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Sample records for radiological protection problemas

  1. [Radiation protection in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Adamus, R; Loose, R; Wucherer, M; Uder, M; Galster, M

    2016-03-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x‑ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X‑ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses.

  2. History and Organizations for Radiological Protection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Keon Wook

    2016-02-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), an independent international organization established in 1925, develops, maintains, and elaborates radiological protection standards, legislation, and guidelines. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) provides scientific evidence. World Health Organization (WHO) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) utilise the ICRP recommendations to implement radiation protection in practice. Finally, radiation protection agencies in each country adopt the policies, and adapt them to each situation. In Korea, Nuclear Safety and Security Commission is the governmental body for nuclear safety regulation and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety is a public organization for technical support and R&D in nuclear safety and radiation protection.

  3. History and Organizations for Radiological Protection

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), an independent international organization established in 1925, develops, maintains, and elaborates radiological protection standards, legislation, and guidelines. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) provides scientific evidence. World Health Organization (WHO) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) utilise the ICRP recommendations to implement radiation protection in practice. Finally, radiation protection agencies in each country adopt the policies, and adapt them to each situation. In Korea, Nuclear Safety and Security Commission is the governmental body for nuclear safety regulation and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety is a public organization for technical support and R&D in nuclear safety and radiation protection. PMID:26908987

  4. Radiological protection in equine radiography and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoxall, A T

    1977-10-01

    The principles of radiological protection are summarised and consideration is then given to problems, which may confront the equine practitioner, in the fulfillment of these principles during diagnostic radiography of the limbs, head, and spine of the horse. The place of anaesthesia in such procedures is discussed and the special problems associated with therapeutic radiography of the horse are considered.

  5. Radiation protection in pediatric radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The book covers all the basic concepts concerned with minimizing the radiation dose to patients, parents, and personnel, while producing radiographic studies of diagnostic quality. Practical information about tissues at risk, radiation risks specific to children, performance of radiographic and fluoroscopic examination, gonadal protection, pregnancy, immobilization of children, mobile radiography, and equipment considerations including those pertaining to computed tomography and dental radiography are given. (KRM)

  6. Radiological protection in paediatric computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Khong, P-L; Frush, D; Ringertz, H

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that paediatric patients are generally at greater risk for the development of cancer per unit of radiation dose compared with adults, due both to the longer life expectancy for any harmful effects of radiation to manifest, and the fact that developing organs and tissues are more sensitive to the effects of radiation. Multiple computed tomography (CT) examinations may cumulatively involve absorbed doses to organs and tissues that can sometimes approach or exceed the levels known from epidemiological studies to significantly increase the probability of cancer development. Radiation protection strategies include rigorous justification of CT examinations and the use of imaging techniques that are non-ionising, followed by optimisation of radiation dose exposure (according to the 'as low as reasonably achievable' principle). Special consideration should be given to the availability of dose reduction technology when acquiring CT scanners. Dose reduction should be optimised by adjustment of scan parameters (such as mAs, kVp, and pitch) according to patient weight or age, region scanned, and study indication (e.g. images with greater noise should be accepted if they are of sufficient diagnostic quality). Other strategies include restricting multiphase examination protocols, avoiding overlapping of scan regions, and only scanning the area in question. Newer technologies such as tube current modulation, organ-based dose modulation, and iterative reconstruction should be used when appropriate. Attention should also be paid to optimising study quality (e.g. by image post-processing to facilitate radiological diagnoses and interpretation). Finally, improving awareness through education and advocacy, and further research in paediatric radiological protection are important to help reduce patient dose. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Assessment of radiological protection systems among diagnostic radiology facilities in North East India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Thokchom Dewan; Jayaraman, T; Arunkumar Sharma, B

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to assess the adequacy level of radiological protection systems available in the diagnostic radiology facilities located in three capital cities of North East (NE) India. It further attempts to understand, using a multi-disciplinary approach, how the safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology framed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to achieve adequate radiological protection in facilities, have been perceived, conceptualized, and applied accordingly in these facilities. About 30 diagnostic radiology facilities were randomly selected from three capitals of states in NE India; namely Imphal (Manipur), Shillong (Meghalaya) and Guwahati (Assam). A semi-structured questionnaire developed based on a multi-disciplinary approach was used for this study. It was observed that radiological practices undertaken in these facilities were not exactly in line with safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology of the AERB and the IAEA. About 50% of the facilities had registered/licensed x-ray equipment with the AERB. More than 80% of the workers did not use radiation protective devices, although these devices were available in the facilities. About 85% of facilities had no institutional risk management system. About 70% of the facilities did not carry out periodic quality assurance testing of their x-ray equipment or surveys of radiation leakage around the x-ray room, and did not display radiation safety indicators in the x-ray rooms. Workers in these facilities exhibited low risk perception about the risks associated with these practices. The majority of diagnostic radiology facilities in NE India did not comply with the radiological safety codes/standards framed by the AERB and IAEA. The study found inadequate levels of radiological protection systems in the majority of facilities. This study suggests a need to establish firm measures that comply with the radiological safety codes/standards of the

  8. Radiation protection in radiologic technology: Apathy versus active involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, K.H.

    1982-11-01

    The lack of active participation in radiation protection is a serious problem in Radiologic Technology today. Underlying the problem is professional apathy. An overview of the historical changes, as well as various recent developments in radiology, accentuate the importance of necessary changes in technologists' attitudes and activities. 22 references.

  9. Cancer risk modelling and radiological protection.

    PubMed

    Wakeford, Richard

    2012-03-01

    Statistical models describing how the radiation-related risks of particular types of cancer vary with the doses of radiation received by specific tissues are derived from data gathered in epidemiological studies of exposed groups of people, guided by an incomplete understanding of radiobiological mechanisms gleaned from experimental studies. Cancer risk models have been developed for a dozen or so different types of cancer, and take account of the effect of important risk modifying factors such as age at exposure and time since exposure. Of primary importance in the development of cancer risk models is the experience of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, but other exposed groups contribute information, including those exposed to radiation from internally deposited radioactive material, such as inhaled radon. Cancer risk models predict that at low doses or low dose rates the excess risk of cancer is directly proportional to the dose of radiation received, with no threshold dose--the linear no threshold (LNT) dose-response model--and the inferred summary estimate of the overall average lifetime excess risk of developing a serious cancer is ∼ 5%/Sv. It is these cancer risk models and this inferred nominal risk estimate that provide the technical basis of radiological protection. Although it is difficult to definitively test the LNT model at low doses or low dose rates, because the predicted excess risk is small compared with fluctuations in the baseline risk, evidence exists that a small risk of cancer results from low-level exposure to radiation and that the excess risk is around that predicted by current risk models.

  10. Environmental Protection Agency Radiological Emergency Response Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of this Plan is to describe EPA's concept of operations to implement the various actions, when responding to a threatened or actual radiological releases in emergencies and terrorist incidents.

  11. Guidelines for selection of radiological protective head covering

    SciTech Connect

    Galloway, G.R. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    The hood is recognized throughout the nuclear industry as the standard radiological protective head covering for use in radioactively contaminated work environments. As of June 15, 1995, hoods were required for all activities performed in contaminated areas at the Y-12 Plant. The use of hoods had historically been limited to those radiological activities with a high potential for personnel contamination. Due to the large size of many posted contaminated areas at the Y-12 Plant, and compounding safety factors, requirements for the use of hoods are being reevaluated. The purpose of the evaluation is to develop technically sound guidelines for the selection of hoods when prescribing radiological protective head covering. This report presents the guidelines for selection of radiological protective hoods.

  12. ICRP publication 121: radiological protection in paediatric diagnostic and interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Khong, P-L; Ringertz, H; Donoghue, V; Frush, D; Rehani, M; Appelgate, K; Sanchez, R

    2013-04-01

    Paediatric patients have a higher average risk of developing cancer compared with adults receiving the same dose. The longer life expectancy in children allows more time for any harmful effects of radiation to manifest, and developing organs and tissues are more sensitive to the effects of radiation. This publication aims to provide guiding principles of radiological protection for referring clinicians and clinical staff performing diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures for paediatric patients. It begins with a brief description of the basic concepts of radiological protection, followed by the general aspects of radiological protection, including principles of justification and optimisation. Guidelines and suggestions for radiological protection in specific modalities - radiography and fluoroscopy, interventional radiology, and computed tomography - are subsequently covered in depth. The report concludes with a summary and recommendations. The importance of rigorous justification of radiological procedures is emphasised for every procedure involving ionising radiation, and the use of imaging modalities that are non-ionising should always be considered. The basic aim of optimisation of radiological protection is to adjust imaging parameters and institute protective measures such that the required image is obtained with the lowest possible dose of radiation, and that net benefit is maximised to maintain sufficient quality for diagnostic interpretation. Special consideration should be given to the availability of dose reduction measures when purchasing new imaging equipment for paediatric use. One of the unique aspects of paediatric imaging is with regards to the wide range in patient size (and weight), therefore requiring special attention to optimisation and modification of equipment, technique, and imaging parameters. Examples of good radiographic and fluoroscopic technique include attention to patient positioning, field size and adequate collimation, use

  13. Action research regarding the optimisation of radiological protection for nurses during vascular interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Mori, Hiroshige

    2015-06-01

    The optimisation and decision-making processes for radiological protection have been broadened by the introduction of re-examination or feedback after introducing protective measures. In this study, action research was used to reduce the occupational exposure of vascular interventional radiology (IR) nurses. Four radiological protection improvement measures were continuously performed in cooperation with the researchers, nurses and stakeholders, and the nurses' annual effective doses were compared before and after the improvements. First, the dosimetry equipment was changed from one electronic personal dosimeter (EPD) to two silver-activated phosphate glass dosimeters (PGDs). Second, the nurses were educated regarding maintaining a safe distance from the sources of scattered and leakage radiation. Third, portable radiation shielding screens were placed in the IR rooms. Fourth, the x-ray units' pulse rates were reduced by half. On changing the dosimetry method, the two PGDs recorded a 4.4 fold greater dose than the single EPD. Educating nurses regarding radiological protection and reducing the pulse rates by half decreased their effective doses to one-third and two-fifths of the baseline dose, respectively. No significant difference in their doses was detected after the placement of the shielding screens. Therefore, the action research effectively decreased the occupational doses of the vascular IR nurses.

  14. Ethical foundations of environmental radiological protection.

    PubMed

    Oughton, D H

    2016-06-01

    Assessing the potential ecological impact of ionising radiation raises a number of ethical questions. These include fundamental questions such as what exactly constitutes harming the environment, and how the environment should be valued, as well as links to political protection principles such as sustainability and biodiversity. Starting from developments within ecological risk assessment, this paper summarises some of the ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation. Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of different philosophical and cultural world views on valuing the environment in a context of radiation risk. Chapter 3 addresses some recent challenges to proposed environmental protection frameworks, including practical applications following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents, and some scientific developments such as the ecosystem approach. Finally, Chapter 4 offers some recommendations on how ethical evaluation can help produce a more robust and transparent approach to the protection of the environment. In conclusion, there is a need for a holistic evaluation of the environmental impacts of ionising radiation that not only considers the direct consequences on the health of humans and non-human species, but also the more complex social, ethical, and economic consequences of both human and non-human exposures.

  15. Occupational Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology: A Joint Guideline of the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology Society of Europe and the Society of Interventional Radiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    CIRSE GUIDELINES Occupational Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology : A Joint Guideline of the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology ...Society of Europe and the Society of Interventional Radiology Donald L. Miller • Eliseo Vañó • Gabriel Bartal • Stephen Balter • Robert Dixon...December 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) 2009 Preamble The

  16. The Problem of Radiological Protection, Poland.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    apparatus, better hraining of personnel, by means of protecting the gonads, through ap- propriate administrative regulations making it impossible...approximately 4,000* - 3 - * The number 4,000 includes only the apparatuses owned by the socialized Health Service, privately- practising ...level of the health services bv means of perfecting roentgen research and broadening its area Of effectiveness. We must strive toward acquiring more

  17. Hanford Radiological Protection Support Services Annual Report for 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, Timothy P.; Bihl, Donald E.; Johnson, Michelle L.; Maclellan, Jay A.; Piper, Roman K.

    2001-05-07

    During calendar year 2000, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed its customary radiological protection support services in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and the Hanford contractors. These services included: 1) external dosimetry, 2) internal dosimetry, 3) in vivo monitoring, 4) radiological records, 5) instrument calibration and evaluation, and 6) calibration of radiation sources traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Each program summary describes the routine operations, program changes and improvements, program assessments, supporting technical studies, and professional activities.

  18. Hanford Radiological Protection Support Services Annual Report for 1998

    SciTech Connect

    DE Bihl; JA MacLellan; ML Johnson; RK Piper; TP Lynch

    1999-05-14

    During calendar year (CY) 1998, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed its customary radiological protection support services in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations OffIce (RL) and the Hanford contractors. These services included: 1) external dosimetry, 2) internal dosimetry, 3) in vivo measurements, 4) radiological records, 5) instrument calibra- tion and evaluation, and 6) calibration of radiation sources traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (MST). The services were provided under a number of projects as summarized here.

  19. Environmental protection: researches in National Institute of Radiological Sciences.

    PubMed

    Fuma, Shoichi; Ban-nai, Tadaaki; Doi, Masahiro; Fujimori, Akira; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Ishikawa, Yuji; Kawaguchi, Isao; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Kouichi; Miyamoto, Kiriko; Nakamori, Taizo; Takeda, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yoshito; Yanagisawa, Kei; Yasuda, Takako; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2011-07-01

    Some studies for radiological protection of the environment have been made at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Transfer of radionuclides and related elements has been investigated for dose estimation of non-human biota. A parameter database and radionuclide transfer models have been also developed for the Japanese environments. Dose (rate)-effect relationships for survival, growth and reproduction have been investigated in conifers, Arabidopsis, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, duckweeds, daphnia and medaka. Also genome-wide gene expression analysis has been carried out by high coverage expression profiling (HiCEP). Effects on aquatic microbial communities have been studied in experimental ecosystem models, i.e., microcosms. Some effects were detected at a dose rate of 1 Gy day(-1) and were likely to arise from interspecies interactions. The results obtained at NIRS have been used in development of frameworks for environmental protection by some international bodies, and will contribute to environmental protection in Japan and other Asian countries.

  20. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Fix, J.J.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Leonowich, J.A.; Palmer, H.E.; Sula, M.J.

    1989-06-01

    The report documents the performance of certain radiological protection sitewide services during calendar year (CY) 1988 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and contractor activities on the Hanford Site. The routine program for each service is discussed along with any significant program changes and tasks, investigations, and studies performed in support of each program. Other related activities such as publications, presentations, and memberships on standard or industry committees are also listed. The programs covered provide services in the areas of (1) internal dosimetry, (2) in vivo measurements, (3) external dosimetry, (4) instrument calibration and evaluation, (5) calibration of radiation sources traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (formerly the National Bureau of Standards), and (6) radiological records. 23 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Fix, J.J.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Leonowich, J.A.; Palmer, H.E.; Sula, M.J.

    1988-08-01

    This report documents the performance of certain radiological protection sitewide services during calendar year (CY) 1987 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in support of the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and contractor activities on the Hanford Site. The routine program for each service is discussed along with any significant program changes and tasks, investigations, and studies performed in support of each program. Other related activities such as publications, presentations, and memberships on standards or industry committees are also discussed. The programs covered provide services in the areas of: external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, in vivo measurements, instrument calibration and evaluation, calibration of radiation sources traceable to the National Bureau of Standards, and radiological records. 21 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    PubMed

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200 keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500 keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5 µSv h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision.

  3. Pragmatic ethical basis for radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    PubMed Central

    Zölzer, Friedo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Medical ethics has a tried and tested literature and a global active research community. Even among health professionals, literate and fluent in medical ethics, there is low recognition of radiation protection principles such as justification and optimization. On the other hand, many in healthcare environments misunderstand dose limitation obligations and incorrectly believe patients are protected by norms including a dose limit. Implementation problems for radiation protection in medicine possibly flow from apparent inadequacies of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) principles taken on their own, coupled with their failure to transfer successfully to the medical world. Medical ethics, on the other hand, is essentially global, is acceptable in most cultures, is intuitively understood in hospitals, and its expectations are monitored, even by managements. This article presents an approach to ethics in diagnostic imaging rooted in the medical tradition, and alert to contemporary social expectations. ICRP and the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), both alert to growing ethical concerns, organized a series of consultations on ethics for general radiation protection in the last few years. Methods: The literature on medical ethics and implicit ICRP ethical values were reviewed qualitatively, with a view to identifying a system that will help guide contemporary behaviour in radiation protection of patients. Application of the system is illustrated in six clinical scenarios. The proposed system is designed, as far as is possible, so as not to be in conflict with the conclusions emerging from the ICRP/IRPA consultations. Results and conclusion: A widely recognized and well-respected system of medical ethics was identified that has global reach and claims acceptance in all cultures. Three values based on this system are grouped with two additional values to provide an ethical framework for application in diagnostic

  4. Hanford Radiological Protection Support Services annual report for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M; Bihl, D E; Fix, J J; Piper, R K; Froelich, T J; Lynch, T P

    1993-07-01

    Various Hanford Site radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy Richland Field Office and Hanford contractors are described in this annual report of calendar year 1992. These activities include internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, instrument calibration and evaluation, radiation source calibration, and radiological record keeping. For each of these activities, the routine program and any program changes or enhancements are described, as well as associated tasks, investigations, and studies. Program-related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are also described.

  5. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Fix, J.J.; Piper, R.K.; Froelich, T.J.; Olsen, P.C.

    1995-06-01

    Various Hanford Site radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and Hanford contractors are described in this annual report for the calendar year 1994. These activities include external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, radiological record keeping, radiation source calibration, and instrument calibration and evaluation. For each of these activities, the routine program and any program changes or enhancements are described, as well as associated tasks, investigations, and studies. Program- related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are also described.

  6. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Fix, J.J.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Leonowich, J.A.; Palmer, H.E.

    1990-07-01

    Certain sitewide radiation protection services operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations office and Hanford contractor are documented in this annual report on these services provided during calendar year 1989. These activities include internal dosimetry, in vivo measurements, external dosimetry, instrument calibration and evaluation, radiation source calibration, and radiological records keeping. In each case the routine program, program changes, associated tasks, investigations, and studies, as well as related publications, presentations, and other professional activities are discussed as applicable. 26 refs., 19 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. Hanford Radiological Protection Support Services annual report for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Fix, J.J.; Froelich, T.J.; Piper, R.K.; Olsen, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    Various Hanford Site radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and Hanford contractors are described in this annual report for calendar year 1993. These activities include internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, instrument calibration and evaluation, radiation source calibration, and radiological record keeping. For each of these activities, the routine program and any program changes or enhancements are described, as well as associated tasks, investigations, and studies. Program-related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are also described.

  8. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Fix, J.J.; Johnson, M.L.; Lynch, T.P.; Piper, R.K.

    1998-06-01

    Various Hanford Site radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and Hanford contractors are described in this annual report for calendar year 1997. These activities include external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, radiological exposure record keeping, radiation source calibration, and instrument calibration and evaluation. For each of these activities, the routine program and any program changes or enhancements are described as well as associated tasks, investigations, and studies. Program-related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are also described.

  9. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Fix, J.J.; Piper, R.K.; Froelich, T.J.; Leonwich, J.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1992-07-01

    Various Hanford sitewide radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office and Hanford contractors are described In this annual report for calendar year 1991. These activities include internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, instrument calibration and evaluation, radiation source calibration, and radiological records keeping. For each of these activities, the routine program, program changes and enhancements, associated tasks, investigations and studies, and related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are discussed as applicable.

  10. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M; Bihl, D E; Fix, J J; Piper, R K; Freolich, T J; Leonowich, J A; Lynch, T P

    1991-07-01

    Various Hanford site-wide radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and Hanford contractors are described in this annual report for calendar year 1990. These activities include internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, instrument calibration and evaluation, radiation source calibration, and radiological records keeping. For each of these activities, the routine program, program changes and enhancements, associated tasks, investigations and studies, and related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are discussed as applicable. 22 refs., 10 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Fix, J.J.; Piper, R.K.; Froelich, T.J.; Leonwich, J.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1992-07-01

    Various Hanford sitewide radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office and Hanford contractors are described In this annual report for calendar year 1991. These activities include internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, instrument calibration and evaluation, radiation source calibration, and radiological records keeping. For each of these activities, the routine program, program changes and enhancements, associated tasks, investigations and studies, and related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are discussed as applicable.

  12. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Fix, J.J.; Froelich, T.J.; Piper, R.K.; Schulze, S.A.

    1997-06-01

    Various Hanford Site radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and Hanford contractors are described in this annual report for calendar year 1996. These activities include external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, radiological exposure record keeping, radiation source calibration, and instrument calibration and evaluation. For each of these activities, the routine program and any program changes or enhancements are described, as well as associated tasks, investigations, and studies. Program-related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are also described.

  13. Hanford radiological protection support services. Annual report for 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Carbaugh, E.H.

    1996-05-01

    Various Hanford Site radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and Hanford contractors are described in this annual report for calendar year 1995. These activities include external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, radiological record keeping, radiation source calibration, and instrument calibration and evaluation. For each of these activities, the routine program and any program changes or enhancements are described, as well as associated tasks, investigations, and studies. Program-related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are also described.

  14. A history of the international commission on radiological protection.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Roger; Valentin, Jack

    2005-06-01

    Within twelve months of the discovery of x rays, papers appeared in the literature reporting adverse effects from high exposure. By the time of the First World War, several countries were proposing restrictions for the exposure of radiation workers. In 1925, the first International Congress of Radiology, held in London, considered the need for a protection committee, which it established at its second Congress in Stockholm in 1928. This paper traces the history of the development, by ICRP, of its policies and the personalities involved in their development from its inception up to the modern era. The paper follows the progress from the early controls on worker doses to avoid deterministic effects, through the identification of stochastic effects to the concerns about increasing public exposure. The key features of the Recommendations made by ICRP from 1928 up to the current 1990 version are identified.

  15. Issues around radiological protection of the environment and its integration with protection of humans: promoting debate on the way forward.

    PubMed

    Brownless, G P

    2007-12-01

    This paper explores issues to consider around integrating direct, explicit protection of the environment into the current system of radiological protection, which is focused on the protection of humans. Many issues around environmental radiological protection have been discussed, and ready-to-use toolboxes have been constructed for assessing harm to non-human biota, but it is not clear how (or even if) these should be fitted into the current system of protection. Starting from the position that the current approach to protecting the environment (namely that it follows from adequately protecting humans) is generally effective, this paper considers how explicit radiological protection of the environment can be integrated with the current system, through developing a 'worked example' of how this could be done and highlighting issues peculiar to protection of the environment. The aim of the paper is to promote debate on this topic, with the ultimate aim of ensuring that any changes to the system are consensual and robust.

  16. The Quality Assurance in Diagnostic Radiology and their Effect in the Quality Image and Radiological Protection of the Patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona, Enrique

    2002-08-01

    The quality assurance in diagnostic radiology in Mexico before 1997 was virtually nonexistent except in few academic institutions and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of the issue of quality control parameters of general and fluoroscopy x-ray systems in the Mexican Republic and their effects in the quality image and radiological protection of the patient. A general result of the survey is that there is not significant difference in the observed frequencies among public and private radiology departments for α = 0.05, then the results are valid for both departments. 37% of x-ray systems belong to public radiology departments. In the radiology departments that didn't agree with the Mexican regulations in: light field to mach the x-ray field, light field intensity, kV, time and output. In those cases, we found a repeat rate of radiography studies >30% with non necessary dose to patient, low quality image and high operating costs of the radiology service. We found in x-ray fiuoroscopy systems that 62% had a low quality image due to electronic noise in the television chain. In general the x-ray systems that didn't agree with Mexican regulations are 35% and they can affect in a way or other the quality image and the dose to patient.

  17. Probability of causation: Implications for radiological protection and dose limitation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1987-05-01

    This report on the probability of causation of radiation-induced cancer is an attempt to bring together biology, chemistry, physics and statistics to calculate a value in the form of a ratio expressed as a percentage. In involves the interactions of numerous cancer risk factors, and all are fraught with technical difficulties and uncertainties. It is a computational approach to a societal problem that should be resolved in the political arena by men and women of government and law. But, it must be examined, because at the present, we have no reasonable method to explain the complexity of the mechanism of radiation-induced cancer and the probability of injury to an individual exposed in the past to ionizing radiation, and because society does not know how to compensate such a person who may have been injured by radiation, and particularly low-level radiation. Five questions are discussed that concern probability of causation of radiation-induced cancer. First, what is it and how can we best define the concept Second, what are the methods of estimation and cancer causation Third, what are the uncertainties involved Fourth, what are the strengths and limitation of the computational approach And fifth, what are the implications for radiological protection and dose-limitation

  18. Probability of causation: Implications for radiological protection and dose limitation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1987-05-01

    This report on the probability of causation of radiation-induced cancer is an attempt to bring together biology, chemistry, physics and statistics to calculate a value in the form of a ratio expressed as a percentage. In involves the interactions of numerous cancer risk factors, and all are fraught with technical difficulties and uncertainties. It is a computational approach to a societal problem that should be resolved in the political arena by men and women of government and law. But, it must be examined, because at the present, we have no reasonable method to explain the complexity of the mechanism of radiation-induced cancer and the probability of injury to an individual exposed in the past to ionizing radiation, and because society does not know how to compensate such a person who may have been injured by radiation, and particularly low-level radiation. Five questions are discussed that concern probability of causation of radiation-induced cancer. First, what is it and how can we best define the concept? Second, what are the methods of estimation and cancer causation? Third, what are the uncertainties involved? Fourth, what are the strengths and limitation of the computational approach? And fifth, what are the implications for radiological protection and dose-limitation?

  19. Hanford Radiological Protection Support Services Annual Report for 1999

    SciTech Connect

    TP Lynch; DE Bihl; ML Johnson; MA MacLellan; RK Piper

    2000-05-19

    During calendar year (CY) 1999, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed its customary radiological protection support services in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Hanford contractors. These services included: (1) external dosimetry, (2) internal dosimetry, (3) in vivo measurements, (4) radiological records, (5) instrument calibration and evaluation, and (6) calibration of radiation sources traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The services were provided under a number of programs as summarized here. Along with providing site-wide nuclear accident and environmental dosimetry capabilities, the Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) supports Hanford radiation protection programs by providing external radiation monitoring capabilities for all Hanford workers and visitors to help ensure their health and safety. Processing volumes decreased in CY 1999 relative to prior years for all types of dosimeters, with an overall decrease of 19%. During 1999, the HEDP passed the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) performance testing criteria in 15 different categories. HEDP computers and processors were tested and upgraded to become Year 2000 (Y2K) compliant. Several changes and improvements were made to enhance the interpretation of dosimeter results. The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (HIDP) provides for the assessment and documentation of occupational dose from intakes of radionuclides at the Hanford Site. Performance problems carried over from CY 1998 continued to plague the in vitro bioassay contractor. A new contract was awarded for the in vitro bioassay program. A new computer system was put into routine operation by the in vivo bioassay program. Several changes to HIDP protocols were made that were related to bioassay grace periods, using field data to characterize the amount of alpha activity present and using a new default particle

  20. Application of radiological protection measures to meet different environmental protection criteria.

    PubMed

    Copplestone, D

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recognises that there is no simple or single universal definition of 'environmental protection', and that the concept differs from country to country and from one circumstance to another. However, there is an increasing need to be able to demonstrate that the environment is protected from radioactive substances released under authorisation for various reasons, such as for wildlife conservation requirements, or wildlife management for commercial reasons, or simply as part of pollution control. The Commission is developing the concept of Representative Organisms, which may be identified from any specific legal requirements or from more general requirements to protect local habitats or ecosystems. Such organisms may be the actual objects of protection or they may be hypothetical, depending on the objectives of the assessment. They may be similar to, or even congruent with, one or more of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs). Where this is not the case, attempts can be made to consider the extent to which the Representative Organisms differ from the nearest RAP in terms of known radiation effects upon it, basic biology, radiation dosimetry, and pathways of exposure. This paper discusses the practical implications of such an approach.

  1. Core ethical values of radiological protection applied to Fukushima case: reflecting common morality and cultural diversities.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Chieko; Cho, Kunwoo; Toohey, Richard E

    2016-12-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has established Task Group 94 (TG94) to develop a publication to clarify the ethical foundations of the radiological protection system it recommends. This TG identified four core ethical values which structure the system: beneficence and non-maleficence, prudence, justice, and dignity. Since the ICRP is an international organization, its recommendations and guidance should be globally applicable and acceptable. Therefore, first this paper presents the basic principles of the ICRP radiological protection system and its core ethical values, along with a reflection on the variation of these values in Western and Eastern cultural traditions. Secondly, this paper reflects upon how these values can be applied in difficult ethical dilemmas as in the case of the emergency and post-accident phases of a nuclear power plant accident, using the Fukushima case to illustrate the challenges at stake. We found that the core ethical values underlying the ICRP system of radiological protection seem to be quite common throughout the world, although there are some variations among various cultural contexts. Especially we found that 'prudence' would call for somewhat different implementation in each cultural context, balancing and integrating sometime conflicting values, but always with objectives to achieve the well-being of people, which is itself the ultimate aim of the radiological protection system.

  2. Application of the diagnostic radiological index of protection to protective garments

    SciTech Connect

    Pasciak, Alexander S.; Jones, A. Kyle; Wagner, Louis K.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Previously, the diagnostic radiological index of protection (DRIP) was proposed as a metric for quantifying the protective value of radioprotective garments. The DRIP is a weighted sum of the percent transmissions of different radiation beams through a garment. Ideally, the beams would represent the anticipated stray radiation encountered during clinical use. However, it is impractical to expect a medical physicist to possess the equipment necessary to accurately measure transmission of scattered radiation. Therefore, as a proof of concept, the authors tested a method that applied the DRIP to clinical practice. Methods: Primary beam qualities used in interventional cardiology and radiology were observed and catalogued. Based on the observed range of beam qualities, five representative clinical primary beam qualities, specified by kV and added filtration, were selected for this evaluation. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using these primary beams as source definitions to generate scattered spectra from the clinical primary beams. Using numerical optimization, ideal scatter mimicking primary beams, specified by kV and added aluminum filtration, were matched to the scattered spectra according to half- and quarter-value layers and spectral shape. To within reasonable approximation, these theoretical scatter-mimicking primary beams were reproduced experimentally in laboratory x ray beams and used to measure transmission through pure lead and protective garments. For this proof of concept, the DRIP for pure lead and the garments was calculated by assigning equal weighting to percent transmission measurements for each of the five beams. Finally, the areal density of lead and garments was measured for consideration alongside the DRIP to assess the protective value of each material for a given weight. Results: The authors identified ideal scatter mimicking primary beams that matched scattered spectra to within 0.01 mm for half- and quarter-value layers in

  3. Radiological Environmental Protection for LCLS-II High Power Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, James; Blaha, Jan; Cimeno, Maranda; Mao, Stan; Nicolas, Ludovic; Rokni, Sayed; Santana, Mario; Tran, Henry

    2017-09-01

    The LCLS-II superconducting electron accelerator at SLAC plans to operate at up to 4 GeV and 240 kW average power, which would create higher radiological impacts particularly near the beam loss points such as beam dumps and halo collimators. The main hazards to the public and environment include direct or skyshine radiation, effluent of radioactive air such as 13N, 15O and 41Ar, and activation of groundwater creating tritium. These hazards were evaluated using analytic methods and FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The controls (mainly extensive bulk shielding and local shielding around high loss points) and monitoring (neutron/photon detectors with detection capabilities below natural background at site boundary, site-wide radioactive air monitors, and groundwater wells) were designed to meet the U.S. DOE and EPA, as well as SLAC requirements. The radiological design and controls for the LCW systems [including concrete housing shielding for 15O and 11C circulating in LCW, 7Be and erosion/corrosion products (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, etc.) captured in resin and filters, leak detection and containment of LCW with 3H and its waste water discharge; explosion from H2 build-up in surge tank and release of radionuclides] associated with the high power beam dumps are also presented.

  4. Assessment of radiation protection awareness and knowledge about radiological examination doses among Italian radiographers.

    PubMed

    Paolicchi, F; Miniati, F; Bastiani, L; Faggioni, L; Ciaramella, A; Creonti, I; Sottocornola, C; Dionisi, C; Caramella, D

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate radiation protection basic knowledge and dose assessment for radiological procedures among Italian radiographers A validated questionnaire was distributed to 780 participants with balanced demographic characteristics and geographic distribution. Only 12.1 % of participants attended radiation protection courses on a regular basis. Despite 90 % of radiographers stating to have sufficient awareness of radiation protection issues, most of them underestimated the radiation dose of almost all radiological procedures. About 5 % and 4 % of the participants, respectively, claimed that pelvis magnetic resonance imaging and abdominal ultrasound exposed patients to radiation. On the contrary, 7.0 % of the radiographers stated that mammography does not use ionising radiation. About half of participants believed that radiation-induced cancer is not dependent on age or gender and were not able to differentiate between deterministic and stochastic effects. Young radiographers (with less than 3 years of experience) showed a higher level of knowledge compared with the more experienced radiographers. There is a substantial need for radiographers to improve their awareness of radiation protection issues and their knowledge of radiological procedures. Specific actions such as regular training courses for both undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as for working radiographers must be considered in order to assure patient safety during radiological examinations. • Radiographers should improve their knowledge on radiation protection issues. • Only 12.1 % of participants attended radiation protection courses on a regular basis. • Specific actions must be considered in order to increase knowledge and awareness.

  5. Radiological Protection in Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). ICRP Publication 129.

    PubMed

    Rehani, M M; Gupta, R; Bartling, S; Sharp, G C; Pauwels, R; Berris, T; Boone, J M

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide guidance on radiological protection in the new technology of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Publications 87 and 102 dealt with patient dose management in computed tomography (CT) and multi-detector CT. The new applications of CBCT and the associated radiological protection issues are substantially different from those of conventional CT. The perception that CBCT involves lower doses was only true in initial applications. CBCT is now used widely by specialists who have little or no training in radiological protection. This publication provides recommendations on radiation dose management directed at different stakeholders, and covers principles of radiological protection, training, and quality assurance aspects. Advice on appropriate use of CBCT needs to be made widely available. Advice on optimisation of protection when using CBCT equipment needs to be strengthened, particularly with respect to the use of newer features of the equipment. Manufacturers should standardise radiation dose displays on CBCT equipment to assist users in optimisation of protection and comparisons of performance. Additional challenges to radiological protection are introduced when CBCT-capable equipment is used for both fluoroscopy and tomography during the same procedure. Standardised methods need to be established for tracking and reporting of patient radiation doses from these procedures. The recommendations provided in this publication may evolve in the future as CBCT equipment and applications evolve. As with previous ICRP publications, the Commission hopes that imaging professionals, medical physicists, and manufacturers will use the guidelines and recommendations provided in this publication for implementation of the Commission's principle of optimisation of protection of patients and medical workers, with the objective of keeping exposures as low as reasonably achievable, taking into account economic and societal factors, and

  6. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W; Larsson, C-M; McKenney, C; Minon, J-P; Mobbs, S; Schneider, T; Umeki, H; Hilden, W; Pescatore, C; Vesterlind, M

    2013-06-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission's three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  7. Radiological protection issues arising during and after the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    González, Abel J; Akashi, Makoto; Boice, John D; Chino, Masamichi; Homma, Toshimitsu; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Kai, Michiaki; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Lee, Jai-Ki; Menzel, Hans-Georg; Niwa, Ohtsura; Sakai, Kazuo; Weiss, Wolfgang; Yamashita, Shunichi; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2013-09-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) convened a task group to compile lessons learned from the nuclear reactor accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, with respect to the ICRP system of radiological protection. In this memorandum the members of the task group express their personal views on issues arising during and after the accident, without explicit endorsement of or approval by the ICRP. While the affected people were largely protected against radiation exposure and no one incurred a lethal dose of radiation (or a dose sufficiently large to cause radiation sickness), many radiological protection questions were raised. The following issues were identified: inferring radiation risks (and the misunderstanding of nominal risk coefficients); attributing radiation effects from low dose exposures; quantifying radiation exposure; assessing the importance of internal exposures; managing emergency crises; protecting rescuers and volunteers; responding with medical aid; justifying necessary but disruptive protective actions; transiting from an emergency to an existing situation; rehabilitating evacuated areas; restricting individual doses of members of the public; caring for infants and children; categorising public exposures due to an accident; considering pregnant women and their foetuses and embryos; monitoring public protection; dealing with 'contamination' of territories, rubble and residues and consumer products; recognising the importance of psychological consequences; and fostering the sharing of information. Relevant ICRP Recommendations were scrutinised, lessons were collected and suggestions were compiled. It was concluded that the radiological protection community has an ethical duty to learn from the lessons of Fukushima and resolve any identified challenges. Before another large accident occurs, it should be ensured that inter alia: radiation risk coefficients of potential

  8. Evaluation of non-lead-based protective radiological material in spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Scuderi, Gaetano J; Brusovanik, Georgiy V; Campbell, David R; Henry, Robert P; Kwon, Brain; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, lead-based garments are the standard method of intraoperative radiation protection during fluoroscopy. Unfortunately, the lead used is heavy, lacks durability, is difficult to launder, and its disposal is associated with environmental hazards. An evaluation of the protective radiation efficiency of three commercially available radiation protective garments compared with a standardized lead protective shield. Measured radiation transmission through lead and three commercially available lightweight radiological protective garments (Xenolite, EarthSafe, and Demron) was performed using a standard, calibrated dosimeter. Radiation transmission, attenuation, lead equivalencies as well as garment weight comparisons were measured. The tests were repeated through a range of voltage and tube current settings that are common to clinical radiological applications (60-120 keV). All materials tested demonstrated effectiveness at common clinically relevant energy exposures (100 keV). EarthSafe and Xenolite demonstrated 0.5 mm lead equivalency protection at 80 and 100 keV X-ray energies but not at higher energy levels (>100 keV), which is where most radiological procedures are performed utilizing more advanced technological imaging equipment. Demron was best able to effectively shield ionizing radiation at higher energy levels (>100 keV). The lightweight nature of these lead-free materials may result in less fatigue and musculoskeletal complaints by the wearer. Of the tested lead-free garments, Demron appears to offer equivalent levels of protection to standard lead-based shields within traditional energy zones but with less weight than standard lead-based shields.

  9. 77 FR 47117 - Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear (CBRN) Protective Ensemble Standard, Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ...In an effort to obtain comments from interested parties, the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice (NIJ) will make available to the general public (at www.justnet.org) three draft documents related to Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear (CBRN) protective ensembles used by law enforcement...

  10. Influence of physical parameters on radiation protection and image quality in intra-oral radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinato, W.; Souza, D. N.

    2011-10-01

    In the world of diagnostic imaging, radiography is an important supplementary method for dental diagnosis. In radiology, special attention must be paid to the radiological protection of patients and health professionals, and also to image quality for correct diagnosis. In Brazil, the national rules governing the operation of medical and dental radiology were specified in 1998 by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency, complemented in 2005 by the guide "Medical radiology: security and performance of equipment." In this study, quality control tests were performed in public clinics with dental X-ray equipment in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, with consideration of the physical parameters that influence radiological protection and also the quality of images taken in intra-oral radiography. The accuracy of the exposure time was considered acceptable for equipment with digital timers. Exposure times and focal-spot size variations can lead to increased entrance dose. Increased dose has also been associated with visual processing of radiographic film, which often requires repeating the radiographic examination.

  11. 10 CFR 72.126 - Criteria for radiological protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radiation levels in and around these areas. (d) Effluent control. The ISFSI or MRS must be designed to... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C.... Radiation protection systems must be provided for all areas and operations where onsite personnel may...

  12. 10 CFR 72.126 - Criteria for radiological protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... radiation levels in and around these areas. (d) Effluent control. The ISFSI or MRS must be designed to... STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C.... Radiation protection systems must be provided for all areas and operations where onsite personnel may...

  13. Radiological protection of the environment from the Swedish point of view.

    PubMed

    Hohm, Lars-Erik; Hubbard, Lynn; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Sundell-Bergman, Synnöve

    2002-09-01

    The current system of radiological protection is aimed at protecting human health, and largely neglects both the effects of radiation on the environment and the managerial aspects of environmental protection. The Swedish Radiation Protection Act was revised in 1988 and includes environmental protection as one of its aims. In practice, little guidance had been given in the regulations based on the Act until 1998, when the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) formulated environmental aims in its regulations concerning protection of human health and the environment in connection to the final management of spent nuclear fuel and waste. These regulations focus on protection of biodiversity and biological resources, based on ecosystem characterisation. In a broader perspective, the Swedish Parliament established 15 national environmental quality objectives in 1999, covering all aspects of protecting the environment, including the effects of radiation. This paper reviews the background for radiological protection of the environment from both an international and a Swedish perspective, describing the aims and current activities in establishing a system for assessing environmental effects and their consequences that can be used in decision-making. Such activities are largely a result of the European Union research project FASSET (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact), carried out under the 5th Framework Programme of the Union. This work is complemented at the Swedish national level by government support to initiate a national environmental monitoring and assessment programme for characterising the radiation environment, which will provide the foundation for decision-making.

  14. Waste disposal and the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection - challenges for radioecology and environmental radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Carl-Magnus

    2009-12-01

    The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) represent a change from a process-based to an exposure-based approach, where exposure situations are categorised as planned, emergency, and existing exposure situations. Although the new Recommendations contain further changes based on, inter alia, scientific developments since the publication of the 1990 Recommendations, they overall represent more continuity than change - a notable exception being the direct consideration of environmental protection. The implications of the new Recommendations for radioactive waste management are fairly marginal, as earlier recommendations in this area are still considered valid. This communication provides a brief overview of the current ICRP system for radiological protection as applied to radioactive waste management, as well as an outlook including the possibility of using the developing ICRP system for management of environmental effects as an 'alternative way of reasoning' when building the safety case for a specific waste disposal concept.

  15. Balancing theory and practicality: engaging non-ethicists in ethical decision making related to radiological protection.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Nicole; Wueste, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses an approach for engaging radiation protection professionals in the ethical aspects of decision-making, with discussion on how this approach fits in with the existing system of radiological protection. It explores finding common ground between ethical and scientific theory, how to present relevant moral theory in accessible language, and provides a practical framework for dealing with real-world problems. Although establishing the ethical theory behind the system of radiological protection is an important ongoing endeavour within the community, it is equally important to communicate this information in a way that is useful to non-ethicists. Discussion of both ethical theory and a useful strategy for applying the theory makes ethics more accessible to those working in the field by providing them with the knowledge and confidence to apply ethical principles in decisions and practice.

  16. Changes in radiological protection and quality control in Spanish dental installations: 1996-2003.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz-Baños, Miguel; Parra-Pérez, María del Carmen; Armero-Barranco, David; Velasco-Hidalgo, Francisco; Velasco-Hidalgo, Esteban

    2009-10-01

    The European Union has established specific directives concerning radiological protection which are obligatory for member States. In addition, all Spanish dental clinics with radiological equipment are required to have an annual quality control check. To analyze the effect of new European legislation on dental radiological practice in Spain and to determine whether it has resulted in lower doses being administered to patients. A total of 10,171 official radiological quality control reports on Spanish dental clinics, covering 16 autonomous regions, were studied following the passing of Royal Decree 2071/1995 on quality criteria in radiodiagnostic installations. The reports, compiled by U.T.P.R Asigma S.A., a company authorised by the Nuclear Safety Council, cover the years 1996 to 2003, which has enabled us to monitor the evolution of radiological procedures in dental clinics over a seven year period. According to the reports for 2003, 77.3 % of clinics complied with EU requirements, using equipment of 70 kVp, 8 mA, 1.5 mm Al filters, with a collimator length of 20 cm. However, non-compliance was detected in approximately a third (30.8%) of the equipment inspected: alterations in the kilovoltage used, exposure time, performance of the tubing, dosage, linearity/intensity of current and acoustic-luminous signal 6.86%. The mean skin dose reached 3.11 mGy for patients who received an x-ray of an upper molar, representing a decrease of 18% over the seven years studied. there has obviously been a general improvement in the parameters studied, but only 77.3% of the installations complied fully with official EU regulations concerning dental radiological protection.

  17. The evolution of the international system of radiological protection: food for thought from the Nuclear Energy Agency Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Ted

    2003-09-01

    From its inception, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), which is part of the broader Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, has contributed to the development of international radiological protection norms and standards. This continues today, in the form of studies and workshops to assist radiological protection policy makers, regulators and practitioners to develop concepts and approaches to help the international system of radiological protection, as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), to evolve to better serve societal needs. The NEA's Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH), in providing this support, has collaborated closely with the ICRP and strongly supports the current ICRP recommendation development process. In particular, active dialogue with a broad range of stakeholders is contributing to the evolution of concepts towards consensus on new ICRP recommendations. The CRPPH, as a body of ICRP recommendation practitioners, feels that the public, workers and the environment are well protected by the current radiological protection system, but agrees that a new consolidation and clarification of ICRP recommendations would be of value. The intent of the CRPPH in collaborating with ICRP is to develop a system of radiological protection that is simplified, more coherent, firmly based upon science and more clearly presented than the current system. This paper summarises the more detailed views of the CRPPH on the evolution of the system of radiological protection.

  18. A common approach for radiological protection of humans and the environment.

    PubMed

    Holm, L E

    2004-01-01

    Protection of the environment is developing rapidly at the national and international level, but there are still no internationally agreed recommendations as to how radiological protection of the environment should be carried out. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing its existing recommendations for human protection. It has set up a task group with the aim of developing a protection policy for, and suggesting a framework of, the protection of the environment that could feed into its recommendations at the start of the 21st century. The task group will propose a framework for the protection of the environment from harmful effects of radiation, harmonising with the principles for the protection of humans. Although the task group has not yet finalised on the objectives for the environment, these might be to safeguard the environment by preventing or reducing the frequency of effects likely to cause early mortality, reduced reproductive success, or the occurrence of scorable DNA damage in individual fauna and flora to a level where they would have a negligible impact on conservation of species, maintenance of biodiversity, or the health and status of natural habitats or communities. To achieve these objectives, a set of reference dose models, reference dose per unit intake and reference organisms will be required.

  19. Radiological protection, safety and security issues in the industrial and medical applications of radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    The use of radiation sources, namely radioactive sealed or unsealed sources and particle accelerators and beams is ubiquitous in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation. Besides radiological protection of the workers, members of the public and patients in routine situations, the use of radiation sources involves several aspects associated to the mitigation of radiological or nuclear accidents and associated emergency situations. On the other hand, during the last decade security issues became burning issues due to the potential malevolent uses of radioactive sources for the perpetration of terrorist acts using RDD (Radiological Dispersal Devices), RED (Radiation Exposure Devices) or IND (Improvised Nuclear Devices). A stringent set of international legally and non-legally binding instruments, regulations, conventions and treaties regulate nowadays the use of radioactive sources. In this paper, a review of the radiological protection issues associated to the use of radiation sources in the industrial and medical applications of ionizing radiation is performed. The associated radiation safety issues and the prevention and mitigation of incidents and accidents are discussed. A comprehensive discussion of the security issues associated to the global use of radiation sources for the aforementioned applications and the inherent radiation detection requirements will be presented. Scientific, technical, legal, ethical, socio-economic issues are put forward and discussed.

  20. Lessons learned: Radiological protection for emergency workers at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP (part 1).

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2013-01-01

    During the emergency work at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant (APP), Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) and the Japanese government experienced various problems in radiological exposure management for emergency workers. To improve the implementation of appropriate radiological protection, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) issued a series of compulsory directives and provided administrative guidance to TEPCO. Based on the experiences and lessons learned, the MHLW recognized that to properly manage radiological exposure should a similar accident occur at another APP, sufficient measures and systematic preparation for radiological management should be ensured, including the following: a) Should an APP accident occur, assistance from the power company's corporate office or off-site support facilities outside the evacuation area is indispensable; b) Primary contractors must independently implement exposure management operations for the employees of their sub-contractors; c) APP operators should compile an operations manual, stockpile personal protective equipment, and personal alarm dosimeters (PADs) and prepare emergency systems and whole body counters (WBCs); and the labor standards authorities should compile an emergency operations manual.

  1. Optimization of the radiological protection of patients undergoing digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menglong; Chu, Cunkun

    2012-02-01

    Because of a much higher dynamic range of flat panel detectors, patient dose can vary without change of image quality being perceived by radiologists. This condition makes optimization (OT) of radiation protection undergoing digital radiography (DR) more complex, while a chance to reduced patient dose also exists. In this study, we evaluated the difference of patient radiation and image rejection before and after OT to identify if it is necessary to carry out an OT procedure in a routine task with DR. The study consisted of a measurement of the dose area product (DAP) and entrance surface dose (ESD) received by a reference group of patients for eight common radiographic procedures using the DR system before and after OT. Meanwhile image rejection data during two 2-month periods were collected and sorted according to reason. For every radiographic procedure, t tests showed significant difference in average ESD and DAP before and after OT (p < 0.005). The ESDs from most examinations before OT were three times higher than that after OT. For DAPs, the difference is more significant. Image rejection rate after OT is significantly lower than that before OT (χ (2) = 36.5, p < 0.005). The substantial reductions of dose after OT resulted from appropriate mAs and exposure field. For DR patient dose, less than recommended diagnostic reference level can meet quality criteria and clinic diagnosis.

  2. Challenging the current strategy of radiological protection of the environment: arguments for an ecosystem approach.

    PubMed

    Brèchignac, F; Doi, Masahiro

    2009-12-01

    The system of radiological protection of the environment that is currently under development is one contribution to the general need to adequately protect the environment against stress. Dominated by operational goals, it emphasizes conceptual and methodological approaches that are readily accessible today: reference organisms supported by individual-based traditional ecotoxicological data. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations, especially in a longer run perspective, that need to be acknowledged and further considered. One can mention a few: uncertainties generated by the need for various extrapolations (from lower to higher levels of biological organisation, ...), various features missed such as potential ecological impact through impairment of ecosystem processes, trans-generational impacts as mediated through genomic instability, indirect effects mediated through trophic interactions or disruption of ecological balances,... Such limitations have already been faced in other fields of environmental protection against other stressors, pushing a number of environment professionals to assign stronger emphasis on more systemic approaches. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of the current approach designed for the radiological protection of non-human biota in the broader context of environment protection as a whole, with especial reference to upcoming trends and evolutions. This leads in particular to advocating the need to boost scientific and methodological approaches featuring the ecosystem concept as a mean to access a unified goal of protection: preserving life sustainability through protection of ecosystem structure and functioning.

