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Sample records for radiolucent electrode array

  1. A compensated radiolucent electrode array for combined EIT and mammography

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Tzu-Jen; Saulnier, G J; Xia, Hongjun; Tamma, Chandana; Newell, J C; Isaacson, D

    2008-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT), a non-invasive technique used to image the electrical conductivity and permittivity within a body from measurements taken on the body's surface, could be used as an indicator for breast cancer. Because of the low spatial resolution of EIT, combining it with other modalities may enhance its utility. X-ray mammography, the standard screening technique for breast cancer, is the first choice for that other modality. Here, we describe a radiolucent electrode array that can be attached to the compression plates of a mammography unit enabling EIT and mammography data to be taken simultaneously and in register. The radiolucent electrode array is made by depositing thin layers of metal on a plastic substrate. The structure of the array is presented along with data showing its x-ray absorbance and electrical properties. The data show that the electrode array has satisfactory radiolucency and sufficiently low resistance. PMID:17664644

  2. Micromachined electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2007-12-11

    An electrode array is disclosed which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array, in certain embodiments, can include a plurality of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. In other embodiments of the electrode array, the electrodes can be fixed to the substrate. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, and can include electrode tips having an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis.

  3. Flexible retinal electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  4. Electrode array for neural stimulation

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Okandan, Murat; Stein, David J.; Yang, Pin; Cesarano, III, Joseph; Dellinger, Jennifer

    2011-08-16

    An electrode array for neural stimulation is disclosed which has particular applications for use in a retinal prosthesis. The electrode array can be formed as a hermetically-sealed two-part ceramic package which includes an electronic circuit such as a demultiplexer circuit encapsulated therein. A relatively large number (up to 1000 or more) of individually-addressable electrodes are provided on a curved surface of a ceramic base portion the electrode array, while a much smaller number of electrical connections are provided on a ceramic lid of the electrode array. The base and lid can be attached using a metal-to-metal seal formed by laser brazing. Electrical connections to the electrode array can be provided by a flexible ribbon cable which can also be used to secure the electrode array in place.

  5. Electrodynamic Arrays Having Nanomaterial Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steven (Inventor); Biris, Alexandru S. (Inventor); Calle, Carlos I. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electrodynamic array of conductive nanomaterial electrodes and a method of making such an electrodynamic array. In one embodiment, a liquid solution containing nanomaterials is deposited as an array of conductive electrodes on a substrate, including rigid or flexible substrates such as fabrics, and opaque or transparent substrates. The nanomaterial electrodes may also be grown in situ. The nanomaterials may include carbon nanomaterials, other organic or inorganic nanomaterials or mixtures.

  6. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  7. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2006-12-12

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  8. Stretchable Micro-Electrode Array

    SciTech Connect

    Maghribi, M; Hamilton, J; Polla, D; Rose, K; Wilson, T; Krulevitch, P

    2002-03-08

    This paper focuses on the design consideration, fabrication processes and preliminary testing of the stretchable micro-electrode array. We are developing an implantable, stretchable micro-electrode array using polymer-based microfabrication techniques. The device will serve as the interface between an electronic imaging system and the human eye, directly stimulating retinal neurons via thin film conducting traces and electroplated electrodes. The metal features are embedded within a thin ({approx}50 micron) substrate fabricated using poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a biocompatible elastomeric material that has very low water permeability. The conformable nature of PDMS is critical for ensuring uniform contact with the curved surface of the retina. To fabricate the device, we developed unique processes for metalizing PDMS to produce robust traces capable of maintaining conductivity when stretched (5%, SD 1.5), and for selectively passivating the conductive elements. An in situ measurement of residual strain in the PDMS during curing reveals a tensile strain of 10%, explaining the stretchable nature of the thin metalized devices.

  9. Virtual electrodes for high-density electrode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Cela, Carlos J.; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2015-10-13

    The present embodiments are directed to implantable electrode arrays having virtual electrodes. The virtual electrodes may improve the resolution of the implantable electrode array without the burden of corresponding complexity of electronic circuitry and wiring. In a particular embodiment, a virtual electrode may include one or more passive elements to help steer current to a specific location between the active electrodes. For example, a passive element may be a metalized layer on a substrate that is adjacent to, but not directly connected to an active electrode. In certain embodiments, an active electrode may be directly coupled to a power source via a conductive connection. Beneficially, the passive elements may help to increase the overall resolution of the implantable array by providing additional stimulation points without requiring additional wiring or driver circuitry for the passive elements.

  10. Optimization of return electrodes in neurostimulating arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Thomas; Goetz, Georges; Lei, Xin; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Objective. High resolution visual prostheses require dense stimulating arrays with localized inputs of individual electrodes. We study the electric field produced by multielectrode arrays in electrolyte to determine an optimal configuration of return electrodes and activation sequence. Approach. To determine the boundary conditions for computation of the electric field in electrolyte, we assessed current dynamics using an equivalent circuit of a multielectrode array with interleaved return electrodes. The electric field modeled with two different boundary conditions derived from the equivalent circuit was then compared to measurements of electric potential in electrolyte. To assess the effect of return electrode configuration on retinal stimulation, we transformed the computed electric fields into retinal response using a model of neural network-mediated stimulation. Main results. Electric currents at the capacitive electrode-electrolyte interface redistribute over time, so that boundary conditions transition from equipotential surfaces at the beginning of the pulse to uniform current density in steady state. Experimental measurements confirmed that, in steady state, the boundary condition corresponds to a uniform current density on electrode surfaces. Arrays with local return electrodes exhibit improved field confinement and can elicit stronger network-mediated retinal response compared to those with a common remote return. Connecting local return electrodes enhances the field penetration depth and allows reducing the return electrode area. Sequential activation of the pixels in large monopolar arrays reduces electrical cross-talk and improves the contrast in pattern stimulation. Significance. Accurate modeling of multielectrode arrays helps optimize the electrode configuration to maximize the spatial resolution, contrast and dynamic range of retinal prostheses.

  11. Microminiature molding techniques for cochlear electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Loeb, G E; Peck, R A; Smith, D W

    1995-12-01

    We provide a general method for producing a variety of small, complex electrode arrays based on injection molds produced using computer-aided drafting and machining (CAD-CAM) procedures and a novel method for connecting to the very fine electrical leads associated with the individual contacts of such arrays. Cat-sized cochlear electrode arrays with up to eight contacts were built according to these methods and their electrical contacts were characterized in vitro by impedance spectroscopy and in vivo by monitoring impedance for over 1 year of intermittent stimulation in chronically instrumented animals. PMID:8788052

  12. Optically transparent multi-suction electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Nagarah, John M.; Stowasser, Annette; Parker, Rell L.; Asari, Hiroki; Wagenaar, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Multielectrode arrays (MEAs) allow for acquisition of multisite electrophysiological activity with submillisecond temporal resolution from neural preparations. The signal to noise ratio from such arrays has recently been improved by substrate perforations that allow negative pressure to be applied to the tissue; however, such arrays are not optically transparent, limiting their potential to be combined with optical-based technologies. We present here multi-suction electrode arrays (MSEAs) in quartz that yield a substantial increase in the detected number of units and in signal to noise ratio from mouse cortico-hippocampal slices and mouse retina explants. This enables the visualization of stronger cross correlations between the firing rates of the various sources. Additionally, the MSEA's transparency allows us to record voltage sensitive dye activity from a leech ganglion with single neuron resolution using widefield microscopy simultaneously with the electrode array recordings. The combination of enhanced electrical signals and compatibility with optical-based technologies should make the MSEA a valuable tool for investigating neuronal circuits. PMID:26539078

  13. Transparent metal electrodes from ordered nanosphere arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfa, Anthony J.; Akinoglu, Eser M.; Subbiah, Jegadesan; Giersig, Michael; Mulvaney, Paul

    2013-08-01

    We show that perforated metal electrode arrays, fabricated using nanosphere lithography, provide a viable alternative to conductive metal oxides as transparent electrode materials. The inter-aperture spacing is tuned by varying etching times in an oxygen plasma, and the effect of inter-aperture "wire" thickness on the optical and electronic properties of perforated silver films is shown. Optical transmission is limited by reflection and surface plasmons, and for these results do not exceed 73%. Electrical sheet resistance is shown to be as low as 3 Ω ◻-1 for thermally evaporated silver films. The performance of organic photovoltaic devices comprised of a P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction deposited onto perforated metal arrays is shown to be limited by optical transmission, and a simple model is presented to overcome these limitations.

  14. Spike sorting for large, dense electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Rossant, Cyrille; Kadir, Shabnam N; Goodman, Dan F M; Schulman, John; Hunter, Maximilian L D; Saleem, Aman B; Grosmark, Andres; Belluscio, Mariano; Denfield, George H; Ecker, Alexander S; Tolias, Andreas S; Solomon, Samuel; Buzsáki, György; Carandini, Matteo; Harris, Kenneth D

    2016-04-01

    Developments in microfabrication technology have enabled the production of neural electrode arrays with hundreds of closely spaced recording sites, and electrodes with thousands of sites are under development. These probes in principle allow the simultaneous recording of very large numbers of neurons. However, use of this technology requires the development of techniques for decoding the spike times of the recorded neurons from the raw data captured from the probes. Here we present a set of tools to solve this problem, implemented in a suite of practical, user-friendly, open-source software. We validate these methods on data from the cortex, hippocampus and thalamus of rat, mouse, macaque and marmoset, demonstrating error rates as low as 5%. PMID:26974951

  15. Spike sorting for large, dense electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Dan F. M.; Schulman, John; Hunter, Maximilian L.D.; Saleem, Aman B.; Grosmark, Andres; Belluscio, Mariano; Denfield, George H.; Ecker, Alexander S.; Tolias, Andreas S.; Solomon, Samuel; Buzsaki, Gyorgy; Carandini, Matteo; Harris, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Developments in microfabrication technology have enabled the production of neural electrode arrays with hundreds of closely-spaced recording sites, and electrodes with thousands of sites are currently under development. These probes in principle allow the simultaneous recording of very large numbers of neurons. However, use of this technology requires the development of techniques for decoding the spike times of the recorded neurons, from the raw data captured from the probes. Here, we present a set of novel tools to solve this problem, implemented in a suite of practical, user-friendly, open-source software. We validate these methods on data from the cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus of rat, mouse, macaque, and marmoset, demonstrating error rates as low as 5%. PMID:26974951

  16. Integrated Arrays of Ion-Sensitive Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin; Kuhlman, Kimberly

    2003-01-01

    The figure depicts an example of proposed compact water-quality sensors that would contain integrated arrays of ion-sensitive electrodes (ISEs). These sensors would serve as electronic "tongues": they would be placed in contact with water and used to "taste" selected dissolved ions (that is, they would be used to measure the concentrations of the ions). The selected ions could be any or all of a variety of organic and inorganic cations and anions that could be regarded as contaminants or analytes, depending on the specific application. In addition, some of the ISEs could be made sensitive to some neutral analytes

  17. Developing barbed microtip-based electrode arrays for biopotential measurement.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Sheng; Tung, Shu-Wei; Kuo, Che-Hsi; Yang, Yao-Joe

    2014-07-10

    This study involved fabricating barbed microtip-based electrode arrays by using silicon wet etching. KOH anisotropic wet etching was employed to form a standard pyramidal microtip array and HF/HNO3 isotropic etching was used to fabricate barbs on these microtips. To improve the electrical conductance between the tip array on the front side of the wafer and the electrical contact on the back side, a through-silicon via was created during the wet etching process. The experimental results show that the forces required to detach the barbed microtip arrays from human skin, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, and a polyvinylchloride (PVC) film were larger compared with those required to detach microtip arrays that lacked barbs. The impedances of the skin-electrode interface were measured and the performance levels of the proposed dry electrode were characterized. Electrode prototypes that employed the proposed tip arrays were implemented. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) recordings using these electrode prototypes were also demonstrated.

