratories in Spain. The results obtained evidence a culture in which high regard is paid to safety, probably due to the pattern of continuous quality improvement. Nevertheless, much remains to be done, as reflected by the weaknesses detected, which identify areas and strategies for improvement. PMID:26525595

  2. Instructor qualification for radiation safety training at a national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Trinoskey, P.A.

    1994-10-01

    Prior to 1993, Health Physics Training (HPT) was conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) health physics group. The job requirements specified a Masters Degree and experience. In fact, the majority of Health Physicists in the group were certified by the American Board of Health Physics. Under those circumstances, it was assumed that individuals in the group were technically qualified and the HPT instructor qualification stated that. In late 1993, the Health Physics Group at the LLNL was restructured and the training function was assigned to the training group. Additional requirements for training were mandated by the Department of Energy (DOE), which would necessitate increasing the existing training staff. With the need to hire, and the policy of reassignment of employees during downsizing, it was imperative that formal qualification standards be developed for technical knowledge. Qualification standards were in place for instructional capability. In drafting the new training qualifications for instructors, the requirements of a Certified Health Physicists had to be modified due to supply and demand. Additionally, for many of the performance-based training courses, registration by the National Registry of Radiation Protection Technologists is more desirable. Flexibility in qualification requirements has been incorporated to meet the reality of ongoing training and the compensation for desirable skills of individuals who may not meet all the criteria. The qualification requirements for an instructor rely on entry-level requirements and emphasis on goals (preferred) and continuing development of technical and instructional capabilities.

  3. Integrating Safety with Science,Technology and Innovation at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, Bethany M

    2012-04-02

    The mission of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to develop and apply science, technology and engineering solutions to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent; reduce global threats; and solve emerging national security challenges. The most important responsibility is to direct and conduct efforts to meet the mission with an emphasis on safety, security, and quality. In this article, LANL Environmental, Safety, and Health (ESH) trainers discuss how their application and use of a kinetic learning module (learn by doing) with a unique fall arrest system is helping to address one the most common industrial safety challenges: slips and falls. A unique integration of Human Performance Improvement (HPI), Behavior Based Safety (BBS) and elements of the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) combined with an interactive simulator experience is being used to address slip and fall events at Los Alamos.

  4. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Tested Disposal Methods for Chemical Wastes from Academic Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armour, M. A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes procedures for disposing of dichromate cleaning solution, picric acid, organic azides, oxalic acid, chemical spills, and hydroperoxides in ethers and alkenes. These methods have been tested under laboratory conditions and are specific for individual chemicals rather than for groups of chemicals. (JN)

  5. Safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. TRU curium shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Box, W.D.; Klima, B.B.; Seagren, R.D.; Shappert, L.B.; Aramayo, G.A.

    1980-06-01

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Transuranium (TRU) Curium Shipping Container was made to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing offsite shipment of packages containing radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of the evaluation show that the container complies with the applicable regulations.

  6. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System 2011 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    SciTech Connect

    Farren Hunt

    2011-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an annual Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) effectiveness review per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223-1, 'Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.' The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and helped identify target areas for focused improvements and assessments for fiscal year (FY) 2012. The information presented in this review of FY 2011 shows that the INL has performed many corrective actions and improvement activities, which are starting to show some of the desired results. These corrective actions and improvement activities will continue to help change culture that will lead to better implementation of defined programs, resulting in moving the Laboratory's performance from the categorization of 'Needs Improvement' to the desired results of 'Effective Performance.'

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1990 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Moraski, R.V.; Selby, J.M.

    1991-05-01

    Part 5 of the 1990 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance, the Office of Environmental Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1990. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  8. Safety evaluation for packaging 222-S laboratory cargo tank for onetime type B material shipment

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1994-08-19

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to evaluate and document the safety of the onetime shipment of bulk radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory cargo tank (222-S cargo tank). The 222-S cargo tank is a US Department of Transportation (DOT) MC-312 specification (DOT 1989) cargo tank, vehicle registration number HO-64-04275, approved for low specific activity (LSA) shipments in accordance with the DOT Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In accordance with the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1A, Chapter III (RL 1988), an equivalent degree of safety shall be provided for onsite shipments as would be afforded by the DOT shipping regulations for a radioactive material package. This document demonstrates that this packaging system meets the onsite transportation safety criteria for a onetime shipment of Type B contents.

  9. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. ); Schenter, R.E. )

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted.

  10. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF) is a facility safety reference document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) environmental restoration activities. The BSAF contains information and guidance for safety analysis documentation required by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for environmental restoration (ER) activities, including: Characterization of potentially contaminated sites. Remedial investigations to identify and remedial actions to clean up existing and potential releases from inactive waste sites Decontamination and dismantlement of surplus facilities. The information is INEL-specific and is in the format required by DOE-EM-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports. An author of safety analysis documentation need only write information concerning that activity and refer to BSAF for further information or copy applicable chapters and sections. The information and guidance provided are suitable for: {sm_bullet} Nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) with hazards that meet the Category 3 threshold (DOE-STD-1027-92, Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) {sm_bullet} Radiological facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94, Hazard Baseline Documentation) Nonnuclear facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94) that are classified as {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} hazard facilities (DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System). Additionally, the BSAF could be used as an information source for Health and Safety Plans and for Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for nuclear facilities with hazards equal to or greater than the Category 2 thresholds, or for nonnuclear facilities with {open_quotes}moderate{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} hazard classifications.

  11. Site safety plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CERCLA investigations at site 300. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kilmer, J.

    1997-08-01

    Various Department of Energy Orders incorporate by reference, health and safety regulations promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). One of the OSHA regulations, 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response, requires that site safety plans are written for activities such as those covered by work plans for Site 300 environmental investigations. Based upon available data, this Site Safety Plan (Plan) for environmental restoration has been prepared specifically for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300, located approximately 15 miles east of Livermore, California. As additional facts, monitoring data, or analytical data on hazards are provided, this Plan may need to be modified. It is the responsibility of the Environmental Restoration Program and Division (ERD) Site Safety Officer (SSO), with the assistance of Hazards Control, to evaluate data which may impact health and safety during these activities and to modify the Plan as appropriate. This Plan is not `cast-in-concrete.` The SSO shall have the authority, with the concurrence of Hazards Control, to institute any change to maintain health and safety protection for workers at Site 300.

  12. Safety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories: Volume 1. Accident Prevention for College and University Students, 7th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    This book contains volume 1 of 2 and describes safety guidelines for academic chemistry laboratories to prevent accidents for college and university students. Contents include: (1) "Your Responsibility for Accident Prevention"; (2) "Guide to Chemical Hazards"; (3) "Recommended Laboratory Techniques"; and (4) "Safety Equipment and Emergency…

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System 2010 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas J. Haney

    2010-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory completes an annual Integrated Safety Management System effectiveness review per 48 CFR 970.5223-1 “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assesses ISMS effectiveness, provides feedback to maintain system integrity, and helps identify target areas for focused improvements and assessments for the following year. Using one of the three Department of Energy (DOE) descriptors in DOE M 450.4-1 regarding the state of ISMS effectiveness during Fiscal Year (FY) 2010, the information presented in this review shows that INL achieved “Effective Performance.”

  14. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA filter box

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.C.

    1998-07-15

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the safe onsite transport of eight high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory HEPA Filter Box from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site to the Central Waste Complex and on to burial in the 200 West Area. Use of this SEP is authorized for 1 year from the date of release.

  15. Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container

    SciTech Connect

    Box, W.D.; Shappert, L.B.; Seagren, R.D.; Klima, B.B.; Jurgensen, M.C.; Hammond, C.R.; Watson, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory TRU Californium Shipping Container was made in order to demonstrate its compliance with the regulations governing off-site shipment of packages that contain radioactive material. The evaluation encompassed five primary categories: structural integrity, thermal resistance, radiation shielding, nuclear criticality safety, and quality assurance. The results of this evaluation demonstrate that the container complies with the applicable regulations.

  16. Terrain Safety Assessment in Support of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kipp, Devin

    2012-01-01

    In August 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. The process to select the MSL landing site took over five years and began with over 50 initial candidate sites from which four finalist sites were chosen. The four finalist sites were examined in detail to assess overall science merit, EDL safety, and rover traversability on the surface. Ultimately, the engineering assessments demonstrated a high level of safety and robustness at all four finalist sites and differences in the assessment across those sites were small enough that neither EDL safety nor rover traversability considerations could significantly discriminate among the final four sites. Thus the MSL landing site at Gale Crater was selected from among the four finalists primarily on the basis of science considerations.

  17. High efficiency radioisotope thermophotovoltaic prototype generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avery, James E.; Samaras, John E.; Fraas, Lewis M.; Ewell, Richard

    1995-01-01

    A radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator space power system (RTPV) is lightweight, low-cost alternative to the present radioisotope thermoelectric generator system (RTG). The fabrication of such an RTPV generator has recently become feasible as the result of the invention of the GaSb infrared sensitive photovoltaic cell. Herein, we present the results of a parametric study of emitters and optical filters in conjuction with existing data on gallium antimonide cells. We compare a polished tungsten emitter with an Erbia selective emitter for use in combination with a simple dielectric filter and a gallium antimonide cell array. We find that the polished tungsten emitter is by itself a very selective emitter with low emissivity beyond 4 microns. Given a gallium antimonide cell and a tungsten emitter, a simple dielectric filter can be designed to transmit radiant energy below 1.7 microns and to reflect radiant energy between 1.7 and 4 microns back to the emitter. Because of the low long wavelength emissivity associated with the polished tungsten emitter, this simple dielectric filter then yields very respectable system performance. Also as a result of the longer wavelength fall-off in the tungsten emissivity curve, the radiation energy peak for a polished tungsten emitter operating at 1300 K shifts to shorter wavelengths relative to the blackbody spectrum so that the radiated energy peak falls right at the gallium antimonide cell bandedge. The result is that the response of the gallium antimonide cell is well matched to a polished tungsten emitter. We propose, therefore, to fabricate an operating prototype of a near term radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator design consisting of a polished tungsten emitter, standard gallium antimonide cells, and a near-term dielectric filter. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory will design and build the thermal cavity, and JX Crystals will fabricate the gallium antimonide cells, dielectric filters, and resultant receiver panels. With

  18. Laboratory testing in management of patients with suspected Ebolavirus disease: infection control and safety.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, G L

    2015-08-01

    If routine laboratory safety precautions are followed, the risk of laboratory-acquired infection from handling specimens from patients with Ebolavirus disease (EVD) is very low, especially in the early 'dry' stage of disease. In Australia, border screening to identify travellers returning from EVD-affected west African countries during the 2014-2015 outbreak has made it unlikely that specimens from patients with unrecognised EVD would be sent to a routine diagnostic laboratory. Australian public health and diagnostic laboratories associated with hospitals designated for the care of patients with EVD have developed stringent safety precautions for EVD diagnostic and other tests likely to be required for supportive care of the sickest (and most infectious) patients with EVD, including as wide a range of point-of-care tests as possible. However, it is important that the stringent requirements for packaging, transport and testing of specimens that might contain Ebolavirus--which is a tier 1 security sensitive biology agent--do not delay the diagnosis and appropriate management of other potentially serious but treatable infectious diseases, which are far more likely causes of a febrile illness in people returning from west Africa. If necessary, urgent haematology, biochemistry and microbiological tests can be performed safely, whilst awaiting the results of EVD tests, in a PC-2 laboratory with appropriate precautions including: use of recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) for laboratory staff; handling any unsealed specimens in a class 1 or II biosafety cabinet; using only centrifuges with sealed rotors; and safe disposal or decontamination of all used equipment and laboratory waste.

  19. Safety analysis report for the Hanford Critical Mass Laboratory: Supplement No. 2. Experiments with heterogeneous assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; Davenport, L.C.

    1981-04-01

    Factors affecting the safety of criticality experiments using heterogeneous assemblies are described and assessed. It is concluded that there is no substantial change in safety from experiments already being routinely performed at the Critical Mass Laboratory (CML), and that laboratory and personnel safety are adequately provided by the combination of engineered and administrative safety limits enforced at the CML. This conclusion is based on the analysis of operational controls, potential hazards, and the consequences of accidents. Contingencies considered that could affect nuclear criticality include manual changes in fuel loadings, water flooding, fire, explosion, loss of services, earthquake, windstorm, and flood. Other potential hazards considered include radiation exposure to personnel, and potential releases within the Assembly Room and outside to the environment. It is concluded that the Maximum Credible Nuclear Burst of 3 x 10/sup 18/ fissions (which served as the design basis for the CML) is valid for heterogeneous assemblies as well as homogeneous assemblies. This is based upon examination of the results of reactor destructive tests and the results of the SL-1 reactor destructive accident. The production of blast effects which might jeopardize the CML critical assembly room (of thick reinforced concrete) is not considered credible due to the extreme circumstances required to produce blast effects in reactor destructive tests. Consequently, it is concluded that, for experiments with heterogeneous assemblies, the consequences of the Maximum Credible Burst are unchanged from those previously estimated for experiments with homogeneous systems.

  20. Cosmogenic radioisotopes in Gebel Kamil meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taricco, C.; Colombetti, P.; Bhandari, N.; Sinha, N.; Di Martino, M.; Vivaldo, G.

    2012-04-01

    Recently a small (45 m in diameter) and very young (< 5,000 years) impact crater was discovered in Egypt (Folco et al., 2010, 2011); it was generated by an iron meteorite named Gebel Kamil (Meteoritical Bulletin No. 98, Weisberg et al. 2010). During systematic searches, many specimens were found in the area surrounding the crater. We present the gamma-activity measurement of a 672 g fragment using a highly selective Ge-NaI spectrometer operating at Monte dei Cappuccini Laboratory (IFSI, INAF) in Torino, Italy. This apparatus allows to reveal the radioisotope activity generated by cosmic rays in the meteoroids as they travel through the interplanetary space before falling on the Earth. From the 26Al activity measurement and its depth production profiles, we infer (i) that the radius of the meteoroid should be about 1 m, constraining to 30-40 ton the range of pre-atmospheric mass previously proposed and (ii) that the fragment should have been located deeply inside the meteoroid, at a depth > 0.7 m. The 44Ti activity is under the detection threshold of the apparatus; using the depth production profiles of this radioisotope and its half-life T1/2 = 59.2 y, we deduce an upper limit to the date of fall.

  1. How to Handle Radioisotopes Safely.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulcoski, John W.

    This booklet is one in a series of instructional aids designed for use by elementary and secondary school science teachers. The various units and forms of radioactive materials used by teachers are first considered. Then, the quantities of radioisotopes that a person may possess without a license from the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) are…

  2. Radioactive Solid Waste Storage and Disposal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Description and Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, L.D.

    2001-01-30

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a principle Department of Energy (DOE) Research Institution operated by the Union Carbide Corporation - Nuclear Division (UCC-ND) under direction of the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO). The Laboratory was established in east Tennessee, near what is now the city of Oak Ridge, in the mid 1940s as a part of the World War II effort to develop a nuclear weapon. Since its inception, disposal of radioactively contaminated materials, both solid and liquid, has been an integral part of Laboratory operations. The purpose of this document is to provide a detailed description of the ORNL Solid Waste Storage Areas, to describe the practice and procedure of their operation, and to address the health and safety impacts and concerns of that operation.

  3. Environmental Safety and Health Analytical Laboratory, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) of the construction and operation of an Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) Analytical Laboratory and subsequent demolition of the existing Analytical Chemistry Laboratory building at Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality requirements contained in 40 CFR 1500--1508.9, the Environmental Assessment examined the environmental impacts of the Proposed Action and discussed potential alternatives. Based on the analysis of impacts in the EA, conducting the proposed action, construction of an analytical laboratory and demolition of the existing facility, would not significantly effect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Council on Environmental Quality regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27.

  4. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2012 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    SciTech Connect

    Farren Hunt

    2012-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an Annual Effectiveness Review of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223 1, “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and identified target areas for focused improvements and assessments for fiscal year (FY) 2013. Results of the FY 2012 annual effectiveness review demonstrated that the INL’s ISMS program was significantly strengthened. Actions implemented by the INL demonstrate that the overall Integrated Safety Management System is sound and ensures safe and successful performance of work while protecting workers, the public, and environment. This report also provides several opportunities for improvement that will help further strengthen the ISM Program and the pursuit of safety excellence. Demonstrated leadership and commitment, continued surveillance, and dedicated resources have been instrumental in maturing a sound ISMS program. Based upon interviews with personnel, reviews of assurance activities, and analysis of ISMS process implementation, this effectiveness review concludes that ISM is institutionalized and is “Effective”.

  5. Effect of Inert Cover Gas on Performance of Radioisotope Stirling Space Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Robert; Kumar, V; Ore, C; Schock, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes an updated Orbital design of a radioisotope Stirling power system and its predicted performance at the beginning and end of a six-year mission to the Jovian moon Europa. The design is based on General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules identical to those previously developed and safety-qualified by the Department of Energy (DOE) which were successfully launched to Jupiter and Saturn by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In each generator, the heat produced by the decay of the Pu-238 isotope is converted to electric power by two free-piston Stirling engines and linear alternators developed by Stirling Technology Company (STC), and their rejected waste heat is transported to radiators by heat pipes. The principal difference between the proposed system design and previous Orbital designs (Or et al. 2000) is the thermal insulation between the heat source and the generator's housing. Previous designs had employed multifoil insulation, whereas the design described here employs Min-K-1800 thermal insulation. Such insulation had been successfully used by Teledyne and GE in earlier RTGs (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators). Although Min-K is a much poorer insulator than multifoil in vacuum and requires a substantially greater thickness for equivalent performance, it offers compensating advantages. Specifically it makes it possible to adjust the generator's BOM temperatures by filling its interior volume with inert cover gas. This makes it possible to meet the generator's BOM and EOM performance goals without exceeding its allowable temperature at the beginning of the mission.

  6. Pacific Northwest Laboratory: Annual report for 1986 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health: Part 5, Nuclear and operational safety

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Kennedy, W.E.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1987-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1986 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Operational Safety, and for the Office of Environmental Analysis. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1986. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from three of the seven research departments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  7. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Specific Standard for Nonnuclear Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Failor, R; Beach, D R; Brereton, S; Hildum, J S; Ingram, C; Spagnolo, S; Van Warmerdam, C

    2003-05-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the NNSA Livermore Site Office teamed up to prepare a site specific work smart standard setting requirements for preparation of safety basis documents for LLNL non-nuclear operations and facilities. This standard documents how all hazards (biological, chemical, explosive, industrial, and radiological) shall be evaluated, classified, analyzed, and controls developed. This standard was developed to evaluate hazards at the facility level to mesh with LLNL's ISM system for reviewing hazards at the activity level. This standard presents an approach to establishing safety basis for non-nuclear operations and activities, taking a graded approach based on the potential for impacts to the health of collocated workers and the public. Direct worker safety is covered by LLNL's work activity level reviews and requirements. This standard includes streamlined mechanisms for classifying hazards based upon the unmitigated potential for human health impacts. A review or practices at several private industries, government laboratories, and DOE complex sites provided a benchmark and comparison of safety analysis processes. These approaches were compared with LLNL's existing systems, leading to a determination that facility specific safety basis documents added value to a rapid authorization for new work activities in LLNL facilities. A process for hazard classification that would be viewed as more credible than the previous facility classification system was developed, including a method allowing correlation of chemical inventories with TEEL* concentrations. A graded approach for classification of explosive hazards, consistent with the DOE Explosive Safety Manual, was included. The standard was designed to be complementary with LLNL's existing work smart standards covering the hazards identified in a facility. A standard for LLNL's Work Smart Standard set was prepared that will assure all hazards are covered with appropriate levels of

  8. Pumped Fluid Loop Heat Rejection and Recovery Systems for Thermal Control of the Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Birur, Gajanana; Prina, Mauro; Ramirez, Brenda; Paris, Anthony; Novak, Keith; Pauken, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the heat rejection and heat recovery system for thermal control of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The MSL mission will use mechanically pumped fluid loop based architecture for thermal control of the spacecraft and rover. The architecture is designed to harness waste heat from an Multi Mission Radioisotope Thermo-electric Generator (MMRTG) during Mars surface operations for thermal control during cold conditions and also reject heat during the cruise aspect of the mission. There are several test that are being conducted that will insure the safety of this concept. This architecture can be used during any future interplanetary missions utilizing radioisotope power systems for power generation.

  9. An Overview and Status of NASA's Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Wong, Wayne A.; Tuttle, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) development program is developing next generation radioisotope power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that can not be met by either photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power System (RPS) technology. The Advanced Power Conversion Research and Technology project of the Advanced RPS development program is funding research and technology activities through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) 02-OSS-01, "Research Opportunities in Space Science 2002" entitled "Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology" (RPCT), August 13, 2002. The objective of the RPCT NRA is to advance the development of radioisotope power conversion technologies to provide significant improvements over the state-of-practice General Purpose Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator by providing significantly higher efficiency to reduce the number of radioisotope fuel modules, and increase specific power (watts/kilogram). Other Advanced RPS goals include safety, long-life, reliability, scalability, multi-mission capability, resistance to radiation, and minimal interference with the scientific payload. Ten RPCT NRA contracts were awarded in 2003 in the areas of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectric (TE), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion technologies. This paper will provide an overview of the RPCT NRA, and a brief summary of accomplishments over the first 18 months but focusing on advancements made over the last 6 months.

  10. Audit of construction of an environmental, safety, and health analytical laboratory at the Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This document is a report from the Office of the Inspector General, US DOE. The report evaluates the need for the construction of an Environmental, Safety, and Health Laboratory at the Pantex Plant and if this project is the most cost effective manner in which to meet mission needs. It was found that: (1) mission needs were being met with existing facilities, (2) required evaluations of alternatives were not performed, (3) decisions were made based on out-dated justifications, and (4) the expenditure of $8.4M was unnecessary. As a result, it was recommended that funded be suspended until the need is clearly established.

  11. Immunogenicity and safety among laboratory workers vaccinated with Bexsero® vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hong, Eva; Terrade, Aude; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2016-11-03

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is the most prevalent cause of invasive meningococcal disease in Europe and members of laboratories working on meningococci are at risk due to frequent handling. Recommendation for anti-meningococcal vaccination among these workers has been recently updated upon the licensure in Europe of Bexsero® vaccine. We tested the immunogenicity and safety of this vaccine among adults laboratory staff using the recommended schedule of 2 doses at 5 weeks interval. The vaccine was well tolerated in spite of frequent local side effects and all participants reported at least one side effect after each dose. Immunogenicity was evaluated 6 weeks and one year after the second dose. All participants showed increase in their bactericidal titers against the components of the vaccine 6 weeks after the second dose, however titers declined significantly one year later.

  12. Plastic Gamma Sensors: An Application in Detection of Radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    S. Mukhopadhyay

    2003-06-01

    A brief survey of plastic scintillators for various radiation measurement applications is presented here. The utility of plastic scintillators for practical applications such as gamma radiation monitoring, real-time radioisotope detection and screening is evaluated in laboratory and field measurements. This study also reports results of Monte Carlo-type predictive responses of common plastic scintillators in gamma and neutron radiation fields. Small-size plastic detectors are evaluated for static and dynamic gamma-ray detection sensitivity of selected radiation sources.

  13. [Implementation of "5S" methodology in laboratory safety and its effect on employee satisfaction].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Yavuz; Ozkutuk, Aydan; Dogan, Ozlem

    2014-04-01

    Health institutions use the accreditation process to achieve improvement across the organization and management of the health care system. An ISO 15189 quality and efficiency standard is the recommended standard for medical laboratories qualification. The "safety and accommodation conditions" of this standard covers the requirement to improve working conditions and maintain the necessary safety precautions. The most inevitable precaution for ensuring a safe environment is the creation of a clean and orderly environment to maintain a potentially safe surroundings. In this context, the 5S application which is a superior improvement tool that has been used by the industry, includes some advantages such as encouraging employees to participate in and to help increase the productivity. The main target of this study was to implement 5S methods in a clinical laboratory of a university hospital for evaluating its effect on employees' satisfaction, and correction of non-compliance in terms of the working environment. To start with, first, 5S education was given to management and employees. Secondly, a 5S team was formed and then the main steps of 5S (Seiri: Sort, Seiton: Set in order, Seiso: Shine, Seiketsu: Standardize, and Shitsuke: Systematize) were implemented for a duration of 3 months. A five-point likert scale questionnaire was used in order to determine and assess the impact of 5S on employees' satisfaction considering the areas such as facilitating the job, the job satisfaction, setting up a safe environment, and the effect of participation in management. Questionnaire form was given to 114 employees who actively worked during the 5S implementation period, and the data obtained from 63 (52.3%) participants (16 male, 47 female) were evaluated. The reliability of the questionnaire's Cronbach's alpha value was determined as 0.858 (p< 0.001). After the implementation of 5S it was observed and determined that facilitating the job and setting up a safe environment created

  14. Health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C. Jr.; Burman, S.N.; Cipriano, D.J. Jr.; Uziel, M.S.; Kleinhans, K.R.; Tiner, P.F.

    1994-08-01

    This Programmatic Health and Safety plan (PHASP) is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This plan follows the format recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for remedial investigations and feasibility studies and that recommended by the EM40 Health and Safety Plan (HASP) Guidelines (DOE February 1994). This plan complies with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements found in 29 CFR 1910.120 and EM-40 guidelines for any activities dealing with hazardous waste operations and emergency response efforts and with OSHA requirements found in 29 CFR 1926.65. The policies and procedures in this plan apply to all Environmental Restoration sites and activities including employees of Energy Systems, subcontractors, and prime contractors performing work for the DOE ORNL ER Program. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and best management practices to minimize hazards to human health and safety and to the environment from event such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water.

  15. Radioisotope production and its utilization in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Yusof, A.b.A.

    1985-01-01

    The PUSPATI TRIGA MARK II research reactor in Malaysia was commissioned in 1982 and production of radioisotope commenced 2 years later. However, radioisotopes have been utilized in the country since 1960 with medical applications pioneering the field, and later followed by usage in industry and agricultural research. Currently, Malaysia spends more than M$1.5 million (US$0.65 million) annually on the import of radioisotopes and associated products. This paper briefly describes the present status of radioisotope utilization in Malaysia. Radioisotopes are being used in the fields of medicine, industry (NDT and quality control, nuclear gauging, radiotracer), agriculture (animal production, food irradiation, soil-plant relationship and mutation breeding studies) and also in environmental control and basic science research. The paper also gives an account of radioisotope production in Malaysia, its facilities and target handling technique.

  16. Safety analysis report for packaging for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory TRA Type 1 Shipping Container and TRA Type 2 Shipping Capsule

    SciTech Connect

    Havlovick, B.J.

    1992-07-27

    The TRA Type I Shipping Container and TRA Type II Shipping Capsule were designed and fabricated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory as special form containers for the transport of non-fissile radioisotopes and fissile radioisotopes in exempt quantities. The Type I container measures 0.75 in. outside diameter and 3.000 in long. The Type II capsule is 0.495 in. outside diameter 2.000 in. long. The container and capsule were tested and evaluated to determine their compliance with Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations 173, which governs packages for special form radioactive material. This report is based upon those tests and evaluations. The results of those tests and evaluations demonstrate the container and capsule are in full compliance with the special form shipping container regulations of 49 CFR 173.

  17. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2013 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    SciTech Connect

    Farren Hunt

    2013-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an Annual Effectiveness Review of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223 1, “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and identified target areas for focused improvements and assessments for Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Results of the FY 2013 annual effectiveness review demonstrate that the INL’s ISMS program is “Effective” and continually improving and shows signs of being significantly strengthened. Although there have been unacceptable serious events in the past, there has also been significant attention, dedication, and resources focused on improvement, lessons learned and future prevention. BEA’s strategy of focusing on these improvements includes extensive action and improvement plans that include PLN 4030, “INL Sustained Operational Improvement Plan, PLN 4058, “MFC Strategic Excellence Plan,” PLN 4141, “ATR Sustained Excellence Plan,” and PLN 4145, “Radiological Control Road to Excellence,” and the development of LWP 20000, “Conduct of Research.” As a result of these action plans, coupled with other assurance activities and metrics, significant improvement in operational performance, organizational competence, management oversight and a reduction in the number of operational events is being realized. In short, the realization of the fifth core function of ISMS (feedback and continuous improvement) and the associated benefits are apparent.

  18. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1987 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5: Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Steelman, B.L.; Selby, J.M.

    1988-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1987 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, and the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, articles describe progress made during fiscal year 1987. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  19. Metal matrix composite fuel for space radioisotope energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H. R.; Ning, H.; Reece, M. J.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Bannister, N. P.; Stephenson, K.

    2013-02-01

    Radioisotope fuels produce heat that can be used for spacecraft thermal control or converted to electricity. They must retain integrity in the event of destruction or atmospheric entry of the parent spacecraft. Addition of a metal matrix to the actinide oxide could yield a more robust fuel form. Neodymium (III) oxide (Nd2O3) - niobium metal matrix composites were produced using Spark Plasma Sintering; Nd2O3 is a non-radioactive surrogate for americium (III) oxide (Am2O3). Two compositions, 70 and 50 wt% Nd2O3, were mechanically tested under equibiaxial (ring-on-ring) flexure according to ASTM C1499. The addition of the niobium matrix increased the mean flexural strength by a factor of about 2 compared to typical ceramic nuclear fuels, and significantly increased the Weibull modulus to over 20. These improved mechanical properties could result in reduced fuel dispersion in severe accidents and improved safety of space radioisotope power systems.

  20. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985.

  1. Designing for explosive safety'': The Explosive Components Facility at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, W.A.

    1990-12-01

    The Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is to be a new major facility in the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Weapons Program. The ECF is a self-contained, secure site on SNL property and is surrounded by Kirtland Air Force Base which is located 6-1/2 miles east of downtown Albuquerque, New Mexico. The ECF will be dedicated to research, development, and testing of detonators, neutron generators, batteries, explosives, and other weapon components. It will have capabilities for conducting explosive test fires, gas gun testing, physical analyses, chemical analyses, electrical testing and ancillary explosive storage in magazines. The ECF complex is composed of a building covering an area of approximately 91,000 square feet, six exterior explosive service magazines and a remote test cell. Approximately 50% of the building space will be devoted to highly specialized laboratory and test areas, the other 50% of the building is considered nonhazardous. Critical to the laboratory and test areas are the blast-structural design consideration and operational considerations, particularly those concerning personnel access control, safety and environmental protection. This area will be decoupled from the rest of the building to the extent that routine tests will not be heard or felt in the administrative area of the building. While the ECF is designed in accordance with the DOE Explosives Safety Manual to mitigate any off-site blast effects, potential injuries or death to the ECF staff may result from an accidental detonation of explosive material within the facility. Therefore, reducing the risk of exposing operation personnel to hazardous and energetic material is paramount in the design of the ECF.

  2. Educating Next Generation Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineers at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bess; J. B. Briggs; A. S. Garcia

    2011-09-01

    One of the challenges in educating our next generation of nuclear safety engineers is the limitation of opportunities to receive significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Such training is generally restricted to on-the-job-training before this new engineering workforce can adequately provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) can provide students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills. The ICSBEP and IRPhEP publish annual handbooks that contain evaluations of experiments along with summarized experimental data and peer-reviewed benchmark specifications to support the validation of neutronics codes, nuclear cross-section data, and the validation of reactor designs. Participation in the benchmark process not only benefits those who use these Handbooks within the international community, but provides the individual with opportunities for professional development, networking with an international community of experts, and valuable experience to be used in future employment. Traditionally students have participated in benchmarking activities via internships at national laboratories, universities, or companies involved with the ICSBEP and IRPhEP programs. Additional programs have been developed to facilitate the nuclear education of students while participating in the benchmark projects. These programs include coordination with the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) Next Degree Program, the Collaboration with the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to train nuclear and criticality safety engineers, and student evaluations as the basis for their Master's thesis in nuclear engineering.

  3. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, Gamal

    2016-08-31

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostic and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015, allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing, and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoretical projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn- 62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using (a) a subcritical aqueous target system and (b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator-generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011; due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory, it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.

  4. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, Gamal

    2016-10-28

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostics and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015, allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing, and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoretical projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn-62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using a) a subcritical aqueous target system and b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011 and due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.

  5. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1988 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health: Part 5, Environment, safety, health, and quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Pennell, W.T.; Selby, J.M.