  3. Are the core values of the radiological protection system shared across cultures?

    PubMed

    Zölzer, F

    2016-06-01

    In spite of ongoing globalisation in many fields, the ethics of radiological protection have long been discussed almost exclusively in terms of 'Western' moral philosophy concepts such as utilitarianism or deontology. A cross-cultural discourse in this field is only just beginning. In 'Principles of Biomedical Ethics', Beauchamp and Childress suggested that there exists a 'common morality' which is 'not relative to cultures or individuals, because it transcends both'. They proposed four cross-culturally valid principles for decision making in medicine: respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. A similar approach is being developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection Task Group 94 on the ethics of radiological protection. Here, the core values are: human dignity, beneficence/non-maleficence, prudence, and justice. Other values could be added, such as consideration for the interests of society as a whole or the interests of future generations, or procedural values such as transparency and accountability; this paper will include a brief discussion on how they relate to the four basic principles. The main question to be addressed here, however, is whether the proposed core values are indeed part of a 'common morality'. This, as it will be argued, cannot be decided by a global opinion poll, but has to be based on an analysis of the written and oral traditions that have provided ethical orientation throughout history, and are still considered seminal by the majority of people. It turns out that there are indeed many commonalities across cultures, and that the concept of globally shared core values for the radiological protection system is not hopelessly idealistic.

  4. Regulatory experience in applying a radiological environmental protection framework for existing and planned nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Mihok, S; Thompson, P

    2012-01-01

    Frameworks and methods for the radiological protection of non-human biota have been evolving rapidly at the International Commission on Radiological Protection and through various European initiatives. The International Atomic Energy Agency has incorporated a requirement for environmental protection in the latest revision of its Basic Safety Standards. In Canada, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission has been legally obligated to prevent unreasonable risk to the environment since 2000. Licensees have therefore been meeting generic legal requirements to demonstrate adequate control of releases of radioactive substances for the protection of both people and biota for many years. In the USA, in addition to the generic requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Energy facilities have also had to comply with specific dose limits after a standard assessment methodology was finalised in 2002. Canadian regulators developed a similar framework for biota dose assessment through a regulatory assessment under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act in the late 1990s. Since then, this framework has been applied extensively to satisfy legal requirements under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and the Nuclear Safety and Control Act. After approximately a decade of experience in applying these methods, it is clear that simple methods are fit for purpose, and can be used for making regulatory decisions for existing and planned nuclear facilities. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Involving stakeholders in radiological protection decision making: recovery history and lessons from the people of Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Lazo, T

    2016-09-20

    Between September 2011 and August 2015, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) organised a series of 12 stakeholder dialogue workshops with residents of Fukushima Prefecture. Discussions focused on recovery, addressing topics such as protection of children, management of contaminated food, monitoring, and self-help measures. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) supported, and the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) Secretariat attended, all 12 meetings to listen directly to the concerns of affected individuals and draw lessons for CRPPH. To summarise the dialogue results, ICRP organised a final meeting in Date, Japan with the support of NEA and other organisations. The lessons from and utility of the dialogue meetings were praised by dialogue participants and sponsors, and ICRP agreed that some form of dialogue would continue, although with ICRP participation and support rather than leadership. This paper summarises the internationally relevant lessons learned by CRPPH from this important process.

  6. Feasibility study for a realistic training dedicated to radiological protection improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courageot, Estelle; Reinald, Kutschera; Gaillard-Lecanu, Emmanuelle; Sylvie, Jahan; Riedel, Alexandre; Therache, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Any personnel involved in activities within the controlled area of a nuclear facility must be provided with appropriate radiological protection training. An evident purpose of this training is to know the regulation dedicated to workplaces where ionizing radiation may be present, in order to properly carry out the radiation monitoring, to use suitable protective equipments and to behave correctly if unexpected working conditions happen. A major difficulty of this training consist in having the most realistic reading from the monitoring devices for a given exposure situation, but without using real radioactive sources. A new approach is developed at EDF R&D for radiological protection training. This approach combines different technologies, in an environment representative of the workplace but geographically separated from the nuclear power plant: a training area representative of a workplace, a Man Machine Interface used by the trainer to define the source configuration and the training scenario, a geolocalization system, fictive radiation monitoring devices and a particle transport code able to calculate in real time the dose map due to the virtual sources. In a first approach, our real-time particles transport code, called Moderato, used only an attenuation low in straight line. To improve the realism further, we would like to switch a code based on the Monte Carlo transport of particles method like Geant 4 or MCNPX instead of Moderato. The aim of our study is the evaluation of the code in our application, in particular, the possibility to keep a real time response of our architecture.

  7. [Fetus radiation doses from nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures. Potential risks and radiation protection instructions].

    PubMed

    Markou, Pavlos

    2007-01-01

    Although in pregnancy it is strongly recommended to avoid diagnostic nuclear medicine and radiology procedures, in cases of clinical necessity or when pregnancy is not known to the physician, these diagnostic procedures are to be applied. In such cases, counseling based on accurate information and comprehensive discussion about the risks of radiation exposure to the fetus should follow. In this article, estimations of the absorbed radiation doses due to nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures during the pregnancy and their possible risk effects to the fetus are examined and then discussed. Stochastic and detrimental effects are evaluated with respect to other risk factors and related to the fetus absorbed radiation dose and to the post-conception age. The possible termination of a pregnancy, due to radiation exposure is discussed. Special radiation protection instructions are given for radiation exposures in cases of possible, confirmed or unknown pregnancies. It is concluded that nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures, if not repeated during the pregnancy, are rarely an indication for the termination of pregnancy, because the dose received by the fetus is expected to be less than 100 mSv, which indicates the threshold dose for having deterministic effects. Therefore, the risk for the fetus due to these diagnostic procedures is low. However, stochastic effects are still possible but will be minimized if the radiation absorbed dose to the fetus is kept as low as possible.

  8. Web-based tools for quality assurance and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Moores, B M; Charnock, P; Ward, M

    2010-01-01

    Practical and philosophical aspects of radiation protection in diagnostic radiology have changed very little over the past 50 y even though patient doses have continued to rise significantly in this period. This rise has been driven by technological developments, such as multi-slice computed tomography, that have been able to improve diagnostic accuracy but not necessarily provide the same level of risk-benefit to all patients or groups of patients given the dose levels involved. Can practical radiation protection strategies hope to keep abreast of these ongoing developments? A project was started in 1992 in Liverpool that aimed to develop IT driven quality assurance (QA)/radiation protection software tools based upon a modular quality assurance dose data system. One of the modules involved the assessment of the patient entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for an X-ray examination that was based upon the use of calibrated X-ray tube exposure factors to calculate ESAK as well as collecting appropriate patient details (age, sex, weight, thickness etc). The package also contained modules for logging all necessary equipment performance QA data. This paper will outline the experience gained with this system through its transition from a local application on a stand alone PC within the department to the current web-based approach. Advantages of a web-based approach to delivering such an application as well as centrally storing data originating on many hospital sites will be discussed together with the scientific support processes that can be developed with such a system. This will include local, national and international considerations. The advantages of importing radiographic examination details directly from other electronic storage systems such as a hospital's radiology information system will be presented together with practical outcomes already achieved. This will include the application of statistical techniques to the very large data sets generated. The development

  9. International Commission on Radiological Protection Committee 1: Current Status and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, William F.

    2015-05-19

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), Committee 1 (C1) considers the risk of induction of cancer and heritable disease (stochastic effects) together with the underlying mechanisms of radiation action. C1 also considers the risks, severity, and mechanisms of induction of tissue/organ damage and developmental defects (deterministic effects). The committee was significantly revamped in 2013 and last met in Abu Dhabi in October of 2013. C1 evaluated progress on two ongoing Task Groups (TG’s); TG 64 “Cancer Risk from Alpha Emitters” and TG 75 “Stem Cell Radiobiology”. Following approval from the Main Commission (MC), C1 established two new TG’s; TG 91 “Radiation Risk Inference at Low Dose and Low Dose Rate Exposure for Radiological Protection Purposes”, and TG 92 “Terminology and Definitions”. Here I will present a synopsis of the current status of C1 and outline the tasks C1 may undertake in the future.

  10. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ON FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY MEASUREMENT FOR RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION: STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES.

    PubMed

    Calmet, D; Ameon, R; Bombard, A; Brun, S; Byrde, F; Chen, J; Duda, J-M; Forte, M; Fournier, M; Fronka, A; Haug, T; Herranz, M; Husain, A; Jerome, S; Jiranek, M; Judge, S; Kim, S B; Kwakman, P; Loyen, J; LLaurado, M; Michel, R; Porterfield, D; Ratsirahonana, A; Richards, A; Rovenska, K; Sanada, T; Schuler, C; Thomas, L; Tokonami, S; Tsapalov, A; Yamada, T

    2017-04-01

    Radiological protection is a matter of concern for members of the public and thus national authorities are more likely to trust the quality of radioactivity data provided by accredited laboratories using common standards. Normative approach based on international standards aims to ensure the accuracy or validity of the test result through calibrations and measurements traceable to the International System of Units. This approach guarantees that radioactivity test results on the same types of samples are comparable over time and space as well as between different testing laboratories. Today, testing laboratories involved in radioactivity measurement have a set of more than 150 international standards to help them perform their work. Most of them are published by the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This paper reviews the most essential ISO standards that give guidance to testing laboratories at different stages from sampling planning to the transmission of the test report to their customers, summarizes recent activities and achievements and present the perspectives on new standards under development by the ISO Working Groups dealing with radioactivity measurement in connection with radiological protection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Radiation Protection in Pediatric Radiology: Results of a Survey Among Dutch Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bijwaard, Harmen; Valk, Doreth; de Waard-Schalkx, Ischa

    2016-10-01

    A survey about radiation protection in pediatric radiology was conducted among 22 general and seven children's hospitals in the Netherlands. Questions concerned, for example, child protocols used for CT, fluoroscopy and x-ray imaging, number of images and scans made, radiation doses and measures taken to reduce these, special tools used for children, and quality assurance issues. The answers received from 27 hospitals indicate that radiation protection practices differ considerably between general and children's hospitals but also between the respective general and children's hospitals. It is recommended that hospitals consult each other to come up with more uniform best practices. Few hospitals were able to supply doses that can be compared to the national Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs). The ones that could be compared exceeded the DRLs in one in five cases, which is more than was expected beforehand.

  12. Global nuclear industry views: challenges arising from the evolution of the optimisation principle in radiological protection.

    PubMed

    Saint-Pierre, S

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the steady progress achieved in reducing planned exposures of both workers and the public has been admirable in the nuclear sector. However, the disproportionate focus on tiny public exposures and radioactive discharges associated with normal operations came at a high price, and the quasi-denial of a risk of major accident and related weaknesses in emergency preparedness and response came at an even higher price. Fukushima has unfortunately taught us that radiological protection (RP) for emergency and post-emergency situations can be much more than a simple evacuation that lasts 24-48 h, with people returning safely to their homes soon afterwards. On optimisation of emergency and post-emergency exposures, the only 'show in town' in terms of international RP policy improvements has been the issuance of the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). However, no matter how genuine these improvements are, they have not been 'road tested' on the practical reality of severe accidents. Post-Fukushima, there is a compelling case to review the practical adequacy of key RP notions such as optimisation, evacuation, sheltering, and reference levels for workers and the public, and to amend these notions with a view to making the international RP system more useful in the event of a severe accident. On optimisation of planned exposures, the reality is that, nowadays, margins for further reductions of public doses in the nuclear sector are very small, and the smaller the dose, the greater the extra effort needed to reduce the dose further. If sufficient caution is not exercised in the use of RP notions such as dose constraints, there is a real risk of challenging nuclear power technologies beyond safety reasons. For nuclear new build, it is the optimisation of key operational parameters of nuclear power technologies (not RP) that is of paramount importance to improve their overall efficiency. In pursuing

  13. Lower bound of optimization in radiological protection system taking account of practical implementation of clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Takatoshi

    2007-07-01

    The dose criterion used to derive clearance and exemption levels is of the order of 0.01 mSv/y based on the Basic Safety Standard (BSS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the use of which has been agreed upon by many countries. It is important for human beings, who are facing the fact that global resources for risk reduction are limited, to carefully consider the practical implementation of radiological protection systems, particularly for low-radiation-dose regions. For example, in direct gamma ray monitoring, to achieve clearance level compliance, difficult issues on how the uncertainty (error) of gamma measurement should be handled and also how the uncertainty (scattering) of the estimation of non-gamma emitters should be treated in clearance must be resolved. To resolve these issues, a new probabilistic approach has been proposed to establish an appropriate safety factor for compliance with the clearance level in Japan. This approach is based on the fundamental concept that 0.1 mSv/y should be complied with the 97.5. percentile of the probability distribution for the uncertainties of both the measurement and estimation of non-gamma emitters. The International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP published a new concept of the representative person in Publication 101 Part I. The representative person is a hypothetical person exposed to a dose that is representative of those of highly exposed persons in a population. In a probabilistic dose assessment, the ICRP recommends that the representative person should be defined such that the probability of exposure occurrence is lower than about 5% that of a person randomly selected from the population receiving a high dose. From the new concept of the ICRP, it is reasonable to consider that the 95. percentile of the dose distribution for the representative person is theoretically always lower than the dose constraint. Using this established relationship, it can be concluded that the minimum dose

  14. Some aspects on radiation protection in conventional and digital radiology in Romania.

    PubMed

    Milu, Constantin; Dumitrescu, Alina

    2008-01-01

    Since 1965, medical radiation exposure in the population of Romania has been evaluated by the Network of Radiation Hygiene Laboratories of the Ministry of Public Health, including 23 laboratories throughout the whole country; the network is co-ordinated by the Institute of Public Health Bucharest. In Romania, for a population of 22.5 million inhabitants, 465 X-ray examinations were reported during the last survey, the most frequent being chest examination. There was no specific reference to digital radiology. Digital radiology has been introduced only recently in Romania, and only some rough data on the situation can be presented. Siemens AG is now present in Romania with 23 installations, type SIEREGRAPH CF and AXIOM ICONOS. A digital image intensifier technique is used only for fluoroscopy, and radiography is performed using a conventional film/screen combination. The company Philips has nine installations for angiography, model INTEGRIS, and uses a computed radiography technique. Several direct digital radiography MULTISYSTEM SWISSRAY installations (about 40 units) are also available for adult and paediatric examinations. The Council Directive 97/43/EURATOM on health protection of individuals against dangers of ionising radiation in relation to medical exposure was fully transformed into Romanian legislation in 2002.

  15. Maintaining competence in radiological protection in emergency situations: a challenge for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    State-of-the-art radiological protection in emergency situations requires specific technical resources, qualified personnel and competence in a variety of scientific and technical areas. In many developed countries a high technical standard is available currently in these areas. There are, however, strong indicators that future expertise is at risk. The indicators are declining university enrolment, dilution of university course content and high retirement expectations of staff members, with little or no replacement planned. This paper describes the underlying problem and makes recommendations for an action plan that includes both short-term actions and a long-term strategy to minimise the emerging risks. A strategic approach will be required to stop the decline and to avoid a drop in competence to an unacceptable level.

  16. Development of composite materials for non-leaded gloves for use in radiological hand protection.

    PubMed

    Dodoo-Amoo, David N A; Landsberger, Sheldon; MacDonald, John M; Castro, Julio M

    2003-06-01

    Lead is a hazardous material, and the U.S. Congress has mandated the rapid reduction of all hazardous waste generation as a matter of national policy. With the large amount of plutonium handling in numerous projects including the development of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, 238Pu power sources, etc., hand glove protection for the emitted alpha, beta, and low energy photons is an important issue. Leaded gloves are the prime shields used for radiological hand protection. U.S. Department of Energy laboratories require a substitute material for the lead oxide in the gloves as a way to reduce mixed waste. To solve this problem, a new blend of non-hazardous materials that have the same radiological properties and approximately the same cost of production have been investigated. The investigations have produced alternative materials using calculations and experiments. The selection of the constituent compounds for the new composite materials was based on the k-absorption edge energy of the main constituent element(s) in the compounds. The formulations of these composites were fashioned on the principle of blending Neoprene rubber formulation with several constituent compounds. Calculations based on the Lambert-Beer attenuation law together with the mass attenuation coefficient values from the XCOM cross section database program were used to determine the transmission fractions of these proposed composite materials. Selected composite materials that compared favorably with the leaded-Neoprene were fabricated. These fabricated composite materials were tested with attenuation experiments and the results were in excellent agreement with the calculations using the Lambert-Beer attenuation law.

  17. Radiological protection and the exposure of animals as patients in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Pentreath, R J

    2016-06-01

    It is apparent that most of the techniques that make use of ionising radiation in human medical practices are now being applied in veterinary medicine. Steps are being taken by the IAEA to provide guidance for humans involved in such practices, but there appears to be no international initiative that considers the protection or welfare of the animal as a patient. There is therefore a risk that the deliberate exposure of an animal, particularly in the therapeutic application of radiation, could do more harm than good. In the light of recent developments in dosimetric modelling and the application of known effects of radiation on different types of animals, for the purposes of the protection of biota in an environmental context, it is argued that it would be sensible now to start a serious consideration of this issue. Some suggestions are made with regard to a number of areas that could be considered further, both specifically and with regard to the field of radiological protection as a whole.

  18. Report of ICRP Task Group 80: 'radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste'.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W

    2012-01-01

    The report of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Task Group 80 entitled 'Radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste' updates and consolidates previous ICRP recommendations related to solid waste disposal (ICRP Publications 46, 77, and 81). The recommendations given in this report apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the 2007 system of radiological protection, described in ICRP Publication 103, can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report is written as a self-standing document. It describes the different stages in the lifetime of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that influences application of the protection system over the different phases in the lifetime of a disposal facility is the level of oversight that is present. The level of oversight affects the capability to reduce or avoid exposures. Three main time frames have to be considered for the purpose of radiological protection: time of direct oversight when the disposal facility is being implemented and active oversight is taking place; time of indirect oversight when the disposal facility is sealed and indirect oversight is being exercised to provide additional assurance on behalf of the population; and time of no oversight when oversight is no longer exercised because memory is lost. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The impact of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on radiology: beyond reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, Arun; Norbash, Alexander; Allen, Bibb; Ellenbogen, Paul H; Kazerooni, Ella A; Thorwarth, William; Weinreb, Jeffrey C

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 ACR Forum focused on the noneconomic implications of the Affordable Care Act on the field of radiology, with specific attention to the importance of the patient experience, the role of radiology in public and population health, and radiology's role in the effort to lower overall health care costs. The recommendations generated from the Forum seek to inform ACR leadership on the best strategies to pursue to best prepare the radiology community for the rapidly evolving health care landscape. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Digital radiology using active matrix readout of amorphous selenium: detectors with high voltage protection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, W; Law, J; Waechter, D; Huang, Z; Rowlands, J A

    1998-04-01

    A flat-panel x-ray imaging detector is being investigated for digital radiography and fluoroscopy. The detector uses a layer of amorphous selenium (a-Se) to convert x rays to a charge image, which is then electronically read out with a two-dimensional array of thin film transistors (TFTs). In order to sensitize the a-Se layer to x rays, a high voltage (of the order of several thousand volts) is applied to its top surface. The TFTs, which are at the bottom surface of the a-Se layer, are not subjected to any high voltage under normal radiological operational conditions since the pixel potential is < 10 V. However under a fault condition where these two events occur simultaneously: (1) suspended detector scan; and (2) an x-ray exposure more than ten times higher than normal, the voltage on the TFTs could rise to a damaging value. This paper describes a method for protecting the TFTs from high voltage damage under this fault condition. It employs a dual-gate TFT structure, one gate is for scanning control and the other is connected to the pixel electrode for high voltage protection. Before the pixel potential reaches a damaging value, the protection gate turns on the TFT automatically and drains excess charge away from the pixel thus providing a safe pixel saturation potential. In this paper, the characteristic curves of dual-gate TFTs are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The pixel x-ray response for imaging detectors with high voltage protection are predicted, and it is shown that with practical TFT designs the detector can provide a safe pixel saturation potential as well as satisfy the dynamic range required for diagnostic x-ray imaging applications.

  1. ICRP Publication 131: Stem Cell Biology with Respect to Carcinogenesis Aspects of Radiological Protection.

    PubMed

    Niwa, O; Barcellos-Hoff, M H; Globus, R K; Harrison, J D; Hendry, J H; Jacob, P; Martin, M T; Seed, T M; Shay, J W; Story, M D; Suzuki, K; Yamashita, S

    2015-12-01

    This report provides a review of stem cells/progenitor cells and their responses to ionising radiation in relation to issues relevant to stochastic effects of radiation that form a major part of the International Commission on Radiological Protection's system of radiological protection. Current information on stem cell characteristics, maintenance and renewal, evolution with age, location in stem cell 'niches', and radiosensitivity to acute and protracted exposures is presented in a series of substantial reviews as annexes concerning haematopoietic tissue, mammary gland, thyroid, digestive tract, lung, skin, and bone. This foundation of knowledge of stem cells is used in the main text of the report to provide a biological insight into issues such as the linear-no-threshold (LNT) model, cancer risk among tissues, dose-rate effects, and changes in the risk of radiation carcinogenesis by age at exposure and attained age. Knowledge of the biology and associated radiation biology of stem cells and progenitor cells is more developed in tissues that renew fairly rapidly, such as haematopoietic tissue, intestinal mucosa, and epidermis, although all the tissues considered here possess stem cell populations. Important features of stem cell maintenance, renewal, and response are the microenvironmental signals operating in the niche residence, for which a well-defined spatial location has been identified in some tissues. The identity of the target cell for carcinogenesis continues to point to the more primitive stem cell population that is mostly quiescent, and hence able to accumulate the protracted sequence of mutations necessary to result in malignancy. In addition, there is some potential for daughter progenitor cells to be target cells in particular cases, such as in haematopoietic tissue and in skin. Several biological processes could contribute to protecting stem cells from mutation accumulation: (a) accurate DNA repair; (b) rapidly induced death of injured stem cells

  2. Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) program : implementing physical security to protect large radioactive sources worldwide.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, Daniel L.

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Radiological Threat Reduction (RTR) Program strives to reduce the threat of a Radiological Dispersion Device (RDD) incident that could affect U.S. interests worldwide. Sandia National Laboratories supports the RTR program on many different levels. Sandia works directly with DOE to develop strategies, including the selection of countries to receive support and the identification of radioactive materials to be protected. Sandia also works with DOE in the development of guidelines and in training DOE project managers in physical protection principles. Other support to DOE includes performing rapid assessments and providing guidance for establishing foreign regulatory and knowledge infrastructure. Sandia works directly with foreign governments to establish cooperative agreements necessary to implement the RTR Program efforts to protect radioactive sources. Once necessary agreements are in place, Sandia works with in-country organizations to implement various security related initiatives, such as installing security systems and searching for (and securing) orphaned radioactive sources. The radioactive materials of interest to the RTR program include Cobalt 60, Cesium 137, Strontium 90, Iridium 192, Radium 226, Plutonium 238, Americium 241, Californium 252, and Others. Security systems are implemented using a standardized approach that provides consistency through out the RTR program efforts at Sandia. The approach incorporates a series of major tasks that overlap in order to provide continuity. The major task sequence is to: Establish in-country contacts - integrators, Obtain material characterizations, Perform site assessments and vulnerability assessments, Develop upgrade plans, Procure and install equipment, Conduct acceptance testing and performance testing, Develop procedures, and Conduct training. Other tasks are incorporated as appropriate and commonly include such as support of reconfiguring infrastructure, and developing security

  3. An improved system of damage limitation for better risk control in radiological protection near environmental level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salikin, MD. Saion

    In radiological protection, models are used to assess radiation risk by means of extrapolation from high dose and dose rate to low dose and dose rate. In this thesis five main biophysical models of radiation action have been evaluated, appraised and inter-compared. The five models are lethal and potentially lethal (LPL) by Curtis, pairwise lesion interaction (PLI) by Harder, cellular track structure (CTS) by Katz, hit size effectiveness (HSE) by Bond and Varma and track core (TC) by Watt. Each model has been developed based on certain underlying mechanisms or phenomena, to permit interpretation and prediction on the induction of a specified biological endpoint such as cell reproductive death, chromosome aberrations and mutations. Biological systems of interest are, for example, mammalian cells containing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Evidence is mounting that double strand breaks in the DNA are the critical lesions for various biological end points. To proceed with this work the TC model has been chosen. Cancer induction by ionising radiation is the stochastic effect of prime concern in radiological protection. Cancer induction cannot be avoided entirely but its frequency of occurrence may be reduced to acceptable level by lowering the amount of radiation received. The methods of assessment developed by ICRP, in terms of the cancer risk coefficients, are presented in this thesis. In the conventional (legal) system of dosimetry, radiation is quantified by the amount of energy absorbed per unit mass of tissue. Quality factors, superseded by radiation weighting factors, are needed to account for the quality dependence on radiation type. As an alternative, a new dosimetry system is proposed here which is based on the mean free path for primary ionisation along particle tracks and the integral fluence generated by the radiation field, whether directly or indirectly ionising radiation. From the study of cellular data, the mean free path for primary ionisation along

  4. Cosmic radiation in aviation: radiological protection of Air France aircraft crew.

    PubMed

    Desmaris, G

    2016-06-01

    Cosmic radiation in aviation has been a concern since the 1960s, and measurements have been taken for several decades by Air France. Results show that aircraft crew generally receive 3-4 mSv y(-1) for 750 boarding hours. Compliance with the trigger level of 6 mSv y(-1) is achieved by route selection. Work schedules can be developed for pregnant pilots to enable the dose to the fetus to be kept below 1 mSv. Crew members are informed of their exposition and the potential health impact. The upcoming International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report on cosmic radiation in aviation will provide an updated guidance. A graded approach proportionate with the time of exposure is recommended to implement the optimisation principle. The objective is to keep exposures of the most exposed aircraft members to reasonable levels. ICRP also recommends that information about cosmic radiation be disseminated, and that awareness about cosmic radiation be raised in order to favour informed decision-making by all concerned stakeholders.

  5. Spanish dental hygienist attitudes to dental radiological protection: assessment of a 1-day pilot course.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Beneyto, Y; Camacho-Alonso, F; Alcaraz-Baños, M; López-Jornet, P; Perez-Lajarin, L

    2008-02-01

    To determine hygienists' knowledge of and attitudes to X-ray equipment and film processing, and to assess both after a 1-day course. One-hundred and four dental hygienists from the south-east of Spain attending a 1-day course in oral radiology. A questionnaire comprising different sections related with socio-demographic items, X-ray equipment and the processing of dental films was answered before and after a 1-day pilot course on radiation protection. The response rate was 89.42% (n = 93). Of the participants 94.6% were women, with a mean age of 29.52 (SD 6.861) and 7.20 years of professional experience (SD 5.089). The level of knowledge before the course was 48.28%, which increased to 85.62% after the course (P < 0.001). The prescribed standard was reached by <23.65% of those attending the course at the beginning. Although attending the course led to a considerable improvement, it did not always result in a high level of knowledge of basic radiation equipment and processing.

  6. Radiological Control Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records.

  7. Accelerators in our past, present, and future: A challenge to radiological protection in the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.H. |

    1993-09-01

    The foundations of many of the subdisciplines of radiological protection laid in accelerator laboratories began with the invention of accelerators. This paper suggests that the discipline of accelerator radiological protection has played and will continue play a more significant part in our lives than is generally recognized. A brief review of some existing uses of accelerators by society is given, and a few probable future uses are described. These future applications will result in the exposure of accelerator (or {open_quotes}mixed{close_quotes}) radiation fields to an increased population. Consequently, what are perceived to be the rather specialized concerns of today`s accelerator health physicists will -- by necessity -- become of general interest to all health physicists.

  8. Development of composite materials for non-leaded glove for use in radiological hand protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodoo-Amoo, David Nii Amoo

    Lead is a hazardous material and US congress has mandated the rapid reduction of all hazardous waste generation as a matter of national policy. With the large amount of plutonium handling in numerous projects including the development of MOX fuel, power source etc., hand glove protection for the emitted alpha-beta- and low energy photons is an important issue. Leaded gloves are the prime shields used for radiological hand protection. US Department of Energy laboratories require a substitute material for the lead oxide in the gloves, as a way to reduced mixed waste. To solve this problem, a new blend of non-hazardous materials that have the same radiological properties, approximately the same cost of production, and lastly not potentially fall under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulation, to replace the lead oxide currently used in the gloves had been investigated. The investigations have produced alternative materials using calculations (deterministic and Monte Carlo, MCNP) and experiments. The selection of the constituent compounds for the new composite materials, were based on the k-absorption edge energy of the main constituent element(s) in the compound. The formulations of these composites were fashioned on the principle of blending neoprene rubber formulation with several constituent compounds. Calculations based on the Lambert-Beer attenuation law together with the mass attenuation coefficient values from the XCOM cross section database program were used to determine the transmission fractions of these proposed composite materials. Selected composite materials that compared favorably with the leaded-neoprene were fabricated. These fabricated composite materials were tested with attenuation experiments and the results were in excellent agreement with the calculations using the Lambert-Beer law. For the purpose of benchmarking the result of the calculations, Monte Carlo calculations were also made. The success of this research would mean

  9. Radiological Environmental Protection for PEP-II Ring High Luminosity Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, James C.; Nakao, Noriaki; /SLAC

    2006-08-16

    Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is located in northern California, USA. Radiological environmental protection is one of the main elements of the radiation protection program. One of SLAC's accelerator facilities is B-Factory, whose PEP-II accelerator ring has been operating since 1997 and is being upgraded to higher luminosity operation. Four radiological issues associated with high luminosity operation up to CY2008 are re-evaluated: (1) annual doses in IR halls, (2) annual skyshine doses at site boundaries, (3) potential radioactive air releases, and (4) potential groundwater activation. This paper presents the skyshine doses and air emission doses to the Maximally Exposed Individual (MEI) at SLAC site boundaries. The normal beam loss scenarios around PEP-II ring are presented first. In CY2008, the luminosity is 2 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, and the stored current is 4.0-A for low-energy ring (LER ) and 2.2-A for high-energy ring (HER). The beam losses around PEP-II ring include those near injection region in IR10 and IR8 and those at collimators (e.g., HER collimators in IR12, LER collimators in IR4 and IR6). The beam losses in IR8 and IR10 (where injection into ring occurs) are further divided into septum, BAD (beam abort dump) and TD (tune-up dump), as well as apertures. The skyshine prompt dose rate distributions as a function of distance from an IR hall at four directions were calculated using the MARS15 Monte Carlo code. For skyshine dose to the MEI, the annual dose (7200 h/y occupancy) is calculated to be 2.9 mrem/y at Sand Hill Road (from e{sup -} losses in IR12 HER collimators) and 1.2 mrem/y at Horse Track Offices near IR6 (from e{sup +} losses in IR8, IR6 and IR4). These are lower than the SLAC skyshine limit of 5 mrem/y for any single facility within SLAC. Radionuclide productions in the air at the PEP-II IR10 were calculated using MARS15. Beam losses of 9-GeV electrons were assumed in three target cases: the copper TD, septum and BAD

  10. Awareness of radiation protection and dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiography students, and radiology residents at an academic hospital: Results of a comprehensive survey.

    PubMed

    Faggioni, Lorenzo; Paolicchi, Fabio; Bastiani, Luca; Guido, Davide; Caramella, Davide

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the awareness of radiation protection issues and the knowledge of dose levels of imaging procedures among medical students, radiology residents, and radiography students at an academic hospital. A total of 159 young doctors and students (including 60 radiology residents, 56 medical students, and 43 radiography students) were issued a questionnaire consisting of 16 multiple choice questions divided into three separated sections (i.e., demographic data, awareness about radiation protection issues, and knowledge about radiation dose levels of common radiological examinations). Medical students claimed to have at least a good knowledge of radiation protection issues more frequently than radiology residents and radiography students (94.4% vs 55% and 35.7%, respectively; P<0.05), with no cases of perceived excellent knowledge among radiography students. However, the actual knowledge of essential radiation protection topics such as regulations, patient and tissue susceptibility to radiation damage, professional radiation risk and dose optimisation, as well as of radiation doses delivered by common radiological procedures was significantly worse among medical students than radiology residents and radiography students (P<0.05). Those latter significantly outperformed radiology residents as to knowledge of radiation protection issues (P<0.01). Overall, less than 50% of survey respondents correctly answered all questions of the survey. Radiology residents, radiography students and medical students have a limited awareness about radiation protection, with a specific gap of knowledge concerning real radiation doses of daily radiological examinations. Both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching needs to be effectively implemented with radiation safety courses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on academic radiology departments' clinical, research, and education missions.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, Bahar; Vidal, Lorenna L; Applegate, Kimberly; Rawson, James V; Novak, Ronald D; Ros, Pablo R

    2013-10-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) generated significant media attention since its inception. When the law was approved in 2010, the U.S. health care system began facing multiple changes to adapt and to incorporate measures to meet the new requirements. These mandatory changes will be challenging for academic radiology departments (ARDs) since they will need to promote a shift from a volume-focused to a value-focused practice. This will affect all components of the mission of ARDs, including clinical practice, education, and research. A unique key element to success in this transition is to focus on both quality and safety, thus improving the value of radiology in the post-ACA era. Given the changes ARDs will face during the implementation of ACA, suggestions are provided on how to adapt ARDs to this new environment.

  12. Occupational radiation dose to eyes from interventional radiology procedures in light of the new eye lens dose limit from the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, U; Walsh, C; Gallagher, A; Dowling, A; Guiney, M; Ryan, J M; McEniff, N; O'Reilly, G

    2015-05-01

    In 2011, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended a substantial reduction in the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye, in line with a reduced threshold of absorbed dose for radiation-induced cataracts. This is of particular relevance in interventional radiology (IR) where it is well established that staff doses can be significant, however, there is a lack of data on IR eye doses in terms of Hp(3). Hp(3) is the personal dose equivalent at a depth of 3 mm in soft tissue and is used for measuring lens dose. We aimed to obtain a reliable estimate of eye dose to IR operators. Lens doses were measured for four interventional radiologists over a 3-month period using dosemeters specifically designed to measure Hp(3). Based on their typical workloads, two of the four interventional radiologists would exceed the new ICRP dose limit with annual estimated doses of 31 and 45 mSv to their left eye. These results are for an "unprotected" eye, and for IR staff who routinely wear lead glasses, the dose beneath the glasses is likely to be significantly lower. Staff eye dose normalized to patient kerma-area product and eye dose per procedure have been included in the analysis. Eye doses to IR operators have been established using a dedicated Hp(3) dosemeter. Estimated annual doses have the potential to exceed the new ICRP limit. We have estimated lens dose to interventional radiologists in terms of Hp(3) for the first time in an Irish hospital setting.

  13. Establishment of new regulations for radiological protection for decontamination work involving radioactive fallout emitted by the Fukushima Daiichi APP accident.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Shojiro

    2013-01-01

    In response to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant (APP) on March 11, 2011, the Japanese government decided to carry out decontamination projects around the plant. For the radiological protection of the decontamination workers, the Japanese government needed to establish new regulations because the existing regulation did not fit into "existing exposure situations" in which radioactive sources were scattered and spread in a wide area around the plant. The new regulations aim to set the appropriate protection standards in accordance with the risk of the ambient dose rate, radioactivity concentration, and type of radio nucleolus resulting from the APP accident, which is equivalent to or more than the typical protection required in planned situations. To maintain practicability, the Japanese government employed a validated and simplified measurement methodology for the internal exposure, ambient dose rate, and radioactivity concentration, considering restrictions in human resources and shortages of supplies in the affected areas. The article also identifies key challenges which require further research.

  14. The Importance of Building and Enhancing Worldwide Industry Cooperation in the Areas of Radiological Protection, Waste Management and Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Saint-Pierre, S.

    2006-07-01

    The slow or stagnant rate of nuclear power generation development in many developed countries over the last two decades has resulted in a significant shortage in the population of mid-career nuclear industry professionals. This shortage is even more pronounced in some specific areas of expertise such as radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning. This situation has occurred at a time when the renaissance of nuclear power and the globalization of the nuclear industry are steadily gaining momentum and when the industry's involvement in international and national debates in these three fields of expertise (and the industry's impact on these debates) is of vital importance. This paper presents the World Nuclear Association (WNA) approach to building and enhancing worldwide industry cooperation in radiological protection, waste management and decommissioning, which is manifested through the activities of the two WNA working groups on radiological protection (RPWG) and on waste management and decommissioning (WM and DWG). This paper also briefly describes the WNA's participatory role, as of summer 2005, in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard development committees on radiation safety (RASSC), waste safety (WASSC) and nuclear safety (NUSSC). This participation provides the worldwide nuclear industry with an opportunity to be part of IAEA's discussions on shaping changes to the control regime of IAEA safety standards. The review (and the prospect of a revision) of IAEA safety standards, which began in October 2005, makes this WNA participation and the industry ' s involvement at the national level timely and important. All of this excellent industry cooperation and team effort is done through 'collegial' exchanges between key industry experts, which help tackle important issues more effectively. The WNA is continuously looking to enhance its worldwide industry representation in these fields of expertise through the RPWG and WM and DWG

  15. Decision-making and radiological protection at Three Mile Island: response of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-02-01

    Decision-making by decision-makers during the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island all had to do in some way, and impacted on the public health and safety, the health and safety of the workers, and emergency preparedness and health care. This paper reviews the activities of only one federal agency during the accident, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW), and its effectiveness in its role as the leading institution responsible for protecting the public health during the first accident in a nuclear power plant designed for the commerical generation of electricity in the United States. My comments are limited to only three acts dealing with radiological health and protection: the struggle for power and assertion of leadership in response to possible health consequences of the accident; the decisions to evacuate the area during the radiological emergency; and the use of potassium iodide as a means of protecting the public and the workers from the hazards of exposure to radioactive iodine released to the environment.

  16. Radiology preparedness in ebola virus disease: guidelines and challenges for disinfection of medical imaging equipment for the protection of staff and patients.

    PubMed

    Mollura, Daniel J; Palmore, Tara N; Folio, Les R; Bluemke, David A

    2015-05-01

    The overlap of early Ebola virus disease (EVD) symptoms (eg, fever, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, emesis, and fatigue) with symptoms of other more common travel-related diseases (eg, malaria, typhoid fever, pneumonia, and meningococcemia) may result in delayed diagnosis of EVD before isolation of infected patients. Radiology departments should consider policies for and approaches to decontamination of expensive and potentially easily damaged radiology equipment. In addition, the protection of radiology personnel must be considered during the work-up phase of undiagnosed EVD patients presenting to emergency departments. The purpose of this article is to consider the effect of EVD on radiology departments and imaging equipment, with particular consideration of guidelines currently available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that may be applicable to radiology.

  17. Radiology Preparedness in Ebola Virus Disease: Guidelines and Challenges for Disinfection of Medical Imaging Equipment for the Protection of Staff and Patients

    PubMed Central

    Palmore, Tara N.; Folio, Les R.; Bluemke, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The overlap of early Ebola virus disease (EVD) symptoms (eg, fever, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea, emesis, and fatigue) with symptoms of other more common travel-related diseases (eg, malaria, typhoid fever, pneumonia, and meningococcemia) may result in delayed diagnosis of EVD before isolation of infected patients. Radiology departments should consider policies for and approaches to decontamination of expensive and potentially easily damaged radiology equipment. In addition, the protection of radiology personnel must be considered during the work-up phase of undiagnosed EVD patients presenting to emergency departments. The purpose of this article is to consider the effect of EVD on radiology departments and imaging equipment, with particular consideration of guidelines currently available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that may be applicable to radiology. © RSNA, 2015 PMID:25654616

  18. Risk estimation for multifactorial diseases. A report of the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    assessing the impact of radiation-induced mutations on the frequencies of multifactorial diseases in the population.The mutation component (MC) of genetic diseases quantifies the responsiveness of the genetic component of a disease to an increase in mutation rate (e.g. after radiation exposure). This report integrates the concepts of liability and threshold (from the MTM model) and of mutation-selection equilibrium (from mechanistic population genetic models) into the 'Finite Locus Threshold Model' (FLTM) for estimating MC for multifactorial diseases and the relationship between MC and h(2) of these diseases. Computer simulation studies illustrate the effects of one-time or a permanent increase in mutation rate on MC for multifactorial diseases.Finally, the report addresses the estimation of the radiation risk of multifactorial diseases. A formal revision of the estimates of risk of multifactorial diseases (and also of mendelian diseases) contained in the 1990 Recommendations of ICRP, Publication 60, must await the results of studies currently underway. While future genetic risk estimates are likely to be lower than those in current use, until the new ones become available, those provided in Publication 60 may be regarded as being adequate for use in radiological protection- they are unlikely to underestimate risk.

  19. [Compliance with technical standards for radiological protection at radiation therapy services in São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy services provide essential therapeutic procedures for cancer, one of the main causes of population morbidity and mortality. Despite their importance in the health system and their potential risks due to the use of ionizing radiation, there are few studies on such services. We evaluated compliance with technical standards for radiological protection in radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Forty-nine services were studied in 2000 through interviews with technical staff. Typologies of performance profiles focusing on structure and process variables were constructed and services compared. Important differences were observed in the services' positions in the health care system, level of complexity, and geographic distribution, with better average performance in structural conditions but very inadequate performance in patient protection, indicating the need for more effective health surveillance.

  20. A kinematic model to estimate the effective dose of radioactive isotopes in the human body for radiological protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, S.; Yamada, T.

    2013-12-01

    The great earthquake attacked the north-east area in Japan in March 11, 2011. The system of electrical facilities to control Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was completely destroyed by the following tsunamis. From the damaged reactor containment vessels, an amount of radioactive substances had leaked and been diffused in the vicinity of this station. Radiological internal exposure becomes a serious social issue both in Japan and all over the world. The present study provides an easily understandable, kinematic-based model to estimate the effective dose of radioactive substances in a human body by simplified the complicated mechanism of metabolism. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed an exact model, which is well-known as a standard method to calculate the effective dose for radiological protection. However, owing to that the above method accord too much with the actual mechanism of metabolism in human bodies, it becomes rather difficult for non-professional people of radiology to gasp the whole images of the movement and the influences of radioactive substances in a human body. Therefore, in the present paper we propose a newly-derived and easily-understandable model to estimate the effective dose. The present method is very similar with the traditional and conventional hydrological tank model. Ingestion flux of radioactive substances corresponds to rain intensity and the storage of radioactive substances to the water storage in a basin in runoff analysis. The key of this method is to estimate the energy radiated from the radioactive nuclear disintegration of an atom by using classical theory of E. Fermi of beta decay and special relativity for various kinds of radioactive atoms. The parameters used in this study are only physical half-time and biological half-time, and there are no intentional and operational parameters of coefficients to adjust our theoretical runoff to observation of ICRP. Figure.1 compares time

  1. Radiological protection evaluation of the Bucharest Tandetron 3 MV accelerator.

    PubMed

    Mitu, I O; Floare, G; Ghiţă, D G; Moşu, D V; Căta-Danil, Gh

    2015-06-01

    Low energy heavy charged particle accelerators are generators of ionizing radiation, due to the ion beam interactions into the machine components, targets and surrounding materials. Nowadays there are available computational tools allowing realistic estimates of radiation doses and residual activity of the activated components. These evaluations are further used to design the radiological safety system required by licensing and operation of the equipment.This paper presents results of measurements and numerical simulations of the radiation doses and residual activity, at the recently commissioned Bucharest 3 MV Cockcroft-Walton type Tandetron accelerator presently used mainly for Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) research.

  2. COST-RISK-BENEFIT ANALYSIS IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY: A THEORETICAL AND ECONOMIC BASIS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE PATIENT.

    PubMed

    Moores, B Michael

    2016-06-01

    In 1973, International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 22 recommended that the acceptability of radiation exposure levels for a given activity should be determined by a process of cost-benefit analysis. It was felt that this approach could be used to underpin both the principle of ALARA as well for justification purposes. The net benefit, B, of an operation involving irradiation was regarded as equal to the difference between its gross benefit, V, and the sum of three components; the basic production cost associated with the operation, P; the cost of achieving the selected level of protection, X; and the cost Y of the detriment involved in the operation: [Formula: see text] This article presents a theoretical cost-risk-benefit analysis that is applicable to the diagnostic accuracy (Levels 1 and 2) of the hierarchical efficacy model presented by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in 1992. This enables the costs of an examination to be related to the sensitivity and specificity of an X-ray examination within a defined clinical problem setting and introduces both false-positive/false-negative diagnostic outcomes into the patient radiation protection framework. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. COST–RISK–BENEFIT ANALYSIS IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY: A THEORETICAL AND ECONOMIC BASIS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE PATIENT

    PubMed Central

    Moores, B. Michael

    2016-01-01

    In 1973, International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 22 recommended that the acceptability of radiation exposure levels for a given activity should be determined by a process of cost–benefit analysis. It was felt that this approach could be used to underpin both the principle of ALARA as well for justification purposes. The net benefit, B, of an operation involving irradiation was regarded as equal to the difference between its gross benefit, V, and the sum of three components; the basic production cost associated with the operation, P; the cost of achieving the selected level of protection, X; and the cost Y of the detriment involved in the operation: B=V−(P+X+Y). This article presents a theoretical cost–risk–benefit analysis that is applicable to the diagnostic accuracy (Levels 1 and 2) of the hierarchical efficacy model presented by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements in 1992. This enables the costs of an examination to be related to the sensitivity and specificity of an X-ray examination within a defined clinical problem setting and introduces both false-positive/false-negative diagnostic outcomes into the patient radiation protection framework. PMID:26705358

  4. Physiological responses of Police Officers during job simulations wearing chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear personal protective equipment.

    PubMed

    Blacker, Sam D; Carter, James M; Wilkinson, David M; Richmond, Victoria L; Rayson, Mark P; Peattie, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the physiological responses of Police Officers wearing chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear personal protective equipment (CBRN PPE) during firearms house entry (FE) unarmed house entry (UE) and crowd control (CC) simulations. Participants volunteered from the UK Police Force [FE (n = 6, age 33 ± 4 years, body mass 85.3 ± 7.9 kg, (·)VO₂max 53 ± 5 ml · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹), UE and CC (n = 11, age 34 ± 5 years, body mass 88.5 ± 13.8 kg, (·)VO₂max 51 ± 5 ml · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹)]. Heart rate reserve (HRR) during FE was greater than UE (74 ± 7 vs. 62 ± 6%HRR, p = 0.01) but lower in CC (39 ± 7%HRR, p < 0.01). Peak core body temperature was greater during FE (39.2 ± 0.3°C) than UE (38.9 ± 0.4°C, p < 0.01) and CC (37.5 ± 0.3°C, p < 0.01), with similar trends in skin temperature. There were no differences in the volume of water consumed (1.13 ± 0.44 l, p = 0.51) or change in body mass (-1.68 ± 0.65 kg, p = 0.74) between simulations. The increase in body temperature was a primary physiological limitation to performance. Cooling strategies and revised operating procedures may improve Police Officers' physical performance while wearing CBRN PPE. In recent years, the likelihood of Police Officers having to respond to a chemical, biological, nuclear or radiological (CBRN) incident wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) has increased. Such apparel is likely to increase physiological strain and impair job performance; understanding these limitations may help improve Officer safety and operational effectiveness.

  5. Current status of radiological protection at nuclear power stations in Japan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akira; Hori, Shunsuke

    2011-07-01

    The radiation dose to workers at nuclear power stations (NPSs) in Japan was drastically reduced between the late-1970s and the early-1990s by continuous dose-reduction programmes. The total collective dose of radiation workers in FY 2008 was 84.04 person Sv, while the average collective dose was 1.5 person Sv per reactor. The average annual individual dose was 1.1 mSv and the maximum annual individual dose was 19.5 mSv. These values are sufficiently lower than the regulatory dose limits. Radioactive effluent released from NPSs is already so trivial that additional protective measures will not be necessary. Experience in radiation protection at NPSs has been accumulated over 40 y and will be very useful in establishing a rational radiation control system in the future.

  6. Assessment of Law Enforcement Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Personal Protective Equipment Audible Signature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    standards of protection. Both Blauer suits were NFPA 1994 Class 3 certified. None of the other suits assessed during this study were known to be NFPA ...U UU 32 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) (410) 436-7545 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 ii...METHODS 2.1 Volunteers Eight male volunteers between the ages of 22 and 37 years (29 ± 5 years; mean ± standard deviation [SD]) participated in

  7. The Revised International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, W.J.

    1991-09-01

    The new respiratory tract model is based on the premise that the large differences in radiation sensitivity of respiratory tract tissues, and the wide range of doses they receive, argue for calculating specific tissue doses rather than average lung doses for radiation protection purposes. The new model is more complex than the current lung model because it describes deposition of inhaled radioactive material in the clearance from several tissues and regions of the respiratory tract and is applicable to the worldwide population of both workers and the public. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  8. ICRP Publication 131: Stem cell biology with respect to carcinogenesis aspects of radiological protection.

    PubMed

    Hendry, J H; Niwa, O; Barcellos-Hoff, M H; Globus, R K; Harrison, J D; Martin, M T; Seed, T M; Shay, J W; Story, M D; Suzuki, K; Yamashita, S

    2016-06-01

    Current knowledge of stem cell characteristics, maintenance and renewal, evolution with age, location in 'niches', and radiosensitivity to acute and protracted exposures is reviewed regarding haematopoietic tissue, mammary gland, thyroid, digestive tract, lung, skin, and bone. The identity of the target cells for carcinogenesis continues to point to the more primitive and mostly quiescent stem cell population (able to accumulate the protracted sequence of mutations necessary to result in malignancy), and, in a few tissues, to daughter progenitor cells. Several biological processes could contribute to the protection of stem cells from mutation accumulation: (1) accurate DNA repair; (2) rapid induced death of injured stem cells; (3) retention of the intact parental strand during divisions in some tissues so that mutations are passed to the daughter differentiating cells; and (4) stem cell competition, whereby undamaged stem cells outcompete damaged stem cells for residence in the vital niche. DNA repair mainly operates within a few days of irradiation, while stem cell replications and competition require weeks or many months depending on the tissue type. This foundation is used to provide a biological insight to protection issues including the linear-non-threshold and relative risk models, differences in cancer risk between tissues, dose-rate effects, and changes in the risk of radiation carcinogenesis by age at exposure and attained age. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics.