  18. Gold nanowire electrodes in array: simulation study and experiments.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Amélie; Dawson, Karen; MacHale, John; Barry, Seán; Quinn, Aidan J; O'Riordan, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in nanofabrication have enabled fabrication of robust and reproducible nanoelectrodes with enhanced performance, when compared to microelectrodes. A hybrid electron beam/photolithography technique is shown that permits discrete gold nanowire electrode arrays to be routinely fabricated at reasonable cost. Fabricated devices include twelve gold nanowire working electrode arrays, an on-chip gold counter electrode and an on-chip platinum pseudo reference electrode. Using potential sweep techniques, when diffusionally independent, these nanowires exhibit measurable currents in the nanoAmpere regime and display steady-state voltammograms even at very high scan rates (5000 mV s(-1)) indicative of fast analyte mass transport to the electrode. Nanowire electrode arrays offer the potential for enhancements in electroanalysis including increased signal to noise ratio and increased sensitivity while also allowing quantitative detection at much lower concentrations. However, to achieve this goal a full understanding of the diffusion profiles existing at nanowire arrays is required. To this end, we simulate the effects of altering inter-electrode separations on analyte diffusion for a range of scan rates at nanowire electrode arrays, and perform the corresponding experiments. We show that arrays with diffusionally independent concentration profiles demonstrate superior electrochemical performance compared to arrays with overlapping diffusion profiles when employing sweep voltammetric techniques. By contrast, we show that arrays with diffusionally overlapping profiles exhibit enhanced performance when employing step voltammetric techniques.

  19. Method for the electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Dirk, Shawn M.; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan M.

    2015-12-15

    A method for preparing an electrochemical biosensor uses bias-assisted assembly of unreactive -onium molecules on an electrode array followed by post-assembly electro-addressable conversion of the unreactive group to a chemical or biological recognition group. Electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays enables the multi-target electrochemical sensing of biological and chemical analytes.

  20. Rank Based Selection of Electrode Positions for a Multi-Lead ECG Electrode Array.

    PubMed

    Hintermuller, Christoph; Fischer, Gerald; Seger, Michael; Pfeifer, Bernhard; Modre, Robert; Tilg, Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    Methods for noninvasive imaging of electrical function of the heart seem to become a clinical standard procedure the next years. Thus, the overall procedure has to meet clinical requirements as easy and fast application. In this study we propose a new electrode array meeting clinical requirements such as easy to apply and compatibility with routine leads. Within body surface regions of high sensitivity, identified in a prior, information content based study, the number of required electrodes was optimized using effort-gain plots. These plots were generated by applying a so called type one detector criterion. The optimal array was selected from a set of 12 electrode arrays. Each of them consists of two L-shaped regular spaced parts. The optimal array was found by comparing several layouts and electrode densities to the electrode array we use for clinical studies. It consists of 125 electrodes with a regular spacing between 2cm and 3cm.

  1. Modiolus-hugging intracochlear electrode array with shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyou Sik; Jun, Sang Beom; Lim, Yoon Seob; Park, Se-Ik; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA-) embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications. PMID:23762181

  2. Inflatable belt for the application of electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadleir, R. J.; Fox, R. A.; Turner, V. F.

    2000-02-01

    A prototype device for application of a multiple electrode array to the human abdomen is described and assessed. The device consists of a segmented pneumatic (PVC) belt that, upon inflation, presses electrodes onto the skin simultaneously and with predetermined relative spacings. A single belt can fit a wide range of subject sizes and is comfortable for subjects to wear. It may be useful under conditions where the time taken to attach electrodes is crucial—as in hospital emergency ward applications, and where the maintenance of constant relative electrode spacings is important. The noise performance of these electrodes was only slightly poorer than that obtained using adhesive ECG electrodes.

  3. Recording and assessment of evoked potentials with electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Miljković, N; Malešević, N; Kojić, V; Bijelić, G; Keller, T; Popović, D B

    2015-09-01

    In order to optimize procedure for the assessment of evoked potentials and to provide visualization of the flow of action potentials along the motor systems, we introduced array electrodes for stimulation and recording and developed software for the analysis of the recordings. The system uses a stimulator connected to an electrode array for the generation of evoked potentials, an electrode array connected to the amplifier, A/D converter and computer for the recording of evoked potentials, and a dedicated software application. The method has been tested for the assessment of the H-reflex on the triceps surae muscle in six healthy humans. The electrode array with 16 pads was positioned over the posterior aspect of the thigh, while the recording electrode array with 16 pads was positioned over the triceps surae muscle. The stimulator activated all the pads of the stimulation electrode array asynchronously, while the signals were recorded continuously at all the recording sites. The results are topography maps (spatial distribution of evoked potentials) and matrices (spatial visualization of nerve excitability). The software allows the automatic selection of the lowest stimulation intensity to achieve maximal H-reflex amplitude and selection of the recording/stimulation pads according to predefined criteria. The analysis of results shows that the method provides rich information compared with the conventional recording of the H-reflex with regard the spatial distribution.

  4. Neuro-Prosthetic Implants With Adjustable Electrode Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay; DelCastillo, Linda Y.; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Johnson, Travis; West, William; Andersen, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Brushlike arrays of electrodes packaged with application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are undergoing development for use as electronic implants especially as neuro-prosthetic devices that might be implanted in brains to detect weak electrical signals generated by neurons. These implants partly resemble the ones reported in Integrated Electrode Arrays for Neuro-Prosthetic Implants (NPO-21198), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 2 (February 2003), page 48. The basic idea underlying both the present and previously reported implants is that the electrodes would pick up signals from neurons and the ASICs would amplify and otherwise preprocess the signals for monitoring by external equipment. The figure presents a simplified and partly schematic view of an implant according to the present concept. Whereas the electrodes in an implant according to the previously reported concept would be microscopic wires, the electrodes according to the present concept are in the form of microscopic needles. An even more important difference would be that, unlike the previously reported concept, the present concept calls for the inclusion of microelectromechanical actuators for adjusting the depth of penetration of the electrodes into brain tissue. The prototype implant now under construction includes an array of 100 electrodes and corresponding array of electrode contact pads formed on opposite faces of a plate fabricated by techniques that are established in the art of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). A mixed-signal ASIC under construction at the time of reporting the information for this article will include 100 analog amplifier channels (one amplifier per electrode). On one face of the mixed-signal ASIC there will be a solder-bump/micro-pad array that will have the same pitch as that of the electrode array, and that will be used to make the electrical and mechanical connections between the electrode array and the ASIC. Once the electrode array and the ASIC are soldered

  5. Developing Barbed Microtip-Based Electrode Arrays for Biopotential Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Li-Sheng; Tung, Shu-Wei; Kuo, Che-Hsi; Yang, Yao-Joe

    2014-01-01

    This study involved fabricating barbed microtip-based electrode arrays by using silicon wet etching. KOH anisotropic wet etching was employed to form a standard pyramidal microtip array and HF/HNO3 isotropic etching was used to fabricate barbs on these microtips. To improve the electrical conductance between the tip array on the front side of the wafer and the electrical contact on the back side, a through-silicon via was created during the wet etching process. The experimental results show that the forces required to detach the barbed microtip arrays from human skin, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, and a polyvinylchloride (PVC) film were larger compared with those required to detach microtip arrays that lacked barbs. The impedances of the skin-electrode interface were measured and the performance levels of the proposed dry electrode were characterized. Electrode prototypes that employed the proposed tip arrays were implemented. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) recordings using these electrode prototypes were also demonstrated. PMID:25014098

  6. System of fabricating a flexible electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter; Polla, Dennis L.; Maghribi, Mariam N.; Hamilton, Julie; Humayun, Mark S.; Weiland, James D.

    2012-01-28

    An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

  7. System of fabricating a flexible electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter; Polla, Dennis L.; Maghribi, Mariam N.; Hamilton, Julie; Humayun, Mark S.; Weiland, James D.

    2010-10-12

    An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

  8. Flexible electrode array for artifical vision

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter; Polla, Dennis L.; Maghribi, Mariam N.; Hamilton, Julie

    2006-12-05

    An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

  9. Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng F.; Tu, Yi

    2008-12-16

    CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

  10. Device for the implantation of neural electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Bredeson, Samuel D; Troyk, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    Electrode arrays used in neural recording and stimulation applications must be implanted carefully to minimize damage to the underlying tissue. A device has been designed to improve a surgeon's control over implantation parameters including depth, insertion velocity, and insertion force. The device has been designed to operate without contacting tissue and to respond to tissue movements in real time during insertion. This device uses an electrical motor to drive electrode arrays into tissue and allows for the monitoring of and response to electrode depth during insertion. A prototype device has been constructed and tests have been performed to determine the velocity and force characteristics of the motor when inside the device housing. Future versions of the device will use a custom-designed motor with longer linear travel, which will allow the insertion device to be held farther from tissue while still ensuring proper array insertion. PMID:25569989

  11. Graphene Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Next- Generation Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Mary; Sultana, Mahmooda; Hess, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Graphene is a single atomic layer of graphite. It is optically transparent and has high electron mobility, and thus has great potential to make transparent conductive electrodes. This invention contributes towards the development of graphene transparent conductive electrodes for next-generation microshutter arrays. The original design for the electrodes of the next generation of microshutters uses indium-tin-oxide (ITO) as the electrode material. ITO is widely used in NASA flight missions. The optical transparency of ITO is limited, and the material is brittle. Also, ITO has been getting more expensive in recent years. The objective of the invention is to develop a graphene transparent conductive electrode that will replace ITO. An exfoliation procedure was developed to make graphene out of graphite crystals. In addition, large areas of single-layer graphene were produced using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) with high optical transparency. A special graphene transport procedure was developed for transferring graphene from copper substrates to arbitrary substrates. The concept is to grow large-size graphene sheets using the LPCVD system through chemical reaction, transfer the graphene film to a substrate, dope graphene to reduce the sheet resistance, and pattern the film to the dimension of the electrodes in the microshutter array. Graphene transparent conductive electrodes are expected to have a transparency of 97.7%. This covers the electromagnetic spectrum from UV to IR. In comparison, ITO electrodes currently used in microshutter arrays have 85% transparency in mid-IR, and suffer from dramatic transparency drop at a wavelength of near-IR or shorter. Thus, graphene also has potential application as transparent conductive electrodes for Schottky photodiodes in the UV region.