    1989-02-01

    This document summarizes the research programs now underway at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratory in the areas of environmental safety, health, and quality assurance. Topics include internal irradiation, emergency plans, dose equivalents, risk assessment, dose equivalents, surveys, neutron dosimetry, and radiation accidents. (TEM)

  6. Cosmogenic radioisotopes on LDEF surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.; Albrecht, A.; Herzog, G.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1992-01-01

    The radioisotope Be-7 was discovered in early 1990 on the front surface, and the front surface only, of the LDEF. A working hypothesis is that the isotope, which is known to be mainly produced in the stratosphere by spallation of nitrogen and oxygen nuclei with cosmic ray protons or secondary neutrons, diffuses upward and is absorbed onto metal surfaces of spacecraft. The upward transport must be rapid, that is, its characteristic time scale is similar to, or shorter than, the 53 day half-life of the isotope. It is probably by analogy with meteoritic metal atmospheric chemistry, that the form of the Be at a few 100 km altitude is as the positive ion Be(+) which is efficiently incorporated into the ionic lattice of oxides, such as Al2O3, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, etc., naturally occurring on surfaces of Al and stainless steel. Other radioisotopes of Be, Cl, and C are also produced in the atmosphere, and a search was begun to discover these. Of interest are Be-10 and C-14 for which the production cross sections are well known. The method of analysis is accelerator mass spectrometry. Samples from LDEF clamp plates are being chemically extracted, purified, and prepared for an accelerator run.

  7. Power from Radioisotopes, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.; Mead, Robert L.

    This 1971 revision deals with radioisotopes and their use in power generators. Early developments and applications for the Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) and Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are reviewed. Present uses in space and on earth are included. Uses in space are as power sources in various satellites and space…

  8. Radioisotope penogram in diagnosis of vasculogenic impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Fanous, H.N.; Jevtich, M.J.; Chen, D.C.; Edson, M.

    1982-11-01

    A radioisotope technique to estimate penile blood flow is described. The radioisotope penogram is noninvasive and gives a dynamic evaluation of the arterial supply, venous drainage, and blood flow in the corporeal bodies. The penogram is a valuable adjunct in evaluation of patients with vasculogenic impotence.

  9. Tiger Team environment, safety, and health assessment of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Tiger Team Assessment of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, conducted from October 22 and November 30, 1990. The assessment was conducted by a tam comprised of environment, safety, and health (ES H) professional from the Department, its contractors, and consultants. The purpose of the ORNL Tiger Team Assessment is to provide the Secretary of Energy with concise information on: current ES H compliance status at the site and the vulnerabilities associated with that compliance status; root causes for noncompliance; and adequacy of DOE and site contractor ES H management programs. This information will assist DOE in determining patterns and trends in ES H compliance and probable root causes, and will provide guidance for management to take needed corrective actions.

  10. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site seismic safety program: summary of findings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheimer, J.F.

    1985-07-01

    This report summarizes the final assessments of geologic hazards at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Detailed discussions of investigations are documented in a series of reports produced by LLNL's Site Seismic Safety Program and their consultants. The Program conducted a probabilistic assessment of hazards at the site as a result of liquefaction, landslide, and strong ground shaking, using existing models to explicitly treat uncertainties. The results indicate that the Greenville and Las Positas-Verona Fault systems present the greatest hazard to the LLNL site as a result of ground shaking, with a lesser contribution from the Calaveras Fault. Other, more distant fault systems do not materially contribute to the hazard. No evidence has been found that the LLNL site will undergo soil failures such as landslides or liquefaction. In addition, because of the locations and ages of the faults in the LLNL area, surface ground rupture during an earthquake is extremely unlikely.

  11. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1989 to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health - Part 5: Environment, Safety, Health, and Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.; Doctor, P.G.; Selby, J.M.

    1990-04-01

    Part 5 of the 1989 Annual Report to the US Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Guidance and Compliance, the Office of Environmental Audit, the Office of National Environmental Policy Act Project Assistance, the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Safety Compliance, and the Office of Policy and Standards. For each project, as identified by the Field Work Proposal, there is an article describing progress made during fiscal year 1989. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from five of the seven technical centers of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work. 35 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1981-04-01

    DOE is developing a new generation of radioisotope-fueled 1-watt heaters, for initial use on NASA's upcoming Galileo and International Solar-Polar Missions. Each heater must contain passive safety provisions to ensure fuel retention under all credible accident conditions. Initial design reviews raised some concern about the accuracy of the predicted peak reenetry temperature, and about the adequacy of the safety margin under certain unlikely - but not impossible-reentry modes. Of particular concern was the possile release of the accumulated helium inventory from the fuel during the reentry heat pulse, and the potential effect of enhanced heat conduction due to helium buildup in gaps. The latter problem had not been addressed in previous studies. Fairchild carried out a large number of reentry thermal analyses to resolve the analytical uncertainties, and proposed design changes to reduce the thermal coupling between the aeroshell and the fuel capsule. For the computed reentry temperature history of the modified design, the rate of helium buildup in the gaps was analyzed. The analysis accounted for temperature-dependent helium diffusion through the fuel pellet and for leakage to space through the permeable aeroshell. It showed that most of the helium inventory leaves the fuel during reentry, but that it never reaches a continuum pressure in the gaps, and therefore has no significant thermal effect. Under these conditions, the Fairchild-modified design provides ample safety margin against clad failure, even for very unlikely reenty trajectories. The modified design was successfully vibration-tested and was subsequently adopted by the project. Cross Reference CID #8517. There are two copies in the file.

  13. Preliminary safety analysis report for the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    OSCAR,DEBBY S.; WALKER,SHARON ANN; HUNTER,REGINA LEE; WALKER,CHERYL A.

    1999-12-01

    The Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) will be a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility used to characterize, treat, and repackage radioactive and mixed material and waste for reuse, recycling, or ultimate disposal. A significant upgrade to a previous facility, the Temporary Hot Cell, will be implemented to perform this mission. The following major features will be added: a permanent shield wall; eight floor silos; new roof portals in the hot-cell roof; an upgraded ventilation system; and upgraded hot-cell jib crane; and video cameras to record operations and facilitate remote-handled operations. No safety-class systems, structures, and components will be present in the AHCF. There will be five safety-significant SSCs: hot cell structure, permanent shield wall, shield plugs, ventilation system, and HEPA filters. The type and quantity of radionuclides that could be located in the AHCF are defined primarily by SNL/NM's legacy materials, which include radioactive, transuranic, and mixed waste. The risk to the public or the environment presented by the AHCF is minor due to the inventory limitations of the Hazard Category 3 classification. Potential doses at the exclusion boundary are well below the evaluation guidelines of 25 rem. Potential for worker exposure is limited by the passive design features incorporated in the AHCF and by SNL's radiation protection program. There is no potential for exposure of the public to chemical hazards above the Emergency Response Protection Guidelines Level 2.

  14. Criticality safety strategy for the Fuel Cycle Facility electrorefiner at Argonne National Laboratory, West

    SciTech Connect

    Mariani, R.D.; Benedict, R.W.; Lell, R.M.; Turski, R.B.; Fujita, E.K.

    1993-09-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) combines the advantages of metal-fueled, liquid-metal-cooled reactors and a closed fuel cycle. Presently, the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) at ANL-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho is being modified to recycle spent metallic fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II as part of a demonstration project sponsored by the Department of Energy. A key component of the FCF is the electrorefiner (ER) in which the actinides are separated from the fission products. In the electrorefining process, the metal fuel is anodically dissolved into a high-temperature molten salt and refined uranium or uranium/plutonium products are deposited at cathodes. In this report, the criticality safety strategy for the FCF ER is summarized. FCF ER operations and processes formed the basis for evaluating criticality safety and control during actinide metal fuel refining. In order to show criticality safety for the FCF ER, the reference operating conditions for the ER had to be defined. Normal operating envelopes (NOES) were then defined to bracket the important operating conditions. To keep the operating conditions within their NOES, process controls were identified that can be used to regulate the actinide forms and content within the ER. A series of operational checks were developed for each operation that wig verify the extent or success of an operation. The criticality analysis considered the ER operating conditions at their NOE values as the point of departure for credible and incredible failure modes. As a result of the analysis, FCF ER operations were found to be safe with respect to criticality.

  15. Efficacy and safety of far infrared radiation in lymphedema treatment: clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Ning Fei; Feng, Shao Qing; Tong, Yun; Zhang, Ju Fang; Constantinides, Joannis; Lazzeri, Davide; Grassetti, Luca; Nicoli, Fabio; Zhang, Yi Xin

    2017-01-26

    Swelling is the most common symptom of extremities lymphedema. Clinical evaluation and laboratory analysis were conducted after far infrared radiation (FIR) treatment on the main four components of lymphedema: fluid, fat, protein, and hyaluronan. Far infrared radiation is a kind of hyperthermia therapy with several and additional benefits as well as promoting microcirculation flow and improving collateral lymph circumfluence. Although FIR therapy has been applied for several years on thousands of lymphedema patients, there are still few studies that have reported the biological effects of FIR on lymphatic tissue. In this research, we investigate the effects of far infrared rays on the major components of lymphatic tissue. Then, we explore the effectiveness and safety of FIR as a promising treatment modality of lymphedema. A total of 32 patients affected by lymphedema in stage II and III were treated between January 2015 and January 2016 at our department. After therapy, a significant decrease of limb circumference measurements was noted and improving of quality of life was registered. Laboratory examination showed the treatment can also decrease the deposition of fluid, fat, hyaluronan, and protein, improving the swelling condition. We believe FIR treatment could be considered as both an alternative monotherapy and a useful adjunctive to the conservative or surgical lymphedema procedures. Furthermore, the real and significant biological effects of FIR represent possible future applications in wide range of the medical field.

  16. The laboratory and clinical safety evaluation of a dentifrice containing hydrogen peroxide and baking soda.

    PubMed

    Fischman, S L; Truelove, R B; Hart, R; Cancro, L P

    1992-01-01

    This study reports the laboratory, clinical, and microbiological finding of the safety testing and daily use of a dentifrice delivering 0.75% hydrogen peroxide and 5% baking soda. Laboratory studies using Ca45 labeled teeth and biologically stained teeth confirmed that the dentifrice did not decalcify enamel or bleach teeth. Over the course of a six-month period, 62 subjects using a hydrogen peroxide-baking soda dentifrice and 21 subjects using a control dentifrice were examined for oral soft tissue change and hard tissue alterations. No soft tissue changes attributable to the use of either dentifrice were noted. Experienced clinicians using Trubyte shade guide teeth observed no significant changes to the subjects' anterior teeth following 6 months use of the test dentifrice. Paired discrimination tests revealed that the examiners could distinguish color differences in the shade guide teeth at 0.7%. Microbiological monitoring of the subjects for six months use of their assigned dentifrice and for the following months on the control dentifrice, revealed neither an increased incidence of candida nor increased candida counts.

  17. Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 1. Biosafety Level 4 Suit Laboratory Suite Entry and Exit Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Janosko, Krisztina; Holbrook, Michael R.; Adams, Ricky; Barr, Jason; Bollinger, Laura; Newton, Je T'aime; Ntiforo, Corrie; Coe, Linda; Wada, Jiro; Pusl, Daniela; Jahrling, Peter B.; Kuhn, Jens H.; Lackemeyer, Matthew G.

    2016-01-01

    Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) suit laboratories are specifically designed to study high-consequence pathogens for which neither infection prophylaxes nor treatment options exist. The hallmarks of these laboratories are: custom-designed airtight doors, dedicated supply and exhaust airflow systems, a negative-pressure environment, and mandatory use of positive-pressure (“space”) suits. The risk for laboratory specialists working with highly pathogenic agents is minimized through rigorous training and adherence to stringent safety protocols and standard operating procedures. Researchers perform the majority of their work in BSL-2 laboratories and switch to BSL-4 suit laboratories when work with a high-consequence pathogen is required. Collaborators and scientists considering BSL-4 projects should be aware of the challenges associated with BSL-4 research both in terms of experimental technical limitations in BSL-4 laboratory space and the increased duration of such experiments. Tasks such as entering and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories are considerably more complex and time-consuming compared to BSL-2 and BSL-3 laboratories. The focus of this particular article is to address basic biosafety concerns and describe the entrance and exit procedures for the BSL-4 laboratory at the NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick. Such procedures include checking external systems that support the BSL-4 laboratory, and inspecting and donning positive-pressure suits, entering the laboratory, moving through air pressure-resistant doors, and connecting to air-supply hoses. We will also discuss moving within and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories, including using the chemical shower and removing and storing positive-pressure suits. PMID:27768063

  18. Safety Precautions and Operating Procedures in an (A)BSL-4 Laboratory: 1. Biosafety Level 4 Suit Laboratory Suite Entry and Exit Procedures.

    PubMed

    Janosko, Krisztina; Holbrook, Michael R; Adams, Ricky; Barr, Jason; Bollinger, Laura; Newton, Je T'aime; Ntiforo, Corrie; Coe, Linda; Wada, Jiro; Pusl, Daniela; Jahrling, Peter B; Kuhn, Jens H; Lackemeyer, Matthew G

    2016-10-03

    Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) suit laboratories are specifically designed to study high-consequence pathogens for which neither infection prophylaxes nor treatment options exist. The hallmarks of these laboratories are: custom-designed airtight doors, dedicated supply and exhaust airflow systems, a negative-pressure environment, and mandatory use of positive-pressure ("space") suits. The risk for laboratory specialists working with highly pathogenic agents is minimized through rigorous training and adherence to stringent safety protocols and standard operating procedures. Researchers perform the majority of their work in BSL-2 laboratories and switch to BSL-4 suit laboratories when work with a high-consequence pathogen is required. Collaborators and scientists considering BSL-4 projects should be aware of the challenges associated with BSL-4 research both in terms of experimental technical limitations in BSL-4 laboratory space and the increased duration of such experiments. Tasks such as entering and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories are considerably more complex and time-consuming compared to BSL-2 and BSL-3 laboratories. The focus of this particular article is to address basic biosafety concerns and describe the entrance and exit procedures for the BSL-4 laboratory at the NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick. Such procedures include checking external systems that support the BSL-4 laboratory, and inspecting and donning positive-pressure suits, entering the laboratory, moving through air pressure-resistant doors, and connecting to air-supply hoses. We will also discuss moving within and exiting the BSL-4 suit laboratories, including using the chemical shower and removing and storing positive-pressure suits.

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid protein and glucose examinations and tuberculosis:
Will laboratory safety regulations force a change of practice?

    PubMed

    Tormey, William P; O'Hagan, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein and glucose examinations are usually performed in chemical pathology departments on autoanalysers. Tuberculosis (TB) is a group 3 biological agent under Directive 2000/54/EC of the European Parliament but in the biochemistry laboratory, no extra precautions are taken in its analysis in possible TB cases. The issue of laboratory practice and safety in the biochemical analyses of CSF specimens, when tuberculosis infection is in question is addressed in the context of ambiguity in the implementation of current national and international health and safety regulations. Additional protective measures for laboratory staff during the analysis of CSF TB samples should force a change in current laboratory practice and become a regulatory issue under ISO 15189. Annual Mantoux skin test or an interferon-γ release assay for TB should be mandatory for relevant staff. This manuscript addresses the issue of biochemistry laboratory practice and safety in the biochemical analyses of CSF specimens when tuberculosis infection is in question in the context of the ambiguity of statutory health and safety regulations.

  20. Safety Basis Requirements for Nonnuclear Facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site-Specific Work Smart Standards Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R; Brereton, S; Failor, R; Hildum, S; Spagnolo, S; Van Warmerdam, C

    2003-02-24

    This standard establishes requirements that, when coupled with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) methods and other Work Smart Standards for assuring worker safety, assure that the impacts of nonnuclear operations authorized in LLNL facilities are well understood and controlled in a manner that protects the health of workers, the public, and the environment. All LLNL facilities shall be classified based on potential for adverse impact of operations to the health of co-located (i.e., nearby) workers and the public in accordance with this standard, Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) 830, Subpart B, and Department of Energy Order (DOE O) 420.2A. This standard provides information on: Objectives; Applicability; Safety analysis requirements; Control selection and maintenance; Documentation requirements; Safety basis review, approval, and renewal; and Safety basis implementation.

  1. Radioisotope therapy of cystic craniopharyngeomas

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, L.; Sturm, V.; Georgi, P.; Schlegel, W.; Ostertag, H.; Clorius, J.H.; Van Kaick, G.

    1982-09-01

    Eighteen patients suffering from cystic craniopharyngeoma were treated with intracavitary irradiation. The beta-emitting radioisotope /sup 90/y (2.25 MeV) was instilled into the cyst following stereotactic puncture of the space-occupying lesion. The surgical approach was planned using angiograms and reconstructed transmission computer tomography (TCT) coronal and saggital sections. Therapy was devised to deliver 20,000 rad to the cyst's wall. Eleven patients received follow-up TCT examinations after four months. Eight of 11 patients had a significant volume decrease in the craniopharyngeoma cyst. In two patients, the cystic volume remained unchanged; one had progression of disease. It is concluded that the intracavitary treatment of cystic craniopharyngeoma will result in a reduction of the size of the space-occupying lesion.

  2. BEST medical radioisotope production cyclotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabaiduc, Vasile; Milton, Bruce; Suthanthiran, Krishnan; Gelbart, W. Z.; Johnson, Richard R.

    2013-04-01

    Best Cyclotron Systems Inc (BCSI) is currently developing 14 MeV, 25 MeV, 35MeV and 70MeV cyclotrons for radioisotope production and research applications as well as the entire spectrum of targets and nuclear synthesis modules for the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and radiation therapy isotopes. The company is a subsidiary of Best Medical International, renowned in the field of medical instrumentation and radiation therapy. All cyclotrons have external negative hydrogen ion sources, four radial sectors with two dees in opposite valleys, cryogenic vacuum system and simultaneous beam extraction on opposite lines. The beam intensity ranges from 400 μA to 1000 μA, depending on the cyclotron energy and application [1].

  3. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems - Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.; Mccallum, Peter W.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program continues to plan and implement content to enable planetary exploration where such systems could be needed, and to prepare more advanced RPS technology for possible infusion into future power systems. The 2014-2015 period saw significant changes, and strong progress. Achievements of near-term objectives have enabled definition of a clear path forward in which payoffs from research investments and other sustaining efforts can be applied. The future implementation path is expected to yield a higher-performing thermoelectric generator design, a more isotope-fuel efficient system concept design, and a robust RPS infrastructure maintained effectively within both NASA and the Department of Energy. This paper describes recent work with an eye towards the future plans that result from these achievements.

  4. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    SciTech Connect

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A 200- to 500-..mu..A source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-..mu..A beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-..mu..A beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons.

  5. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES H) Progress Assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The onsite assessment, which was conducted from November 9 through November 20, 1992, included a selective review of the ES H management systems and programs with principal focus on the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP); San Francisco Field Office (SF), including the Livermore Site Office (LSO); and the site contractor, the University of California. The purpose of the LLNL ES H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES H issues and requirements. The assessment was not a comprehensive compliance assessment of ES H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at LLNL was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of LLNL, which was conducted from February 26 through April 5, 1990. The LLNL Progress Assessment was conducted by a team of 12 professionals from various DOE offices and their support contractors, with expertise in the areas of management, environment, safety, and health. The Progress Assessment Team concluded that LLNL management recognizes the importance that the Secretary of Energy places on ES H excellence and has responded with improvements in all ES H areas. Progress has been made in addressing the deficiencies identified in the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment. Although much remains to be done and concerns were noted in several areas, these concerns do not diminish the significance of the progress made since the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment.

  6. Environment, safety and health progress assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The onsite assessment, which was conducted from November 9 through November 20, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs with principal focus on the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Defense Programs (DP); San Francisco Field Office (SF), including the Livermore Site Office (LSO); and the site contractor, the University of California. The purpose of the LLNL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Secretary with an independent assessment of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to address ES&H issues and requirements. The assessment was not a comprehensive compliance assessment of ES&H activities. The point of reference for assessing programs at LLNL was, for the most part, the Tiger Team Assessment of LLNL, which was conducted from February 26 through April 5, 1990. The LLNL Progress Assessment was conducted by a team of 12 professionals from various DOE offices and their support contractors, with expertise in the areas of management, environment, safety, and health. The Progress Assessment Team concluded that LLNL management recognizes the importance that the Secretary of Energy places on ES&H excellence and has responded with improvements in all ES&H areas. Progress has been made in addressing the deficiencies identified in the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment. Although much remains to be done and concerns were noted in several areas, these concerns do not diminish the significance of the progress made since the 1990 Tiger Team Assessment.

  7. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Health and Safety Long-Range Plan: Fiscal years 1989--1995

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The health and safety of its personnel is the first concern of ORNL and its management. The ORNL Health and Safety Program has the responsibility for ensuring the health and safety of all individuals assigned to ORNL activities. This document outlines the principal aspects of the ORNL Health and Safety Long-Range Plan and provides a framework for management use in the future development of the health and safety program. Each section of this document is dedicated to one of the health and safety functions (i.e., health physics, industrial hygiene, occupational medicine, industrial safety, nuclear criticality safety, nuclear facility safety, transportation safety, fire protection, and emergency preparedness). Each section includes functional mission and objectives, program requirements and status, a summary of program needs, and program data and funding summary. Highlights of FY 1988 are included.

  8. [Radioisotope thermoelectric generators and ancillary activities]. Monthly technical progress report, 1 April--28 April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Tehnical progress achieved during this period on radioisotope thermoelectric generators is described under the following tasks: engineering support, safety analysis, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication/assembly/test, RTG shipping/launch support, design/review/mission applications, and project management/quality assurance/reliability.

  9. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lamar, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1)isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1986.

  10. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Lamar, D.A.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-08-01

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms, including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: 1) isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; 2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; 3) isotopes purchased cross- referenced with customer numbers; 4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and 5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1987.

  11. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Seismic Safety Program: Summary of findings

    SciTech Connect

    Scheimer, J.F.; Burkhard, N.R.; Emerson, D.O.

    1991-05-01

    This report summarizes the final assessments of geologic hazards at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and includes a revision of the peak acceleration hazard curve. Detailed discussions of investigations are documented in a series of reports produced by LLNL's Site Seismic Safety Program and their consultants. The Program conducted a probabilistic assessment of hazards at the site as a result of liquefaction, landslide, and strong ground shaking, using existing models to explicitly treat uncertainties. The results indicate the Greenville and Las Positas-Verona Fault systems present the greatest hazard to the LLNL site as a result of ground shaking, with a lesser contribution from the Calaveras Fault. Other, more distant fault systems do not materially contribute to the hazard. No evidence has been found that the LLNL site will undergo soil failures such as landslides or liquefaction. In addition, because of the locations and ages of the faults in the LLNL area, surface ground rupture during an earthquake is extremely unlikely. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  12. A multi-functional electronic program for the management of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Ritchot, Nathalie; Santary, William

    2008-05-01

    Everyone will agree that specialized computer programs have done away with the many tedious tasks associated with manually keeping track of radioisotopes. Enhanced electronic programs have virtually cut the time of managing radioisotopes. Agriculture and Agri-Food, Canada's (AAFC) program for the management of radioisotopes, is somewhat different from most electronic programs. It is divided into three levels of management that are dependent on the roles that a user might have when applying the application. These roles include the Departmental Radiation Safety Officer (DRSO), Radiation Safety Officer (RSO), and authorized user, which meets the requirements of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission. The DRSO and authorized AAFC Radiation Safety Committee members have access to the first level of management. This is the highest level of control, and only the DRSO has permission to add a nuclear substance to the system with the approval of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). This level of management is also responsible for adding authorized users, locations, and managing the Internal Use Permits. The second level of management is for site-specific RSOs. They have access to all information regarding their center of activity, but they cannot change Internal Use Permit data. The RSOs can reset passwords, authorize new users, control the maximum activity limit, etc., but are limited to viewing only the information that relates to their internal use permit. However, they retain significant control within the permit. The third and last level of management is for authorized users who can access the radioisotope order-distribution-disposal section, waste or storage containers creation file, and leak/wipe test procedures. As in the case of the DRSO and RSO, they also have access to all reports and inventories for their center of activity but they cannot change Internal Use Permit or inventories data. This program has proven to be a valuable tool for scientific staff

  13. Future planetary missions potentially requiring Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondt, Jack F.; Nesmith, Bill J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the potential Radioisotope Power System, (RPS), technology requirements for future missions being planned for NASA's Solar System Exploration (SSE) theme. Many missions to the outer planets (Jupiter and beyond) require completion of the work on advanced radioisotope power systems (ARPS) now underway in NASA's Deep Space Systems Technology Program. The power levels for the ARPS can be divided into four classes. Forty to one hundred milliwatt-class provides both thermal and electric power for small in situ science laboratories on the surface of bodies in the solar system. One to two watt class for surface and aerobot science laboratories. Ten to twenty-watt class for micro satellites in orbit, surface science stations and aerobots. One hundred to two hundred watt class for orbiter science spacecraft, for drilling core samples, for powering subsurface hydrobots and cryobots on accessible bodies and for data handling and communicating data from small orbiters, surface laboratories, aerobots and hydrobots back to Earth. Using the most optimistic solar-based power system instead of advanced RPSs pushes the launch masses of these missions beyond the capability of affordable launch vehicles. Advanced RPS is also favored over solar power for obtaining comet samples on extended-duration missions. .

  14. An Overview and Status of NASA's Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Wong, Wayne A.; Tuttle, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) development program is developing next generation radioisotope power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that can not be met by either photovoltaic systems or by current Radioisotope Power System (RPS) technology. The Advanced Power Conversion Research and Technology project of the Advanced RPS development program is funding research and technology activities through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) 02- OSS-01, "Research Opportunities in Space Science 2002" entitled "Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology" (RPCT), 13 August 2002. The objective of the RPCT NRA is to advance the development of radioisotope power conversion technologies to provide significant improvements over the state-of-practice General Purpose Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator by providing significantly higher efficiency to reduce the number of radioisotope fuel modules, and increase specific power (watts/kilogram). Other Advanced RPS goals include safety, long-life, reliability, scalability, multi-mission capability, resistance to radiation, and minimal interference with the scientific payload. These advances would enable a factor of 2 to 4 decrease in the amount of fuel required to generate electrical power. The RPCT NRA selected advanced RPS power conversion technology research and development proposals in the following three areas: innovative RPS power conversion research, RPS power conversion technology development in a nominal 100We scale; and, milliwatt/multi-watt RPS (mWRPS) power conversion research. Ten RPCT NRA contracts were awarded in 2003 in the areas of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectric (TE), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion technologies. This paper will provide an overview of the RPCT NRA, and a brief summary of accomplishments over the first 18 months but focusing on advancements made over the last 6 months.

  15. Multi-Watt Small Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Conceptual Design Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Determan, William R.; Otting, William; Frye, Patrick; Abelson, Robert; Ewell, Richard; Miyake, Bob; Synder, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A need has been identified for a small, light-weight, reliable power source using a radioisotope heat source, to power the next generation of NASA's small surface rovers and exploration probes. Unit performance, development costs, and technical risk are key criteria to be used to select the best design approach. Because safety can be a major program cost and schedule driver, RTG designs should utilize the DOE radioisotope safety program's data base to the maximum extent possible. Other aspects important to the conceptual design include: 1) a multi-mission capable design for atmospheric and vacuum environments, 2) a module size based on one GPHS Step 2 module, 3) use of flight proven thermoelectric converter technologies, 4) a long service lifetime of up to 14 years, 5) maximize unit specific power consistent with all other requirements, and 6) be ready by 2013. Another critical aspect of the design is the thermal integration of the RTG with the rover or probe's heat rejection subsystem and the descent vehicle's heat rejection subsystem. This paper describes two multi-watt RTG design concepts and their integration with a MER-class rover.

  16. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Reduction of Experimental Scale in High School and College General Chemistry Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Carole A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Notes the careful observation of chemical reactivity phenomena has been and should be an important part of the general chemistry laboratory curriculum. Stresses reduction of experimental scale will help to ensure, in times of rampant chemophobia, that it remains so. Provides several examples of the methodology. (MVL)

  17. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (ERP), Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-20

    This document was prepared to take the place of a Safety Evaluation Report since the Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF)and associated Baseline Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) File do not meet the requirements of a complete safety analysis documentation. Its purpose is to present in summary form the background of how the BSAF and Baseline TSR originated and a description of the process by which it was produced and approved for use in the Environmental Restoration Program.The BSAF is a facility safety reference document for INEL environmental restoration activities including environmental remediation of inactive waste sites and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of surplus facilities. The BSAF contains safety bases common to environmental restoration activities and guidelines for performing and documenting safety analysis. The common safety bases can be incorporated by reference into the safety analysis documentation prepared for individual environmental restoration activities with justification and any necessary revisions. The safety analysis guidelines in BSAF provide an accepted method for hazard analysis; analysis of normal, abnormal, and accident conditions; human factors analysis; and derivation of TSRS. The BSAF safety bases and guidelines are graded for environmental restoration activities.

  18. Pyroshock Testing of the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woerner, David; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Bennett, Russell; Hammel, Tom; Otting, William

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator, or MMRTG, was developed by the Department Of Energy to a set of requirements from multiple NASA mission concepts. Those concepts included deep space missions to the outer planets as well as missions to Mars. The synthesis of that diverse set of requirements addressed functional as well as environmental requirements.

  19. Progress in safety and environmental aspects of inertial fusion energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S; Meier, W R

    2000-06-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is making significant progress in several areas related to the safety and environmental (S and E) aspects of inertial fusion energy (IFE). A detailed accident analysis has been completed for the HYLIFE-II power plant design. Additional accident analyses are underway for both the HYLIFE-II and Sombrero designs. Other S and E work at LLNL has addressed the issue of the driver-chamber interface and its importance for both heavy-ion and laser-driven IFE. Radiation doses and fluences have been calculated for final focusing mirrors and magnets and shielding optimization is underway to extend the anticipated lifetimes for key components. Target designers/fabrication specialists have been provided with ranking information related to the S and E characteristics of candidate target materials (e.g., ability to recycle, accident consequences, and waste management). Ongoing work in this area will help guide research directions and the selection of target materials. Published and continuing work on fast ignition has demonstrated some of the potentially attractive S and E features of such designs. In addition to reducing total driver energies, fast ignition may ease target fabrication requirements, reduce radiation damage rates, and enable the practical use of advanced (e.g., tritium-lean) labels with significantly reduced neutron production rates, the possibility of self-breeding targets, and dramatically increased flexibility in blanket design. Domestic and international collaborations are key to success in the above areas. A brief summary of each area is given and plans for future work are outlined.

  20. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  1. How compliant are technicians with universal safety measures in medical laboratories in Croatia? – A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dukic, Kristina; Zoric, Matea; Pozaic, Petra; Starcic, Jelena; Culjak, Marija; Saracevic, Andrea; Miler, Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This pilot study aimed to investigate the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and compliance to the code of conduct (rules defined in institutional, governmental and professional guidelines) among laboratory technicians in Croatian medical laboratories. In addition, we explored the differences in compliance between participants of different age groups, laboratory ownership and accreditation status. Materials and methods An anonymous and voluntary survey with 15 questions was conducted among Croatian medical laboratory technicians (N = 217). The questions were divided into two groups: demographic characteristics and the use of PPE. The questions of the second part were graded according to the Likert scale (1-4) and an overall score, shown as median and range (min-max), was calculated for each participant. Differences between the overall scores were tested for each group of participants. Results The majority of participants always wear protective clothes at work, 38.7% of them always wear gloves in daily routine, more than 30.0% consume food and almost half of them drink beverages at workplace. A significantly lower overall score was found for participants working in public compared to private laboratories (36 (16-40) vs. 40 (31-40), P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in overall scores for participants of different age groups (P = 0.456) and laboratory accreditation status (P = 0.081). Conclusion A considerable percentage of laboratory technicians in Croatian medical laboratories do not comply with safety measures. Lack of compliance is observed in all personnel regardless laboratory accreditation and participants’ age. However, those working in private laboratories adhere more to the code of conduct. PMID:26526817

  2. Health and Safety Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Clark, C. Jr.; Burman, S.N.; Manis, L.W.; Barre, W.L.

    1993-12-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to safety and health (S&H) issues. The plan is written to utilize past experience and best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to air, soil, or surface water This plan explains additional site-specific health and safety requirements such as Site Specific Hazards Evaluation Addendums (SSHEAs) to the Site Safety and Health Plan which should be used in concert with this plan and existing established procedures.

  3. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators for implanted pacemakers

    SciTech Connect

    Pustovalov, A.A.; Bovin, A.V.; Fedorets, V.I.; Shapovalov, V.P.