  9. 39th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture: Dosimetry of Internal Emitters: Contribution of Radiation Protection Bodies and Radiological Events.

    PubMed

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2016-02-01

    Since the early days of the Manhattan Engineer District, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has served to advance the dosimetry models used to set protection standards for radionuclides taken into the body. Throughout the years, this effort benefited significantly from ORNL staff's active participation in national and international scientific bodies. The first such interaction was in 1946 with the National Committee on Radiation Protection (NCRP), chaired by L.S. Taylor, which led to the 1949 to 1953 series of tripartite conferences of experts from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. These conferences addressed the need for standardization of dosimetry models and led to the establishment of an anatomic and physiologic model called "Standard Man," a precursor of the reference worker defined in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Standard Man was used in setting the maximum permissible concentrations in air and water published in NBS Handbook 52 and subsequent reports by NCRP and ICRP. K.Z. Morgan, then director of the Health Physics Division at ORNL, participated in the tripartite conferences and subsequently established ORNL as a modeling and computational resource for development of radiation protection standards. ORNL's role expanded with participation in the work of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. Results of interactions with the MIRD Committee are evident in the radiation protection guidance for internal emitters in ICRP Publication 30. The annual limit on intake and derived air concentration values tabulated in Publication 30 were computed by an ORNL-based task group of ICRP Committee 2. A few years after the appearance of Publication 30, the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident made clear the need to develop standard dosimetry models for pre-adult ages as members of the public. In the late 1980s, ICRP began an effort to extend its reference

  10. Radiological protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations resulting from a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2013-01-01

    In environmental remediation after nuclear accidents, radioactive wastes have to be appropriately managed in existing exposure situations with contamination resulting from the emission of radionuclides by such accidents. In this paper, a framework of radiation protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations for application to the practical and reasonable waste management in contaminated areas, referring to related ICRP recommendations was proposed. In the proposed concept, intermediate reference levels for waste management are adopted gradually according to the progress of the reduction in the existing ambient dose in the environment on the basis of the principles of justification and optimisation by taking into account the practicability of the management of radioactive waste and environmental remediation. It is essential to include the participation of relevant stakeholders living in existing exposure situations in the selection of reference levels for the existing ambient dose and waste management.

  11. Informatics in Radiology (infoRAD): personal computer security: part 2. Software Configuration and file protection.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Ronald D

    2004-01-01

    Proper configuration of software security settings and proper file management are necessary and important elements of safe computer use. Unfortunately, the configuration of software security options is often not user friendly. Safe file management requires the use of several utilities, most of which are already installed on the computer or available as freeware. Among these file operations are setting passwords, defragmentation, deletion, wiping, removal of personal information, and encryption. For example, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine medical images need to be anonymized, or "scrubbed," to remove patient identifying information in the header section prior to their use in a public educational or research environment. The choices made with respect to computer security may affect the convenience of the computing process. Ultimately, the degree of inconvenience accepted will depend on the sensitivity of the files and communications to be protected and the tolerance of the user. Copyright RSNA, 2004

  12. Guide of good practices for occupational radiological protection in plutonium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This Technical Standard (TS) does not contain any new requirements. Its purpose is to provide guides to good practice, update existing reference material, and discuss practical lessons learned relevant to the safe handling of plutonium. the technical rationale is given to allow US Department of Energy (DOE) health physicists to adapt the recommendations to similar situations throughout the DOE complex. Generally, DOE contractor health physicists will be responsible to implement radiation protection activities at DOE facilities and DOE health physicists will be responsible for oversight of those activities. This guidance is meant to be useful for both efforts. This TS replaces PNL-6534, Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Plutonium Facilities, by providing more complete and current information and by emphasizing the situations that are typical of DOE`s current plutonium operations; safe storage, decontamination, and decommissioning (environmental restoration); and weapons disassembly.

  13. Radiological protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations resulting from a nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Hattori, Takatoshi

    2013-01-01

    In environmental remediation after nuclear accidents, radioactive wastes have to be appropriately managed in existing exposure situations with contamination resulting from the emission of radionuclides by such accidents. In this paper, a framework of radiation protection from radioactive waste management in existing exposure situations for application to the practical and reasonable waste management in contaminated areas, referring to related ICRP recommendations was proposed. In the proposed concept, intermediate reference levels for waste management are adopted gradually according to the progress of the reduction in the existing ambient dose in the environment on the basis of the principles of justification and optimisation by taking into account the practicability of the management of radioactive waste and environmental remediation. It is essential to include the participation of relevant stakeholders living in existing exposure situations in the selection of reference levels for the existing ambient dose and waste management. PMID:22719047

  14. Collimator with filtration compensator: clinical adaptation to meet European Union recommendation 4F on radiological protection for dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, M; García-Vera, M C; Bravo, L A; Martínez-Beneyto, Y; Armero, D; Morant, J J; Canteras, M

    2009-09-01

    Our aim was to develop a compensated filtration collimator for use in paediatric patients undergoing cephalometric radiography that reduces the radiation dose administered and fulfils recommendation 4F of the European guidelines on radiation protection in dental radiology. An easy to use filtration-compensated collimator was constructed of plastic, lead and aluminium and used randomly with a group of 32 children (mean age 11 years) undergoing cephalometric radiography before receiving orthodontic treatment. The radiation doses administered to patients (eye lens and thyroid, submandibular and parotid glands) and to the chassis of the radiographic equipment were determined. The filtration-compensated collimator is easily fixed to the external surface of the radiographic equipment and results in (a) as collimator, a reduction of 40% in the surface irradiated in the children and of 61.4% in the dose administered to the thyroid glands (P<0.001); (b) as filtration compensator, a reduction of 32.8% administered to the eye lens (P<0.001), 31.45% to the submaxillary gland (P<0.01) and 11.4% to the parotid gland (P<0.05); there was no difference in the dose determined on the radiographic film. A radiographic examination can be carried out with children using only a third of the dose normally used with no increase in the time or cost involved.

  15. INTDOS: a computer code for estimating internal radiation dose using recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.T.

    1981-09-01

    INTDOS is a user-oriented computer code designed to calculate estimates of internal radiation dose commitment resulting from the acute inhalation intake of various radionuclides. It is designed so that users unfamiliar with the details of such can obtain results by answering a few questions regarding the exposure case. The user must identify the radionuclide name, solubility class, particle size, time since exposure, and the measured lung burden. INTDOS calculates the fractions of the lung burden remaining at time, t, postexposure considering the solubility class and particle size information. From the fraction remaining in the lung at time, t, the quantity inhaled is estimated. Radioactive decay is accounted for in the estimate. Finally, effective committed dose equivalents to various organs and tissues of the body are calculated using inhalation committed dose factors presented by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This computer code was written for execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 computer and is written in Fortran IV. A flow chart and example calculations are discussed in detail to aid the user who is unfamiliar with computer operations.

  16. Dose assessment in environmental radiological protection: State of the art and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stark, Karolina; Goméz-Ros, José M; Vives I Batlle, Jordi; Lindbo Hansen, Elisabeth; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Kapustka, Lawrence A; Wood, Michael D; Bradshaw, Clare; Real, Almudena; McGuire, Corynne; Hinton, Thomas G

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to radiation is a potential hazard to humans and the environment. The Fukushima accident reminded the world of the importance of a reliable risk management system that incorporates the dose received from radiation exposures. The dose to humans from exposure to radiation can be quantified using a well-defined system; its environmental equivalent, however, is still in a developmental state. Additionally, the results of several papers published over the last decade have been criticized because of poor dosimetry. Therefore, a workshop on environmental dosimetry was organized by the STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) Network of Excellence to review the state of the art in environmental dosimetry and prioritize areas of methodological and guidance development. Herein, we report the key findings from that international workshop, summarise parameters that affect the dose animals and plants receive when exposed to radiation, and identify further research needs. Current dosimetry practices for determining environmental protection are based on simple screening dose assessments using knowledge of fundamental radiation physics, source-target geometry relationships, the influence of organism shape and size, and knowledge of how radionuclide distributions in the body and in the soil profile alter dose. In screening model calculations that estimate whole-body dose to biota the shapes of organisms are simply represented as ellipsoids, while recently developed complex voxel phantom models allow organ-specific dose estimates. We identified several research and guidance development priorities for dosimetry. For external exposures, the uncertainty in dose estimates due to spatially heterogeneous distributions of radionuclide contamination is currently being evaluated. Guidance is needed on the level of dosimetry that is required when screening benchmarks are exceeded and how to report exposure in dose-effect studies, including quantification of uncertainties. Further

  17. SU-D-209-05: Sensitivity of the Diagnostic Radiological Index of Protection (DRIP) to Procedural Factors in Fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A; Pasciak, A; Wagner, L

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity of the Diagnostic Radiological Index of Protection (DRIP) to procedural factors in fluoroscopy in an effort to determine an appropriate set of scatter-mimicking primary beams (SMPB) to be used in measuring the DRIP. Methods: A series of clinical and factorial Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to determine the shape of the scattered X-ray spectra incident on the operator in different clinical fluoroscopy scenarios. Two clinical evaluations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle and patient size while technical factors were varied according to measured automatic dose rate control (ADRC) data. Factorial evaluations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle, field of view, patient size and beam quality for constant technical factors. Average energy was the figure of merit used to condense fluence in each energy bin to a single numerical index. Results: Beam quality had the strongest influence on the scattered spectrum in fluoroscopy. Many procedural factors affected the scattered spectrum indirectly through their effects on primary beam quality through ADRC, e.g., gantry angle and patient size. Lateral C-arm rotation, common in interventional cardiology, increased the energy of the scattered spectrum, regardless of the direction of rotation. The effect of patient size on scattered radiation depended on ADRC characteristics, patient size, and procedure type. Conclusion: The scattered spectrum striking the operator in fluoroscopy, and therefore the DRIP, is most strongly influenced by primary beam quality, particularly kV. Use cases for protective garments should be classified by typical procedural primary beam qualities, which are governed by the ADRC according to the impacts of patient size, anatomical location, and gantry angle. These results will help determine an appropriate set of SMPB to be used for measuring the DRIP.

  18. Mathematical models of the embryo and fetus for use in radiological protection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2004-03-01

    This development of new mathematical models arose from our current work in external neutron dosimetry for the embryo and fetus when pregnant women travel at commercial aircraft altitudes. A problem of concern in radiation protection is exposure of pregnant women to ionizing radiation because of the high radiosensitivity of the embryo and fetus. Special regulations and dosimetric considerations are necessary for pregnant women at the work place and in the public. To perform dosimetry, mathematical models for the embryo and the fetus, together with the modified adult female model for pregnant woman, are required. There are no models available for embryo. Models developed for the fetus need to be updated with the new reference values such as those in ICRP Publication 89. This article presents mathematical models for the embryo and fetus at different stages: the embryo at 8 wk and the fetus at the end of each trimester. In addition to fetal skeleton, the fetal brain is explicitly modeled because of its high radiosensitivity. All model parameters are determined from the most recent reference values available. The models are designed so that an interpolation can be easily performed to generate a model of embryo/fetus at any given stage of development. This feature also allows convenient adaptation of the models to different reference values representing various ethnic populations. The new mathematical models presented here were developed for external dosimetry. They can also be used for internal dosimetry purposes, if other organs inside the female phantom are adjusted accordingly.

  19. Decommissioning a phosphoric acid production plant: a radiological protection case study.

    PubMed

    Stamatis, V; Seferlis, S; Kamenopoulou, V; Potiriadis, C; Koukouliou, V; Kehagia, K; Dagli, C; Georgiadis, S; Camarinopoulos, L

    2010-12-01

    During a preliminary survey at the area of an abandoned fertilizer plant, increased levels of radioactivity were measured at places, buildings, constructions and materials. The extent of the contamination was determined and the affected areas were characterized as controlled areas. After the quantitative and qualitative determination of the contaminated materials, the decontamination was planned and performed step by step: the contaminated materials were categorized according to their physical characteristics (scrap metals, plastic pipes, scales and residues, building materials, etc) and according to their level of radioactivity. Depending on the material type, different decontamination and disposal options were proposed; the most appropriate technique was chosen taking into account apart from technical issues, the legal framework, radiation protection issues, the opinion of the local authorities involved as well as the owner's wish. After taking away the biggest amount of the contaminated materials, an iterative process consisting of surveys and decontamination actions was performed in order to remove the residual traces of contamination from the area. During the final survey, no residual surface contamination was detected; some sparsely distributed low level contaminated materials deeply immersed into the soil were found and removed.

  20. Evaluation on radiation protection aspect and radiological risk at Mukim Belanja repository

    SciTech Connect

    Azmi, Siti Nur Aisyah Kenoh, Hamiza; Majid, Amran Ab.

    2016-01-22

    Asian Rare Earth (ARE) is a locally incorporated company that operated a mineral processing operation to extract rare earth element. ARE has received much attention from the public since the beginning of their operation until the work of decommissioning and decontamination of the plant. Due to the existence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in the residue, the decommissioning and disposal was done by the company in collaboration with the Perak State Government and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). The main objective of this study is to review the level of compliance of the existing Radiation Protection Regulations enforced by AELB particularly in the achievement of allowed exposure dose limit. The next objective was to study the impact of the construction of the Mukim Belanja Repository to workers and public. This study was conducted by analyzing documents that were issued and conducting the area monitoring using a Geiger Muller detector (GM) and Sodium Iodide (NaI(Tl)) survey meters. The measurements were made at 5 cm and 1 m from the ground surface at 27 measurement stations. The external doses measured were within the background levels of the surrounding area. The annual effective dose using the highest reading at 5 cm and 1 m from ground surface by GM detector was calculated to be 1.36 mSv/year and 1.21 mSv/year respectively. Whereas the annual effective dose using the highest reading at 5 cm and 1 m from ground surface by using NaI(Tl) detector was calculated to be 3.31 mSv/year and 2.83 mSv/year respectively. The calculated cancer risks from the study showed that the risk is small compared with the risks derived from natural radiation based on global annual radiation dose to humans. This study therefore indicated that the repository is able to constrain the dose exposure from the disposed NORM waste. The study also revealed that the construction of the repository has complied with all the rules and regulations subjected to

  1. Evaluation on radiation protection aspect and radiological risk at Mukim Belanja repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Siti Nur Aisyah; Kenoh, Hamiza; Majid, Amran Ab.

    2016-01-01

    Asian Rare Earth (ARE) is a locally incorporated company that operated a mineral processing operation to extract rare earth element. ARE has received much attention from the public since the beginning of their operation until the work of decommissioning and decontamination of the plant. Due to the existence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in the residue, the decommissioning and disposal was done by the company in collaboration with the Perak State Government and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). The main objective of this study is to review the level of compliance of the existing Radiation Protection Regulations enforced by AELB particularly in the achievement of allowed exposure dose limit. The next objective was to study the impact of the construction of the Mukim Belanja Repository to workers and public. This study was conducted by analyzing documents that were issued and conducting the area monitoring using a Geiger Muller detector (GM) and Sodium Iodide (NaI(Tl)) survey meters. The measurements were made at 5 cm and 1 m from the ground surface at 27 measurement stations. The external doses measured were within the background levels of the surrounding area. The annual effective dose using the highest reading at 5 cm and 1 m from ground surface by GM detector was calculated to be 1.36 mSv/year and 1.21 mSv/year respectively. Whereas the annual effective dose using the highest reading at 5 cm and 1 m from ground surface by using NaI(Tl) detector was calculated to be 3.31 mSv/year and 2.83 mSv/year respectively. The calculated cancer risks from the study showed that the risk is small compared with the risks derived from natural radiation based on global annual radiation dose to humans. This study therefore indicated that the repository is able to constrain the dose exposure from the disposed NORM waste. The study also revealed that the construction of the repository has complied with all the rules and regulations subjected to it. The

  2. Specification of the quality of ionising radiations for unified dosimetry in radiobiology and radiological protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkharam, Ali Salem

    It is widely agreed in radiobiological and biophysical research that the DNA is the dominant target which can lead to terminal biological damage in the form of cancer or cell death. A main objective in radiation protection is to set the limits of the possible harmful effects to the general population exposed to ionising radiation at low level (environmental level). The initial slope of the dose-response curve is found to be an appropriate parameter to achieve this objective. Bench mark data sets of the initial effects of ionising radiation on cells in vitro were formed which include both physical characterisation of the radiation and the radiobiological parameters. These data-bases include the mammalian cell end-points: cellular inactivation, chromosome dicentrics, HPRT mutations and oncogenic transformations. On the molecular scale, the databases include single-strand and double strand breaks induced in the DNA of both mammalian and non-mammalian cells. Analysis of bio-effect mechanisms of damage to mammalian cells in terms of the quality parameter 'mean free path for linear primary ionisation' for ionising radiation, strongly suggest that there is a common mechanism for the biological endpoints of dicentrics, mutations, and oncogemc transformations. A unified response is obtained for all types of heavy ions and all cells which show: a common inflection point at inter-spacing distance equivalent to lambda0 = 1.4+/- 0.5 nm, a saturation region at lambda < lambda0 and almost constant slope for lambda < lambda0. The lethal lesions are identified as dsb's in the intracellular DNA. It follows that radiation risk factors can be determined on the basis of simple ratios to the inactivation cross sections. The size of these genes are found to be in close proximity to the optimised saturation levels. The probabilities of risk with respect to inactivation, for chromosome dicentrics, oncogenic transformations, and mutations of the HPRT gene are respectively 0.18, 1.6 x 10

  3. Latin American dose survey results in mammography studies under IAEA programme: radiological protection of patients in medical exposures (TSA3).

    PubMed

    Mora, Patricia; Blanco, Susana; Khoury, Helen; Leyton, Fernando; Cárdenas, Juan; Defaz, María Yolanda; Garay, Fernando; Telón, Flaviano; Aguilar, Juan Garcia; Roas, Norma; Gamarra, Mirtha; Blanco, Daniel; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Nader, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela) working under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Cooperation Programme: TSA3 Radiological Protection of Patients in Medical Exposures have joined efforts in the optimisation of radiation protection in mammography practice. Through surveys of patient doses, the region has a unique database of diagnostic reference levels for analogue and digital equipment that will direct future optimisation activities towards the early detection of breast cancer among asymptomatic women. During RLA9/057 (2007-09) 24 institutions participated with analogue equipment in a dose survey. Regional training on methodology and measurement equipment was addressed in May 2007. The mean glandular dose (DG) was estimated using the incident kerma in air and relevant conversion coefficients for both projections craneo caudal and mediolateral oblique (CC and MLO). For Phase 2, RLA9/067 (2010-11), it was decided to include also digital systems in order to see their impact in future dose optimisation activities. Any new country that joined the project received training in the activities through IAEA expert missions. Twenty-nine new institutions participated (9 analogue and 20 digital equipment). A total of 2262 patient doses were collected during this study and from them D(G) (mGy) for both projections were estimated for each institution and country. Regional results (75 percentile in mGy) show for CC and MLO views, respectively: RLA9/057 (analogue) 2.63 and 3.17; RLA/067: 2.57 and 3.15 (analogue) and 2.69 and 2.90 (digital). Regarding only digital equipment for CC and MLO, respectively, computed radiography systems showed 2.59 and 2.78 and direct digital radiography (DDR) systems 2.78 and 3.04. Based on the IAEA Basic Safety Standard (BSS) reference dose (3 mGy), it can be observed that there is enough room to start

  4. Dietary intakes of seven elements of importance in radiological protection by asian population: comparison with ICRP data.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, G V; Kawamura, H; Dang, H S; Parr, R M; Wang, J; Akhter, Perveen; Cho, S Y; Natera, E; Miah, F K; Dojosubroto, J; Nguyen, M S

    2004-06-01

    Within the framework of a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, the daily dietary intakes of seven elements by adult populations living in nine Asian countries were estimated. The countries that participated in the study were Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea (Republic of Korea, ROK), and Vietnam and together they represented more than half of the world population. The seven elements studied were calcium, cesium, iodine, potassium, strontium, thorium, and uranium. These elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. Analyses of diet samples for these seven elements were carried out using highly sensitive and reliable analytical techniques. One thousand one hundred and sixty analytical determinations were made on two hundred and twenty samples of typical diets consumed in these countries to estimate the daily intakes of these elements by the adult Asian population. The median daily dietary intakes for the adult Asian population were found to be 0.45 g calcium, 7 microg cesium, 90 microg iodine, 1.75 g potassium, 1.65 mg strontium, 1 microg thorium, and 1 microg uranium. When compared with the intakes proposed for ICRP Reference Man by International Commission for Radiological Protection, these intakes were lower by factors of 0.41 for calcium, 0.7 for cesium, 0.45 for iodine, 0.53 for potassium, 0.87 for strontium, 0.33 for thorium, and 0.52 for uranium. The lower daily intakes of calcium, cesium, and iodine by Asian population could be due to significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products, which are rich in these elements. The significantly lower intake of calcium in most of the Asian countries may lead to higher uptake of fission nuclide 90Sr and could result in

  5. Radiological Control Manual. Revision 0, January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This manual has been prepared by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements, and clarifications to the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is based on the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, DOE Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers, and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The topics covered are (1) excellence in radiological control, (2) radiological standards, (3) conduct of radiological work, (4) radioactive materials, (5) radiological health support operations, (6) training and qualification, and (7) radiological records.

  6. Collaborative Radiological Response Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Exercise and Evaluation Guide EMS Emergency Medical Services EPA Environmental Protection Agency FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation FEMA Federal...Investigation (FBI), water regulators, food regulators, agricultural agencies, hazardous waste regulators, local environmental health agencies...FEDERAL PLANNING EFFORTS The United States Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ) has had radiological responsibilities since 1970.18 The General

  7. Creation and application of voxelised dosimetric models, and a comparison with the current methodology as used for the International Commission on Radiological Protection's Reference Animals and Plants.

    PubMed

    Higley, K; Ruedig, E; Gomez-Fernandez, M; Caffrey, E; Jia, J; Comolli, M; Hess, C

    2015-06-01

    Over the past decade, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed a comprehensive approach to environmental protection that includes the use of Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) to assess radiological impacts on the environment. For the purposes of calculating radiation dose, the RAPs are approximated as simple shapes that contain homogeneous distributions of radionuclides. As uncertainties in environmental dose effects are larger than uncertainties in radiation dose calculation, some have argued against more realistic dose calculation methodologies. However, due to the complexity of organism morphology, internal structure, and density, dose rates calculated via a homogenous model may be too simplistic. The purpose of this study is to examine the benefits of a voxelised phantom compared with simple shapes for organism modelling. Both methods typically use Monte Carlo methods to calculate absorbed dose, but voxelised modelling uses an exact three-dimensional replica of an organism with accurate tissue composition and radionuclide source distribution. It is a multi-stage procedure that couples imaging modalities and processing software with Monte Carlo N-Particle. These features increase dosimetric accuracy, and may reduce uncertainty in non-human biota dose-effect studies by providing mechanistic answers regarding where and how population-level dose effects arise. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. Justification for Selecting Level A vs. Level B Personal Protective Equipment to Remediate a Room Containing Concentrated Acids, Bases and Radiological Constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Hylko, J. M.; Thompson, A. L.; Walter, J. F.; Deecke, T. A.

    2002-02-25

    Selecting the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is based on providing an adequate level of employee protection relative to the task-specific conditions and hazards. PPE is categorized into four ensembles, based on the degree of protection afforded; e.g., Levels A (most restrictive), B, C, and D (least restrictive). What is often overlooked in preparing an ensemble is that the PPE itself can create significant worker hazards; i.e., the greater the level of PPE, the greater the associated risks. Furthermore, there is confusion as to whether a more ''conservative approach'' should always be taken since Level B provides the same level of respiratory protection as Level A but less skin protection. This paper summarizes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations addressing Level A versus Level B, and provides justification for selecting Level B over Level A without under-protecting the employee during a particular remediation scenario. The scenario consisted of an entry team performing (1) an initial entry into a room containing concentrated acids (e.g., hydrofluoric acid), bases, and radiological constituents; (2) sampling and characterizing container contents; and (3) retrieving characterized containers. The invasive nature of the hydrofluoric acid sampling and characterization scenario created a high potential for splash, immersion, and exposure to hazardous vapors, requiring additional skin protection. The hazards associated with this scenario and the chemical nature of hydrofluoric acid provided qualitative evidence to justify Level A. Once the hydrofluoric acid was removed from the room, PPE performance was evaluated against the remaining chemical inventory. If chemical breakthrough from direct contact was not expected to occur and instrument readings confirmed the absence of any hazardous vapors, additional skin protection afforded by wearing a vapor-tight, totally-encapsulated suit was not required. Therefore, PPE performance and

  9. Westinghouse radiological containment guide

    SciTech Connect

    Aitken, S.B.; Brown, R.L.; Cantrell, J.R.; Wilcox, D.P.

    1994-03-01

    This document provides uniform guidance for Westinghouse contractors on the implementation of radiological containments. This document reflects standard industry practices and is provided as a guide. The guidance presented herein is consistent with the requirements of the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE N 5480.6). This guidance should further serve to enable and encourage the use of containments for contamination control and to accomplish the following: Minimize personnel contamination; Prevent the spread of contamination; Minimize the required use of protective clothing and personal protective equipment; Minimize the generation of waste.

  10. [Forensic radiology].

    PubMed

    Stein, K M; Grünberg, K

    2009-01-01

    Forensic radiology includes both clinical and postmortem forensic radiology. Clinical forensic radiology deals with imaging of healthy people from a legal point of view, such as for determining age or to prove and document injuries in victims of crime. Postmortem forensic radiology deals with the application of modern radiological methods in order to optimise post-mortem diagnosis. X-ray examination has for decades been routinely used in postmortem diagnosis. Newer developments include the application of postmortem computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging; these are the methods with the greatest information potential but also with the greatest deviations from diagnostics in living persons. Application of radiological methods for securing evidence in criminal procedures is still in its infancy. Radiologists' technical understanding and forensic doctors' knowledge of postmortem changes in a corpse must be synergised.

  11. A randomised crossover simulation study comparing the impact of chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear substance personal protection equipment on the performance of advanced life support interventions.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, J; Arlidge, J; Garnham, F; Ahmad, I

    2017-03-02

    Recent incidents involving chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear substances have stressed the importance of sufficient personal protection equipment for medical first-responders. Modern lightweight, battery-independent, suit ensembles may prove superior to the current protective suit used in the UK. This study compared the powered respiratory protective suit (PRPS ensemble) with a lightweight suit consisting of a SARATOGA(®) Multipurpose CBRN Protective Coverall Polyprotect 12 in conjunction with the Avon C50 Respirator/Avon CBRNF12CE filter canister and butyl rubber protective gloves (Polyprotect 12 ensemble). Thirty anaesthetists carried out a standardised resuscitation scenario either unprotected (control) or wearing the PRPS or Polyprotect 12 ensembles in a randomised, crossover simulation study. Treatment times for five simulated advanced life support interventions (application of monitoring; bag/mask ventilation; tracheal intubation; drug and fluid administration; and external pacing) were measured. Wearer comfort was also assessed for the two protective suits by questionnaire. All participants accomplished the treatment objectives of all study arms without adverse events. Total mean (SD) completion time for the five interventions was significantly longer for the PRPS compared with the Polyprotect 12 ensemble (204 (53) s vs. 149 (36) s, respectively; p < 0.0001). Participants rated mobility, noise, heat, vision, dexterity and speech intelligibility significantly better in the Polyprotect 12 ensemble compared with the PRPS ensemble. The combination of a lightweight Polyprotect 12 suit and an Avon C50 air-purifying respirator is preferable to the powered respiratory protective suit during simulated emergency life support, due to a combination of shorter task completion times and improved mobility, communication and dexterity.

  12. Radiological Protection Issues Arising During and After the Fukushima Nuclear Reactor Accident-Memorandum of TG 84 of ICRP.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    Observations and lessons identified after the Fukushima accident have been collected and assessed by ICRP Task Group 84. Together with the observations of other expert organizations, they are being used to further develop the current system of protection. While many of the established protection criteria remain valid, improvements are needed in three areas. Key issues related to the need of planning for long-term protective actions (criteria for returning home, dealing with waste) have to be implemented as important elements of the national protection strategies during the preparedness stage. The justification of disruptive protective actions and the protection of vulnerably groups of the population need to be reconsidered to avoid unpleasant imbalances and outcomes. The coexistence of radiation-induced health effects and health effects with social determinants requires consideration of both aspects in decision-making and response.

  13. Individual Radiological Protection Monitoring of Utrok Atoll Residents Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Bioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T; Kehl, S; Brown, T; Martinelli, R; Hickman, D; Jue, T; Tumey, S; Langston, R

    2007-06-08

    This report contains individual radiological protection surveillance data developed during 2006 for adult members of a select group of families living on Utrok Atoll. These Group I volunteers all underwent a whole-body count to determine levels of internally deposited cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and supplied a bioassay sample for analysis of plutonium isotopes. Measurement data were obtained and the results compared with an equivalent set of measurement data for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium isotopes from a second group of adult volunteers (Group II) who were long-term residents of Utrok Atoll. For the purposes of this comparison, Group II volunteers were considered representative of the general population on Utrok Atoll. The general aim of the study was to determine residual systemic burdens of fallout radionuclides in each volunteer group, develop data in response to addressing some specific concerns about the preferential uptake and potential health consequences of residual fallout radionuclides in Group I volunteers, and generally provide some perspective on the significance of radiation doses delivered to volunteers (and the general Utrok Atoll resident population) in terms of radiological protection standards and health risks. Based on dose estimates from measurements of internally deposited {sup 137}Cs and plutonium isotopes, the data and information developed in this report clearly show that neither volunteer group has acquired levels of internally deposited fallout radionuclides specific to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands that are likely to have any consequence on human health. Moreover, the dose estimates are well below radiological protection standards as prescribed by U.S. regulators and international agencies, and are very small when compared to doses from natural sources of radiation in the Marshall Islands and the threshold where radiation health effects could be either medically diagnosed in an individual or epidemiologically discerned in a

  14. Chest radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.H.M.

    1982-01-01

    This review of chest radiology reexamines normal findings on plain chest radiographs, and presents a new plain film view for detecting metastases in the lungs, and describes new findings on acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Various chest radiologic procedures are examined. (KRM)

  15. Orthopaedic radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.M.; Hughes, S.P.F.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an account of the principles of modern diagnostic imaging techniques and their applications in orthopedics. The aim is to show radiology as a dynamic subject. Orthopaedic Radiology is divided into two sections with the first part focusing on the principles of diagnostic imaging and interpretation and the second applying this information to practical clinical problems.

  16. A kinematic-based methodology for radiological protection: Runoff analysis to calculate the effective dose for internal exposure caused by ingestion of radioactive isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Syota; Yamada, Tadashi; Yamada, Tomohito J.

    2014-05-01

    We aim to propose a kinematic-based methodology similar with runoff analysis for readily understandable radiological protection. A merit of this methodology is to produce sufficiently accurate effective doses by basic analysis. The great earthquake attacked the north-east area in Japan on March 11, 2011. The system of electrical facilities to control Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was completely destroyed by the following tsunamis. From the damaged reactor containment vessels, an amount of radioactive isotopes had leaked and been diffused in the vicinity of the plant. Radiological internal exposure caused by ingestion of food containing radioactive isotopes has become an issue of great interest to the public, and has caused excessive anxiety because of a deficiency of fundamental knowledge concerning radioactivity. Concentrations of radioactivity in the human body and internal exposure have been studied extensively. Previous radiologic studies, for example, studies by International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP), employ a large-scale computational simulation including actual mechanism of metabolism in the human body. While computational simulation is a standard method for calculating exposure doses among radiology specialists, these methods, although exact, are too difficult for non-specialists to grasp the whole image owing to the sophistication. In this study, the human body is treated as a vessel. The number of radioactive atoms in the human body can be described by an equation of continuity, which is the only governing equation. Half-life, the period of time required for the amount of a substance decreases by half, is only parameter to calculate the number of radioactive isotopes in the human body. Half-life depends only on the kinds of nuclides, there are no arbitrary parameters. It is known that the number of radioactive isotopes decrease exponentially by radioactive decay (physical outflow). It is also known that radioactive isotopes

  17. Occupational radiation dose to eyes from endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures in light of the revised eye lens dose limit from the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, U; Gallagher, A; Malone, L; O'Reilly, G

    2013-02-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a common procedure that combines the use of X-ray fluoroscopy and endoscopy for examination of the bile duct. Published data on ERCP doses are limited, including staff eye dose from ERCP. Occupational eye doses are of particular interest now as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended a reduction in the dose limit to the lens of the eye. The aim of this study was to measure occupational eye doses obtained from ERCP procedures. A new eye lens dosemeter (EYE-D(™), Radcard, Krakow, Poland) was used to measure the ERCP eye dose, H(p)(3), at two endoscopy departments in Ireland. A review of radiation protection practice at the two facilities was also carried out. The mean equivalent dose to the lens of the eye of a gastroenterologist is 0.01 mSv per ERCP procedure with an undercouch X-ray tube and 0.09 mSv per ERCP procedure with an overcouch X-ray tube. Staff eye dose normalised to patient kerma area product is also presented. Staff eye doses in ERCP have the potential to exceed the revised ICRP limit of 20 mSv per annum when an overcouch X-ray tube is used. The EYE-D dosemeter was found to be a convenient method for measuring lens dose. Eye doses in areas outside of radiology departments should be kept under review, particularly in light of the new ICRP eye dose limit. Occupational eye lens doses from ERCP procedures have been established using a new commercially available dedicated H(p)(3) dosemeter.

  18. [Instruction in dental radiology].

    PubMed

    van der Sanden, W J M; Kreulen, C M; Berkhout, W E R

    2016-04-01

    The diagnostic use of oral radiology is an essential part of daily dental practice. Due to the potentially harmful nature of ionising radiation, the clinical use of oral radiology in the Netherlands is framed by clinical practice guidelines and regulatory requirements. Undergraduate students receive intensive theoretical and practical training in practical and theoretical radiology, with the aim of obtaining the 'Eindtermen Stralingshygiëne voor Tandartsen en Orthodontisten'-certificate, which is required for legal permission to use oral radiology in dental practice. It is recommended that the curriculum be expanded to include the areas of knowledge required to qualify for the 'Eindtermen Stralingshygiëne voor het gebruik van CBCT-toestellen door tandartsen' (the certificate for the use of conebeam radiology by dentists). The general dental practitioner is faced with changing laws and regulations in all areas of practice. One of the most significant legal changes in the field of dental radiology was the introduction of the new radiation protection and safety rules in 2014. Moreover, a large group of dentists is also being confronted with the transition from conventional to digital images, with all its challenges and changes in everyday practice.

  19. Radiological protection regulation during spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management in the western branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'SevRAO'.

    PubMed

    Simakov, A V; Sneve, M K; Abramov, Yu V; Kochetkov, O A; Smith, G M; Tsovianov, A G; Romanov, V V

    2008-12-01

    The site of temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, situated at Andreeva Bay in Northwest Russia, was developed in the 1960s, and it has carried out receipt and storage of fresh and spent nuclear fuel, and solid and liquid radioactive waste generated during the operation of nuclear submarines and nuclear-powered icebreakers. The site is now operated as the western branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise, SevRAO. In the course of operation over several decades, the containment barriers in the Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste storage facilities partially lost their containment effectiveness, so workshop facilities and parts of the site became contaminated with radioactive substances. This paper describes work being undertaken to provide an updated regulatory basis for the protection of workers during especially hazardous remediation activities, necessary because of the unusual radiation conditions at the site. It describes the results of recent survey work carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, within a programme of regulatory cooperation between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia. The survey work and subsequent analyses have contributed to the development of special regulations setting out radiological protection requirements for operations planned at the site. Within these requirements, and taking account of a variety of other factors, a continuing need arises for the implementation of optimisation of remediation at Andreeva Bay.

  20. 10 CFR 835.501 - Radiological areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiological areas. 835.501 Section 835.501 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.501 Radiological areas. (a... commensurate with existing and potential radiological hazards within the area. (c) One or more of the following...

  1. 10 CFR 835.501 - Radiological areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiological areas. 835.501 Section 835.501 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.501 Radiological areas. (a... commensurate with existing and potential radiological hazards within the area. (c) One or more of the following...

  2. 10 CFR 835.501 - Radiological areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiological areas. 835.501 Section 835.501 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.501 Radiological areas. (a... commensurate with existing and potential radiological hazards within the area. (c) One or more of the following...

  3. 10 CFR 835.501 - Radiological areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiological areas. 835.501 Section 835.501 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Entry Control Program § 835.501 Radiological areas. (a... commensurate with existing and potential radiological hazards within the area. (c) One or more of the following...

  4. Radiological protection of foetuses and breast-fed children of occupationally exposed women in nuclear medicine - Challenges for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Almén, A; Mattsson, S

    2017-09-04

    This paper describes issues of concern for protecting foetuses and breast-fed children of occupationally exposed women in nuclear medicine from unnecessary exposure of ionising radiation. The protection principle is to ensure the same level of protection for the foetus and child as for the general public. Therefore international radiation protection standards recommend a dose constraint of 1mSv to a foetus during the remaining time of pregnancy after it is known/declared and a yearly dose constraint of 1mSv to a breast-fed child. It is not self-evident how to guarantee this level of radiation protection. The exposure situation in nuclear medicine is complex. Exploring existing reported occupational exposure levels suggests great variability between work tasks and facilities. The standards and guidelines found give no detailed advice. Therefore each facility needs to systematically review external and internal exposure levels in order to plan appropriate protection measures and issue their own guidelines and rules. One strategy might be that each facility defines tasks that do not require any restrictions and lists such duties that are not suitable to do when pregnant or breastfeeding, taking also potential exposure levels into consideration. This paper gives examples of such types of work. Information to the staff about the necessity of declaring pregnancy or breastfeeding is of fundamental importance. The internal policies issued by the hospital management should make clear the basis for taking care of pregnant and breastfeeding employees. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. (223)Ra-dichloride spectrometric characterization: Searching for the presence of long-lived isotopes with radiological protection implications.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Jiménez, J; López-Montes, A; Núñez-Martínez, L; Villa-Abaunza, A; Fraile, L M; Sánchez-Tembleque, V; Udías, J M

    2017-03-01

    (223)Ra-dichloride was approved with the commercial name of Xofigo in 2014 for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. (223)Ra is obtained by neutron irradiation of (226)Ra yielding (227)Ac, which decays to (227)Th and (223)Fr, both decaying to (223)Ra. Since (223)Ra is predominantly (95.3%) an alpha emitter with a 11.42days long half-life, the radiopharmaceutical, its remnants, the patient, and waste material can be managed and disposed with low radiation protection requirements. (227)Ac is a long-lived (T1/2=21.77years) beta emitter that demands strong radiation protection measures. In particular waste disposal has to follow the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and European Commission (EC) regulations. Since (227)Ac is involved in the production of (223)Ra, an impurity analysis of each batch is required after production. Due to time restrictions, the manufacturer's detection limit (<0.001%) exceeds the one required to assure that (227)Ac concentrations are below direct disposal levels. To improve the detection limit, long-term accurate spectroscopy is required. Alpha and gamma spectroscopy measurements were carried out at the Complutense University Nuclear Physics Laboratory. After twelve months follow up of a sample, (227)Ac concentration was found to be smaller than 10(-9). This allows for direct waste disposal and no additional radiation protection restrictions than those required for (223)Ra. The presence of contamination by other radioisotopes was also ruled out by this experiment. Specifically (226)Ra, involved in (223)Ra production as the original parent and with a very long-lived (T1/2=1577years) alpha emitter, was also below the experimental detection limit.

  6. Disabling Radiological Dispersal Terror

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M

    2002-11-08

    Terror resulting from the use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) relies upon an individual's lack of knowledge and understanding regarding its significance. Disabling this terror will depend upon realistic reviews of the current conservative radiation protection regulatory standards. It will also depend upon individuals being able to make their own informed decisions merging perceived risks with reality. Preparation in these areas will reduce the effectiveness of the RDD and may even reduce the possibility of its use.

  7. Orthopaedic radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.M.; Hughes, S.P.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book provides an account of the principles of modern diagnostic imaging techniques and their applications in orthopedics. The aim of the book is to show radiology as a dynamic subject which can help clinicians, while at the same time assisting radiologists to understand the needs of the orthopedic surgeon.

  8. Intraoral radiology in general dental practices - a comparison of digital and film-based X-ray systems with regard to radiation protection and dose reduction.

    PubMed

    Anissi, H D; Geibel, M A

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the distribution and application of digital intraoral radiographic techniques within general dental practices and to compare these with film-based systems in terms of patient dose reduction. 1100 questionnaires were handed out to general dental practitioners. Data was analyzed with respect to the type of system by using descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests, i.e. Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and chi-square test (SPSS 20). 64% of the questioned dentists still use film-based radiology, 23% utilize storage phosphor plate (SPP) systems and 13% use a charge-coupled device (CCD). A strong correlation between the number of dentists working in a practice and the use of digital dental imaging was observed. Almost 3/4 of the film users work with E- or F-speed film. 45% of them refuse to change to a digital system. The use of lead aprons was popular, while only a minority preferred thyroid shields and rectangular collimators. A fourfold reduction of exposure time from D-speed film to CCD systems was observed. Due to detector size and positioning errors, users of CCD systems take significantly more single-tooth radiographs in total. Considering the number of radiographs per patient, there is only a slight tendency towards more X-rays with CCD systems. Up to image generation, digital systems seem to be as or even more difficult to handle than film-based systems, while their handling was favored after radiographic exposure. Despite a slight increase of radiographs taken with CCD systems, there is a significant dosage reduction. Corresponding to the decrease in exposure time, the patient dose for SPP systems is reduced to one half compared to film. The main issues in CCD technology are positioning errors and the size of the X-ray detectors which are difficult to eliminate. The usage of radiation protection measures still needs to be improved. ► Responsible use of digital intraoral radiology results in a significant

  9. Posture-specific phantoms representing female and male adults in Monte Carlo-based simulations for radiological protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; Kramer, R.; Brayner, C.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-08-01

    Does the posture of a patient have an effect on the organ and tissue absorbed doses caused by x-ray examinations? This study aims to find the answer to this question, based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of commonly performed x-ray examinations using adult phantoms modelled to represent humans in standing as well as in the supine posture. The recently published FASH (female adult mesh) and MASH (male adult mesh) phantoms have the standing posture. In a first step, both phantoms were updated with respect to their anatomy: glandular tissue was separated from adipose tissue in the breasts, visceral fat was separated from subcutaneous fat, cartilage was segmented in ears, nose and around the thyroid, and the mass of the right lung is now 15% greater than the left lung. The updated versions are called FASH2_sta and MASH2_sta (sta = standing). Taking into account the gravitational effects on organ position and fat distribution, supine versions of the FASH2 and the MASH2 phantoms have been developed in this study and called FASH2_sup and MASH2_sup. MC simulations of external whole-body exposure to monoenergetic photons and partial-body exposure to x-rays have been made with the standing and supine FASH2 and MASH2 phantoms. For external whole-body exposure for AP and PA projection with photon energies above 30 keV, the effective dose did not change by more than 5% when the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. Apart from that, the supine posture is quite rare in occupational radiation protection from whole-body exposure. However, in the x-ray diagnosis supine posture is frequently used for patients submitted to examinations. Changes of organ absorbed doses up to 60% were found for simulations of chest and abdomen radiographs if the posture changed from standing to supine or vice versa. A further increase of differences between posture-specific organ and tissue absorbed doses with increasing whole-body mass is to be expected.

  10. Dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Tony M

    2009-02-01

    Dental radiology is the core diagnostic modality of veterinary dentistry. Dental radiographs assist in detecting hidden painful pathology, estimating the severity of dental conditions, assessing treatment options, providing intraoperative guidance, and also serve to monitor success of prior treatments. Unfortunately, most professional veterinary training programs provide little or no training in veterinary dentistry in general or dental radiology in particular. Although a technical learning curve does exist, the techniques required for producing diagnostic films are not difficult to master. Regular use of dental x-rays will increase the amount of pathology detected, leading to healthier patients and happier clients who notice a difference in how their pet feels. This article covers equipment and materials needed to produce diagnostic intraoral dental films. A simplified guide for positioning will be presented, including a positioning "cheat sheet" to be placed next to the dental x-ray machine in the operatory. Additionally, digital dental radiograph systems will be described and trends for their future discussed.

  11. Patient risk related to common dental radiographic examinations: the impact of 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations regarding dose calculation.

    PubMed

    Ludlow, John B; Davies-Ludlow, Laura E; White, Stuart C

    2008-09-01

    In 2007, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) revised estimates of the radiosensitivity of tissues including those in the maxillofacial region. The authors conducted a study to reassess patients' risk related to common dental radiographic exposures using the 2007 ICRP recommendations. The authors used a tissue-equivalent head phantom to measure dose. They calculated effective doses by using both 1990 and revised 2007 ICRP recommendations. Effective dose is a calculation that takes into consideration the different sensitivities of organs to long-term effects from ionizing radiation. It is the preferred method for comparing doses between different types of exposures. Effective doses (per the 2007 ICRP) in microsieverts were as follows: full-mouth radiographs (FMX) with photo-stimulable phosphor (PSP) storage or F-speed film with rectangular collimation, 34.9 microSv; four-image posterior bitewings with PSP or F-speed film with rectangular collimation, 5.0 microSv; FMX using PSP or F-speed film with round collimation, 170.7 microSv; FMX with D-speed film and round collimation, 388 microSv; panoramic Orthophos XG (Sirona Group, Bensheim, Germany) with charge-coupled device (CCD), 14.2 microSv; panoramic ProMax (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland) with CCD, 24.3 microSv; posteroanterior cephalogram with PSP, 5.1 microSv; and lateral cephalogram with PSP, 5.6 microSv. These values are 32 to 422 percent higher than those determined according to the 1990 ICRP guidelines. Although radiographs are an indispensable diagnostic tool, the increased effective doses of common intraoral and extraoral imaging techniques are high enough to warrant reconsideration of means to reduce patients' exposure. Clinicians can reduce patients' dose substantively by using digital receptors or F-speed film instead of D-speed film, rectangular collimation instead of round collimation and radiographic selection criteria.

  12. RADRELAY RADIOLOGICAL DATA LINK DEVICE

    SciTech Connect

    Harpring, L; Frank Heckendorn, F

    2007-11-06

    The RadRelay effort developed small, field appropriate, portable prototype devices that allow radiological spectra to be downloaded from field radiological detectors, like the identiFINDER-U, and transmitted to land based experts. This communications capability was designed for the U. S. Coast Guard (USCG) but is also applicable to the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) personnel working in remote locations. USCG Level II personnel currently use the identiFINDER-U Hand-Held Radioisotope ID Devices (HHRIID) to detect radiological materials during specific boarding operations. These devices will detect not only radiological emissions but will also evaluate those emissions against a table of known radiological spectra. The RadRelay has been developed to significantly improve the functionality of HHRIID, by providing the capability to download radiological spectra and then transmit them using satellite or cell phone technology. This remote wireless data transfer reduces the current lengthy delay often encountered between the shipboard detection of unknown radiological material and the evaluation of that data by technical and command personnel. That delay is reduced from hours to minutes and allows the field located personnel to remain on station during the inspection and evaluation process.

  13. Risk management in radiology departments

    PubMed Central

    Craciun, Horea; Mankad, Kshitij; Lynch, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging and interventional radiology sustained prompt changes in the last few years, mainly as a result of technology breakthroughs, rise in workload, deficit in workforce and globalization. Risk is considered to be the chance or possibility of incurring loss or of a negative event happening that may cause injury to patients or medical practitioners. There are various causes of risks leading to harm and injury in radiology departments, and it is one of the objectives of this paper to scrutinize some of the causes. This will drive to consideration of some of the approaches that are used in managing risks in radiology. This paper aims at investigating risk management in radiology, and this will be achieved through a thorough assessment of the risk control measures that are used in the radiology department. It has been observed that the major focus of risk management in such medical setting is to reduce and eliminate harm and injury to patients through integration of various medical precautions. The field of Radiology is rapidly evolving due to technology advances and the globalization of healthcare. This ongoing development will have a great impact on the level of quality of care and service delivery. Thus, risk management in radiology is essential in protecting the patients, radiologists, and the medical organization in terms of capital and widening of the reputation of the medical organization with the patients. PMID:26120383

  14. Risk management in radiology departments.

    PubMed

    Craciun, Horea; Mankad, Kshitij; Lynch, Jeremy

    2015-06-28

    Medical imaging and interventional radiology sustained prompt changes in the last few years, mainly as a result of technology breakthroughs, rise in workload, deficit in workforce and globalization. Risk is considered to be the chance or possibility of incurring loss or of a negative event happening that may cause injury to patients or medical practitioners. There are various causes of risks leading to harm and injury in radiology departments, and it is one of the objectives of this paper to scrutinize some of the causes. This will drive to consideration of some of the approaches that are used in managing risks in radiology. This paper aims at investigating risk management in radiology, and this will be achieved through a thorough assessment of the risk control measures that are used in the radiology department. It has been observed that the major focus of risk management in such medical setting is to reduce and eliminate harm and injury to patients through integration of various medical precautions. The field of Radiology is rapidly evolving due to technology advances and the globalization of healthcare. This ongoing development will have a great impact on the level of quality of care and service delivery. Thus, risk management in radiology is essential in protecting the patients, radiologists, and the medical organization in terms of capital and widening of the reputation of the medical organization with the patients.

  15. Strontium-90 Biokinetics from Simulated Wound Intakes in Non-human Primates Compared with Combined Model Predictions from National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report 156 and International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 67.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark B; Brey, Richard R; Gesell, Thomas; Derryberry, Dewayne; Poudel, Deepesh

    2016-01-01

    This study had a goal to evaluate the predictive capabilities of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) wound model coupled to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) systemic model for 90Sr-contaminated wounds using non-human primate data. Studies were conducted on 13 macaque (Macaca mulatta) monkeys, each receiving one-time intramuscular injections of 90Sr solution. Urine and feces samples were collected up to 28 d post-injection and analyzed for 90Sr activity. Integrated Modules for Bioassay Analysis (IMBA) software was configured with default NCRP and ICRP model transfer coefficients to calculate predicted 90Sr intake via the wound based on the radioactivity measured in bioassay samples. The default parameters of the combined models produced adequate fits of the bioassay data, but maximum likelihood predictions of intake were overestimated by a factor of 1.0 to 2.9 when bioassay data were used as predictors. Skeletal retention was also over-predicted, suggesting an underestimation of the excretion fraction. Bayesian statistics and Monte Carlo sampling were applied using IMBA to vary the default parameters, producing updated transfer coefficients for individual monkeys that improved model fit and predicted intake and skeletal retention. The geometric means of the optimized transfer rates for the 11 cases were computed, and these optimized sample population parameters were tested on two independent monkey cases and on the 11 monkeys from which the optimized parameters were derived. The optimized model parameters did not improve the model fit in most cases, and the predicted skeletal activity produced improvements in three of the 11 cases. The optimized parameters improved the predicted intake in all cases but still over-predicted the intake by an average of 50%. The results suggest that the modified transfer rates were not always an improvement over the default NCRP and ICRP model values.