  12. Carbon Nanotube Electrode Arrays For Enhanced Chemical and Biological Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jie

    2003-01-01

    Applications of carbon nanotubes for ultra-sensitive electrical sensing of chemical and biological species have been a major focus in NASA Ames Center for Nanotechnology. Great progress has been made toward controlled growth and chemical functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays and integration into micro-fabricated chip devices. Carbon nanotube electrode arrays devices have been used for sub-attomole detection of DNA molecules. Interdigitated carbon nanotubes arrays devices have been applied to sub ppb (part per billion) level chemical sensing for many molecules at room temperature. Stability and reliability have also been addressed in our device development. These results show order of magnitude improvement in device performance, size and power consumption as compared to micro devices, promising applications of carbon nanotube electrode arrays for clinical molecular diagnostics, personal medical testing and monitoring, and environmental monitoring.

  13. Chronic impedance spectroscopy of an endovascular stent-electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opie, Nicholas L.; John, Sam E.; Rind, Gil S.; Ronayne, Stephen M.; Grayden, David B.; Burkitt, Anthony N.; May, Clive N.; O'Brien, Terence J.; Oxley, Thomas J.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Recently, we reported a minimally invasive stent-electrode array capable of recording neural signals from within a blood vessel. We now investigate the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements to infer changes occurring to the electrode-tissue interface from devices implanted in a cohort of sheep for up to 190 days. Approach. In a cohort of 15 sheep, endovascular stent-electrode arrays were implanted in the superior sagittal sinus overlying the motor cortex for up to 190 days. EIS was performed routinely to quantify viable electrodes for up to 91 days. An equivalent circuit model (ECM) was developed from the in vivo measurements to characterize the electrode-tissue interface changes occurring to the electrodes chronically implanted within a blood vessel. Post-mortem histological assessment of stent and electrode incorporation into the wall of the cortical vessels was compared to the electrical impedance measurements. Main results. EIS could be used to infer electrode viability and was consistent with x-ray analysis performed in vivo, and post-mortem evaluation. Viable electrodes exhibited consistent 1 kHz impedances across the 91 day measurement period, with the peak resistance frequency for the acquired data also stable over time. There was a significant change in 100 Hz phase angles, increasing from -67.8° ± 8.8° at day 0 to -43.8° ± 0.8° at day 91, which was observed to stabilize after eight days. ECM’s modeled to the data suggested this change was due to an increase in the capacitance of the electrode-tissue interface. This was supported by histological assessment with >85% of the implanted stent struts covered with neointima and incorporated into the blood vessel within two weeks. Conclusion. This work demonstrated that EIS could be used to determine the viability of electrode implanted chronically within a blood vessel. Impedance measurements alone were not observed to be a useful predictor of alterations occurring

  14. Comparison of the efficacy of a subcutaneous array electrode with a subcutaneous patch electrode, a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Kühlkamp, V; Dörnberger, V; Mewis, C; Seipel, L

    2001-05-01

    The patch electrode and the array electrode are the two types of subcutaneous leads available as an adjunct to a transvenous lead system in patients with high defibrillation thresholds. A prospective randomized study was conducted in 30 consecutive patients comparing the efficacy and the long-term performance of a patch electrode with an array electrode. After determination of the defibrillation threshold for the transvenous lead alone, a subcutaneous patch or an array electrode was implanted in random order. Adding a patch electrode decreased the defibrillation threshold in seven out of 15 patients (47%) from 13.2+/-6.6 to 10.5+/-5.1 J (P<0.05). In 13 out of 15 patients (87%), the implantation of an array electrode caused a significant lowering of the defibrillation threshold from 15.4+/-6.6 to 8.2+/-5.0 J (P<0.0001). The array electrode was significantly more effective in lowering the defibrillation threshold than the patch electrode (P<0.01). Complications during follow-up associated with the subcutaneous patch electrode were observed in four patients whereas no complications were associated with the array electrode (P<0.01). The additional implantation of an array electrode is more effective and associated with fewer complications compared to a patch electrode.

  15. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on the BDD nanograss array electrode

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of DNA biosensor has attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications, including gene analysis, clinical diagnostics, forensic study and more medical applications. Using electroactive daunomycin as an indicator, the hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry in this study. Results Electrochemical DNA biosensor was developed based on the BDD film electrode (fBDD) and BDD nanograss array electrode (nBDD). In comparison with fBDD and AuNPs/CA/fBDD electrode, the lower semicircle diameter of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy obtained on nBDD and AuNPs/CA/nBDD electrode indicated that the presence of nanograss array improved the reactive site, reduced the interfacial resistance, and made the electron transfer easier. Using electroactive daunomycin as an indicator, the hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry. Conclusions The experimental results demonstrated that the prepared AuNPs/CA/nBDD electrode was suitable for DNA hybridization with favorable performance of faster response, higher sensitivity, lower detection limit and satisfactory selectivity, reproducibility and stability. PMID:23575250

  16. The rational for a mid-scala electrode array.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P J

    2016-06-01

    Today increasing numbers of cochlear implant candidates have residual hearing that can be aided and hence is worth trying to preserve. This means that surgical technique and electrode array design must be adapted to minimize trauma. Wide opening of the round window is often preferred to reduce drill related trauma and to avoid pressure spikes during electrode array insertion. A recent meta-analysis suggested that there is no significant correlation between hearing preservation and either insertion depth or scala position. However, a slow insertion speed of at least 30seconds was associated with better hearing preservation. An electrode design is proposed that targets the middle of the scala tympani. This minimizes frictional forces from either lateral or medial wall during insertion and imposes less static pressure on cochlear structures following insertion. The flexibility to insert via the round window requires a 0.7-mm maximum dimension at the proximal end of the array. Micro-anatomical analysis by micro-CT indicated that a 420-degree insertion depth was optimal between cochlear coverage and available space within the scala tympani. Physical measurements showed that mean insertion forces remained below 10mN during insertion. A series of 20 human temporal bone insertions found a mean insertion depth of 400 degrees with no scala dislocations. Six clinical series, in total 94 cases, found postoperative hearing in 81% of cases with a mean loss of 12dB compared to preoperative levels. Speech understanding out to one year post-fitting trended better for a mid-scala design group than for a straight electrode array group; although the differences were not statistically significant. A mid-scala array design appears able to be inserted with minimal trauma, to return a predictable insertion depth across various sizes of cochleae and to support reasonable levels of speech understanding without relying on residual hearing. PMID:27246747

  17. Chronic impedance spectroscopy of an endovascular stent-electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opie, Nicholas L.; John, Sam E.; Rind, Gil S.; Ronayne, Stephen M.; Grayden, David B.; Burkitt, Anthony N.; May, Clive N.; O’Brien, Terence J.; Oxley, Thomas J.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Recently, we reported a minimally invasive stent-electrode array capable of recording neural signals from within a blood vessel. We now investigate the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements to infer changes occurring to the electrode–tissue interface from devices implanted in a cohort of sheep for up to 190 days. Approach. In a cohort of 15 sheep, endovascular stent-electrode arrays were implanted in the superior sagittal sinus overlying the motor cortex for up to 190 days. EIS was performed routinely to quantify viable electrodes for up to 91 days. An equivalent circuit model (ECM) was developed from the in vivo measurements to characterize the electrode–tissue interface changes occurring to the electrodes chronically implanted within a blood vessel. Post-mortem histological assessment of stent and electrode incorporation into the wall of the cortical vessels was compared to the electrical impedance measurements. Main results. EIS could be used to infer electrode viability and was consistent with x-ray analysis performed in vivo, and post-mortem evaluation. Viable electrodes exhibited consistent 1 kHz impedances across the 91 day measurement period, with the peak resistance frequency for the acquired data also stable over time. There was a significant change in 100 Hz phase angles, increasing from ‑67.8° ± 8.8° at day 0 to ‑43.8° ± 0.8° at day 91, which was observed to stabilize after eight days. ECM’s modeled to the data suggested this change was due to an increase in the capacitance of the electrode–tissue interface. This was supported by histological assessment with >85% of the implanted stent struts covered with neointima and incorporated into the blood vessel within two weeks. Conclusion. This work demonstrated that EIS could be used to determine the viability of electrode implanted chronically within a blood vessel. Impedance measurements alone were not observed to be a useful predictor of alterations

  18. Preparation, applications, and digital simulation of carbon interdigitated array electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Kolesov, Grigory; Parkinson, B A

    2014-08-01

    Carbon interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes with features sizes down to 1.2 μm were fabricated by controlled pyrolysis of patterned photoresist. Cyclic voltammetry of reversible redox species produced the expected steady-state currents. The collection efficiency depends on the IDA electrode spacing, which ranged from around 2.7 to 16.5 μm, with the smaller dimensions achieving higher collection efficiencies of up to 98%. The signal amplification because of redox cycling makes it possible to detect species at relatively low concentrations (10(-5) molar) and the small spacing allows detection of transient electrogenerated species with much shorter lifetimes (submillisecond). Digital simulation software that accounts for both the width and height of electrode elements as well as the electrode spacing was developed to model the IDA electrode response. The simulations are in quantitative agreement with experimental data for both a simple fast one electron redox reaction and an electron transfer with a following chemical reaction at the IDAs with larger gaps whereas currents measured for the smallest IDA electrodes, that were larger than the simulated currents, are attributed to convection from induced charge electrokinetic flow. PMID:24998907

  19. Preparation, Applications, and Digital Simulation of Carbon Interdigitated Array Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fei; Kolesov, Grigory; Parkinson, Bruce A.

    2014-12-16

    Carbon interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes with features sizes down to 1.2 μm were fabricated by controlled pyrolysis of patterned photoresist. Cyclic voltam-metry of reversible redox species produced the expected steady-state currents. The collection efficiency depends on the IDA electrode spacing, which ranged from around 2.7 to 16.5 μm, with the smaller dimensions achieving higher collection efficiencies of up to 98%. The signal amplification because of redox cycling makes it possible to detect species at relatively low concentrations (10–5 molar) and the small spacing allows detection of transient electrogenerated species with much shorter lifetimes (submillisecond). Digital simulation software that accounts for both the width and height of electrode elements as well as the electrode spacing was developed to model the IDA electrode response. The simulations are in quantitative agreement with experimental data for both a simple fast one electron redox reaction and an electron transfer with a following chemical reaction at the IDAs with larger gaps whereas currents measured for the smallest IDA electrodes, that were larger than the simulated currents, are attributed to convection from induced charge electrokinetic flow. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  20. Interaction of array of finite electrodes with layered biological tissue: effect of electrode size and configuration.

    PubMed

    Livshitz, L M; Mizrahi, J; Einziger, P D

    2001-12-01

    A hybrid scheme, combining image series and moment method has been utilized for the calculation of the intramuscular three-dimensional (3-D) current density (CD) distribution and potential field transcutaneously excited by an electrode array. The model permits one to study the effect of tissue electrical properties and electrode placement on the CD distribution. The isometric recruitment curve (IRC) of the muscle was used for parameter estimation and model verification, by comparison with experimentally obtained IRCs of functional electrical stimulation (FES)-activated quadriceps muscle of paraplegic subjects. Sensitivity of the calculated IRC to parameters such as tissue conductivity, electrode size, and configuration was verified. The resulting model demonstrated characteristic features that were similar to those of experimentally obtained data. The model IRCs were insensitive to the electrode size; however, the inclusion of the bone-fascia layer significantly increased the intramuscular CD and, consequently, increased the IRC slope. Of the different configurations studied, a four-electrode array proved advantageous because, in this case, the CD between the electrodes was more evenly distributed, providing better resistance to fatigue. However, due to the steeper linear portion of the IRC, this configuration suffered from a somewhat reduced controllability of the muscle.