    1986-08-01

    This paper discusses the development and application of long-life lithium batteries and the problems associated with miniature radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RITEG) with service lives of 10 years or longer. On eof the main problems encountered when devising a radioisotope heat source (RHS) for an RITEG is to obtain biomedical /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ with a specific neutron yield of 3.10/sup 3/-4.10/sup 3/ (g /SUP ./ sec)/sup -1/, equivalent to metallic Pu 238, and with a content of gamma impurities sufficient to ensure a permissible exposure a permissible exposure does rate (EDR) of a mixture of neutron and gamma radiation. After carrying out the isotope exchange and purifying the initial sample of its gamma impurity elements, the authors obtain biomedical Pu 238 satisfying the indicated requirements king suitable for use in the power packs of medical devices. Taking the indicated specifications into account, the Ritm-1o and gamma radioisotope heat sources were designed, built, tested in models and under natural conditions, and then into production as radioisotope thermoelectric generators designed to power the electronic circuits of implanted pacemakers. The Ritm-MT and Gemma radioisotope thermoelectric generators described are basic units, which can be used as self-contained power supplies for electronic equipment with power requirements in the micromilliwatt range.

  4. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Experiments Integrating Evaluation of Chemical Hazards into the Chemistry Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, J. T.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Proposes use of two experiments to sample and analyze contaminents in the laboratory. Experiments focus on estimating hydrogen sulfide levels in the general chemistry laboratory during qualitative analysis and determining the concentration of organic vapors associated with organic chemistry laboratories. (JN)

  5. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems Program Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Hamley, John A.; McCallum, Peter W.; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program began formal implementation in December 2010. The RPS Program's goal is to make available RPS for the exploration of the solar system in environments where conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet mission needs. To meet this goal, the RPS Program manages investments in RPS system development and RPS technologies. The current keystone of the RPS Program is the development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). This generator will be about four times more efficient than the more traditional thermoelectric generators, while providing a similar amount of power. This paper provides the status of the RPS Program and its related projects. Opportunities for RPS generator development and targeted research into RPS component performance enhancements, as well as constraints dealing with the supply of radioisotope fuel, are also discussed in the context of the next ten years of planetary science mission plans.

  6. Commercial Superconducting Electron Linac for Radioisotope Production

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, Terry Lee; Boulware, Charles H.; Hollister, Jerry L.; Jecks, Randall W.; Mamtimin, Mayir; Starovoitova, Valeriia

    2015-08-13

    The majority of radioisotopes used in the United States today come from foreign suppliers or are generated parasitically in large government accelerators and nuclear reactors. Both of these restrictions limit the availability of radioisotopes and discourage the development and evaluation of new isotopes and for nuclear medicine, science, and industry. Numerous studies have been recommending development of dedicated accelerators for production of radioisotopes for over 20 years (Institute of Medicine, 1995; Reba, et al, 2000; National Research Council, 2007; NSAC 2009). The 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan for Isotopes again identified electron accelerators as an area for continued research and development. Recommendation 1(c) from the 2015 NSAC Isotope report specifically identifies electron accelerators for continued funding for the purpose of producing medical and industrial radioisotopes. Recognizing the pressing need for new production methods of radioisotopes, the United States Congress passed the American Medical Isotope Production Act of 2012 to develop a domestic production of 99Mo and to eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the production of 99Mo. One of the advantages of high power electron linear accelerators (linacs) is they can create both proton- and neutron-rich isotopes by generating high energy x-rays that knock out protons or neutrons from stable atoms or by fission of uranium. This allows for production of isotopes not possible in nuclear reactors. Recent advances in superconducting electron linacs have decreased the size and complexity of these systems such that they are economically competitive with nuclear reactors and large, high energy accelerators. Niowave, Inc. has been developing a radioisotope production facility based on a superconducting electron linac with liquid metal converters.

  7. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 5 copies in the file.

  8. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 2 copies in the file.

  9. Vibration Testing of the Pluto/New Horizons Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Charles D. Griffin

    2006-06-01

    The Radioisotopic Thermal Generator (RTG) for the Pluto/New Horizons spacecraft was subjected to a flight dynamic acceptance test to demonstrate that it would perform successfully following launch. Seven RTGs of this type had been assembled and tested at Mound, Ohio from 1984 to 1997. This paper chronicles major events in establishing a new vibration test laboratory at the Idaho National Laboratory and the nineteen days of dynamic testing.

  10. Investigation of the excitation functions for some medical radioisotopes production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılınç, Fatma; Karpuz, Nurdan; Çetin, Betül

    2016-11-01

    One of the main application fields of nuclear technology is medicine and radioisotopes are used in medicine. Production of those radioisotopes is important and in the production processes the cross section must be known. All the production of radioisotope used in medicine is based on the nuclear reactions means they are not natural. The decay time of produced radioisotopes is important as from production to hospital can take time and thus generally generator is used to produce some radioisotopes. Radioisotopes are widely produced in reactors or cyclotron type accelerator. Type of radioisotopes direct way to be used in production processes. Thus obtaining of cross section becomes crucial. For this purposes the theoretical calculation cross section of some radioisotopes used in medicine will be calculated in this study. The calculations will be done using Monte Carlo code of TALYS 1.6

  11. TWODEE: the Health and Safety Laboratory's shallow layer model for heavy gas dispersion. Part 1. Mathematical basis and physical assumptions.

    PubMed

    Hankin, R K; Britter, R E

    1999-05-14

    The Major Hazard Assessment Unit of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) provides advice to local planning authorities on land use planning in the vicinity of major hazard sites. For sites with the potential for large scale releases of toxic heavy gases such as chlorine this advice is based on risk levels and is informed by use of the computerised risk assessment tool RISKAT [C. Nussey, M. Pantony, R. Smallwood, HSE's risk assessment tool RISKAT, Major Hazards: Onshore and Offshore, October, 1992]. At present RISKAT uses consequence models for heavy gas dispersion that assume flat terrain. This paper is the first part of a three part paper. Part 1 describes the mathematical basis of TWODEE, the Health and Safety Laboratory's shallow layer model for heavy gas dispersion. The shallow layer approach used by TWODEE is a compromise between the complexity of CFD models and the simpler integral models. Motivated by the low aspect ratio of typical heavy gas clouds, shallow layer models use depth-averaged variables to describe the flow behaviour. This approach is particularly well suited to assess the effect of complex terrain because the downslope buoyancy force is easily included. Entrainment may be incorporated into a shallow layer model by the use of empirical formulae. Part 2 of this paper presents the numerical scheme used to solve the TWODEE mathematical model, and validated against theoretical results. Part 3 compares the results of the TWODEE model with the experimental results taken at Thorney Island [J. McQuaid, B. Roebuck, The dispersion of heavier-than-air gas from a fenced enclosure. Final report to the US Coast Guard on contract with the Health and Safety Executive, Technical Report RPG 1185, Safety Engineering Laboratory, Research and Laboratory Services Division, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, UK, 1985].

  12. Operational readiness review plan for the radioisotope thermoelectric generator materials production tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. H.; Martin, M. M.; Riggs, C. R.; Beatty, R. L.; Ohriner, E. K.; Escher, R. N.

    1990-04-01

    In October 1989, a Space Shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium-alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon-composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon-composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high-quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP-24 describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate energy systems' activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This energy system policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management-approved readiness plan to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks.

  13. Operational readiness review plan for the radioisotope thermoelectric generator materials production tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.H.; Martin, M.M.; Riggs, C.R.; Beatty, R.L.; Ohriner, E.K.; Escher, R.N.

    1990-04-19

    In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium-alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon-composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon-composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high-quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP-24 entitled Operational Readiness Process'' describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management-approved readiness plan'' to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Operational Readiness Review Plan for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Materials Production Tasks

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cooper, R. H.; Martin, M. M.; Riggs, C. R.; Beatty, R. L.; Ohriner, E. K.; Escher, R. N.

    1990-04-19

    In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP 24 entitled "Operational Readiness Process" describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management approved "readiness plan" to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks.

  15. An Updated Comprehensive Risk Analysis for Radioisotopes Identified of High Risk to National Security in the Event of a Radiological Dispersion Device Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Alexandra R.

    An updated global survey of radioisotope production and distribution was completed and subjected to a revised "down-selection methodology" to determine those radioisotopes that should be classified as potential national security risks based on availability and key physical characteristics that could be exploited in a hypothetical radiological dispersion device. The potential at-risk radioisotopes then were used in a modeling software suite known as Turbo FRMAC, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, to characterize plausible contamination maps known as Protective Action Guideline Zone Maps. This software also was used to calculate the whole body dose equivalent for exposed individuals based on various dispersion parameters and scenarios. Derived Response Levels then were determined for each radioisotope using: 1) target doses to members of the public provided by the U.S. EPA, and 2) occupational dose limits provided by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The limiting Derived Response Level for each radioisotope also was determined.

  16. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 7, Safety operation procedure for hot cell

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This volume contains the interim change notice for the safety operation procedure for hot cell. It covers the master-slave manipulators, dry waste removal, cell transfers, hoists, cask handling, liquid waste system, and physical characterization of fluids.

  17. Structure and manual of radioisotope-production data base, ISOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Kentaro; Terunuma, Kusuo

    1994-02-01

    We planned on collecting the information of radioisotope production which was obtained from research works and tasks at the Department of Radioisotopes in JAERI, and constructed a proto-type data base ISOP after discussion of the kinds and properties of the information available for radioisotope production. In this report the structure and the manual of ISOP are described.

  18. Safety Tips: Academic Laboratory Waste Disposal: Yes, You Can Get Rid of that Stuff Legally!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three methods for removing wastes from educational laboratories. These include paying someone with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) permits, doing part of the work before an EPA contractor carries out final steps, or reducing magnitude of future disposal problems by changing present laboratory procedures. Includes comments on…

  19. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946-1953.

    PubMed

    Creager, Angela N H

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear "piles," soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country's atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments-both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy-in the early Cold War.

  20. NASA Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Development program is aimed at developing nuclear power and technologies that would improve the effectiveness of space science missions. The Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) is an important mechanism through which research and technology activities are supported in the Advanced Power Conversion Research and Technology project of the Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Development program. The purpose of the RPCT NRA is to advance the development of radioisotope power conversion technologies to provide higher efficiencies and specific powers than existing systems. These advances would enable a factor of two to four decrease in the amount of fuel and a reduction of waste heat required to generate electrical power, and thus could result in more cost effective science missions for NASA. The RPCT NRA selected advanced RPS power conversion technology research and development proposals in the following three areas: innovative RPS power conversion research, RPS power conversion technology development in a nominal 100 W(sub e) scale; and, milliwatt/multi-watt RPS (mWRPS) power conversion research. Ten RPCT NRA contracts were awarded in 2003 in the areas of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectric (TE), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion technologies. This paper will provide an overview of the RPCT NRA, a summary of the power conversion technologies approaches being pursued, and a brief digest of first year accomplishments.

  1. NASA Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Development program is aimed at developing nuclear power and technologies that would improve the effectiveness of space science missions. The Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) is an important mechanism through which research and technology activities are supported in the Advanced Power Conversion Research and Technology project of the Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Development program. The purpose of the RPCT NRA is to advance the development of radioisotope power conversion technologies to provide higher efficiencies and specific powers than existing systems. These advances would enable a factor of 2 to 4 decrease in the amount of fuel and a reduction of waste heat required to generate electrical power, and thus could result in more cost effective science missions for NASA. The RPCT NRA selected advanced RPS power conversion technology research and development proposals in the following three areas: innovative RPS power conversion research, RPS power conversion technology development in a nominal 100We scale; and, milliwatt/multi-watt RPS (mWRPS) power conversion research. Ten RPCT NRA contracts were awarded in 2003 in the areas of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectric (TE), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion technologies. This paper will provide an overview of the RPCT NRA, a summary of the power conversion technologies approaches being pursued, and a brief digest of first year accomplishments.

  2. Radioisotopes in management of metastatic prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Amar; Dan, Tu D.; Williams, Noelle L.; Pridjian, Andrew; Den, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Metastatic prostate cancer continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in men with prostate cancer. Over the last decade, the treatment landscape for patients with castrate-resistant disease has drastically changed, with several novel agents demonstrating an improvement in overall survival in large, multi-institutional randomized trials. Traditional treatment with radioisotopes has largely been in the palliative setting. However, the first in class radiopharmaceutical radium-223 has emerged as the only bone-directed treatment option demonstrating an improvement in overall survival. Methods: Medline publications from 1990 to 2016 were searched and reviewed to assess the use of currently approved radioisotopes in the management of prostate cancer including emerging data regarding integration with novel systemic therapies. New positron emission tomography-based radiotracers for advanced molecular imaging of prostate cancer were also queried. Results: Radioisotopes play a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer in the definitive and metastatic setting. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer and theranostics are currently being investigated in the clinical arena. Conclusions: The use of modern radioisotopes in selected patients with mCRPC is associated with improvements in overall survival, pain control, and quality of life. PMID:27843209

  3. ILLUSTRATIONS OF RADIOISOTOPES--DEFINITIONS AND APPLICATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    THIS PUBLICATION IS COMPOSED OF OVER 150 PAGES OF BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS DEALING WITH RADIOISOTOPES AND THEIR USES. THESE ILLUSTRATIONS CONSIST OF CHARTS, GRAPHS, AND PICTORIAL REPRESENTATIONS WHICH COULD BE PREPARED AS HANDOUTS, TRANSPARENCIES FOR OVERHEAD PROJECTION, OR WHICH COULD BE USED IN A NUMBER OF OTHER WAYS FOR PRESENTING SUCH…

  4. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946–1953

    PubMed Central

    Creager, Angela N. H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear “piles,” soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchase to civilian institutions. This program of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was meant to exemplify the peacetime dividends of atomic energy. The numerous requests from scientists outside the United States, however, sparked a political debate about whether the Commission should or even could export radioisotopes. This controversy manifested the tension in U.S. politics between scientific internationalism as a tool of diplomacy, associated with the aims of the Marshall Plan, and the desire to safeguard the country’s atomic monopoly at all costs, linked to American anti-Communism. This essay examines the various ways in which radioisotopes were used as political instruments—both by the U.S. federal government in world affairs, and by critics of the civilian control of atomic energy—in the early Cold War. PMID:20725612

  5. Radioisotope thermal generator (RTG) power conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, W. S.

    1974-01-01

    New regulator: (a) permits operation with high-impedance radioisotope thermal generators at conversion efficiencies typically above 90%; (b) does not require input filtering; (c) eliminates current spiking; and (d) is simple, efficient, and reliable. Converter-charger pair could be adapted for other power levels by changing transistor, diode, capacitor bank, and inductor.

  6. Project health and safety plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Abston, J.P.

    1997-04-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) in the North and South Tank Farms (NTF and STF) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to health and safety (H and S) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all GAAT operations in the NTF and STF. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities identifies s part of the GAAT are initiated that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and best management practices in order to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air. This plan explains additional task-specific health and safety requirements such as the Site Safety and health Addendum and Activity Hazard Analysis, which should be used in concert with this plan and existing established procedures.

  7. Nuclear energy in the service of biomedicine: the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's radioisotope program, 1946-1950.

    PubMed

    Creager, Angela N H

    2006-01-01

    The widespread adoption of radioisotopes as tools in biomedical research and therapy became one of the major consequences of the "physicists' war" for postwar life science. Scientists in the Manhattan Project, as part of their efforts to advocate for civilian uses of atomic energy after the war, proposed using infrastructure from the wartime bomb project to develop a government-run radioisotope distribution program. After the Atomic Energy Bill was passed and before the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was formally established, the Manhattan Project began shipping isotopes from Oak Ridge. Scientists and physicians put these reactor-produced isotopes to many of the same uses that had been pioneered with cyclotron-generated radioisotopes in the 1930s and early 1940s. The majority of early AEC shipments were radioiodine and radiophosphorus, employed to evaluate thyroid function, diagnose medical disorders, and irradiate tumors. Both researchers and politicians lauded radioisotopes publicly for their potential in curing diseases, particularly cancer. However, isotopes proved less successful than anticipated in treating cancer and more successful in medical diagnostics. On the research side, reactor-generated radioisotopes equipped biologists with new tools to trace molecular transformations from metabolic pathways to ecosystems. The U.S. government's production and promotion of isotopes stimulated their consumption by scientists and physicians (both domestic and abroad), such that in the postwar period isotopes became routine elements of laboratory and clinical use. In the early postwar years, radioisotopes signified the government's commitment to harness the atom for peace, particularly through contributions to biology, medicine, and agriculture.

  8. High Efficiency Thermoelectric Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed; Saber, Hamed; Caillat, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    The work performed and whose results presented in this report is a joint effort between the University of New Mexico s Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies (ISNPS) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. In addition to the development, design, and fabrication of skutterudites and skutterudites-based segmented unicouples this effort included conducting performance tests of these unicouples for hundreds of hours to verify theoretical predictions of the conversion efficiency. The performance predictions of these unicouples are obtained using 1-D and 3-D models developed for that purpose and for estimating the actual performance and side heat losses in the tests conducted at ISNPS. In addition to the performance tests, the development of the 1-D and 3-D models and the development of Advanced Radioisotope Power systems for Beginning-Of-Life (BOM) power of 108 We are carried out at ISNPS. The materials synthesis and fabrication of the unicouples are carried out at JPL. The research conducted at ISNPS is documented in chapters 2-5 and that conducted at JP, in documented in chapter 5. An important consideration in the design and optimization of segmented thermoelectric unicouples (STUs) is determining the relative lengths, cross-section areas, and the interfacial temperatures of the segments of the different materials in the n- and p-legs. These variables are determined using a genetic algorithm (GA) in conjunction with one-dimensional analytical model of STUs that is developed in chapter 2. Results indicated that when optimized for maximum conversion efficiency, the interfacial temperatures between various segments in a STU are close to those at the intersections of the Figure-Of-Merit (FOM), ZT, curves of the thermoelectric materials of the adjacent segments. When optimizing the STUs for maximum electrical power density, however, the interfacial temperatures are different from those at the intersections of the ZT curves, but

  9. A Multi-Tiered Safety System for Free-Space Laser Transmission from the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. P.

    2004-02-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has built the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) atop Table Mountain in Southern California to serve as a research and development antenna, where communication strategies for future optical ground stations will be developed. Initial experiments to be conducted include propagating high-powered, Q-switched laser beams to retro-reflecting satellites. Laser beam propagation to space from the U.S. is under the cognizance of various government agencies, namely, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), responsible for protecting pilots and aircraft, and the Laser Clearinghouse of the U.S. Strategic Command (STRATCOM), responsible for protecting space assets. To ensure that laser beam propagation from the OCTL complies with the guidelines of these organizations, JPL has developed a multi-tiered safety system that will meet the coordination, monitoring, and reporting functions required by the agencies. Descriptions of each tier are presented, along with the design of the integrated monitoring and beam transmission control system.

  10. Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Department`s continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene.

  11. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  12. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site Seismic Safety Program: Summary of Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Savy, J B; Foxall, W

    2002-04-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site Seismic Safety Program was conceived in 1979 during the preparation of the site Draft Environmental Impact Statement. The impetus for the program came from the development of new methodologies and geologic data that affect assessments of geologic hazards at the LLNL site; it was designed to develop a new assessment of the seismic hazard to the LLNL site and LLNL employees. Secondarily, the program was also intended to provide the technical information needed to make ongoing decisions about design criteria for future construction at LLNL and about the adequacy of existing facilities. This assessment was intended to be of the highest technical quality and to make use of the most recent and accepted hazard assessment methodologies. The basic purposes and objectives of the current revision are similar to those of the previous studies. Although all the data and experience assembled in the previous studies were utilized to their fullest, the large quantity of new information and new methodologies led to the formation of a new team that includes LLNL staff and outside consultants from academia and private consulting firms. A peer-review panel composed of individuals from academia (A. Cornell, Stanford University), the Department of Energy (DOE; Jeff Kimball), and consulting (Kevin Coppersmith), provided review and guidance. This panel was involved from the beginning of the project in a ''participatory'' type of review. The Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC, a committee sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, DOE, and the Electric Power Research Institute) strongly recommends the use of participatory reviews, in which the reviewers follow the progress of a project from the beginning, rather than waiting until the end to provide comments (Budnitz et al., 1997). Following the requirements for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) stipulated in the DOE standard DOE-STD-1023-95, a special

  13. Combustible ionic liquids by design: is laboratory safety another ionic liquid myth?

    PubMed

    Smiglak, Marcin; Reichert, W Mathew; Holbrey, John D; Wilkes, John S; Sun, Luyi; Thrasher, Joseph S; Kirichenko, Kostyantyn; Singh, Shailendra; Katritzky, Alan R; Rogers, Robin D

    2006-06-28

    The non-flammability of ionic liquids (ILs) is often highlighted as a safety advantage of ILs over volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but the fact that many ILs are not flammable themselves does not mean that they are safe to use near fire and/or heat sources; a large group of ILs (including commercially available ILs) are combustible due to the nature of their positive heats of formation, oxygen content, and decomposition products.

  14. Modeling Lithium Ion Battery Safety: Venting of Pouch Cells; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram.; Yang, Chuanbo.; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the successful completion of the NREL July milestone entitled “Modeling Lithium-Ion Battery Safety - Complete Case-Studies on Pouch Cell Venting,” as part of the 2013 Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This work aims to bridge the gap between materials modeling, usually carried out at the sub-continuum scale, and the

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1983 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Overview and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, W.J.

    1984-02-01

    The 1983 annual report from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to the Department of Energy (DOE) describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1983. The report again consists of five parts, each in a separate volume. Part 5 of the 1983 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety and the Office of Operational Safety. For each project, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement, articles describe progress made during FY 1983. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from various segments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  16. Alternative Radioisotopes for Heat and Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, T.; Sarsfield, M.; Rice, T.

    Production of 238Pu requires considerable facilities including a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plants that are very expensive to build and operate. Thus, a more economical alternative is very attractive to the industry. There are many alternative radioisotopes that exist but few that satisfy the criteria of performance, availability and cost to produce. Any alternative to 238Pu must exist in a chemical form that is compatible with the materials required to safely encapsulate the heat source at the high temperatures of operation and potential launch failure scenarios. The chemical form must also have suitable thermal properties to ensure maximum energy conversion efficiencies when integrated into radioisotope thermoelectric generators over the required mission durations. In addition, the radiation dose must be low enough for operators during production and not so prohibitive that excessive shielding mass is required on the space craft. This paper will focus on the preferred European alternative of 241Am, and the issues that will need to be addressed.

  17. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Life Certification Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Zampino, Edward

    2013-01-01

    An Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) power supply is being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with NASA for potential future deep space science missions. Unlike previous radioisotope power supplies for space exploration, such as the passive MMRTG used recently on the Mars Curiosity rover, the ASRG is an active dynamic power supply with moving Stirling engine mechanical components. Due to the long life requirement of 17 years and the dynamic nature of the Stirling engine, the ASRG project faced some unique challenges trying to establish full confidence that the power supply will function reliably over the mission life. These unique challenges resulted in the development of an overall life certification plan that emphasizes long-term Stirling engine test and inspection when analysis is not practical. The ASRG life certification plan developed is described.

  18. Reactors are indispensable for radioisotope production.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    Radioisotopes can be produced by reactors and accelerators. For certain isotopes there could be an advantage to a certain production method. However, nowadays many reports suggest, that useful isotopes needed in medicine, industry and research could be produced efficiently and dependence on reactors using enriched U-235 may be eliminated. In my view reactors and accelerators will continue to play their role side by side in the supply of suitable and economical sources of isotopes.

  19. NEW DIRECTIONS IN RADIOISOTOPE SPECTRUM IDENTIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Salaymeh, S.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-06-17

    Recent studies have found the performance of commercial handheld detectors with automatic RIID software to be less than acceptable. Previously, we have explored approaches rooted in speech processing such as cepstral features and information-theoretic measures. Scientific advances are often made when researchers identify mathematical or physical commonalities between different fields and are able to apply mature techniques or algorithms developed in one field to another field which shares some of the same challenges. The authors of this paper have identified similarities between the unsolved problems faced in gamma-spectroscopy for automated radioisotope identification and the challenges of the much larger body of research in speech processing. Our research has led to a probabilistic framework for describing and solving radioisotope identification problems. Many heuristic approaches to classification in current use, including for radioisotope classification, make implicit probabilistic assumptions which are not clear to the users and, if stated explicitly, might not be considered desirable. Our framework leads to a classification approach with demonstrable improvements using standard feature sets on proof-of-concept simulated and field-collected data.

  20. Prioritization of environmental, safety, and health issues at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Mubayi, V.; Lehner, J.; Lin, C.C.; Conrad, C.; Pratt, W.T.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes short-term and long-term enhancements to the existing prioritization system at BNL which are being carried out under the Management Systems Improvement Program in response to DOE`s Integrated Safety Management System Evaluation of BNL. The enhancements focus on: inclusion of stakeholder (public, elected officials, and media) perceptions; achievement and maintenance of full compliance with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, ordinances regulations, and codes; devotion of special attention to unique risk factors; and integration of ES and H and Infrastructure issues within one prioritization model.

  1. Multi-physics Modeling for Improving Li-Ion Battery Safety; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Yang, C.

    2015-04-21

    Battery performance, cost, and safety must be further improved for larger market share of HEVs/PEVs and penetration into the grid. Significant investment is being made to develop new materials, fine tune existing ones, improve cell and pack designs, and enhance manufacturing processes to increase performance, reduce cost, and make batteries safer. Modeling, simulation, and design tools can play an important role by providing insight on how to address issues, reducing the number of build-test-break prototypes, and accelerating the development cycle of generating products.

  2. Comparative juvenile safety testing of new therapeutic candidates: relevance of laboratory animal data to children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Tim; Khan, Nasir K; Tassinari, Melissa S; Hurtt, Mark E

    2009-01-01

    Differences in drug response in patients of various ages including children and the elderly are common, often leading to challenges in optimizing dosages and duration of use. For example, developmental changes in renal function can dramatically alter the plasma clearance of compounds with extensive renal elimination and thus can enhance renal and systemic toxicity of these drugs. Preclinical and clinical research of new therapeutics is initially focused on adults, and provides little relevant information for children especially those who are still going through skeletal and organ development. The organ systems in the pediatric population that can be most susceptible are lungs, brain, kidneys, immune, skeletal, and reproductive systems. Considering that significant differences can exist between adult and juvenile populations that may affect drug safety, major regulatory agencies around the world are encouraging and sometimes requiring companies to generate preclinical juvenile animal data to predict for potential drug toxicity in children. However, data generated from such studies are useful only if obtained using the most appropriate species at the most relevant age considering comparability of specific organ system development in question. Other factors in the design of juvenile safety studies should include the indication, existing toxicological data and likely route of human exposure. This report will discuss these factors with a focus on reviewing species-specific developmental schedules for specific target organs and relevance of preclinical data in the design and conduct of clinical pediatric studies. Specific examples will be used to discuss the relationship of preclinical juvenile toxicity observations to risk assessment in humans.

  3. Chronic cyanide exposure: a clinical, radioisotope, and laboratory study.

    PubMed Central

    El Ghawabi, S H; Gaafar, M A; El-Saharti, A A; Ahmed, S H; Malash, K K; Fares, R

    1975-01-01

    The effect of chronic cyanide exposure in the electroplating sections of three factories employing 36 workers was studied and compared with a control group. The concentration of cyanides to which the workers were exposed was measured. The regression line showing the relationship between thiocyanates in urine and the concentration of cyanides in the air was plotted. Increased percentages of haemoglobin and lymphocyte count were present in all exposed workers, in addition to punctate basophilia in 28 workers. Cyanmethaemoglobin was found to be characteristic. Apart from other complaints, two men with psychosis similar to one case reported in therapeutic thiocyanate intoxication were found. Twenty of the workers had thyroid enlargements to a variable degree and consistency, in two of whom it resembled lymphadenoid goitre. Thyroid 131I uptakes at 4 and 24 hours were significantly higher than in the controls, while 131PBI was unchanged. The reason for this iodine deficiency-like action is discussed. PMID:1156569

  4. Los Alamos National Laboratory corregated metal pipe saw facility preliminary safety analysis report. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1990-09-19

    This Preliminary Safety Analysis Report addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and design operation of the processing systems in the Corrugated Metal Pipe Saw Facility with respect to normal and abnormal conditions. Potential hazards are identified, credible accidents relative to the operation of the facility and the process systems are analyzed, and the consequences of postulated accidents are presented. The risk associated with normal operations, abnormal operations, and natural phenomena are analyzed. The accident analysis presented shows that the impact of the facility will be acceptable for all foreseeable normal and abnormal conditions of operation. Specifically, under normal conditions the facility will have impacts within the limits posted by applicable DOE guidelines, and in accident conditions the facility will similarly meet or exceed the requirements of all applicable standards. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for immobilization of radioisotopes

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-04-05

    A method of immobilizing a radioisotope and vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) articles formed by the method are described. The method comprises combining a radioisotope-containing material, MgO, a source of phosphate, and optionally, a reducing agent, in water at a temperature of less than 100.degree. C. to form a slurry; curing the slurry to form a solid intermediate CBPC article comprising the radioisotope therefrom; comminuting the intermediate CBPC article, mixing the comminuted material with glass frits, and heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of about 900 to about 1500.degree. C. to form a vitrified CBPC article comprising the radioisotope immobilized therein.

  6. Spark Plasma Sintering of simulated radioisotope materials within tungsten cermets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, R. C.; Ambrosi, R. M.; Bannister, N. P.; Howe, S. D.; Atkinson, H. V.

    2009-08-01

    A Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) furnace was used to produce ceramic-metallic sinters (cermets) containing a simulated loading of radioisotope materials. CeO 2 was used to simulate loadings of PuO 2, UO 2 or AmO 2 within tungsten-based cermets due to the similar kinetic properties of these materials, in particular the respective melting points and Gibbs free energies. The work presented demonstrates the capability and suitability of the SPS process for the production of radioisotope encapsulates for nuclear fuels and other applications (including waste disposal and radioisotope power and heat source fabrication) where the mechanical capture of radioisotope materials is required.

  7. Health and safety plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment remediation project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, S.N.; Uziel, M.S.

    1995-12-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of the policy requires that operations at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to safety and health (S and H) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all MSRE operations. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated at the MSRE that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and the best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air.

  8. Safety Analysis Report for the use of hazardous production materials in photovoltaic applications at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, R.S.; Nelson, B.P. ); Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M. )

    1992-07-01

    To ensure the continued safety of SERI's employees, the community, and the environment, NREL commissioned an internal audit of its photovoltaic operations that used hazardous production materials (HPMs). As a result of this audit, NREL management voluntarily suspended all operations using toxic and/or pyrophoric gases. This suspension affected seven laboratories and ten individual deposition systems. These activities are located in Building 16, which has a permitted occupancy of Group B, Division 2 (B-2). NREL management decided to do the following. (1) Exclude from this SAR all operations which conformed, or could easily be made to conform, to B-2 Occupancy requirements. (2) Include in this SAR all operations that could be made to conform to B-2 Occupancy requirements with special administrative and engineering controls. (3) Move all operations that could not practically be made to conform to B-2 Occupancy requirements to alternate locations. In addition to the layered set of administrative and engineering controls set forth in this SAR, a semiquantitative risk analysis was performed on 30 various accident scenarios. Twelve presented only routine risks, while 18 presented low risks. Considering the demonstrated safe operating history of NREL in general and these systems specifically, the nature of the risks identified, and the layered set of administrative and engineering controls, it is clear that this facility falls within the DOE Low Hazard Class. Each operation can restart only after it has passed an Operational Readiness Review, comparing it to the requirements of this SAR, while subsequent safety inspections will ensure future compliance.