  16. The Swedish radiological environmental protection regulations applied in a review of a license application for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Pål; Stark, Karolina; Xu, Shulan; Nordén, Maria; Dverstorp, Björn

    2017-04-17

    For the first time, a system for specific consideration of radiological environmental protection has been applied in a major license application in Sweden. In 2011 the Swedish Nuclear Fuel & Waste Management Co. (SKB) submitted a license application for construction of a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel at the Forsmark site. The license application is supported by a post-closure safety assessment, which in accordance with regulatory requirements includes an assessment of environmental consequences. SKB's environmental risk assessment uses the freely available ERICA Tool. Environmental media activity concentrations needed as input to the tool are calculated by means of complex biosphere modelling based on site-specific information gathered from site investigations, as well as from supporting modelling studies and projections of future biosphere conditions in response to climate change and land rise due to glacial rebound. SKB's application is currently being reviewed by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). In addition to a traditional document review with an aim to determine whether SKB's models are relevant, correctly implemented and adequately parametrized, SSM has performed independent modelling in order to gain confidence in the robustness of SKB's assessment. Thus, SSM has used alternative stylized reference biosphere models to calculate environmental activity concentrations for use in subsequent exposure calculations. Secondly, an alternative dose model (RESRAD-BIOTA) is used to calculate doses to biota that are compared with SKB's calculations with the ERICA tool. SSM's experience from this review is that existing tools for environmental dose assessment are possible to use in order to show compliance with Swedish legislation. However, care is needed when site representative species are assessed with the aim to contrast them to generic reference organism. The alternative modelling of environmental concentrations resulted in much lower

  17. Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers' Council - Nevada Test Site

    2009-10-01

    This document supersedes DOE/NV/11718--079, “NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual,” Revision 5 issued in November 2004. Brief Description of Revision: A complete revision to reflect the recent changes in compliance requirements with 10 CFR 835, and for use as a reference document for Tenant Organization Radiological Protection Programs.

  18. 10 CFR 835.4 - Radiological units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... other conventional units, such as, dpm, dpm/100 cm2 or mass units. The SI units, becquerel (Bq), gray... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiological units. 835.4 Section 835.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION General Provisions § 835.4 Radiological units. Unless...

  19. 10 CFR 835.4 - Radiological units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... other conventional units, such as, dpm, dpm/100 cm2 or mass units. The SI units, becquerel (Bq), gray... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiological units. 835.4 Section 835.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION General Provisions § 835.4 Radiological units. Unless...

  20. 10 CFR 835.4 - Radiological units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... other conventional units, such as, dpm, dpm/100 cm2 or mass units. The SI units, becquerel (Bq), gray... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiological units. 835.4 Section 835.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION General Provisions § 835.4 Radiological units. Unless...

  1. 10 CFR 835.4 - Radiological units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiological units. 835.4 Section 835.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION General Provisions § 835.4 Radiological units. Unless otherwise specified, the quantities used in the records required by this part shall be clearly indicated in...

  2. 10 CFR 835.4 - Radiological units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiological units. 835.4 Section 835.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION General Provisions § 835.4 Radiological units. Unless otherwise specified, the quantities used in the records required by this part shall be clearly indicated in...

  3. Radiological Toolbox User's Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, KF

    2004-07-01

    A toolbox of radiological data has been assembled to provide users access to the physical, chemical, anatomical, physiological and mathematical data relevant to the radiation protection of workers and member of the public. The software runs on a PC and provides users, through a single graphical interface, quick access to contemporary data and the means to extract these data for further computations and analysis. The numerical data, for the most part, are stored within databases in SI units. However, the user can display and extract values using non-SI units. This is the first release of the toolbox which was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  4. Battlefield radiology

    PubMed Central

    Graham, R N J

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing tempo of military conflicts in the last decade, much has been learnt about imaging battlefield casualties in the acute setting. Ultrasound in the form of focused abdominal sonography in trauma (FAST) has proven invaluable in emergency triage of patients for immediate surgery. Multidetector CT allows accurate determination of battlefield trauma injuries. It permits the surgeons and anaesthetists to plan their interventions more thoroughly and to be made aware of clinically occult injuries. There are common injury patterns associated with blast injury, gunshot wounds and blunt trauma. While this body of knowledge is most applicable to the battlefield, there are parallels with peacetime radiology, particularly in terrorist attacks and industrial accidents. This pictorial review is based on the experiences of a UK radiologist deployed in Afghanistan in 2010. PMID:22806621

  5. Decommoditizing radiology.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Bruce I; Siegel, Eliot L

    2009-03-01

    The current focus on the economic bottom line in health care creates the potential for radiology to become a commodity, devoid of qualitative differentiation. This trend toward commoditization has been accelerated by the globalization of imaging services (teleradiology), increased information exchange (eg, Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine, Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise), and new technology development (eg, picture archiving and communication systems, computer-aided diagnosis). The optimum strategy for avoiding commoditization is the creation of objective quality metrics and standards throughout the medical imaging practice, which will provide a reproducible and objective means with which to differentiate imaging service deliverables on the basis of quality and clinical outcomes. These quality measures can in turn be directly tied to economic incentives (pay for performance), providing further incentive for proactive quality assurance, qualitative differentiation, and technology development centered on quality.

  6. [Radiological dose and metadata management].

    PubMed

    Walz, M; Kolodziej, M; Madsack, B

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the features of management systems currently available in Germany for extraction, registration and evaluation of metadata from radiological examinations, particularly in the digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) environment. In addition, the probable relevant developments in this area concerning radiation protection legislation, terminology, standardization and information technology are presented.

  7. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Overview of FRMAC Operations

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan. This cooperative effort will ensure that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. the mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas.

  8. Patient Dose in Diagnostic Radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Alain

    One of the basic principles, stated explicitly in Article 4 of the EC Council Directive 97/43 Euratom, is optimization. This means that all radiological examinations should be performed with a dose that is As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA principle applied to the protection of the patient) in order to obtain the required diagnostic information. Therefore, dose needs to be determined with the relationship between image quality and dose always kept in mind. In this paper, radiation quantities and units to report patient doses in diagnostic radiology will be identified.

  9. Current radiology. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.H.; Hanafee, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. They are: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional Vascular Radiology, Genitourinary Radiology, Skeletal Radiology, Digital Subtraction Angiography, Neuroradiology, Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Degenerative Diseases of the Lumbar Spine, The Lung, Otolaringology and Opthalmology, and Pediatric Radiology: Cranial, Facial, Cervical, Vertebral, and Appendicular.

  10. Greening radiology.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Prasanth M; Siegel, Eliot; Kunce, Amy

    2011-11-01

    Reducing energy consumption has increased in importance with rising energy prices and funding cutbacks. With the introduction of electronic medical records on the rise in all fields of medicine, there will be a large jump in the number of computers in health care. Radiologist have the unique opportunity, as technological leaders, to direct energy efficiency measures as a means of cost savings and the reduction of airborne by-products from energy production to improve patients' lives. The aim of this study was to assess the many workstations and monitors throughout the authors' department to determine their electrical consumption and cost. Equipment was monitored using an electricity meter during both active and standby states. Cost per kilowatt-hour was calculated at $0.11, not including taxes and fees. Any given monitor left on 24/7 would annually consume between 49.5 and 1,399.84 kWh, costing from $5.45 to $153.98. A single workstation left on 24/7 would use 455.65 to 2,358.72 kWh, costing from $59.91 to $259.46. In aggregate, all workstations and monitors would use approximately 137,759.54 kWh, costing $15,153.55. If all equipment were shut down after an 8-hour workday, the department would consume about 32,633.64 kWh, costing $3,589.70 thereby saving 83,866.6 kWh and $9,225.33. Although computers in the remainder of the hospital may use less energy than workstations, this serves as a predictive model for potential energy consumption and cost. With the increasing necessity of cost savings and energy reduction, this small and simple step, implemented hospital-wide, will lead to much larger cost savings across institutions. Copyright © 2011 American College of Radiology. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiological assistance program: Region I. Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Musolino, S.V.; Kuehner, A.V.; Hull, A.P.

    1985-07-15

    The purpose of the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) is to make DOE resources available and provide emergency assistance to state and local agencies in order to control radiological hazards, protect the public health and safety, and minimize the loss of property. This plan is an integral part of a nationwide program of radiological assistance established by the US DOE, and is implemented on a regional basis. The Brookhaven Area Office (BHO) Radiological Assistance Program is applicable to DOE Region I, which consists of the New England States, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and the District of Columbia. The BHO RAP-1 has been developed to: (a) ensure the availability of an effective radiological assistance capability to ensure the protection of persons and property; (b) provide guidelines to RAP-1 Team personnel for the evaluation of radiological incidents and implementation of corrective actions; (c) maintain liaison with other DOE installations, Federal, State and local organizations which may become involved in radiological assistance operations in Region I; and (d) encourage development of a local capability to cope with radiological incidents.

  12. Educational treasures in Radiology: The Radiology Olympics - striving for gold in Radiology education.

    PubMed

    Talanow, Roland

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on Radiology Olympics (www.RadiologyOlympics.com) - a collaboration with the international Radiology community for Radiology education, Radiolopolis (www.Radiolopolis.com). The Radiology Olympics honour the movers and shakers in Radiology education and offer an easy to use platform for educating medical professionals based on Radiology cases.

  13. Historical Radiological Event Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    During and after radiological events EPA's RadNet monitors the environment for radiation. EPA monitored environmental radiation levels during and after Chernobyl, Fukushima and other international and domestic radiological incidents.

  14. Mobile computing for radiology.

    PubMed

    Auffermann, William F; Chetlen, Alison L; Sharma, Arjun; Colucci, Andrew T; DeQuesada, Ivan M; Grajo, Joseph R; Kung, Justin W; Loehfelm, Thomas W; Sherry, Steven J

    2013-12-01

    The rapid advances in mobile computing technology have the potential to change the way radiology and medicine as a whole are practiced. Several mobile computing advances have not yet found application to the practice of radiology, while others have already been applied to radiology but are not in widespread clinical use. This review addresses several areas where radiology and medicine in general may benefit from adoption of the latest mobile computing technologies and speculates on potential future applications.

  15. Radiological Control Center (RADCC) Renaming Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    Space Center, presents Myrna Scott, widow of Randy Scott, with a replica of the emblem noting that the spaceport's Radiological Control Center has been named in honor of her husband who died last year. The ceremony in the center's Radiological Control Center honored the extensive contributions of Randy Scott. A professional health physicist of more than 40 years, Scott served as the Florida spaceport's Radiation Protection Officer for 14 years until his death June 17, 2016.

  16. Radiology and fine art.

    PubMed

    Marinković, Slobodan; Stošić-Opinćal, Tatjana; Tomić, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    The radiologic aesthetics of some body parts and internal organs have inspired certain artists to create specific works of art. Our aim was to describe the link between radiology and fine art. We explored 13,625 artworks in the literature produced by 2049 artists and found several thousand photographs in an online image search. The examination revealed 271 radiologic artworks (1.99%) created by 59 artists (2.88%) who mainly applied radiography, sonography, CT, and MRI. Some authors produced radiologic artistic photographs, and others used radiologic images to create artful compositions, specific sculptures, or digital works. Many radiologic artworks have symbolic, metaphoric, or conceptual connotations. Radiology is clearly becoming an original and important field of modern art.

  17. Radiological Examinations in Pediatric Age.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, R

    2017-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology imaging is an essential tool for adequate clinical investigation of pathological processes and the drafting of a personalized therapy plan. However, in recent years, there has been a substantial increase of requests, mainly due to technological advances but also to social and cultural reasons, not always based on the principle of the diagnostic justification. The progress of recent years in the field of diagnostic radiology has made available to the physician a variety of sophisticated radiological examinations, which are not always used rationally and appropriately. The theme is of paramount importance, particularly in childhood or adolescence, characterized by elevated radiosensitivity (high cell turnover) and longer life expectancy; therefore, children exposed to ionizing radiation are theoretically subject to a higher risk of carcinogenesis compared to the general population. For these reasons the young patients should have greater protection and examinations must respect stringent appropriateness criteria. Far from underestimating the important diagnostic and therapeutic benefits that these procedures provide, the use of ionizing radiations must minimize the radiation-related risk in accordance with the ALARA principle (As Low As Reasonably Achievable), key principle of modern radiation protection.

  18. Fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients for use in radiological protection of embryo and foetus against external exposure to electrons from 10 MeV TO 10 GeV.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2008-04-01

    Electrons as primary and more often as secondary radiation exist commonly in the environment and workplaces. No conversion coefficients are yet available, in the literature, for use in radiological protection of embryo and foetus against external exposure to electrons. This study uses mathematical models developed by the Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, for the embryo of 8 wk and for the foetus of 3, 6, and 9 mo. Monte Carlo code MCNPX is used to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to external electron fields. Monoenergetic electrons ranging from 10 MeV to 10 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries include antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT), isotropic (ISO), and top-down (TOP). At each of these irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal brain and body were calculated for the embryo of 8 wk and the foetus of 3, 6, and 9 mo. Electron fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients were derived for the four prenatal ages.

  19. DOE standard: Radiological control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed this Standard to assist line managers in meeting their responsibilities for implementing occupational radiological control programs. DOE has established regulatory requirements for occupational radiation protection in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835 (10 CFR 835), ``Occupational Radiation Protection``. Failure to comply with these requirements may lead to appropriate enforcement actions as authorized under the Price Anderson Act Amendments (PAAA). While this Standard does not establish requirements, it does restate, paraphrase, or cite many (but not all) of the requirements of 10 CFR 835 and related documents (e.g., occupational safety and health, hazardous materials transportation, and environmental protection standards). Because of the wide range of activities undertaken by DOE and the varying requirements affecting these activities, DOE does not believe that it would be practical or useful to identify and reproduce the entire range of health and safety requirements in this Standard and therefore has not done so. In all cases, DOE cautions the user to review any underlying regulatory and contractual requirements and the primary guidance documents in their original context to ensure that the site program is adequate to ensure continuing compliance with the applicable requirements. To assist its operating entities in achieving and maintaining compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 835, DOE has established its primary regulatory guidance in the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides. This Standard supplements the DOE G 441.1 series of Guides and serves as a secondary source of guidance for achieving compliance with 10 CFR 835.

  20. Radiological emergency: Malaysian preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Mohd Abd Wahab; Ali, Hamrah Mohd

    2011-07-01

    Planning and preparation in advance for radiological emergencies can help to minimise potential public health and environmental threats if and when an actual emergency occurs. During the planning process, emergency response organisations think through how they would respond to each type of incident and the resources that will be needed. In Malaysia, planning, preparation for and response to radiological emergencies involve many parties. In the event of a radiological emergency and if it is considered a disaster, the National Security Council, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board and the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) will work together with other federal agencies, state and local governments, first responders and international organisations to monitor the situation, contain the release, and clean up the contaminated site. Throughout the response, these agencies use their protective action guidelines. This paper discusses Malaysian preparedness for, and response to, any potential radiological emergency.

  1. Radiation protection aspects of the use of zircon sand. National Group for Studying Radiological Implications in the Use of Zircon Sand.

    PubMed

    1985-10-01

    Working processes using zircon sand in a factory producing refractory material were studied from the point of view of radiation protection. Zircon sand contains high concentrations of natural radionuclides and is a typical example of an enhanced source. Using various techniques the characteristics of the original material were analysed and environmental radioactivity was measured in the different significant points of the process. Finally, a first assessment was made of effective dose equivalent values in the areas of highest risk.

  2. Machine Learning and Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  3. Radiological evaluation of dysphagia

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, D.J.; Gelfand, D.W.; Wu, W.C.; Chen, Y.M.

    1986-11-21

    Dysphagia is a common complaint in patients presenting for radiological or endoscopic examination of the esophagus and is usually due to functional or structural abnormalities of the esophageal body or esophagogastric region. The authors review the radiological evaluation of the esophagus and esophagogastric region in patients with esophageal dysphagia and discuss the roentgenographic techniques used, radiological efficacy for common structural disorders, and evaluation of esophageal motor function. Comparison is made with endoscopy in assessing dysphagia, with the conclusion that the radiological examination be used initially in patients with this complaint.

  4. Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2010-02-09

    This document supersedes DOE/NV/25946--801, “Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual,” Revision 0 issued in October 2009. Brief Description of Revision: A minor revision to correct oversights made during revision to incorporate the 10 CFR 835 Update; and for use as a reference document for Tenant Organization Radiological Protection Programs.

  5. FRMAC Interactions During a Radiological or Nuclear Event

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, C T

    2011-01-27

    During a radiological or nuclear event of national significance the Federal Radiological Emergency Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) assists federal, state, tribal, and local authorities by providing timely, high-quality predictions, measurements, analyses and assessments to promote efficient and effective emergency response for protection of the public and the environment from the consequences of such an event.

  6. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  7. Radiological Defense. Textbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This textbook has been prepared under the direction of the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DCPA) Staff College for use as a student reference manual in radiological defense (RADEF) courses. It provides much of the basic technical information necessary for a proper understanding of radiological defense and summarizes RADEF planning and expected…

  8. Advanced Neutron Source radiological design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    The operation of the proposed Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) facility will present a variety of radiological protection problems. Because it is desired to design and operate the ANS according to the applicable licensing standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), it must be demonstrated that the ANS radiological design basis is consistent not only with state and Department of Energy (DOE) and other usual federal regulations, but also, so far as is practicable, with NRC regulations and with recommendations of such organizations as the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Also, the ANS radiological design basis is in general to be consistent with the recommendations of authoritative professional and scientific organizations, specifically the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). As regards radiological protection, the principal goals of DOE regulations and guidance are to keep occupational doses ALARA [as low as (is) reasonably achievable], given the current state of technology, costs, and operations requirements; to control and monitor contained and released radioactivity during normal operation to keep public doses and releases to the environment ALARA; and to limit doses to workers and the public during accident conditions. Meeting these general design objectives requires that principles of dose reduction and of radioactivity control by employed in the design, operation, modification, and decommissioning of the ANS. The purpose of this document is to provide basic radiological criteria for incorporating these principles into the design of the ANS. Operations, modification, and decommissioning will be covered only as they are affected by design.

  9. Radiological Control Center (RADCC) Renaming Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    Family members of Randy Scott gather in the Radiological Control Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center following ceremonies to name the facility in his honor. A professional health physicist of more than 40 years, Scott served as the Florida spaceport's Radiation Protection Officer for 14 years until his death June 17, 2016.

  10. Radiological Control Center (RADCC) Renaming Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    Nancy Bray, director of Spaceport Integration and Services at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, speaks during ceremonies to name the Radiological Control Center in honor for Randy Scott. A professional health physicist of more than 40 years, Scott served as the Florida spaceport's Radiation Protection Officer for 14 years until his death June 17, 2016.

  11. Managing patient stress in pediatric radiology.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Melody

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that short-and long-term effects can result from stressful or invasive medical procedures performed on children in the radiology department. Short-term effects for the pediatric patient include pain, anxiety, crying, and lack of cooperation. The patient's parents also may experience short-term effects, including elevated anxiety and increased heart rate and blood pressure. Potential long-term effects include post-traumatic stress syndrome; fear; changes in pain perception and coping effectiveness; avoidance of medical care; and trypanophobia. To identify common sources of stress in pediatric radiology, investigate short-and long-term effects of stressful and invasive medical procedures in pediatric patients, and compare different strategies used in radiology departments to minimize stress in pediatric patients. Searches were conducted using specific databases to locate literature related to stress in pediatric radiology. Articles were included that addressed at least 1 of the following topics: common sources of stress in the pediatric radiology department, the short-or long-term effects of a stressful and invasive medical procedure, or a stress-minimizing strategy used in a pediatric medical environment. Consistency of care can be improved among the different radiology modalities by providing similar and effective strategies to minimize stress, including interventions such as parental involvement, preprocedural preparation, distraction, sedation, use of a child-life specialist, hypnosis, protecting the child's privacy, and positive reinforcement. Future research is needed to identify additional ways to improve the consistency for care of pediatric patients in the radiology department and to investigate stress management in areas such as pediatric vascular interventional radiology, cardiac catheterization, emergency/trauma imaging, and gastrointestinal procedures.

  12. The Application of the Radiological Defense Capabilities to Peacetime Radiological Incidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    protection professionals within the state. I.- *.~. . 0 0.~ 0. . ~ ~ P~d .P J l.A~ F .S ~ -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1% THE APPLICATION OF THE... protection groups, federal agencies, and private organizations. 1.2 BACKGROUND INFORMATION Radiological defense (RADEF) prograis were developed to save...occurred without any protective actions being takpn, some early deaths due to radiation exposure might occur. A large area could be contaminated with

  13. Interventional Radiology in Paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Chippington, Samantha J; Goodwin, Susie J

    2015-01-01

    As in adult practice, there is a growing role for paediatric interventional radiology expertise in the management of paediatric pathologies. This review is targeted for clinicians who may refer their patients to paediatric interventional radiology services, or who are responsible for patients who are undergoing paediatric interventional radiology procedures. The article includes a brief overview of the indications for intervention, techniques involved and the commonest complications. Although some of the procedures described are most commonly performed in a tertiary paediatric centre, many are performed in most Children's hospitals.

  14. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    PubMed

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  15. American College of Radiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meeting & Course Calendar Where ACR Exhibits Advancing Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging Visit ACR DSI website to ... more ACR Radiology Coding Source™ ACR issues an analysis of the proposed MACRA/MIPS Rule May-June ...

  16. Imaging and radiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a branch of medicine that uses imaging technology to diagnose and treat disease. Radiology may be ... for smaller incisions (cuts). Doctors can use this technology to diagnose or treat conditions in almost any ...

  17. Radiologic Technology Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the radiologic technology program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories; Foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); Admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); Program…

  18. Interventional Radiology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Teng Gaojun Xu Ke; Ni Caifang; Li Linsun

    2008-03-15

    With more than 3000 members, the Chinese Society of Interventional Radiology (CSIR) is one of the world's largest societies for interventional radiology (IR). Nevertheless, compared to other societies such as CIRSE and SIR, the CSIR is a relatively young society. In this article, the status of IR in China is described, which includes IR history, structure and patient management, personnel, fellowship, training, modalities, procedures, research, turf battle, and insightful visions for IR from Chinese interventional radiologists.

  19. Rethinking radiology informatics.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Marc; Dreyer, Keith J; Geis, J Raymond

    2015-04-01

    Informatics innovations of the past 30 years have improved radiology quality and efficiency immensely. Radiologists are groundbreaking leaders in clinical information technology (IT), and often radiologists and imaging informaticists created, specified, and implemented these technologies, while also carrying the ongoing burdens of training, maintenance, support, and operation of these IT solutions. Being pioneers of clinical IT had advantages of local radiology control and radiology-centric products and services. As health care businesses become more clinically IT savvy, however, they are standardizing IT products and procedures across the enterprise, resulting in the loss of radiologists' local control and flexibility. Although this inevitable consequence may provide new opportunities in the long run, several questions arise. What will happen to the informatics expertise within the radiology domain? Will radiology's current and future concerns be heard and their needs addressed? What should radiologists do to understand, obtain, and use informatics products to maximize efficiency and provide the most value and quality for patients and the greater health care community? This article will propose some insights and considerations as we rethink radiology informatics.

  20. Radiological Control Center (RADCC) Renaming Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    A Mars Science Laboratory cap is displayed in the Randall E. Scott Radiological Control Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The facility was recently named in honor of Randy Scott, a professional health physicist of more than 40 years. He served as the Florida spaceport's Radiation Protection Officer for 14 years until his death June 17, 2016. Launched Nov. 26, 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory with the Curiosity lander was powered by a radioisotope thermalelectric generator. Located in the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout building, the Randall E. Scott Radiological Control Center is staffed by technical and radiological experts from NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Air Force 45th Space Wing and the state of Florida. The group performs data collection and assessment functions supporting launch site and field data collection activities during launces involving plutonium-powered spacecraft such as the Mars Science Laboratory.

  1. Radiological Control Center (RADCC) Renaming Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    A portion of the Radiological Control Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center is seen during ceremonies to name the facility in honor of Randy Scott. A professional health physicist of more than 40 years, Scott served as the Florida spaceport's Radiation Protection Officer for 14 years until his death June 17, 2016. Located in the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout building, the Randall E. Scott Radiological Control Center is staffed by technical and radiological experts from NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Air Force 45th Space Wing and the state of Florida. The group performs data collection and assessment functions supporting launch site and field data collection activities.

  2. Radiological Control Center (RADCC) Renaming Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    Consoles in the Radiological Control Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center are seen during ceremonies to name the facility in honor of Randy Scott. A professional health physicist of more than 40 years, Scott served as the Florida spaceport's Radiation Protection Officer for 14 years until his death June 17, 2016. Located in the Neil Armstrong Operations and Checkout building, the Randall E. Scott Radiological Control Center is staffed by technical and radiological experts from NASA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Air Force 45th Space Wing and the state of Florida. The group performs data collection and assessment functions supporting launch site and field data collection activities.

  3. Diagnostic radiology in the tropics: technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kwan-Hoong; McLean, Ian Donald

    2011-11-01

    An estimated two thirds of the world's population is currently without access to diagnostic radiology services, and most of them live in resource-limited tropical regions with harsh environments. Most patients are diagnosed and treated in poorly equipped government-funded hospitals and clinics that have insufficiently trained staff and are barely operational. Any available imaging equipment is likely to be functioning suboptimally and be poorly maintained. The root of the problem is usually a lack of know-how and a quality culture, combined with insufficient basic equipment and infrastructure. Radiological imaging is an essential aspect of primary care and used in the critical diagnosis and management of trauma, tuberculosis, pneumonia, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, cancer, and other respiratory and abdominal diseases. Considerations such as quality management and infrastructure, personnel, equipment, and radiation protection and safety are important to ensure the proper functioning and rational use of a diagnostic radiology facility in the tropics.

  4. Turf wars in radiology: what must academic radiology do?

    PubMed

    Rao, Vijay M; Levin, David C

    2007-09-01

    In a previous article in this series, the authors called on private practice radiology groups to better support radiology research financially but also pointed out that academic radiology must make some changes as well. In this article, the authors discuss those changes in detail. They include revising the structure of the radiology residency, changing the timing of the American Board of Radiology oral examinations, requiring that all residents receive research training, and emphasizing the value of clinical and translational research. The Society of Chairmen of Academic Radiology Departments needs to assume a leadership role in implementing these changes.

  5. Training in Radiological Protection: Curricula and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    A summary of training programs relating to radiation health and safety is presented in this report. Training courses are primarily categorized into five types, respectively, for specialists, personnel whose work is closely related to radiation, radiation users, nuclear installation staff, and the general public. To meet the present world needs,…

  6. Training in Radiological Protection: Curricula and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    A summary of training programs relating to radiation health and safety is presented in this report. Training courses are primarily categorized into five types, respectively, for specialists, personnel whose work is closely related to radiation, radiation users, nuclear installation staff, and the general public. To meet the present world needs,…

  7. Radiology interpretation process modeling.

    PubMed

    Noumeir, Rita

    2006-04-01

    Information and communication technology in healthcare promises optimized patient care while ensuring efficiency and cost-effectiveness. However, the promised results are not yet achieved; the healthcare process requires analysis and radical redesign to achieve improvements in care quality and productivity. Healthcare process reengineering is thus necessary and involves modeling its workflow. Even though the healthcare process is very large and not very well modeled yet, its sub-processes can be modeled individually, providing fundamental pieces of the whole model. In this paper, we are interested in modeling the radiology interpretation process that results in generating a diagnostic radiology report. This radiology report is an important clinical element of the patient healthcare record and assists in healthcare decisions. We present the radiology interpretation process by identifying its boundaries and by positioning it on the large healthcare process map. Moreover, we discuss an information data model and identify roles, tasks and several information flows. Furthermore, we describe standard frameworks to enable radiology interpretation workflow implementations between heterogeneous systems.

  8. Advances in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Runge, Val M

    2010-12-01

    Recent advances in diagnostic radiology are discussed on the basis of current publications in Investigative Radiology. Publications in the journal during 2009 and 2010 are reviewed, evaluating developments by modality and anatomic region. Technological advances continue to play a major role in the evolution and clinical practice of diagnostic radiology, and as such constitute a major publication focus. In the past 2 years, this includes advances in both magnetic resonance and computed tomography (in particular, the advent of dual energy computed tomography). An additional major focus of publications concerns contrast media, and in particular continuing research involving nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, its etiology, and differentiation of the gadolinium chelates on the basis of in vivo stability.

  9. Organizational decentralization in radiology.

    PubMed

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    At present, most hospitals have a department of radiology where images are captured and interpreted. Decentralization is the opposite of centralization and means 'away from the centre'. With a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and broadband communications, transmitting radiology images between sites will be far easier than before. Qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons were performed in Norway. There was a response rate of 90%. Decentralization of radiology interpretations seems less relevant than centralization, but several forms of decentralization have a role to play. The respondents mentioned several advantages, including exploitation of capacity and competence. They also mentioned several disadvantages, including splitting professional communities and reduced contact between radiologists and clinicians. With the new technology decentralization and centralization of image interpretation are important possibilities in organizational change. This will be important for the future of teleradiology.

  10. Radiology's value chain.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  11. DOE Region 6 Radiological Assistance Program plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubowski, F.M.

    1995-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) since the 1950`s. The RAP is designed to make DOE resources available to other DOE facilities, state, tribal, local, private businesses, and individuals for the explicit purpose of assisting during radiological incidents. The DOE has an obligation, through the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, to provide resources through the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP, Nov. 1985) in the event of a radiological incident. Toward this end, the RAP program is implemented on a regional basis, and has planned for an incremental response capability with regional coordination between states and DOE response elements. This regional coordination is intended to foster a working relationship between DOE radiological assistance elements and those state, tribal, and local agencies responsible for first response to protect public health and safety.

  12. Radiological worker training

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

  13. Marketing a Radiology Practice.

    PubMed

    Levin, David C; Rao, Vijay M; Flanders, Adam E; Sundaram, Baskaran; Colarossi, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    In addition to being a profession, the practice of radiology is a business, and marketing is an important part of that business. There are many facets to marketing a radiology practice. The authors present a number of ideas on how to go about doing this. Some marketing methods can be directed to both patients and referring physicians. Others should be directed just to patients, while still others should be directed just to referring physicians. Aside from marketing, many of them provide value to both target audiences.

  14. Food Signs in Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mehboob; Al Damegh, Saleh

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Certain diseases show classic radiological signs that resemble various types of food items like fruits, meat, vegetables, eggs, bakery, grocery and confectionary items. In this article various food signs are discussed and correlated with the various food items in a pictorial way. The objective of this pictorial essay is to provide the information and learn the characteristic radiological signs resembling various food items. These food signs are easy to recognize and allows a confident diagnosis on the basis of imaging findings alone or can narrow down the differential diagnosis. PMID:21475464

  15. [Radiological diagnosis of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Issever, A S; Link, T M

    2011-02-01

    Having at their disposal a wide range of imaging techniques, radiologists play a crucial role in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with osteoporosis. The radiological tests range from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), which is the only reference method accepted by the WHO, to conventional radiographs for fracture characterization, to more recent techniques for analyzing trabecular structure, and the findings are decisive in initiating correct management of osteoporosis patients. This review provides an overview of established radiological techniques and an outline of new diagnostic approaches.

  16. 324 Building Baseline Radiological Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Reeder, J.C. Cooper

    2010-06-24

    This report documents the analysis of radiological data collected as part of the characterization study performed in 1998. The study was performed to create a baseline of the radiological conditions in the 324 Building.

  17. Radiological controls integrated into design

    SciTech Connect

    Kindred, G.W.

    1995-03-01

    Radiological controls are required by law in the design of commercial nuclear power reactor facilities. These controls can be relatively minor or significant, relative to cost. To ensure that radiological controls are designed into a project, the health physicist (radiological engineer) must be involved from the beginning. This is especially true regarding keeping costs down. For every radiological engineer at a nuclear power plant there must be fifty engineers of other disciplines. The radiological engineer cannot be an expert on every discipline of engineering. However, he must be knowledgeable to the degree of how a design will impact the facility from a radiological perspective. This paper will address how to effectively perform radiological analyses with the goal of radiological controls integrated into the design package.

  18. Radiological Control Center (RADCC) Renaming Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    Myrna Scott holds a replica of the emblem noting that the Radiological Control Center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center has been named in honor of her husband, Randy Scott who died last year. A ceremony honored the extensive contributions of Randy Scott. A professional health physicist of more than 40 years, Scott served as the Florida spaceport's Radiation Protection Officer for 14 years until his death June 17, 2016.

  19. Paediatric musculoskeletal interventional radiology

    PubMed Central

    Paolantonio, Guglielmo; Fruhwirth, Rodolfo; Alvaro, Giuseppe; Parapatt, George K; Toma', Paolo; Rollo, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Interventional radiology technique is now well established and widely used in the adult population. Through minimally invasive procedures, it increasingly replaces surgical interventions that involve higher percentages of invasiveness and, consequently, of morbidity and mortality. For these advantageous reasons, interventional radiology in recent years has spread to the paediatric age as well. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the development, use and perspectives of these procedures in the paediatric musculoskeletal field. Several topics are covered: osteomuscle neoplastic malignant and benign pathologies treated with invasive diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures such as radiofrequency ablation in the osteoid osteoma; invasive and non-invasive procedures in vascular malformations; treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts; and role of interventional radiology in paediatric inflammatory and rheumatic inflammations. The positive results that have been generated with interventional radiology procedures in the paediatric field highly encourage both the development of new ad hoc materials, obviously adapted to young patients, as well as the improvement of such techniques, in consideration of the fact that childrens' pathologies do not always correspond to those of adults. In conclusion, as these interventional procedures have proven to be less invasive, with lower morbidity and mortality rates as well, they are becoming a viable and valid alternative to surgery in the paediatric population. PMID:26235144

  20. Research Training in Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Radiology today is a major clinical specialty of medicine in terms of the number and complexity of patient examinations, and the financial resources, physician manpower, and supporting personnel required for performing its functions. It reached its present status because it provides accurate methods of diagnosis for so many diseases. However, this…

  1. Radiological Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    Written to be used concurrently with the U.S. Army's Radiological Safety Course, this publication discusses the causes, sources, and detection of nuclear radiation. In addition, the transportation and disposal of radioactive materials are covered. The report also deals with the safety precautions to be observed when working with lasers, microwave…

  2. Radiological Defense Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Originally prepared for use as a student textbook in Radiological Defense (RADEF) courses, this manual provides the basic technical information necessary for an understanding of RADEF. It also briefly discusses the need for RADEF planning and expected postattack emergency operations. There are 14 chapters covering these major topics: introduction…

  3. Radiology Technician (AFSC 90370).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobczak, James

    This five-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for radiology technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are radiographic fundamentals (x-ray production; primary beams; exposure devices; film, film holders, and darkrooms; control of film quality; and environmental safety);…

  4. Radiology of spinal curvature

    SciTech Connect

    De Smet, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book offers the only comprehensive, concise summary of both the clinical and radiologic features of thoracic and lumbar spine deformity. Emphasis is placed on idiopathic scoliosis, which represents 85% of all patients with scoliosis, but less common areas of secondary scoliosis, kyphosis and lordosis are also covered.

  5. Practical interventional radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Von Sonnenberg, E.; Mueller, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    This book describes techniques employed in interventional radiology with emphasis on imaging leading to intervention. Includes the entire array of procedures available to the radiologist, discussing the indications, materials, technique, results, and complications for each. Covers the chest, abdomen, bone, pediatric considerations, and nursing care.

  6. Radiologic Technology Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a radiologic technology program. The guide contains four major sections. The General Information section contains an introduction giving an overview and defining purpose and objectives; a program description,…

  7. Radiology in emergency medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R.; Barsan, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a discussion of radiologic modalities currently being used in emergency situations. Radiographs, echocardiographs, radionuclide scans and CT scans are systematically analyzed and evaluated to provide a step-by-step diagnostic process for emergency physicians to follow when a radiologist is not present.

  8. Dosimetry in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Dance, David R; McLean, Donald; Kramer, Hans-Michael

    2010-10-01

    Dosimetry is an area of increasing importance in diagnostic radiology. There is a realisation amongst health professionals that the radiation dose received by patients from modern X-ray examinations and procedures can be at a level of significance for the induction of cancer across a population, and in some unfortunate instances, in the acute damage to particular body organs such as skin and eyes. The formulation and measurement procedures for diagnostic radiology dosimetry have recently been standardised through an international code of practice which describes the methodologies necessary to address the diverging imaging modalities used in diagnostic radiology. Common to all dosimetry methodologies is the measurement of the air kerma from the X-ray device under defined conditions. To ensure the accuracy of the dosimetric determination, such measurements need to be made with appropriate instrumentation that has a calibration that is traceable to a standards laboratory. Dosimetric methods are used in radiology departments for a variety of purposes including the determination of patient dose levels to allow examinations to be optimized and to assist in decisions on the justification of examination choices. Patient dosimetry is important for special cases such as for X-ray examinations of children and pregnant patients. It is also a key component of the quality control of X-ray equipment and procedures. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Ethical problems in radiology: radiological consumerism.

    PubMed

    Magnavita, N; Bergamaschi, A

    2009-10-01

    One of the causes of the increasing request for radiological examinations occurring in all economically developed countries is the active role played by the patient-consumer. Consumerism places the radiologist in an ethical dilemma, between the principle of autonomy on the one hand and the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice on the other. The choice made by radiologists in moral dilemmas is inspired by an adherence to moral principles, which in Italy and elsewhere refer to the Judaeo-Christian tradition or to neo-Darwinian relativism. Whatever the choice, the radiologist is bound to adhere to that choice and to provide the patient with all the relevant information regarding his or her state of health.

  10. Trends in radiologic NDT

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, H. )

    1994-11-01

    In this article, the author tries to look ahead to see what is coming in the field of nondestructive testing (NDT) using radiation methods. Radiological NDT has changed since gamma ray and x-ray inspection came into widespread use more than 50 years ago. Even the name has changed. Instead of referring to most radiation inspection approaches as radiography as one once did, the ''umbrella'' term is now radiology, as defined by ASTM, ''the science and application of x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons and other penetrating radiations.'' Radiography refers to film or film-like methods. Radioscopy refers to electronic methods ''that follow very closely the changes with time of the object being imaged.'' In addition, radiology includes tomography, backscatter, gaging, and a host of other radiation inspection methods. All of these techniques are likely to change as we move into the 21st century. The author's favorites as radiologic methods and applications that will see much greater use in this decade and the early part of the twenty-first century can be summarized as follows: (1) x-radioscopic digital systems for manufacturing cations and in-service inspections and process control applications; (2) computerized radiological systems, radiographic, radioscopic, tomographic, and laminographic with capability for data exchange, use with NDT workstations and fully automated systems; (3) small inspection volume, low-cost CT systems; (4) x-ray image detection systems based on microfocus/image magnification; (5) small format, high sensitivity x-ray cameras; (6) large area photoconductive x-ray cameras; and (7) high output and transportable radiation sources.

  11. Optimizing the Domestic Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Response Enterprise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    OPTIMIZING THE DOMESTIC CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, RADIOLOGICAL, AND NUCLEAR RESPONSE ENTERPRISE THESIS MARCH 2015 Nick Paul, Captain, USA AFIT-ENS-MS-15...of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-143 OPTIMIZING THE DOMESTIC CHEMICAL...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-143 OPTIMIZING THE DOMESTIC CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, RADIOLOGICAL, AND NUCLEAR RESPONSE ENTERPRISE THESIS Nick Paul

  12. Poul Erik Andersen's radiological work on Osteochondrodysplasias and interventional radiology

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Poul Erik

    2011-01-01

    Poul Erik Andersen is a Professor and Interventional Radiologist at the University of Southern Denmark, Odense and Odense University Hospital, Denmark. His innovative and expertise is primarily in vascular interventions where he has introduced and developed many procedures at Odense University Hospital. His significant experience and extensive scientific work has led to many posts in the Danish Society of Interventional Radiology, the European Society of Radiology and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe, where he is a fellow and has passed the European Board of Interventional Radiology - The European qualification in Interventional Radiology. PMID:22022640

  13. Poul Erik Andersen's radiological work on Osteochondrodysplasias and interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Poul Erik

    2011-08-28

    Poul Erik Andersen is a Professor and Interventional Radiologist at the University of Southern Denmark, Odense and Odense University Hospital, Denmark. His innovative and expertise is primarily in vascular interventions where he has introduced and developed many procedures at Odense University Hospital. His significant experience and extensive scientific work has led to many posts in the Danish Society of Interventional Radiology, the European Society of Radiology and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe, where he is a fellow and has passed the European Board of Interventional Radiology - The European qualification in Interventional Radiology.

  14. 1993 Radiation Protection Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The 1993 DOE Radiation Protection Workshop was conducted from April 13 through 15, 1993 in Las Vegas, Nevada. Over 400 Department of Energy Headquarters and Field personnel and contractors from the DOE radiological protection community attended the Workshop. Forty-nine papers were presented in eleven separate sessions: Radiological Control Manual Implementation, New Approaches to Instrumentation and Calibration, Radiological Training Programs and Initiatives, External Dosimetry, Internal Dosimetry, Radiation Exposure Reporting and Recordkeeping, Air Sampling and Monitoring Issues, Decontamination and Decommissioning of Sites, Contamination Monitoring and Control, ALARA/Radiological Engineering, and Current and Future Health Physics Research. Individual papers are indexed separately on the database.

  15. Data mining in radiology

    PubMed Central

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-01-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining. PMID:25024513

  16. Data mining in radiology.

    PubMed

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-04-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining.

  17. [Emphysematous pyelonephritis: radiologic diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Kably, M I; Elamraoui, F; Chikhaoui, N

    2003-10-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a rare and severe form of acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli accounts for 60% of the cases. Predisposing factors are: diabetus mellitus, recent urinary tract infection and obstruction. There is a female predominance (2/1). Conventional radiography reveals the renal emphysema in 85% of the cases. Ultrasonography shows hyperechoic areas corresponding to the gaz. CT scan is the best technique, allowing the exact localization of the gaz inside the renal parenchyma. The natural course of the disease allows its radiologic classification in 4 grades. EPN has a poor prognosis if only a medical treatment is initiated. Every urinary tract infection, in a diabetic patient must be treated, and must lead to a radiologic exploration, which allows an early detection of severe forms of the disease.

  18. Radiology and Ethics Education.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Aline; Liu, Li; Yousem, David M

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess medical ethics knowledge among trainees and practicing radiologists through an online survey that included questions about the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics and the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics. Most survey respondents reported that they had never read the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics or the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics (77.2% and 67.4% of respondents, respectively). With regard to ethics education during medical school and residency, 57.3% and 70.0% of respondents, respectively, found such education to be insufficient. Medical ethics training should be highlighted during residency, at specialty society meetings, and in journals and online resources for radiologists.

  19. Radiologic Career Ladder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    reliable radiological support in the diagnosis, treatment , and prevention of injuries/ diseases affecting the health and welfare of USAF personnel...unit depends on the medical treatment facility it supports. The USAF Surgeon General designates categories of medical treatment facilities based upon the...staff and adequacy of medical facilities. The occupied patient bed rate further delineates medical treatment facilities, such that average ranges (as

  20. Radiological diagnosis of fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Finlay, D.B.L.; Allen, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book is about radiology of fractures. While it contains sections of clinical features it is not intended that readers should rely entirely upon these for the diagnosis and management of the injured patient. As in the diagnosis and treatment of all medical problems, fracture management must be carried out in a logical step-by-step fashion - namely, history, examination, investigation, differential diagnosis, diagnosis and then treatment. Each section deals with a specific anatomical area and begins with line drawings of the normal radiographs demonstrating the anatomy. Accessory views that may be requested, and the indications for these, are included. Any radiological pitfalls for the area in general are then described. The fractures in adults are then examined in turn, their radiological features described, and any pitfalls in their diagnosis discussed. A brief note of important clinical findings is included. A brief mention is made of pediatric fractures which are of significance and their differences to the adult pattern indicated. Although fractures can be classified into types with different characteristics, in life every fracture is individual. Fractures by and large follow common patterns, but many have variations.

  1. Overview of ICRP Committee 3: protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    Vañó, E; Miller, D L; Rehani, M M

    2016-06-01

    Committee 3 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) develops recommendations and guidance for protection of patients, staff, and the public against radiation exposure when ionising radiation is used for medical diagnosis, therapy, or biomedical research. This paper presents a summary of the work that Committee 3 has accomplished over the past few years, and also describes its current work. The most recent reports published by the Commission that relate to radiological protection in medicine are 'Radiological protection in cone beam computed tomography' (Publication 129), 'Radiation dose to patients from radiopharmaceuticals: a compendium of current information related to frequently used substances' (Publication 128, in cooperation with Committee 2), 'Radiological protection in ion beam radiotherapy' (Publication 127), 'Radiological protection in paediatric diagnostic and interventional radiology' (Publication 121), 'Radiological protection in cardiology' (Publication 120), and 'Radiological protection in fluoroscopically guided procedures outside the imaging department' (Publication 117). A new report on diagnostic reference levels in medical imaging will provide specific advice for interventional radiology, digital imaging, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, paediatrics, and hybrid (multi-modality) imaging procedures, and is expected to be published in 2016. Committee 3 is also working on guidance for occupational radiological protection in brachytherapy, and on guidance on occupational protection issues in interventional procedures, paying particular attention to the 2011 Commission's recommendations on the occupational dose limit for the lens of the eye (Publication 118). Other reports in preparation deal with justification, radiological protection in therapy with radiopharmaceuticals, radiological protection in medicine as related to individual radiosusceptibility, appropriate use of effective dose (in cooperation with other

  2. Reinventing radiology reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John; Adema, Denise

    2005-01-01

    Lee Memorial Health System (LMHS), located in southwest Florida, consists of 5 hospitals, a home health agency, a skilled nursing facility, multiple outpatient centers, walk-in medical centers, and primary care physician offices. LMHS annually performs more than 300,000 imaging procedures with gross imaging revenues exceeding dollar 350 million. In fall 2002, LMHS received the results of an independent audit of its IR coding. The overall IR coding error rate was determined to be 84.5%. The projected net financial impact of these errors was an annual reimbursement loss of dollar 182,000. To address the issues of coding errors and reimbursement loss, LMHS implemented its clinical reimbursementspecialist (CRS) system in October 2003, as an extension of financial services' reimbursement division. LMHS began with CRSs in 3 service lines: emergency department, cardiac catheterization, and radiology. These 3 CRSs coordinate all facets of their respective areas' chargemaster, patient charges, coding, and reimbursement functions while serving as a resident coding expert within their clinical areas. The radiology reimbursement specialist (RRS) combines an experienced radiologic technologist, interventional technologist, medical records coder, financial auditor, reimbursement specialist, and biller into a single position. The RRS's radiology experience and technologist knowledge are key assets to resolving coding conflicts and handling complex interventional coding. In addition, performing a daily charge audit and an active code review are essential if an organization is to eliminate coding errors. One of the inherent effects of eliminating coding errors is the capturing of additional RVUs and units of service. During its first year, based on account level detail, the RRS system increased radiology productivity through the additional capture of just more than 3,000 RVUs and 1,000 additional units of service. In addition, the physicians appreciate having someone who "keeps up

  3. Radiological Dispersion Devices and Basic Radiation Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2010-05-01

    Introductory physics courses present the basic concepts of radioactivity and an overview of nuclear physics that emphasizes the basic decay relationship and the various types of emitted radiation. Although this presentation provides insight into radiological science, it often fails to interest students to explore these concepts in a more rigorous manner. One reason for limited student interest is the failure to link the discussion to topics of current interest. The author has found that presenting this material with a link to radiological dispersion devices (RDDs), or dirty bombs, and their associated health effects provides added motivation for students. The events of Sept. 11, 2001, and periodic media focus on RDDs heighten student interest from both a scientific curiosity as well as a personal protection perspective. This article presents a framework for a more interesting discussion of the basics of radiation science and their associated health effects. The presentation can be integrated with existing radioactivity lectures or added as a supplementary or enrichment activity.

  4. NV/YMP RADIOLOGICAL CONTROL MANUAL

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE; BECHTEL NEVADA

    2004-11-01

    This manual contains the radiological control requirements to be used for all radiological activities conducted by programs under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and the Yucca Mountain Office of Repository Development (YMORD). Compliance with these requirements will ensure compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835 (10 CFR 835), Occupational Radiation Protection. Programs covered by this manual are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS); Nellis Air Force Base and North Las Vegas, Nevada; Santa Barbara and Pleasanton, California; and at Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. In addition, field work by NNSA/NSO at other locations is also covered by this manual.

  5. Radiological accident and incident in Thailand: lesson to be learned.

    PubMed

    Ya-anant, Nanthavan; Tiyapun, Kanokrat; Saiyut, Kittiphong

    2011-07-01

    Radioactive materials in Thailand have been used in medicine, research and industry for more than 50 y. Several radiological accident and incidents happened in the past 10 y. A serious one was the radiological accident that occurred in Samut Prakan, Thailand in 2000. The serious radiological accident occurred when the (60)Co head was partially dismantled, taken from that storage to sell as scrap metal. Three victims died and 10 people received high dose from the source. The lesson learned from the radiological accident in Samut Prakan was to improve in many subjects, such as efficiency in Ministerial Regulations and Atomic Energy Act, emergency response and etc. In addition to the serious accident, there are also some small incidents that occurred, such as detection of contaminated scrap metals from the re-cycling of scrap metals from steel factories. Therefore, the radiation protection infrastructure was established after the accident. Laws and regulations of radiation safety and the relevant regulatory procedures must be revised.