  1. Cochlear implant electrode array misplaced in Hyrtl's fissure.

    PubMed

    Mouzali, Amina; Ouennoughi, Kheiredidine; Haraoubia, Mohamed-Salah; Zemirli, Omar; Triglia, Jean Michel

    2011-11-01

    Hyrtl's fissure is a cleft that is present in the developing fetal petrous temporal bone and extends from the area inferior to the round window to the meninges of the posterior fossa. Persistent Hyrtl's fissure, due to incomplete ossification, is considered a rare temporal bone malformation, and is a known cause of perilabyrinthine cerebrospinal fluid fistula. Very few cases are reported as being at risk of complication of cochlear implant surgery. Here we report the case of an 8-year-old boy with misplacement of an electrode array in Hyrtl's fissure. The diagnosis was made postoperatively, since cochlear implant failure was suspected from non-auditory responses. Computed tomography (CT) revealed the extracochlear location of the electrode array. We emphasize the role of presurgical imaging CT and magnetic resonance imaging in detecting temporal bone abnormalities, and we discuss the value of intraoperative auditory nerve response telemetry and postoperative radiological evaluation in diagnosing cochlear implant misplacement.

  2. Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber electrode arrays for nucleic acid detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Prabhu U.; Yu, Edmond; Riviere, Roger; Meyyappan, M.

    2010-10-01

    We present electrochemical detection of DNA targets that corresponds to Escherichia coli O157:H7 16S rRNA gene using a nanoelectrode array consisting of vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) electrodes. Parylene C is used as gap filling 'matrix' material to avoid high temperature processing in electrode construction. This easy to deposit film of several micron heights provides a conformal coating between the high aspect ratio VACNFs with negligible pin-holes. The low background currents show the potential of this approach for ultra-sensitive detection. Consistent and reproducible electrochemical-signals are achieved using a simple electrode preparation. This simple, reliable and low-cost approach is a forward step in developing practical sensors for applications like pathogen detection, early cancer diagnosis and environmental monitoring.

  3. Conical Gradient Junctions of Dendritic Viologen Arrays on Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Kawauchi, Takehiro; Oguchi, Yuki; Nagai, Keiji; Iyoda, Tomokazu

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional construction of arrays of functional molecules on an electrode surface, such as organic semiconductors and redox-active molecules, is a considerable challenge in the fabrication of sophisticated junctions for molecular devices. In particular, well-defined organic layers with precise molecular gradients are anticipated to function as novel metal/organic interfaces with specific electrical properties, such as a space charge layer at the metal/semiconductor interface. Here, we report a strategy for the construction of a three-dimensional molecular array with an electrical connection to a metal electrode by exploiting dendritic molecular architecture. Newly designed dendritic molecules consisting of viologens (1,1′-disubstituted-4,4′-bipyridilium salts) as the framework and mercapto groups as anchor units form unique self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on a gold surface reflecting the molecular design. The dendritic molecules exhibit a conical shape and closely pack to form cone arrays on the substrate, whereas, in solution, they expand into more flexible conformations. Differences in the introduction position of the anchor units in the dendritic structure result in apical- and basal-type cone arrays in which the spatial concentration of the viologen units can be precisely configured in the cones. The concentration in apical-type SAMs increases away from the substrate, whereas the opposite is true in basal-type SAMs. PMID:26057120

  4. Integrated Electrode Arrays for Neuro-Prosthetic Implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik; Mojarradi, Mohammede

    2003-01-01

    Arrays of electrodes integrated with chip-scale packages and silicon-based integrated circuits have been proposed for use as medical electronic implants, including neuro-prosthetic devices that might be implanted in brains of patients who suffer from strokes, spinal-cord injuries, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The electrodes of such a device would pick up signals from neurons in the cerebral cortex, and the integrated circuit would perform acquisition and preprocessing of signal data. The output of the integrated circuit could be used to generate, for example, commands for a robotic arm. Electrode arrays capable of acquiring electrical signals from neurons already exist, but heretofore, there has been no convenient means to integrate these arrays with integrated-circuit chips. Such integration is needed in order to eliminate the need for the extensive cabling now used to pass neural signals to data-acquisition and -processing equipment outside the body. The proposed integration would enable progress toward neuro-prostheses that would be less restrictive of patients mobility. An array of electrodes would comprise a set of thin wires of suitable length and composition protruding from and supported by a fine-pitch micro-ball grid array or chip-scale package (see figure). The associated integrated circuit would be mounted on the package face opposite the probe face, using the solder bumps (the balls of the ball grid array) to make the electrical connections between the probes and the input terminals of the integrated circuit. The key innovation is the insertion of probe wires of the appropriate length and material into the solder bumps through a reflow process, thereby fixing the probes in place and electrically connecting them with the integrated circuit. The probes could be tailored to any distribution of lengths and made of any suitable metal that could be drawn into fine wires. Furthermore, the wires could be coated with an insulating layer using anodization or

  5. Pericoronal radiolucency associated with incomplete crown.

    PubMed

    Nah, Kyung-Soo

    2013-12-01

    The author experienced 8 cases of pericoronal radiolucency involving an incomplete tooth crown that had not developed to form the cemento-enamel junction, and the underdeveloped crown sometimes appeared to be floating within the radiolucency radiographically. The first impression was that these cystic lesions had odontogenic keratocysts, but half of them turned out to be dentigerous cysts histopathologically. There has been no report concerning odontogenic cysts involving an incompletely developed crown. The purpose of this paper is to report that dentigerous cysts may develop before the completion of the cemento-enamel junction of a developing crown. PMID:24380070

  6. Nanoband array electrode as a platform for high sensitivity enzyme-based glucose biosensing.

    PubMed

    Falk, Magnus; Sultana, Reshma; Swann, Marcus J; Mount, Andrew R; Freeman, Neville J

    2016-12-01

    We describe a novel glucose biosensor based on a nanoband array electrode design, manufactured using standard semiconductor processing techniques, and bio-modified with glucose oxidase immobilized at the nanoband electrode surface. The nanoband array architecture allows for efficient diffusion of glucose and oxygen to the electrode, resulting in a thousand-fold improvement in sensitivity and wide linear range compared to a conventional electrode. The electrode constitutes a robust and manufacturable sensing platform. PMID:27118384

  7. Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber nanoelectrode arrays: electrochemical etching and electrode reusability

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rakesh K.; Meyyappan, M.; Koehne, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers in the form of nanoelectrode arrays were grown on nine individual electrodes, arranged in a 3 × 3 array geometry, in a 2.5 cm2 chip. Electrochemical etching of the carbon nanofibers was employed for electrode activation and enhancing the electrode kinetics. Here, we report the effects of electrochemical etching on the fiber height and electrochemical properties. Electrode regeneration by amide hydrolysis and electrochemical etching is also investigated for electrode reusability. PMID:25089188

  8. Operation of a planar-electrode ion-trap array with adjustable RF electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumph, M.; Holz, P.; Langer, K.; Meraner, M.; Niedermayr, M.; Brownnutt, M.; Blatt, R.

    2016-02-01

    One path to realizing systems of trapped atomic ions suitable for large-scale quantum computing and simulation is to create a two-dimensional (2D) array of ion traps. Interactions between nearest-neighbouring ions could then be turned on and off by tuning the ions’ relative positions and frequencies. We demonstrate and characterize the operation of a planar-electrode ion-trap array. By driving the trap with a network of phase-locked radio-frequency resonators which provide independently variable voltage amplitudes we vary the position and motional frequency of a Ca+ ion in two-dimensions within the trap array. Work on fabricating a miniaturised form of this 2D trap array is also described, which could ultimately provide a viable architecture for large-scale quantum simulations.

  9. A Active Micromachined Scalp Electrode Array for Eeg Signal Recording.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh-Taheri, Babak

    This thesis describes the design, microfabrication, and testing of an active scalp EEG (electroencephalograph) electrode that has several distinct advantages over existing technologies. These advantages are: (1) no electrolyte used, (2) no skin preparation, (3) significantly reduced sensor size, and (4) compatibility with EEG monitoring systems. The active electrode array is an integrated system made of an array of capacitive sensors with local integrated circuitry housed in a package with batteries to power the circuitry. This level of integration was required to achieve the functional performance obtained by the electrode. The electrode consists of a silicon sensor substrate fabricated at UCD and a custom circuit substrate fabricated at Orbit Semiconductors, using a 2 μm analog CMOS technology. The circuitry was designed for low 1/f noise. One side of the sensor substrate holds four capacitive sensors with rm Si_3N _4 as the dielectric material. The opposite side holds aluminum pads for bonding to the circuit substrate. A via hole technology was developed to make electrical contact to both sides of the sensor substrate. The via holes are 200 μm square openings etched through the silicon by a reactive ion etching (RIE) process using an rm SF_6/O_2 gas mixture, oxidized, and then filled with sputtered aluminum for contacts through the substrate. The via holes have an aspect ratio of 2:1 (length of opening to depth of hole). Silicon RIE etch rates of up to 18 mu/hr were obtained under optimum conditions, using a 0.8 μm aluminum mask. The circuit and sensor substrates were bonded with silver adhesive, and wire bonding was used to make electrical contacts between the substrates. The two substrates were then integrated in a custom package for testing. The electrode was tested on an electrical test bench and on human subjects in four modalities of EEG activity, namely: (1) spontaneous EEG, (2) sensory event-related potentials, (3) brain stem potentials, and (4

  10. Radiolucent retractor for operative coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Collins, J J

    1977-05-01

    A new retractor has been designed for sternal separation during cardiac operations. This retractor has the advantage of radiolucent blades that allow visualization of the entire heart by roentgenographic techniques without compromise of surgical exposure during the course of operation. The retractor also has swivel blades that provide excellent conformity to the sternal edges without pressure points, which tend to produce fractures.

  11. Single-incision and single-element array electrode to lower the defibrillation threshold.

    PubMed

    Kühlkamp, V; Khalighi, K; Dörnberger, V; Ziemer, G

    1997-10-01

    Occasional patients have excessive defibrillation energy requirements despite appropriate transvenous defibrillation lead position and the use of biphasic shocks. A single-element subcutaneous array electrode was implanted in 2 patients with a high defibrillation threshold. The array electrode was implanted through the same infraclavicular incision that was used for implantation of the transvenous lead. The defibrillation threshold decreased from 30 J to 15 J and from 24 J to 9 J with the subcutaneous array electrode.