  9. Steam-explosion safety considerations for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.

    1990-02-01

    This report provides a perspective on steam-explosion safety and design issues for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor being designed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A historical background along with a description of experiments and analytical work performed to date has been provided. Preliminary analyses (for the ANS) have been conducted to evaluate steam-explosion pressure- pulse loadings, the effects of reactor coolant system (RCS) overpressurization, and slug energetics. The method used for pressure-pulse magnitude evaluation was benchmarked with previous calculations, an aluminum-water steam-explosion experiment, and test reactor steam explosion data with good agreement. Predicted pressure-pulse magnitudes evaluated were found to be several orders of magnitude lower than corresponding values evaluated by correlating available energies with shock-wave pressures from equivalent chemical detonations. The preliminary best estimate, as well as conservative estimates for RCS volume-pressurization failure and slug energetics for RCS volume-pressurization failure and slug energetics, indicated that (1) steam explosions in the ANS have significant damage potential, and (2) steam-explosion issues must be considered during the design phase of the ANS Project. Recommendations are made for efficiently addressing this important safety and design issue. 38 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Safety analysis report for the use of hazardous production materials in photovoltaic applications at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, R.S.; Nelson, B.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-07-01

    To ensure the continued safety of SERI's employees, the community, and the environment, NREL commissioned an internal audit of its photovoltaic operations that used hazardous production materials (HPMS). As a result of this audit, NREL management voluntarily suspended all operations using toxic and/or pyrophoric gases. This suspension affected seven laboratories and ten individual deposition systems. These activities are located in Building 16, which has a permitted occupancy of Group B, Division 2 (B-2). NREL management decided to do the following. (1) Exclude from this SAR all operations which conformed, or could easily be made to conform, to B-2 Occupancy requirements. (2) Include in this SAR all operations that could be made to conform to B-2 Occupancy requirements with special administrative and engineering controls. (3) Move all operations that could not practically be made to conform to B-2 occupancy requirements to alternate locations. In addition to the layered set of administrative and engineering controls set forth in this SAR, a semiquantitative risk analysis was performed on 30 various accident scenarios. Twelve presented only routine risks, while 18 presented low risks. Considering the demonstrated safe operating history of NREL in general and these systems specifically, the nature of the risks identified, and the layered set of administrative and engineering controls, it is clear that this facility falls within the DOE Low Hazard Class. Each operation can restart only after it has passed an Operational Readiness Review, comparing it to the requirements of this SAR, while subsequent safety inspections will ensure future compliance. This document contains the appendices to the NREL safety analysis report.

  11. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  12. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  13. Peace propaganda and biomedical experimentation: influential uses of radioisotopes in endocrinology and molecular genetics in Spain (1947-1971).

    PubMed

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2006-01-01

    A political discourse of peace marked the distribution and use of radioisotopes in biomedical research and in medical diagnosis and therapy in the post-World War II period. This occurred during the era of expansion and strengthening of the United States' influence on the promotion of sciences and technologies in Europe as a collaborative effort, initially encouraged by the policies and budgetary distribution of the Marshall Plan. This article follows the importation of radioisotopes by two Spanish research groups, one in experimental endocrinology and one in molecular biology. For both groups foreign funds were instrumental in the early establishment of their laboratories. The combination of funding and access to previously scarce radioisotopes helped position these groups at the forefront of research in Spain.

  14. Space nuclear safety program, May 1983. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-10-01

    The studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems, pertained to the General-Purpose Heat Source (compatibility and safety verification) and to the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater units (overpressure and impact tests).

  15. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  16. Medical Radioisotope Data Survey: 2002 Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, Edward R.

    2004-06-23

    A limited, but accurate amount of detailed information about the radioactive isotopes used in the U.S. for medical procedures was collected from a local hospital and from a recent report on the U.S. Radiopharmaceutical Markets. These data included the total number of procedures, the specific types of procedures, the specific radioisotopes used in these procedures, and the dosage administered per procedure. The information from these sources was compiled, assessed, pruned, and then merged into a single, comprehensive and consistent set of results presented in this report. (PIET-43471-TM-197)

  17. An Operational Safety and Health Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhorchak, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes safety/health program activities at Research Triangle Institute (North Carolina). These include: radioisotope/radiation and hazardous chemical/carcinogen use, training, monitoring, disposal; chemical waste management; air monitoring and analysis; medical program; fire safety/training, including emergency planning; Occupational Safety and…

  18. Lab Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sandra S.

    1991-01-01

    In response to the Texas Hazardous Communication Act (THCA) of 1986 which raised many new health and liability issues regarding students in science laboratories, a laboratory safety survey was generated for use in evaluating laboratory safety. This article contains the easy-to-use survey. (ZWH)

  19. Los Alamos national Laboratory overview of the SAVY-4000 design: meeting the challenge for worker safety

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Timothy Amos

    2012-06-12

    Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based storage container design, the SAVY-4000. The SAVY-4000 is the first vented general use nuclear material container demonstrated to meet the requirements of DOE M 441.1-1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. The SAVY-4000 is an innovative and creative design demonstrated by the fact that it can be opened and closed in a few seconds without torque wrenches or other tools; has a built-in, fire-rated filter that prevents the build-up of hydrogen gas, yet retains 99.97% of plutonium particulates, and prevents release of material even in a 12 foot drop. Finally, it has been tested to 500C for 2 hours, and will reduce the risk to the public in the event of an earthquake/fire scenario. This will allow major nuclear facilities to credit the container towards source term Material at Risk (MAR) reduction. The container was approved for nuclear material storage in theTA-55 Plutonium Facility on March 15, 2011, and the first order of 79 containers was received at LANL on March 21, 2011. The first four SAVY-4000 containers were packaged with plutonium on August 2, 2011. Key aspects ofthe SAVY-4000 vented storage container design will be discussed which include design qualification and testing, implementation plan development and status, risk ranking methodology for re-packaging, in use implementation with interface to LANMAS, surveillance strategy, the design life extension program as enhanced by surveillance activities and production status with the intent to extend well beyond the current five year design life.

  20. U.S. Space Radioisotope Power Systems and Applications: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Bennett, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) have been essential to the U.S. exploration of outer space. RPS have two primary uses: electrical power and thermal power. To provide electrical power, the RPS uses the heat produced by the natural decay of a radioisotope (e.g., plutonium-238 in U.S. RPS) to drive a converter (e.g., thermoelectric elements or Stirling linear alternator). As a thermal power source the heat is conducted to whatever component on the spacecraft needs to be kept warm; this heat can be produced by a radioisotope heater unit (RHU) or by using the excess heat of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). As of 2010, the U.S. has launched 41 RTGs on 26 space systems. These space systems have ranged from navigational satellites to challenging outer planet missions such as Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini and the New Horizons mission to Pluto. In the fall of 2011, NASA plans to launch the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that will employ the new Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) as the principal power source. Hundreds of radioisotope heater units (RHUs) have been launched to provide warmth to Apollo 11, used to provide heating of critical components in a seismic experiment package, Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo, Cassini, Mars Pathfinder, MER rovers, etc. to provide temperature control to critical spacecraft electronics and other mechanical devices such as propulsion system propellant valves. A radioisotope (electrical) power source or system (RPS) consists of three basic elements: (1) the radioisotope heat source that provides the thermal power, (2) the converter that transforms the thermal power into electrical power and (3) the heat rejection radiator. Figure 1 illustrates the basic features of an RPS. The idea of a radioisotope power source follows closely after the early investigations of radioactivity by researchers such as Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), Marie Curie (1867-1935), Pierre Curie (1859

  1. Environmental assessment of general-purpose heat source safety verification testing

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) was prepared to identify and evaluate potential environmental, safety, and health impacts associated with the Proposed Action to test General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) assemblies at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) 10,000-Foot Sled Track Facility, Albuquerque, New Mexico. RTGs are used to provide a reliable source of electrical power on board some spacecraft when solar power is inadequate during long duration space missions. These units are designed to convert heat from the natural decay of radioisotope fuel into electrical power. Impact test data are required to support DOE`s mission to provide radioisotope power systems to NASA and other user agencies. The proposed tests will expand the available safety database regarding RTG performance under postulated accident conditions. Direct observations and measurements of GPHS/RTG performance upon impact with hard, unyielding surfaces are required to verify model predictions and to ensure the continual evolution of the RTG designs that perform safely under varied accident environments. The Proposed Action is to conduct impact testing of RTG sections containing GPHS modules with simulated fuel. End-On and Side-On impact test series are planned.

  2. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SMALL-SCALE SAFETY TESTING SYSTEMS AT LAWRENCE LIVERMORE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    HSU, P C

    2008-07-31

    Small-scale sensitivity testing is important for determining material response to various stimuli including impact, friction, and static spark. These tests, briefly described below, provide parameters for safety in handling. ERL Type 12 drop hammer equipment at LLNL, shown in Figure 1, was used to determine the impact sensitivity. The equipment includes a 2.5-kg drop weight, a striker (upper anvil, 2.5 kg for solid samples and 1.0 kg for liquid samples), a bottom anvil, a microphone sensor, and a peakmeter. For each drop, sample (35 mg for solid or 45 microliter for liquid) is placed on the bottom anvil surface and impacted by the drop weight from different heights. Signs of reactions upon impact are observed and recorded. These signs include noises, flashes or sparks, smoke, pressure, gas emissions, temperature rise due to exothermic reaction, color change of the sample, and changes to the anvil surface (noted by inspection). For solid samples, a 'GO' was defined as a microphone sensor (for noise detection) response of {ge} 1.3 V as measured by a peakmeter. The higher the DH{sub 50} values, the lower the impact sensitivity. The method used to calculate DH{sub 50} values is the 'up and down' or Bruceton method. PETN and RDX have impact sensitivities of 15 and 35 cm, respectively. TATB has impact sensitivity more than 177 cm. For liquid samples, a 'GO' was determined by the noise levels as measured by the peakmeter, appearance of flashes, temperature rise of the anvil, and visual inspection of the anvil surface. Two liquid samples TMETN and FEFO have impact sensitivities of 14 and 32 cm, respectively. Figure 2 shows a 'GO' event observed during the impact sensitivity test; flashes appeared as the drop weight impacted the sample. A BAM friction sensitivity test machine, as shown in Figure 3, was used to determine the frictional sensitivity. The system uses a fixed porcelain pin and a movable porcelain plate that executes a reciprocating motion. Weight affixed to a

  3. Reliability Issues in Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2004-01-01

    Stirling power conversion is a potential candidate for use in a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for space science missions because it offers a multifold increase in the conversion efficiency of heat to electric power and reduced requirement of radioactive material. Reliability of an RPS that utilizes Stirling power conversion technology is important in order to ascertain long term successful performance. Owing to long life time requirement (14 years), it is difficult to perform long-term tests that encompass all the uncertainties involved in the design variables of components and subsystems comprising the RPS. The requirement for uninterrupted performance reliability and related issues are discussed, and some of the critical areas of concern are identified. An overview of the current on-going efforts to understand component life, design variables at the component and system levels, and related sources and nature of uncertainties are also discussed. Current status of the 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) reliability efforts is described. Additionally, an approach showing the use of past experience on other successfully used power systems to develop a reliability plan for the SRG110 design is outlined.

  4. Rhenium Radioisotopes for Therapeutic Radiopharmaceutical Development

    SciTech Connect

    Beets, A.L.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Kropp, J.; Lin, W.-Y.; Pinkert, J.; Wang, S.-Y.

    1999-01-18

    The availability of therapeutic radioisotopes at reasonable costs is important for applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology, Rhenium-186 (Re-186) and rhenium-1 88 (Re-188) are two reactor-produced radioisotope which are attractive for a variety of therapeutic applications, Rhenium-186 has a half-life of 90 hours and decays with emission of a &particle with a maximum energy of 1.08 MeV and a 135 keV (9Yo) gamma which permits imaging. In contrast, Re- 188 has a much shorter half-life of 16.9 hours and emits a p-particle with a much higher energy of 2.12 MeV (Em=) and a 155 keV gamma photon (15Yo) for imaging. While Re-186 is unavailable from a generator system and must be directly produced in a nuclear reactor, Re-188 can also be directly produced in a reactor with high specific activity, but is more conveniently and cost-effectively available as carrier-free sodium perrhenate by saline elution of the alumina-based tungsten-188 (W1 88)/Re-l 88 generator system [1-2]. Since a comprehensive overviewofRe-186 and Re-188 therapeutic agents is beyond the scope of this &tended Abstrac4 the goal is to provide key examples of various agents currently in clinical use and those which are being developed for important clinical applications.

  5. Actinium radioisotope products of enhanced purity

    SciTech Connect

    Meikrantz, David Herbert; Todd, Terry Allen; Tranter, Troy Joseph; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2010-06-15

    A product includes actinium-225 (.sup.225Ac) and less than about 1 microgram (.mu.g) of iron (Fe) per millicurie (mCi) of actinium-225. The product may have a radioisotopic purity of greater than about 99.99 atomic percent (at %) actinium-225 and daughter isotopes of actinium-225, and may be formed by a method that includes providing a radioisotope mixture solution comprising at least one of uranium-233 (.sup.233U) and thorium-229 (.sup.229Th), extracting the at least one of uranium-233 and thorium-229 into an organic phase, substantially continuously contacting the organic phase with an aqueous phase, substantially continuously extracting actinium-225 into the aqueous phase, and purifying the actinium-225 from the aqueous phase. In some embodiments, the product may include less than about 1 nanogram (ng) of iron per millicurie (mCi) of actinium-225, and may include less than about 1 microgram (.mu.g) each of magnesium (Mg), Chromium (Cr), and manganese (Mn) per millicurie (mCi) of actinium-225.

  6. Preparing for Harvesting Radioisotopes from FRIB

    SciTech Connect

    Peaslee, Graham F.; Lapi, Suzanne E.

    2015-02-02

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is the next generation accelerator facility under construction at Michigan State University. FRIB will produce a wide variety of rare isotopes by a process called projectile fragmentation for a broad range of new experiments when it comes online in 2020. The accelerated rare isotope beams produced in this facility will be more intense than any current facility in the world - in many cases by more than 1000-fold. These beams will be available to the primary users of FRIB in order to do exciting new fundamental research with accelerated heavy ions. In the standard mode of operation, this will mean one radioisotope will be selected at a time for the user. However, the projectile fragmentation process also yields hundreds of other radioisotopes at these bombarding energies, and many of these rare isotopes are long-lived and could have practical applications in medicine, national security or the environment. This project developed new methods to collect these long-lived rare isotopes that are by-products of the standard FRIB operation. These isotopes are important to many areas of research, thus this project will have a broad impact in several scientific areas including medicine, environment and homeland security.

  7. RADIOISOTOPE EXPERIMENTS IN HIGH SCHOOL BIOLOGY, AN ANNOTATED SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HURLBURT, EVELYN M.

    SELECTED REFERENCES ON THE USE OF RADIOISOTOPES IN BIOLOGY ARE CONTAINED IN THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS. MATERIALS INCLUDED WERE PUBLISHED AFTER 1960 AND DEAL WITH THE PROPERTIES OF RADIATION, SIMPLE RADIATION DETECTION PROCEDURES, AND TECHNIQUES FOR USING RADIOISOTOPES EXPERIMENTALLY. THE REFERENCES ARE LISTED IN…

  8. Safety Analysis Report for the use of hazardous production materials in photovoltaic applications at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, R.S.; Nelson, B.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-07-01

    To ensure the continued safety of SERI`s employees, the community, and the environment, NREL commissioned an internal audit of its photovoltaic operations that used hazardous production materials (HPMs). As a result of this audit, NREL management voluntarily suspended all operations using toxic and/or pyrophoric gases. This suspension affected seven laboratories and ten individual deposition systems. These activities are located in Building 16, which has a permitted occupancy of Group B, Division 2 (B-2). NREL management decided to do the following. (1) Exclude from this SAR all operations which conformed, or could easily be made to conform, to B-2 Occupancy requirements. (2) Include in this SAR all operations that could be made to conform to B-2 Occupancy requirements with special administrative and engineering controls. (3) Move all operations that could not practically be made to conform to B-2 Occupancy requirements to alternate locations. In addition to the layered set of administrative and engineering controls set forth in this SAR, a semiquantitative risk analysis was performed on 30 various accident scenarios. Twelve presented only routine risks, while 18 presented low risks. Considering the demonstrated safe operating history of NREL in general and these systems specifically, the nature of the risks identified, and the layered set of administrative and engineering controls, it is clear that this facility falls within the DOE Low Hazard Class. Each operation can restart only after it has passed an Operational Readiness Review, comparing it to the requirements of this SAR, while subsequent safety inspections will ensure future compliance.

  9. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  10. Work plan and health and safety plan for Building 3019B underground storage tank at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, S.N.; Brown, K.S.; Landguth, D.C.

    1992-08-01

    As part of the Underground Storage Tank Program at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this Health and Safety Plan has been developed for removal of the 110-gal leaded fuel underground storage tank (UST) located in the Building 3019B area at ORNL This Health and Safety Plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at ORNL The major components of the plan follow: (1) A project description that gives the scope and objectives of the 110-gal tank removal project and assigns responsibilities, in addition to providing emergency information for situations occurring during field operations; (2) a health and safety plan in Sect. 15 for the Building 3019B UST activities, which describes general site hazards and particular hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures; and (3) discussion of the proper form completion and reporting requirements during removal of the UST. This document addresses Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements in 29 CFR 1910.120 with respect to all aspects of health and safety involved in a UST removal. In addition, the plan follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) QAMS 005/80 (1980) format with the inclusion of the health and safety section (Sect. 15).

  11. RADIOISOTOPE IDENTIFICATION OF SHIELDED AND MASKED SNM RDD MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Salaymeh, S.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-06-17

    Sonar and speech techniques have been investigated to improve functionality and enable handheld and other man-portable, mobile, and portal systems to positively detect and identify illicit nuclear materials, with minimal data and with minimal false positives and false negatives. RadSonar isotope detection and identification is an algorithm development project funded by NA-22 and employing the resources of Savannah River National Laboratory and three University Laboratories (JHU-APL, UT-ARL, and UW-APL). Algorithms have been developed that improve the probability of detection and decrease the number of false positives and negatives. Two algorithms have been developed and tested. The first algorithm uses support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to determine the most prevalent nuclide(s) in a spectrum. It then uses a constrained weighted least squares fit to estimate and remove the contribution of these nuclide(s) to the spectrum, iterating classification and fitting until there is nothing of significance left. If any Special Nuclear Materials (SNMs) were detected in this process, a second tier of more stringent classifiers are used to make the final SNM alert decision. The second algorithm is looking at identifying existing feature sets that would be relevant in the radioisotope identification context. The underlying philosophy here is to identify parallels between the physics and/or the structures present in the data for the two applications (speech analysis and gamma spectroscopy). The expectation is that similar approaches may work in both cases. The mel-frequency cepstral representation of spectra is widely used in speech, particularly for two reasons: approximation of the response of the human ear, and simplicity of channel effect separation (in this context, a 'channel' is a method of signal transport that affects the signal, examples being vocal tract shape, room echoes, and microphone response). Measured and simulated gamma-ray spectra from a hand

  12. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, May 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1985-09-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Covered are: general-purpose heat source testing, light-weight radioisotope heater unit, and iridium biaxial testing.

  13. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety fuels program. Progress report, February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-05-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are: General-Purpose Heat Source Development and Space Nuclear Safety and Fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

  14. Health and Safety Work Plan for Sampling Colloids in Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, J.D.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    This Work Plan/Site Safety and Health Plan (SSHP) and the attached work plan are for the performance of the colloid project at WAG 5. The work will be conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) and associated ORNL environmental, safety, and health support groups. The purpose of this document is to establish health and safety guidelines to be followed by all personnel involved in conducting work for this project. The levels of protection and the procedures specified in this plan are based on the best information available from historical data and preliminary evaluations of the area. Therefore, these recommendations represent the minimum health and safety requirements to be observed by all personnel engaged in this project.

  15. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Baalman, R.W.; Hays, I.D.

    1981-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) 1980 annual report to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1980. Part 5 includes technology assessments for natural gas, enhanced oil recovery, oil shale, uranium mining, magnetic fusion energy, solar energy, uranium enrichment and industrial energy utilization; regional analysis studies of environmental transport and community impacts; environmental and safety engineering for LNG, oil spills, LPG, shale oil waste waters, geothermal liquid waste disposal, compressed air energy storage, and nuclear/fusion fuel cycles; operational and environmental safety studies of decommissioning, environmental monitoring, personnel dosimetry, and analysis of criticality safety; health physics studies; and epidemiological studies. Also included are an author index, organization of PNL charts and distribution lists of the annual report, along with lists of presentations and publications. (DLS)

  16. Collinear laser spectroscopy of radioisotopes of zirconium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, H. L.; Billowes, J.; Campbell, P.; Dendooven, P.; Flanagan, K. T.; Forest, D. H.; Griffith, J. A. R.; Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A.; Moore, R.; Nieminen, A.; Tungate, G.; Zemlyanoi, S.; Äystö, J.

    2003-09-01

    Isotope shifts and hyperfine structures have been measured for radioisotopes of ionic zirconium using on-line laser spectroscopy at the IGISOL facility in Jyväskylä, where the installation of an ion beam cooler/buncher has significantly improved the experimental sensitivity. Measurements have been made on all the neutron-deficient isotopes from 87Zr to 90Zr, including the isomers 87m,89mZr, and the neutron-rich isotopes from 96Zr to 102Zr. The change in mean square charge radii between the isotopes and the nuclear moments of the odd isotopes have been extracted. The data show a sudden increase in the mean square charge radius at mass A = 100, consistent with an onset of nuclear deformation which has been observed in the gamma ray spectroscopy of isotope chains in this region of the nuclear chart.

  17. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    SciTech Connect

    Sy, Amy; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Johnson, Rolland; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  18. Radioisotope Power Systems Program: A Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamley, John A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program continues to plan, mature research in energy conversion, and partners with the Department of Energy (DOE) to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet potential future mission needs. Recent programs responsibilities include providing investment recommendations to NASA stakeholders on emerging thermoelectric and Stirling energy conversion technologies and insight on NASA investments at DOE in readying a generator for the Mars 2020 mission. This presentation provides an overview of the RPS Program content and status and the approach used to maintain the readiness of RPS to support potential future NASA missions.

  19. Induced radioisotopes in a linac treatment hall.

    PubMed

    Vega-Carrillo, Héctor René; de Leon-Martinez, Héctor Asael; Rivera-Perez, Esteban; Luis Benites-Rengifo, Jorge; Gallego, Eduardo; Lorente, Alfredo

    2015-08-01

    When linacs operate above 8MV an undesirable neutron field is produced whose spectrum has three main components: the direct spectrum due to those neutrons leaking out from the linac head, the scattered spectrum due to neutrons produced in the head that collides with the nuclei in the head losing energy and the third spectrum due to room-return effect. The third category of spectrum has mainly epithermal and thermal neutrons being constant at any location in the treatment hall. These neutrons induce activation in the linac components, the concrete walls and in the patient body. Here the induced radioisotopes have been identified in concrete samples located in the hall and in one of the wedges. The identification has been carried out using a gamma-ray spectrometer.

  20. Thermophotovoltaic Converter Design for Radioisotope Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, Christopher J.; Elkouh, Nabil A.; Murray, Susan; Murray, Christopher

    2004-02-04

    The development of lightweight, efficient power for emerging NASA missions and recent advances in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion technology have renewed interest in combining radioisotope heat sources with photovoltaic energy conversion. Thermophotovoltaic power conversion uses advanced materials able to utilize a broader, spectrally tuned range of wavelengths for more efficient power conversion than solar cells. Spectral control, including selective emitters, TPV module, and filters, are key to high-efficiency operation. This paper outlines the mechanical, thermal, and optical designs for the converter, including the heat source, the selective emitter, filters, photovoltaic (PV) cells, and optical cavity components. Focus is on the emitter type and the band-gap of InGaAs PV cells in developing the design. Any component and converter data available at the time of publication will also be presented.

  1. Status of the NASA Stirling Radioisotope Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2007-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling power conversion has been considered a candidate for radioisotope power systems for space for more than a decade. Prior to the free-piston Stirling architecture, systems were designed with kinematic Stirling engines that used linkages and rotary alternators to convert heat to electricity. These systems were able to achieve long life by lightly loading the linkages; however, the live was nonetheless limited. When the free-piston configuration was initially proposed, it was thought to be attractive due to the relatively high conversion efficiency, acceptable mass, and the potential for long life and high reliability based on wear-free operation. These features have consistently been recognized by teams that have studied technology options for radioisotope space power systems. Since free-piston Stirling power conversion was first considered for space power applications, there have been major advances in three general areas of development: hardware that has demonstrated long-life and reliability, the success achieved by Stirling cryocoolers in space, and the overall developmental maturity of the technology for both space and terrestrial applications. Based on these advances, free-piston Stirling convertors are currently being developed for space power, and for a number of terrestrial applications. They commonly operate with the power, efficiency, life, and reliability as intended, and much of the development now centers on system integration. This paper will summarize the accomplishments of free-piston Stirling power conversion technology over the past decade, review the status of development with regard to space power, and discuss the challenges that remain.

  2. Production of medical radioisotopes with linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Starovoitova, Valeriia N; Tchelidze, Lali; Wells, Douglas P

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we discuss producing radioisotopes using linear electron accelerators and address production and separation issues of photoneutron (γ,n) and photoproton (γ,p) reactions. While (γ,n) reactions typically result in greater yields, separating product nuclides from the target is challenging since the chemical properties of both are the same. Yields of (γ,p) reactions are typically lower than (γ,n) ones, however they have the advantage that target and product nuclides belong to different chemical species so their separation is often not such an intricate problem. In this paper we consider two examples, (100)Mo(γ,n)(99)Mo and (68)Zn(γ,p)(67)Cu, of photonuclear reactions. Monte-Carlo simulations of the yields are benchmarked with experimental data obtained at the Idaho Accelerator Center using a 44MeV linear electron accelerator. We propose using a kinematic recoil method for photoneutron production. This technique requires (100)Mo target material to be in the form of nanoparticles coated with a catcher material. During irradiation, (99)Mo atoms recoil and get trapped in the coating layer. After irradiation, the coating is dissolved and (99)Mo is collected. At the same time, (100)Mo nanoparticles can be reused. For the photoproduction method, (67)Cu can be separated from the target nuclides, (68)Zn, using standard exchange chromatography methods. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed and the (99)Mo activity was predicted to be about 7MBq/(g(⁎)kW(⁎)h) while (67)Cu activity was predicted to be about 1MBq/(g(⁎)kW(⁎)h). Experimental data confirm the predicted activity for both cases which proves that photonuclear reactions can be used to produce radioisotopes. Lists of medical isotopes which might be obtained using photonuclear reactions have been compiled and are included as well.

  3. Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

  4. [Establishment of Quality Control System of Nucleic Acid Detection for Ebola Virus in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Nie, Kai; Wang, Huanyu; Du, Haijun; Song, Jingdong; Xiao, Kang; Lei, Wenwen; Guo, Jianqiang; Wei, Hejiang; Cai, Kun; Wang, Yanhai; Wu, Jiang; Gerald, Bangura; Kamara, Idrissa Laybohr; Liang, Mifang; Wu, Guizhen; Dong, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    The quality control process throughout the Ebola virus nucleic acid detection in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab) was described in detail, in order to comprehensively display the scientific, rigorous, accurate and efficient practice in detection of Ebola virus of first batch detection team in SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab. Firstly, the key points of laboratory quality control system was described, including the managements and organizing, quality control documents and information management, instrument, reagents and supplies, assessment, facilities design and space allocation, laboratory maintenance and biosecurity. Secondly, the application of quality control methods in the whole process of the Ebola virus detection, including before the test, during the test and after the test, was analyzed. The excellent and professional laboratory staffs, the implementation of humanized management are the cornerstone of the success; High-level biological safety protection is the premise for effective quality control and completion of Ebola virus detection tasks. And professional logistics is prerequisite for launching the laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus. The establishment and running of SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab has landmark significance for the friendship between Sierra Leone and China, and the lab becomes the most important base for Ebola virus laboratory testing in Sierra Leone.

  5. Report on audit of funding for advanced radioisotope power systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (Department) Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Program maintains the sole national capability and facilities to produce radioisotope power systems for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense, and other Federal agencies. Projects are conducted with these agencies in accordance with written agreements and are dependent on cost sharing by the user agencies. For the past seven years the program emphasis has been on providing power systems for NASA`s Cassini mission to Saturn, which was launched earlier this month. We initiated this audit to determine whether the Department received proper reimbursement from NASA for the radioisotope power systems produced.

  6. Radioisotope Reduction Using Solar Power for Outer Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2008-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems have historically been (and still are) the power system of choice from a mass and size perspective for outer planetary missions. High demand for and limited availability of radioisotope fuel has made it necessary to investigate alternatives to this option. Low mass, high efficiency solar power systems have the potential for use at low outer planetary temperatures and illumination levels. This paper documents the impacts of using solar power systems instead of radioisotope power for all or part of the power needs of outer planetary spacecraft and illustrates the potential fuel savings of such an approach.

  7. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Missions Utilizing a Common Spacecraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiehler, Douglas; Oleson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted that shows how a single Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) spacecraft design could be used for various missions throughout the solar system. This spacecraft design is based on a REP feasibility design from a study performed by NASA Glenn Research Center and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The study also identifies technologies that need development to enable these missions. The mission baseline for the REP feasibility design study is a Trojan asteroid orbiter. This mission sends an REP spacecraft to Jupiter s leading Lagrange point where it would orbit and examine several Trojan asteroids. The spacecraft design from the REP feasibility study would also be applicable to missions to the Centaurs, and through some change of payload configuration, could accommodate a comet sample-return mission. Missions to small bodies throughout the outer solar system are also within reach of this spacecraft design. This set of missions, utilizing the common REP spacecraft design, is examined and required design modifications for specific missions are outlined.

  8. Environmental, Safety, and Health Plan for the remedial investigation of the liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    DeFalco, S.; Kaiser, L. L.; May, L. E.

    1991-09-01

    The Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES H) Plan presents the concepts and methodologies to be used during the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) RI/FS project to protect the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. The ES H Plan acts as a management extension for ORNL and Energy Systems to direct and control implementation of the project ES H program. This report describes the program philosophy, requirements, quality assurance measures, and methods for applying the ES H program to individual task remedial investigations, project facilities, and other major tasks assigned to the project.

  9. A power conditioning system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) as the primary source of energy in unmanned spacecraft is discussed. RTG output control, power conditioning system requirements, the electrical design, and circuit performance are also discussed.

  10. Determining Molar Combining Ratios Using Radioisotopes--A Student Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Jerry A.

    1976-01-01

    Outlines an experimental procedure in which an iodine radioisotope is used to determine molar combining ratios of lead and silver with the iodine. Tables and graphs show the definitive results that should be attainable. (CP)

  11. Therapeutic clinical applications of reactor-produced radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    One of the most rapidly growing areas of clinical nuclear medicine is the therapeutic use of radioisotopes for applications in oncology, rheumatology and, more recently, interventional cardiology. With the rapidly increasing development and evaluation of new agents, their introduction into clinical use, and commercialization, the availability of high levels of therapeutic reactor-produced neutron-rich radioisotopes is of increasing importance. The goals of this paper are to discuss the issues associated with optimization of the production and processing of reactor-produced radioisotopes for therapy, with special emphasis on {sup 188}W, and the optimization of the use of the {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator. In addition, other key examples of therapeutic radioisotopes of current interest and their specific clinical applications are discussed.

  12. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) for Selected Interplanetary Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, David; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Cupples, Mike; Belcher, Jeremy; Witzberger, Kevin; Fiehler, Douglas; Artis, Gwen

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation analyzes small body targets (Trojan Asteroids), Medium Outer Planet Class (Jupiter Polar Orbiter with Probes), and Main Belt Asteroids and Comets (Comet Surface Sample Return), for Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP).

  13. Thermal Model Predictions of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.; Fabanich, William Anthony; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation describes the capabilities of three-dimensional thermal power model of advanced stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG). The performance of the ASRG is presented for different scenario, such as Venus flyby with or without the auxiliary cooling system.

  14. Efficiency of Pm-147 direct charge radioisotope battery.

    PubMed

    Kavetskiy, A; Yakubova, G; Yousaf, S M; Bower, K; Robertson, J D; Garnov, A

    2011-05-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented here of the efficiency of direct charge radioisotope batteries based on the efficiency of the radioactive source, the system geometry, electrostatic repulsion of beta particles from the collector, the secondary electron emission, and backscattered beta particles from the collector. Efficiency of various design batteries using Pm-147 sources was experimentally measured and found to be in good agreement with calculations. The present approach can be used for predicting the efficiency for different designs of direct charge radioisotope batteries.

  15. Cosmogenic and primordial radioisotopes in copper bricks shortly exposed to cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coarasa, I.; Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cuestá, C.; García, E.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortíz de Solórzano, A.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2016-05-01

    Cosmogenic activation is the most common source of radioactivity in copper, being 60 Co the most significant because of its long half-life (5.27 y) and saturation activity at sea level of 1 mBq/kg. Copper bricks, which had been exposed to cosmic rays for 41 days after their casting, were used to replace the internal 10 cm of the lead shielding of a HPGe detector placed at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. We describe the outcome of the new shielding and the cosmogenic and primordial radioisotopes observed.