  6. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center: Phase I Response

    SciTech Connect

    C. Riland; D. R. Bowman; R. Lambert; R. Tighe

    1999-09-30

    A Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) is established in response to a Lead Federal Agency (LFA) or State request when a radiological emergency is anticipated or has occurred. The FRMAC coordinates the off-site monitoring, assessment, and analysis activities during such an emergency. The FRMAC response is divided into three phases. FRMAC Phase 1 is a rapid, initial-response capability that can interface with Federal or State officials and is designed for a quick response time and rapid radiological data collection and assessment. FRMAC Phase 1 products provide an initial characterization of the radiological situation and information on early health effects to officials responsible for making and implementing protective action decisions.

  7. Smart Radiological Dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kosslow, William J.; Bandzuch, Gregory S.

    2004-07-20

    A radiation dosimeter providing an indication of the dose of radiation to which the radiation sensor has been exposed. The dosimeter contains features enabling the monitoring and evaluating of radiological risks so that a user can concentrate on the task at hand. The dosimeter provides an audible alarm indication that a predetermined time period has elapsed, an audible alarm indication reminding the user to check the dosimeter indication periodically, an audible alarm indicating that a predetermined accumulated dose has been prematurely reached, and an audible alarm indication prior or to reaching the 3/4 scale point.

  8. Patient-centered Radiology.

    PubMed

    Itri, Jason N

    2015-10-01

    Patient-centered care (ie, care organized around the patient) is a model in which health care providers partner with patients and families to identify and satisfy patients' needs and preferences. In this model, providers respect patients' values and preferences, address their emotional and social needs, and involve them and their families in decision making. Radiologists have traditionally been characterized as "doctor-to-doctor" consultants who are distanced from patients and work within a culture that does not value patient centeredness. As medicine becomes more patient driven and the trajectory of health care is toward increasing patient self-reliance, radiologists must change the perception that they are merely consultants and become more active participants in patient care by embracing greater patient interaction. The traditional business model for radiology practices, which devalues interaction between patients and radiologists, must be transformed into a patient-centered model in which radiologists are reintegrated into direct patient care and imaging processes are reorganized around patients' needs and preferences. Expanding radiology's core assets to include direct patient care may be the most effective deterrent to the threat of commoditization. As the assault on the growth of Medicare spending continues, with medical imaging as a highly visible target, radiologists must adapt to the changing landscape by focusing on their most important consumer: the patient. This may yield substantial benefits in the form of improved quality and patient safety, reduced costs, higher-value care, improved patient outcomes, and greater patient and provider satisfaction.

  9. Radiological sinonasal anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Alrumaih, Redha A.; Ashoor, Mona M.; Obidan, Ahmed A.; Al-Khater, Khulood M.; Al-Jubran, Saeed A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of common radiological variants of sinonasal anatomy among Saudi population and compare it with the reported prevalence of these variants in other ethnic and population groups. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 121 computerized tomography scans of the nose and paranasal sinuses of patients presented with sinonasal symptoms to the Department of Otorhinolarngology, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between January 2014 and May 2014. Results: Scans of 121 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria were reviewed. Concha bullosa was found in 55.4%, Haller cell in 39.7%, and Onodi cell in 28.9%. Dehiscence of the internal carotid artery was found in 1.65%. Type-1 and type-2 optic nerve were the prevalent types. Type-II Keros classification of the depth of olfactory fossa was the most common among the sample (52.9%). Frontal cells were found in 79.3%; type I was the most common. Conclusions: There is a difference in the prevalence of some radiological variants of the sinonasal anatomy between Saudi population and other study groups. Surgeon must pay special attention in the preoperative assessment of patients with sinonasal pathology to avoid undesirable complications. PMID:27146614

  10. [Oral and maxillofacial radiology: laws and regulations].

    PubMed

    van der Stelt, P F

    2015-05-01

    Since the discovery of X-rays, medical imaging has been one of its most important applications. In the course of years, understanding of the potentially harmful effects of radiation on tissue has substantially increased as a result of experience and scientific studies. This has led to the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the organisation that is now regarded as the most authoritative in the field of information on radiation and radiation protection. In most countries the law governing radiation is based on the 3 principles of the ICRP: justification, ALARA and dosage limits. For the Dutch situation, these are the Nuclear Energy Act (Kernenergiewet) and the Radiation Protection Decree (Besluit stralingsbescherming). The Practice Guidelines on Radiology are available for the practical implementation of the regulations. By working according to the Practice Guidelines, the dentist satisfies the legal regulations, but, more importantly, he can apply X-ray diagnostics in a manner that is safe for him, the dental team, the patients and all other visitors of the practice.

  11. A web based Foundations of Radiological Physics for diagnostic radiology residents.

    PubMed

    Blackmon, Kevin N; Huda, Walter; Lewis, Madelene C; Tipnis, Sameer; Mah, Eugene; Frey, Donald G

    2013-03-01

    RATIONALE AND OBJECTS: We describe a new web-based physics course for radiology residents preparing for the Exam of the Future (EOF). A course was developed with a total of 12 web-based modules. Six modules were focused on "imaging" and six on "radiation." A module was subdivided into nine short "nuggets." Traditional lectures were replaced by modules using prerecorded lectures (Tegrity) to a secure website (WebCT). Each module was accompanied by three quizzes, each consisting of ten questions designed to reinforce covered materials. All online modules were accompanied by a noon conference that employed an Audience Response System (Turning Point). Seventeen first-year residents over 2 consecutive years beginning in July 2010 took this new course, and participated in an anonymous online follow-up survey (Survey Monkey). The recorded 12 modules had an overall average duration of 72 ± 19 minutes. Ten of 17 residents expressed a preference of 15 minutes for nugget duration. Highest personal assessment scores of each resident's understanding were obtained in human radiation risks and radiation protection. Residents considered supplemental noon conferences to be important for learning radiological physics. Satisfaction level was largely positive, with five residents highly satisfied, nine residents somewhat satisfied, two residents neutral, and only one resident somewhat dissatisfied. Our Foundations of Radiological Physics course was well received and served as the springboard for mastering x-ray-based imaging modalities of radiography, mammography, fluoroscopy, interventional radiology, and computed tomography. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. ICPP radiological and toxicological sabotage analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, V.R.; Mortensen, F.G.

    1995-10-01

    In June of 1993, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued Notice 5630.3A, {open_quotes}Protection of Departmental Facilities Against Radiological and Toxicological Sabotage,{close_quotes} which states that all significant radiological and toxicological hazards at Department facilities must be examined for potential sabotage. This analysis has been completed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The ICPP radiological and toxicological hazards include spent government and commercial fuels, Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), high-level liquid wastes, high-level solid wastes, and process and decontamination chemicals. The analysis effort included identification and assessment of quantities of hazardous materials present at the facility; identification and ranking of hazardous material targets; development of worst case scenarios detailing possible sabotage actions and hazard releases; performance of vulnerability assessments using table top and computer methodologies on credible threat targets; evaluation of potential risks to the public, workers, and the environment; evaluation of sabotage risk reduction options; and selection of cost effective prevention and mitigation options.

  13. Radiological Worker Computer Based Training

    SciTech Connect

    Butala, Stephen W.; Cullen, James J.; Corsolini, Jams; Zach, Karen; Przyzycki, Edward

    2003-02-06

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed an interactive computer based training (CBT) version of the standardized DOE Radiological Worker training program. This CD-ROM based program utilizes graphics, animation, photographs, sound and video to train users in ten topical areas: radiological fundamentals, biological effects, dose limits, ALARA, personnel monitoring, controls and postings, emergency response, contamination controls, high radiation areas, and lessons learned.

  14. White Paper: Radiological Curriculum for Undergraduate Medical Education in Germany.

    PubMed

    Ertl-Wagner, B; Barkhausen, J; Mahnken, A H; Mentzel, H J; Uder, M; Weidemann, J; Stumpp, P

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: Radiology represents a highly relevant part of undergraduate medical education from preclinical studies to subinternship training. It is therefore important to establish a content base for teaching radiology in German Medical Faculties. Materials and Methods: The German Society of Radiology (DRG) developed a model curriculum for radiological teaching at German medical universities, which is presented in this article. There is also a European model curriculum for undergraduate teaching (U-level curriculum of the European Society of Radiology). In a modular concept, the students shall learn important radiological core principles in the realms of knowledge, skills and competences as well as core scientific competences in the imaging sciences. Results: The curriculum is divided into two modules. Module 1 includes principles of radiation biology, radiation protection and imaging technology, imaging anatomy as well as the risks and side effects of radiological methods, procedures and contrast media. This module is modality-oriented. Module 2 comprises radiological diagnostic decision-making and imaging-based interventional techniques for various disease entities. This module is organ system-oriented. Conclusion: The curriculum is meant as a living document to be amended and revised at regular intervals. The curriculum can be used as a basis for individual curricular development at German Medical Faculties. It can be integrated into traditional or reformed medical teaching curricula. Key Points: • Radiology is an integral and important part of medical education.• The German Society of Radiology (DRG) developed a model curriculum for teaching radiology at German Medical Faculties to help students develop the ability to make medical decisions based on scientific knowledge and act accordingly.• This curriculum can be used for individual curricular development at medical departments. It is divided into two modules with several chapters. Citation Format

  15. Radiological Control Center (RADCC) Renaming Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-31

    Nancy Bray, director of Spaceport Integration and Services at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, left, is joined by Myrna Scott, center, and Dr. David Tipton, chief of Aerospace Medicine and Occupational Health, in cutting a ceremonial ribbon dedicating the Randal E. Scott Radiological Control Center at the Florida spaceport. Myrna Scott is the widow of Randy Scott, who was a professional health physicist of more than 40 years. He served as the Florida spaceport's Radiation Protection Officer for 14 years until his death June 17, 2016.

  16. How to Read Your Radiology Report

    MedlinePlus

    ... American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), comprising physicians with expertise ... of Use | Links | Site Map Copyright © 2017 Radiological Society of North America, Inc. (RSNA). To help ensure ...

  17. Common Data Elements in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Daniel L; Kahn, Charles E

    2017-06-01

    Diagnostic radiologists generally produce unstructured information in the form of images and narrative text reports. Although designed for human consumption, radiologic reports contain a wealth of information that could be valuable for clinical care, research, and quality improvement if that information could be extracted by automated systems. Unfortunately, the lack of structure in radiologic reports limits the ability of information systems to share information easily with other systems. A common data element (CDE)-a unit of information used in a shared, predefined fashion-can improve the ability to exchange information seamlessly among information systems. In this article, a model and a repository of radiologic CDEs is described, and three important applications are highlighted. CDEs can help advance radiologic practice, research, and performance improvement, and thus, it is crucial that CDEs be adopted widely in radiologic information systems. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  18. Radiology research and medical students.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Pat W; Agarwal, Ankit; Colucci, Andrew; Sherry, Steven J; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2013-12-01

    Fostering radiology research among medical students can enhance a student's interest and understanding of radiology and research. It increases the academic productivity of the mentor and the department. Radiology faculty and departments should actively seek to recruit and engage students in research. Once involved, students benefit greatly from being given clear responsibility, close supervision, timely feedback, and a degree of autonomy. At the heart of the student research process is the crucial mentor-mentee relationship, and mentors should be cognizant of their vital role and methods of encouraging and enhancing this relationship. Ultimately, the advancement of the field of radiology depends on constant innovation and improvement. Radiology research by medical students fuels both innovation and the development of future academic radiologists and physician-scientists, helping to secure future growth for our field.

  19. Picture archiving and communication in radiology.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Marzia; Nanni, Marinella; Cimarra, Stefania; Crisafulli, Letizia; Campioni, Paolo; Marano, Pasquale

    2003-01-01

    After over 80 years of exclusive archiving of radiologic films, at present, in Radiology, digital archiving is increasingly gaining ground. Digital archiving allows a considerable reduction in costs and space saving, but most importantly, immediate or remote consultation of all examinations and reports in the hospital clinical wards, is feasible. The RIS system, in this case, is the starting point of the process of electronic archiving which however is the task of PACS. The latter can be used as radiologic archive in accordance with the law provided that it is in conformance with some specifications as the use of optical long-term storage media or with electronic track of change. PACS archives, in a hierarchical system, all digital images produced by each diagnostic imaging modality. Images and patient data can be retrieved and used for consultation or remote consultation by the reporting radiologist who requires images and reports of previous radiologic examinations or by the referring physician of the ward. Modern PACS owing to the WEB server allow remote access to extremely simplified images and data however ensuring the due regulations and access protections. Since the PACS enables a simpler data communication within the hospital, security and patient privacy should be protected. A secure and reliable PACS should be able to minimize the risk of accidental data destruction, and should prevent non authorized access to the archive with adequate security measures in relation to the acquired knowledge and based on the technological advances. Archiving of data produced by modern digital imaging is a problem now present also in small Radiology services. The technology is able to readily solve problems which were extremely complex up to some years ago as the connection between equipment and archiving system owing also to the universalization of the DICOM 3.0 standard. The evolution of communication networks and the use of standard protocols as TCP/IP can minimize

  20. Ensuring the safety of surgical teams when managing casualties of a radiological dirty bomb.

    PubMed

    Williams, Geraint; O'Malley, Michael; Nocera, Antony

    2010-09-01

    The capacity for surgical teams to ensure their own safety when dealing with the consequences caused by the detonation of a radiological dirty bomb is primarily determined by prior knowledge, familiarity and training for this type of event. This review article defines the associated radiological terminology with an emphasis on the personal safety of surgical team members in respect to the principles of radiological protection. The article also describes a technique for use of hand held radiation monitors and will discuss the identification and management of radiologically contaminated patients who may pose a significant danger to the surgical team.

  1. Standardized radiological dose evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, V.L.; Stahlnecker, E.

    1996-05-01

    Following the end of the Cold War, the mission of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site changed from production of nuclear weapons to cleanup. Authorization baseis documents for the facilities, primarily the Final Safety Analysis Reports, are being replaced with new ones in which accident scenarios are sorted into coarse bins of consequence and frequency, similar to the approach of DOE-STD-3011-94. Because this binning does not require high precision, a standardized approach for radiological dose evaluations is taken for all the facilities at the site. This is done through a standard calculation ``template`` for use by all safety analysts preparing the new documents. This report describes this template and its use.

  2. Radiology today. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Heuck, F.H.W.; Donner, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The book discusses the following contents: Advances in Cardiovascular Imaging: Digital Arteriography: Ongoing Developments. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Cardiovascular System. Comparison of Vascular CT and MRI. Characterization of Vascular Lesions by Ultrasound - Progress in Vascular Interventions: Laser Angioplasty: A Review. Fibrinolytic Therapy Combined with Clot Extraction. Drugs Useful in Angioplasty. Developments in Cardiovascular Imaging: Blood Flow Measurements with Digital Arteriography. Selection of Imaging Techniques for Venous Thromboembolic Disease. Clinical Usefulness of High-Verus Low-Osmolality Contrast Agents. Developments in Angiographic and Interventional Instrumentation. Progress in Cardiovascular Interventions. Inferior Vena Cava Filters: Types, Placement, and Efficiency. Transluminal Vascular Stenting and Grafting. Venography and Sclerotherapy of Varioceles in Children and Adolescents. A New Catheter System - Important Hip Problems: Radiologic and Pathologic Correlation and Hip Disease. Comparison of Imaging Modalities in Femoral Head Necrosis. Osteoartrosis and Arthritis (Synovitis) of the Hip. Hip Anthrography.

  3. Abdominal hernias: Radiological features

    PubMed Central

    Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

  4. Sexual Harassment in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Aline; Liu, Li; Yousem, David M

    2017-08-01

    To gauge the prevalence of sexual harassment (SH) and to understand the issues regarding its disclosure among radiologists. A questionnaire on ethics and SH was sent by e-mail to 1,569 radiologists and radiology trainees in an institutional database maintained for continuing medical education purposes on three separate occasions between September 17 and October 31, 2016. The link to the survey was also posted on social media sites via the authors' divisional and institutional accounts on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Aunt Minnie, as well as on ACR and RSNA web blogs. Overall, 9.75% (39 of 400) respondents stated they had suffered SH, with more female (22 of 90 = 24.4%) than male victims (11 of 249 = 4.4%) (P < .001). Only 29.4% of SH victims said they would likely report SH (P < .001). Women (46 of 90 = 51.1%) said they were less likely to report SH than men (150 of 242 = 62.0%) (P = .03), and American medical school graduates (119 of 220 = 54.1%) were less likely than graduates from outside the United States (37 of 48 = 77.1%). Of 401 respondents to questions on SH, 28.7% (n = 115), including more women (38 of 91 = 41.8%) than men (61 of 249 = 24.5%) (P = .002), said they had witnessed SH. By percentage responding, female radiologists are more frequently victims and witnesses of sexual harassment but are less likely to report such cases. Steps need to be taken to eliminate a culture that leads radiologists to tolerate SH without addressing it. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Photoelectronic Radiology Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capp, M. P.; Nudelman, Sol; Fisher, Donald; Ovitt, Theron W.; Pond, Gerald D.; Frost, Meryl M.; Roehrig, Hans; Seeger, Joachim; Oimette, Donald

    1981-11-01

    The University of Arizona Department of Radiology first considered establishing a photoelectronic radiology department in 1973. It seemed clear that the technology had progressed far enough for us to investigate the possibility of total film replacement.' Data from the space program in particular indicated at that time that sophisticated television images over 1000 x 1000 lines were approaching the detail seen on the traditional x-ray film. This technology has been known over many years of research and development as "photoelectronic imaging devices (PEID) ."14 However, at that time film replacement was out of the question. What was not out of the question was the consideration of using a subtraction technique, "digital video subtraction angiography." To this end, we, and independently the University of Wisconsin,314 proceeded to develop this technology.5'6 Our intravenous video subtraction images in patients started in our research laboratory in 1977 and in March of 1980 we opened a biplane special procedures room dedicated only to photoelectronic imaging (no film).7'8 Digital video subtraction angiography has been successful and is described in much greater detail in these Proceedings by other authors. Current efforts are under way toward total replacement of film. This is an immense problem, one that will require a much greater sophistication of computers, storage devices, system analysis, and cooperation from both the radiologist and the clinician.9'10 In a theoretical study we converted our 65,000 procedures-per-year department to complete photoelectronic imaging (no film) and estimated that we would save approximately five million dollars over ten years.15 Extrapolating this to the entire United States would result in a conservative estimate of saving one billion dollars per year. Not included in these mathematics are cost-effective savings of the physicians' time and effort.

  6. Nevada National Security Site Radiological Control Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers’ Council

    2012-03-26

    This document supersedes DOE/NV/25946--801, 'Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual,' Revision 1 issued in February 2010. Brief Description of Revision: A complete revision to reflect a recent change in name for the NTS; changes in name for some tenant organizations; and to update references to current DOE policies, orders, and guidance documents. Article 237.2 was deleted. Appendix 3B was updated. Article 411.2 was modified. Article 422 was re-written to reflect the wording of DOE O 458.1. Article 431.6.d was modified. The glossary was updated. This manual contains the radiological control requirements to be used for all radiological activities conducted by programs under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). Compliance with these requirements will ensure compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection.' Programs covered by this manual are located at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); Nellis Air Force Base and North Las Vegas, Nevada; Santa Barbara and Livermore, California; and Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. In addition, fieldwork by NNSA/NSO at other locations is covered by this manual. Current activities at NNSS include operating low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal facilities for United States defense-generated waste, assembly and execution of subcritical experiments, assembly/disassembly of special experiments, the storage and use of special nuclear materials, performing criticality experiments, emergency responder training, surface cleanup and site characterization of contaminated land areas, environmental activity by the University system, and nonnuclear test operations, such as controlled spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center. Currently, the major potential for occupational radiation exposure is associated with the burial of

  7. Instituting a radiology residency scholarly activity program.

    PubMed

    Amrhein, Timothy J; Tabesh, Ali; Collins, Heather R; Gordon, Leonie L; Helpern, Joseph A; Jensen, Jens H

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to present a newly instituted program for resident scholarly activity that includes a curriculum designed to enhance resident training with regard to research while meeting requirements established by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), the governing body responsible for regulation of post-graduate medical education and training in the United States. A scholarly activity program was designed with the following goals: (i) enhance the academic training environment for our residents; (ii) foster interests in research and academic career paths; (iii) provide basic education on research methodology and presentation skills. To guide program design, an electronic survey was created and distributed to the residents and faculty in the Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), a 750-bed public teaching hospital in the state of South Carolina in the United States. Survey respondents were in strong support of a required resident scholarly activity project (70% in favor), felt non-traditional projects were valuable (84.1% of respondents), and were proponents of required scholarly activity summary presentations (58%). This program requires that residents engage in a scholarly activity project under the guidance of a mentor. Resident success is maximized through in-house education initiatives focusing on presentation and research skills, protected time to work on the project, and oversight by a radiology research committee. All residents present a summary of their work near the end of their residency training. Changes to the radiology resident certification process create an opportunity for incorporating new policies aimed at enhancing resident education. The scholarly activity program outlined in this manuscript is one such initiative designed to meet ACGME requirements, provide an introduction to research, and establish a scholarly activity project

  8. Radiological anatomy - evaluation of integrative education in radiology.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, S; Schmiedl, A; Meyer, S; Giesemann, A; Pabst, R; Weidemann, J; Wacker, F K; Kirchhoff, T

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation and analysis of the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" established since 2007 at the Medical School Hannover (MHH) in comparison with conventional education. Anatomy and radiology are usually taught separately with a considerable time lag. Interdisciplinary teaching of these associated subjects seems logical for several reasons. Therefore, the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" was established in the second year of medical education, combining these two closely related subjects. This interdisciplinary course was retrospectively evaluated by consideration of a student questionnaire and staff observations. The advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching in medical education are discussed. The course ratings were excellent (median 1; mean 1.3 on a scale of 1 to 6). This is significantly (p < 0.001) better than the average of all evaluated courses in the respective term (grade 2.8). The course improved the anatomical comprehension (90 %) and the students stated that the topics were relevant for their future medical education (90 %). Furthermore, interest in the subject's anatomy and radiology increased during the course (88 %). According to the students' suggestions the course was enhanced by a visitation in the Department of Radiology and the additional topic central nervous system. Integrative teaching of anatomy and radiology was well received by the students. Both, anatomical and radiological comprehension and the motivation to learn were improved. However, it should be considered, that the amount of work and time required by the teaching staff is considerably increased compared to traditional teaching. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. RADIOLOGICAL SEALED SOURCE LIBRARY: A NUCLEAR FORENSICS TOOL

    SciTech Connect

    Canaday, Jodi; Chamberlain, David; Finck, Martha; Carney, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    If a terrorist were to obtain and possibly detonate a device that contained radiological material, radiological forensic analysis of the material and source capsule could provide law enforcement with valuable clues about the origin of the radiological material; this information could then provide further leads on where the material and sealed source was obtained, and the loss of control point. This information could potentially be utilized for attribution and prosecution. Analyses of nuclear forensic signatures for radiological materials are generally understood to include isotopic ratios, trace element concentrations, the time since irradiation or purification, and morphology. Radiological forensic signatures for sealed sources provide additional information that leverages information on the physical design and chemical composition of the source capsule and containers, physical markings indicative of an owner or manufacturer. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratory (INL), has been working since 2003 to understand signatures that could be used to identify specific source manufacturers. These signatures include the materials from which the capsule is constructed, dimensions, weld details, elemental composition, and isotopic abundances of the radioactive material. These signatures have been compiled in a library known as the Argonne/INL Radiological Sealed Source Library. Data collected for the library has included open-source information from vendor catalogs and web pages; discussions with source manufacturers and touring of production facilities (both protected through non-disclosure agreements); technical publications; and government registries such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Sealed Source and Device Registry.

  10. Prepare Your School for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sechena, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    Recent accidents highlight that chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) agent exposure risk isn't just about terrorism. In this article, the author, a parent and public health physician, wrestles with the fact that total protection from CBRs is probably not feasible in her son's or in the majority of American schools. Capital investments, for…

  11. Prepare Your School for Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Threats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sechena, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    Recent accidents highlight that chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) agent exposure risk isn't just about terrorism. In this article, the author, a parent and public health physician, wrestles with the fact that total protection from CBRs is probably not feasible in her son's or in the majority of American schools. Capital investments, for…

  12. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) overview of FRMAC operations

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    In the event of a major radiological emergency, 17 federal agencies with various statutory responsibilities have agreed to coordinate their efforts at the emergency scene under the umbrella of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response plan (FRERP). This cooperative effort will assure the designated Lead Federal Agency (LFA) and the state(s) that all federal radiological assistance fully supports their efforts to protect the public. The mandated federal cooperation ensures that each agency can obtain the data critical to its specific responsibilities. This Overview of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) Operations describes the FRMAC response activities to a major radiological emergency. It also describes the federal assets and subsequent operational activities which provide federal radiological monitoring and assessment of the off-site areas. These off-site areas may include one or more affected states.

  13. A discussion on the benefits of radiological food guidelines under normal conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Most existing guidelines to control radionuclides in commercial food were established for nuclear emergency or post-emergency situations. They provide guideline levels only for those radionuclides representative of a nuclear or radiological emergency. Under normal conditions, naturally occurring radionuclides in food could be the main concern for radiological protection and food safety. From the perspective of radiological protection and food safety, guidelines to control radionuclides in foodstuffs are needed in non-emergency situations. The WHO's drinking water guidelines are a good example of radiological guidelines for non-emergency situations which address man-made radionuclides as well as naturally occurring radionuclides. Food safety should meet the same or comparable standards as the standards for drinking water quality. Benefits of having radiological guidelines for commercial food, some practical considerations and proposed criteria to set such guidelines for three food categories are discussed here.

  14. The scope of forensic radiology.

    PubMed

    Brogdon, B G

    1998-06-01

    The use of x-ray in the solution of forensic problems commenced within days of Röntgen's discovery; indeed, most of the applications of radiology to the forensic sciences were accomplished or anticipated within the next two years. The scope of forensic radiology ranges widely and includes determination of identity, evaluation of injury and death, applications in both criminal and civil litigation and in administrative proceedings, detection of abuse, investigation of gunshot wounds, medical education and research. Newer modalities and techniques afford opportunity for the expansion of forensic radiology if problems of accessibility and cost can be resolved along with improvement in interdisciplinary cooperation and understanding.

  15. Technical basis for implementation of remote reading capabilities for radiological control instruments at tank farms

    SciTech Connect

    PIERSON, R.M.

    1999-10-27

    This document provides the technical basis for use of remote reading capabilities with radiological control instruments at River Protection Project facilities. The purpose of this document is to evaluate applications of remote reading capabilities with Radiological Control instrumentation to allow continuous monitoring of radiation dose rates at River Protection Project (RPP) facilities. In addition this document provides a technical basis and implementing guidelines for remote monitoring of dose rates and their potential contribution to maintaining radiation exposures ALARA.

  16. Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupen, Claus

    Radiation protection is a very important aspect for the application of particle detectors in many different fields, like high energy physics, medicine, materials science, oil and mineral exploration, and arts, to name a few. The knowledge of radiation units, the experience with shielding, and information on biological effects of radiation are vital for scientists handling radioactive sources or operating accelerators or X-ray equipment. This article describes the modern radiation units and their conversions to older units which are still in use in many countries. Typical radiation sources and detectors used in the field of radiation protection are presented. The legal regulations in nearly all countries follow closely the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Tables and diagrams with relevant information on the handling of radiation sources provide useful data for the researcher working in this field.

  17. Quarterly environmental radiological survey summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mckinney, S.M.

    1996-10-28

    Routine radiological surveys are part of the near-facility environmental monitoring program which monitors and helps direct the reduction of the radiological areas at the Hanford Site. The routine radiological surveys are performed by the Southern Area Remediation Support Group and the Site Support Services Radiological Control Group as directed by Near- Field Monitoring. The surveys included in this program consist of inactive waste sites; outdoor radiological control areas; tank farm perimeters and associated diversion boxes, lift stations, and vent stations; perimeters of active or uncovered waste Bites such as burial grounds, retention basins, ponds, process trenches, and ditches; underground pipelines; and road and rail surfaces (Figures 1 through 10). This report provides a Bummary of the radiological surveys performed during the Third Quarter of 1996. The status of corrective actions required from current and past reports are also discussed. A waste site survey schedule, WHC-SP-0098-7, was developed by Near-Field Monitoring and reviewed by the Southern Area Remediation Support Group and the Site Support Services Radiological Control Group. Near-Field Monitoring reviews the radiological survey reports and files a copy for historical purposes and reference. Radiological conditions are tracked and trends noted. All sites are surveyed at least once each year. The survey frequencies for particular sites are based on site history, radiological conditions, and general maintenance. special surveys may be conducted at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant (e.g., growth of deep-rooted vegetation is noted at a waste site). Radiological surveys are conducted to detect surface contamination and document changes in vegetation growth, biological intrusion, erosion, and general site maintenance conditions. Survey data are compared with standards identified in WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Comipliance, as well as previous surveys `to recognize possible trends, assess

  18. Measurement of dose-width product in panoramic dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Isoardi, P; Ropolo, R

    2003-02-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board has recommended the introduction of dose-width product (DWP) for the measurement of patient dose in panoramic dental radiology. The present work describes a method for measuring DWP using a pencil ionization chamber. The technique was tested on five panoramic dental units; the reproducibility of the method was 5.7%. In order to test the method, DWP was also assessed using thermoluminescent dosemeters and film. The results obtained agreed within 8.6% with those obtained using the pencil ionization chamber method. The proposed method appears to be simple and precise.

  19. Launch site radiological emergency response for the cassini mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmaro, George M.

    1999-01-01

    Radiological emergency response planning and support for the 15 October 1997 Cassini Launch from the Eastern Launch Site (Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station) is reviewed. Space Nuclear launches are multi-agency efforts and include support and participation from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Dept. of Energy, the United States Air Force, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and the State and surrounding counties of Florida. Supporting systems and elements, including mobile field radiological monitoring teams, computerized dispersion modeling, airborne monitoring, automated data management, and both active and passive sampling techniques are described. Communication, command and control, and interagency interfaces are also covered.

  20. Savannah River Site Radiological Technology Center's Efforts Supporting Waste Minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, K. H.; Smith, L. S.; Bates, R. L.

    2003-02-25

    This paper describes the efforts of the newly formed Radiological Technology Center (RTC) at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) to support waste minimization. The formation of the RTC was based upon the highly successful ALARA Center at the DOE Hanford Site. The RTC is tasked with evaluation and dissemination of new technologies and techniques for radiological hazard reduction and waste minimization. Initial waste minimization efforts have focused on the promotion of SRS containment fabrication capabilities, new personal protective equipment and use of recyclable versus disposable materials.

  1. Radiological design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.A.

    1994-08-16

    The purpose of this design guide is to provide radiological safety requirements, standards, and information necessary for designing facilities that will operate without unacceptable risk to personnel, the public, or the environment as required by the US Department of Energy (DOE). This design guide, together with WHC-CM-4-29, Nuclear Criticality Safety, WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis, and WHC-CM-7-5, Environmental Compliance, covers the radiation safety design requirements at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This design guide applies to the design of all new facilities. The WHC organization with line responsibility for design shall determine to what extent this design guide shall apply to the modifications to existing facilities. In making this determination, consideration shall include a cost versus benefit study. Specifically, facilities that store, handle, or process radioactive materials will be covered. This design guide replaces WHC-CM-4-9 and is designated a living document. This design guide is intended for design purposes only. Design criteria are different from operational criteria and often more stringent. Criteria that might be acceptable for operations might not be adequate for design.

  2. Cardiac radiology: centenary review.

    PubMed

    de Roos, Albert; Higgins, Charles B

    2014-11-01

    During the past century, cardiac imaging technologies have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of acquired and congenital heart disease. Many important contributions to the field of cardiac imaging were initially reported in Radiology. The field developed from the early stages of cardiac imaging, including the use of coronary x-ray angiography and roentgen kymography, to nowadays the widely used echocardiographic, nuclear medicine, cardiac computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) applications. It is surprising how many of these techniques were not recognized for their potential during their early inception. Some techniques were described in the literature but required many years to enter the clinical arena and presently continue to expand in terms of clinical application. The application of various CT and MR contrast agents for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is a case in point, as the utility of contrast agents continues to expand the noninvasive characterization of myocardium. The history of cardiac imaging has included a continuous process of advances in our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system, along with advances in imaging technology that continue to the present day.

  3. [Controlling in outpatient radiology].

    PubMed

    Baum, T

    2015-12-01

    Radiology is among the medical disciplines which require the highest investment costs in the healthcare system. The need to design efficient workflows to ensure maximum utilization of the equipment has long been known. In order to be able to establish a sound financial plan prior to a project or equipment purchase, the costs of an examination have to be broken down by modality and compared with the reimbursement rates. Obviously, the same holds true for operative decisions when scarce human resources have to be allocated. It is the task of controlling to review the economic viability of the different modalities and ideally, the results are incorporated into the management decision-making processes. The main section of this article looks at the recognition and allocation of direct and indirect costs in a medical center (Medizinisches Versorgungszentrum - MVZ) in the German North Rhine region. The profit contribution of each examination is determined by deducting the costs from the income generated by the treatment of patients with either private or statutory health insurance.

  4. Overview of neutron radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, H.

    1993-12-31

    Neutron radiography is a recognized method for nondestructive testing (NDT). It is one of eight established NDT methods offered for certification by ASNT. There are ASTM standards describing selected characteristics associated with neutron radiography, as discussed later in this session. Neutron radiography standards are proceeding in the international community (International Organization for Standardization, ISO). A primary advantage of using neutrons for radiologic inspection follows from the fact that the attenuation of thermal neutrons is very different from that of X-rays. A comparison of the attenuation of the elements for thermal neutrons (small dots) and 125 kV X-rays (solid line) is shown. As opposed to the increasing attenuation with increasing atomic number (Z) for X-rays, the neutron attenuation pattern is scattered. If there is a pattern for the neutrons, it tends to be the reverse of the X-ray case, namely, high neutron attenuation for light materials, such as hydrogen, lithium, and boron (H, Li, and B) and low attenuation for the heavy materials, such as lead, bismuth, and uranium (Pb, Bi, and U). The capability of thermal neutrons to image low-Z material, particularly hydrogen, in metal assemblies is in sharp contrast to that of X-rays. This opens up many practical inspection applications involving, for example, explosives, adhesives, corrosion, water intrusion, and hydriding of metals.

  5. Radiology system evolution in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Nauert, R C

    2001-01-01

    For many decades the practice of radiology grew slowly in America and was largely a secondary function under the control of hospitals. In more recent times it has vastly expanded its array of diagnostic, interventional, and therapeutic abilities. There is increasing consumer logic for direct access. Motivations have grown to create large independent entities with broadly diverse capabilities in order to succeed in the new millennium. Most regional markets are evolving rapidly in terms of managed care penetration, health system formation, physician practice consolidation and aggressive purchaser behavior by employers and consumers. To understand the enormity of healthcare evolution, it is useful to look at the industry's paradigm shifts in recent decades. Virtually every aspect of organizational infrastructure, delivery approaches, and the business environment has evolved markedly during the past fifty years. These changes will accelerate. To succeed financially, radiology groups must strengthen their market positions, technical capabilities, continuums of care and geographic dominance. Equally important is the wisdom of diversifying incomes into related services and businesses that provide additional related revenues. Key factors for successful development include facility market growth, full coverage of managed care contracts, high efficiency and aggressive diversification. A fully evolved system generates significant revenues and profitability by protecting and strengthening its financial position in this environment. That is accomplished through the development of strategically located radiology groups, aggressive alliances with medical practices in allied disciplines, and managed radiology departments and facilities for partner health systems. Organizational success ultimately depends on the ability to accept capitated payments under risk-bearing arrangements. The strategic business plan should be organized with the appropriate levels of detail needed to

  6. Environmental Tools and Radiological Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation details two tools (SADA and FRAMES) available for use in environmental assessments of chemicals that can also be used for radiological assessments of the environment. Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is a Windows freeware program that incorporate...

  7. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.J.; Marino, S.A.

    1993-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) - formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. This report provides a listing and brief description of experiments performed at RARAF during the May 1, 1992 through April 30, 1993.

  8. Peer review in cardiothoracic radiology.

    PubMed

    Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-09-01

    A variety of peer review methods can be used as part of quality assurance and quality improvement in cardiothoracic radiology. Traditionally, peer review in radiology is a retrospective process relying primarily on review of previously interpreted studies at the time of follow-up or additional imaging. However, peer review can be enhanced with other methods such as double reads, focused practice review, practice audit, and correlation with operative and pathologic findings. Furthermore, feedback from referring physicians can be extremely useful in improving the quality of a radiology practice. This article discusses peer review in radiology with a focus on cardiothoracic imaging. Types of peer review, advantages and shortcomings, and future challenges are addressed.

  9. Multimedia in the radiology environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzill, Todd M.; Huang, H. K.; Ramaswamy, Mohan R.; Arenson, Ronald L.

    1994-05-01

    Accessibility of multimedia information related to radiology in a timely manner is a key to success in practicing radiology in the future. In this paper we describe the concept of multimedia in the radiology environment and its implementation in our department at UCSF. This paper emphasizes the various types of databases related to radiology including HIS, RIS, PACS image database, digital voice dictation system, electronic mail and library information system. A method to interconnect these databases is through a comprehensive network architecture that also is described. As an application, we introduce the concept of a departmental image file server, for any of the 150 Macintosh users in the department to access this multimedia information.

  10. Negotiating the radiologically isolated syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cummings, A; Chataway, J

    2014-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis, always challenging, hands down a particular gauntlet with the concept of the radiologically isolated syndrome. This article discusses what it is, recent developments in the field and how these patients should be managed.

  11. Environmental Tools and Radiological Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation details two tools (SADA and FRAMES) available for use in environmental assessments of chemicals that can also be used for radiological assessments of the environment. Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is a Windows freeware program that incorporate...

  12. The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    The Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF) is based on a 4-MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which is used to generate a variety of well-characterized radiation beams for research in radiobiology, radiological physics, and radiation chemistry. It is part of the Center for Radiological Research (CRR) -- formerly the Radiological Research Laboratory (RRL) -- of Columbia University, and its operation is supported as a National Facility by the US Department of Energy (DOE). As such, RARAF is available to all potential users on an equal basis, and scientists outside the CRR are encouraged to submit proposals for experiments at RARAF. The operation of the Van de Graaff is supported by the DOE, but the research projects themselves must be supported separately. Experiments performed from May 1991--April 1992 are described.

  13. Self-citation: comparison between Radiología, European Radiology and Radiology for 1997-1998.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Alberto; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis

    2002-01-01

    Self-citation, considered as the number of times a paper cites other papers in the same journal, is an important criteria of journal quality. Our objective is to evaluate the self-citation in the official journal of the Spanish Society of Radiology (Radiología), and to compare it with the European Radiology and Radiology journals. Papers published in Radiología, European Radiology, and Radiology during 1997 and 1998 were analyzed. The Self Citation Index, considered as the ratio between self-references and total number of references per article, for the journals Radiología (SCIR), European Radiology (SCIER), and Radiology (SCIRY), were obtained and expressed as percentages. Also, the number of references to Radiología in European Radiology and Radiology papers were calculated. Stratification of the index per thematic area and article type was also performed. Mean SCIR, SCIER, and SCIRY values were compared with the ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls tests. The self-citation index was statistically higher in Radiology (23.2%; p<0.0001) than in Radiología (1.8%) and European Radiology (0.8%). There were no statistically significant differences between SCIR and SCIER indexes ( p=0.25). In the stratification per thematic areas and article type, self-citation in Radiology was statistically higher ( p<0.0001), with the only exception of "Radioprotection" area ( p=0.2), to SCIR and SCIER. Although there were no statistically significant differences, by thematic areas SCIR was always larger than SCIER, with the only exception of the "Genitourinary imaging" area, and by article type SCIR also went greater to SCIER, except in review articles. Radiología, The Spanish official radiological journal, although not included in Index Medicus and its database Medline, had a larger number of self-citing than European Radiology in the period 1997-1998.

  14. FDH radiological design review guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Millsap, W.J.

    1998-09-29

    These guidelines discuss in more detail the radiological design review process used by the Project Hanford Management Contractors as described in HNF-PRO-1622, Radiological Design Review Process. They are intended to supplement the procedure by providing background information on the design review process and providing a ready source of information to design reviewers. The guidelines are not intended to contain all the information in the procedure, but at points, in order to maintain continuity, they contain some of the same information.

  15. Financial accounting for radiology executives.

    PubMed

    Seidmann, Abraham; Mehta, Tushar

    2005-03-01

    The authors review the role of financial accounting information from the perspective of a radiology executive. They begin by introducing the role of pro forma statements. They discuss the fundamental concepts of accounting, including the matching principle and accrual accounting. The authors then explore the use of financial accounting information in making investment decisions in diagnostic medical imaging. The paper focuses on critically evaluating the benefits and limitations of financial accounting for decision making in a radiology practice.

  16. Radiological training for tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This program management guide describes a recommended implementation standard for core training as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Manual (RCM). The standard is to assist those individuals, both within DOE and Managing and Operating contractors, identified as having responsibility for implementing the core training recommended by the RCM. This training may also be given to radiological workers using tritium to assist in meeting their job specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835.

  17. Radiology of congenital heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Amplatz, K.

    1986-01-01

    This is a text on the radiologic diagnosis of congenital heart disease and its clinical manifestations. The main thrust of the book is the logical approach which allows an understanding of the complex theory of congenital heart disease. The atlas gives a concise overview of the entire field of congenital heart disease. Emphasis is placed on the understanding of the pathophysiology and its clinical and radiological consequences. Surgical treatment is included since it provides a different viewpoint of the anatomy.

  18. Radiological imaging in endocrine hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Das, Chandan J.; Baruah, Manash P.; Baruah, Upasana M.

    2011-01-01

    While different generations of assays have played important role in elucidating causes of different endocrine disorders, radiological techniques are instrumental in localizing the pathology. This statement cannot be truer in any disease entity other than endocrine hypertension. This review makes an effort to highlight the role of different radiological modalities, especially ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, in the evaluation of different causes of endocrine hypertension. PMID:22145144

  19. A post rotation survey of medical students attitude to radiology.

    PubMed

    Adeyekun, A A

    2003-12-01

    The objective of the study is to determine the effect of a three-week radiology rotation on the attitudes and knowledge of medical students about the specialty. It was found that the students believed in the relevance of radiology in the medical school curriculum and its importance to future medical practice. There was acceptable level of awareness of radiation protection. However, the rotation failed to change the misconception of Radiologists enormous workload with resultant bias to the specialty. It is concluded that the rotation had a mixed effect on student's knowledge and perception of radiology. This finding is comparable with other studies done in industrialized countries. Measures aimed at improving the unfavourable attitudes are suggested.

  20. Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Magnuson, S.O.; Sussman, M.E.; Bhatt, R.N.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected.

  1. Dental radiology for children

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    The benefit for the child from the judicious use of diagnostic dental radiography is improved dental health. The risk to the child from dental diagnostic radiation exposure appears to be extremely low. Despite the low risk, the dentist must minimize the child's exposure to ionizing radiation by using sound clinical judgment to determine what radiographs are necessary and to provide children with optimal protection from ionizing radiation.

  2. Radiological impacts of phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Al-Oudat, Mohammad; Kanakri, Salwa; Budeir, Youssef; Khalily, Hussam; Al Hamwi, Ahmad

    2011-09-01

    This study was carried out to assess the radiological impact of Syrian phosphogypsum (PG) piles in the compartments of the surrounding ecosystem. Estimating the distribution of naturally occurring radionuclides (i.e. (226)Ra, (238)U, (232)Th, (210)Po and (210)Pb) in the raw materials, product and by-product of the Syrian phosphate fertilizer industry was essential. The data revealed that the concentrations of the radionuclides were enhanced in the treated phosphate ore. In PG, (226)Ra content had a mean activity of 318 Bq kg(-1). The uranium content in PG was low, ca. 33 Bq kg(-1), because uranium remained in the phosphoric acid produced. Over 80% of (232)Th, (210)Po and (210)Pb present partitioned in PG. The presence of PG piles did not increase significantly the concentration of (222)Rn or gamma rays exposure dose in the area studied. The annual effective dose was only 0.082 mSv y(-1). The geometric mean of total suspended air particulates (TSP) ca. 85 μg m(-3). The activity concentration of the radionuclides in filtrates and runoff waters were below the detection limits (ca. 0.15 mBq L(-1) for (238)U, 0.1 mBq L(-1) for (232)Th and 0.18 mBq L(-1) for both of (210)Po and (210)Pb); the concentration of the radionuclides in ground water samples and Qattina Lake were less than the permissible limits set for drinking water by the World Health Organisation, WHO, (10, 1 and 0.1 Bq L(-1) for (238)U, (232)Th and both of (210)Po and (210)Pb, respectively). Eastern sites soil samples of PG piles recorded the highest activity concentrations, i.e. 26, 33, 28, 61 and 40 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (238)U, (232)Th, (210)Po and (210)Pb, respectively, due to the prevailing western and north-western wind in the area, but remained within the natural levels reported in Syrian soil (13-32 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, 24.9-62.2 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U and 10-32 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th). The impact of PG piles on plants varied upon the plant species. Higher concentrations of the radionuclides were

  3. Workflow management systems in radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Thomas; Meetz, Kirsten; Schmidt, Joachim

    1998-07-01

    In a situation of shrinking health care budgets, increasing cost pressure and growing demands to increase the efficiency and the quality of medical services, health care enterprises are forced to optimize or complete re-design their processes. Although information technology is agreed to potentially contribute to cost reduction and efficiency improvement, the real success factors are the re-definition and automation of processes: Business Process Re-engineering and Workflow Management. In this paper we discuss architectures for the use of workflow management systems in radiology. We propose to move forward from information systems in radiology (RIS, PACS) to Radiology Management Systems, in which workflow functionality (process definitions and process automation) is implemented through autonomous workflow management systems (WfMS). In a workflow oriented architecture, an autonomous workflow enactment service communicates with workflow client applications via standardized interfaces. In this paper, we discuss the need for and the benefits of such an approach. The separation of workflow management system and application systems is emphasized, and the consequences that arise for the architecture of workflow oriented information systems. This includes an appropriate workflow terminology, and the definition of standard interfaces for workflow aware application systems. Workflow studies in various institutions have shown that most of the processes in radiology are well structured and suited for a workflow management approach. Numerous commercially available Workflow Management Systems (WfMS) were investigated, and some of them, which are process- oriented and application independent, appear suitable for use in radiology.

  4. Radiological Work Planning and Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    KURTZ, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Each facility is tasked with maintaining personnel radiation exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). A continued effort is required to meet this goal by developing and implementing improvements to technical work documents (TWDs) and work performance. A review of selected TWDs from most facilities shows there is a need to incorporate more radiological control requirements into the TWD. The Radioactive Work Permit (RWP) provides a mechanism to place some of the requirements but does not provide all the information needed by the worker as he/she is accomplishing the steps of the TWD. Requiring the engineers, planners and procedure writers to put the radiological control requirements in the work steps would be very easy if all personnel had a strong background in radiological work planning and radiological controls. Unfortunately, many of these personnel do not have the background necessary to include these requirements without assistance by the Radiological Control organization at each facility. In addition, there seems to be confusion as to what should be and what should not be included in the TWD.

  5. The radiological assessment system for consequence analysis - RASCAL

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoreen, A.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.

    1996-04-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis, Version 2.1 (RASCAL 2.1) has been developed for use during a response to radiological emergencies. The model estimates doses for comparison with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and thresholds for acute health effects. RASCAL was designed to be used by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel who report to the site of a nuclear accident to conduct an independent evaluation of dose and consequence projections and personnel who conduct training and drills on emergency responses. It allows consideration of the dominant aspects of the source term, transport, dose, and consequences. RASCAL consists of three computational tools: ST-DOSE, FM-DOSE, and DECAY. ST-DOSE computes source term, atmospheric transport, and dose to man from accidental airborne releases of radionuclides. The source-term calculations are appropriate for accidents at U.S. power reactors. FM-DOSE computes doses from environmental concentrations of radionuclides in the air and on the ground. DECAY computes radiological decay and daughter in-growth. RASCAL 2.1 is a DOS application that can be run under Windows 3.1 and 95. RASCAL has been the starting point for other accident consequence models, notably INTERRAS, an international version of RASCAL, and HASCAL, an expansion of RASCAL that will model radiological, biological, and chemical accidents.

  6. Measurement of dose in panoramic dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Williams, J R; Montgomery, A

    2000-09-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) has recommended the introduction of dose-width product (DWP) for the measurement of patient dose in panoramic dental radiology and has proposed a reference level of 65 mGy mm for adult exposures. This paper describes a method for measuring DWP and dose-area product (DAP) using thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs). The technique was used on 16 sets with a range of exposure settings. The mean value of DWP was 14% higher than the mean value reported from a survey by the NRPB. This difference is most likely to be caused by systematic variations due to measurement method. The average DAP for a standard adult examination was shown to be 11.3 cGy cm2. Data are presented so that the DAP can be derived from the exposure factors (tube current and operating potential) and beam area. Based on published data for effective dose, it is estimated that the DAP to effective dose conversion factor is approximately 0.06 mSv(Gy cm2)-1. The average DAP value (11.3 cGy cm2) can be compared with the average value for intraoral radiography (9.3 cGy cm2) based on the NRPB survey of entrance surface doses assuming 6 cm circular collimation.

  7. Using Keynote to present radiology images.

    PubMed

    Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Techasith, Tust; Choy, Garry; Rojas, Carlos A; Pomerantz, Stuart R

    2011-10-01

    Numerous articles have offered instructions for working with advanced radiology images in Microsoft PowerPoint (Redmond, WA); however, no articles have detailed instructions to do the same on alternative presentation software. Apple Macintosh (Cupertino, CA) computers are gaining popularity with many radiologists, due in part to the availability of a powerful, free, open-source Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) viewing and manipulating software OsiriX ( http://www.osirix-viewer.com ). Apple's own presentation software, Keynote, is particularly effective in dealing with medical images and cine clips. This article demonstrates how to use Apple's Keynote software to present radiology images and scrollable image stacks, without third-party add-on software. The article also illustrates how to compress media files and protect patient information in Keynote presentations. Lastly, it addresses the steps to converting between PowerPoint and Keynote file formats. Apple's Keynote software enables quick and efficient addition of multiple static images or scrollable image stacks, compression of media files, and removal of patient information. These functions can be accomplished by inexperienced users with no software modifications.