  12. Electrochemical Patterning and Detection of DNA Arrays on a Two-Electrode Platform

    PubMed Central

    Furst, Ariel; Landefeld, Sally; Hill, Michael G.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2014-01-01

    We report a novel method of DNA array formation that is electrochemically formed and addressed with a two-electrode platform. Electrochemical activation of a copper catalyst, patterned with one electrode, enables precise placement of multiple sequences of DNA onto a second electrode surface. The two-electrode patterning and detection platform allows for both spatial resolution of the patterned DNA array and optimization of detection through DNA-mediated charge transport with electrocatalysis. This two-electrode platform has been used to form arrays that enable differentiation between well-matched and mismatched sequences, the detection of TATA-binding protein, and sequence-selective DNA hybridization. PMID:24328227

  13. Electrochemical patterning and detection of DNA arrays on a two-electrode platform.

    PubMed

    Furst, Ariel; Landefeld, Sally; Hill, Michael G; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2013-12-26

    We report a novel method of DNA array formation that is electrochemically formed and addressed with a two-electrode platform. Electrochemical activation of a copper catalyst, patterned with one electrode, enables precise placement of multiple sequences of DNA onto a second electrode surface. The two-electrode patterning and detection platform allows for both spatial resolution of the patterned DNA array and optimization of detection through DNA-mediated charge transport with electrocatalysis. This two-electrode platform has been used to form arrays that enable differentiation between well-matched and mismatched sequences, the detection of TATA-binding protein, and sequence-selective DNA hybridization. PMID:24328227

  14. Electric crosstalk impairs spatial resolution of multi-electrode arrays in retinal implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, R. G. H.; Khalili Moghadam, G.; Lovell, N. H.; Suaning, G. J.; Dokos, S.

    2011-08-01

    Active multi-electrode arrays are used in vision prostheses, including optic nerve cuffs and cortical and retinal implants for stimulation of neural tissue. For retinal implants, arrays with up to 1500 electrodes are used in clinical trials. The ability to convey information with high spatial resolution is critical for these applications. To assess the extent to which spatial resolution is impaired by electric crosstalk, finite-element simulation of electric field distribution in a simplified passive tissue model of the retina is performed. The effects of electrode size, electrode spacing, distance to target cells, and electrode return configuration (monopolar, tripolar, hexagonal) on spatial resolution is investigated in the form of a mathematical model of electric field distribution. Results show that spatial resolution is impaired with increased distance from the electrode array to the target cells. This effect can be partly compensated by non-monopolar electrode configurations and larger electrode diameters, albeit at the expense of lower pixel densities due to larger covering areas by each stimulation electrode. In applications where multi-electrode arrays can be brought into close proximity to target cells, as presumably with epiretinal implants, smaller electrodes in monopolar configuration can provide the highest spatial resolution. However, if the implantation site is further from the target cells, as is the case in suprachoroidal approaches, hexagonally guarded electrode return configurations can convey higher spatial resolution. This paper was originally submitted for the special issue containing contributions from the Sixth Biennial Research Congress of The Eye and the Chip.

  15. Electric crosstalk impairs spatial resolution of multi-electrode arrays in retinal implants.

    PubMed

    Wilke, R G H; Moghadam, G Khalili; Lovell, N H; Suaning, G J; Dokos, S

    2011-08-01

    Active multi-electrode arrays are used in vision prostheses, including optic nerve cuffs and cortical and retinal implants for stimulation of neural tissue. For retinal implants, arrays with up to 1500 electrodes are used in clinical trials. The ability to convey information with high spatial resolution is critical for these applications. To assess the extent to which spatial resolution is impaired by electric crosstalk, finite-element simulation of electric field distribution in a simplified passive tissue model of the retina is performed. The effects of electrode size, electrode spacing, distance to target cells, and electrode return configuration (monopolar, tripolar, hexagonal) on spatial resolution is investigated in the form of a mathematical model of electric field distribution. Results show that spatial resolution is impaired with increased distance from the electrode array to the target cells. This effect can be partly compensated by non-monopolar electrode configurations and larger electrode diameters, albeit at the expense of lower pixel densities due to larger covering areas by each stimulation electrode. In applications where multi-electrode arrays can be brought into close proximity to target cells, as presumably with epiretinal implants, smaller electrodes in monopolar configuration can provide the highest spatial resolution. However, if the implantation site is further from the target cells, as is the case in suprachoroidal approaches, hexagonally guarded electrode return configurations can convey higher spatial resolution. PMID:21673395

  16. Design and characterisation of a thin-film electrode array with shared reference/counter electrodes for electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Yildiz; Olcer, Zehra; Sagiroglu, Mahmut Samil

    2014-07-15

    In the current study, a novel electrode array and integrated microfluidics have been designed and characterised in order to create a sensor chip which is not only easy, rapid and cheaper to produce but also have a smaller imprint and good electrochemical sensing properties. The current study includes the assessment of the effects of an Au quasi-reference electrode and the use of shared reference/counter electrodes for the array, in order to obtain a small array that can be produced using a fine metal mask. In the study, it is found that when Au is used as the quasi-reference electrode, the arrays with shared reference and counter electrodes result in faster electron transfer kinetics and prevent the potential change with respect to scan rate, and hence is advantageous with respect to conventional electrodes. In addition, the resulting novel electrode array has been shown to result in higher current density (10.52 µA/cm(2); HRP detection assay) and measured diffusion coefficient (14.40×10(-12) cm(2)/s; calculated from the data of cyclic voltammetry with 1mM potassium ferricyanide) with respect to conventional electrodes tested in the study. Using the new electrode arrays, the detection limits obtained from horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and bisphenol A assays were 12.5 ng/ml (2.84×10(-10) M ) and 10 ng/ml (44×10(-9) M), respectively. Performing the HRP detection assay in a flow injection system using array integrated microfluidics provided 25 times lower detection limit (11.36×10(-12) M), although Ti has been used as electrode material instead of Au. In short, incorporation of this new electrode array to lab-on-a-chip or MEMs (micro-electro mechanic systems) technologies may pave the way for easy to use automated biosensing devices that could be used for a variety of applications from diagnostics to environmental monitoring, and studies will continue to move forward in this direction. PMID:24561521

  17. Design and characterisation of a thin-film electrode array with shared reference/counter electrodes for electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Yildiz; Olcer, Zehra; Sagiroglu, Mahmut Samil

    2014-07-15

    In the current study, a novel electrode array and integrated microfluidics have been designed and characterised in order to create a sensor chip which is not only easy, rapid and cheaper to produce but also have a smaller imprint and good electrochemical sensing properties. The current study includes the assessment of the effects of an Au quasi-reference electrode and the use of shared reference/counter electrodes for the array, in order to obtain a small array that can be produced using a fine metal mask. In the study, it is found that when Au is used as the quasi-reference electrode, the arrays with shared reference and counter electrodes result in faster electron transfer kinetics and prevent the potential change with respect to scan rate, and hence is advantageous with respect to conventional electrodes. In addition, the resulting novel electrode array has been shown to result in higher current density (10.52 µA/cm(2); HRP detection assay) and measured diffusion coefficient (14.40×10(-12) cm(2)/s; calculated from the data of cyclic voltammetry with 1mM potassium ferricyanide) with respect to conventional electrodes tested in the study. Using the new electrode arrays, the detection limits obtained from horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and bisphenol A assays were 12.5 ng/ml (2.84×10(-10) M ) and 10 ng/ml (44×10(-9) M), respectively. Performing the HRP detection assay in a flow injection system using array integrated microfluidics provided 25 times lower detection limit (11.36×10(-12) M), although Ti has been used as electrode material instead of Au. In short, incorporation of this new electrode array to lab-on-a-chip or MEMs (micro-electro mechanic systems) technologies may pave the way for easy to use automated biosensing devices that could be used for a variety of applications from diagnostics to environmental monitoring, and studies will continue to move forward in this direction.

  18. Mapping the temporal pole with a specialized electrode array: technique and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Taylor J.; Rhone, Ariane E.; Nourski, Kirill V.; Granner, Mark A.; Oya, Hiroyuki; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Tranel, Daniel T.; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Howard, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Temporopolar cortex plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy and subserves important cognitive functions. Because of its shape and position in the middle cranial fossa, complete electrode coverage of the temporal pole (TP) is difficult to achieve using existing devices. We designed a novel TP electrode array that conforms to the surface of temporopolar cortex and achieves dense electrode coverage of this important brain region. A multi-pronged electrode array was designed that can be placed over the surface of the TP using a straightforward insertion technique. Twelve patients with medically intractable epilepsy were implanted with the TP electrode array for purposes of seizure localization. Select patients underwent cognitive mapping by electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording from the TP during a naming task. Use of the array resulted in excellent TP electrode coverage in all patients. High quality ECoG data were consistently obtained for purposes of delineating seizure activity and functional mapping. During a naming task, significant increases in ECoG power were observed within localized subregions of the TP. One patient developed a transient neurological deficit thought to be related to the mass effect of multiple intracranial recording arrays, including the TP array. This deficit resolved following removal of all electrodes. The TP electrode array overcomes limitations of existing devices and enables clinicians and researchers to obtain optimal multi-site recordings from this important brain region. PMID:24480831

  19. Multi-lead ECG electrode array for clinical application of electrocardiographic inverse problem.

    PubMed

    Hintermuller, Christoph; Fischer, Gerald; Seger, Michael; Pfeifer, Bernhard; Hanser, Friedrich; Modre, Robert; Tilg, Bernhard

    2004-01-01

    Methods for noninvasive imaging of electric function of the heart might become clinical standard procedure the next years. Thus, the overall procedure has to meet clinical requirements as easy and fast application. In this study we propose a new electrode array which improves the information content in the ECG map, considering clinical constraints such as easy to apply and compatibility with routine leads. A major challenge is the development of an electrode array which yields a high information content even for a large interindividual variation in torso shape. For identifying regions of high information content we introduce the concept of a locally applied virtual electrode array. As a result of our analysis we constructed a new electrode array consisting of two L-shaped regular spaced parts and compared it to the electrode array we use for clinical studies upon activation time imaging. We assume that one side effect caused by the regular shape and spacing of the new array be that the reconstruction of electrodes placed on the patients back is simplified. It may be sufficient to record a few characteristic electrode positions and merge them with a model of the posterior array.

  20. Parallel calculation of multi-electrode array correlation networks.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Pedro; Simonotto, Jennifer; Kaiser, Marcus; Silva, Fernando

    2009-11-15

    When calculating correlation networks from multi-electrode array (MEA) data, one works with extensive computations. Unfortunately, as the MEAs grow bigger, the time needed for the computation grows even more: calculating pair-wise correlations for current 60 channel systems can take hours on normal commodity computers whereas for future 1000 channel systems it would take almost 280 times as long, given that the number of pairs increases with the square of the number of channels. Even taking into account the increase of speed in processors, soon it can be unfeasible to compute correlations in a single computer. Parallel computing is a way to sustain reasonable calculation times in the future. We provide a general tool for rapid computation of correlation networks which was tested for: (a) a single computer cluster with 16 cores, (b) the Newcastle Condor System utilizing idle processors of university computers and (c) the inter-cluster, with 192 cores. Our reusable tool provides a simple interface for neuroscientists, automating data partition and job submission, and also allowing coding in any programming language. It is also sufficiently flexible to be used in other high-performance computing environments. PMID:19666054

  1. USE OF COUPLED MULTI-ELECTRODE ARRAYS TO ADVANCE THE UNDERSTANDING OF SELECTED CORROSION PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    N.D. Budiansky; F. Bocher; H. Cong; M.F. Hurley; J.R. Scully

    2006-02-23

    The use of multi-coupled electrode arrays in various corrosion applications is discussed with the main goal of advancing the understanding of various corrosion phenomena. Both close packed and far spaced electrode configurations are discussed. Far spaced electrode arrays are optimized for high throughput experiments capable of elucidating the effects of various variables on corrosion properties. For instance the effects of a statistical distribution of flaws on corrosion properties can be examined. Close packed arrays enable unprecedented spatial and temporal information on the behavior of local anodes and cathodes. Interactions between corrosion sites can trigger or inhibit corrosion phenomena and affect corrosion damage evolution.