  16. Space nuclear safety from a user's viewpoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) two Voyager spacecraft to Jupiter in 1977, each using three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) supplied by the Department of Energy (DOE) for onboard electric power. In 1986 NASA will launch JPL's Galileo spacecraft to Jupiter equipped with two DOE supplied RTGs of an improved design. NASA and JPL are also responsible for obtaining a single RTG of this type from DOE and supplying it to the European Space Agency as part of its participation in the International Solar Polar Mission. As a result of these missions, JPL has been deeply involved in space nuclear safety as a user. This paper will give a brief review of the user contributions by JPL - and NASA in general - to the nuclear safety processes and relate them to the overall nuclear safety program necessary for the launch of an RTG. The two major safety areas requiring user support are the ground operations involving RTGs at the launch site and the failure modes and probabilities associated with launch accidents.

  17. [Investigation of the present management status of calibration source based on the law concerning prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Igarashi, Hiroshi; Hirano, Kunihiro; Kawaharada, Yasuhiro; Igarashi, Hitoshi; Murase, Ken-ya; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2007-03-20

    An amendment concerning the enforcement of the law on the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes, etc., and the medical service law enforcement regulations were promulgated on June 1, 2005. This amendment concerned international basic safety standards and the sealing of radiation sources. Sealed radiation sources < or =3.7 MBq, which had been excluded from regulation, were newly included as an object of regulation. Investigation of the SPECT system instituted in hospitals indicated that almost all institutions adhere to the new amendment, and the calibration source, the checking source, etc., corresponding to this amendment were maintained appropriately. Any institutions planning to return sealed radioisotopes should refer to this report.

  18. Environmental, Safety, and Health Plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Revision 1, Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C. M.; El-Messidi, O. E.; Cowser, D. K.; Kannard, J. R.; Carvin, R. T.; Will, III, A. S.; Clark, Jr., C.; Garland, S. B.

    1993-05-01

    This Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Plan presents the concepts and methodologies to be followed during the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to protect the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. This ES&H Plan acts as a management extension for ORNL and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) to direct and control implementation of the project ES&H program. The subsections that follow describe the program philosophy, requirements, quality assurance measures, and methods for applying the ES&H program to individual waste area grouping (WAG) remedial investigations. Hazardous work permits (HWPs) will be used to provide task-specific health and safety requirements.

  19. Reliability of Radioisotope Stirling Convertor Linear Alternator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ashwin; Korovaichuk, Igor; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    Onboard radioisotope power systems being developed and planned for NASA s deep-space missions would require reliable design lifetimes of up to 14 years. Critical components and materials of Stirling convertors have been undergoing extensive testing and evaluation in support of a reliable performance for the specified life span. Of significant importance to the successful development of the Stirling convertor is the design of a lightweight and highly efficient linear alternator. Alternator performance could vary due to small deviations in the permanent magnet properties, operating temperature, and component geometries. Durability prediction and reliability of the alternator may be affected by these deviations from nominal design conditions. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effect of these uncertainties in predicting the reliability of the linear alternator performance. This paper presents a study in which a reliability-based methodology is used to assess alternator performance. The response surface characterizing the induced open-circuit voltage performance is constructed using 3-D finite element magnetic analysis. Fast probability integration method is used to determine the probability of the desired performance and its sensitivity to the alternator design parameters.

  20. Implanted artificial heart with radioisotope power source.

    PubMed

    Shumakov, V I; Griaznov, G M; Zhemchuzhnikov, G N; Kiselev, I M; Osipov, A P

    1983-02-01

    An atomic artificial heart for orthotopic implantation was developed with the following characteristics: volume, 1.2 L; weight, 1.5 kg; radioisotope power, 45 W; operating life, up to 5 years; hemodynamics, similar to natural hemodynamics. The artificial heart includes a thermal drive with systems for regulating power, feeding steam into the cylinders, return of the condensate to the steam generator, and delivery of power to the ventricles and heat container. The artificial heart is placed in an artificial pericardium partially filled with physiologic solution. It uses a steam engine with two operating cylinders that separately drive the left and right ventricles. There is no electronic control system in the proposed design. The operation of the heat engine is controlled, with preservation of autoregulation by the vascular system of the body. The separate drives for the ventricles is of primary importance as it provides for operation of the artificial heart through control of cardiac activity by venous return. Experimental testing on a hydromechanical bench demonstrated effective autoregulation.

  1. Some geophysical considerations in radioisotope dating applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Radioisotope dating only assumes radioactive decay laws are taking place allowing closed form solutions to be obtained in generating a sample date estimate. To be discussed in this work is the isotopic distribution expected in geological samples due to mass diffusion superimposed on that from simple radioactive decay. By taking into consideration the isotope effect (differential mass diffusion rates) when measuring isotopic ratios from very old samples, the distribution dependency will cause a bias if isotopic diffusion rates are not identical throughout a material (or at least across the boundaries of all samples measured). The isotope effect being that isotopes having a smaller atomic mass will diffuse faster in a medium than will their heavier counterparts causing concentration gradients of their ratios even when there are no contributions from radioactive decay which will tend to bias all sample ages (slopes of the isochron) to have a more linear distribution. The application to Sr/Rb dating is evaluated and shown to result in expected age overestimates. Suggested methods to test for this effect along with sample preparation techniques to minimize it are discussed. Special thanks the NCSU Nuclear Engineering Department.

  2. General-purpose heat source project and space nuclear safety and fuels program. Progress reportt, January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Maraman, W.J.

    1980-04-01

    This formal monthly report covers the studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotopic power systems carried out for the Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects Division of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The two programs involved are the general-purpose heat source development and space nuclear safety and fuels. Most of the studies discussed here are of a continuing nature. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. Published reference to the results cited in this report should not be made without the explicit permission of the person in charge of the work.

  3. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Revision 8

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This Transuranic Storage Area Retrieval Enclosure Preliminary Safety Analysis Report was completed as required by DOE Order 5480.23. The purpose of this document is to construct a safety basis that supports the design and permits construction of the facility. The facility has been designed to the requirements of a Radioactive Solid Waste Facility presented in DOE Order 6430.1A.

  4. Development of a radioisotope heat source for the two-watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Edwin I.; McNeil, Dennis C.; Amos, Wayne R.

    1992-01-01

    Described is a radioisotope heat source for the Two-Watt Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) which is being considered for possible application by the U.S. Navy and for other Department of Defense applications. The heat source thermal energy (75 Wt) is produced from the alpha decay of plutonium-238 which is in the form of high-fired plutonium dioxide. The capsule is non-vented and consists of three domed cylindrical components each closed with a corresponding sealed end cap. Surrounding the fuel is the liner component, which is fabricated from a tantalum-based alloy, T-111. Also fabricated from T-111 is the next component, the strength member, which serves to meet pressure and impact criteria. The outermost component, or clad, is the oxidation- and corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy, Hastelloy S. This paper defines the design considerations, details the hardware fabrication and welding processes, discusses the addition of yttrium to the fuel to reduce liner embrittlement, and describes the testing that has been conducted or is planned to assure that there is fuel containment not only during the heat source operational life, but also in case of an accident environment.

  5. HAZWOPER work plan and site safety and health plan for the Alpha characterization project at the solid waste storage area 4 bathtubbing trench at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This work plan/site safety and health plan is for the alpha sampling project at the Solid Waste Storage Area 4 bathtubbing trench. The work will be conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Sciences Division and associated ORNL environmental, safety, and health support groups. This activity will fall under the scope of 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER). The purpose of this document is to establish health and safety guidelines to be followed by all personnel involved in conducting work for this project. Work will be conducted in accordance with requirements as stipulated in the ORNL HAZWOPER Program Manual and applicable ORNL; Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc.; and U.S. Department of Energy policies and procedures. The levels of protection and the procedures specified in this plan are based on the best information available from historical data and preliminary evaluations of the area. Therefore, these recommendations represent the minimum health and safety requirements to be observed by all personnel engaged in this project. Unforeseeable site conditions or changes in scope of work may warrant a reassessment of the stated protection levels and controls. All adjustments to the plan must have prior approval by the safety and health disciplines signing the original plan.

  6. Chemistry of Cosmogenic Radioisotopes in the Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, F. S.

    2003-12-01

    Bombardment of Earth's atmosphere by Gev cosmic ray protons produces two neutrons/cm2/second, which react with 14N nuclei to form 14C. The initial stratospheric reaction of the bare 14C atom with O2 forms 14CO, which is subsequently oxidized to 14CO2 by HO. The 14CO2 is then the basis for age-dating studies of inorganic carbon, and of organic carbon after incorporation by photosynthesis. Proton spallation of light nuclei (chiefly 14N, 16O) produces various isotopic fragments, many of them radioactive, containing 8 or fewer protons and 10 or fewer neutrons. For geophysical studies, the most important of the radioisotopes so produced are 3H, 7Be, and 10Be. Proton spallation of 40Ar produces many isotopes with atomic weight less than 40, including 34Cl, 36Cl, 38Cl, 39Cl, 35S, 38S, 22Na, 24Na, 32Si, 32P, and 33P, all of which have been detected in the atmosphere. The "million year" isotopes (10Be, 36Cl) are useful for geological dating. The short-lived isotopes were collected both from rainwater captured at ground level, and on filter paper at 18 kilometers altitude carried by an RB-57 aircraft (1970, J. A. Young, C. W. Thomas, N. A. Wogman and R. W. Perkins, JGR, 75, 2385). The radioisotopes were measured with multidimensional gamma ray spectroscopy, which was able to detect 24Na and 38Cl without prior chemical separation. Count rates as low as 0.1 count/minute were monitored, even in the presence of 107 counts/minute of fallout fission products from nuclear testing in the atmosphere. This fallout background is now greatly reduced because of the four decades old ban on nuclear testing in the atmosphere. The stratospheric collection of 24Na (15 hour half-life) was interpreted as scavenging of the radiosodium by particulate matter, and retention on filter paper with an efficiency of 100 percent within the statistical accuracy in comparison with its production in argon tanks carried on the aircraft. The efficiency of collection of radiochlorine atoms was only about 1

  7. EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY OF STRATEGIES FOR OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION: POTENTIAL AND LIMITATION, LABORATORY TO FIELD (RESEARCH BRIEF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several important additional research efforts were identified during the development of test systems and protocols for assessing the effectiveness and environmental safety of oil spill commercial bioremediation agents (CBAs). Research that examined CBA efficacy issues included: (...

  8. Small Radioisotope Power System Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugala, Gina; Bell, Mark; Oriti, Salvatore; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David; Duven, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    In April 2009, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) formed an integrated product team (IPT) to develop a Small Radioisotope Power System (SRPS) utilizing a single Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) with passive balancer. A single ASC produces approximately 80 We making this system advantageous for small distributed lunar science stations. The IPT consists of Sunpower, Inc., to provide the single ASC with a passive balancer, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHUAPL) to design an engineering model Single Convertor Controller (SCC) for an ASC with a passive balancer, and NASA GRC to provide technical support to these tasks and to develop a simulated lunar lander test stand. The single ASC with a passive balancer, simulated lunar lander test stand, and SCC were delivered to GRC and were tested as a system. The testing sequence at GRC included SCC fault tolerance, integration, electromagnetic interference (EMI), vibration, and extended operation testing. The SCC fault tolerance test characterized the SCCs ability to handle various fault conditions, including high or low bus power consumption, total open load or short circuit, and replacing a failed SCC card while the backup maintains control of the ASC. The integrated test characterized the behavior of the system across a range of operating conditions, including variations in cold-end temperature and piston amplitude, including the emitted vibration to both the sensors on the lunar lander and the lunar surface. The EMI test characterized the AC and DC magnetic and electric fields emitted by the SCC and single ASC. The vibration test confirms the SCCs ability to control the single ASC during launch. The extended operation test allows data to be collected over a period of thousands of hours to obtain long term performance data of the ASC with a passive balancer and the SCC. This paper will discuss the results of each of these tests.

  9. Small Radioisotope Power System at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Fraeman, Martin; Frankford, David P.; Duven, Dennis; Shamkovich, Andrei; Ambrose, Hollis; Meer, David W.

    2012-01-01

    In April 2009, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) formed an integrated product team (IPT) to develop a Small Radioisotope Power System (SRPS) utilizing a single Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) with passive balancer for possible use by the International Lunar Network (ILN) program. The ILN program is studying the feasibility of implementing a multiple node seismometer network to investigate the internal lunar structure. A single ASC produces approximately 80 W(sub e) and could potentially supply sufficient power for that application. The IPT consists of Sunpower, Inc., to provide the single ASC with balancer, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to design an engineering model Single Convertor Controller (SCC) for an ASC with balancer, and NASA GRC to provide technical support to these tasks and to develop a simulated lunar lander test stand. A controller maintains stable operation of an ASC. It regulates the alternating current produced by the linear alternator of the convertor, provides a specified output voltage, and maintains operation at a steady piston amplitude and hot end temperature. JHU/APL also designed an ASC dynamic engine/alternator simulator to aid in the testing and troubleshooting of the SCC. This paper describes the requirements, design, and development of the SCC, including some of the key challenges and the solutions chosen to overcome those issues. In addition, it describes the plans to analyze the effectiveness of a passive balancer to minimize vibration from the ASC, characterize the effect of ASC vibration on a lunar lander, characterize the performance of the SCC, and integrate the single ASC, SCC, and lunar lander test stand to characterize performance of the overall system.

  10. NASA Radioisotope Power System Program - Technology and Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA sometimes conducts robotic science missions to solar system destinations for which the most appropriate power source is derived from thermal-to-electrical energy conversion of nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes. Typically the use of a radioisotope power system (RPS) has been limited to medium and large-scale missions, with 26 U,S, missions having used radioisotope power since 1961. A research portfolio of ten selected technologies selected in 2003 has progressed to a point of maturity, such that one particular technology may he considered for future mission use: the Advanced Stirling Converter. The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator is a new power system in development based on this Stirling cycle dynamic power conversion technology. This system may be made available for smaller, Discovery-class NASA science missions. To assess possible uses of this new capability, NASA solicited and funded nine study teams to investigate unique opportunities for exploration of potential destinations for small Discovery-class missions. The influence of the results of these studies and the ongoing development of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator system are discussed in the context of an integrated Radioisotope Power System program. Discussion of other and future technology investments and program opportunities are provided.

  11. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin, Xiu-Jing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-08-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ((232)Th, (228)Th, (230)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, and (40)K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: (232)Th, 0.00-0.23; (228)Th, 0.00-2.04; (230)Th, 0.00-0.26; (228)Ra, 0.02-2.73; (226)Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and (40)K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 muSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was (40)K. These values were same level compiled in other countries.

  12. Lightweight Radiators Being Developed or Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Tew, Roy C.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2001-01-01

    The thermodynamic heat-to-electric power conversion efficiency of Stirling systems is 3 to 5 times higher than that of thermoelectric converters. Hence for unmanned deep space probes, Stirling advanced radioisotope power systems (ARPS) could deliver up to 5 times as much power as radioisotope thermoelectric generators for the same amount of radioisotope, or they could require one-third to one-fifth as much isotope inventory for the same power output. However, Stirling power systems reject unconverted heat at much lower temperatures than radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Normally, this requires larger and heavier heat-rejection subsystems because of the greater radiator areas, which are proportional to the first power of the heat rejected and the fourth power of the absolute heat-rejection temperature, as specified by the Stefan-Boltzmann radiation heat transfer law. The development of directly coupled disk radiators using very high conductivity encapsulated thermopyrolitic graphite materials represents a significant advance in Stirling ARPS space heat-rejection subsystem technology. A conceptual Stirling ARPS with two engines coupled to a radioisotope general-purpose heat source (GPHS) is shown in the illustration.

  13. NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.; Sankovic, John; Wilt, David; Abelson, Robert D.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS) project is developing the next generation of radioisotope power conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by either photovoltaic systems or by current radioisotope power systems (RPSs). Requirements of advanced RPSs include high efficiency and high specific power (watts/kilogram) in order to meet future mission requirements with less radioisotope fuel and lower mass so that these systems can meet requirements for a variety of future space applications, including continual operation surface missions, outer-planetary missions, and solar probe. These advances would enable a factor of 2 to 4 decrease in the amount of fuel required to generate electrical power. Advanced RPS development goals also include long-life, reliability, and scalability. This paper provides an update on the contractual efforts under the Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) for research and development of Stirling, thermoelectric, and thermophotovoltaic power conversion technologies. The paper summarizes the current RPCT NRA efforts with a brief description of the effort, a status and/or summary of the contractor's key accomplishments, a discussion of upcoming plans, and a discussion of relevant system-level benefits and implications. The paper also provides a general discussion of the benefits from the development of these advanced power conversion technologies and the eventual payoffs to future missions (discussing system benefits due to overall improvements in efficiency, specific power, etc.).

  14. Production of medical radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for cancer treatment and arterial restenosis therapy after PTCA

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C.W.; Hobbs, R.L.

    1998-06-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube (HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions (PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed.

  15. Production of Medical Radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for Cancer Treatment and Arterial Restenosis Therapy after PTCA

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Knapp, F. F. Jr.; Beets, A. L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C. W.; Hobbs, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube (HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions (PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed.

  16. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power Systems Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2006 Through September 30, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    King, James F

    2008-04-01

    The Office of Radioisotope Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Radioisotope Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2007. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  17. Protective level of safety harnesses combined with some racing car seats in frontal impacts--a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Ottoson, A L; Lövsund, P

    1986-12-01

    As a basis for a prospective modification of the present seat-belt regulation in Sweden, the protective level of safety harnesses compared with three-point belts has been studied. Biomechanical tests were carried out with different combinations of belts and seats. The results showed that a three-point belt on a conventional seat offered the best protection in frontal impacts. The geometry of the safety harness (inverted Y-harness and four-point belt) induces the lap belt to slide over the iliac crest and the restraining force will be on the abdomen (submarining). This may be prevented by the use of a six-point belt, where two crotch straps keep the lap belt in position. The safety harness induces strong rebounds on the head, owing to the fact that the shoulder straps stop the forward motion of the torso too fast. High accelerations and HIC-values were registered for the head. The shoulder straps of the safety harnesses also expose the wearer's shoulders and spine to high stresses in frontal impacts, which may induce injuries to the shoulders and compression injuries to the spine. Various solutions which may result in an increase of the protective level of the system safety harness and racing-car seat in frontal impacts are discussed.

  18. Non-clinical studies in the process of new drug development - Part II: Good laboratory practice, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, safety and dose translation to clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Andrade, E L; Bento, A F; Cavalli, J; Oliveira, S K; Schwanke, R C; Siqueira, J M; Freitas, C S; Marcon, R; Calixto, J B

    2016-12-12

    The process of drug development involves non-clinical and clinical studies. Non-clinical studies are conducted using different protocols including animal studies, which mostly follow the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations. During the early pre-clinical development process, also known as Go/No-Go decision, a drug candidate needs to pass through several steps, such as determination of drug availability (studies on pharmacokinetics), absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) and preliminary studies that aim to investigate the candidate safety including genotoxicity, mutagenicity, safety pharmacology and general toxicology. These preliminary studies generally do not need to comply with GLP regulations. These studies aim at investigating the drug safety to obtain the first information about its tolerability in different systems that are relevant for further decisions. There are, however, other studies that should be performed according to GLP standards and are mandatory for the safe exposure to humans, such as repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity and safety pharmacology. These studies must be conducted before the Investigational New Drug (IND) application. The package of non-clinical studies should cover all information needed for the safe transposition of drugs from animals to humans, generally based on the non-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) obtained from general toxicity studies. After IND approval, other GLP experiments for the evaluation of chronic toxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, carcinogenicity and genotoxicity, are carried out during the clinical phase of development. However, the necessity of performing such studies depends on the new drug clinical application purpose.

  19. Non-clinical studies in the process of new drug development - Part II: Good laboratory practice, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, safety and dose translation to clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, E.L.; Bento, A.F.; Cavalli, J.; Oliveira, S.K.; Schwanke, R.C.; Siqueira, J.M.; Freitas, C.S.; Marcon, R.; Calixto, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    The process of drug development involves non-clinical and clinical studies. Non-clinical studies are conducted using different protocols including animal studies, which mostly follow the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations. During the early pre-clinical development process, also known as Go/No-Go decision, a drug candidate needs to pass through several steps, such as determination of drug availability (studies on pharmacokinetics), absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) and preliminary studies that aim to investigate the candidate safety including genotoxicity, mutagenicity, safety pharmacology and general toxicology. These preliminary studies generally do not need to comply with GLP regulations. These studies aim at investigating the drug safety to obtain the first information about its tolerability in different systems that are relevant for further decisions. There are, however, other studies that should be performed according to GLP standards and are mandatory for the safe exposure to humans, such as repeated dose toxicity, genotoxicity and safety pharmacology. These studies must be conducted before the Investigational New Drug (IND) application. The package of non-clinical studies should cover all information needed for the safe transposition of drugs from animals to humans, generally based on the non-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) obtained from general toxicity studies. After IND approval, other GLP experiments for the evaluation of chronic toxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, carcinogenicity and genotoxicity, are carried out during the clinical phase of development. However, the necessity of performing such studies depends on the new drug clinical application purpose. PMID:27982281

  20. Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) status of Asian countries and its implementation in non-clinical safety studies in pharmaceutical drug development.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Madoka; Hinotsu, Shiro; Kawakami, Koji

    2009-10-01

    Non-clinical animal studies to assess the safety of compounds under development have to comply with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has established the Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) system in OECD member countries for the mutual acceptance of non-clinical safety study data. Since 1997 non-OECD-member countries have also been able to participate in the MAD system, if the country meets the level of standardized compliance with OECD GLP. Thus, several Asian non-OECD countries are trying to develop their GLP standards in order to become official members of the MAD system. Pharmaceutical companies face significant expense in the drug-development process, including the cost of non-clinical safety studies; in response, companies in Asian countries are seeking to establish GLP facilities to provide cost-effective services for drug development. To assess the quality and cost of GLP performance in Asian countries, in this study we approached GLP facilities in a number of Asian countries to obtain price and quality information on a 'virtual compound' to be assessed in non-clinical safety studies. Also, the development status of GLP in Asian countries in terms of policy and infrastructure was analyzed. We found that, among Asian countries, India and Singapore may be candidates for participation in te MAD system in terms of their compliance with GLP, language, and costs. These findings will be beneficial to pharmaceutical companies planning GLP studies in Asian countries.

  1. Safety Basis Requirements for Nonnuclear Facilities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site-Specific Work Smart Standard Revision 3 December 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, D; Brereton, S; Failor, R; Hildum, J; Ingram, C; Spagnolo, S; van Warmerdam, C

    2007-06-07

    This standard establishes requirements that, when coupled with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) methods and other Work Smart Standards for assuring worker safety, assure that the impacts of nonnuclear operations authorized in LLNL facilities are well understood and controlled in a manner that protects the health of workers, the public, and the environment. All LLNL facilities shall be classified based on potential for adverse impact of operations to the health of co-located (i.e., nearby) workers and the public in accordance with this standard, Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) 830, Subpart B, and Department of Energy Order (DOE O) 420.2A.

  2. Investigation of Miniaturized Radioisotope Thermionic Power Generation for General Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duzik, Adam J.; Choi, Sang H.

    2016-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) running off the radioisotope Pu238 are the current standard in deep space probe power supplies. While reliable, these generators are very inefficient, operating at only approx.7% efficiency. As an alternative, more efficient radioisotope thermionic emission generators (RTIGs) are being explored. Like RTGs, current RTIGs concepts use exotic materials for the emitter, limiting applicability to space and other niche applications. The high demand for long-lasting mobile power sources would be satisfied if RTIGs could be produced inexpensively. This work focuses on exposing several common materials, such as Al, stainless steel, W, Si, and Cu, to elevated temperatures under vacuum to determine the efficiency of each material as inexpensive replacements for thermoelectric materials.

  3. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  4. Realistic Specific Power Expectations for Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2006-01-01

    Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being considered for a wide range of future NASA space science and exploration missions. Generally, RPS offer the advantages of high reliability, long life, and predictable power production regardless of operating environment. Previous RPS, in the form of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), have been used successfully on many NASA missions including Apollo, Viking, Voyager, and Galileo. NASA is currently evaluating design options for the next generation of RPS. Of particular interest is the use of advanced, higher efficiency power conversion to replace the previous thermoelectric devices. Higher efficiency reduces the quantity of radioisotope fuel and potentially improves the RPS specific power (watts per kilogram). Power conversion options include Segmented Thermoelectric (STE), Stirling, Brayton, and Thermophotovoltaic (TPV). This paper offers an analysis of the advanced 100 watt-class RPS options and provides credible projections for specific power. Based on the analysis presented, RPS specific power values greater than 10 W/kg appear unlikely.

  5. An evaluation of the shielding effectiveness of lead aprons used in clinics for protection against ionising radiation from novel radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Deb, Pradip; Jamison, Robert; Mong, Lisa; U, Paul

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of personal radiation shields currently worn in hospital and other diagnostic environments. This study was performed with four different radioisotopes; (18)F, (99m)Tc, (124)I and (131)I. (18)F results showed a decrease in dose with 0.5-mm Pb shielding but the reduction provided does not warrant its use clinically. (124)I testing demonstrated that dose enhancement can occur in greater shield thicknesses. PET isotope (124)I can be adequately shielded using 0.25-mm Pb equivalent aprons but any higher thickness increase the wearer's dose. As a result more shielding does not always equal more protection. The (131)I test showed that no dose reduction occurred, even when tested with up to 1.25-mm Pb equivalent shielding. Novel radioisotopes being used in the laboratory and clinic should be individually tested as each requires specific shielding testing.

  6. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  7. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  8. Recoil-Implantation Of Multiple Radioisotopes Towards Wear Rate Measurements And Particle Tracing In Prosthetic Joints

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Jacob A.; Timmers, Heiko; Smith, Paul N.; Scarvell, Jennifer M.; Gladkis, Laura

    2011-06-01

    This study demonstrates a new method of radioisotope labeling of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene inserts in prosthetic joints for wear studies. The radioisotopes {sup 97}Ru, {sup 100}Pd, {sup 100}Rh, and {sup 101m}Rh are produced in fusion evaporation reactions induced by {sup 12}C ions in a {sup 92}Zr target foil. The fusion products recoil-implant into ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene plugs, machined to fit into the surface of the inserts. During laboratory simulations of the joint motion, a wear rate of the labeled polyethylene may be measured and the pathways of wear debris particles can be traced by detecting characteristic gamma-rays. The concentration profiles of the radioisotopes extend effectively uniformly from the polyethylene surface to a depth of about 4 {mu}m. The multiplicity of labeling and the use of several gamma-ray lines aids with avoiding systematic measurement uncertainties. Two polyethylene plugs were labeled and one was fitted into the surface of the tibial insert of a knee prosthesis, which had been worn in. Actuation over close to 100,000 cycles with a 900 N axial load and a 24 deg. flexion angle removed (14{+-}1)% of the gamma-ray activity from the plug. Most of this activity dispersed into the serum lubricant identifying this as the important debris pathway. Less than 1% activity was transferred to the femoral component of the prosthesis and the measured activity on the tibial tray was insignificant. Assuming uniform wear across the superior surface of the insert, a wear rate of (12{+-}3) mm{sup 3}/Megacycle was determined. This is consistent with wear rate measurements under similar conditions using other techniques.

  9. Recoil-Implantation Of Multiple Radioisotopes Towards Wear Rate Measurements And Particle Tracing In Prosthetic Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Jacob A.; Smith, Paul N.; Scarvell, Jennifer M.; Gladkis, Laura; Timmers, Heiko

    2011-06-01

    This study demonstrates a new method of radioisotope labeling of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene inserts in prosthetic joints for wear studies. The radioisotopes 97Ru, 100Pd, 100Rh, and 101mRh are produced in fusion evaporation reactions induced by 12C ions in a 92Zr target foil. The fusion products recoil-implant into ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene plugs, machined to fit into the surface of the inserts. During laboratory simulations of the joint motion, a wear rate of the labeled polyethylene may be measured and the pathways of wear debris particles can be traced by detecting characteristic gamma-rays. The concentration profiles of the radioisotopes extend effectively uniformly from the polyethylene surface to a depth of about 4 μm. The multiplicity of labeling and the use of several gamma-ray lines aids with avoiding systematic measurement uncertainties. Two polyethylene plugs were labeled and one was fitted into the surface of the tibial insert of a knee prosthesis, which had been worn in. Actuation over close to 100,000 cycles with a 900 N axial load and a 24° flexion angle removed (14±1)% of the gamma-ray activity from the plug. Most of this activity dispersed into the serum lubricant identifying this as the important debris pathway. Less than 1% activity was transferred to the femoral component of the prosthesis and the measured activity on the tibial tray was insignificant. Assuming uniform wear across the superior surface of the insert, a wear rate of (12±3) mm3/Megacycle was determined. This is consistent with wear rate measurements under similar conditions using other techniques.

  10. Electrode performance parameters for a radioisotope-powered AMTEC for space power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Bankston, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    The alkali metal thermoelastic converter (AMTEC) is a device for the direct conversion of heat to electricity. Recently a design of an AMTEC using a radioisotope heat source was described, but the optimum condenser temperature was hotter than the temperatures used in the laboratory to develop the electrode performance model. Now laboratory experiments have confirmed the dependence of two model parameters over a broader range of condenser and electrode temperatures for two candidate electrode compositions. One parameter, the electrochemical exchange current density at the reaction interface, is independent of the condenser temperature, and depends only upon the collision rate of sodium at the reaction zone. The second parameter, a morphological parameter, which measures the mass transport resistance through the electrode, is independent of condenser and electrode temperatures for molybdenum electrodes. For rhodium-tungsten electrodes, however, this parameter increases for decreasing electrode temperature, indicating an activated mass transport mechanism such as surface diffusion.

  11. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, H.E.; Bearden, T.E.

    1990-10-01

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable US Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a DOE Alternative.'' The US Department of Transportation has special double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Ames Laboratory annual site environmental report, calendar year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 1996. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring programs. Ames Laboratory is located on the campus of Iowa State University (ISU) and occupies twelve buildings owned by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Laboratory also leases space in ISU owned buildings. Laboratory activities involve less than ten percent of the total chemical use and approximately one percent of the radioisotope use on the ISU campus. In 1996, the Office of Assurance and Assessment merged with the Environment, Safety and Health Group forming the Environment, Safety, Health and Assurance (ESH and A) office. In 1996, the Laboratory accumulated and disposed of wastes under US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued generator numbers. Ames Laboratory submitted a Proposed Site Treatment Plan to EPA in December 1995. This plan complied with the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA). It was approved by EPA in January 1996. The consent agreement/consent order was issued in February 1996. Pollution awareness, waste minimization and recycling programs, implemented in 1990 and updated in 1994, continued through 1996. Included in these efforts were a waste white paper and green computer paper recycling program. Ames Laboratory also continued to recycle salvageable metal and used oil, and it recovered freon for recycling. All of the chemical and nearly all of the radiological legacy wastes were properly disposed by the end of 1996. Additional radiological legacy waste will be properly disposed during 1997.

  13. Laboratory Building

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  14. Health and safety plan for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This HASP describes the process for identifying the requirements, written safety documentation, and procedures for protecting personnel involved in the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project. Objective of this project is to place 19 former isotope production facilities at ORNL in a safe condition in anticipation of an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance.

  15. School Science Laboratories. A Guide to Some Hazardous Substances. A Supplement to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Manual of Safety and Health Hazards in the School Science Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Science Supervisors, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this document is to identify potentially hazardous substances that may be in use in many school laboratories and to provide an inventory of these substances so that science teachers may take the initiative in providing for the proper storage, handling, use, and if warranted, removal of hazardous materials. The document consists of…

  16. Investigations of Polymorphic Germylene Structures, Experimental Calculations of a New Boron-Sulfur Heterocycle and Assessment of a Safety Curriculum in an Undergraduate Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohr Daniel, Ahleah

    , quizzes, colorful posters and other educational materials, the students were exposed to information about chemical safety. Surveys and in-class observations were used to analyze the effectiveness of the newly instituted curriculum. The results from this study indicate that teaching the students and the graduate student instructors chemical hygiene can decrease the overall number of laboratory accidents and increase awareness of chemical safety.

  17. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for concrete-shielded RHTRU waste drum for the 327 postirradiation testing laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, H.E.

    1996-10-29

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete- Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to the Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility in the 200 West Area and on to a Solid Waste Storage Facility, also in the 200 Area.