  8. White Paper: Curriculum in Interventional Radiology.

    PubMed

    Mahnken, Andreas H; Bücker, Arno; Hohl, Christian; Berlis, Ansgar

    2017-04-01

    Purpose Scope and clinical importance of interventional radiology markedly evolved over the last decades. Consequently it was acknowledged as independent subspecialty by the "European Union of Medical Specialists" (UEMS). Based on radiological imaging techniques Interventional Radiology is an integral part of Radiology. Materials und Methods In 2009 the German Society for Interventional Radiology and minimally-invasive therapy (DeGIR) developed a structured training in Interventional Radiology. In cooperation with the German Society of Neuroradiology (DGNR) this training was extended to also cover Interventional Neuroradiology in 2012. Tailored for this training in Interventional Radiology a structured curriculum was developed, covering the scope of this modular training. Results The curriculum is based on the DeGIR/DGNR modular training concept in Interventional Radiology. There is also an European Curriculum and Syllabus for Interventional Radiology developed by the "Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe" (CIRSE). The presented curriculum in Interventional Radiology is designed to provide a uniform base for the training in Interventional Radiology in Germany, based on the competencies obtained during residency. Conclusion This curriculum can be used as a basis for training in Interventional Radiology by all training sites. Key Points: · Interventional Radiology is an integral part of clinical radiology. · The German Society for Interventional Radiology and minimally-invasive therapy (DeGIR) developed a curriculum in Interventional Radiology. · This curriculum is an integrative basis for the training in interventional. Citation Format · Mahnken AH, Bücker A, Hohl C et al. White Paper: Curriculum in Interventional Radiology. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 309 - 311. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. How to Start Interventional Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Ghanaati, Hossein; Firouznia, Kavous; Jalali, Amir Hossein; Shakiba, Madjid

    2013-01-01

    Interventional techniques aim to find safer and better ways to treat vascular diseases even in many instances, the interventional radiology solutions has been considered the only treatment option for the patients. Interventional radiologists are specialists who perform minimally invasive procedures instead of surgery or other treatments. These procedures apply various imaging and catheterization procedures in order to diagnose and treat diseases. In each country, interventional radiology practice establishment of varies according to local factors, but following a standard strategy seems better to set up this facility. According to above mentioned points, we decided to establish this specialty in our hospital since 2001 as the pioneer center in Iran. In this presentation we will discuss about our experience for start interventional radiology. PMID:24693402

  10. Implications Of Computer Assisted Radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Heinz U.

    1989-10-01

    Within the field of radiology, assistance with computer and communication systems may be applied to generation, storing, transmission, viewing, analyzing and interpreting of images. As a result, digital image management and communication systems will be applied at various levels in the health care system. Four groups of people are somehow involved or affected by this process. These are, first of all, the patients and the medical personnel, but also the scientific-engineering community and the group of professions involved with financing and/or administering these systems. Each group approaches computer assisted radiology from a particular point of view. The paper outlines some aspects as regards the different perceptions of these groups, which need to be clarified in order to successfully realise computer assisted radiology.

  11. [Useful radiological techniques in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Felizardo, Rufino; Thomas, Alexis; Foucart, Jean-Michel

    2012-03-01

    Specialists in dento-facial orthopedics have a large range of dental radiological techniques at their disposal to help them in their diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Peri-apical, occlusal, panoramic, and cephalometric X-Rays are two-dimensional techniques that orthodontists can complement, if necessary, with Multi slices CT scan or Cone Beam Computed Tomography. Orthodontists must apply and respect quality criteria for each type of film in order to derive the best information from every image and to avoid producing artifacts or false images that will reduce their diagnostic value and, accordingly, the service that they render to patients. Practitioners must be willing to spend the few moments it takes to position patients correctly in the radiological apparatus instead of taking multiple views to compensate for failing to scrupulously follow protocols of radiology.

  12. Radiological control manual. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kloepping, R.

    1996-05-01

    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Radiological Control Manual (LBNL RCM) has been prepared to provide guidance for site-specific additions, supplements and interpretation of the DOE Radiological Control Manual. The guidance provided in this manual is one methodology to implement the requirements given in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835 (10 CFR 835) and the DOE Radiological Control Manual. Information given in this manual is also intended to provide demonstration of compliance to specific requirements in 10 CFR 835. The LBNL RCM (Publication 3113) and LBNL Health and Safety Manual Publication-3000 form the technical basis for the LBNL RPP and will be revised as necessary to ensure that current requirements from Rules and Orders are represented. The LBNL RCM will form the standard for excellence in the implementation of the LBNL RPP.

  13. ["Activity based costing" in radiology].

    PubMed

    Klose, K J; Böttcher, J

    2002-05-01

    The introduction of diagnosis related groups for reimbursement of hospital services in Germany (g-drg) demands for a reconsideration of utilization of radiological products and costs related to them. Traditional cost accounting as approach to internal, department related budgets are compared with the accounting method of activity based costing (ABC). The steps, which are necessary to implement ABC in radiology are developed. The introduction of a process-oriented cost analysis is feasible for radiology departments. ABC plays a central role in the set-up of decentralized controlling functions within this institutions. The implementation seems to be a strategic challenge for department managers to get more appropriate data for adequate enterprise decisions. The necessary steps of process analysis can be used for other purposes (Certification, digital migration) as well.

  14. Analysis of radiology business models.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R; Schomer, Donald F

    2013-03-01

    As health care moves to value orientation, radiology's traditional business model faces challenges to adapt. The authors describe a strategic value framework that radiology practices can use to best position themselves in their environments. This simplified construct encourages practices to define their dominant value propositions. There are 3 main value propositions that form a conceptual triangle, whose vertices represent the low-cost provider, the product leader, and the customer intimacy models. Each vertex has been a valid market position, but each demands specific capabilities and trade-offs. The underlying concepts help practices select value propositions they can successfully deliver in their competitive environments. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of self-referral on radiology residency training programs.

    PubMed

    Shortsleeve, Michael J; Herring, William

    2005-05-01

    The self-referral by nonradiologist physicians of diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures has affected radiology residency training programs. The Association of Program Directors in Radiology surveyed its members to assess the impact on specific areas of training. The authors surveyed 186 residency program directors. Forty-three percent of those contacted responded. Fifty-two of 80 respondents (65%) said that in their opinion, self-referral had had an impact on residency training. Of the 52 program directors who said that their programs had been affected, 47 (90%) reported that in their opinion, self-referral had a negative impact on their training programs. The areas most affected were vascular interventional radiology, obstetric ultrasound, and nuclear cardiology. Self-referral endangers the quality of radiology residencies. The authors discuss strategies to protect radiology residency programs.

  16. Industrial Pleuropulmonary Disorders: Radiological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Garland, L. Henry

    1965-01-01

    Industrial pleuropulmonary disorders may result from exposure of the human respiratory tract to diverse types of dusts and fumes, visible and invisible, benign and toxic, organic and inorganic. Meticulous radiological examination, combined with history and physical examination, appropriate laboratory tests, and the exclusion of other disorders which could produce similar changes, is essential for correct diagnosis. Criteria for the radiological diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis, of generalized emphysema, and of cor pulmonale are outlined. The commoner types of pneumoconiosis are discussed in some detail, and the possible relationship of various inhaled noxa to primary bronchial carcinoma is considered. PMID:14288143

  17. Interventional Radiology: Equipment and Techniques.

    PubMed

    Scansen, Brian A

    2016-05-01

    The breadth of small animal diseases that can now be treated by a minimally invasive, transcatheter approach continues to expand. Interventional radiology is the field of medicine that affects a therapeutic outcome via minimally invasive catheterization of peripheral blood vessels or body orifices guided by imaging. The intent of this article is to provide an overview of the equipment required for interventional radiology in veterinary medicine with a discussion of technical uses in diseases of dogs and cats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Interventional Radiology in Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Karani, John B. Yu, Dominic F.Q.C.; Kane, Pauline A.

    2005-04-15

    Radiology is a key specialty within a liver transplant program. Interventional techniques not only contribute to graft and recipient survival but also allow appropriate patient selection and ensure that recipients with severe liver decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma or portal hypertension are transplanted with the best chance of prolonged survival. Equally inappropriate selection for these techniques may adversely affect survival. Liver transplantation is a dynamic field of innovative surgical techniques with a requirement for interventional radiology to parallel these developments. This paper reviews the current practice within a major European center for adult and pediatric transplantation.

  19. Conventional Radiology in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Llopis, Eva; Kroon, Herman M; Acosta, Jose; Bloem, Johan L

    2017-09-01

    In clinical practice, the conventional radiography is still the radiologic method for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Moreover, it provides a quick overview of the symptomatic joints to narrow the differential diagnosis and to evaluate progression. RA is a polyarticular disease with bilateral and symmetric involvement of the peripheral joints, especially small joints, and less frequently, the cervical spine. The radiologic features are soft tissue swelling, periarticular osteoporosis, erosions, loss of joint space, and in advanced disease, osteolysis and typical subluxations or deformities, such as ulnar deviation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Teaching physics to radiology residents.

    PubMed

    Hendee, William R

    2009-04-01

    The complexity of diagnostic imaging has expanded dramatically over the past two decades. Over the same period, the time and effort devoted to teaching physics (the science and technology of the discipline) have diminished. This paradox compromises the ability of future radiologists to master imaging technologies so that they are used in an efficient, safe, and cost-effective manner. This article addresses these issues. Efforts involving many professional organizations are under way to resolve the paradox of the expanding complexity of medical imaging contrasted with the declining emphasis on physics in radiology residency programs. These efforts should help to reestablish physics education as a core value in radiology residency programs.

  1. A probabilistic assessment of the chemical and radiological risks of chronic exposure to uranium in freshwater ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Teresa; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Adam, Christelle; Della-Vedova, Claire

    2009-09-01

    Uranium (U) presents a unique challenge for ecological risk assessments (ERA) because it induces both chemical and radiological toxicity, and the relative importance of these two toxicities differs among the various U source terms (i.e., natural, enriched, depleted). We present a method for the conversion between chemical concentrations microg L(-1)) and radiological dose rates (microGy h(-1)) for a defined set of reference organisms, and apply this conversion method to previously derived chemical and radiological benchmarks to determine the extent to which these benchmarks ensure radiological and chemical protection, respectively, for U in freshwater ecosystems. Results show that the percentage of species radiologically protected by the chemical benchmark decreases with increasing degrees of U enrichment and with increasing periods of radioactive decay. In contrast, the freshwater ecosystem is almost never chemically protected by the radiological benchmark, regardless of the source term or decay period considered, confirming that the risks to the environment from uranium's chemical toxicity generally outweigh those of its radiological toxicity. These results are relevant to developing water quality criteria that protect freshwater ecosystems from the various risks associated with the nuclear applications of U exploitation, and highlight the need for (1) further research on the speciation, bioavailability, and toxicity of U-series radionuclides under different environmental conditions, and (2) the adoption of both chemical and radiological benchmarks for coherent ERAs to be conducted in U-contaminated freshwater ecosystems.

  2. [Radiological media and modern supporting tools in radiology].

    PubMed

    Sachs, A; Pokieser, P

    2014-01-01

    Radiology is a field with a high demand on information. Nowadays, a huge variety of electronic media and tools exists in addition to the classical media. Asynchronous and synchronous e-learning are constantly growing and support radiology with case collections, webinars and online textbooks. Various internet resources, social media and online courses have been established. Dynamic websites show a variety of interactive elements and it is easier and faster to access large amounts of data. Social media have an exponentially growing number of users and enable an efficient collaboration as well as forming professional networks. Massive open online courses (MOOCs) complete the offer of education and increase the opportunity to take part in educational activities. Apart from the existing variety of resources it is essential to focus on a critical selection for using these radiological media. It is reasonable to combine classical and electronic media instead of a one-sided use. As dynamic as the progress in the field of radiological media and its tools may be, the personal contact remains and should be maintained.

  3. Challenges in Interventional Radiology: The Pregnant Patient

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunice K.; Wang, Weiping; Newman, James S.; Bayona-Molano, Maria Del Pilar

    2013-01-01

    A pregnant patient presenting to interventional radiology (IR) has a different set of needs from any other patient requiring a procedure. Often, the patient's care can be in direct conflict with the growth and development of the fetus, whether it be optimal fluoroscopic imaging, adequate sedation of the mother, or the timing of the needed procedure. Despite the additional risks and complexities associated with pregnancy, IR procedures can be performed safely for the pregnant patient with knowledge of the special and general needs of the pregnant patient, use of acceptable medications and procedures likely to be encountered during pregnancy, in addition to strategies to protect the patient and her fetus from the hazards of radiation. PMID:24436567

  4. Radiological criteria for underground nuclear tests

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, J.S.; Brownlee, R.R.; Costa, C.F.; Mueller, H.F.; Newman, R.W.

    1981-04-01

    The radiological criteria for the conduct of nuclear tests have undergone many revisions with the current criteria being 0.17 rad for uncontrolled populations and 0.5 rad for controllable populations. Their effect upon operations at the Nevada Test Site and the current off-site protective plans are reviewed for areas surrounding the Site. The few accidental releases that have occurred are used to establish estimates of probability of release and of hazard to the population. These are then put into context by comparing statistical data on other accidents and cataclysms. The guidelines established by DOE Manual Chapter MC-0524 have never been exceeded during the entire underground nuclear test program. The probability of real hazard to off-site populations appears to be sufficiently low as not to cause undue concern to the citizenry.

  5. Radiological residua of healed diabetic arthropathies

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, K.

    1981-12-01

    Diabetic arthropathy is a relatively rare manifestation of neuropathic disease, occurring in fewer than 5% of cases. Abnormalities of this type are confined largely to the small joints of the feet, although the larger joints of the lower limbs and the spine occasionally are affected. Some lesions, particularly in the feet, repair spontaneously, leaving radiological residua sufficiently characteristic to prompt suspicion of an unrecognised diabetic state. These include deformity of the head of the second metatarsal (akin to a Freiberg lesion), shortening of the great toe, painless deforming arthrosis of the knee, and ankylosis of interphalangeal joints. In the presence of these signs the patient should be interrogated concerning diabetes and blood sugar estimates, with provocation if necessary, obtained. Should such a diagnosis be sustained, appropriate protective measures may be undertaken to avoid a relapse of the arthropathy.

  6. Radiology in Medical Education: A Pediatric Radiology Elective as a Template for Other Radiology Courses.

    PubMed

    Hilmes, Melissa A; Hyatt, Eddie; Penrod, Cody H; Fleming, Amy E; Singh, Sudha P

    2016-03-01

    Traditionally, the pediatric radiology elective for medical students and pediatric residents constituted a morning teaching session focused mainly on radiography and fluoroscopy. A more structured elective was desired to broaden the exposure to more imaging modalities, create a more uniform educational experience, and include assessment tools. In 2012, an introductory e-mail and formal syllabus, including required reading assignments, were sent to participants before the start date. A rotating weekly schedule was expanded to include cross-sectional imaging (ultrasound, CT, MR) and nuclear medicine. The schedule could accommodate specific goals of the pediatric resident or medical student, as requested. Starting in 2013, an online pre-test and post-test were developed, as well as an online end-of-rotation survey specific to the pediatric radiology elective. Taking the Image Gently pledge was required. A scavenger hunt tool, cue cards, and electronic modules were added. Pre-test and post-test scores, averaged over 2 years, showed improvement in radiology knowledge, with scores increasing by 27% for medical students and 21% for pediatric residents. Surveys at the end of the elective were overwhelmingly positive, with constructive criticism and complimentary comments. We have successfully created an elective experience in radiology that dedicates time to education while preserving the workflow of radiologists. We have developed tools to provide a customized experience with many self-directed learning opportunities. Our tools and techniques are easily translatable to a general or adult radiology elective. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Offsite Radiological Consequence Analysis for the Bounding Flammable Gas Accident

    SciTech Connect

    CARRO, C.A.

    2003-07-30

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequences of the bounding flammable gas accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding flammable gas accident is a detonation in a single-shell tank The calculation applies reasonably conservation input parameters in accordance with DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A, guidance. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from Office of River Protection.

  8. Offsite Radiological Consequence Analysis for the Waste Transfer Leak

    SciTech Connect

    ZIMMERMAN, B.D.

    2003-07-30

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding waste transfer leak accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding waste transfer leak accident is a large pipe break into a pit. The calculated offsite dose does not challenge the Evaluation Guidelines. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from the Office of River Protection.

  9. International Data on Radiological Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Martha Finck; Margaret Goldberg

    2010-07-01

    ABSTRACT The mission of radiological dispersal device (RDD) nuclear forensics is to identify the provenance of nuclear and radiological materials used in RDDs and to aid law enforcement in tracking nuclear materials and routes. The application of databases to radiological forensics is to match RDD source material to a source model in the database, provide guidance regarding a possible second device, and aid the FBI by providing a short list of manufacturers and distributors, and ultimately to the last legal owner of the source. The Argonne/Idaho National Laboratory RDD attribution database is a powerful technical tool in radiological forensics. The database (1267 unique vendors) includes all sealed sources and a device registered in the U.S., is complemented by data from the IAEA Catalogue, and is supported by rigorous in-lab characterization of selected sealed sources regarding physical form, radiochemical composition, and age-dating profiles. Close working relationships with global partners in the commercial sealed sources industry provide invaluable technical information and expertise in the development of signature profiles. These profiles are critical to the down-selection of potential candidates in either pre- or post- event RDD attribution. The down-selection process includes a match between an interdicted (or detonated) source and a model in the database linked to one or more manufacturers and distributors.

  10. 100-DR-1 radiological surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Naiknimbalkar, N.M.

    1994-01-28

    This report summarizes and documents the results of the radiological surveys conducted over the surface of the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. In addition, this report explains the survey methodology using the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS). The 100-DR-1 radiological survey field task consisted of two activities: characterization of the operable unit-specific background conditions and the radiological survey of the operable unit surface area. The survey methodology was based on utilization of USRADS for automated recording of the gross gamma radiation levels at or near 6 in. and at 3 ft from the surface soil. The purpose of the survey is to identify the location of unidentified subsurface radioactive material areas and any surface contamination associated with these areas. The radiological surveys were conducted using both a digital count rate meter with a NaI detector reporting in counts per minute (CPM) and a dose rate meter reporting micro-Roentgen per hour (uR) connected to a CHEMRAD Tennessee Corp. Series 2000 USRADS. The count rate meter was set for gross counting, i.e., Window ``out``. The window setting allows detection of low, intermediate, and high energy photons. The USRADS equipment is used to record the detector readings verses the location of the readings, generate a map of the survey area, and save the data on computer storage media.

  11. Radiological Defense Officer. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This student workbook includes the necessary administrative materials, briefs, exercises and answer sheets for the quizzes and final course examination as needed by the students during the conduct of the Radiological Defense Officer course. Among the briefs included are the following: (1) Reporting Forms; (2) Forecasting Dose Rates; (3) Dose…

  12. Radiologic Technology Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This guide delineates the tasks and performance standards for radiologic technology occupations. It includes job seeking skills, work attitudes, energy conservation practices, and safety. The guide is centered around the three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive, and affective. For each duty, the following are provided: task, standard of…

  13. 21 CFR 892.1980 - Radiologic table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radiologic table. 892.1980 Section 892.1980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1980 Radiologic table. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 21 CFR 892.1980 - Radiologic table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radiologic table. 892.1980 Section 892.1980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1980 Radiologic table. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 892.1980 - Radiologic table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radiologic table. 892.1980 Section 892.1980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1980 Radiologic table. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1980 - Radiologic table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiologic table. 892.1980 Section 892.1980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1980 Radiologic table. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1980 - Radiologic table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radiologic table. 892.1980 Section 892.1980 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1980 Radiologic table. (a) Identification. A...

  18. The 1985 year book of diagnostic radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides reviews of 343 significant articles from 79 journals. Topics include the following: expanding use of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; sonography and pediatric radiology; radiographic evaluation of skeletal stress injuries; cost effectiveness of radiographic procedures; radiologic manifestations of iatrogenic complications; breast cancer diagnosis; interventional radiology and underutilization; and computed tomography in diagnosis and staging of neoplasms.

  19. Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil

    SciTech Connect

    BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

    2005-11-14

    This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

  20. Radiological/toxicological sabotage assessments at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.D.; Pascal, M.D.; Richardson, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the methods being employed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) to perform graded assessments of radiological and toxicological sabotage vulnerability at Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities. These assessments are conducted to ensure that effective measures are in place to prevent, mitigate, and respond to a potential sabotage event which may cause an airborne release of radiological/toxicological material, causing an adverse effect on the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. Department of Energy (DOE) Notice 5630.3A, {open_quotes}Protection of Departmental Facilities Against Radiological and Toxicological Sabotage,{close_quotes} and the associated April 1993 DOE-Headquarters guidance provide the requirements and outline an eight-step process for hazardous material evaluation. The process requires the integration of information from a variety of disciplines, including safety, safeguards and security, and emergency preparedness. This paper summarizes WSRC`s approach towards implementation of the DOE requirements, and explains the inter-relationships between the Radiological and Toxicological Assessments developed using this process, and facility Hazard Assessment Reports (HAs), Safety Analysis Reports (SARs), and Facility Vulnerability Assessments (VAs).

  1. Radiology and social media: are private practice radiology groups more social than academic radiology departments?

    PubMed

    Glover, McKinley; Choy, Garry; Boland, Giles W; Saini, Sanjay; Prabhakar, Anand M

    2015-05-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of use of the most commonly used social media sites among private radiology groups (PRGs) and academic radiology departments (ARDs). The 50 largest PRGs and the 50 ARDs with the highest level of funding from the National Institutes of Health were assessed for presence of a radiology-specific social media account on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, YouTube, and LinkedIn. Measures of organizational activity and end-user activity were collected, including the number of posts and followers, as appropriate; between-group comparisons were performed. PRGs adopted Facebook 12 months earlier (P = .02) and Twitter 18 months earlier (P = .02) than did ARDs. A total of 76% of PRGs maintained ≥1 account on the social media sites included in the study, compared with 28% of ARDs (P < .0001). The prevalence of having an account on the social media sites for PRGs was: Facebook, 66%; LinkedIn, 56%; Twitter, 42%; YouTube, 20%; Pinterest, 4%; and Instagram, 2%. The prevalence of radiology-specific social media accounts for ARDs was: Facebook, 18%; LinkedIn, 0%; Twitter, 24%; YouTube, 6%; Pinterest, 0%; and Instagram, 0%. There was no significant difference between ARDs and PRGs in measures of end-user or organizational activity on Facebook or Twitter. Use of social media in health care is emerging as mainstream, with PRGs being early adopters of Facebook and Twitter in comparison with ARDs. Competitive environments and institutional policies may be strong factors that influence how social media is used by radiologists at the group and department levels. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Health and Safety Manual

    SciTech Connect

    FRMAC Health and Safety Working Group

    2012-03-20

    This manual is a tool to provide information to all responders and emergency planners and is suggested as a starting point for all organizations that provide personnel/assets for radiological emergency response. It defines the safety requirements for the protection of all emergency responders. The intent is to comply with appropriate regulations or provide an equal level of protection when the situation makes it necessary to deviate. In the event a situation arises which is not addressed in the manual, an appropriate management-level expert will define alternate requirements based on the specifics of the emergency situation. This manual is not intended to pertain to the general public.

  3. Radiology education: a glimpse into the future.

    PubMed

    Scarsbrook, A F; Graham, R N J; Perriss, R W

    2006-08-01

    The digital revolution in radiology continues to advance rapidly. There are a number of interesting developments within radiology informatics which may have a significant impact on education and training of radiologists in the near future. These include extended functionality of handheld computers, web-based skill and knowledge assessment, standardization of radiological procedural training using simulated or virtual patients, worldwide videoconferencing via high-quality health networks such as Internet2 and global collaboration of radiological educational resources via comprehensive, multi-national databases such as the medical imaging resource centre initiative of the Radiological Society of North America. This article will explore the role of e-learning in radiology, highlight a number of useful web-based applications in this area, and explain how the current and future technological advances might best be incorporated into radiological training.

  4. Some current legal issues that may affect oral and maxillofacial radiology: part 1. Basic principles in digital dental radiology.

    PubMed

    MacDonald-Jankowski, David S; Orpe, Elaine C

    2007-06-01

    Developments in oral and maxillofacial radiology affect almost every aspect of dentistry: some change the legal framework in which Canadian dentists practise; some re-emphasize established standards of care, such as the dental radiologist's mantra, ALARA (using a dose that is as low as reasonably achievable) and viewing images in reduced ambient lighting. Developments in the legislation that regulates the use of radiology, such as Health Canada"s Safety Code 30 for radiation safety in dentistry and the Healing Arts Radiation Protection Act, also affect the practice of dental radiology. Some technical developments, such as charge-coupled devices and photostimulatable phosphors, are already well-known to the profession. Teleradiology, currently used in hospitals, but unfamiliar to most dentists (especially those working in urban communities), may soon have an impact on dentistry when it is used for Canada"s electronic health record, now under development. In this first of 2 articles about dental digital technology, we discuss the legal impact of developments in oral and maxillofacial radiology on dental practice and patient care.

  5. Radiology applications of financial accounting.

    PubMed

    Leibenhaut, Mark H

    2005-03-01

    A basic knowledge of financial accounting can help radiologists analyze business opportunities and examine the potential impacts of new technology or predict the adverse consequences of new competitors entering their service area. The income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement are the three basic financial statements that document the current financial position of the radiology practice and allow managers to monitor the ongoing financial operations of the enterprise. Pro forma, or hypothetical, financial statements can be generated to predict the financial impact of specific business decisions or investments on the profitability of the practice. Sensitivity analysis, or what-if scenarios, can be performed to determine the potential impact of changing key revenue, investment, operating cost or financial assumptions. By viewing radiology as both a profession and a business, radiologists can optimize their use of scarce economic resources and maximize the return on their financial investments.

  6. Environmental monitoring in interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Sol, S.; Garcia, R.; Sánchez, D.; Ramirez, G.; Chavarin, E. U.; Rivera, T.

    2017-01-01

    The procedures in Interventional Radiology involve long times of exposure and high number of radiographic images that bring higher radiation doses to patients, staff and environmental than those received in conventional Radiology. Currently for monitoring the dose, the thermoluminescent dosimetry use is recommended. The aim of this work was to carry out the monitoring of the environmental scattered radiation inside the IR room using two types of thermoluminescent dosimeters, TLD-100 (reference dosimeter), CaSO4:Dy (synthesized in our laboratory). The results indicate that the TLD-100 is not effective for the environmental monitoring of low-energy Rx rooms. The CaSO4:Dy presented good behaviour over the 6 months of study. The results will be specific to each room so it is recommended such studies as part of the program of quality control of each Rx room.

  7. Interventional radiology in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Katsanos, Konstantinos; Ahmad, Farhan; Dourado, Renato; Sabharwal, Tarun; Adam, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Interventional radiological percutaneous procedures are becoming all the more important in the curative or palliative management of elderly frail patients with multiple underlying comorbidities. They may serve either as alternative primary minimally invasive therapies or adjuncts to traditional surgical treatments. The present report provides a concise review of the most important interventional radiological procedures with a special focus on the treatment of the primary debilitating pathologies of the elderly population. The authors elaborate on the scientific evidence and latest developments of thermoablation of solid organ malignancies, palliative stent placement for gastrointestinal tract cancer, airway stenting for tracheobronchial strictures, endovascular management of aortic and peripheral arterial vascular disease, and cement stabilization of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The added benefits of high technical and clinical success coupled with lower procedural mortality and morbidity are highlighted. PMID:19503761

  8. An atlas of radiological anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, J.; Abrahams, P.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains a wealth of radiologic images of normal human anatomy; plain radiographs, contrast-enhanced radiographs, and computed tomography (CT) scans. There are 18 pages of magnetic resonance (MR) images, most on the brain and spinal cord, so that there are only two pages on MR imaging of the heart and two pages on abdominal and pelvic MR imaging. Twelve pages of ultrasound (US) images are included. This book has the radiologic image paired with an explanatory drawing; the image is on the left with a paragraph or two of text, and the drawing is on the right with legends. This book includes images of the brain and spinal cord obtained with arteriography, venography, myelography, encephalography, CT, and MR imaging.

  9. A hypermedia radiological reporting system.

    PubMed

    De Simone, M; Drudi, F M; Lalle, C; Poggi, R; Ricci, F L

    1997-01-01

    Report is the main phase of a diagnostic process by images. The product of the process is the diagnostic report. We are proposing an hypermedia structure of diagnostic report in radiology, in order to facilitate exchange between radiologist and clinician (specialist in internal medicine or surgeon) on a clinical case, without anymore charge on the side of the radiologist but with an 'off-line' consultation. An hypermedia radiological report software will produce further advantages in many aspects: radiologist and clinician could access patient's data directly from DB on patients; radiologist could check DB on exemplary cases real-time; clinician could read preliminary and final reports available in network and make requests online. The proposed hyper-report system is modular. Starting from the 'report text' writing, edited by the radiologist on the basis of most significative images, it is possible to insert comments in text, drawing and 'external' images form.

  10. Radiologic management of musculoskeletal tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, H.; Springfield, D.S.; Enneking, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The present book is written by a radiologist and two orthopedic surgeons with long experience in musculoskeletal tumors. It is based on modern pathologic and surgical principles, and from those principles the radiologic approach is discussed. The main questions ask what information can be gained by the different modalities, and which combination of modalities is the most profitable to determine the local behaviour of the tumor, diagnosis and local extent.

  11. Otologic radiology with clinical correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Ruenes, R.; De la Cruz, A.

    1986-01-01

    This manual covers developments in the radiologic diagnosis of otologic problems. To demonstrate the appearance of each disorder comprehensively, a large number of radiographs are included, many of them annotated to highlight both diagnostic signs and the subtle aspects of normal pathologic anatomy. Contents: X-ray and Imaging Techniques and Anatomy. Congenital Malformations. Middle and External Ear Infections. Otosclerosis and Otospongiosis. Temporal Bone Fractures. The Facial Nerve. Tumors of the Temporal Bone and Skull Base. Tumors of the Cerebellopontine Angle. Cochlear Implants.

  12. Increasing diversity in radiologic technology.

    PubMed

    Carwile, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Diversity is increasingly important in the radiologic technology workplace. For significant changes to occur in work force diversity, educators must first recruit and retain students from a wide variety of backgrounds. This article examines personality, race and gender as factors affecting career choice and how educators can use these factors to increase diversity in their programs. An overview of the ASRT's efforts to improve diversity within the profession is presented, along with suggestions for developing effective recruitment and retention plans to increase diversity.

  13. [Male impotence. Radiologic venous examinations].

    PubMed

    Delcour, C; Vandenbosch, G; van Bunnen, Y; Charret, F; Struyven, J

    1988-01-01

    A vascular pathology is the most common etiology of male impotence of organic origin and among these vascular problems, the most frequent are represented by the anomalies of the venous drainage. Based on a personal experience of more than 450 radiological examinations, we will describe the techniques of cavernography and cavernometry as well as the effects of intra-cavernous injections of papaverin and we will present the results from the literature.

  14. Radiologic diagnosis of gastrointestinal perforation.

    PubMed

    Rubesin, Stephen E; Levine, Marc S

    2003-11-01

    Perforations of the gastrointestinal tract have many causes. Holes in the wall of gastrointestinal organs can be created by blunt or penetrating trauma, iatrogenic injury, inflammatory conditions that penetrate the serosa or adventitia, extrinsic neoplasms that invade the gastrointestinal tract, or primary neoplasms that penetrate outside the wall of gastrointestinal organs. This article provides a radiologic approach for investigating the wide variety of gastrointestinal perforations. General principles about contrast agents and studies are reviewed, and then perforations in specific gastrointestinal organs are discussed.

  15. Radiological safety and risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, P.H.; Barg, D.C.; Baird, R.D.; Card, D.H.; de Souza, F.; Elder, J.; Felthauser, K.; Jensen, C.; Winkler, V.

    1982-02-01

    A brief radiological safety and risk assessment of a nuclear power generation center with an adjacent on-site waste disposal facility at a specific site in the State of Utah is presented. The assessment was conducted to assist in determining the feasibility and practicality of developing a nuclear energy center (NEC) in Utah consisting of nine 1250 MWe nuclear pressurized water reactor (PWR) electrical generating units arranged in 3 clusters of 3 units each known as triads. The site selected for this conceptual study is in the Horse Bench area about 15 miles directly south of the town of Green River, Utah. The radiological issues included direct radiation exposures to on-site workers and the off-site population, release of radioactive material, and effects of these releases for both normal operations and accidental occurrences. The basic finding of this study is that the concept of an NEC in the Green River area, specifically at the Horse Bench site, is radiologically feasible.

  16. Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    H. W. Clark, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide a quick look at the extent and severity of the event. The primary result of the AMS Incident Response over flight is a map of estimated exposure rate on the ground along the flight path. Formerly, it was necessary to wait for the airplane to land before the map could be seen. Now, while the flight is still in progress, data are relayed via satellite directly from the aircraft to an operations center, where they are displayed and disseminated. This permits more timely utilization of results by decision makers and redirection of the mission to optimize its value. The current telemetry capability can cover all of North America. Extension to a global capability is under consideration.

  17. Radiology uses of the Internet.

    PubMed

    Krug, H; Cheng, D

    1995-01-01

    The Internet promises to be an essential resource for radiology administrators. In addition to offering remarkable access to colleagues all over the world, the Internet offers specialized information resources for radiology, many of which are described in this article. The Internet is many networks that communicate with each other and whose general purpose is to share information. Although there are several consortium organizations that support and regulate it, no single body or organization "owns" the Internet. Many employees and students at large teaching centers already have access to the Internet through their institution's connection. Individuals and small institutions can contract with independent service providers for Internet access. Internet functions covered in this article include: e-mail, listservs, newsgroups, file transfer protocols, Gopher, and the World Wide Web. The rapid pace of information exchange is making the world of radiology smaller and more intimate. Communication and knowledge are becoming so accessible that individuals are privy to the most minute happenings in the industry. Sharing information on the Internet will benefit not only individual users and the industry, but also patients.

  18. Radiological Evaluation of Bowel Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Dhatt, Harpreet S.; Behr, Spencer C; Miracle, Aaron; Wang, Zhen Jane; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia, which refers to insufficient blood flow to the bowel, is a potentially catastrophic entity that may require emergent intervention or surgery in the acute setting. Although the clinical signs and symptoms of intestinal ischemia are nonspecific, CT findings can be highly suggestive in the correct clinical setting. In this chapter we review the CT diagnosis of arterial, venous, and non-occlusive intestinal ischemia. We discuss the vascular anatomy, pathophysiology of intestinal ischemia, CT techniques for optimal imaging, key and ancillary radiological findings, and differential diagnosis. In the setting of an acute abdomen, rapid evaluation is necessary to identify intraabdominal processes that require emergent surgical intervention (1). While a wide-range of intraabdominal diseases may be present from trauma to inflammation, one of the most feared disorders is mesenteric ischemia, also known as intestinal ischemia, which refers to insufficient blood flow to the bowel (2). Initial imaging evaluation for intestinal ischemia is typically obtained with CT. Close attention to technique and search for key radiologic features with relation to the CT technique is required. Accurate diagnosis depends on understanding the vascular anatomy, epidemiology, and pathophysiology of various forms of mesenteric ischemia and their corresponding radiological findings on MDCT. At imaging, not only is inspection of the bowel itself important, but evaluation of the mesenteric fat, vasculature, and surrounding peritoneal cavity also helps improves accuracy in the diagnosis of bowel ischemia. PMID:26526436

  19. Employing the radiological and nuclear risk assessment methods (RNRAM) for assessing radiological and nuclear detection architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Brigantic, Robert T.; Eddy, Ryan R.

    2014-03-20

    The United States Department of Homeland Security’s Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) is charged with implementing domestic nuclear detection efforts to protect the U.S. from radiological and nuclear threats. DNDO is also responsible for coordinating the development of the Global Nuclear Detection Architecture (GNDA). DNDO utilizes a unique risk analysis tool to conduct a holistic risk assessment of the GNDA known as the Radiological and Nuclear Risk Assessment Methods (RNRAM). The capabilities of this tool will be used to support internal DNDO analyses and has also been used for other entities such as the International Atomic Energy Agency. The model uses a probabilistic risk assessment methodology and includes the ability to conduct a risk assessment of the effectiveness of layered architectures in the GNDA against an attack by an intelligent, adaptive adversary. This paper overviews the basic structure, capabilities, and use of RNRAM as used to assess different architectures and how various risk components are calculated through a series of interconnected modules. Also highlighted is flexible structure of RNRAM which can accommodate new modules in order to examine a variety of threat detection architectures and concepts.

  20. Nucleating emergency radiology specialization in India.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anjali; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2016-04-01

    Emergency radiology is being recognized as an important and distinct specialty of radiology which merits utmost attention of educators, radiology program curricula committees, and radiology practices in India. Providing an accurate but timely diagnosis requires a skilled judgement and a strong process framework, particularly in acute trauma setting or a life-threatening acute illness. However, due to a shortage of radiologists in India and lack of awareness and suitable opportunities, there has been no concerted movement towards emergency radiology subspecialty training or dedicated emergency radiology positions. It was with these gaps in mind that the Society for Emergency Radiology was envisioned in 2012 and formulated in 2013. The proposed role of the Society for Emergency Radiology is to identify deficiencies in the field, namely, lack of adequate exposure, lack of mentorship by experienced emergency radiologists, lack of suitable opportunities for emergency radiologists; establish standards of practice; and promote education and implementation research to bridge the gaps. Through collaboration with other societies and partnership with the journal Emergency Radiology, the Society for Emergency Radiology hopes to promote a free exchange of ideas, protocols, and multi-institutional trials across continents.

  1. Women in Radiology: Exploring the Gender Disparity.

    PubMed

    Zener, Rebecca; Lee, Stefanie Y; Visscher, Kari L; Ricketts, Michelle; Speer, Stacey; Wiseman, Daniele

    2016-03-01

    In 2015, only 1.5% of female Canadian medical students pursued radiology as a specialty, versus 5.6% of men. The aim of this study was to determine what factors attract and deter Canadian medical students from pursuing a career in radiology, and why fewer women than men pursue radiology as a specialty. An anonymous online survey was e-mailed to English-speaking Canadian medical schools, and 12 of 14 schools participated. Subgroup analyses for gender and radiology interest were performed using the Fisher exact test (P < .05). In total, 917 students (514 women; 403 men) responded. Direct patient contact was valued by significantly more women who were not considering specialization in radiology (87%), compared with women who were (70%; P < .0001). Physics deterred more women (47%) than it did men (21%), despite similar educational backgrounds for the two gender groups in physical sciences (P < .0001). More women who were considering radiology as a specialty rated intellectual stimulation as being important to their career choice (93%), compared with women who were not (80%; P = .002). Fewer women who were not interested in radiology had done preclinical observerships in radiology (20%), compared with men who were not interested in radiology (28%; P = .04). A perceived lack of direct patient contact dissuades medical students from pursuing radiology as a career. Women have less preclinical radiology exposure than do men. Programs that increase preclinical exposure to radiology subspecialties that have greater patient contact should be initiated, and an effort to actively recruit women to such programs should be made. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Digital radiology with storage phosphors in cephalometric study in orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Calderazzi, A; Palla, L; Battolla, L; Caramella, D; Barbieri, L

    1992-09-01

    Conventional radiology is continually modified with the development of digital systems which can be used for several types of radiologic examinations. Our study was aimed at evaluating the advantages of these new technologies in the orthodontic field, where the problems associated with image quality and radiation protection are major especially in young patients; the latter goal is achievable by dramatically reducing radiation dose and by avoiding repeating the exam. In our study, we compared lateral teleradiographs of the skull for cephalometric analysis obtained using conventional and digital diagnostic methods. The preliminary results demonstrated that the two imaging techniques did not differ relative to bone structure representation, even though the digital system provided better visualization of soft tissue structures. Computed radiography also allowed a marked reduction in the number of repeats and reduced radiation dose. The current disadvantages of this imaging method are the high initial cost of the equipment, reduced work rate, and the need of frequent technical assistance.

  3. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states.

  4. U.S. national response assets for radiological incidents.

    PubMed

    Remick, Alan L; Crapo, John L; Woodruff, Charles R

    2005-11-01

    The federal government has had the ability to respond to incidents of national significance for decades. Since 11 September 2001, there have been enhancements to existing federal assets and the creation of new federal assets. This presentation will provide an overview of the more significant federal assets. Pivotal to a response of national significance is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center, which organizes and coordinates federal agency monitoring activities during an emergency. DOE manages the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center during the emergency phase, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) manages the response during the recovery phase once the emergency is terminated. EPA monitoring teams provide support during both the emergency and recovery phases of an emergency. Other DOE teams are available to respond to major nuclear power plant events, transportation accidents, or terrorism events involving the use of radiological materials, including the Radiological Assistance Program, the Aerial Measuring System, the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center, and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site. For incidents involving a nuclear weapon, an improvised nuclear device, or a radiological dispersal device, DOE assets such as the Nuclear Emergency Support Team and the Accident Response Group could provide capabilities for weapon or device search, recovery, and removal. The Radiological Triage System harnesses the weapons scientists and engineers at the DOE national laboratories to provide gamma spectroscopy interpretation for agencies responding to an incident. In recent years, National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction-Civil Support Teams have been created to support state and local response to terrorism events. The Civil Support Teams normally come under direct control of the state and can respond without requiring authorization from the U.S. Department of

  5. Instructional Vignettes in Publication and Journalism Ethics in Radiology Research: Assessment via a Survey of Radiology Trainees.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Ginocchio, Luke A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the potential usefulness of written instructional vignettes relating to publication and journalism ethics in radiology via a survey of radiology trainees. A literature review was conducted to guide the development of vignettes, each describing a scenario relating to an ethical issue in research and publication, with subsequent commentary on the underlying ethical issue and potential approaches to its handling. Radiology trainees at a single institution were surveyed regarding the vignettes' perceived usefulness. A total of 21 vignettes were prepared, addressing institutional review board and human subjects protection, authorship issues, usage of previous work, manuscript review, and other miscellaneous topics. Of the solicited trainees, 24.7% (16/65) completed the survey. On average among the vignettes, 94.0% of the participants found the vignette helpful; 19.9 received prior formal instruction on the issue during medical training; 40.0% received prior informal guidance from a research mentor; and 42.0% indicated that the issue had arisen in their own or a peer's prior research experience. The most common previously experienced specific issue was authorship order (93.8%). Free-text responses were largely favorable regarding the value of the vignettes, although also indicated numerous challenges in properly handling the ethical issues: impact of hierarchy, pressure to publish, internal politics, reluctance to conduct sensitive conversations with colleagues, and variability in journal and professional society policies. Radiology trainees overall found the vignettes helpful, addressing commonly encountered topics for which formal and informal guidance were otherwise lacking. The vignettes are publicly available through the Association of University Radiologists (AUR) website and may foster greater insights by investigators into ethical aspects of the publication and journalism process, thus contributing to higher quality

  6. Integrating IT into the radiology environment.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Rather than perpetuating the struggle, "who controls the PACS, Radiology or Information Technology (IT)," Community Hospital of the Monterey Peninsula (CHOMP) took the approach of incorporating IT support within the Radiology Department. CHOMP faced the challenge of staffing Radiology computer systems and networks by using a two-pronged approach; promoting and training clinical staff in IT functions and transferring an experienced IT person into the Radiology Department. Roles and responsibilities are divided. CHOMP's IT Department supports the Radiology Department's desktop devices, PCs, printers, and standard peripherals; while the department's DICOM print and archive network, specialized hardware (e.g., Merge DICOM interface computers), and applications are supported by the Radiology Department. The IT Department provides operating system support for multi-user VMS, Unix, and NT-based systems, e.g. Sun Solaris for the DICOM archive, and Windows NT for Mitra PACS Broker, the HL7/DICOM interface engine. IT also supports network communications, i.e., network electronics (routers, switches, etc.), TCP/IP communications, and network traffic analysis; and OS operations support for major Radiology systems, e.g. back-ups and off-site tape storage. Radiology staff provides applications support and troubleshooting, including analyst functions for RIS; and are the first point of contact with the Radiology systems vendors, e.g., GE Medical, or Siemens. The Radiology Department's senior IT person, the Clinical Technology Coordinator, transferred from CHOMP's IT Department after 7 years in that department. She performs analysis and design associated with Radiology's computer systems, coordinates development of the department's strategic plan, evaluates vendor proposals, and assists the department with product and application selection. Her IT experience and growing knowledge of Radiology's clinical tasks enhances communications between the Radiology and IT departments. Formal

  7. The ALARA principle in the context of a radiological or nuclear emergency.

    PubMed

    Musolino, Stephen V; DeFranco, Joseph; Schlueck, Richard

    2008-02-01

    Traditionally, the concept of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) has been applied to the workplace and to protect the public. The goals are to minimize small incremental exposures on a daily basis or per specific task, and on a yearly basis, thereby to keep the total annual dose equivalent as far below regulatory limits as practical. In an extreme emergency caused by radiological or nuclear terrorism, or a large scale radiological accident, it is proposed that the same principles can be applied to protect First Responders against potentially large exposures.

  8. NV/YMP radiological control manual, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gile, A.L.

    1996-11-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the adjacent Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) are located in Nye County, Nevada. The NTS has been the primary location for testing nuclear explosives in the continental US since 1951. Current activities include operating low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal facilities for US defense-generated waste, assembly/disassembly of special experiments, surface cleanup and site characterization of contaminated land areas, and non-nuclear test operations such as controlled spills of hazardous materials at the hazardous Materials (HAZMAT) Spill Center (HSC). Currently, the major potential for occupational radiation exposure is associated with the burial of low-level nuclear waste and the handling of radioactive sources. Planned future remediation of contaminated land areas may also result in radiological exposures. The NV/YMP Radiological Control Manual, Revision 2, represents DOE-accepted guidelines and best practices for implementing Nevada Test Site and Yucca Mountain Project Radiation Protection Programs in accordance with the requirements of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection. These programs provide protection for approximately 3,000 employees and visitors annually and include coverage for the on-site activities for both personnel and the environment. The personnel protection effort includes a DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program accredited dosimetry and personnel bioassay programs including in-vivo counting, routine workplace air sampling, personnel monitoring, and programmatic and job-specific As Low as Reasonably Achievable considerations.

  9. Activation and implementation of a Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, J.F. III

    1989-01-01

    The Nevada Operations Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE/NV) has been assigned the primary responsibility for responding to a major radiological emergency. The initial response to any radiological emergency, however, will probably be conducted under the DOE regional radiological assistance plan (RAP). If the dimensions of the crisis demand federal assistance, the following sequence of events may be anticipated: (1) DOE regional RAP response, (2) activation of the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assistance Center (FRMAC) requested, (3) aerial measuring systems and DOE/NV advance party respond, (4) FRMAC activated, (5) FRMAC responds to state(s) and cognizant federal agency (CFA), and (6) management of FRMAC transferred to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The paper discusses activation channels, authorization, notification, deployment, and interfaces.

  10. Realistic radiological dispersal device hazard boundaries and ramifications for early consequence management decisions.

    PubMed

    Harper, Frederick T; Musolino, Stephen V; Wente, William B

    2007-07-01

    If dispersal occurs from an explosive radiological dispersal device, first responders need to know what actions they need to take to protect life and property. Many of the decisions required to minimize exposure will be made during the first hour. To help the first responder decide what countermeasures to employ, Sandia National Laboratories has established realistic hazard boundaries for acute and sub-acute effects relevant to radiological dispersal devices. These boundaries were derived from dispersal calculations based on the aerosolization behavior of devices tested in the Sandia Aerosolization Program. For 20 years, the Sandia Aerosolization Program has performed explosive and non-explosive aerosolization tests relevant to radiological dispersal devices. This paper discusses (1) the method and technical bases used to establish hazard boundaries and the appropriate actions that apply within those areas and (2) whether large-scale evacuations or sheltering in place are appropriate responses to a radiological dispersal device event.

  11. [European curriculum for further education in radiology].

    PubMed

    Ertl-Wagner, B

    2014-11-01

    The European training curriculum for radiology of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) aims to harmonize training in radiology in Europe. Levels I and II constitute the centerpiece of the curriculum. The ESR recommends a 5-year training period in radiology with 3 years of level I and 2 years of level II training. The undergraduate (U) level curriculum is conceived as a basis for teaching radiology in medical schools and consists of a modality-oriented U1 level and an organ-based U2 level. Level III curricula provide contents for subspecialty and fellowship training after board certification in radiology. The curricular contents of all parts of the European Training Curriculum are divided into the sections knowledge, skills as well as competences and attitudes. The European training curriculum is meant to be a recommendation and a basis for the development of national curricula, but is not meant to replace existing national regulations.

  12. Standing up the National Ignition Facility radiation protection program.

    PubMed

    Kohut, Thomas R; Thacker, Rick L; Beale, Richard M; Dillon, Jon T

    2013-06-01

    Operation of the NIF requires a large and varied number of routine and infrequent activities involving contaminated and radioactive systems, both in servicing online equipment and offline refurbishment of components. Routine radiological operations include up to several dozen entries into contaminated systems per day, multiple laboratories refurbishing radiologically impacted parts, handling of tens of curies of tritium, and (eventually) tens of workers spending most of their day working in radiation areas and handling moderately activated parts. Prior to the introduction of radioactive materials and neutron producing experiments (capable of causing activation), very few of the operating staff had any radiological qualifications or experience. To support the full NIF operating program, over 600 radiological workers needed to be trained, and a functional and large-scale radiological protection program needed to be put in place. It quickly became evident that there was a need to supplement the LLNL site radiological protection staff with additional radiological controls technicians and a radiological protection staff within NIF operations to manage day-to-day activities. This paper discusses the approach taken to stand up the radiological protection program and some lessons learned.

  13. Computer network security for the radiology enterprise.

    PubMed

    Eng, J

    2001-08-01

    As computer networks become an integral part of the radiology practice, it is appropriate to raise concerns regarding their security. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of computer network security risks and preventive strategies as they pertain to the radiology enterprise. A number of technologies are available that provide strong deterrence against attacks on networks and networked computer systems in the radiology enterprise. While effective, these technologies must be supplemented with vigilant user and system management.

  14. [Interventional radiology: current problems and new directions].

    PubMed

    Santos Martín, E; Crespo Vallejo, E

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, vascular and interventional radiology has become one of the fastest growing diagnostic and therapeutic specialties. This growth has been based on a fundamental concept: performing minimally invasive procedures under imaging guidance. This attractive combination has led to the interest of professionals from other clinical specialties outside radiology in performing this type of intervention. The future of vascular and interventional radiology, although uncertain, must be linked to clinical practice and multidisciplinary teamwork.