  2. Improved 2-D resistivity imaging of features in covered karst terrain with arrays of implanted electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiflu, H. G.; Kruse, S. E.; Harro, D.; Loke, M. H.; Wilkinson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography is commonly used to identify geologic features associated with sinkhole formation. In covered karst terrain, however, it can be difficult to resolve the depth to top of limestone with this method. This is due to the fact that array lengths, and hence depth of resolution, are often limited by residential or commercial lot dimensions in urban environments. Furthermore, the sediments mantling the limestone are often clay-rich and highly conductive. The resistivity method has limited sensitivity to resistive zones beneath conductive zones. This sensitivity can be improved significantly with electrodes implanted at depth in the cover sediments near the top of limestone. An array of deep electrodes is installed with direct push technology in the karst cover. When combined with a surface array in which each surface electrode is underlain by a deep electrode, the array geometry is similar to a borehole array turned on its side. This method, called the Multi-Electrode Resistivity Implant Technique (MERIT), offers the promise of significantly improved resolution of epikarst and cover collapse development zones in the overlying sediment, the limestone or at the sediment-bedrock interface in heterogeneous karst environments. With a non-traditional array design, the question of optimal array geometries arises. Optimizing array geometries is complicated by the fact that many plausible 4-electrode readings will produce negative apparent resistivity values, even in homogeneous terrain. Negative apparent resistivities cannot be used in inversions based on the logarithm of the apparent resistivity. New algorithms for seeking optimal array geometries have been developed by modifying the 'Compare R' method of Wilkinson and Loke. The optimized arrays show significantly improved resolution over basic arrays adapted from traditional 2D surface geometries. Several MERIT case study surveys have been conducted in covered karst in west-central Florida, with

  3. Using multivariate analyses to compare subsets of electrodes and potentials within an electrode array for predicting sugar concentrations in mixed solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, Christopher Lyle; Steen, William Arthur

    2008-04-01

    A non-selective electrode array is presented for the quantification of fructose, galactose, and glucose in mixed solutions. A unique feature of this electrode array relative to other published work is the wide diversity of electrode materials incorporated within the array, being constructed of 41 different metals and metal alloys. Cyclic voltammograms were acquired for solutions containing a single sugar at varying concentrations, and the correlation between current and sugar concentration was calculated as a function of potential and electrode array element. The correlation plots identified potential regions and electrodes that scaled most linearly with sugar concentration, and the number of electrodes used in building predictive models was reduced to 15. Partial least squares regression models relating electrochemical response to sugar concentration were constructed using data from single electrodes and multiple electrodes within the array, and the predictive abilities of these models were rigorously compared using a non-parametric Wilcoxon test. Models using single electrodes (Pt:Rh (90:10) for fructose, Au:Ni (82:18) for galactose, and Au for glucose) were judged to be statistically superior or indistinguishable from those built with multiple electrodes. Additionally, for each sugar, interval partial least squares regression successfully identified a subset of potentials within a given electrode that generated a model of statistically equivalent predictive ability relative to the full potential model. While including data from multiple electrodes offered no benefit in predicting sugar concentration, use of the array afforded the versatility and flexibility of selecting the best single electrode for each sugar.

  4. Improved spike sorting for multi-electrode array data from mammalian retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Jason; Homann, Jan; Simmons, Kristy; Tkacik, Gasper; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Nelson, Philip

    2010-03-01

    Multi-electrode array technology provides an efficient means of simultaneously recording from many neurons. However, as arrays become larger, a greater computational burden falls on the spike-sorting algorithm. We have developed a new method for sorting multi-electrode signals and applied it to retinal ganglion cells. Our method is explicitly designed to scale well with increasing array size. It can dissect temporally overlapping spikes and accommodate the amplitude variation seen in spike bursts. The broad outline of our method is to (1) identify spikes in the raw data, cluster a subset, generate template waveforms, then (2) fit the templates to all the data using an iterative Bayesian algorithm. Each of these two steps makes use of the 2D spatial arrangement of the ganglion cells and electrodes, and the locality of signals from each individual cell. We demonstrate the method on data recorded from guinea pig retina on a 30-electrode array.

  5. A Palladium-Tin Modified Microband Electrode Array for Nitrate Determination.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yexiang; Bian, Chao; Kuang, Jian; Wang, Jinfen; Tong, Jianhua; Xia, Shanhong

    2015-01-01

    A microband electrode array modified with palladium-tin bimetallic composite has been developed for nitrate determination. The microband electrode array was fabricated by Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technique. Palladium and tin were electrodeposited successively on the electrode, forming a double-layer structure. The effect of the Pd-Sn composite was investigated and its enhancement of catalytic activity and lifetime was revealed. The Pd-Sn modified electrode showed good linearity (R² = 0.998) from 1 mg/L to 20 mg/L for nitrate determination with a sensitivity of 398 μA/(mg∙L(-1)∙cm²). The electrode exhibited a satisfying analytical performance after 60 days of storage, indicating a long lifetime. Good repeatability was also displayed by the Pd-Sn modified electrodes. The results provided an option for nitrate determination in water. PMID:26389904

  6. A Palladium-Tin Modified Microband Electrode Array for Nitrate Determination

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yexiang; Bian, Chao; Kuang, Jian; Wang, Jinfen; Tong, Jianhua; Xia, Shanhong

    2015-01-01

    A microband electrode array modified with palladium-tin bimetallic composite has been developed for nitrate determination. The microband electrode array was fabricated by Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technique. Palladium and tin were electrodeposited successively on the electrode, forming a double-layer structure. The effect of the Pd-Sn composite was investigated and its enhancement of catalytic activity and lifetime was revealed. The Pd-Sn modified electrode showed good linearity (R2 = 0.998) from 1 mg/L to 20 mg/L for nitrate determination with a sensitivity of 398 μA/(mg∙L−1∙cm2). The electrode exhibited a satisfying analytical performance after 60 days of storage, indicating a long lifetime. Good repeatability was also displayed by the Pd-Sn modified electrodes. The results provided an option for nitrate determination in water. PMID:26389904

  7. A Palladium-Tin Modified Microband Electrode Array for Nitrate Determination.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yexiang; Bian, Chao; Kuang, Jian; Wang, Jinfen; Tong, Jianhua; Xia, Shanhong

    2015-09-15

    A microband electrode array modified with palladium-tin bimetallic composite has been developed for nitrate determination. The microband electrode array was fabricated by Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technique. Palladium and tin were electrodeposited successively on the electrode, forming a double-layer structure. The effect of the Pd-Sn composite was investigated and its enhancement of catalytic activity and lifetime was revealed. The Pd-Sn modified electrode showed good linearity (R² = 0.998) from 1 mg/L to 20 mg/L for nitrate determination with a sensitivity of 398 μA/(mg∙L(-1)∙cm²). The electrode exhibited a satisfying analytical performance after 60 days of storage, indicating a long lifetime. Good repeatability was also displayed by the Pd-Sn modified electrodes. The results provided an option for nitrate determination in water.

  8. Electrodeposition of gold nanoparticle arrays on ITO glass as electrode with high electrocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kui; Wei, Juan; Zhu, Houjuan; Ma, Fang; Wang, Suhua

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Electrodeposition of gold nanoparticle arrays on ITO glass as catalytic-electrodes. ► The sizes and densities of the gold nanoparticles can be easily controlled. ► Such arrays on ITO glass shows high electrocatalytic activity and good stability. - Abstract: Herein, we reported a templateless, surfactantless, and simple electrochemical method to directly fabricate gold nanoparticle (AuNP) arrays on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates as effective electrocatalytic electrodes. The as-prepared AuNP arrays have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), etc. AuNPs with small sizes (<20 nm) were uniformly deposited on the ITO glass under constant current densities, and particle densities can be adjusted by varying the applied charges. The resultant AuNP array electrode showed higher catalytic activity and good stability toward electro-oxidation of ascorbic acid compared with other electrodes, such as bare ITO electrode, bare glassy carbon electrode and bulk gold film electrode.

  9. Fabrication and evaluation of an improved polymer-based cochlear electrode array for atraumatic insertion.

    PubMed

    Gwon, Tae Mok; Min, Kyou Sik; Kim, Jin Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Lee, Ho Sun; Park, Min-Hyun; Kim, Sung June

    2015-04-01

    An atraumatic cochlear electrode array has become indispensable to high-performance cochlear implants such as electric acoustic stimulation (EAS), wherein the preservation of residual hearing is significant. For an atraumatic implantation, we propose and demonstrate a new improved design of a cochlear electrode array based on liquid crystal polymer (LCP), which can be fabricated by precise batch processes and a thermal lamination process, in contrast to conventional wire-based cochlear electrode arrays. Using a thin-film process of LCP-film-mounted silicon wafer and thermal press lamination, we devise a multi-layered structure with variable layers of LCP films to achieve a sufficient degree of basal rigidity and a flexible tip. A peripheral blind via and self-aligned silicone elastomer molding process can reduce the width of the array. Measuring the insertion and extraction forces in a human scala tympani model, we investigate five human temporal bone insertion trials and record electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (EABR) acutely in a guinea pig model. The diameters of the finalized electrode arrays are 0.3 mm (tip) and 0.75 mm (base). The insertion force with a displacement of 8 mm from a round window and the maximum extraction force are 2.4 mN and 34.0 mN, respectively. The electrode arrays can be inserted from 360° to 630° without trauma at the basal turn. The EABR data confirm the efficacy of the array. A new design of LCP-based cochlear electrode array for atraumatic implantation is fabricated. Verification indicates that foretells the development of an atraumatic cochlear electrode array and clinical implant.

  10. Diffusional protection of electrode surfaces using regular arrays of immobilised droplets: overcoming interferences in electroanalysis.

    PubMed

    Simm, Andrew O; Ordeig, Olga; Del Campo, Javier; Muñoz, Francesc Xavier; Compton, Richard G

    2006-09-01

    Regular arrays of ca. micron sized droplets on a gold electrode surface can block diffusion to the electrode surface of one metal ion (which binds with the material in the droplet) whilst having no significant effect on another (which does not), so allowing interference effects in electroanalysis to be eliminated.

  11. An Ultralong, Highly Oriented Nickel-Nanowire-Array Electrode Scaffold for High-Performance Compressible Pseudocapacitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Li, Ziheng; Yang, Cheng; Zou, Peichao; Xie, Binghe; Lin, Ziyin; Zhang, Zhexu; Li, Baohua; Kang, Feiyu; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Ultralong, highly oriented Ni nanowire arrays are used as the electrode scaffold to support metal-oxide- and conductive-polymer-based electrode materials with a high mass loading; the as-obtained asymmetric supercapacitor can be compressed by fourfold and exhibits superior energy and power densities with ultrahigh cycle stability.