  18. Safety evaluation for packaging (onsite) for the concrete-shielded RH TRU drum for the 327 Postirradiation Testing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.J.

    1998-03-31

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes onsite transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material in the Concrete Shielded Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste (RH TRU) Drum per HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments. The drum will be used for transport of 327 Building legacy waste from the 300 Area to a solid waste storage facility on the Hanford Site.

  19. Potential Applications for Radioisotope Power Systems in Support of Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Colozza, Anthony J.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) for space applications have powered over 27 U.S. space systems, starting with Transit 4A and 4B in 1961, and more recently with the successful landing of the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity in August 2012. RPS enable missions with destinations far from the Sun with faint solar flux, on planetary surfaces with dense or dusty atmospheres, and at places with long eclipse periods where solar array sizes and energy storage mass become impractical. RPS could also provide an enabling capability in support of human exploration activities. It is envisioned that with the higher power needs of most human mission concepts, a high efficiency thermal-to-electric technology would be required such as the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ASRG). The ASRG should be capable of a four-fold improvement in efficiency over traditional thermoelectric RPS. While it may be impractical to use RPS as a main power source, many other applications could be considered, such as crewed pressurized rovers, in-situ resource production of propellants, back-up habitat power, drilling, any mobile or remote activity from the main base habitat, etc. This paper will identify potential applications and provide concepts that could be a practical extension of the current ASRG design in providing for robust and flexible use of RPS on human exploration missions.

  20. System-Level Testing of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Jack; Wiser, Jack; Brown, Greg; Florin, Dominic; Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2014-01-01

    To support future NASA deep space missions, a radioisotope power system utilizing Stirling power conversion technology was under development. This development effort was performed under the joint sponsorship of the Department of Energy and NASA, until its termination at the end of 2013 due to budget constraints. The higher conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle compared with that of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in previous missions (Viking, Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, Pluto New Horizons and Mars Science Laboratory) offers the advantage of a four-fold reduction in Pu-238 fuel, thereby extending its limited domestic supply. As part of closeout activities, system-level testing of flight-like Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs) with a flight-like ASC Controller Unit (ACU) was performed in February 2014. This hardware is the most representative of the flight design tested to date. The test fully demonstrates the following ACU and system functionality: system startup; ASC control and operation at nominal and worst-case operating conditions; power rectification; DC output power management throughout nominal and out-of-range host voltage levels; ACU fault management, and system command / telemetry via MIL-STD 1553 bus. This testing shows the viability of such a system for future deep space missions and bolsters confidence in the maturity of the flight design.

  1. Using performance tasks employing IOM patient safety competencies to introduce quality improvement processes in medical laboratory science education.

    PubMed

    Golemboski, Karen; Otto, Catherine N; Morris, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In order to contribute to improved healthcare quality through patient-centered care, laboratory professionals at all levels of practice must be able to recognize the connection between non-analytical factors and laboratory analysis, in the context of patient outcomes and quality improvement. These practices require qualities such as critical thinking (CT), teamwork skills, and familiarity with the quality improvement process, which will be essential for the development of evidence-based laboratory science practice. Performance tasks (PT) are an educational strategy which can be used to teach and assess CT and teamwork, while introducing Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) students at both baccalaureate and advanced-practice levels to the concepts of quality improvement processes and patient outcomes research. PT presents students with complex, realistic scenarios which require the incorporation of subject-specific knowledge with competencies such as effective team communication, patient-centered care, and successful use of information technology. A PT with assessment rubric was designed for use in a baccalaureate-level MLS program to teach and assess CT and teamwork competency. The results indicated that, even when students were able to integrate subject-specific knowledge in creative ways, their understanding of teamwork and quality improvement was limited. This indicates the need to intentionally teach skills such as collaboration and quality system design. PT represent one of many strategies that may be used in MLS education to develop essential professional competencies, encourage expert practice, and facilitate quality improvement.

  2. Targets for the production of radioisotopes and method of assembly

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, Thomas C.

    1976-01-01

    A target for preparation of radioisotopes by nuclear bombardment, and a method for its assembly are provided. A metallic sample to be bombarded is enclosed within a metallic support structure and the resulting target subjected to heat and pressure to effect diffusion bonds therebetween. The bonded target is capable of withstanding prolonged exposure to nuclear bombardment without thermal damage to the sample.

  3. A Concept for a Radioisotope Powered Lunar CubeSat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, R. L.

    2016-11-01

    Presented is a concept for a small lander or cubesat lunar mission that would benefit from a low-power milli-watt radioisotope power source (RPS). A RPS would provide long-lived electrical and thermal power enabling a long-lived lunar mission.

  4. Anthropogenic radioisotopes to estimate rates of soil redistribution by wind

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erosion of soil by wind and water is a degrading process that affects millions of hectares worldwide. Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons and the resulting fallout of anthropogenic radioisotopes, particularly Cesium 137, has made possible the estimation of mean soil redistribution rates. The pe...

  5. Comprehensive work plan and health and safety plan for the 7500 Area Contamination Site sampling at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, S.N.; Landguth, D.C.; Uziel, M.S.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Tiner, P.F.

    1992-05-01

    As part of the Environmental Restoration Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, this plan has been developed for the environmental sampling efforts at the 7500 Area Contamination Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group (MAD) of the Health and Safety Research Division of ORNL and will be implemented by ORNL/MAD. Major components of the plan include (1) a quality assurance project plan that describes the scope and objectives of ORNL/MAD activities at the 7500 Area Contamination Site, assigns responsibilities, and provides emergency information for contingencies that may arise during field operations; (2) sampling and analysis sections; (3) a site-specific health and safety section that describes general site hazards, hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements, and mandatory safety procedures; (4) procedures and requirements for equipment decontamination and responsibilities for generated wastes, waste management, and contamination control; and (5) a discussion of form completion and reporting required to document activities at the 7500 Area Contamination Site.

  6. Comprehensive work plan and health and safety plan for the 7500 Area Contamination Site sampling at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, S.N.; Landguth, D.C.; Uziel, M.S.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Tiner, P.F.

    1992-05-01

    As part of the Environmental Restoration Program sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, this plan has been developed for the environmental sampling efforts at the 7500 Area Contamination Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan was developed by the Measurement Applications and Development Group (MAD) of the Health and Safety Research Division of ORNL and will be implemented by ORNL/MAD. Major components of the plan include (1) a quality assurance project plan that describes the scope and objectives of ORNL/MAD activities at the 7500 Area Contamination Site, assigns responsibilities, and provides emergency information for contingencies that may arise during field operations; (2) sampling and analysis sections; (3) a site-specific health and safety section that describes general site hazards, hazards associated with specific tasks, personnel protection requirements, and mandatory safety procedures; (4) procedures and requirements for equipment decontamination and responsibilities for generated wastes, waste management, and contamination control; and (5) a discussion of form completion and reporting required to document activities at the 7500 Area Contamination Site.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1982 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness. Part 5. Environmental and occupational protection, assessment, and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, W.J.

    1983-02-01

    Part 5 of the 1982 Annual Report to the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Protection, Safety and Emergency Preparedness presents Pacific Northwest Laboratory's progress on work performed for the Office of Environmental Programs, Office of Operational Safety, and the Office of Nuclear Safety. The report is in three sections, introduced by blue divider pages, corresponding to the program elements: Technology Impacts, Environmental and Safety Engineering, Operational and Environmental Safety. In each section, articles describe progress made during FY 1982 on individual projects, as identified by the Field Task Proposal/Agreement. Authors of these articles represent a broad spectrum of capabilities derived from various segments of the Laboratory, reflecting the interdisciplinary nature of the work.

  8. Design of a Facility to Test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Meer, David W.; Brace, Michael H.; Dugala, Gina

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is being considered to power deep space missions. An engineering unit, the ASRG-EU, was designed and fabricated by Lockheed Martin under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently on an extended operation test at NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate the life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. A special test facility was designed and built for testing the ASRG-EU. Details of the test facility design are discussed. The facility can operate the convertors under AC bus control or with the ASRG-EU controller. It can regulate input thermal power in either a fixed temperature or fixed power mode. An enclosure circulates cooled air around the ASRG-EU to remove heat rejected from the ASRG-EU by convection. A custom monitoring and data acquisition system supports the test. Various safety features, which allow 2417 unattended operation, are discussed.

  9. Vocational Education Safety Instruction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropley, Russell, Ed.; Doherty, Susan Sloan, Ed.

    This manual describes four program areas in vocational education safety instruction: (1) introduction to a safety program; (2) resources to ensure laboratory safety; (3) safety program implementation; and (4) safety rules and safety tests. The safety rules and tests included in section four are for the most common tools and machines used in…

  10. Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Beets, A.L.

    1995-02-01

    Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ``neutron rich`` and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture and those available from beta-decay of reactorproduced radioisotopes. Generators prepared from reactorproduced radioisotopes are of particular interest since repeated elution inexpensively provides many patient doses. The development of the alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator system is discussed in detail.

  11. Statistical analysis of an inter-laboratory comparison of small-scale safety and thermal testing of RDX

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Geoffrey W.; Sandstrom, Mary M.; Preston, Daniel N.; ...

    2014-11-17

    In this study, the Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program has conducted a proficiency test for small-scale safety and thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are statistical analyses of the results from this test for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of the RDX Class 5 Type II standard. The material was tested as a well-characterized standard several times during the proficiency test to assess differences among participants and the range of results that may arise for well-behaved explosive materials.

  12. Sub-Kilowatt Radioisotope Electric Propulsion for Outer Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gefert, L. P.; Oleson, S. R.; Patterson, M. J.; Schrieber, J.; McAdams, J.

    2001-01-01

    An activity has begun to perform a multi-mission trajectory/systems analysis study that examines the combined benefit of three key technology development areas. The three key technologies leveraged in the study include sub-kilowatt ion propulsion, Stirling radioisotope power systems and microelectronics/lightweight spacecraft bus technologies. This study is being performed jointly by NASA Glenn Research Center and the Applied Physics Laboratory to leverage their combined areas of expertise in advanced power/propulsion and spacecraft design. Missions examined in this study include missions to outer planets' moons, such as Europa, Titan, and Triton, and a Comet Nucleus Sample Return mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Organic Materials Ionizing Radiation Susceptibility for the Outer Planet/Solar Probe Radioisotope Power Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golliher, Eric L.; Pepper, Stephen V.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy is considering the current Stirling Technology Corporation 55 We Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertor as a baseline option for an advanced radioisotope power source for the Outer Planets/Solar Probe project of Jet Propulsion Laboratory and other missions. However, since the Technology Demonstration Convertor contains organic materials chosen without any special consideration of flight readiness, and without any consideration of the extremely high radiation environment of Europa, a preliminary investigation was performed to address the radiation susceptibility of the current organic materials used in the Technology Demonstration Convertor. This report documents the results of the investigation. The results of the investigation show that candidate replacement materials have been identified to be acceptable in the harsh Europa radiation environment.

  14. Increasing the Efficiency of the Multi-mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgate, Tim C.; Bennett, Russell; Hammel, Tom; Caillat, Thierry; Keyser, Steve; Sievers, Bob

    2015-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Mars Science Laboratory terrestrial rover, Curiosity, has recently completed its first Martian year (687 Earth days) during which it has provided a wealth of information and insight into the red planet's atmosphere and geology. The success of this mission was made possible in part by the reliable electrical power provided by its onboard thermoelectric power source—the multi-mission radioisotope thermoelectric generator (MMRTG). In an effort to increase the output power and efficiency of these generators, a newly designed enhanced MMRTG (eMMRTG) that will utilize the more efficient skutterudite-based thermoelectric materials has been conceptualized and modeled, and is now being developed. A discussion of the motivations, modeling results and key design factors are presented and discussed.

  15. Worker Safety and Health Issues Associated with the DOE Environmental Cleanup Program: Insights From the DOE Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public health Standards Steering Group

    SciTech Connect

    M.C. Edelson; Samuel C. Morris; Joan M. Daisey

    2001-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public Health Standards Steering Group (or ''SSG'') was formed in 1990. It was felt then that ''risk'' could be an organizing principle for environmental cleanup and that risk-based cleanup standards could rationalize clean up work. The environmental remediation process puts workers engaged in cleanup activities at risk from hazardous materials and from the more usual hazards associated with construction activities. In a real sense, the site remediation process involves the transfer of a hypothetical risk to the environment and the public from isolated contamination into real risks to the workers engaged in the remediation activities. Late in its existence the SSG, primarily motivated by its LANL representative, Dr. Harry Ettinger, actively investigated issues associated with worker health and safety during environmental remediation activities. This paper summarizes the insights noted by the SSG. Most continue to be pertinent today.

  16. Environmental, safety, and health plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document outlines the environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) approach to be followed for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 10 at Oak at Ridge National Laboratory. This ES&H Plan addresses hazards associated with upcoming Operable Unit 3 field work activities and provides the program elements required to maintain minimal personnel exposures and to reduce the potential for environmental impacts during field operations. The hazards evaluation for WAG 10 is presented in Sect. 3. This section includes the potential radiological, chemical, and physical hazards that may be encountered. Previous sampling results suggest that the primary contaminants of concern will be radiological (cobalt-60, europium-154, americium-241, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, cesium-134, cesium-137, and curium-244). External and internal exposures to radioactive materials will be minimized through engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, containment, isolation) and administrative controls (e.g., procedures, training, postings, protective clothing).

  17. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-10-10

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, {sup 252}Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of {sup 252}Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the {sup 252}Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, {sup 252}Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of {sup 252}Cf from ORNL is summarized herein.

  18. Analysis of longitudinal laboratory data in the presence of common selection mechanisms: a view toward greater emphasis on pre-marketing pharmaceutical safety.

    PubMed

    Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Jenkins, Cathy A; Ostroff, Jack H; Gillen, Daniel L; Harrell, Frank E; Trost, Donald C

    2008-05-30

    Pharmaceutical safety has received substantial attention in the recent past; however, longitudinal clinical laboratory data routinely collected during clinical trials to derive safety profiles are often used ineffectively. For example, these data are frequently summarized by comparing proportions (between treatment arms) of participants who cross pre-specified threshold values at some time during follow-up. This research is intended, in part, to encourage more effective utilization of these data by avoiding unnecessary dichotomization of continuous data, acknowledging and making use of the longitudinal follow-up, and combining data from multiple clinical trials. However, appropriate analyses require careful consideration of a number of challenges (e.g. selection, comparability of study populations, etc.). We discuss estimation strategies based on estimating equations and maximum likelihood for analyses in the presence of three response history-dependent selection mechanisms: dropout, follow-up frequency, and treatment discontinuation. In addition, because clinical trials' participants usually represent non-random samples from target populations, we describe two sensitivity analysis approaches. All discussions are motivated by an analysis that aims to characterize the dynamic relationship between concentrations of a liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase) and three distinct doses (no drug, low dose, and high dose) of an nk-1 antagonist across four Phase II clinical trials.

  19. Health and safety plan for the Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cofer, G.H.; Holt, V.L.; Roupe, G.W.

    1993-11-01

    This health and safety plan (HASP) was developed by the members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health Science Research Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared to ensure that health and safety related items for the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study and Site Investigation projects conform with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.120 (April 18, 1992). The RI Plan calls for the characterization, monitoring, risk assessment, and identification of remedial needs and alternatives that have been structured and staged with short-term and long-term objectives. In early FY 1992, the WAG 2 RI was integrated with the ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Investigations program in order to achieve the complimentary objectives of the projects more effectively by providing an integrated basis of support. The combined effort was named the WAG 2 Remedial Investigation and Site Investigations Program (WAG 2 RI&SI). The Site Investigation activities are a series of monitoring efforts and directed investigations that support other ER activities by providing information about (1) watershed hydrogeology; (2) contaminants, pathways, and fluxes for groundwater at ORNL; (3) shallow subsurface areas that can act as secondary sources of contaminants; and (4) biological populations and contaminants in biota, in addition to other support and coordination activities.

  20. Environmental health and safety plan for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Burman, S.N.; Tiner, P.F.; Gosslee, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) policy is to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all employees and subcontractors. The accomplishment of this policy requires that operations at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) facility at the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are guided by an overall plan and consistent proactive approach to environmental protection and safety and health (S and H) issues. The policy and procedures in this plan apply to all MSRE operations. The provisions of this plan are to be carried out whenever activities are initiated at the MSRE that could be a threat to human health or the environment. This plan implements a policy and establishes criteria for the development of procedures for day-to-day operations to prevent or minimize any adverse impact to the environment and personnel safety and health and to meet standards that define acceptable management of hazardous and radioactive materials and wastes. The plan is written to utilize past experience and the best management practices to minimize hazards to human health or the environment from events such as fires, explosions, falls, mechanical hazards, or any unplanned release of hazardous or radioactive materials to the air.

  1. Safety analysis report for the use of hazardous production materials in photovoltaic applications at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, R.S.; Nelson, B.P.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-07-01

    To ensure the continued safety of SERI`s employees, the community, and the environment, NREL commissioned an internal audit of its photovoltaic operations that used hazardous production materials (HPMS). As a result of this audit, NREL management voluntarily suspended all operations using toxic and/or pyrophoric gases. This suspension affected seven laboratories and ten individual deposition systems. These activities are located in Building 16, which has a permitted occupancy of Group B, Division 2 (B-2). NREL management decided to do the following. (1) Exclude from this SAR all operations which conformed, or could easily be made to conform, to B-2 Occupancy requirements. (2) Include in this SAR all operations that could be made to conform to B-2 Occupancy requirements with special administrative and engineering controls. (3) Move all operations that could not practically be made to conform to B-2 occupancy requirements to alternate locations. In addition to the layered set of administrative and engineering controls set forth in this SAR, a semiquantitative risk analysis was performed on 30 various accident scenarios. Twelve presented only routine risks, while 18 presented low risks. Considering the demonstrated safe operating history of NREL in general and these systems specifically, the nature of the risks identified, and the layered set of administrative and engineering controls, it is clear that this facility falls within the DOE Low Hazard Class. Each operation can restart only after it has passed an Operational Readiness Review, comparing it to the requirements of this SAR, while subsequent safety inspections will ensure future compliance. This document contains the appendices to the NREL safety analysis report.

  2. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power System (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  3. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion for Fast Outer Planetary Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven; Benson, Scott; Gefert, Leon; Patterson, Michael; Schreiber, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Recent interest in outer planetary targets by the Office of Space Science has spurred the search for technology options to enable relatively quick missions to outer planetary targets. Several options are being explored including solar electric propelled stages combined with aerocapture at the target and nuclear electric propulsion. Another option uses radioisotope powered electric thrusters to reach the outer planets. Past work looked at using this technology to provide faster flybys. A better use for this technology is for outer planet orbiters. Combined with medium class launch vehicles and a new direct trajectory these small, sub-kilowatt ion thrusters and Stirling radioisotope generators were found to allow missions as fast as 5 to 12 years for objects from Saturn to Pluto, respectively. Key to the development is light spacecraft and science payload technologies.

  4. Outer Planet Exploration with Advanced Radioisotope Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven; Gefert, Leon; Patterson, Michael; Schreiber, Jeffrey; Benson, Scott; McAdams, Jim; Ostdiek, Paul

    2002-01-01

    In response to a request by the NASA Deep Space Exploration Technology Program, NASA Glenn Research Center conducted a study to identify advanced technology options to perform a Pluto/Kuiper mission without depending on a 2004 Jupiter Gravity Assist, but still arriving before 2020. A concept using a direct trajectory with small, sub-kilowatt ion thrusters and Stirling radioisotope power systems was shown to allow the same or smaller launch vehicle class as the chemical 2004 baseline and allow a launch slip and still flyby in the 2014 to 2020 timeframe. With this promising result the study was expanded to use a radioisotope power source for small electrically propelled orbiter spacecraft for outer planet targets such as Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.

  5. Process for radioisotope recovery and system for implementing same

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Tranter, Troy J.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2009-10-06

    A method of recovering daughter isotopes from a radioisotope mixture. The method comprises providing a radioisotope mixture solution comprising at least one parent isotope. The at least one parent isotope is extracted into an organic phase, which comprises an extractant and a solvent. The organic phase is substantially continuously contacted with an aqueous phase to extract at least one daughter isotope into the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is separated from the organic phase, such as by using an annular centrifugal contactor. The at least one daughter isotope is purified from the aqueous phase, such as by ion exchange chromatography or extraction chromatography. The at least one daughter isotope may include actinium-225, radium-225, bismuth-213, or mixtures thereof. A liquid-liquid extraction system for recovering at least one daughter isotope from a source material is also disclosed.

  6. Process for radioisotope recovery and system for implementing same

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Tranter, Troy J.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2007-01-02

    A method of recovering daughter isotopes from a radioisotope mixture. The method comprises providing a radioisotope mixture solution comprising at least one parent isotope. The at least one parent isotope is extracted into an organic phase, which comprises an extractant and a solvent. The organic phase is substantially continuously contacted with an aqueous phase to extract at least one daughter isotope into the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is separated from the organic phase, such as by using an annular centrifugal contactor. The at least one daughter isotope is purified from the aqueous phase, such as by ion exchange chromatography or extraction chromatography. The at least one daughter isotope may include actinium-225, radium-225, bismuth-213, or mixtures thereof. A liquid-liquid extraction system for recovering at least one daughter isotope from a source material is also disclosed.

  7. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension syndrome: contribution of radioisotope cisternography.

    PubMed

    Suárez, J P; Domínguez, M L; Gómez, M A; Muñoz, J L

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a clinical syndrome caused by a loss of cerebrospinal fluid volume, usually secondary to leaking through structural defects of the spinal dura mater. Radioisotope cisternography (RC) can confirm the diagnosis of spontaneous intracranial hypotension, especially in doubtful or atypical case presentations. A retrospective study was conducted on 8 patients who underwent RC because spontaneous intracranial hypotension was suspected, and they presented with atypical clinical manifestations and/or inconclusive findings in other imaging techniques. RC detected paradural extravasation of cerebrospinal fluid in 7 patients. Moreover, there was indirect evidence of cerebrospinal fluid leaks in all 8 patients (early appearance of radioactivity in the bladder, soft tissue uptake of radioisotope and/or reduction in the amount of radiotracer in the brain at 24hours). RC had a significant impact on the diagnosis of 6 patients, and on the therapeutic management of 4 patients.

  8. Emitted radiation characteristics of plutonium dioxide radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gingo, P. J.; Steyn, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    The nuclear and emitted radiation characteristics of the radioisotope elements and impurities in commercial grade plutonium dioxide are presented in detail. The development of the methods of analysis are presented. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) of 1575, 3468 and 5679 thermal watts are characterized with respect to neutron and gamma photon source strength as well as spatial and number flux distribution. The results are presented as a function of detector position and light element contamination concentration for fuel age ranging from 'fresh' to 18 years. The data may be used to obtain results for given O-18 and Pu-236 concentrations. The neutron and gamma photon flux and dose calculations compare favorably with reported experimental values for SNAP-27.

  9. Efficient Radioisotope Energy Transfer by Gold Nanoclusters for Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Volotskova, Olga; Sun, Conroy; Stafford, Jason H; Koh, Ai Leen; Ma, Xiaowei; Cheng, Zhen; Cui, Bianxiao; Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei

    2015-08-26

    Beta-emitting isotopes Fluorine-18 and Yttrium-90 are tested for their potential to stimulate gold nanoclusters conjugated with blood serum proteins (AuNCs). AuNCs excited by either medical radioisotope are found to be highly effective ionizing radiation energy transfer mediators, suitable for in vivo optical imaging. AuNCs synthesized with protein templates convert beta-decaying radioisotope energy into tissue-penetrating optical signals between 620 and 800 nm. Optical signals are not detected from AuNCs incubated with Technetium-99m, a pure gamma emitter that is used as a control. Optical emission from AuNCs is not proportional to Cerenkov radiation, indicating that the energy transfer between the radionuclide and AuNC is only partially mediated by Cerenkov photons. A direct Coulombic interaction is proposed as a novel and significant mechanism of energy transfer between decaying radionuclides and AuNCs.

  10. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high-temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  11. Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Salas, A. Rangel; Viloria, T.; Sajo-Bohus, L.; Barros, H.; Greaves, E. D.; Palacios, D.

    2007-10-26

    Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families.

  12. Isotope Identification in the GammaTracker Handheld Radioisotope Identifier

    SciTech Connect

    Batdorf, Michael T.; Hensley, Walter K.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Erikson, Luke E.; Jordan, David V.

    2009-11-13

    GammaTracker is a portable handheld radioisotope identifier using position sensitive CdZnTe crystals. The device uses a peak-based method for isotope identification implemented on an embedded computing platform within the device. This paper presents the run-time optimized algorithms used in this peak-based approach. Performance of the algorithms is presented using measured data from gamma-ray sources.

  13. Radioisotope powered alkali metal thermoelectric converter design for space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sievers, R. K.; Bankston, C. P.

    1988-01-01

    The design concept of an alkali-metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) for 15-30-percent-efficient conversion of heat from the General Purpose (radioisotope) Heat Source (GPHS) on spacecraft is presented. The basic physical principles of the conversion cycle are outlined; a theoretical model is derived; a modular design is described and illustrated with drawings; and the overall AMTEC/GPHS system design is characterized. Predicted performance data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed in detail.

  14. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.A.

    1994-11-10

    This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan.

  15. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. A.

    1994-11-01

    This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan.

  16. Radioisotope Power: A Key Technology for Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George; Sutliff, Tom; Dudzinski, Leonard

    2008-01-01

    A Radioisotope Power System (RPS) generates power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes, such as Plutonium-238 (Pu-238), into electricity. First used in space by the U.S. in 1961, these devices have enabled some of the most challenging and exciting space missions in history, including the Pioneer and Voyager probes to the outer solar system; the Apollo lunar surface experiments; the Viking landers; the Ulysses polar orbital mission about the Sun; the Galileo mission to Jupiter; the Cassini mission orbiting Saturn; and the recently launched New Horizons mission to Pluto. Radioisotopes have also served as a versatile heat source for moderating equipment thermal environments on these and many other missions, including the Mars exploration rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. The key advantage of RPS is its ability to operate continuously, independent of orientation and distance relative to the Sun. Radioisotope systems are long-lived, rugged, compact, highly reliable, and relatively insensitive to radiation and other environmental effects. As such, they are ideally suited for missions involving long-lived, autonomous operations in the extreme conditions of space and other planetary bodies. This paper reviews the history of RPS for the U.S. space program. It also describes current development of a new Stirling cycle-based generator that will greatly expand the application of nuclear-powered missions in the future.

  17. Radioisotope Power: A Key Technology for Deep Space Explorations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George R.; Sutliff, Thomas J.; Duddzinski, Leonard

    2009-01-01

    A Radioisotope Power System (RPS) generates power by converting the heat released from the nuclear decay of radioactive isotopes, such as Plutonium-238 (Pu-238), into electricity. First used in space by the U.S. in 1961, these devices have enabled some of the most challenging and exciting space missions in history, including the Pioneer and Voyager probes to the outer solar system; the Apollo lunar surface experiments; the Viking landers; the Ulysses polar orbital mission about the Sun; the Galileo mission to Jupiter; the Cassini mission orbiting Saturn; and the recently launched New Horizons mission to Pluto. Radioisotopes have also served as a versatile heat source for moderating equipment thermal environments on these and many other missions, including the Mars exploration rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. The key advantage of RPS is its ability to operate continuously, independent of orientation and distance relative to the Sun. Radioisotope systems are long-lived, rugged, compact, highly reliable, and relatively insensitive to radiation and other environmental effects. As such, they are ideally suited for missions involving long-lived, autonomous operations in the extreme conditions of space and other planetary bodies. This paper reviews the history of RPS for the U.S. space program. It also describes current development of a new Stirling cycle-based generator that will greatly expand the application of nuclear-powered missions in the future.

  18. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems Planning and Potential Future Systems Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June F.; Woerner, Dave F.; Cairns-Gallimore, Dirk; Johnson, Stephen G.; Qualls, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program is to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet the needs of the missions. To meet this goal, the RPS Program, working closely with the Department of Energy, performs mission and system studies (such as the recently released Nuclear Power Assessment Study), assesses the readiness of promising technologies to infuse in future generators, assesses the sustainment of key RPS capabilities and knowledge, forecasts and tracks the Program's budgetary needs, and disseminates current information about RPS to the community of potential users. This process has been refined and used to determine the current content of the RPS Program's portfolio. This portfolio currently includes an effort to mature advanced thermoelectric technology for possible integration into an enhanced Multi-Mission Radioisotope Generator (eMMRTG), sustainment and production of the currently deployed MMRTG, and technology investments that could lead to a future Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). This paper describes the program planning processes that have been used, the currently available MMRTG, and one of the potential future systems, the eMMRTG.

  19. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Centaur Orbiter Spacecraft Design Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steve; McGuire, Melissa; Sarver-Verhey, Tim; Juergens, Jeff; Parkey, Tom; Dankanich, John; Fiehler, Doug; Gyekenyesi, John; Hemminger, Joseph; Gilland, Jim; Colozza, Tony; Packard, Tom; Nguyen, Thahn; Schmitz, Paul; Ostdiek, Paul; Gold, Rob; Lisse, Carey; Hibbits, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) has been shown in past studies to enable missions to outerplanetary bodies including the orbiting of Centaur asteroids. Key to the feasibility for REP missions are long life, low power electric propulsion (EP) devices, low mass radioisotope power systems (RPS) and light spacecraft (S/C) components. In order to determine what are the key parameters for EP devices to perform these REP missions a design study was completed to design an REP S/C to orbit a Centaur in a New Frontiers cost cap. The design shows that an orbiter using several long lived (approximately 200 kg Xenon throughput), low power (approximately 700 W) Hall thrusters teamed with six (150 W each) Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRG) can deliver 60 kg of science instruments to a Centaur in 10 yr within the New Frontiers cost cap. Optimal specific impulses for the Hall thrusters were found to be around 2000 sec with thruster efficiencies over 40%. Not only can the REP S/C enable orbiting a Centaur (when compared to an all chemical mission only capable of flybys) but the additional power from the REP system can be reused to enhance science and simplify communications.

  20. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors.

  1. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems Planning and Potential Future Systems Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June F.; Woerner, Dave F.; Cairns-Gallimore, Dirk; Johnson, Stephen G.; Qualis, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program is to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet the needs of the missions. To meet this goal, the RPS Program, working closely with the Department of Energy, performs mission and system studies (such as the recently released Nuclear Power Assessment Study), assesses the readiness of promising technologies to infuse in future generators, assesses the sustainment of key RPS capabilities and knowledge, forecasts and tracks the Programs budgetary needs, and disseminates current information about RPS to the community of potential users. This process has been refined and used to determine the current content of the RPS Programs portfolio. This portfolio currently includes an effort to mature advanced thermoelectric technology for possible integration into an enhanced Multi-Mission Radioisotope Generator (eMMRTG), sustainment and production of the currently deployed MMRTG, and technology investments that could lead to a future Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). This paper describes the program planning processes that have been used, the currently available MMRTG, and one of the potential future systems, the eMMRTG.

  2. Stimulus sensitive gel with radioisotope and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Weller, Richard E [Selah, WA; Lind, Michael A [Kent, WA; Fisher, Darrell R [Richland, WA; Gutowska, Anna [Richland, WA; Campbell, Allison A [Kennewick, WA

    2001-10-02

    The present invention is a thermally reversible stimulus-sensitive gel or gelling copolymer radioisotope carrier that is a linear random copolymer of an [meth]acrylamide derivative and a hydrophilic comonomer, wherein the linear random copolymer is in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff. Addition of a biodegradable backbone and/or a therapeutic agent imparts further utility. The method of the present invention for making a thermally reversible stimulus-sensitive gelling copolymer radionuclcide carrier has the steps of: (a) mixing a stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling copolymer with an aqueous solvent as a stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling solution; and (b) mixing a radioisotope with said stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling solution as said radioisotope carrier. The gel is enhanced by either combining it with a biodegradable backbone and/or a therapeutic agent in a gelling solution made by mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent.

  3. Stimulus sensitive gel with radioisotope and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Weller, Richard E.; Lind, Michael A.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gutowska, Anna; Campbell, Allison A.

    2005-03-22

    The present invention is a thermally reversible stimulus-sensitive gel or gelling copolymer radioisotope carrier that is a linear random copolymer of an [meth-]acrylamide derivative and a hydrophilic comonomer, wherein the linear random copolymer is in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff. Addition of a biodegradable backbone and/or a therapeutic agent imparts further utility. The method of the present invention for making a thermally reversible stimulus-sensitive gelling copolymer radionuclcide carrier has the steps of: (a) mixing a stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling copolymer with an aqueous solvent as a stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling solution; and (b) mixing a radioisotope with said stimulus-sensitive reversible gelling solution as said radioisotope carrier. The gel is enhanced by either combining it with a biodegradable backbone and/or a therapeutic agent in a gelling solution made by mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent.