  15. Mobile technology in radiology resident education.

    PubMed

    Korbage, Aiham C; Bedi, Harprit S

    2012-06-01

    The authors hypothesized that ownership of a mobile electronic device would result in more time spent learning radiology. Current trends in radiology residents' studying habits, their use of electronic and printed radiology learning resources, and how much of the funds allotted to them are being used toward printed vs electronic education tools were assessed in this study. A survey study was conducted among radiology residents across the United States from June 13 to July 5, 2011. Program directors listed in the Association of Program Directors in Radiology e-mail list server received an e-mail asking for residents to participate in an online survey. The questionnaire consisted of 12 questions and assessed the type of institution, the levels of training of the respondents, and book funds allocated to residents. It also assessed the residents' study habits, access to portable devices, and use of printed and electronic radiology resources. Radiology residents are adopters of new technologies, with 74% owning smart phones and 37% owning tablet devices. Respondents spend nearly an equal amount of time learning radiology from printed textbooks as they do from electronic resources. Eighty-one percent of respondents believe that they would spend more time learning radiology if provided with tablet devices. There is considerable use of online and electronic resources and mobile devices among the current generation of radiology residents. Benefits, such as more study time, may be obtained by radiology programs that incorporate tablet devices into the education of their residents. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Retracted Publications Within Radiology Journals.

    PubMed

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize trends related to retracted publications within radiology journals. PubMed was queried to identify all articles with the publication type "retracted publication" or "notification of retraction." Articles published within radiology journals were identified using Journal Citation Reports' journal categories. Available versions of original articles and publication notices were accessed from journal websites. Citations to retracted publications were identified using Web of Science. Overall trends were assessed. Forty-eight retracted original research articles were identified within radiology journals since 1983, which included 1.1% of all PubMed "retracted publication" entries. Distinct PubMed entries were available for the retracted publication and retraction notification in 39 of 48 articles. The original PDF was available for 37 articles, although the articles were not watermarked as retracted in 23 cases. In six cases with a watermarked PDF, further searches identified nonwatermarked versions. Original HTML versions were available for 13 articles but 11 were not watermarked. The mean (± SD) delay between publication and retraction was 2.7 ± 2.8 years (range, 0-16 years). The mean number of citations to retracted articles was 10.9 ± 17.1 (range, 0-94 citations). Reasons for retraction included problematic or incorrect methods or results (although it typically was unclear whether these represented honest errors or misconduct) in 33.3% of cases, complete or partial duplicate publication in 33.3% of cases, plagiarism in 14.6% of cases, a permission issue in 8.3% of cases, the publisher's error in 6.3% of cases, and no identified reason in 6.3% of cases. One or no retractions occurred annually from 1986 to 2001, although two or more retractions occurred annually in nine of the 12 years from 2002 through 2013. Retraction represents an uncommon, yet potentially increasing, issue within radiology journals that publishers

  17. Managerial accounting applications in radiology.

    PubMed

    Lexa, Frank James; Mehta, Tushar; Seidmann, Abraham

    2005-03-01

    We review the core issues in managerial accounting for radiologists. We introduce the topic and then explore its application to diagnostic imaging. We define key terms such as fixed cost, variable cost, marginal cost, and marginal revenue and discuss their role in understanding the operational and financial implications for a radiology facility by using a cost-volume-profit model. Our work places particular emphasis on the role of managerial accounting in understanding service costs, as well as how it assists executive decision making.

  18. Online social networking for radiology.

    PubMed

    Auffermann, William F; Chetlen, Alison L; Colucci, Andrew T; DeQuesada, Ivan M; Grajo, Joseph R; Heller, Matthew T; Nowitzki, Kristina M; Sherry, Steven J; Tillack, Allison A

    2015-01-01

    Online social networking services have changed the way we interact as a society and offer many opportunities to improve the way we practice radiology and medicine in general. This article begins with an introduction to social networking. Next, the latest advances in online social networking are reviewed, and areas where radiologists and clinicians may benefit from these new tools are discussed. This article concludes with several steps that the interested reader can take to become more involved in online social networking. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear and radiological Security: Introduction.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, James Christopher

    2016-02-24

    Nuclear security includes the prevention and detection of, and response to, theft, sabotage, unauthorized access, illegal transfer, or other malicious acts involving nuclear or other radioactive substances or their associated facilities. The presentation begins by discussing the concept and its importance, then moves on to consider threats--insider threat, sabotage, diversion of materials--with considerable emphasis on the former. The intrusion at Pelindaba, South Africa, is described as a case study. The distinction between nuclear security and security of radiological and portable sources is clarified, and the international legal framework is touched upon. The paper concludes by discussing the responsibilities of the various entities involved in nuclear security.

  20. Techniques and indications in radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, S.

    1987-01-01

    The stated purpose of this book is to review modern radiologic diagnostic techniques as applied to the study of the kidney and urinary tract, and their pertinent indications. This goal is partially accomplished in the first two segments of the book, which consist of about 100 pages. These include a synoptic description of various techniques - including classic uroradiologic studies such as excretory urography and retrograde pyelography, plus sonography, computed tomography, angiography, and nuclear medicine. The diagnostic signs and the differential diagnoses are fairly well described, aided by a profusion of tables and diagrams. The overall quality of the reproduction of the illustrations is good.

  1. Ebola virus disease: radiology preparedness.

    PubMed

    Bluemke, David A; Meltzer, Carolyn C

    2015-02-01

    At present, there is a major emphasis on Ebola virus disease (EVD) preparedness training at medical facilities throughout the United States. Failure to have proper EVD procedures in place was cited as a major reason for infection of medical personnel in the United States. Medical imaging does not provide diagnosis of EVD, but patient assessment in the emergency department and treatment isolation care unit is likely to require imaging services. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of relevant aspects of EVD disease and preparedness relevant to the radiologic community.

  2. Dynamic radiology of the abdomen

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The third edition of this book remains the only text covering radiology of the abdomen as it relates to the progression of disease within organ and from one organ to another. New to this edition are discussions of: recent advances in the understanding of the normal and variant relationship of the lobar anatomy of the liver; the structural relationship of the porta hepatis and its contents; further refinements in the precise evaluation of the extraperitoneal fascia and spaces; new developments in the understanding of the intraperitoneal spread of infection and malignancy.

  3. Essential radiology for head injury

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, D.W.H.; Kreel, L.

    1988-01-01

    The book covers the guidelines established by the Royal College of Radiologists for the radiographic evaluation of head injuries. It presents a chapter reviewing the normal radiologic anatomy of the skull in six different projections. The advantages and limitations of each projection are addressed. The third chapter, contains 43 radiographs dedicated to the calcified pineal gland and other intracranial calcifications. The book reports on specific types of fractures: linear fractures of the vault, depressed fractures of the vault, fractures in children, fractures of the base of the skull, and fractures of the facial bones.

  4. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Consequence Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear CMAD provides scientific support and technical expertise for decontamination of buildings, building contents, public infrastructure, agriculture, and associated environmental media.

  5. Implementation of a Radiological Safety Coach program

    SciTech Connect

    Konzen, K.K.; Langsted, J.M.

    1998-02-01

    The Safe Sites of Colorado Radiological Safety program has implemented a Safety Coach position, responsible for mentoring workers and line management by providing effective on-the-job radiological skills training and explanation of the rational for radiological safety requirements. This position is significantly different from a traditional classroom instructor or a facility health physicist, and provides workers with a level of radiological safety guidance not routinely provided by typical training programs. Implementation of this position presents a challenge in providing effective instruction, requiring rapport with the radiological worker not typically developed in the routine radiological training environment. The value of this unique training is discussed in perspective with cost-savings through better radiological control. Measures of success were developed to quantify program performance and providing a realistic picture of the benefits of providing one-on-one or small group training. This paper provides a description of the unique features of the program, measures of success for the program, a formula for implementing this program at other facilities, and a strong argument for the success (or failure) of the program in a time of increased radiological safety emphasis and reduced radiological safety budgets.

  6. Radiological Assistance Program Flight Planning Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Messick, C.; Pham, M.; Ridgeway, J.; Smith, R.

    2011-12-19

    The Radiological Assitance Program (RAP) is the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) first responder to radiological emergencies. RAP's mission is to identify and minimize radiological hazards, as well as provide radiological emergency response and technical advice to decision makers. One tool commonly used is aerial radiation detection equipment. During a response getting this equipment in the right place quickly is critical. The RAP Flight Planning Tool (a ArcGIS 10 Desktop addin) helps minimize this response time and provides specific customizable flight path information to the flight staff including maps, coordinates, and azimuths.

  7. Forensic aspects of maxillofacial radiology.

    PubMed

    Wood, R E

    2006-05-15

    Radiology has been used extensively in conventional dental identification, anatomically based identification and identification using maxillofacial skeletal landmarks such as the frontal sinus. Examples of these are well documented in the literature. The purpose of this paper was to revisit the methods where radiographic methods may be used to determine identity using the teeth, the root structures and the frontal sinuses. Additionally suggestions are offered for management of radiography in mass disasters and cases where age determination is required. Computer assisted tomography can be used in the assessment of the degree of fit of a weapon to a wound in cases of blunt force skull injury and plane films can assist in depicting the pattern of post mortem skull fractures. Micro-computed tomography has been used in matching weapons to wounds in sharp-force injury cases. The radiologist's role in cases of civil litigation and fraud is discussed and case examples are given. There are gaps in the science where radiological methods are used. The author offers several suggestions for possible research projects to close some of these gaps.

  8. Pediatric Interventional Radiology: Vascular Interventions.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR) comprises a range of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are performed using image guidance. PIR has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions. Over the years, technology has undergone dramatic and continuous evolution, making this speciality grow. In this review, the authors will discuss various vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients. It is challenging for the interventional radiologist to accomplish a successful interventional procedure. There are many vascular interventional radiology procedures which are being performed and have changed the way the diseases are managed. Some of the procedures are life saving and have become the treatment of choice in those patients. The future is indeed bright for the practice and practitioners of pediatric vascular and non-vascular interventions. As more and more of the procedures that are currently being performed in adults get gradually adapted for use in the pediatric population, it may be possible to perform safe and successful interventions in many of the pediatric vascular lesions that are otherwise being referred for surgery.

  9. Radiation exposure in interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, N. G. V.; Braz, D.; Vallim, M. A.; Filho, L. G. P.; Azevedo, F. S.; Barroso, R. C.; Lopes, R. T.

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate dose values in patients and staff involved in some interventional radiology procedures. Doses have been measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters for single procedures (such as renal and cerebral arteriography, transjungular intrahepatic portasystemic shunt (TIPS) and chemoembolization). The magnitude of doses through the hands of interventional radiologists has been studied. Dose levels were evaluated in three points for patients (eye, thyroid and gonads). The dose-area product (DAP) was also investigated using a Diamentor (PTW-M2). The dose in extremities was estimated for a professional who generally performed one TIPS, two chemoembolizations, two cerebral arteriographies and two renal arteriographies in a week. The estimated annual radiation dose was converted to effective dose as suggested by the 453-MS/Brazil norm The annual dose values were 137.25 mSv for doctors, 40.27 mSv for nurses and 51.95 mSv for auxiliary doctors, and all these annual dose values are below the limit established. The maximum values of the dose obtained for patients were 6.91, 10.92 and 15.34 mGy close to eye, thyroid and gonads, respectively. The DAP values were evaluated for patients in the same interventional radiology procedures. The dose and DAP values obtained are in agreement with values encountered in the literature.

  10. Fetal risk in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cheri P; Goodman, Lawrence H

    2012-02-01

    It is not uncommon to encounter situations in which radiologic examinations are necessary for accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of an expectant mother. The potential deleterious health consequences to the developing embryo and fetus from in utero irradiation include fetal death, congenital malformations, growth retardation, and carcinogenic and mutagenic effects. The likelihood of each effect is greatly dependent on the radiation dose and the gestational age of the conceptus at the time of exposure. In general, the average fetal doses from diagnostic imaging are <50 mGy (5 rad) and have not been associated with any significant adverse fetal effects. However, each case should be evaluated on an individual basis, and the risks should be explained to the patient before the examination. In addition, every effort should be made to reduce the fetal dose to as low as reasonably achievable. The biological effects of in utero radiation exposure, estimated fetal doses from various radiologic examinations, and general guidelines regarding diagnostic imaging during pregnancy will be discussed in this article. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Accelerator driven sytems from the radiological safety point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, P. K.; Nandy, Maitreyee

    2007-02-01

    In the proposed accelerator driven systems (ADS) the possible use of several milliamperes of protons of about 1 GeV incident on high mass targets like the molten lead--bismuth eutectic is anticipated to pose radiological problems that have so far not been encountered by the radiation protection community. Spallation reaction products like high energy gammas, neutrons, muons, pions and several radiotoxic nuclides including Po-210 complicate the situation. In the present paper, we discuss radiation safety measures like bulk shielding, containment of radiation leakage through ducts and penetration and induced activity in the structure to protect radiation workers as well as estimation of sky-shine, soil and ground water activation, release of toxic gases to the environment to protect public as per the stipulations of the regulatory authorities. We recommend the application of the probabilistic safety analysis technique by assessing the probability and criticality of different hazard-initiating events using HAZOP and FMECA.

  12. Integrative teaching in radiology - a survey.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, S; Weidemann, J; Fischer, V; Wacker, F K

    2015-04-01

    To survey integrative teaching in radiology at German universities. A questionnaire about radiological education was sent electronically to all 37 chairpersons of university radiology departments in Germany. The questions included the course type, teaching methods, concept, perception, and advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching. Statistical analysis was performed with nonparametric statistics and chi-square test. The survey was considered representative with a return rate of 68 %. Integrative teaching is established at 4/5 of all departments. Integrative teaching is well accepted with an acceptance rate that is significantly higher in so-called "Modellstudiengängen" [model courses of study] (100 %) compared to conventional courses of study (72 %). The advantages of integrative teaching include linking of content (92 %) and preparation for interdisciplinary work (76 %). The disadvantages include high effort (75 %) and time (67 %) for organization. Furthermore, there is a risk that basic radiological facts and knowledge cannot be conveyed and that the visibility of radiology as an independent discipline is lost. Conventional radiological teaching has a similarly high acceptance (84 %) compared to integrative courses (76 %). Integrative teaching has a high acceptance among chairpersons in radiology in Germany despite the greater effort. A good interdisciplinary collaboration is essential for integrative teaching and at the same time this can be conveyed to the students. However, the visibility of radiology as a discipline and the possibility to cover basic radiological content must be ensured. Therefore, both conventional courses and integrative teaching seems reasonable, especially in cross-disciplinary subjects such as radiology. Both integrative teaching and conventional radiological teaching are highly accepted. The advantages include the linking of multidisciplinary content and the preparation for interdisciplinary cooperation

  13. Impact: development of a radiological mummy database.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew John; Wade, Andrew David

    2015-06-01

    The Internet Mummy Picture Archiving and Communication Technology (IMPACT) radiological and context database, is a large-scale, multi-institutional, collaborative research project devoted to the digital preservation and scientific study of mummified remains, and the mummification traditions that produced them, using non-destructive medical imaging technologies. Owing to the importance of non-destructive analyses to the study of mummified human remains, the IMPACT database, website, and wiki provide a basis for anthropological and palaeopathological investigations, grounded in the most current technological imaging and communication standards, accessible through any internet connection, and protected against rapidly changing media standards. Composed of paired online radiographic and contextual databases, the IMPACT project is intended to provide researchers with large-scale primary data samples for anthropological and palaeopathological investigations. IMPACT addresses the limitations of the case-study approach to mummified human remains and contributes to the development of standards of practice in imaging of mummified remains. Furthermore, IMPACT allows researchers a greater appreciation of, and engagement with, patterns of health and disease in ancient times as well as the variability present in the mummification traditions of ancient Egypt and other cultures that sought to preserve their dead for eternity.

  14. Radiological protection and medical dosimetry for the Skylab crewmen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. V.; Hoffman, R. A.; English, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Dosimetry results for Skylab crewmembers show that the Skylab 4 crewmen received the highest dose equivalents but remained well within the established limits for Skylab missions below the threshold of significant clinical effects. These dose equivalents apply specificially to long term effects such as general life shortening, increased neoplasm incidence, and cataract production. A Skylab crewman could fly a mission comparable to one 84-day Skylab 4 mission per year for 50 years before exceeding these career limits.

  15. ROBOTIC CRAWLER PROVIDES RADIOLOGICAL PROTECTION IN HAZARDOUS ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    HAM, J.E.

    2002-01-31

    A robotic crawler was deployed into the process cells at the 224-T Building to perform cell characterization. The most significant hazard was the potential for criticality upon introduction of a moderating material. Due to the unknown fissile inventory in the cells and the potential moderation affects of a person, manned entry was considered too high of a risk, and a robotic crawler was determined to be the best option for the initial characterization. The robotic crawler provided maneuverability, allowing access to areas in the cells where debris was found. It provided visual inspection in areas with little light, using a low lux pan and tilt camera system. Also, it provided fissile inventory measurements using a non-destructive assay (NDA) detector. The NDA detector supplied real-time data to maintain criticality control. Other technologies used during the cell characterization were water-cooled suits and a thin water resistant synthetic anti-contamination coverall, used for heat stress reduction. Also, an aluminum framed shelter provided a weather barrier, allowing work to continue under conditions which would have stopped work without it.

  16. Radiological and microwave Protection at NRL, January - December 1983

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-27

    its personnel dosimetry program to the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP). The administration of NVLAP is carried out by the...National Bureau of Standards. The laboratory accreditation program for personnel dosimetry pro- cessors was established in response to a request from

  17. The Principle of Digital Subtraction Angiography and Radiological Protection

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, K.; Ito, J.; Sakai, K.; Yoshimura, S.

    2000-01-01

    Summary Recent improvements in x-ray technology have greatly contributed to the advancement of diagnostic imaging. Fluoroscopically guided neurointerventional procedures with digital subtraction angiography (DSΛ) are being performed with increasing frequency as the treatment of choice for a variety of neurovascular diseases. Radiation-induced skin injuries can occur after extended fluoroscopic exposure times, and the injuries have recently been reported. In this article, measured radiation doses at the surface of Rando Phantom with Skin Dose Monitor, and estimated and measured entrance skin doses in patients underwent neurointerventional procedures are reported as well as means of reducing radiation doses absorbed by patients and personnel to avoid occurrence of radiation-induced injuries. PMID:20667218

  18. 10 CFR 72.126 - Criteria for radiological protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....126 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C... radionuclides in effluents during normal operations and under accident conditions must be provided for these...

  19. 10 CFR 72.126 - Criteria for radiological protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....126 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C... radionuclides in effluents during normal operations and under accident conditions must be provided for these...

  20. Radiological protection and medical dosimetry for the Skylab crewmen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. V.; Hoffman, R. A.; English, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Dosimetry results for Skylab crewmembers show that the Skylab 4 crewmen received the highest dose equivalents but remained well within the established limits for Skylab missions below the threshold of significant clinical effects. These dose equivalents apply specificially to long term effects such as general life shortening, increased neoplasm incidence, and cataract production. A Skylab crewman could fly a mission comparable to one 84-day Skylab 4 mission per year for 50 years before exceeding these career limits.

  1. 10 CFR 72.126 - Criteria for radiological protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radionuclides in effluents during normal operations and under accident conditions must be provided for these... accident conditions. Analyses must be made to show that releases to the general environment during normal... design basis accidents must be made to show that releases to the general environment will be within the...

  2. Radiological characterization plan for the Tritium Research Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories/California

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, T.

    1995-05-01

    In this Radiological Characterization Plan (RCP), the Health Protection Department, 8641 of Sandia National Laboratories/California provides specific information for an assessment of the radiological conditions of Building 968, the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL), and the TRL Complex area. This RCP provides historical background information on each laboratory within the TRL Complex as related to both radiological conditions and hazardous materials. Since this plan chronicles past and present activities and outlines future actions, a final complex status report will follow the completion of this document. The Health Protection Department, 8641 anticipates that the TRL Complex will ultimately undergo a termination survey; however, this RCP does not include environmental surveys such as soil, vegetation, or ground water. The RCP does provide the basis for a final termination survey plan, when appropriate.

  3. Effect of changes in technical parameters in radiological safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendaño, Ge; Fernandez, C.

    2007-11-01

    This work analyzes the generation of secondary radiation that affects the professionals of health during interventional X ray procedures in first level hospitals. The research objectives were, on the one hand, to quantify the amount of radiation and to compare it with norms in force with respect to magnitudes, and on the other hand to evaluate the elements of protection used. The measurements will help to improve the radiological safety, to assess the eventuality of risks and, in the last term, to the possibility of norms modification for the improvement of the protection, especially that of the personnel who daily make a certain amount of interventional procedures guided by radiation, like angiographic cine applications, using continuous or pulsed fluoroscopy. The motivation of the study is in the suspicion that present interventionism is made with a false sensation of safety, based only in the use of lead apron and protection elements incorporated in the equipment by the manufacturer, nevertheless not always the health personnel are conscious that an excessive proximity with the tube and the patient body becomes a risky source of secondary and scattered radiation. The obtained results allow us to demonstrate the existence of conditions of risk, even possible iatrogenic events, in particular when the procedures imply the use of certain techniques of radiographic exploration, thus reaching the conclusion that the radiographic methodology must be changed in order to rationalize so much?. In order to achieve this we propose modifications to the present norms and legislation referred to the radiological safety in Chile.

  4. Development of a statewide hospital plan for radiologic emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Dainiak, Nicholas . E-mail: pndain@bpthosp.org; Delli Carpini, Domenico; Bohan, Michael; Werdmann, Michael; Wilds, Edward; Barlow, Agnus; Beck, Charles; Cheng, David; Daly, Nancy; Glazer, Peter; Mas, Peter; Nath, Ravinder; Piontek, Gregory; Price, Kenneth; Albanese, Joseph; Roberts, Kenneth; Salner, Andrew L.; Rockwell, Sara

    2006-05-01

    Although general guidelines have been developed for triage of victims in the field and for hospitals to plan for a radiologic event, specific information for clinicians and administrators is not available for guidance in efficient management of radiation victims during their early encounter in the hospital. A consensus document was developed by staff members of four Connecticut hospitals, two institutions of higher learning, and the State of Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection and Office of Emergency Preparedness, with assistance of the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. The objective was to write a practical manual for clinicians (including radiation oncologists, emergency room physicians, and nursing staff), hospital administrators, radiation safety officers, and other individuals knowledgeable in radiation monitoring that would be useful for evaluation and management of radiation injury. The rationale for and process by which the radiation response plan was developed and implemented in the State of Connecticut are reviewed. Hospital admission pathways are described, based on classification of victims as exposed, contaminated, and/or physically injured. This manual will be of value to those involved in planning the health care response to a radiologic event.

  5. Radiation Induced DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Kuefner, M A; Brand, M; Engert, C; Schwab, S A; Uder, M

    2015-10-01

    Shortly after the discovery of X-rays, their damaging effect on biological tissues was observed. The determination of radiation exposure in diagnostic and interventional radiology is usually based on physical measurements or mathematical algorithms with standardized dose simulations. γ-H2AX immunofluorescence microscopy is a reliable and sensitive method for the quantification of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in blood lymphocytes. The detectable amount of these DNA damages correlates well with the dose received. However, the biological radiation damage depends not only on dose but also on other individual factors like radiation sensitivity and DNA repair capacity. Iodinated contrast agents can enhance the x-ray induced DNA damage level. After their induction DSB are quickly repaired. A protective effect of antioxidants has been postulated in experimental studies. This review explains the prinicple of the γ-H2AX technique and provides an overview on studies evaluating DSB in radiologic examinations. Radiologic examinations including CT and angiography induce DNA double-strand breaks. Even after mammography a slight but significant increase is detectable in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The number of radiation induced double-strand breaks correlates well with the radiation dose. Individual factors including radiation sensitivity, DNA repair capacity and the application of iodinated contrast media has an influence on the DNA damage level. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. 2015 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries: The Evolving Global Radiology Landscape.

    PubMed

    Kesselman, Andrew; Soroosh, Garshasb; Mollura, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    Radiology in low- and middle-income (developing) countries continues to make progress. Research and international outreach projects presented at the 2015 annual RAD-AID conference emphasize important global themes, including (1) recent slowing of emerging market growth that threatens to constrain the advance of radiology, (2) increasing global noncommunicable diseases (such as cancer and cardiovascular disease) needing radiology for detection and management, (3) strategic prioritization for pediatric radiology in global public health initiatives, (4) continuous expansion of global health curricula at radiology residencies and the RAD-AID Chapter Network's participating institutions, and (5) technologic innovation for recently accelerated implementation of PACS in low-resource countries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. INL@Work Radiological Search & Response Training

    SciTech Connect

    Turnage, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Dealing with radiological hazards is just part of the job for many INL scientists and engineers. Dodging bullets isn't. But some Department of Defense personnel may have to do both. INL employee Jennifer Turnage helps train soldiers in the art of detecting radiological and nuclear material. For more information about INL's research projects, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  8. New trends in radiology workstation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moise, Adrian; Atkins, M. Stella

    2002-05-01

    In the radiology workstation design, the race for adding more features is now morphing into an iterative user centric design with the focus on ergonomics and usability. The extent of the list of features for the radiology workstation used to be one of the most significant factors for a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) vendor's ability to sell the radiology workstation. Not anymore is now very much the same between the major players in the PACS market. How these features work together distinguishes different radiology workstations. Integration (with the PACS/Radiology Information System (RIS) systems, with the 3D tool, Reporting Tool etc.), usability (user specific preferences, advanced display protocols, smart activation of tools etc.) and efficiency (what is the output a radiologist can generate with the workstation) are now core factors for selecting a workstation. This paper discusses these new trends in radiology workstation design. We demonstrate the importance of the interaction between the PACS vendor (software engineers) and the customer (radiologists) during the radiology workstation design. We focus on iterative aspects of the workstation development, such as the presentation of early prototypes to as many representative users as possible during the software development cycle and present the results of a survey of 8 radiologists on designing a radiology workstation.

  9. Radiological Defense. Planning and Operations Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    This guide is a reprint of published and draft materials from the Federal Civil Defense Guide. This guide is intended to assist the student in planning, developing, implementing and operating a local, county, or state radiological defense (RADEF) system. The state and local radiological defense program objectives are to create an effective and…

  10. INL@Work Radiological Search & Response Training

    ScienceCinema

    Turnage, Jennifer

    2016-07-12

    Dealing with radiological hazards is just part of the job for many INL scientists and engineers. Dodging bullets isn't. But some Department of Defense personnel may have to do both. INL employee Jennifer Turnage helps train soldiers in the art of detecting radiological and nuclear material. For more information about INL's research projects, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  11. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  12. Radiology Aide. Instructor Key [and] Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwein, Jon; Dunham, John

    This manual can be used independently by students in secondary health occupations programs or by persons receiving on-the-job training in a radiology department. The manual includes an instructor's key that provides answers to the activity sheets and unit evaluations. The manual consists of the following five units: (1) orientation to radiology;…

  13. Radiology Aide. Instructor Key [and] Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwein, Jon; Dunham, John

    This manual can be used independently by students in secondary health occupations programs or by persons receiving on-the-job training in a radiology department. The manual includes an instructor's key that provides answers to the activity sheets and unit evaluations. The manual consists of the following five units: (1) orientation to radiology;…

  14. Curricular Guidelines for Dental Auxiliary Radiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    AADS curricular guidelines suggest objectives for these areas of dental auxiliary radiology: physical principles of X-radiation in dentistry, related radiobiological concepts, principles of radiologic health, radiographic technique, x-ray films and intensifying screens, factors contributing to film quality, darkroom, and normal variations in…

  15. CRRIS: a computerized radiological risk-investigation system

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. III; Miller, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for regulating radioactive airborne effluents in the US. A comprehensive, integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) is being developed to support EPA's radiation standards development. This modular system consists primarily of five computer codes and their supporting data bases for estimating environmental transport and radiation doses and risks. Health effects are estimated on the basis of a life-table methodology developed by EPA. CRRIS is designed to provide EPA with a reasonable and flexible way of assessing the risk to man associated with radionuclide releases to the atmosphere.

  16. 76 FR 49458 - TRICARE; Hospital Outpatient Radiology Discretionary Appeal Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... of the Secretary TRICARE; Hospital Outpatient Radiology Discretionary Appeal Adjustments AGENCY... hospitals of an opportunity for net adjusted payments for radiology services for which TRICARE payments were... radiology services specified in the regulation as being reimbursed under the allowable charge...

  17. Radiological characterization of Yankee Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, F.X.; Cumming, E.R.; Hollenbeck, P. )

    1993-01-01

    The Yankee nuclear power station located in Rowe, Massachusetts, permanently ceased power operations on February 26, 1992, after 31 yr of operation. Yankee has since initiated decommissioning planning activities. A significant component of these activities is the determination of the extent of radiological contamination of the Yankee site. This paper describes the site radiological characterization program that has been implemented for decommissioning the Yankee plant. Radiological scoping surveys were completed to support submittal of a decommissioning plan to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by October 1, 1993. These surveys were designed to provide sufficient detail to estimate the extent of contamination, volume of radiological waste, activity of radiological waste, and personnel dose estimates for removal activities. Surveys were conducted both inside and on the grounds outside of the Yankee plant buildings. Survey results were combined with analytical evaluations to characterize the Yankee site.

  18. Radiological Illustration of Spontaneous Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Kartik; Koticha, Raj; Dey, Amit K.; Anandpara, Karan; Agrawal, Rajat; Sarvothaman, Madhva P.; Thakkar, Hemangini

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The role of radiology is of utmost importance not only in diagnosing s-OHSS but also in ruling out other cystic ovarian diseases and to determine the underlying etiology and course of the disease. We presented a radiological algorithm for diagnosing the various causes of s-OHSS. Case Report A 26-year-old female, gravida one was referred to radiology department with history of lower abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting since 2 days which was gradual in onset and progression. The patient had no significant medical and surgical history. Conclusions This article illustrates and emphasizes that diagnosis of s-OHSS and its etiology can be completely evaluated radiologically. Biochemical markers will confirm the radiological diagnosis. PMID:25960820

  19. The Residency Review Committee for Radiology: its organization, function, and performance in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Sebring, R H; Jacobson, H G

    1984-04-01

    The accreditation process for training in radiology is managed by the Residency Review Committee for Radiology under a prescribed system. That system and the actions taken by the Committee in recent years are described. Most applications for new or continuing programs in 1975-1981 were approved. An analysis of the adverse actions of the Committee indicates the most common deficiencies were inadequate clinical experience in subspecialty areas, inadequate formal teaching, and understaffing of the clinical program. Certain trends in radiology are apparent. The numbers of programs in diagnostic and therapeutic radiology have not changed significantly over the past 5 years, whereas opportunities for training in nuclear radiology have increased greatly. The number of trainees in diagnostic radiology has increased 13% during this period; the number in radiation therapy remains unchanged. The number of women trainees in diagnostic radiology has increased from 15% to 22%, and the number of foreign graduate trainees has decreased from 19% to 11%.

  20. Vascular radiology in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kreel, Louis

    1970-01-01

    Vascular radiology of the liver has increased in scope and function in recent years due mainly to the application of new techniques. It is now possible to examine not only the inferior vena cava and the portal venous system, but also the hepatic veins and the coeliac axis and superior mesenteric artery. Hepatic vein occlusion, portal vein patency and collateral veins, as well as space-occupying lesions, can now be diagnosed with a fair degree of accuracy. These techniques have also helped in the understanding of the altered haemodynamics of portal hypertension and can be used for treatment by intra-arterial perfusion of chemotherapeutic substances. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:5460928

  1. The interventional radiology business plan.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, Michael V; Meek, Mary E; Kaufman, John A

    2012-09-01

    Strategic planning and business planning are processes commonly employed by organizations that exist in competitive environments. Although it is difficult to prove a causal relationship between formal strategic/business planning and positive organizational performance, there is broad agreement that formal strategic and business plans are components of successful organizations. The various elements of strategic plans and business plans are not common in the vernacular of practicing physicians. As health care becomes more competitive, familiarity with these tools may grow in importance. Herein we provide an overview of formal strategic and business planning, and offer a roadmap for an interventional radiology-specific plan that may be useful for organizations confronting competitive and financial threats.

  2. American diagnostic radiology residency and fellowship programmes.

    PubMed

    Rumack, Carol Masters

    2011-03-01

    American Diagnostic Radiology Residency and Fellowship programmes are Graduate Medical Education programmes in the United States (US) equivalent to the Postgraduate Medical Education programmes in Singapore. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited diagnostic radiology residency programmes require 5 years total with Post Graduate Year (PGY) 1 year internship in a clinical specialty, e.g. Internal Medicine following medical school. PGY Years 2 to 5 are the core years which must include Radiology Physics, Radiation Biology and rotations in 9 required subspecialty rotations: Abdominal, Breast, Cardiothoracic, Musculoskeletal, Neuroradiology, Nuclear and Paediatric Radiology, Obstetric & Vascular Ultrasound and Vascular Interventional Radiology. A core curriculum of lectures must be organised by the required 9 core subspecialty faculty. All residents (PGY 2 to 4) take a yearly American College of Radiology Diagnostic In-Training Examination based on national benchmarks of medical knowledge in each subspecialty. Because the American Board of Radiology (ABR) examinations are changing, until 2012, residents have to take 3 ABR examinations: (i) ABR physics examination in the PGY 2 to 3 years, (ii) a written examination at the start of the PGY 5 year and (iii) an oral exam at the end of the PGY 5 year. Beginning in 2013, there will be only 2 examinations: (i) the physics and written examinations after PGY 4 will become a combined core radiology examination. Beginning in 2015, the final certifying examination will be given 15 months after the completion of residency. After residency, ACGME fellowships in PGY 6 are all one-year optional programmes which focus on only one subspecialty discipline. There are 4 ACGME accredited fellowships which have a Board Certifi cation Examination: Neuroradiology, Nuclear, Paediatric and Vascular Interventional Radiology. Some ACGME fellowships do not have a certifying examination: Abdominal, Endovascular

  3. Managing a multicultural radiology staff.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Dowd, S; Giger, J

    1997-01-01

    Opportunities for minorities in healthcare increased with the Civil Rights movement in the 1960s. More recently, funds from the U.S. Public Health Service have been targeted toward disadvantaged minorities. The workforce in healthcare, and in business in general, has become increasingly multicultural. Much of the literature in healthcare management lacks practical guidelines for managing a diverse workforce. Communication, both verbal and nonverbal, and culture are closely intertwined. Managers, as they develop multicultural teams, will need to understand how culture influences communication in their organizations. Space, spatial behavior, and cultural attitudes influence people's behavior. This is a particularly important consideration for a radiology staff, which must often work in close quarters. For some cultural groups, the family as an organization has more significance than even personal, work-related or national causes. People's orientation to time, whether for the past, present or future, is usually related to the culture in which they grew up. Again, this may become an important issue for a radiology administrator whose organization must run punctually and time-efficiently. How patients feel about their environment, whether they believe they are in control or believe in an external locus of control, is of particular interest to those who attempt therapeutic changes in a patient's healthcare. Does the patient believe that illness is divine will or that suffering is intrinsic to the human condition? There is increasing research in the United States to show that people do differ biologically according to race. Such differences exist among patients as well as among staff members. It has been popular to assume that differences among races do not exist. Unfortunately such an attitude does not allow for different attributes and responses of individuals. Managing a multicultural staff presents a challenge to administrators who must be skilled in working with

  4. Branching out with filmless radiology.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, R; Honea, R

    1999-05-01

    Texas Children's Hospital, a 456 bed pediatric hospital located in the Texas Medical Center, has been constructing a large-scale picture archiving and communications system (PACS), including ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and computed radiography (CR). Until recently, filmless radiology operations have been confined to the imaging department, the outpatient treatment center, and the emergency center. As filmless services expand to other clinical services, the PACS staff must engage each service in a dialog to determine the appropriate level of support required. The number and type of image examinations, the use of multiple modalities and comparison examinations, and the relationship between viewing and direct patient care activities have a bearing on the number and type of display stations provided. Some of the information about customer services is contained in documentation already maintained by the imaging department. For example, by a custom report from the radiology information system (RIS), we were able to determine the number and type of examinations ordered by each referring physician for the previous 6 months. By compiling these by clinical service, we were able to determine our biggest customers by examination type and volume. Another custom report was used to determine who was requesting old examinations from the film library. More information about imaging usage was gathered by means of a questionnaire. Some customers view images only where patients are also seen, while some services view images independently from the patient. Some services use their conference rooms for critical image viewing such as treatment planning. Additional information was gained from geographical surveys of where films are currently produced, delivered by the film library, and viewed. In some areas, available space dictates the type and configuration of display station that can be used. Active participation in the decision process by the

  5. Instructions for Radiological Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Bannas, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Purpose This paper explains the purpose and structure of a radiological case report and provides guidance for radiologists with respect to the writing of a well-structured patient case report. Materials and Methods The current literature and the author's experience as a writer were used to create a manual that describes steps for preparing a radiological case report containing all of the important ingredients for effective communication. Results Case reports are the first line of evidence in documenting clinical observations in the literature. A case report should be written succinctly and consists of four structured main sections: introduction, description of the case, discussion and conclusion. Its structure follows the structure of an original research article, whereby the description of the case of the case report corresponds to the materials and methods section of the research article. The introduction provides the subject and merit of the case report with respect to the published literature. The case description presents the case in detail and chronological order to allow for plausibility. The discussion compares the case with the published literature and summarizes the essential features. A case report, like an original article, must provide a justified conclusion. The conclusion should be brief and be applicable to clinical practice. Conclusion The unique quality of the case, proper preparation and a clear conclusion are essential for a case report to be published. Key Points: · Case reports are the first line of evidence in documenting clinical observations in the literature. · The structure of a case report structure follows the structure of an original research article. · The unique quality of the case, proper preparation and a clear conclusion are essential for a case report to be published.. Citation Format · Bannas P. Anleitung zum Schreiben eines radiologischen Fallberichts. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 333 - 337. © Georg Thieme

  6. Offsite Radiological Consequence Calculation for the Bounding Mixing of Incompatible Materials Accident

    SciTech Connect

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2003-07-30

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding mixing of incompatible materials accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. Conservative input parameters were applied in accordance with the guidance provided. The calculated offsite dose does not challenge the Evaluation Guideline. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from the Office of River Protection.

  7. 21 CFR 1000.55 - Recommendation for quality assurance programs in diagnostic radiology facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH GENERAL Radiation Protection... procedure that involves irradiation of any part of the human body for the purpose of diagnosis or... size and type of the facility, the type of examinations conducted, and other factors. (4) Quality...

  8. El problema de estabilidad de los sistemas Hamiltonianos multidimensionales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincotta, P. M.

    Se revisarán los aspectos básicos del problema de estabilidad de sistemans Hamiltonianos N-dimensionales, haciendo especial énfasis en los posibles mecanismos que dan lugar a la aparición de ``caos": overlap de resonancias, difusión de Arnol'd y otros procesos difusivos alternativos. Se mencionarán los aspectos aún no resueltos sobre la estabilidad de los sistemas con N > 2. Finalmente, se discutirá cuáles de estos mecanismos podrían tener alguna relevancia en la dinámica de sistemas estelares y planetarios.

  9. Neutron effects in humans: protection considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Committee I of the International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that the Quality Factor for neutrons should be changed from 10 to 20. This article is an interesting recount of the tale of Q from the viewpoint of an observer which illustrates many of the problems that the selection of protection standards pose. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Collective Protection (ColPro) Field Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-28

    ColPro) systems are designed to provide protection of enclosed personnel and equipment from chemical warfare agent (CWA) and biological or radiological...environmental control unit and a blower equipped with a chemical, biological , and radiological (CBR) filter, which supplies clean air inside the system...ColPro system entry/exit trials. Medical treatment facility Must be staffed with personnel trained and equipped to treat overexposure to

  11. Collective Protection (COLPRO) Novel Closures Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-28

    March 2013 3 1. SCOPE. 1.1 Background. a. Personnel staffing a chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) collective protection (ColPro...biological or radiological ) or non-vaporous materials such as aerosols or liquid. 2. FACILITIES AND INSTRUMENTATION. 2.1 Facilities. Item Requirement...dissemination com- partment at locations that yield a spatial synopsis of the vapor concentration. The referee in- struments must be calibrated to analyze

  12. ASPECT Emergency Response Chemical and Radiological Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    LANL

    2008-05-12

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology. Update, Sept. 19, 2008: Flying over storm-damaged refineries and chemical factories, a twin-engine plane carrying the ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) system has been on duty throughout the recent hurricanes that have swept the Florida and Gulf Coast areas. ASPECT is a project of the U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Decontamination Team. Los Alamos National Laboratory leads a science and technology program supporting the EPA and the ASPECT aircraft. Casting about with a combination of airborne photography and infrared spectroscopy, the highly instrumented plane provides emergency responders on the ground with a clear concept of where danger lies, and the nature of the sometimes-invisible plumes that could otherwise kill them. ASPECT is the nations only 24/7 emergency response aircraft with chemical plume mapping capability. Bob Kroutil of Bioscience Division is the project leader, and while he said the team has put in long hours, both on the ground and in the air, its a worthwhile effort. The plane flew over 320 targeted sites in four days, he noted. Prior to the deployment to the Gulf Coast, the plane had been monitoring the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Los Alamos National Laboratory Divisions that are supporting ASPECT include, in addition to B-Division, CTN-5: Networking Engineering and IRM-CAS: Communication, Arts, and Services. Leslie Mansell, CTN-5, and Marilyn Pruitt, IRM-CAS, were recognized the the U.S. EPA for their outstanding support to the hurricane response of Gustav in Louisiana and Ike in Texas. The information from the data collected in the most recent event, Hurricane

  13. ASPECT Emergency Response Chemical and Radiological Mapping

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2016-07-12

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology. Update, Sept. 19, 2008: Flying over storm-damaged refineries and chemical factories, a twin-engine plane carrying the ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) system has been on duty throughout the recent hurricanes that have swept the Florida and Gulf Coast areas. ASPECT is a project of the U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Decontamination Team. Los Alamos National Laboratory leads a science and technology program supporting the EPA and the ASPECT aircraft. Casting about with a combination of airborne photography and infrared spectroscopy, the highly instrumented plane provides emergency responders on the ground with a clear concept of where danger lies, and the nature of the sometimes-invisible plumes that could otherwise kill them. ASPECT is the nations only 24/7 emergency response aircraft with chemical plume mapping capability. Bob Kroutil of Bioscience Division is the project leader, and while he said the team has put in long hours, both on the ground and in the air, its a worthwhile effort. The plane flew over 320 targeted sites in four days, he noted. Prior to the deployment to the Gulf Coast, the plane had been monitoring the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Los Alamos National Laboratory Divisions that are supporting ASPECT include, in addition to B-Division, CTN-5: Networking Engineering and IRM-CAS: Communication, Arts, and Services. Leslie Mansell, CTN-5, and Marilyn Pruitt, IRM-CAS, were recognized the the U.S. EPA for their outstanding support to the hurricane response of Gustav in Louisiana and Ike in Texas. The information from the data collected in the most recent event, Hurricane

  14. Student Perceptions of Online Radiologic Science Courses.

    PubMed

    Papillion, Erika; Aaron, Laura

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate student perceptions of the effectiveness of online radiologic science courses by examining various learning activities and course characteristics experienced in the online learning environment. A researcher-designed electronic survey was used to obtain results from students enrolled in the clinical portion of a radiologic science program that offers online courses. The survey consisted of elements associated with demographics, experience, and perceptions related to online radiologic science courses. Surveys were sent to 35 program directors of Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology-accredited associate and bachelor's degree programs with requests to share the survey with students. The 38 students who participated in the survey identified 4 course characteristics most important for effective online radiologic science courses: a well-organized course, timely instructor feedback, a variety of learning activities, and informative documents, such as course syllabus, calendar, and rubrics. Learner satisfaction is a successful indicator of engagement in online courses. Descriptive statistical analysis indicated that elements related to the instructor's role is one of the most important components of effectiveness in online radiologic science courses. This role includes providing an organized course with informative documents, a variety of learning activities, and timely feedback and communication. Although online courses should provide many meaningful learning activities that appeal to a wide range of learning styles, the nature of the course affects the types of learning activities used and therefore could decrease the ability to vary learning activities. ©2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  15. Estimating radiological background using imaging spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Jordan, David V.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2014-06-13

    Optical imaging spectroscopy is investigated as a method to estimate radiological background by spectral identification of soils, sediments, rocks, minerals and building materials derived from natural materials and assigning tabulated radiological emission values to these materials. Radiological airborne surveys are undertaken by local, state and federal agencies to identify the presence of radiological materials out of regulatory compliance. Detection performance in such surveys is determined by (among other factors) the uncertainty in the radiation background; increased knowledge of the expected radiation background will improve the ability to detect low-activity radiological materials. Radiological background due to naturally occurring radiological materials (NORM) can be estimated by reference to previous survey results, use of global 40K, 238U, and 232Th (KUT) values, reference to existing USGS radiation background maps, or by a moving average of the data as it is acquired. Each of these methods has its drawbacks: previous survey results may not include recent changes, the global average provides only a zero-order estimate, the USGS background radiation map resolutions are coarse and are accurate only to 1 km – 25 km sampling intervals depending on locale, and a moving average may essentially low pass filter the data to obscure small changes in radiation counts. Imaging spectroscopy from airborne or spaceborne platforms can offer higher resolution identification of materials and background, as well as provide imaging context information. AVIRIS hyperspectral image data is analyzed using commercial exploitation software to determine the usefulness of imaging spectroscopy to identify qualitative radiological background emissions when compared to airborne radiological survey data.

  16. Efficiency of personal dosimetry methods in vascular interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Bacchim Neto, Fernando Antonio; Alves, Allan Felipe Fattori; Mascarenhas, Yvone Maria; Giacomini, Guilherme; Maués, Nadine Helena Pelegrino Bastos; Nicolucci, Patrícia; de Freitas, Carlos Clayton Macedo; Alvarez, Matheus; Pina, Diana Rodrigues de

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the efficiency of six methods for calculate the effective dose (E) that is received by health professionals during vascular interventional procedures. We evaluated the efficiency of six methods that are currently used to estimate professionals' E, based on national and international recommendations for interventional radiology. Equivalent doses on the head, neck, chest, abdomen, feet, and hands of seven professionals were monitored during 50 vascular interventional radiology procedures. Professionals' E was calculated for each procedure according to six methods that are commonly employed internationally. To determine the best method, a more efficient E calculation method was used to determine the reference value (reference E) for comparison. The highest equivalent dose were found for the hands (0.34±0.93mSv). The two methods that are described by Brazilian regulations overestimated E by approximately 100% and 200%. The more efficient method was the one that is recommended by the United States National Council on Radiological Protection and Measurements (NCRP). The mean and median differences of this method relative to reference E were close to 0%, and its standard deviation was the lowest among the six methods. The present study showed that the most precise method was the one that is recommended by the NCRP, which uses two dosimeters (one over and one under protective aprons). The use of methods that employ at least two dosimeters are more efficient and provide better information regarding estimates of E and doses for shielded and unshielded regions. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hospital preparedness for chemical and radiological disasters.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brooks L; Geller, Robert J; Clark, Charlotte

    2015-02-01

    Hospital planning for chemical or radiological events is essential but all too often treated as a low priority. Although some other types of disasters like hurricanes and tornadoes may be more frequent, chemical and radiological emergencies have the potential for major disruptions to clinical care. Thorough planning can mitigate the impact of a chemical or radiological event. Planning needs to include all 4 phases of an event: mitigation (preplanning), preparation, response, and recovery. Mitigation activities should include the performance of a hazards vulnerability analysis and identification of local subject-matter experts and team leaders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiologic diagnosis of a newborn with cloaca.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    When a female is born and has only a single perineal orifice on the newborn clinical examination, a diagnosis of cloaca type of anorectal malformation is made. Along with associated malformations which may initiate the ordering of radiologic imaging, there are a finite number of radiologic tests that are performed to help in the immediate management of the patient with cloaca. The following discussion will outline the most important radiologic tests and demonstrate examples of images from newborn females with cloaca. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Justification and radiology: some ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Sia, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology.

  20. Mandibular Canal Enlargement: Clinical and Radiological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Chong Jun; Jabar, Nazimi Abd; Lan, Tan Huann; Ramli, Roszalina

    2017-01-01

    Enlargement of the mandibular canal is a rare radiological finding. Clinically, it may or may not be associated with sensory deficits. We report four cases of widening of the mandibular canal observed with various methods of imaging with different clinical characteristics. We describe this unique radiological finding and elaborate the importance of quality assessment of the imaging that is vital for accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Clinicians should be mindful when assessing the imaging whenever the size of the mandibular canal is implicated. The case ranged from a benign tumor to malignancy, radiological errors, and artifacts. A more superior imaging or treatment modality was necessary to ascertain the diagnosis. PMID:28781925

  1. Considerations for the integration of human and wildlife radiological assessments.

    PubMed

    Copplestone, D; Brown, J E; Beresford, N A

    2010-06-01

    A number of tools and approaches have been developed recently to allow assessments of the environmental impact of radiation on wildlife to be undertaken. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has stated an intention to provide a more inclusive protection framework for humans and the environment. Using scenarios, which are loosely based on real or predicted discharge data, we investigate how radiological assessments of humans and wildlife can be integrated with special consideration given to the recent outputs of the ICRP. We highlight how assumptions about the location of the exposed population of humans and wildlife, and the selection of appropriate benchmarks for determining potential risks can influence the outcome of the assessments. A number of issues associated with the transfer component and numeric benchmarks were identified, which need to be addressed in order to fully integrate the assessment approaches. A particular issue was the lack of comparable benchmark values for humans and wildlife. In part this may be addressed via the ICRP's recommended derived consideration reference levels for their 12 Reference Animals and Plants.

  2. Integrated residency training pathways of the future: diagnostic radiology, nuclear radiology, nuclear medicine, and molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Oates, M Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    Following up on the recommendations of the ACR/SNM Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Training, the respective leaderships convened Task Force II. Its charge is to develop realistic residency training pathways integrating diagnostic radiology, nuclear radiology, nuclear medicine, and molecular imaging. The diagnostic radiology participants offer these "pathways of the future" that are built on a foundation of training in diagnostic radiology. It is hoped that these pathways will ensure that the traditional and emerging clinical, educational, and research domains of nuclear radiology, nuclear medicine, and molecular imaging will be sustained and will indeed flourish in the decades to come. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Design and Implementation of a Mobile Radiological Emergency Unit Integrated in a Radiation Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. A.; Miranda, J.