  12. A MEMS-based flexible multichannel ECoG-electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubehn, Birthe; Bosman, Conrado; Oostenveld, Robert; Fries, Pascal; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    We present a micromachined 252-channel ECoG (electrocorticogram)-electrode array, which is made of a thin polyimide foil substrate enclosing sputtered platinum electrode sites and conductor paths. The array subtends an area of approximately 35 mm by 60 mm and is designed to cover large parts of a hemisphere of a macaque monkey's cortex. Eight omnetics connectors are directly soldered to the foil. This leads to a compact assembly size which enables a chronic implantation of the array and allows free movements of the animal between the recording sessions. The electrode sites are 1 mm in diameter and were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. At 1 kHz, the electrode impedances vary between 1.5 kΩ and 5 kΩ. The yield of functioning electrodes in three assembled devices is 99.5%. After implantation of a device with 100% working electrodes, standard electrocorticographic signals can be obtained from every electrode. The response to visual stimuli can be measured with electrodes lying on the visual cortex. After an implantation time of 4.5 months, all electrodes are still working and no decline in signal quality could be observed.

  13. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with single rod electrode.

    PubMed

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2014-11-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM). In this method, the tips of rods are machined individually to form a specific surface, and then a number of the machined rods are arranged to construct an electrode for EDM. The repetition of the EDM process using the electrode enables a number of lens elements to be produced on the mold surface. The effectiveness of our proposed method is demonstrated by shaping a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, in which the EDM process with a single rod electrode is repeatedly conducted.

  14. A flexible microchannel electrode array for peripheral nerves to interface with neural prosthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrith, Ryan; Nothnagle, Caleb; Kim, Young-tae; Wijesundara, Muthu B. J.

    2016-05-01

    In order to control neural prosthetics by recording signals from peripheral nerves with the required specificity, high density electrode arrays that can be easily implanted on very small peripheral nerves (50μm-500μm) are needed. Interfacing with these small nerves is surgically challenging due to their size and fragile nature. To address this problem, a Flexible MicroChannel Electrode Array for interfacing with small diameter peripheral nerves and nerve fascicles was developed. The electrochemical characterization and electrophysiological recordings from the common peroneal nerve of a rat are presented along with demonstration of the surgical ease-of-use of the array.

  15. Mass transport at infinite regular arrays of microband electrodes submitted to natural convection: theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Pebay, Cécile; Sella, Catherine; Thouin, Laurent; Amatore, Christian

    2013-12-17

    Mass transport at infinite regular arrays of microband electrodes was investigated theoretically and experimentally in unstirred solutions. Even in the absence of forced hydrodynamics, natural convection limits the convection-free domain up to which diffusion layers may expand. Hence, several regimes of mass transport may take place according to the electrode size, gap between electrodes, time scale of the experiment, and amplitude of natural convection. They were identified through simulation by establishing zone diagrams that allowed all relative contributions to mass transport to be delineated. Dynamic and steady-state regimes were compared to those achieved at single microband electrodes. These results were validated experimentally by monitoring the chronoamperometric responses of arrays with different ratios of electrode width to gap distance and by mapping steady-state concentration profiles above their surface through scanning electrochemical microscopy. PMID:24283775

  16. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with spherical ball electrode.

    PubMed

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2016-06-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a spherical lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM) with a ball-type electrode. The electrode is constructed by arranging conductive spherical balls in an array. To fundamentally examine the applicability of the proposed EDM method to the fabrication of lens array molds, we use an electrode having a single ball to shape a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, each having a maximum depth of 0.5 mm. As a result, a mold surface is successfully shaped with a peak-to-valley shape accuracy of approximately 10 μm, and an average surface roughness of 0.85 μm. PMID:27409126

  17. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with spherical ball electrode.

    PubMed

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2016-06-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a spherical lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM) with a ball-type electrode. The electrode is constructed by arranging conductive spherical balls in an array. To fundamentally examine the applicability of the proposed EDM method to the fabrication of lens array molds, we use an electrode having a single ball to shape a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, each having a maximum depth of 0.5 mm. As a result, a mold surface is successfully shaped with a peak-to-valley shape accuracy of approximately 10 μm, and an average surface roughness of 0.85 μm.

  18. Sensitivity- and effort-gain analysis: multilead ECG electrode array selection for activation time imaging.

    PubMed

    Hintermüller, Christoph; Seger, Michael; Pfeifer, Bernhard; Fischer, Gerald; Modre, Robert; Tilg, Bernhard

    2006-10-01

    Methods for noninvasive imaging of electric function of the heart might become clinical standard procedure the next years. Thus, the overall procedure has to meet clinical requirements as an easy and fast application. In this paper, we propose a new electrode array which improves the resolution of methods for activation time imaging considering clinical constraints such as easy to apply and compatibility with routine leads. For identifying the body-surface regions where the body surface potential (BSP) is most sensitive to changes in transmembrane potential (TMP), a virtual array method was used to compute local linear dependency (LLD) maps. The virtual array method computes a measure for the LLD in every point on the body surface. The most suitable number and position of the electrodes within the sensitive body surface regions was selected by constructing effort gain (EG) plots. Such a plot depicts the relative attainable rank of the leadfield matrix in relation to the increase in number of electrodes required to build the electrode array. The attainable rank itself was computed by a detector criterion. Such a criterion estimates the maximum number of source space eigenvectors not covered by noise when being mapped to the electrode space by the leadfield matrix and recorded by a detector. From the sensitivity maps, we found that the BSP is most sensitive to changes in TMP on the upper left frontal and dorsal body surface. These sensitive regions are covered best by an electrode array consisting of two L-shaped parts of approximately 30 cm x 30 cm and approximately 20 cm x 20 cm. The EG analysis revealed that the array meeting clinical requirements best and improving the resolution of activation time imaging consists of 125 electrodes with a regular horizontal and vertical spacing of 2-3 cm.

  19. Optimized arrays for 2-D resistivity survey lines with a large number of electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loke, M. H.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Chambers, J. E.; Uhlemann, S. S.; Sorensen, J. P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that optimized arrays generated using the 'Compare R' method have significantly better resolution than conventional arrays. This method determines the optimum set of arrays by selecting those that give the maximum model resolution. The number of possible arrays (the comprehensive data set) increases with the fourth power of the number of electrodes. The optimization method faces practical limitations for 2-D survey lines with more than 60 electrodes where the number of possible arrays exceeds a million. Several techniques are proposed to reduce the calculation time for such survey lines. A single-precision version of the 'Compare R' algorithm using a new ranking function reduces the calculation time by two to eight times while providing results similar to the double-precision version. Recent improvements in computer GPU technology can reduce the calculation time by about seven times. The calculation time is reduced by half by using the fact that arrays that are symmetrical about the center of the line produce identical changes in the model resolution values. It is further reduced by more than thirty times by calculating the Sherman-Morrison update for all the possible two-electrode combinations, which are then used to calculate the model resolution values for the four-electrode arrays. The calculation time is reduced by more then ten times by using a subset of the comprehensive data set consisting of only symmetrical arrays. Tests with a synthetic model and field data set show that optimized arrays derived from this subset produce inversion models with differences of less than 10% from those derived using the full comprehensive data set. The optimized data sets produced models that are more accurate than the Wenner-Schlumberger array data sets in all the tests.

  20. Advancements in electrode design and laser techniques for fabricating micro-electrode arrays as part of a retinal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Dodds, C W D; Schuettler, M; Guenther, T; Lovell, N H; Suaning, G J

    2011-01-01

    Retinal micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) for a visual prosthesis were fabricated by laser structuring of platinum (Pt) foil and liquid silicone rubber. A new design was created using a folding technique to create a multi-layered array from a single Pt sheet. This method allowed a reduction in both the electrode pitch, and the overall width of the array, while maintaining coplanar connection points for more stable interconnections to other components of the system. The design also included a section which could be rolled to create a cylindrical segment in order to minimise the size of the exit in the sclera after implantation. A picosecond mode-locked 532 nm laser system was investigated as a replacement for the nanosecond Q-switched 1064 nm laser currently in use. Trials showed that the ps system could produce high quality electrode tracks with a minimum pitch of 30 μm, less than 40% the pitch achievable with the ns laser. A method was investigated for the cutting of Pt foils without damaging the underlying silicone by laser machining to a depth just below the thickness of the foil. Initial samples showed promise with full penetration of the foil only occurring at cross points of the laser paths. The ps laser was also used to create roughened surfaces, in order to increase the electrochemical surface area of the electrodes. Surfaces were imaged using a scanning electron microscope, and compared to surfaces roughened with the ns laser. The ps laser was seen to offer a reduction in feature size, as well as an increase in control over the appearance of the electrode surface. PMID:22254389

  1. Stacked 3D RRAM Array with Graphene/CNT as Edge Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yue; Wu, Huaqiang; Wang, Kun; Wu, Riga; Song, Lin; Li, Tianyi; Wang, Jiangtao; Yu, Zhiping; Qian, He

    2015-01-01

    There are two critical challenges which determine the array density of 3D RRAM: 1) the scaling limit in both horizontal and vertical directions; 2) the integration of selector devices in 3D structure. In this work, we present a novel 3D RRAM structure using low-dimensional materials, including 2D graphene and 1D carbon nanotube (CNT), as the edge electrodes. A two-layer 3D RRAM with monolayer graphene as edge electrode is demonstrated. The electrical results reveal that the RRAM devices could switch normally with this very thin edge electrode at nanometer scale. Meanwhile, benefited from the asymmetric carrier transport induced by Schottky barrier at metal/CNT and oxide/CNT interfaces, a selector built-in 3D RRAM structure using CNT as edge electrode is successfully fabricated and characterized. Furthermore, the discussion of high array density potential is presented.

  2. Stacked 3D RRAM Array with Graphene/CNT as Edge Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yue; Wu, Huaqiang; Wang, Kun; Wu, Riga; Song, Lin; Li, Tianyi; Wang, Jiangtao; Yu, Zhiping; Qian, He

    2015-09-01

    There are two critical challenges which determine the array density of 3D RRAM: 1) the scaling limit in both horizontal and vertical directions; 2) the integration of selector devices in 3D structure. In this work, we present a novel 3D RRAM structure using low-dimensional materials, including 2D graphene and 1D carbon nanotube (CNT), as the edge electrodes. A two-layer 3D RRAM with monolayer graphene as edge electrode is demonstrated. The electrical results reveal that the RRAM devices could switch normally with this very thin edge electrode at nanometer scale. Meanwhile, benefited from the asymmetric carrier transport induced by Schottky barrier at metal/CNT and oxide/CNT interfaces, a selector built-in 3D RRAM structure using CNT as edge electrode is successfully fabricated and characterized. Furthermore, the discussion of high array density potential is presented.