  4. Generation of Radioisotopes with Accelerator Neutrons by Deuterons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Yasuki; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Saeki, Hideya; Motoishi, Shoji; Sato, Nozomi; Kawabata, Masako; Harada, Hideo; Kin, Tadahiro; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Sato, Tetsuya K.; Minato, Futoshi; Iwamoto, Osamu; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Seki, Yohji; Yokoyama, Kenji; Shiina, Takehiko; Ohta, Akio; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro; Kawauchi, Yukimasa; Sato, Norihito; Yamabayashi, Hisamichi; Adachi, Yoshitsugu; Kikuchi, Yuji; Mitsumoto, Toshinori; Igarashi, Takashi

    2013-06-01

    A new system proposed for the generation of radioisotopes with accelerator neutrons by deuterons (GRAND) is described by mainly discussing the production of 99Mo used for nuclear medicine diagnosis. A prototype facility of this system consists of a cyclotron to produce intense accelerator neutrons from the \\text{natC(d,n) reaction with 40 MeV 2 mA deuteron beams, and a sublimation system to separate \\text{99mTc from an irradiated 100MoO3 sample. About 8.1 TBq/week of 99Mo is produced by repeating irradiation on an enriched 100Mo sample (251 g) with accelerator neutrons for two days three times. It meets about 10% of the 99Mo demand in Japan. The characteristic feature of the system lies in its capability to reliably produce a wide variety of high-quality, carrier-free, carrier-added radioisotopes with a minimum level of radioactive waste without using uranium. The system is compact in size, and easy to operate; therefore it could be used worldwide to produce radioisotopes for medical, research, and industrial applications.

  5. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of the thermo-treatment process to dispose of recombinant DNA waste from biological research laboratories.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Nan; Zheng, Guang-Hong; Wang, Lei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiao-Hua; Le, Yi-Quan; Ren, Da-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The discharge of recombinant DNA waste from biological laboratories into the eco-system may be one of the pathways resulting in horizontal gene transfer or "gene pollution". Heating at 100 degrees C for 5-10 min is a common method for treating recombinant DNA waste in biological research laboratories in China. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness and the safety of the thermo-treatment method in the disposal of recombinant DNA waste. Quantitative PCR, plasmid transformation and electrophoresis technology were used to evaluate the decay/denaturation efficiency during the thermo-treatment process of recombinant plasmid, pET-28b. Results showed that prolonging thermo-treatment time could improve decay efficiency of the plasmid, and its decay half-life was 2.7-4.0 min during the thermo-treatment at 100 degrees C. However, after 30 min of thermo-treatment some transforming activity remained. Higher ionic strength could protect recombinant plasmid from decay during the treatment process. These results indicate that thermo-treatment at 100 degrees C cannot decay and inactivate pET-28b completely. In addition, preliminary results showed that thermo-treated recombinant plasmids were not degraded completely in a short period when they were discharged into an aquatic environment. This implies that when thermo-treated recombinant DNAs are discharged into the eco-system, they may have enough time to re-nature and transform, thus resulting in gene diffusion.

  6. Missouri Elementary Science Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Judith L.

    The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. Information on general laboratory safety, science equipment safety, safety with plants, safety with animals, safety with chemicals, field…

  7. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  8. Work Began on Contracts for Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.

    2005-01-01

    NASA has had a history of successful space flight missions that depended on radioisotope-fueled power systems. These Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) converted the heat generated from the decay of radioisotope material into useful electrical power. An RPS is most attractive in applications where photovoltaics are not optimal, such as deep-space applications where the solar flux is too low or extended applications on planets such as Mars where the day/night cycle, settling of dust, and life requirements limit the usefulness of photovoltaics. NASA s Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) Program is developing next-generation power-conversion technologies that will enable future missions that have requirements that cannot be met by the two RPS flight systems currently being developed by the Department of Energy for NASA: the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator and the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG).

  9. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ... Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring ...

  10. Quality and safety issues highlighted by patients in the handling of laboratory test results by general practices–a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In general practice internationally, many care teams handle large numbers of laboratory test results relating to patients in their care. Related research about safety issues is limited with most of the focus on this workload from secondary care and in North American settings. Little has been published in relation to primary health care in the UK and wider Europe. This study aimed to explore experiences and perceptions of patients with regards to the handling of test results by general practices. Methods A qualitative research approach was used with patients. The setting was west of Scotland general practices from one National Health Service territorial board area. Patients were purposively sampled from practice held lists of patients who received a number of laboratory tests because of chronic medical problems or surveillance of high risk medicines. Focus groups were held and were audio-recorded. Tapes were transcribed and subjected to qualitative analysis. Transcripts were coded and codes merged into themes by two of the researchers. Results 19 participants from four medical practices took part in four focus groups. The main themes identified were: 1. Patients lacked awareness of the results handling process in their practice. 2. Patients usually did not contact their practice for test results, unless they considered themselves to be ill. 3. Patients were concerned about the appropriateness of administrators being involved in results handling. 4. Patients were concerned about breaches of confidentiality when administrators were involved in results handling. 5. Patients valued the use of dedicated results handling staff. 6. Patients welcomed the use of technology to alert them to results being available, and valued the ability to choose how this happened. Conclusions The study confirms the quality and safety of care problems associated with results handling systems and adds to our knowledge of the issues that impact in these areas. Practices need to be

  11. Development of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Jack; Wood, J. Gary; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2007-01-01

    Under the joint sponsorship of the Department of Energy and NASA, a radioisotope power system utilizing Stirling power conversion technology is being developed for potential future space missions. The higher conversion efficiency of the Stirling cycle compared with that of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) used in previous missions (Viking, Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini, and New Horizons) offers the advantage of a four-fold reduction in PuO2 fuel, thereby saving cost and reducing radiation exposure to support personnel. With the advancement of state-of-the-art Stirling technology development under the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) project, the Stirling Radioisotope Generator program has evolved to incorporate the advanced Stirling convertor (ASC), provided by Sunpower, into an engineering unit. Due to the reduced envelope and lighter mass of the ASC compared to the previous Stirling convertor, the specific power of the flight generator is projected to increase from 3.5 to 7 We/kg, along with a 25 percent reduction in generator length. Modifications are being made to the ASC design to incorporate features for thermal, mechanical, and electrical integration with the engineering unit. These include the heat collector for hot end interface, cold-side flange for waste heat removal and structural attachment, and piston position sensor for ASC control and power factor correction. A single-fault tolerant, active power factor correction controller is used to synchronize the Stirling convertors, condition the electrical power from AC to DC, and to control the ASCs to maintain operation within temperature and piston stroke limits. Development activities at Sunpower and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) are also being conducted on the ASC to demonstrate the capability for long life, high reliability, and flight qualification needed for use in future missions.

  12. Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies - Neptune System Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. Omair; Amini, Rashied; Ervin, Joan; Lang, Jared; Landau, Damon; Oleson, Steven; Spilker, Thomas; Strange, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    The Neptune System Explorer (NSE) mission concept study assessed opportunities to conduct Cassini-like science at Neptune with a radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) based spacecraft. REP is based on powering an electric propulsion (EP) engine with a radioisotope power source (RPS). The NSE study was commissioned under the Joint Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Studies (JREPS) project, which sought to determine the technical feasibility of flagship class REP applications. Within JREPS, special emphasis was given toward identifying tall technology tent poles, as well as recommending any new RPS technology developments that would be required for complicated REP missions. Based on the goals of JREPS, multiple RPS (e.g. thermoelectric and Stirling based RPS) and EP (e.g. Hall and ion engines) technology combinations were traded during the NSE study to determine the most favorable REP design architecture. Among the findings from the study was the need for >400We RPS systems, which was driven by EP operating powers and the requirement for a long-lived mission in the deep solar system. Additionally multiple development and implementation risks were identified for the NSE concept, as well as REP missions in general. Among the strengths of the NSE mission would be the benefits associated with RPS and EP use, such as long-term power (approx. 2-3kW) at Neptune and flexible trajectory options for achieving orbit or tours of the Neptune system. Although there are still multiple issues to mitigate, the NSE concept demonstrated distinct advantages associated with using REP for deep space flagship-class missions.

  13. Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Geng, Steven M.; Schrieber, Jeffrey G.; Tobery, E. Wayne; Palko, Joseph L.

    2005-01-01

    One of the advantages of using a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for deep space or planetary surface missions is the readily available waste heat, which can be used to maintain electronic components within a controlled temperature range, to warm propulsion tanks and mobility actuators, and to gasify liquid propellants. Previous missions using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) dissipated a very large quantity of waste heat due to the relatively low efficiency of the thermoelectric conversion technology. The next generation RPSs, such as the 110-watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) will have much higher conversion efficiencies than their predecessors and therefore may require alternate approaches to transferring waste heat to the spacecraft. RTGs, with efficiencies of approx. 6 to 7% and 200 C housing surface temperatures, would need to use large and heavy radiator heat exchangers to transfer the waste heat to the internal spacecraft components. At the same time, sensitive spacecraft instruments must be shielded from the thermal radiation by using the heat exchangers or additional shields. The SRG110, with an efficiency around 22% and 50 C nominal housing surface temperature, can use the available waste heat more efficiently by more direct heat transfer methods such as heat pipes, thermal straps, or fluid loops. The lower temperatures allow the SRG110 much more flexibility to the spacecraft designers in configuring the generator without concern of overheating nearby scientific instruments, thereby eliminating the need for thermal shields. This paper will investigate using a high efficiency SRG110 for spacecraft thermal management and outline potential methods in several conceptual missions (Lunar Rover, Mars Rover, and Titan Lander) to illustrate the advantages with regard to ease of assembly, less complex interfaces, and overall mass savings.

  14. Milliwatt radioisotope power supply for the PASCAL Mars surface stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Daniel T.; Murbach, Marcus S.

    2001-02-01

    A milliwatt power supply is being developed based on the 1 watt Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (RHU), which has already been used to provide heating alone on numerous spacecraft. In the past year the power supply has been integrated into the design of the proposed PASCAL Mars Network Mission, which is intended to place 24 surface climate monitoring stations on Mars. The PASCAL Mars mission calls for the individual surface stations to be transported together in one spacecraft on a trajectory direct from launch to orbit around Mars. From orbit around Mars each surface station will be deployed on a SCRAMP (slotted compression ramp) probe and, after aerodynamic and parachute deceleration, land at a preselected location on the planet. During descent sounding data and still images will be accumulated, and, once on the surface, the station will take measurements of pressure, temperature and overhead atmospheric optical depth for a period of 10 Mars years (18.8 Earth years). Power for periodic data acquisition and transmission to orbital then to Earth relay will come from a bank of ultracapacitors which will be continuously recharged by the radioisotope power supply. This electronic system has been designed and a breadboard built. In the ultimate design the electronics will be arrayed on the exterior surface of the radioisotope power supply in order to take advantage of the reject heat. This assembly in turn is packaged within the SCRAMP, and that assembly comprises the surface station. An electrically heated but otherwise prototypical power supply was operated in combination with the surface station breadboard system, which included the ultracapacitors. Other issues addressed in this work have been the capability of the generator to withstand the mechanical shock of the landing on Mars and the effectiveness of the generator's multi-foil vacuum thermal insulation. .

  15. Analytical predictions of RTG power degradation. [Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noon, E. L.; Raag, V.

    1979-01-01

    The DEGRA computer code that is based on a mathematical model which predicts performance and time-temperature dependent degradation of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator is discussed. The computer code has been used to predict performance and generator degradation for the selenide Ground Demonstration Unit (GDS-1) and the generator used in the Galileo Project. Results of parametric studies of load voltage vs generator output are examined as well as the I-V curve and the resulting predicted power vs voltage. The paper also discusses the increased capability features contained in DEGRA2 and future plans for expanding the computer code performance.

  16. Nuclear reactors for research and radioisotope production in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    In Argentina, the construction, operation, and use of research and radioisotope production reactors is and has been an important method of personnel preparation for the nuclear power program. Moreover, it is a very suitable means for technology transfer to countries developing their own nuclear programs. At present, the following research reactors are in operation in Argentina: Argentine Reactor 0 (RA-0); Argentine Reactor 1 (RA-1); Argentine Reactor 2 (RA-2); Argentine Reactor 3 (RA-3); Argentine Reactor 4 (RA-4). The Argentine Reactor 6 (RA-6), under construction, should reach criticality in 1981.

  17. ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. O'Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

    2010-09-01

    The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

  18. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Rolland Paul

    2016-11-19

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  19. The use of radioisotopes for palliation of metastatic bone pain.

    PubMed

    Gkialas, I; Iordanidou, L; Galanakis, I; Giannopoulos, S

    2008-01-01

    Bone pain associated with advanced prostate and other cancers is a frequent and significant complication. Pharmaceutical therapy of bone pain includes nonsteroidal analgesics and opiates. While external beam radiation therapy remains the mainstay of pain palliation of solitary lesions, bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals have entered the armamentarium for the treatment of multiple osseous metastases. The 3 radioisotopes currently approved for treatment of pain (strontium-89/(89)Sr, samarium-153/(153)Sm and rhenium-186/(186)Re) are discussed in this review including the approved dose, method of administration and indications for use.

  20. Parametric System Model for a Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    A Parametric System Model (PSM) was created in order to explore conceptual designs, the impact of component changes and power level on the performance of Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). Using the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS approximately 250 watt thermal) modules as the thermal building block around which a SRG is conceptualized, trade studies are performed to understand the importance of individual component scaling on isotope usage. Mathematical relationships based on heat and power throughput, temperature, mass and volume were developed for each of the required subsystems. The PSM uses these relationships to perform component and system level trades.

  1. Parametric System Model for a Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    A Parametric System Model (PSM) was created in order to explore conceptual designs, the impact of component changes and power level on the performance of the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). Using the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS approximately 250 Wth) modules as the thermal building block from which a SRG is conceptualized, trade studies are performed to understand the importance of individual component scaling on isotope usage. Mathematical relationships based on heat and power throughput, temperature, mass, and volume were developed for each of the required subsystems. The PSM uses these relationships to perform component- and system-level trades.

  2. Nuclear Safety: Technical progress review, January-March 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    1988-01-01

    This journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  3. Nuclear Safety: Technical progress review, January--March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E. G.

    1989-01-01

    This review journal covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  4. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infections in goats and other animals diagnosed at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System: 1990-2012.

    PubMed

    Giannitti, Federico; Barr, Bradd C; Brito, Bárbara P; Uzal, Francisco A; Villanueva, Michelle; Anderson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a recognized zoonotic food-borne pathogen; however, little is known about the ecology and epidemiology of diseases caused by the bacterium in California. The objective of the current study was to contribute to the knowledge of the diseases caused by Y. pseudotuberculosis in goats, the animal species most frequently reported with clinical yersiniosis to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, to better understand the epidemiology of this disease. A 23-year retrospective study was conducted to characterize the syndromes caused by the bacterium in goats and their temporospatial distribution, and to determine the number of cases in other animal species. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-associated disease was diagnosed in 42 goats from 21 counties, with a strong seasonality in winter and spring. Most cases (88%) were observed within particular years (1999, 2004-2006, 2010-2011). The most frequently diagnosed syndrome was enteritis and/or typhlocolitis (64.3%), followed by abscessation (14.3%), abortion (11.9%), conjunctivitis (4.75%), and hepatitis (4.75%). Among other animal species, 59 cases were diagnosed in non-poultry avian species and 33 in mammals other than goats.

  5. 'Human-on-a-chip' developments: a translational cutting-edge alternative to systemic safety assessment and efficiency evaluation of substances in laboratory animals and man?

    PubMed

    Marx, Uwe; Walles, Heike; Hoffmann, Silke; Lindner, Gerd; Horland, Reyk; Sonntag, Frank; Klotzbach, Udo; Sakharov, Dmitry; Tonevitsky, Alexander; Lauster, Roland

    2012-10-01

    Various factors, including the phylogenetic distance between laboratory animals and humans, the discrepancy between current in vitro systems and the human body, and the restrictions of in silico modelling, have generated the need for new solutions to the ever-increasing worldwide dilemma of substance testing. This review provides a historical sketch on the accentuation of this dilemma, and highlights fundamental limitations to the countermeasures taken so far. It describes the potential of recently-introduced microsystems to emulate human organs in 'organ-on-a-chip' devices. Finally, it focuses on an in-depth analysis of the first devices that aimed to mimic human systemic organ interactions in 'human-on-a-chip' systems. Their potential to replace acute systemic toxicity testing in animals, and their inability to provide alternatives to repeated dose long-term testing, are discussed. Inspired by the latest discoveries in human biology, tissue engineering and micro-systems technology, this review proposes a paradigm shift to overcome the apparent challenges. A roadmap is outlined to create a new homeostatic level of biology in 'human-on-a-chip' systems in order to, in the long run, replace systemic repeated dose safety evaluation and disease modelling in animals.

  6. Ames Laboratory Site Environmental Report, Calendar year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mathison, L.

    1991-12-31

    The summarized data and conclusions from the Ames Laboratory environmental monitoring program are presented in this Annual Site Environmental Report. This program is a working requirement of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5484.1, ``Environmental Protection, Safety, and Health Protection Information Reporting Requirements`` and Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program.`` Ames Laboratory is located on the campus of Iowa State University (ISU) and occupies several buildings owned by the DOE. The Laboratory also leases space in ISU-owned buildings. Laboratory research activities involve less than ten percent of the total chemical use and one percent of the radioisotope use on the ISU campus. Ames Laboratory is responsible for a small chemical burial site, located on ISU property. The site was used for the disposal of chemical and metal slags from thorium and uranium production. Samples of water from existing test wells and upstream and downstream sites on the nearby Squaw Creek show no detectable migration of the contents of the burial site. A Site Assessment plan submitted to the State of Iowa Department of Natural Resources (DNR) was approved. A Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study work plan has been completed for additional studies at the site. This has been reviewed and approved by the DOE Chicago Field Office and the DNR. A National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) review of the site resulted in a categorical exclusion finding which has been approved by the DOE. Ames Laboratory has an area contaminated by diesel fuel at the location of a storage tank which was removed in 1970. Soil corings and groundwater have been analyzed for contamination and an assessment written. Pollution awareness and waste minimization programs and plans were implemented in 1990. Included in this effort was the implementation of a waste white paper and green computer paper recycling program.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health. Part 5. Overview and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, L.G.

    1986-02-01

    This volume is progress on work performed for the Office of Nuclear Safety, the Office of Operational Safety, and for the Office of Environmental Analysis for each project. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual projects. ACR

  8. Electron-beam processing of kilogram quantities of iridium for radioisotope thermoelectric generator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Huxford, T.J.; Ohriner, E.K.

    1992-12-31

    Iridium alloys are used as fuel-cladding materials in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Hardware produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been used in Voyagers I and 2, Galilee, and Ulysses spacecraft. An integral part of the production of iridium-sheet metal involves electron-beam (EB) processing. These processes include the degassing of powder-pressed compacts followed by multiple meltings in order to purify 500-g buttons of Ir-0.3% W alloy. Starting in 1972 and continuing into 1992, our laboratory EB processing was Performed (ca. 1970) in a 60-kW (20 kV at 3 A), two-gun system. In 1991, a new 150-kW EB gun facility was installed to complement the older unit. This paper describes how the newly installed system was qualified for production of RTG developmental work is discussed that will potentially improve the existing process by utilizing the capabilities of the new EB system.

  9. Electron-beam processing of kilogram quantities of iridium for radioisotope thermoelectric generator applications

    SciTech Connect

    Huxford, T.J.; Ohriner, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    Iridium alloys are used as fuel-cladding materials in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Hardware produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been used in Voyagers I and 2, Galilee, and Ulysses spacecraft. An integral part of the production of iridium-sheet metal involves electron-beam (EB) processing. These processes include the degassing of powder-pressed compacts followed by multiple meltings in order to purify 500-g buttons of Ir-0.3% W alloy. Starting in 1972 and continuing into 1992, our laboratory EB processing was Performed (ca. 1970) in a 60-kW (20 kV at 3 A), two-gun system. In 1991, a new 150-kW EB gun facility was installed to complement the older unit. This paper describes how the newly installed system was qualified for production of RTG developmental work is discussed that will potentially improve the existing process by utilizing the capabilities of the new EB system.

  10. Assembly and Testing of a Radioisotope Power System for the New Horizons Spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Rosenberg; Stephen G. Johnson

    2006-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) recently fueled and assembled a radioisotope power system (RPS) that was used upon the New Horizons spacecraft which was launched in January 2006. New Horizons is the first mission to the last planet - the initial reconnaissance of Pluto-Charon and the Kuiper Belt, exploring the mysterious worlds at the edge of our solar system. The RPS otherwise known as a "space battery" converts thermal heat into electrical energy. The thermal heat source contains plutonium dioxide in the form of ceramic pellets encapsulated in iridium metal. The space battery was assembled in a new facility at the Idaho National Laboratory site near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The new facility has all the fueling and testing capabilities including the following: the ability to handle all the shipping containers currently certified to ship Pu-238, the ability to fuel a variety of RPS designs, the ability to perform vibrational testing to simulate transportation and launch environments, welding systems, a center of mass determination device, and various other support systems.

  11. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System Program

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.C.; Becker, D.L.

    1996-03-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The U.S. Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration{close_quote}s Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent major changes in the U.S. Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System Program

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The US Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent ma or changes in the US Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined.

  13. High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.

    2009-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140 C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.

  14. Strontium iodide instrument development for gamma spectroscopy and radioisotope identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, P. R.; Cherepy, N. J.; Payne, S. A.; Swanberg, E. L.; Nelson, K. E.; Thelin, P. A.; Fisher, S. E.; Hunter, S.; Wihl, B. M.; Shah, K. S.; Hawrami, R.; Burger, A.; Boatner, L. A.; Momayezi, M.; Stevens, K. T.; Randles, M. H.; Solodovnikov, D.

    2014-09-01

    Development of the Europium-doped Strontium Iodide scintillator, SrI2(Eu2+), has progressed significantly in recent years. SrI2(Eu2+) has excellent material properties for gamma ray spectroscopy: high light yield (<80,000 ph/MeV), excellent light yield proportionality, and high effective atomic number (Z = 49) for high photoelectric cross-section. High quality 1.5" and 2" diameter boules are now available due to rapid advances in SrI2(Eu) crystal growth. In these large SrI2(Eu) crystals, optical self-absorption by Eu2+ degrades the energy resolution as measured by analog electronics, but we mitigate this effect through on-the-fly correction of the scintillation pulses by digital readout electronics. Using this digital correction technique we have demonstrated energy resolution of 2.9% FWHM at 662 keV for a 4 in3 SrI2(Eu) crystal, over 2.6 inches long. Based on this digital readout technology, we have developed a detector prototype with greatly improved radioisotope identification capability compared to Sodium Iodide, NaI(Tl). The higher resolution of SrI2(Eu) yields a factor of 2 to 5 improvement in radioisotope identification (RIID) error rate compared to NaI(Tl).

  15. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Niholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) 140-W radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor E3 (ASC-E3) Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth-generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency; quantification of control authority of the controller; disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude; and measurement of the effect of spacecraft direct current (DC) bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  16. Strontium Iodide Instrument Development for Gamma Spectroscopy and Radioisotope Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, P; Cherepy, Nerine; Payne, Stephen A.; Swanberg, E.; Nelson, K.; Thelin, P; Fisher, S E; Hunter, Steve; Wihl, B; Shah, Kanai; Hawrami, Rastgo; Burger, Arnold; Boatner, Lynn A; Momayezi, M; Stevens, K; Randles, M H; Solodovnikov, D

    2014-01-01

    Development of the Europium-doped Strontium Iodide scintillator, SrI2(Eu), has progressed significantly in recent years. SrI2(Eu) has excellent material properties for gamma ray spectroscopy: high light yield (>80,000 ph/MeV), excellent light yield proportionality, and high effective atomic number (Z=49) for high photoelectric cross-section. High quality 1.5 and 2 diameter boules are now available due to rapid advances in SrI2(Eu) crystal growth. In these large SrI2(Eu) crystals, optical self-absorption by Eu2+ degrades the energy resolution as measured by analog electronics, but we mitigate this effect through on-the-fly correction of the scintillation pulses by digital readout electronics. Using this digital correction technique we have demonstrated energy resolution of 2.9% FWHM at 662 keV for a 4 in3 SrI2(Eu) crystal, over 2.6 inches long. Based on this digital readout technology, we have developed a detector prototype with greatly improved radioisotope identification capability compared to Sodium Iodide, NaI(Tl). The higher resolution of SrI2(Eu) yields a factor of 2 to 5 improvement in radioisotope identification (RIID) error rate compared to NaI(Tl).

  17. Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara

    2009-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the converter stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, and also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) has been designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor in an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). When the Stirling convertor is turned off, the VCHP will activate when the temperatures rises 30 C above the setpoint temperature. A prototype VCHP with sodium as the working fluid was fabricated and tested in both gravity aided and against gravity conditions for a nominal heater head temperature of 790 C. The results show very good agreement with the predictions and validate the model. The gas front was located at the exit of the reservoir when heater head temperature was 790 C while cooling was ON, simulating an operating Advanced Stirling Converter (ASC). When cooling stopped, the temperature increased by 30 C, allowing the gas front to move past the radiator, which transferred the heat to the case. After resuming the cooling flow, the front returned at the initial location turning OFF the VCHP. The against gravity working conditions showed a colder reservoir and faster transients.

  18. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion for Deep Space Sample Return

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, Robert J.; /SLAC

    2009-07-14

    The need to answer basic questions regarding the origin of the Solar System will motivate robotic sample return missions to destinations like Pluto, its satellite Charon, and objects in the Kuiper belt. To keep the mission duration short enough to be of interest, sample return from objects farther out in the Solar System requires increasingly higher return velocities. A sample return mission involves several complicated steps to reach an object and obtain a sample, but only the interplanetary return phase of the mission is addressed in this paper. Radioisotope electric propulsion is explored in this parametric study as a means to propel small, dedicated return vehicles for transferring kilogram-size samples from deep space to Earth. Return times for both Earth orbital rendezvous and faster, direct atmospheric re-entry trajectories are calculated for objects as far away as 100 AU. Chemical retro-rocket braking at Earth is compared to radioisotope electric propulsion but the limited deceleration capability of chemical rockets forces the return trajectories to be much slower.

  19. Technology Development for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Qiu, Songgang; White, Maurice A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and the Department of Energy are developing a Stirling convertor for an advanced radioisotope power system to provide spacecraft on-board electric power for NASA deep space missions. NASA Glenn is addressing key technology issues through the use of two NASA Phase II SBIRs with Stirling Technology Company (STC) of Kennewick, WA. Under the first SBIR, STC demonstrated a synchronous connection of two thermodynamically independent free-piston Stirling convertors and a 40 to 50 fold reduction in vibrations compared to an unbalanced convertor. The second SBIR is for the development of an Adaptive Vibration Reduction System (AVRS) that will essentially eliminate vibrations over the mission lifetime, even in the unlikely event of a failed convertor. This paper presents the status and results for these two SBIR projects and also discusses a new NASA Glenn in-house project to provide supporting technology for the overall Stirling radioisotope power system development. Tasks for this new effort include convertor performance verification, controls development, heater head structural life assessment, magnet characterization and thermal aging tests, FEA analysis for a lightweight alternator concept, and demonstration of convertor operation under launch and orbit transfer load conditions.

  20. Industrial radiation and radioisotope gauging techniques and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, R.P.

    1997-12-01

    The radiation and radioisotope gauging industry in the United States has primarily followed a path of development solely by the private sector. It has remained highly proprietary in nature, which is opposite to the path taken by many other countries. In other countries radiation gauge development has been controlled in large part by government-sponsored research and development, which has spawned many more publications in the open literature. Historically, some of the leaders have been Great Britain, Poland, France, Russia, and Australia. This has possibly led to the misconception that the development of this technology is being dominated by countries outside the United States. This is not a healthy situation-it would be good to see our industry begin to publish more in the open literature and to sponsor more research at universities. In efforts to promote more open-literature publication, the American Nuclear Society (ANS) sponsored a topical meeting on Industrial Radiation and Radioisotope Measurement Applications (IRRMA) in 1988 that was held again in 1992.

  1. Retention of Radium-225 and Its Daughter Radioisotopes in Bone

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Garland, Marc A; Kennel, Steve J

    2008-01-01

    The natural bone seeking tendency of Ra+2, similar to the other alkali metal ions, coupled with the short range high LET of -particle emissions are an ideal combination for localized therapy, and recently 11.4 d 223Ra has been studied for therapy of bone tumors in rats and humans [1,2]. Actinium-225 is also an attractive radioisotope for endo-radiotherapy in a single decay chain from 225Ac, over 26 MeV (~70% of total) is carried by four - particles ranging in energy from 5.7 to 8.4 MeV [3,4]. Although Ac+3 does not home naturally to bone (rather to liver) [5,6], its parent, 225Ra ( -, t1/2 = 15 d), can be used as an in vivo source for 225Ac. A pivotal question for the 225Ra/225Ac in vivo generator system is whether translocation of the daughter nuclei occurs prior to or following the uptake of 225Ra by the bone. In order to assess potential collateral damage to soft tissue organs it is essential to quantitate the extent to which 225Ac is retained in organs following the uptake of 225Ra. We have attempted to answer these questions by investigating the extent of translocation of 225Ac and 213Bi, two daughter radioisotopes of 225Ra, following retention of initially pure 225Ra in bone in normal mice.

  2. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, John C.; Becker, David L.

    1996-03-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The U.S. Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent major changes in the U.S. Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined.

  3. GRC Supporting Technology for NASA's Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2008-01-01

    From 1999 to 2006, the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) supported a NASA project to develop a high-efficiency, nominal 110-We Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for potential use on NASA missions. Lockheed Martin was selected as the System Integration Contractor for the SRG110, under contract to the Department of Energy (DOE). The potential applications included deep space missions, and Mars rovers. The project was redirected in 2006 to make use of the Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) that was being developed by Sunpower, Inc. under contract to GRC, which would reduce the mass of the generator and increase the power output. This change would approximately double the specific power and result in the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). The SRG110 supporting technology effort at GRC was replanned to support the integration of the Sunpower convertor and the ASRG. This paper describes the ASRG supporting technology effort at GRC and provides details of the contributions in some of the key areas. The GRC tasks include convertor extended-operation testing in air and in thermal vacuum environments, heater head life assessment, materials studies, permanent magnet characterization and aging tests, structural dynamics testing, electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility characterization, evaluation of organic materials, reliability studies, and analysis to support controller development.

  4. Utilizing Radioisotope Power Systems for Human Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreiner, Timothy M.

    2005-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration has a goal of sending crewed missions to the lunar surface as early as 2015 and no later than 2020. The use of nuclear power sources could aid in assisting crews in exploring the surface and performing In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) activities. Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) provide constant sources of electrical power and thermal energy for space applications. RPSs were carried on six of the crewed Apollo missions to power surface science packages, five of which still remain on the lunar surface. Future RPS designs may be able to play a more active role in supporting a long-term human presence. Due to its lower thermal and radiation output, the planned Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) appears particularly attractive for manned applications. The MCNPX particle transport code has been used to model the current SRG design to assess its use in proximity with astronauts operating on the surface. Concepts of mobility and ISRU infrastructure were modeled using MCNPX to analyze the impact of RPSs on crewed mobility systems. Strategies for lowering the radiation dose were studied to determine methods of shielding the crew from the RPSs.

  5. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator EU2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a 140-watt radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA GRC recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's ASC-E3 Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included: measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency, quantification of control authority of the controller, disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude, and measurement of the effect of spacecraft DC bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  6. Cryogenic explosion environment modeling and testing of space shuttle and light-weight radioisotope heater unit interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.W.

    1985-10-01

    In order to assess the risk to the world's populace in the event of a Space Shuttle accident when radioisotope-containing heat sources are on board, testing of that system must be performed to determine release point, environments required, and the size distribution of the released fuel. To evaluate the performance of the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) (101 of these 1-W items are placed on the Galileo spacecraft which will be launched from the Space Shuttle), some high-velocity impact and flyer plate testing was carried out. The results showed that a bare urania-fueled LWRHU clad (approximately 1-mm thick platinum-30 wt % rhodium alloy) will withstand 1100 m/s flyer plate (3.5-mm thick aluminum) impacts and 330 m/s impacts upon the Space Shuttle floor (approximately 12-mm thick aluminum) without rupture or fuel release. Velocities in the order of 600 m/s on a steel surface will cause clad failure with fuel release. The fuel breakup patterns were characterized as to quantity in a specific size range. These data were employed in the formal Safety Analysis Report for the LWRHU to support the planned 1986 Galileo launch. 19 figs.