    2013-04-01

    The first hours elapsed after a radiological incident are critical to take appropriate actions to protect the population and to assess its impact on the environment. The development of mobile laboratories equipped with different radiation detectors, with robust communication systems, and with a highly autonomous uninterruptible power supply constitutes the spearhead of modern radiological warning networks. Their main function is to provide additional radiation information with acceptable accuracy in the shortest possible time. This paper describes our development of a mobile laboratory and the demonstration of its usefulness in various emergency drills conducted in the vicinity of a nuclear power plant.

  4. Technical basis for removal of 221-T tunnel from airborne radiological area status

    SciTech Connect

    Geuther, W.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-30

    This document provides the technical basis for removal of the 221-T Tunnel from airborne radiological control. T Plant Radiological Control has evaluated air sampling data and engineering controls, and determined the necessary administrative controls to make this transition. With these administrative controls (specified within document) in place, the tunnel can be removed from Airborne Radioactive Area status. The removal of the tunnel from airborne status will allow work to be performed within the tunnel under controlled conditions, as outlined in this technical basis, without the use of respiratory protection equipment.

  5. [Diagnostic reference levels in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Vañó Carruana, E; Fernández Soto, J M; Sánchez Casanueva, R M; Ten Morón, J I

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses the diagnostic reference levels for radiation exposure proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to facilitate the application of the optimization criteria in diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures. These levels are normally established as the third quartile of the dose distributions to patients in an ample sample of centers and are supposed to be representative of good practice regarding patient exposure. In determining these levels, it is important to evaluate image quality as well to ensure that it is sufficient for diagnostic purposes. When the values for the dose received by patients are systematically higher or much lower than the reference levels, an investigation should determine whether corrective measures need to be applied. The European and Spanish regulations require the use of these reference values in quality assurance programs. For interventional procedures, the dose area product (or kerma area product) values are usually used as reference values together with the time under fluoroscopy and the total number of images acquired. The most modern imaging devices allow the value of the accumulated dose at the entrance to the patient to be calculated to optimize the distribution of the dose on the skin. The ICRP recommends that the complexity of interventional procedures be taken into account when establishing reference levels. In the future, diagnostic imaging departments will have automatic systems to manage patient dosimetric data; these systems will enable continuous dosage auditing and alerts about individual procedures that might involve doses several times above the reference values. This article also discusses aspects that need to be clarified to take better advantage of the reference levels in interventional procedures. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnostic errors in pediatric radiology.

    PubMed

    Taylor, George A; Voss, Stephan D; Melvin, Patrice R; Graham, Dionne A

    2011-03-01

    Little information is known about the frequency, types and causes of diagnostic errors in imaging children. Our goals were to describe the patterns and potential etiologies of diagnostic error in our subspecialty. We reviewed 265 cases with clinically significant diagnostic errors identified during a 10-year period. Errors were defined as a diagnosis that was delayed, wrong or missed; they were classified as perceptual, cognitive, system-related or unavoidable; and they were evaluated by imaging modality and level of training of the physician involved. We identified 484 specific errors in the 265 cases reviewed (mean:1.8 errors/case). Most discrepancies involved staff (45.5%). Two hundred fifty-eight individual cognitive errors were identified in 151 cases (mean = 1.7 errors/case). Of these, 83 cases (55%) had additional perceptual or system-related errors. One hundred sixty-five perceptual errors were identified in 165 cases. Of these, 68 cases (41%) also had cognitive or system-related errors. Fifty-four system-related errors were identified in 46 cases (mean = 1.2 errors/case) of which all were multi-factorial. Seven cases were unavoidable. Our study defines a taxonomy of diagnostic errors in a large academic pediatric radiology practice and suggests that most are multi-factorial in etiology. Further study is needed to define effective strategies for improvement.

  7. Public participation in radiological surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hanf, R W; Schreckhise, R G; Patton, G W; Poston, T M; Jaquish, R E

    1997-10-01

    In 1989, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a program, for the U.S. Department of Energy, to involve local citizens in environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site. The Community-Operated Environmental Surveillance Program was patterned after similar community-involvement efforts at the Nevada Test Site and the Three Mile Island nuclear facility. Its purpose is to increase the flow of information to the public, thereby enhancing the public's awareness and understanding of surveillance activities. The program consists of two components: radiological air monitoring at nine offsite locations and agricultural product sampling at selected locations near the site. At each air-monitoring station, two local school teachers collect air particulate samples and operate equipment to monitor ambient radiation levels. Atmospheric tritium samples (as water vapor) are also collected at some locations. Four of the air-monitoring stations include large, colorful informational displays for public viewing. These displays provide details on station equipment, sample types, and sampling purposes. Instruments in the displays also monitor, record, and show real-time ambient radiation readings (measured with a pressurized ionization chamber) and meteorological conditions. Agricultural products, grown primarily by middle-school-aged students, are obtained from areas downwind of the site. Following analysis of these samples, environmental surveillance staff visit the schools to discuss the results with the students and their teachers. The data collected by these air and agricultural sampling efforts are summarized with other routinely collected sitewide surveillance data and reported annually in the Hanford Site environmental report.

  8. Agreement studies in radiology research.

    PubMed

    Farzin, B; Gentric, J-C; Pham, M; Tremblay-Paquet, S; Brosseau, L; Roy, C; Jamali, S; Chagnon, M; Darsaut, T E; Guilbert, F; Naggara, O; Raymond, J

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate the frequency and the quality of agreement studies published in diagnostic imaging journals. All studies published between January 2011 and December 2012 in four radiology journals were reviewed. Four trained readers evaluated agreement studies using a 24-item form that included the 15 items of the Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies criteria. Of 2229 source titles, 280 studies (13%) reported agreement. The mean number of patients per study was 81±99 (SD) (range, 0-180). Justification for sample size was found in 9 studies (3%). The number of raters was≤2 in 226 studies (81%). No intra-observer study was performed in 212 (76%) articles. Confidence intervals and interpretation of statistical estimates were provided in 98 (35%) and 147 (53%) of the studies, respectively. In 168 studies (60%), the agreement study was not mentioned in the discussion section. In 8 studies (3%), reporting of the agreement study was judged to be adequate. Twenty studies (7%) were dedicated to agreement. Agreement studies are preliminary and not adequately reported. Studies dedicated to agreement are infrequent. They are research opportunities that should be promoted. Copyright © 2016 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Contained radiological analytical chemistry module

    DOEpatents

    Barney, David M.

    1989-01-01

    A system which provides analytical determination of a plurality of water chemistry parameters with respect to water samples subject to radiological contamination. The system includes a water sample analyzer disposed within a containment and comprising a sampling section for providing predetermined volumes of samples for analysis; a flow control section for controlling the flow through the system; and a gas analysis section for analyzing samples provided by the sampling system. The sampling section includes a controllable multiple port valve for, in one position, metering out sample of a predetermined volume and for, in a second position, delivering the material sample for analysis. The flow control section includes a regulator valve for reducing the pressure in a portion of the system to provide a low pressure region, and measurement devices located in the low pressure region for measuring sample parameters such as pH and conductivity, at low pressure. The gas analysis section which is of independent utility provides for isolating a small water sample and extracting the dissolved gases therefrom into a small expansion volume wherein the gas pressure and thermoconductivity of the extracted gas are measured.

  10. Contained radiological analytical chemistry module

    DOEpatents

    Barney, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A system which provides analytical determination of a plurality of water chemistry parameters with respect to water samples subject to radiological contamination. The system includes a water sample analyzer disposed within a containment and comprising a sampling section for providing predetermined volumes of samples for analysis; a flow control section for controlling the flow through the system; and a gas analysis section for analyzing samples provided by the sampling system. The sampling section includes a controllable multiple port valve for, in one position, metering out sample of a predetermined volume and for, in a second position, delivering the material sample for analysis. The flow control section includes a regulator valve for reducing the pressure in a portion of the system to provide a low pressure region, and measurement devices located in the low pressure region for measuring sample parameters such as pH and conductivity, at low pressure. The gas analysis section which is of independent utility provides for isolating a small water sample and extracting the dissolved gases therefrom into a small expansion volume wherein the gas pressure and thermoconductivity of the extracted gas are measured.

  11. Radiologic assessment of spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Selby, Michael Derrick; Clark, Simon Richard; Hall, David John; Freeman, Brian J C

    2012-11-01

    Since surgical fusion of the spine was first described in 1911, multiple methods have been used to assess it. Although open surgical exploration remains the standard of care for determination of fusion, it is impractical in most clinical situations. Static radiographs have long been used as a practical method of fusion assessment, but they tend to significantly overestimate the presence of a solid fusion. Dynamic radiographs improve accuracy but limitations include measurement reliability, disagreement on allowable motion, and the two-dimensional nature of radiographs. Ultimately, lack of movement at a fused segment does not confirm fusion. Radiostereometric analysis further improves accuracy; however, methodological demands make it largely impractical for routine use. CT is now widely accepted as the standard for noninvasive assessment of spinal fusion. Fine-cut imaging, multiplanar reconstruction, and metal artifact reduction have increased the ability to assess fusion on CT. However, significant concerns remain regarding the effects of high radiation exposure. Although MRI is appealing, its utility in assessing fusion remains unproven. Understanding the limitations of each technique allows judicious use of radiology in the assessment of spinal fusion.

  12. Radiology of recreational drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Ian G; Burney, Kashif

    2007-01-01

    Recreational drug abuse is increasing throughout the world. Use of these drugs may result in a diverse array of acute and chronic complications involving almost any body organ, and imaging frequently plays a vital role in detection and characterization of such complications. The nature of the complications depends to a large extent on the drug used, the method of administration, and the impurities associated with the drug. Radiologically demonstrable sequelae may be seen after use of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines and their derivatives such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy"), marijuana, and inhaled volatile agents including amyl nitrite ("poppers") and industrial solvents such as toluene. Cardiovascular complications include myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, arterial dissection, false and mycotic aneurysms, venous thromboembolic disease, and septic thrombophlebitis. Respiratory complications may involve the upper airways, lung parenchyma, pulmonary vasculature, and pleural space. Neurologic complications are most commonly due to the cerebrovascular effects of illicit drugs. Musculoskeletal complications are dominated by soft-tissue, bone, and joint infections caused by intravenous drug use. Awareness of the imaging features of recreational drug abuse is important for the radiologist because the underlying cause may not be known at presentation and because complications affecting different body systems may coexist. Intravenous drug abuse in particular should be regarded as a multisystem disease with vascular and infective complications affecting many parts of the body, often synchronously. Discovery of one complication should prompt the radiologist to search for coexisting pathologic conditions, which may alter management. RSNA, 2007

  13. Multilingual retrieval of radiology images.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Charles E

    2009-01-01

    The multilingual search engine ARRS GoldMiner Global was created to facilitate broad international access to a richly indexed collection of more than 200,000 radiologic images. Images are indexed according to key-words and medical concepts that appear in the unstructured text of their English-language image captions. GoldMiner Global exploits the Unicode standard, which allows the accurate representation of characters and ideographs from virtually any language and which supports both left-to-right and right-to-left text directions. The user interface supports queries in Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, or Spanish. GoldMiner Global incorporates an interface to the United States National Library of Medicine that translates queries into English-language Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. The translated MeSH terms are then used to search the image index and retrieve relevant images. Explanatory text, pull-down menu choices, and navigational guides are displayed in the selected language; search results are displayed in English. GoldMiner Global is freely available on the World Wide Web.

  14. Abdominal surgery. [Radiology, screening techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, C.E.; Malt, R.A.

    1983-03-31

    A new art of ''interventional radiology'' has been developed in the past few years. Major applications include postoperative instrumentation of the biliary tract, percutaneous biliary drainage, tumor biopsy, abscess drainage, and intestinal-intubation procedures. Intervention by angiography encompasses injection of such substances as Pitressin (vasopressin), and embolization. These procedures have been of immense value. Fortunately, complications, such as sepsis and bleeding, have been infrequent. Computerized body tomography has also proved extremely important, particularly in the diagnosis of subphrenic abscess and pancreatic and pelvic pathology. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled-erythrocyte scans can be used to detect gastrointestinal bleeding sites. Scans can also identify hepatobiliary disease and splenic injury or differentiate the cause of jaundice. /sup 111/Indium-labeled autologous leukocytes may be useful in differentiating a pancreatic abscess from a pseudocyst. The advantage of indium scans over /sup 67/Ga scans is that a shorter time is required for maximum resolution: gallium requires 48 hours, indium 4. Another advantage is that indium is cleared through the liver and spleen and is not secreted into the bowel. /sup 67/Ga is absorbed by lymphomas and hepatocarcinomas. Nuclear magnetic resonance has many possible uses in abdominal surgery, but so far little information is available. This technique has been used to detect an empyema of the gallbladder that was not diagnosed by ultrasound. Among hepatic lesions, it can easily differentiate tumors from cysts and in that regard is superior to both ultrasound and scan. (JMT)

  15. Radiation dose in dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Cohnen, M; Kemper, J; Möbes, O; Pawelzik, J; Mödder, U

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare radiation exposure in panoramic radiography (PR), dental CT, and digital volume tomography (DVT). An anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom and two anatomical head phantoms with thermoluminescent dosimeters fixed at appropriate locations were exposed as in a dental examination. In PR and DVT, standard parameters were used while variables in CT included mA, pitch, and rotation time. Image noise was assessed in dental CT and DVT. Radiation doses to the skin and internal organs within the primary beam and resulting from scatter radiation were measured and expressed as maximum doses in mGy. For PR, DVT, and CT, these maximum doses were 0.65, 4.2, and 23 mGy. In dose-reduced CT protocols, radiation doses ranged from 10.9 to 6.1 mGy. Effective doses calculated on this basis showed values below 0.1 mSv for PR, DVT, and dose-reduced CT. Image noise was similar in DVT and low-dose CT. As radiation exposure and image noise of DVT is similar to low-dose CT, this imaging technique cannot be recommended as a general alternative to replace PR in dental radiology.

  16. eFRMAC Overview: Data Management and Enabling Technologies for Characterization of a Radiological Release A Case Study: The Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Incident

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, Daniel J.; Clark, Harvey W.; Essex, James J.; Wagner, Eric C.

    2013-07-01

    The eFRMAC enterprise is a suite of technologies and software developed by the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Emergency Response to coordinate the rapid data collection, management, and analysis required during a radiological emergency. This enables the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center assets to evaluate a radiological or nuclear incident efficiently to facilitate protective actions to protect public health and the environment. This document identifies and describes eFRMAC methods including (1) data acquisition, (2) data management, (3) data analysis, (4) product creation, (5) quality control, and (6) dissemination.

  17. Radiological assessment for bauxite mining and alumina refining.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Brian H; Donoghue, A Michael; Manning, Timothy J H; Chesson, Barry J

    2013-01-01

    Two international benchmarks assess whether the mining and processing of ores containing Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) require management under radiological regulations set by local jurisdictions. First, the 1 Bq/g benchmark for radionuclide head of chain activity concentration determines whether materials may be excluded from radiological regulation. Second, processes may be exempted from radiological regulation where occupational above-background exposures for members of the workforce do not exceed 1 mSv/year. This is also the upper-limit of exposure prescribed for members of the public. Alcoa of Australia Limited (Alcoa) has undertaken radiological evaluations of the mining and processing of bauxite from the Darling Range of Western Australia since the 1980s. Short-term monitoring projects have demonstrated that above-background exposures for workers do not exceed 1 mSv/year. A whole-of-year evaluation of above-background, occupational radiological doses for bauxite mining, alumina refining and residue operations was conducted during 2008/2009 as part of the Alcoa NORM Quality Assurance System (NQAS). The NQAS has been guided by publications from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). The NQAS has been developed specifically in response to implementation of the Australian National Directory on Radiation Protection (NDRP). Positional monitoring was undertaken to increase the accuracy of natural background levels required for correction of occupational exposures. This is important in view of the small increments in exposure that occur in bauxite mining, alumina refining and residue operations relative to natural background. Positional monitoring was also undertaken to assess the potential for exposure in operating locations. Personal monitoring was undertaken to characterise exposures in Similar

  18. Radiological safety training for uranium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This handbook contains recommended training materials consistent with DOE standardized core radiological training material. These materials consist of a program management guide, instructor`s guide, student guide, and overhead transparencies.

  19. Apparatus for safeguarding a radiological source

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M

    2014-10-07

    A tamper detector is provided for safeguarding a radiological source that is moved into and out of a storage location through an access porthole for storage and use. The radiological source is presumed to have an associated shipping container approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for transporting the radiological source. The tamper detector typically includes a network of sealed tubing that spans at least a portion of the access porthole. There is an opening in the network of sealed tubing that is large enough for passage therethrough of the radiological source and small enough to prevent passage therethrough of the associated shipping cask. Generally a gas source connector is provided for establishing a gas pressure in the network of sealed tubing, and a pressure drop sensor is provided for detecting a drop in the gas pressure below a preset value.

  20. Data Standards in Tele-radiology

    PubMed Central

    Fatehi, Mansoor; Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Jebraeily, Mohamad; Habibi-koolaee, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Data standards play an important role to provide interoperability among different system. As other applications of telemedicine, the tele-radiology needs these standards to work properly. In this article, we conducted a review to introduce some data standards about tele-radiology. By searching PUBMED and Google Scholar database, we find more relevant articles about data standards in tele-radiology. Three categories of standards identified, including data interchange, document and terminology standards. Data interchange standards, including those which facilitate the understanding of the format of a massage between systems, such as DICOM and HL7. Document standards, including those which facilitate the contents of a massage, such as DICOM SR and HL7 CDA. And terminology standards, including those which facilitate the understanding of concepts of the domain. Since, the harmonization between different standards are important to meet interoperability, so the more effort is needed to conduct harmonization between tele-radiology standards and other domain. PMID:26236084

  1. Diagnostic radiology in paediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Patel, Preena; Koh, Michelle; Carr, Lucinda; McHugh, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Palliative care is an expanding specialty within paediatrics, which has attracted little attention in the paediatric radiological literature. Paediatric patients under a palliative care team will have numerous radiological tests which we traditionally categorise under organ systems rather than under the umbrella of palliative medicine. The prevalence of children with life-limiting illness is significant. It has been estimated to be one per thousand, and this may be an underestimate. In this review, we will focus on our experience at one institution, where radiology has proven to be an invaluable partner to palliative care. We will discuss examples of conditions commonly referred to our palliative care team and delineate the crucial role of diagnostic radiology in determining treatment options.

  2. The basic radiological system experience in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kitonyi, J M

    1993-12-01

    While Diagnostic Radiology has become increasingly indispensible in sound clinical patient management the cost and maintenance of radiological equipment has continued to soar, reaching almost unaffordable levels in developing countries. As an attempt to provide some measure of remedy to the above problem, the World Health Organization in the early 80's introduced the basic radiological system (BRS) concept. The BRS is supposed to meet such criteria as being relatively cheap, of low maintenance cost easy operability and suitable in rural areas where electrical power supply may not be constant. In addition it should be able to perform 80% of all conventional radiological examinations. In this paper the author gives a critical account of the BRS experience in Kenya. Proposals for possible future considerations and modifications in order to achieve near ideal BRS X-ray machine are also advanced.

  3. How to Read Your Radiology Report

    MedlinePlus

    ... prepare a report summarizing the findings and impressions. Electronic Health Records Many patients today can access their health records — including radiology reports — electronically online. Electronic access to health records allows patients to make ...

  4. Psychological effects of nuclear and radiological warfare.

    PubMed

    Salter, C A

    2001-12-01

    Not since 1945 has the world experienced nuclear warfare, although there has been the threat of nuclear terrorism and a large number of nuclear/radiological accidents. Most people fear a nuclear/radiological threat even more than a conventional explosion due both to their inability to perceive the presence of radiation with the ordinary human senses and to concerns about perceived long-lasting radiation effects. Studies of radiological accidents have found that for every actually contaminated casualty, there may be as many as 500 people who are concerned, eager to be screened for contamination, sometimes panicked, and showing psychosomatic reactions mimicking actual radiation effects. Data from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki attacks revealed widespread acute reactions such as psychic numbing, severe anxiety, and disorganized behavior, and there were later chronic effects such as survivor guilt and psychosomatic reactions. Such responses would likely be common in any future nuclear/radiological accident, terrorist attack, or warfare.

  5. Leadership and management in quality radiology

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical imaging and interventional radiology are undergoing rapid change in recent years due to technological advances, workload escalation, workforce shortage, globalisation, corporatisation, commercialisation and commoditisation of healthcare. These professional and economical changes are challenging the established norm but may bring new opportunities. There is an increasing awareness of and interest in the quality of care and patient safety in medical imaging and interventional radiology. Among the professional organisations, a range of quality systems are available to address individual, facility and system needs. To manage the limited resources successfully, radiologists and professional organisations must be leaders and champion for the cause of quality care and patient safety. Close collaboration with other stakeholders towards the development and management of proactive, long-term, system-based strategies and infrastructures will underpin a sustainable future in quality radiology. The International Radiology Quality Network can play a useful facilitating role in this worthwhile but challenging endeavour. PMID:21614284

  6. Data Standards in Tele-radiology.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Mansoor; Safdari, Reza; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Jebraeily, Mohamad; Habibi-Koolaee, Mahdi

    2015-06-01

    Data standards play an important role to provide interoperability among different system. As other applications of telemedicine, the tele-radiology needs these standards to work properly. In this article, we conducted a review to introduce some data standards about tele-radiology. By searching PUBMED and Google Scholar database, we find more relevant articles about data standards in tele-radiology. Three categories of standards identified, including data interchange, document and terminology standards. Data interchange standards, including those which facilitate the understanding of the format of a massage between systems, such as DICOM and HL7. Document standards, including those which facilitate the contents of a massage, such as DICOM SR and HL7 CDA. And terminology standards, including those which facilitate the understanding of concepts of the domain. Since, the harmonization between different standards are important to meet interoperability, so the more effort is needed to conduct harmonization between tele-radiology standards and other domain.

  7. Corporate social responsibility of future radiology professionals.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2011-01-01

    Plagued by difficult economic times, many radiology managers may find themselves faced with ethical dilemmas surrounding ongoing organizational pressures to maintain high levels of productivity with restricted resources. This often times tests the level of moral resilience and corporate social consciousness of even the most experienced radiology professionals. A study was conducted to determine what Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) orientation and viewpoint future radiology professionals may have. The results of the study indicate that these study participants may initially consider patient care more important than profit maximization. Study results indicate that these specific future radiology professionals will not need laws, legal sanctions, and intensified rules to force them to act ethically. However,they may need ongoing training as to the necessity of profit maximization if they seek the highest quality of care possible for their patients.

  8. What is Diagnostic Radiology's Place in Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Bull, J. W. D.

    1974-01-01

    The question that the title of this lecture poses must depend considerably on the attitude of physicians and surgeons. I have indicated the very low position diagnostic radiology holds in this country relative to our peers in medicine elsewhere. If its improvement is considered to be warranted, we must: (1) Interest medical students at the beginning of their career. (2) Bear in mind that radiologists are likely to be able to teach some anatomy but the reciprocal seldom applies. (3) Obtain chairs in radiology, which are desperately needed. (4) Obtain the acceptance by the medical establishment of the proper place of radiology in clinical medicine. (5) See to the reduction in numbers of unnecessary x-ray examinations. (6) Press for the improvement and enlargement of radiological departments with proper provision for expansion. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 5 PMID:4855415

  9. 42 CFR 482.26 - Condition of participation: Radiologic services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... radiologic services, particularly ionizing radiology procedures, must be free from hazards for patients and... qualified full-time, part-time, or consulting radiologist must supervise the ionizing radiology services and... osteopathy who is qualified by education and experience in radiology. (2) Only personnel designated...

  10. 42 CFR 482.26 - Condition of participation: Radiologic services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... radiologic services, particularly ionizing radiology procedures, must be free from hazards for patients and... qualified full-time, part-time, or consulting radiologist must supervise the ionizing radiology services and... osteopathy who is qualified by education and experience in radiology. (2) Only personnel designated...

  11. 42 CFR 482.26 - Condition of participation: Radiologic services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... radiologic services, particularly ionizing radiology procedures, must be free from hazards for patients and... qualified full-time, part-time, or consulting radiologist must supervise the ionizing radiology services and... osteopathy who is qualified by education and experience in radiology. (2) Only personnel designated...

  12. 42 CFR 482.26 - Condition of participation: Radiologic services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... radiologic services, particularly ionizing radiology procedures, must be free from hazards for patients and... qualified full-time, part-time, or consulting radiologist must supervise the ionizing radiology services and... osteopathy who is qualified by education and experience in radiology. (2) Only personnel designated...

  13. VIA-RAD: a blackboard-based system for diagnostic radiology. Visual Interaction Assistant for Radiology.

    PubMed

    Rogers, E

    1995-08-01

    The work described in this article presents an approach to the integration of computer-displayed radiological images with cooperative computerized assistance for decision-making. The VIA-RAD system (Visual Interaction Assistant for Radiology) is a blackboard-based architecture, founded on extensive data collection and analysis in the domain of diagnostic radiology, together with cognitive modeling of the interaction between perception and problem-solving. The details of this system are presented in terms of domain knowledge representation and domain knowledge mapping. A small prototype of the system has been implemented and tested with radiology subjects, and the results of this study are also described.

  14. Radiologic Professionalism in Modern Health Care.

    PubMed

    Hryhorczuk, Anastasia L; Hanneman, Kate; Eisenberg, Ronald L; Meyer, Elaine C; Brown, Stephen D

    2015-10-01

    Modern radiology is at the forefront of technological progress in medicine, a position that often places unique challenges on its professional character. This article uses "Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physician Charter," a document published in 2002 and endorsed by several major radiology organizations, as a lens for exploring professional challenges in modern radiology. The three main tenets of the Charter emphasize patient welfare, patient autonomy, and the reduction of disparities in health care distribution. This article reviews the ways in which modern technology and financial structures potentially create stressors on professionalism in radiology, while highlighting the opportunities they provide for radiologists seeking to fulfill the professional goals articulated in the Charter. Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) and voice recognition systems have transformed the speed of radiology and enhanced the ability of radiologists to improve patient care but also have brought new tensions to the workplace. Although teleradiology may improve global access to radiologists, it may also promote the commoditization of radiology, which diminishes the professional stature of radiologists. Social media and patient portals provide radiologists with new forums for interacting with the public and patients, potentially promoting patient welfare. However, patient privacy and autonomy are important considerations. Finally, modern financial structures provide radiologists with both entrepreneurial opportunities as well as the temptation for unprofessional conduct. Each of these advances carries the potential for professional growth while testing the professional stature of radiology. By considering the risks and benefits of emerging technologies in the modern radiology world, radiologists can chart an ethical and professional future path.

  15. Radiological interventions in malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Srivastava, Deep Narayan; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary obstruction is commonly caused by gall bladder carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic nodes. Percutaneous interventions play an important role in managing these patients. Biliary drainage, which forms the major bulk of radiological interventions, can be palliative in inoperable patients or pre-operative to improve liver function prior to surgery. Other interventions include cholecystostomy and radiofrequency ablation. We present here the indications, contraindications, technique and complications of the radiological interventions performed in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. PMID:27247718

  16. Radiological Survey and Remediation Report DRMO Yard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-11-01

    as "affected" areas as defined by NUREG /CR-5849 Manual for Conducting Radiological Surveys in Support of License Termination, (NRC, 1992): The tire...requiring survey as defined by NUREG /CR-5849, due to the uncertainty of the boundary where crushing was performed in the north end of the yard. i The...identified the following areas as "affected" areas as defined by NUREG /CR-5849 Manual for Conducting Radiological Surveys in Support of I License

  17. Radiology in the management of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.J.; Eddleston, B.; Hunter, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to clarify the role of radiology in the evaluation of patients with cancer, in regard to both their extent of initial disease and follow- up studies after treatment. Initial chapters discuss two modalities, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The rest of the book is devoted to specific organ systems, including chapters on childhood malignancies and radiation therapy planning techniques. Each chapter gives information on the disease, then staging and radiologic information.

  18. A Design Protocol to Develop Radiology Dashboards

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Mahtab

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The main objective of this descriptive and development research was to introduce a design protocol to develop radiology dashboards. Material and methods: The first step was to determine key performance indicators for radiology department. The second step was to determine required infrastructure for implementation of radiology dashboards. Infrastructure was extracted from both data and technology perspectives. The third step was to determine main features of the radiology dashboards. The fourth step was to determine the key criteria for evaluating the dashboards. In all these steps, non-probability sampling methods including convenience and purposive were employed and sample size determined based on a persuasion model. Results: Results showed that there are 92 KPIs, 10 main features for designing dashboards and 53 key criteria for dashboards evaluation. As well as, a Prototype of radiology management dashboards in four aspects including services, clients, personnel and cost-income were implemented and evaluated. Applying such dashboards could help managers to enhance performance, productivity and quality of services in radiology department. PMID:25568585

  19. Objective structured clinical examination in radiology

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anurag; Batra, Bipin; Sood, AK; Ramakantan, Ravi; Bhargava, Satish K; Chidambaranathan, N; Indrajit, IK

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing need for introducing objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) as a part of radiology practical examinations in India. OSCE is an established, reliable, and effective multistation test for the assessment of practical professional skills in an objective and a transparent manner. In India, it has been successfully initiated and implemented in specialties like pediatrics, ophthalmology, and otolaryngology. Each OSCE station needs to have a pre-agreed “key-list” that contains a list of objective steps prepared for uniformly assessing the tasks given to students. Broadly, OSCE stations are classified as “manned” or “unmanned” stations. These stations may include procedure or pictorial or theory stations with clinical oriented contents. This article is one of a series of measures to initiate OSCE in radiology; it analyzes the attributes of OSCE stations and outlines the steps for implementing OSCE. Furthermore, important issues like the advantages of OSCE, its limitations, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis, and the timing of introduction of OSCE in radiology are also covered. The OSCE format in radiology and its stations needs to be validated, certified, and finalized before its use in examinations. This will need active participation and contribution from the academic radiology fraternity and inputs from faculty members of leading teaching institutions. Many workshops/meetings need to be conducted. Indeed, these collaborative measures will effectively sensitize universities, examiners, organizers, faculty, and students across India to OSCE and help successfully usher in this new format in radiology practical examinations. PMID:20607015

  20. New nuclear build and evolving radiation protection challenges.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Radiological protection has continued to evolve in order to meet emerging challenges and will continue to do so. This paper will discuss the scientific and social challenges that will or may be faced by the radiological protection community in the coming 10 to 20 y and how these may affect what is expected to be a renewed interest in building and operating nuclear power plants for electricity generation. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  1. Geographical variation in radiological services: a nationwide survey

    PubMed Central

    Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke; Børretzen, Ingelin

    2007-01-01

    resources. Previous publication The data applied in this article was originally published in Norwegian in: Børretzen I, Lysdahl KB, Olerud HM: Radiologi i Noreg – undersøkingsfrekvens per 2002, tidstrendar, geografisk variasjon og befolkningsdose. StrålevernRapport 2006:6. Østerås: The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority has given the authors permission to republish the data. PMID:17302970

  2. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Radioactivity teaching: Environmental consequences of the radiological accident in Goiânia (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjos, R. M.; Facure, A.; Lima, E. L. N.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Santos, M. S.; Brage, J. A. P.; Okuno, E.; Yoshimura, E. M.; Umisedo, N. K.

    2001-03-01

    Ionizing radiation and its effects on human beings, radiation protection, and radiological accident prevention are topics usually not included in the physics courses at the Brazilian universities. As a consequence, high school teachers are not able to enlighten their students when radiological or nuclear accidents occur. This paper presents a teaching program on ionizing radiation physics, to be applied to undergraduate physics students and to physics high school teachers. It is based on the environmental consequences of the 1987 radiological accident in Goiânia. This program was applied to two undergraduate physics students, in 1999, at the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil. Results of the gamma ray spectrometry measurements of samples collected in Goiânia by the students are presented.

  4. Radiologic diagnosis of explosion casualties.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, Brian J; Blackbourne, Lorne; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2008-01-01

    The threat of terrorist events on domestic soil remains an ever-present risk. Despite the notoriety of unconventional weapons, the mainstay in the armament of the terrorist organization is the conventional explosive. Conventional explosives are easily weaponized and readily obtainable, and the recipes are widely available over the Internet. According to the US Department of State and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, over one half of the global terrorist events involve explosions, averaging two explosive events per day worldwide in 2005 (Terrorism Research Center. Available at www.terrorism.com. Accessed April 1, 2007). The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads, published by the Institute of Medicine, states that explosions were the most common cause of injuries associated with terrorism (Institute of Medicine Report: The Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System: Emergency Medical Services at the Crossroads. Washington DC: National Academic Press, 2007). Explosive events have the potential to inflict numerous casualties with multiple injuries. The complexity of this scenario is exacerbated by the fact that few providers or medical facilities have experience with mass casualty events in which human and material resources can be rapidly overwhelmed. Care of explosive-related injury is based on same principles as that of standard trauma management paradigms. The basic difference between explosion-related injury and other injury mechanisms are the number of patients and multiplicity of injuries, which require a higher allocation of resources. With this caveat, the appropriate utilization of radiology resources has the potential to impact in-hospital diagnosis and triage and is an essential element in optimizing the management of the explosive-injured patients.

  5. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Williams, N.

    1965-01-01

    The main emphasis of a provincial radiation protection program is on ionizing radiation produced by machines, although assistance is given to the Federal Radiation Protection Division in its program relating to radioactive substances. The basis for the Saskatchewan program of radiation protection is the Radiological Health Act 1961. An important provision of the Act is annual registration of radiation equipment. The design of the registration form encourages a “do-it-yourself” radiation and electrical safety inspection. Installations are inspected every two years by a radiation health officer. Two hundred and twenty-one deficiencies were found during inspection of 224 items of radiation equipment, the commonest being failure to use personal film badges. Insufficient filtration of the beam, inadequate limitation of the beam, and unnecessary exposure of operators were other common faults. Physicians have a responsibility to weigh the potential advantages against the hazards when requesting radiographic or fluoroscopic procedures. PMID:14282164

  6. Radiological Justification for and Optimization of Nuclear Medicine Practices in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Il

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear medicine is a rapidly growing discipline that employs advanced novel hybrid techniques that provide unique anatomical and functional information, as well as targets for molecular therapy. Concomitantly, there has been an increase in the attention paid to medical radiation exposure. A radiological justification for the practice of nuclear medicine has been implemented mainly through referral guidelines based on research results such as prospective randomized clinical trials. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends diagnostic reference levels as a practical mechanism to optimize medical radiation exposure in order to be commensurate with the medical purpose. The Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine has been implementing radiological optimization through a survey of the protocols on how each hospital determines the dose of administration of each radiopharmaceutical. In the case of nuclear medicine, radiation exposure of caregivers and comforters of patients discharged after administration of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals can occur; therefore, optimization has been implemented through written instructions for patients, based on international recommendations. The development of patient-radiation-dose monitoring software, and a national registry and management system of patient-radiation-dose is needed to implement radiological optimization through diagnostic reference levels. This management system must work in agreement with the "Institute for Quality Management of Nuclear Medicine", and must take into account the medical reality of Korea, such as low medicine fee, in order to implement reasonable radiological justification and optimization.

  7. Radiological risk guidelines for nonreactor nuclear facilities at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, D.E.; Ikenberry, T.A.

    1993-09-01

    Radiological risk evaluation guidelines for the public and workers have been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) based upon the Nuclear Safety Policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) established in Secretary of Energy Notice SEN-35-91. The DOE nuclear safety policy states that the general public shall be protected such that no individual bears significant additional risk to health and safety from the operation of a DOE nuclear facility above the risks to which members of the general population are normally exposed. The radiological risk evaluation guidelines developed at PNL are unique in that they are (1) based upon quantitative risk goals and (2) provide a consistent level of risk management. These guidelines are used to evaluate the risk from radiological accidents that may occur during research and development activities at PNL, and are not intended for evaluation of routine exposures. A safety analyst uses the,frequency of the potential accident and the radiological dose to a given receptor to determine if the accident consequences meet the objectives of the Nuclear Safety Policy. The radiological risk evaluation guidelines are an effective tool for assisting in the management of risk at DOE nonreactor nuclear facilities. These guidelines (1) meet the nuclear safety policy of DOE, (2) establish a tool for managing risk at a consistent level within the defined constraints, and (3) set risk at an appropriate level, as compared with other risks encountered by the public and worker. Table S.1 summarizes the guidelines developed in this report.

  8. Radiological Justification for and Optimization of Nuclear Medicine Practices in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a rapidly growing discipline that employs advanced novel hybrid techniques that provide unique anatomical and functional information, as well as targets for molecular therapy. Concomitantly, there has been an increase in the attention paid to medical radiation exposure. A radiological justification for the practice of nuclear medicine has been implemented mainly through referral guidelines based on research results such as prospective randomized clinical trials. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends diagnostic reference levels as a practical mechanism to optimize medical radiation exposure in order to be commensurate with the medical purpose. The Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine has been implementing radiological optimization through a survey of the protocols on how each hospital determines the dose of administration of each radiopharmaceutical. In the case of nuclear medicine, radiation exposure of caregivers and comforters of patients discharged after administration of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals can occur; therefore, optimization has been implemented through written instructions for patients, based on international recommendations. The development of patient-radiation-dose monitoring software, and a national registry and management system of patient-radiation-dose is needed to implement radiological optimization through diagnostic reference levels. This management system must work in agreement with the “Institute for Quality Management of Nuclear Medicine”, and must take into account the medical reality of Korea, such as low medicine fee, in order to implement reasonable radiological justification and optimization. PMID:26908990

  9. Intelligent image retrieval based on radiology reports.

    PubMed

    Gerstmair, Axel; Daumke, Philipp; Simon, Kai; Langer, Mathias; Kotter, Elmar

    2012-12-01

    To create an advanced image retrieval and data-mining system based on in-house radiology reports. Radiology reports are semantically analysed using natural language processing (NLP) techniques and stored in a state-of-the-art search engine. Images referenced by sequence and image number in the reports are retrieved from the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and stored for later viewing. A web-based front end is used as an interface to query for images and show the results with the retrieved images and report text. Using a comprehensive radiological lexicon for the underlying terminology, the search algorithm also finds results for synonyms, abbreviations and related topics. The test set was 108 manually annotated reports analysed by different system configurations. Best results were achieved using full syntactic and semantic analysis with a precision of 0.929 and recall of 0.952. Operating successfully since October 2010, 258,824 reports have been indexed and a total of 405,146 preview images are stored in the database. Data-mining and NLP techniques provide quick access to a vast repository of images and radiology reports with both high precision and recall values. Consequently, the system has become a valuable tool in daily clinical routine, education and research. Radiology reports can now be analysed using sophisticated natural language-processing techniques. Semantic text analysis is backed by terminology of a radiological lexicon. The search engine includes results for synonyms, abbreviations and compositions. Key images are automatically extracted from radiology reports and fetched from PACS. Such systems help to find diagnoses, improve report quality and save time.

  10. Application of a geographic information system for radiologic emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.G.; Doyle, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) is a multifunctional analytical tool that can be used to compile available data and derive information. A GIS is a computerized database management system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data. Maps are the most common type of spatial data, but any type of data that can be referenced by an x-y location or geographic coordinate can be used in a GIS. In a radiological emergency, it is critical that data of all types be rapidly compiled into a common format in order to make accurate observations and informed decisions. Developing a baseline GIS for nuclear facilities would offer a significant incentive for all organizations to contribute to and utilize this powerful data management tool. The system being developed could integrate all elements of emergency planning, from the initial protective actions based on models through the emergency monitoring phase, and finally ending with the complex reentry and recovery phase. Within the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), there is a continuing effort to improve the data management and communication process. To demonstrate the potential of GIS for emergency response, the system has been utilized in interagency FRMAC exercises. An interactive GIS system has been deployed and used to analyze the available spatial data to help determine the impact of a hypothetical radiological release and to develop mitigation plans. For this application, both hardcopy and real-time spatial displays were generated with the GIS. Composite maps with different sizes, scales, and themes were produced to support the exercises.

  11. The End of Radiology? Three Threats to the Future Practice of Radiology.

    PubMed

    Chockley, Katie; Emanuel, Ezekiel

    2016-12-01

    Radiology faces at least three major, potentially fatal, threats. First, as care moves out of the hospital, there will be a decrease in demand for imaging. More care in patients' homes and in other nonhospital settings means fewer medical tests, including imaging. Second, payment reform and, in particular, bundled payments and capitation mean that imaging will become a cost rather than a profit center. These shifts in provider payment will decrease the demand for imaging and disrupt the practice of radiology. Potentially, the ultimate threat to radiology is machine learning. Machine learning will become a powerful force in radiology in the next 5 to 10 years and could end radiology as a thriving specialty.

  12. Tools for placing the radiological health hazard in perspective following a severe emergency at a light water reactor (LWR) or its spent fuel pool.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Thomas; Welter, Phillip Vilar; Callen, Jessica; Martincic, Rafael; Dodd, Brian; Kutkov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Experience from past nuclear and radiological emergencies shows that placing the radiological health hazard in perspective and having a definition of "safe" are required in order to prevent members of the public, those responsible for protecting the public (i.e., decision makers), and others from taking inappropriate and damaging actions that are not justified based on the radiological health hazard. The principle concerns of the public during a severe nuclear power plant or spent fuel pool emergency are "Am I safe?" and "What should I do to be safe?" However, these questions have not been answered to the satisfaction of the public, despite various protective actions being implemented to ensure their safety. Instead, calculated doses or various measured quantities (e.g., ambient dose rate or radionuclide concentrations) are used to describe the situation to the public without placing them into perspective in terms of the possible radiological health hazard, or if they have, it has been done incorrectly. This has contributed to members of the public taking actions that do more harm than good in the belief that they are protecting themselves. Based on established international guidance, this paper provides a definition of "safe" for the radiological health hazard for use in nuclear or radiological emergencies and a system for putting the radiological health hazard in perspective for quantities most commonly measured after a release resulting from a severe emergency at a light water reactor or its spent fuel pool.

  13. Radiological Instrumentation Assessment for King County Wastewater Treatment Division

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.; McConn, Ronald J.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.

    2005-05-19

    The King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into its combined sanitary and storm sewer system. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material. Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. Volume 2 of PNNL-15163 assesses the radiological instrumentation needs for detection of radiological or nuclear terrorism, in support of decisions to treat contaminated wastewater or to bypass the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP), and in support of radiation protection of the workforce, the public, and the infrastructure of the WPTP. Fixed radiation detection instrumentation should be deployed in a defense-in-depth system that provides 1) early warning of significant radioactive material on the way to the WPTP, including identification of the radionuclide(s) and estimates of the soluble concentrations, with a floating detector located in the wet well at the Interbay Pump Station and telemetered via the internet to all authorized locations; 2) monitoring at strategic locations within the plant, including 2a) the pipe beyond the hydraulic ram in the bar screen room; 2b) above the collection funnels in the fine grit facility; 2c) in the sampling tank in the raw sewage pump room; and 2d) downstream of the concentration facilities that produce 6% blended and concentrated biosolids. Engineering challenges exist for these applications. It is necessary to deploy both ultra-sensitive detectors to provide early warning and identification and detectors capable of functioning in high-dose rate environments that are likely under some scenarios, capable

  14. Resources planning for radiological incidents management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Amy Hamijah binti Ab.; Rozan, Mohd Zaidi Abd; Ibrahim, Roliana; Deris, Safaai; Yunus, Muhd. Noor Muhd.

    2017-01-01

    Disastrous radiation and nuclear meltdown require an intricate scale of emergency health and social care capacity planning framework. In Malaysia, multiple agencies are responsible for implementing radiological and nuclear safety and security. This research project focused on the Radiological Trauma Triage (RTT) System. This system applies patient's classification based on their injury and level of radiation sickness. This classification prioritizes on the diagnostic and treatment of the casualties which include resources estimation of the medical delivery system supply and demand. Also, this system consists of the leading rescue agency organization and disaster coordinator, as well as the technical support and radiological medical response teams. This research implemented and developed the resources planning simulator for radiological incidents management. The objective of the simulator is to assist the authorities in planning their resources while managing the radiological incidents within the Internal Treatment Area (ITA), Reception Area Treatment (RAT) and Hospital Care Treatment (HCT) phases. The majority (75%) of the stakeholders and experts, who had been interviewed, witnessed and accepted that the simulator would be effective to resolve various types of disaster and resources management issues.

  15. Eponyms in cardiothoracic radiology: Part I. Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Saettele, Megan R; Saettele, Timothy; Patel, Vikas; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms serve the purpose of honoring individuals who have made important observations and discoveries. As with other fields of medicine, eponyms are frequently encountered in radiology, particularly in chest radiology. However, inappropriate use of an eponym may lead to potentially dangerous miscommunication. Moreover, an eponym may honor the incorrect person or a person who falls into disrepute. Despite their limitations, eponyms are still widespread in medical literature. Furthermore, in some circumstances, more than one individual may have contributed to the description or discovery of a particular anatomical structure or disease, whereas in others, an eponym may have been incorrectly applied initially and propagated for years in medical literature. Nevertheless, radiologic eponyms are a means of honoring those who have made lasting contributions to the field of radiology, and familiarity with these eponyms is critical for proper reporting and accurate communication. In addition, the acquisition of some historical knowledge about those whose names are associated with various structures or pathologic conditions conveys a sense of humanity in the field of medicine. In this article, the first of a multipart series, the authors discuss a number of chest radiology eponyms as they relate to neoplasms, including relevant clinical and imaging features, as well biographic information of the respective eponym׳s namesake.

  16. Evidence-based radiology: review and dissemination.

    PubMed

    Medina, L Santiago; Blackmore, C Craig

    2007-08-01

    Evidence-based radiology (EBR) is an important tool for the practice of radiology. The user of the EBR approach identifies evidence in a systematic fashion and then assimilates information through in-depth, explicit critical review of the best-designed and most recent literature on the subject in question. Clinical decision making is then based on the best current evidence, clinical expertise, and patient values. Substantial progress has been made in the review and dissemination of EBR. Dissemination of EBR within radiology has two critical aspects. The first is increased understanding of the methods required for EBR and of the appropriate use of EBR. The second important component is the dissemination of the data and critical literature reviews necessary to allow use of the EBR approach. Resources available for both EBR methods and EBR data in radiology include societies, journals, medical meetings, Web sites, and textbooks. Although radiology has made important progress in this field in recent years, the specialty is still behind other specialties that have been at the forefront of evidence-based medicine in the past decade.

  17. Estructura orbital en el Problema Restringido Rectilíneo Isósceles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, R. B.

    Para definir problemas en Mecánica Celeste se utilizan diferentes parámetros. El conocimiento de la dinámica del problema para valores particulares de estos parámetros nos permite entender el comportamiento en casos más generales. El Problema Restringido Rectilíneo Isósceles puede ser considerado como el caso límite del Problema de Sitnikov cuando la excentricidad tiende a uno o como el Problema Isósceles cuando la masa central tiende a cero. Se ha compactificado el espacio de fases y analizado la dinámica en el límite. Esto ha permitido separar el espacio de fases en diferentes regiones dependiendo de las clases de órbitas.

  18. Development of a user-centered radiology teaching file system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Marcelo; Fujino, Asa

    2011-03-01

    Learning radiology requires systematic and comprehensive study of a large knowledge base of medical images. In this work is presented the development of a digital radiology teaching file system. The proposed system has been created in order to offer a set of customized services regarding to users' contexts and their informational needs. This has been done by means of an electronic infrastructure that provides easy and integrated access to all relevant patient data at the time of image interpretation, so that radiologists and researchers can examine all available data to reach well-informed conclusions, while protecting patient data privacy and security. The system is presented such as an environment which implements a distributed clinical database, including medical images, authoring tools, repository for multimedia documents, and also a peer-reviewed model which assures dataset quality. The current implementation has shown that creating clinical data repositories on networked computer environments points to be a good solution in terms of providing means to review information management practices in electronic environments and to create customized and contextbased tools for users connected to the system throughout electronic interfaces.

  19. Interpreting and Reporting Radiological Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCurdy, David E.; Garbarino, John R.; Mullin, Ann H.

    2008-01-01

    This document provides information to U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Science Centers on interpreting and reporting radiological results for samples of environmental matrices, most notably water. The information provided is intended to be broadly useful throughout the United States, but it is recommended that scientists who work at sites containing radioactive hazardous wastes need to consult additional sources for more detailed information. The document is largely based on recognized national standards and guidance documents for radioanalytical sample processing, most notably the Multi-Agency Radiological Laboratory Analytical Protocols Manual (MARLAP), and on documents published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the American National Standards Institute. It does not include discussion of standard USGS practices including field quality-control sample analysis, interpretive report policies, and related issues, all of which shall always be included in any effort by the Water Science Centers. The use of 'shall' in this report signifies a policy requirement of the USGS Office of Water Quality.

  20. Flemish general dental practitioners' knowledge of dental radiology

    PubMed Central

    Aps, J K M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess general dental practitioners' knowledge of dental radiography and radiation protection in order to alert the Belgian authorities and dental professional societies. Prior to attending a postgraduate course on intraoral radiology, general dental practitioners in Flanders, Belgium, were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding the radiological equipment and the techniques they used for intraoral radiography. The availability and type of dental panoramic equipment were also assessed. A total of 374 questionnaires were available for this study. 15% of the attendants used radiographic equipment that was more than 27 years old and 43% reported equipment that operated with a clockwork timer. 32% and 75% respectively had no idea what the kV or mA settings were on their intraoral equipment. 5% were unaware which cone geometry or geometric technique (paralleling or bisecting angle technique) they were using. 81% claimed to be using a short cone technique. 47% did not know what collimation meant, whereas 40% stated that they were using circular collimation. 38% used digital intraoral image detectors (63% were photostimulable storage phosphorplate (PSPP)), but 16% were not sure about the type of sensor they were using (PSPP or solid-state sensors). 61% also had dental panoramic equipment available, 25% of which was digital (10% charge coupled device (CCD) and 15% PSPP). These results clearly indicate the need for continued education on this subject. The latter is an important signal to Belgian authorities and dental professional societies. PMID:20100924