  7. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) and Retrospective Study of Avian Yersiniosis at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (1990-2015).

    PubMed

    Stoute, Simone T; Cooper, George L; Bickford, Arthur A; Carnaccini, Silvia; Shivaprasad, H L; Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    In February 2015, two Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) were submitted dead to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) Laboratory, Turlock branch, from a private aviary experiencing sudden, high mortality (4/9) in adult doves. In both doves, the gross and histologic lesions were indicative of acute, fatal septicemia. Grossly, there were numerous pale yellow foci, 1 to 2 mm in diameter, in the liver and spleen. Microscopically, these foci were composed of acute severe multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes and splenic pulp with infiltration of heterophils mixed with fibrin and dense colonies of gram-negative bacteria. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis was isolated from the lung, liver, spleen, heart, ovary, kidney, and trachea. The organism was susceptible to most antibiotics it was tested against, except erythromycin. Based on a retrospective study of necropsy submissions to CAHFS between 1990 and 2015, there were 77 avian case submissions of Y. pseudotuberculosis. There were 75/77 cases identified from a wide range of captive avian species from both zoo and private facilities and 2/77 cases from two backyard turkeys submitted from one premise. The largest number of cases originated from psittacine species (31/77). The lesions most commonly described were hepatitis (63/77), splenitis (49/77), pneumonia (30/77), nephritis (16/77), and enteritis (12/77). From 1990 to 2015, there was an average of three cases of avian pseudotuberculosis per year at CAHFS. Although there were no cases diagnosed in 1993 and 1994, in all other years, there were between one and eight cases of Y. pseudotuberculosis detected from avian diagnostic submissions.

  8. Utilizing Radioisotope Power System Waste Heat for Spacecraft Thermal Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pantano, David R.; Dottore, Frank; Tobery, E. Wayne; Geng, Steven M.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Palko, Joseph L.

    2005-01-01

    An advantage of using a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for deep space or planetary surface missions is the readily available waste heat, which can be used for a number of beneficial purposes including: maintaining electronic components within a controlled temperature range, warming propulsion tanks and mobility actuators, and maintaining liquid propellants above their freezing temperature. Previous missions using Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) dissipated large quantities of waste heat due to the low efficiency of the thermoelectric conversion technology. The next generation RPSs, such as the 110-Watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) will have higher conversion efficiencies, thereby rejecting less waste heat at a lower temperature and may require alternate approaches to transferring waste heat to the spacecraft. RTGs, with efficiencies of 6 to 7 percent, reject their waste heat at the relatively high heat rejection temperature of 200 C. This is an advantage when rejecting heat to space; however, transferring heat to the internal spacecraft components requires a large and heavy radiator heat exchanger. At the same time, sensitive spacecraft instruments must be shielded from the thermal radiation of the RTG. The SRG110, with an efficiency around 22 percent and 50 C nominal housing surface temperature, can readily transfer the available waste heat directly via heat pipes, thermal straps, or fluid loops. The lower temperatures associated with the SRG110 avoid the chances of overheating other scientific components, eliminating the need for thermal shields. This provides the spacecraft designers more flexibility when locating the generator for a specific mission. A common misconception with high-efficiency systems is that there is not enough waste heat for spacecraft thermal management. This paper will dispel this misconception and investigate the use of a high-efficiency SRG110 for spacecraft thermal management and outline potential methods of

  9. Stirling Convertor Technologies Being Developed for a Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company (STC), and the NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) for NASA space science missions. The SRG is being developed for multimission use, including providing electric power for unmanned Mars rovers and deep space missions. On Mars, rovers with SRGs would be used for missions that might not be able to use photovoltaic power systems, such as exploration at high Martian latitudes and missions of long duration. The projected SRG system efficiency of 23 percent will reduce the required amount of radioisotope by a factor of 4 or more in comparison to currently used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. The Department of Energy recently named Lockheed Martin as the system integration contractor. Lockheed Martin has begun to develop the SRG engineering unit under contract to the Department of Energy, and has contract options to develop the qualification unit and the first flight units. The developers expect the SRG to produce about 114 Wdc at the beginning of mission, using two opposed Stirling convertors and two General Purpose Heat Source modules. STC previously developed the Stirling convertor under contract to the Department of Energy and is now providing further development as a subcontractor to Lockheed Martin. Glenn is conducting an in-house technology project to assist in developing the convertor for space qualification and mission implementation. A key milestone was recently reached with the accumulation of 12 000 hr of long-term aging on two types of neodymium-iron boron permanent magnets. These tests are characterizing any possible aging in the strength or demagnetization resistance of the magnets used in the linear alternator. Preparations are underway for a thermal/vacuum system demonstration and unattended operation during endurance testing of the 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertors. In addition, Glenn is developing a

  10. Space radioisotope power source requirements update and technology status

    SciTech Connect

    Mondt, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    The requirements for a space advanced radioisotope power source are based on potential deep space missions being investigated for the NASA Advanced Space Systems Development Program. Since deep space missions have not been approved, updating requirements is a continuos parallel process of designing the spacecraft and the science instruments to accomplish the potential missions and developing the power source technology to meet changing requirements. There are at least two potential missions, Pluto/Kuiper Express and Europa Orbiter, which may require space advanced radioisotope power sources. The Europa Orbiter has been selected as the preferred first potential mission. However the final decision will depend on the technology readiness of all the subsystems and the project must be able to switch to Pluto Kuiper Express as the first mission as late as the beginning of fiscal year 2000. Therefore the requirements for the power source will cover both potential missions. As the deep space spacecraft design evolves to meet the science requirements and the Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric (AMTEC) technology matures the advanced radioisotope power source design requirements are updated The AMTEC technology developed to date uses stainless steel for the sodium containment material. The higher efficiency required for the space power system dictates that the AMTEC technology must operate at a higher temperature than possible with stainless steel. Therefore refractory materials have been selected as the baseline material for the AMTEC cell. These refractory materials are Nb1Zr for the hot side and Nb1Zr or Nb10Hf1Ti for the cold side. These materials were selected so the AMTEC cell can operate at 1150K to 1350K hot side temperature and 600K to 700K cold side temperature and meet the present power and mass requirements using four to six general purpose heat source modules as the heat source. The new containment materials and brazes will be evaluated as to lifetime

  11. Evaluation of Storage for Transportation Equipment, Unfueled Convertors, and Fueled Convertors at the INL for the Radioisotope Power Systems Program

    SciTech Connect

    S. G. Johnson; K. L. Lively

    2010-05-01

    This report contains an evaluation of the storage conditions required for several key components and/or systems of the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). These components/systems (transportation equipment, i.e., type ‘B’ shipping casks and the radioisotope thermo-electric generator transportation systems (RTGTS), the unfueled convertors, i.e., multi-hundred watt (MHW) and general purpose heat source (GPHS) RTGs, and fueled convertors of several types) are currently stored in several facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) site. For various reasons related to competing missions, inherent growth of the RPS mission at the INL and enhanced efficiency, it is necessary to evaluate their current storage situation and recommend the approach that should be pursued going forward for storage of these vital RPS components and systems. The reasons that drive this evaluation include, but are not limited to the following: 1) conflict with other missions at the INL of higher priority, 2) increasing demands from the INL RPS Program that exceed the physical capacity of the current storage areas and 3) the ability to enhance our current capability to care for our equipment, decrease maintenance costs and increase the readiness posture of the systems.

  12. Quarterly Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program tasks for January 2000 through March 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.P.

    2000-08-18

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems (OSDPS) of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides radioisotope Power Systems (BPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of .I 997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVSs) and weld shields (WSs). This quarterly report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from OSDPS for fiscal year (FY) 2000. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, clad vent sets (CVSs), and weld shields (WSs). In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of flight quality (FQ) components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for two new RPS. The last section is dedicated to studies of the potential for the production of 238Pu at OBNL.

  13. Quarterly Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program tasks for April 2000 through June 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.P.

    2000-10-23

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems (OSDPS) of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVSs) and weld shields (WSs). This quarterly report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from OSDPS for fiscal year (FY) 2000. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, clad vent sets (CVSs), and weld shields (WSs). In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of flight quality (FQ) components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for two new RPS. The last section is dedicated to studies of the potential for the production of 238Pu at ORNL.

  14. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-09-11

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an {open_quotes}Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missions{close_quotes}. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system.

  15. RTGs - The powering of Ulysses. [Radio-isotope Thermoelectric Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastal, E. F.; Campbell, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    The radio-isotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) for Ulysses' electronic supply is described noting that lack of sufficient sunlight renders usual solar cell power generation ineffective due to increased distance from sun. The history of the RTG in the U.S.A. is reviewed citing the first RTG launch in 1961 with an electrical output of 2.7 W and the improved Ulysses RTG, which provides 285 W at mission beginning and 250 W at mission end. The RTG concept is discussed including the most recent RTG technology developed by the DOE, the General Purpose Heat Source RTG (GPHS-RTG). The system relies upon heat generated by radioactive decay using radioactive plutonium-238, which is converted directly to energy using the Seebeck method.

  16. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1998-12-31

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the convertor housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  17. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hhinckley, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of [sup 238]Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  18. AMTEC radioisotope power system for the Pluto Express mission

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanenok, J.F. III; Sievers, R.K.

    1995-12-31

    The Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) technology has made substantial advances in the last 3 years through design improvements and technical innovations. In 1993 programs began to produce an AMTEC cell specifically for the NASA Pluto Express Mission. A set of efficiency goals was established for this series of cells to be developed. According to this plan, cell {number_sign}8 would be 17% efficient but was actually 18% efficient. Achieving this goal, as well as design advances that allow the cell to be compact, has resulted in pushing the cell from an unexciting 2 W/kg and 2% efficiency to very attractive 40 W/kg and 18% measured efficiency. This paper will describe the design and predict the performance of a radioisotope powered AMTEC system for the Pluto Express mission.

  19. .sup.82 Sr-.sup.82 Rb Radioisotope generator

    DOEpatents

    Grant, Patrick M.; Erdal, Bruce R.; O'Brien, Harold A.

    1976-01-01

    An improved .sup.82 Sr-.sup.82 Rb radioisotope generator system, based upon the complexing ion exchange resin Chelex-100, has been developed. Columns of this material can be easily and rapidly milked, and the Rb-Sr separation factor for a fresh generator was found to be > 10.sup.7. Approximately 80 percent of the .sup.82 Rb present was delivered in a 15-ml volume of aqueous 0.2 M NH.sub.4 Cl solution. After more than 6 liters of eluant had been put through the generator, the Rb-Sr separation factor was still observed to be > 10.sup.5, and no unusual strontium breakthrough behavior was seen in the system over nearly three .sup.82 Sr half lives.

  20. Development and Buildup of a Stirling Radioisotope Generator Electrical Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Greer, Lawrence C.; Flatico, Joseph M.; Spina, Dan C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) Simulator for use in a prototype lunar robotic rover. The SRG developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is a promising power source for the robotic exploration of the sunless areas of the moon. The simulator designed provides a power output similar to the SRG output of 5.7 A at 28 Vdc, while using ac wall power as the input power source. The designed electrical simulator provides rover developers the physical and electrical constraints of the SRG supporting parallel development of the SRG and rover. Parallel development allows the rover design team to embrace the SRG s unique constraints while development of the SRG is continued to a flight qualified version.

  1. Analysis of a case of internal contamination with cobalt radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Vrba, T; Malatova, I; Jurochova, B

    2007-01-01

    Internal contamination by compounds of cobalt radioisotopes occurs time to time at nuclear power plants. Intakes and committed effective doses are estimated by biokinetic models described in ICRP publications. The paper deals with a case of internal contamination of a worker engaged in a maintenance task at NPP Dukovany. In this case significant discrepancy was observed between intakes based on various datasets (whole body counting, analysis of urine and faeces) when default model setting was used. The reason of this phenomenon was searched for. Three different least square methods of fits were used to find out possible effect of a fitting method. The measured data were fitted by set of biokinetic functions, which covered all intake ways (ingestion and inhalation) and types (M, S, different AMADs and different f1) of the contaminant. The biokinetic model of cobalt needs further improvements as to find better agreement between data fit from direct measurements and bioassay.

  2. Testing to Characterize the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Edward; Schreiber, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), a high efficiency generator, is being considered for space missions. Lockheed Martin designed and fabricated an engineering unit (EU), the ASRG EU, under contract to the Department of Energy. This unit is currently undergoing extended operation testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center to generate performance data and validate life and reliability predictions for the generator and the Stirling convertors. It has also undergone performance tests to characterize generator operation while varying control parameters and system inputs. This paper summarizes and explains test results in the context of designing operating strategies for the generator during a space mission and notes expected differences between the EU performance and future generators.

  3. Reliability Demonstration Approach for Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, CHuong; Zampino, Edward; Penswick, Barry; Spronz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Developed for future space missions as a high-efficiency power system, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) has a design life requirement of 14 yr in space following a potential storage of 3 yr after fueling. In general, the demonstration of long-life dynamic systems remains difficult in part due to the perception that the wearout of moving parts cannot be minimized, and associated failures are unpredictable. This paper shows a combination of systematic analytical methods, extensive experience gained from technology development, and well-planned tests can be used to ensure a high level reliability of ASRG. With this approach, all potential risks from each life phase of the system are evaluated and the mitigation adequately addressed. This paper also provides a summary of important test results obtained to date for ASRG and the planned effort for system-level extended operation.

  4. High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.

    2009-03-16

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140 deg. C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.

  5. INTRACORPOREAL HEAT DISSIPATION FROM A RADIOISOTOPE-POWERED ARTIFICIAL HEART

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Fred N.; Hagen, Kenneth G.; Whalen, Robert L.; Fuqua, John M.; Norman, John C.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of radioisotope-fueled circulatory support systems depends on the ability of the body to dissipate the reject heat from the power source driving the blood pump as well as to tolerate chronic intracorporeal radiation. Our studies have focused on the use of the circulating blood as a heat sink. Initial in vivo heat transfer studies utilized straight tube heat exchangers (electrically and radioisotope energized) to replace a segment of the descending aorta. More recent studies have used a left ventricular assist pump as a blood-cooled heat exchanger. This approach minimizes trauma, does not increase the area of prosthetic interface with the blood, and minimizes system volume. Heat rejected from the thermal engine (vapor or gas cycle) is transported from the nuclear power source in the abdomen to the pump in the thoracic cavity via hydraulic lines. Adjacent tissue is protected from the fuel capsule temperature (900 to 1200°F) by vacuum foil insulation and polyurethane foam. The in vivo thermal management problems have been studied using a simulated thermal system (STS) which approximates the heat rejection and thermal transport mechanisms of the nuclear circulatory support systems under development by NHLI. Electric heaters simulate the reject heat from the thermal engines. These studies have been essential in establishing the location, suspension, surgical procedures, and postoperative care for implanting prototype nuclear heart assist systems in calves. The pump has a thermal impedance of 0.12°C/watt. Analysis of the STS data in terms of an electrical analog model implies a heat transfer coefficient of 4.7 × 10−3 watt/cm2°C in the abdomen compared to a value of 14.9 × 10−3 watt/cm2°C from the heat exchanger plenum into the diaphragm. Images PMID:15215968

  6. Advanced Stirling Convertor Development for NASA Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott D.; Collins, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Sunpower Inc.'s Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) initiated development under contract to the NASA Glenn Research Center and after a series of successful demonstrations, the ASC began transitioning from a technology development project to a flight development project. The ASC has very high power conversion efficiency making it attractive for future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) in order to make best use of the low plutonium-238 fuel inventory in the United States. In recent years, the ASC became part of the NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) Integrated Project. Sunpower held two parallel contracts to produce ASCs, one with the DOE and Lockheed Martin to produce the ASC-F flight convertors, and one with NASA Glenn for the production of ASC-E3 engineering units, the initial units of which served as production pathfinders. The integrated ASC technical team successfully overcame various technical challenges that led to the completion and delivery of the first two pairs of flightlike ASC-E3 by 2013. However, in late fall 2013, the DOE initiated termination of the Lockheed Martin ASRG flight development contract driven primarily by budget constraints. NASA continues to recognize the importance of high-efficiency ASC power conversion for RPS and continues investment in the technology including the continuation of ASC-E3 production at Sunpower and the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit #2. This paper provides a summary of ASC technical accomplishments, overview of tests at Glenn, plans for continued ASC production at Sunpower, and status of Stirling technology development.

  7. Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

  8. Radioisotope synoviorthesis with Holmium-166-chitosan complex in haemophilic arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Y J; Kim, K I; Chun, Y S; Rhyu, K H; Kwon, B K; Kim, D Y; Yoo, M C

    2010-07-01

    Radiosynoviorthesis is a safe and easy method for synovectomy in haemophilic arthropathy. Various agents have been used in radiosynoviorthesis, especially newly developed agent Holmium-166-chitosan complex has good clinical outcome. This study analysed clinical results and radiologic evaluation of radioisotope synoviorthesis using Holmium-166-chitosan complex in haemophilic arthropathy. From March 2001 to December 2003, 58 radiosynoviorthesis were performed in 53 haemophiliacs. The average age at procedure was 13.8 years. The Arnold and Hilgartner stage of the patients was from I to IV. Holmium-166-chitosan complex was injected in 31 ankle joints, 19 elbow joints and 8 knee joints. Average follow-up was 33 months since primary procedure. The range of motion of each joint, frequency of intra-articular bleeding and factor dose used were analysed for clinical assessment. There was no significant improvement of range of motion in affected joints. After procedure, the average frequency of bleeding of the elbow joint has decreased from 3.76 to 0.47 times per month, the knee joint from 5.87 to 1.12 times per month, and the ankle joint from 3.62 to 0.73 times per month respectively (P < 0.05). After treatment, the average coagulation factor dose injected was significantly decreased to 779.3 units per month from 2814.8 units per month before treatment (P < 0.001). Radioisotope synoviorthesis with Holmium-166-chitosan complex in haemophilic arthropathy is a very safe and simple procedure with the expectation of a satisfactory outcome without serious complication. It has excellent bleeding control effect on target joint and the need for substitution of coagulation factor concentrate can be reduced.

  9. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for April 1, 2002 Through September 20, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.P.

    2002-12-03

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2002. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  10. Tailoring medium energy proton beam to induce low energy nuclear reactions in ⁸⁶SrCl₂ for production of PET radioisotope ⁸⁶Y.

    PubMed

    Medvedev, Dmitri G; Mausner, Leonard F; Pile, Philip

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports results of experiments at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) aiming to investigate effective production of positron emitting radioisotope (86)Y by the low energy (86)Sr(p,n) reaction. BLIP is a facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory designed for the proton irradiation of the targets for isotope production at high and intermediate proton energies. The proton beam is delivered by the Linear Accelerator (LINAC) whose incident energy is tunable from 200 to 66 MeV in approximately 21 MeV increments. The array was designed to ensure energy degradation from 66 MeV down to less than 20 MeV. Aluminum slabs were used to degrade the proton energy down to the required range. The production yield of (86)Y (1.2+/-0.1 mCi (44.4+/-3.7) MBq/μAh) and ratio of radioisotopic impurities was determined by assaying an aliquot of the irradiated (86)SrCl2 solution by gamma spectroscopy. The analysis of energy dependence of the (86)Y production yield and the ratios of radioisotopic impurities has been used to adjust degrader thickness. Experimental data showed substantial discrepancies in actual energy propagation compared to energy loss calculations.

  11. Formation of medical radioisotopes {sup 111}In, {sup 117m}Sn, {sup 124}Sb, and {sup 177}Lu in photonuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Danagulyan, A. S.; Hovhannisyan, G. H. Bakhshiyan, T. M.; Avagyan, R. H.; Avetisyan, A. E.; Kerobyan, I. A.; Dallakyan, R. K.

    2015-06-15

    The possibility of the photonuclear production of radioisotopes {sup 111}In, {sup 117m}Sn, {sup 124}Sb, and {sup 177}Lu is discussed. Reaction yields were measured by the gamma-activation method. The enriched tin isotopes {sup 112,} {sup 118}Sn and Te and HfO{sub 2} of natural isotopic composition were used as targets. The targets were irradiated at the linear electron accelerator of Alikhanian National Science Laboratory (Yerevan) at the energy of 40 MeV. The experimental results obtained in this way reveal that the yield and purity of radioisotopes {sup 111}In and {sup 117}mSn are acceptable for their production via photonuclear reactions. Reactions proceeding on targets from Te and HfO{sub 2} of natural isotopic composition and leading to the formation of {sup 124}Sb and {sup 177}Lu have small yields and are hardly appropriate for the photoproduction of these radioisotopes even in the case of enriched targets.

  12. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2010 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    King, James F

    2012-05-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. These components were also produced for the Pluto New Horizons and Mars Science Lab missions launched in January 2006 and November 2011respectively. The ORNL has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for nearly four decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of RPS for fiscal year (FY) 2011. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new RPS. Work has also been initiated to establish fabrication capabilities for the Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units.

  13. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Programs Tasks for October 1, 2005, through September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-30

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  14. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technical Program Tasks for October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    2007-04-02

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  15. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2005 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    King, James F

    2007-04-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  16. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2002 Through September 30, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.F.

    2004-05-18

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2003. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  17. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Tasks for October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004

    SciTech Connect

    None listed

    2005-06-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2004. Production and production maintenance activities for flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  18. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report of the Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for September 2000 through March 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.P.

    2001-05-22

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) and weld shields (WS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2001. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, CVS, and WS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials. or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  19. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2001 Through March 31, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    J. P. Moore, JPM

    2002-05-22

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2002. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  20. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2004, THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-30

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  1. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Tasks for October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    None listed

    2006-08-03

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  2. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2004 Through September 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect

    King, James F

    2006-06-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  3. An in-cell alpha detection system for radioisotope component assembly operations

    SciTech Connect

    Carteret, B.A. ); Goles, R.W. )

    1991-09-01

    A remotely operated alpha detection system is being developed for use at the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. It will be used in hot cells being constructed to assemble components of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators for space power applications. The in-cell detection equipment will survey radiological swipe samples to determine smearable surface contamination levels on radioisotope fuel, fueled components, and hot-cell work areas. This system is potentially adaptable to other hot cell and glovebox applications where radiation dose rates and contamination levels are expected to be low. 2 figs.

  4. Radioisotope electric propulsion of sciencecraft to the outer solar system and near-interstellar space

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, R.J.

    1998-08-01

    Recent results are presented in the study of radioisotope electric propulsion as a near-term technology for sending small robotic sciencecraft to the outer Solar System and near-interstellar space. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems are low-thrust, ion propulsion units based on radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. Powerplant specific masses are expected to be in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW of thrust power. Planetary rendezvous missions to Pluto, fast missions to the heliopause (100 AU) with the capability to decelerate an orbiter for an extended science program and prestellar missions to the first gravitational lens focus of the Sun (550 AU) are investigated.

  5. Characterization of front-end electronics for CZT based handheld radioisotope identifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombigit, L.; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Yazid, Khairiah; Jaafar, Zainudin

    2016-01-01

    A radioisotope identifier device based on large volume Co-planar grid CZT detector is current under development at Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This device is planned to be used for in-situ identification of radioisotopes based on their unique energies. This work reports on electronics testing performed on the front-end electronics (FEE) analog section comprising charge sensitive preamplifier-pulse shaping amplifier chain. This test involves measurement of charge sensitivity, pulse parameters and electronics noise. This report also present some preliminary results on the spectral measurement obtained from gamma emitting radioisotopes.

  6. Characterization of front-end electronics for CZT based handheld radioisotope identifier

    SciTech Connect

    Lombigit, L.; Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Yazid, Khairiah; Jaafar, Zainudin

    2016-01-22

    A radioisotope identifier device based on large volume Co-planar grid CZT detector is current under development at Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This device is planned to be used for in-situ identification of radioisotopes based on their unique energies. This work reports on electronics testing performed on the front-end electronics (FEE) analog section comprising charge sensitive preamplifier-pulse shaping amplifier chain. This test involves measurement of charge sensitivity, pulse parameters and electronics noise. This report also present some preliminary results on the spectral measurement obtained from gamma emitting radioisotopes.

  7. NASA GRC Technology Development Project for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and Stirling Technology Company (STC) are developing a Stirling convertor for an advanced radioisotope power system to provide spacecraft on-board electric power for NASA deep space missions. NASA GRC is conducting an in-house project to provide convertor, component, and materials testing and evaluation in support of the overall power system development. A first characterization of the DOE/STC 55-We Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) under the expected launch random vibration environment was recently completed in the NASA GRC Structural Dynamics Laboratory. Two TDCs also completed an initial electromagnetic interference (EMI) characterization at NASA GRC while being tested in a synchronized, opposed configuration. Materials testing is underway to support a life assessment of the heater head, and magnet characterization and aging tests have been initiated. Test facilities are now being established for an independent convertor performance verification and technology development. A preliminary Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA), initial finite element analysis (FEA) for the linear alternator, ionizing radiation survivability assessment, and radiator parametric study have also been completed. This paper will discuss the status, plans, and results to date for these efforts.

  8. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2 (ASRG EU2) Final Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oriti, Salvatore M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently completed the assembly of a unique Stirling generator test article for laboratory experimentation. Under the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) flight development contract, NASA GRC initiated a task to design and fabricate a flight-like generator for in-house testing. This test article was given the name ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2) as it was effectively the second engineering unit to be built within the ASRG project. The intent of the test article was to duplicate Lockheed Martin's qualification unit ASRG design as much as possible to enable system-level tests not previously possible at GRC. After the cancellation of the ASRG flight development project, the decision was made to continue the EU2 build, and make use of a portion of the hardware from the flight development project. GRC and Lockheed Martin engineers collaborated to develop assembly procedures, leveraging the valuable knowledge gathered by Lockheed Martin during the ASRG development contract. The ASRG EU2 was then assembled per these procedures at GRC with Lockheed Martin engineers on site. The assembly was completed in August 2014. This paper details the components that were used for the assembly, and the assembly process itself.

  9. Life sciences laboratory breadboard simulations for shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taketa, S. T.; Simmonds, R. C.; Callahan, P. X.

    1975-01-01

    Breadboard simulations of life sciences laboratory concepts for conducting bioresearch in space were undertaken as part of the concept verification testing program. Breadboard simulations were conducted to test concepts of and scope problems associated with bioresearch support equipment and facility requirements and their operational integration for conducting manned research in earth orbital missions. It emphasized requirements, functions, and procedures for candidate research on crew members (simulated) and subhuman primates and on typical radioisotope studies in rats, a rooster, and plants.

  10. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  11. Shuttle bioresearch laboratory breadboard simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taketa, S. T.

    1975-01-01

    Laboratory breadboard simulations (Tests I and II) were conducted to test concepts and assess problems associated with bioresearch support equipment, facilities, and operational integration for conducting manned earth orbital Shuttle missions. This paper describes Test I and discusses the major observations made in Test II. The tests emphasized candidate experiment protocols and requirements: Test I for biological research and Test II for crew members (simulated), subhuman primates, and radioisotope tracer studies on lower organisms. The procedures and approaches developed for these simulation activities could form the basis for Spacelab simulations and developing preflight integration, testing, and logistics of flight payloads.

  12. The {open_quotes}ASR{close_quotes} story where we are and how we got there: A history of Sandia National Laboratories maintenance employee safety committee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Area Safety Representative (ASR) Team is an employee based safety committee that was originated in the latter part of 1994. It was introduced by the Operations and Engineering Center ES&H Coordinator who had heard about an employee based safety program implemented at the EG&G Corporation. This information was the first step in creating Sandia`s Maintenance `Area Safety Representative` (ASR) Program. An advertisement went out from the ES&H Coordinator to all the Maintenance Organizations asking for individuals who would be interested in performing as a volunteer safety representative for their section. The interest was moderate but effective. The committee consisted of one volunteer from each of the working sections within the Maintenance Organization, e.e., HVAC Mechanics, Electricians, Millwrights, Plumbers, Sheetmetal Workers, High-Voltage Technicians, a Union Representative, and representatives from the Operations Group that manage sub-contracted personnel. During the past year, organizational changes have brought about the addition of representatives to include the Planners and the Custodians. The original committee members were enrolled in a 30-hour OSHA Voluntary Compliance Outreach Course. This information provided the members with a broad overview of the Safety Guidelines set forth by OSHA for themselves and their coworkers. It is to be noted that this is an employee based safety team. There are no supervisors or managers on the committee but their attendance is always welcomed at the ASR meetings.

  13. Kuiper Belt Object Orbiter Using Advanced Radioisotope Power Sources and Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Dankanich, John; Colozza, Anthony; Schmitz, Paul; Khan, Omair; Drexler, Jon; Fittje, James

    2011-01-01

    A joint NASA GRC/JPL design study was performed for the NASA Radioisotope Power Systems Office to explore the use of radioisotope electric propulsion for flagship class missions. The Kuiper Belt Object Orbiter is a flagship class mission concept projected for launch in the 2030 timeframe. Due to the large size of a flagship class science mission larger radioisotope power system building blocks were conceptualized to provide the roughly 4 kW of power needed by the NEXT ion propulsion system and the spacecraft. Using REP the spacecraft is able to rendezvous with and orbit a Kuiper Belt object in 16 years using either eleven (no spare) 420 W advanced RTGs or nine (with a spare) 550 W advanced Stirling Radioisotope systems. The design study evaluated integrating either system and estimated impacts on cost as well as required General Purpose Heat Source requirements.

  14. Estimates for production of radioisotopes of medical interest at Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Wen; Bobeica, Mariana; Gheorghe, Ioana; Filipescu, Dan M.; Niculae, Dana; Balabanski, Dimiter L.

    2016-01-01

    We report Monte Carlo simulations of the production of radioisotopes of medical interest through photoneutron reactions using the high-brilliance γ-beam of the Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) facility. The specific activity for three benchmark radioisotopes, 99Mo/99Tc, 225Ra/225Ac and 186Re, was obtained as a function of target geometry, irradiation time and γ-beam energy. Optimized conditions for the generation of these radioisotopes of medical interest with the ELI-NP γ-beams were discussed. We estimated that a saturation specific activity of the order of 1-2 mCi/g can be achieved for thin targets with about one gram of mass considering a γ-beam flux of 10^{11} photons/s. Based on these results, we suggest that the ELI-NP facility can provide a unique possibility for the production of radioisotopes in sufficient quantities for nuclear medicine research.

  15. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP): A Near-Term Approach to Nuclear Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George R.; Manzella, David H.; Kamhawi, Hani; Kremic, Tibor; Oleson, Steven R.; Dankanich, John W.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies over the last decade have shown radioisotope-based nuclear electric propulsion to be enhancing and, in some cases, enabling for many potential robotic science missions. Also known as radioisotope electric propulsion (REP), the technology offers the performance advantages of traditional reactor-powered electric propulsion (i.e., high specific impulse propulsion at large distances from the Sun), but with much smaller, affordable spacecraft. Future use of REP requires development of radioisotope power sources with system specific powers well above that of current systems. The US Department of Energy and NASA have developed an advanced Stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG) engineering unit, which was subjected to rigorous flight qualification-level tests in 2008, and began extended lifetime testing later that year. This advancement, along with recent work on small ion thrusters and life extension technology for Hall thrusters, could enable missions using REP sometime during the next decade.

  16. 77 FR 21592 - Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Licensing Applications for the Production of Radioisotopes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Chapters 7-18 of Draft Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) NPR-ISG-2011-002, augmenting NUREG-1537, Part 1...,'' for the production of radioisotopes. The ISG augmenting NUREG-1537, Parts 1 & 2, Chapters 1-6...

  17. Space nuclear safety program. Progress report, January 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1984-07-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  18. Space nuclear-safety program, November 1982. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bronisz, S.E.

    1983-05-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed here are ongoing. Results and conclusions described may change as the work continues.

  19. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1985-11-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work continues. 36 figs.

  20. Space Nuclear Safety Program. Progress report, August 1984

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.

    1985-11-01

    This technical monthly report covers studies related to the use of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in radioisotope power systems carried out for the Office of Special Nuclear Projects of the US Department of Energy by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Most of the studies discussed are ongoing; the results and conclusions described may change as the work progresses. 41 figs.