  3. Selective in situ potential-assisted SAM formation on multi electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, Ann-Lauriene; Toader, Violeta; Lennox, R. Bruce; Grutter, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The selective modification of individual components in a biosensor array is challenging. To address this challenge, we present a generalizable approach to selectively modify and characterize individual gold surfaces in an array, in an in situ manner. This is achieved by taking advantage of the potential dependent adsorption/desorption of surface-modified organic molecules. Control of the applied potential of the individual sensors in an array where each acts as a working electrode provides differential derivatization of the sensor surfaces. To demonstrate this concept, two different self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-forming electrochemically addressable ω-ferrocenyl alkanethiols (C11) are chemisorbed onto independent but spatially adjacent gold electrodes. The ferrocene alkanethiol does not chemisorb onto the surface when the applied potential is cathodic relative to the adsorption potential and the electrode remains underivatized. However, applying potentials that are modestly positive relative to the adsorption potential leads to extensive coverage within 10 min. The resulting SAM remains in a stable state while held at potentials <200 mV above the adsorption potential. In this state, the chemisorbed SAM does not significantly desorb nor do new ferrocenylalkythiols adsorb. Using three set applied potentials provides for controlled submonolayer alkylthiol marker coverage of each independent gold electrode. These three applied potentials are dependent upon the specifics of the respective adsorbate. Characterization of the ferrocene-modified electrodes via cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that each specific ferrocene marker is exclusively adsorbed to the desired target electrode.

  4. Microfabrication of electrode patterns for high-frequency ultrasound transducer arrays.

    PubMed

    Bernassau, Anne L; García-Gancedo, Luis; Hutson, David; Démoré, Christine E M; McAneny, Jim J; Button, Tim W; Cochran, Sandy

    2012-08-01

    High-frequency ultrasound is needed for medical imaging with high spatial resolution. A key issue in the development of ultrasound imaging arrays to operate at high frequencies (≥30 MHz) is the need for photolithographic patterning of array electrodes. To achieve this directly on 1-3 piezocomposite, the material requires not only planar, parallel, and smooth surfaces, but also an epoxy composite filler that is resistant to chemicals, heat, and vacuum. This paper reports, first, on the surface finishing of 1-3 piezocomposite materials by lapping and polishing. Excellent surface flatness has been obtained, with an average surface roughness of materials as low as 3 nm and step heights between ceramic/polymer of ∼80 nm. Subsequently, high-frequency array elements were patterned directly on top of these surfaces using a photolithography process. A 30-MHz linear array electrode pattern with 50-μm element pitch has been patterned on the lapped and polished surface of a high-frequency 1-3 piezocomposite. Excellent electrode edge definition and electrical contact to the composite were obtained. The composite has been lapped to a final thickness of ∼55 μm. Good adhesion of electrodes on the piezocomposite has been achieved and electrical impedance measurements have demonstrated their basic functionality. The array was then packaged, and acoustic pulse-echo measurements were performed. These results demonstrate that direct patterning of electrodes by photolithography on 1-3 piezocomposite is feasible for fabrication of high-frequency ultrasound arrays. Furthermore, this method is more conducive to mass production than other reported array fabrication techniques. PMID:22899129

  5. Microfabrication of electrode patterns for high-frequency ultrasound transducer arrays.

    PubMed

    Bernassau, Anne L; García-Gancedo, Luis; Hutson, David; Démoré, Christine E M; McAneny, Jim J; Button, Tim W; Cochran, Sandy

    2012-08-01

    High-frequency ultrasound is needed for medical imaging with high spatial resolution. A key issue in the development of ultrasound imaging arrays to operate at high frequencies (≥30 MHz) is the need for photolithographic patterning of array electrodes. To achieve this directly on 1-3 piezocomposite, the material requires not only planar, parallel, and smooth surfaces, but also an epoxy composite filler that is resistant to chemicals, heat, and vacuum. This paper reports, first, on the surface finishing of 1-3 piezocomposite materials by lapping and polishing. Excellent surface flatness has been obtained, with an average surface roughness of materials as low as 3 nm and step heights between ceramic/polymer of ∼80 nm. Subsequently, high-frequency array elements were patterned directly on top of these surfaces using a photolithography process. A 30-MHz linear array electrode pattern with 50-μm element pitch has been patterned on the lapped and polished surface of a high-frequency 1-3 piezocomposite. Excellent electrode edge definition and electrical contact to the composite were obtained. The composite has been lapped to a final thickness of ∼55 μm. Good adhesion of electrodes on the piezocomposite has been achieved and electrical impedance measurements have demonstrated their basic functionality. The array was then packaged, and acoustic pulse-echo measurements were performed. These results demonstrate that direct patterning of electrodes by photolithography on 1-3 piezocomposite is feasible for fabrication of high-frequency ultrasound arrays. Furthermore, this method is more conducive to mass production than other reported array fabrication techniques.

  6. Orthogonal electrode catheter array for mapping of endocardial focal site of ventricular activation

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, J.M.; Nyo, H.; Vera, Z.; Seibert, J.A.; Vogelsang, P.J. )

    1991-04-01

    Precise location of the endocardial site of origin of ventricular tachycardia may facilitate surgical and catheter ablation of this arrhythmia. The endocardial catheter mapping technique can locate the site of ventricular tachycardia within 4-8 cm2 of the earliest site recorded by the catheter. This report describes an orthogonal electrode catheter array (OECA) for mapping and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of endocardial focal site of origin of a plunge electrode paced model of ventricular activation in dogs. The OECA is an 8 F five pole catheter with four peripheral electrodes and one central electrode (total surface area 0.8 cm{sup 2}). In eight mongrel dogs, mapping was performed by arbitrarily dividing the left ventricle (LV) into four segments. Each segment was mapped with OECA to find the earliest segment. Bipolar and unipolar electrograms were obtained. The plunge electrode (not visible on fluoroscopy) site was identified by the earliest wave front arrival times of -30 msec or earlier at two or more electrodes (unipolar electrograms) with reference to the earliest recorded surface ECG (I, AVF, and V1). Validation of the proximity of the five electrodes of the OECA to the plunge electrode was performed by digital radiography and RFA. Pathological examination was performed to document the proximity of the OECA to the plunge electrode and also for the width, depth, and microscopic changes of the ablation. To find the segment with the earliest LV activation a total of 10 {plus minus} 3 (mean {plus minus} SD) positions were mapped. Mean arrival times at the two earlier electrodes were -39 {plus minus} 4 msec and -35 {plus minus} 3 msec. Digital radiography showed the plunge electrode to be within the area covered by all five electrodes in all eight dogs. The plunge electrode was within 1 cm2 area of the region of RFA in all eight dogs.

  7. Fabrication and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube channel and graphene electrode based transistors arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Yun, H.; McAllister, K.; Lee, S. W.; Na, J.; Kim, G. T.; Lee, B. J.; Kim, J. J.; Jeong, G. H.; Lee, I.; Kim, K. S.

    2015-07-20

    A transistor structure composed of an individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) channel with a graphene electrode was demonstrated. The integrated arrays of transistor devices were prepared by transferring patterned graphene electrode patterns on top of the aligned SWNT along one direction. Both single and multi layer graphene were used for the electrode materials; typical p-type transistor and Schottky diode behavior were observed, respectively. Based on our fabrication method and device performances, several issues are suggested and discussed to improve the device reliability and finally to realize all carbon based future electronic systems.

  8. Cobalt phosphide nanowall array as an efficient 3D catalyst electrode for methanol electro-oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Danni; Lu, Wenbo; Wang, Kunyang; Du, Gu; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Lu, Qun; Sun, Xuping

    2016-11-01

    In this letter, we report on the use of a cobalt phosphide nanowall array on conductive carbon cloth (CoP NA/CC) as an efficient catalyst electrode for methanol electro-oxidation under alkaline conditions. This CoP NA/CC achieves a current density of 96 mA cm–2 toward 0.5 M methanol at 0.5 V (versus a saturated calomel electrode (SCE)) in 1 M KOH. Moreover, this electrode exhibits superior stability and 93% of the initial anodic current density can be retained after 1000 cyclic voltammetry cycles when re-measured in new electrolyte.

  9. Cobalt phosphide nanowall array as an efficient 3D catalyst electrode for methanol electro-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Danni; Lu, Wenbo; Wang, Kunyang; Du, Gu; Asiri, Abdullah M; Lu, Qun; Sun, Xuping

    2016-11-01

    In this letter, we report on the use of a cobalt phosphide nanowall array on conductive carbon cloth (CoP NA/CC) as an efficient catalyst electrode for methanol electro-oxidation under alkaline conditions. This CoP NA/CC achieves a current density of 96 mA cm(-2) toward 0.5 M methanol at 0.5 V (versus a saturated calomel electrode (SCE)) in 1 M KOH. Moreover, this electrode exhibits superior stability and 93% of the initial anodic current density can be retained after 1000 cyclic voltammetry cycles when re-measured in new electrolyte. PMID:27671347

  10. Cobalt phosphide nanowall array as an efficient 3D catalyst electrode for methanol electro-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Danni; Lu, Wenbo; Wang, Kunyang; Du, Gu; Asiri, Abdullah M; Lu, Qun; Sun, Xuping

    2016-11-01

    In this letter, we report on the use of a cobalt phosphide nanowall array on conductive carbon cloth (CoP NA/CC) as an efficient catalyst electrode for methanol electro-oxidation under alkaline conditions. This CoP NA/CC achieves a current density of 96 mA cm(-2) toward 0.5 M methanol at 0.5 V (versus a saturated calomel electrode (SCE)) in 1 M KOH. Moreover, this electrode exhibits superior stability and 93% of the initial anodic current density can be retained after 1000 cyclic voltammetry cycles when re-measured in new electrolyte.

  11. A Lithographically-Patterned, Elastic Multi-electrode Array for Surface Stimulation of the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, Kathleen W.; Giuly, Richard J.; Guo, Liang; Hochman, Shawn; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    A new, scalable process for microfabrication of a silicone-based, elastic multi-electrode array (MEA) is presented. The device is constructed by spinning poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) silicone elastomer onto a glass slide, depositing and patterning gold to construct wires and electrodes, spinning on a second PDMS layer, and then micropatterning the second PDMS layer to expose electrode contacts. The micropatterning of PDMS involves a custom reactive ion etch (RIE) process that preserves the underlying gold thin film. Once completed, the device can be removed from the glass slide for conformal interfacing with neural tissue. Prototype MEAs feature electrodes smaller than those known to be reported on silicone substrate (60 μm diameter exposed electrode area) and were capable of selectively stimulating the surface of the in vitro isolated spinal cord of the juvenile rat. Stretchable serpentine traces were also incorporated into the functional PDMS-based MEA, and their implementation and testing is described. PMID:17914674

  12. Controllable in-situ cell electroporation with cell positioning and impedance monitoring using micro electrode array

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a novel microarray chip for in-situ, real-time and selective electroporation on individual cells integrated with cell positioning and impedance monitoring. An array of quadrupole-electrode units (termed positioning electrodes) and pairs of planar center electrodes located at the centers of each quadrupole-electrode unit were fabricated on the chip. The positioning electrodes are used to trap and position living cells onto the center electrodes based on negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP). The center electrodes are used for in-situ cell electroporation, and also used to measure cell impedance for monitoring cellular dynamics in real time. Controllably selective electroporation and electrical measurement on the cells in array are realized. We present an evidence of selective electroporation through use of fluorescent dyes. Subsequently we use in-situ and real-time impedance measurement to monitor the process, which demonstrates the dynamic behavior of the cell electroporation. Finally, we show the use of this device to perform successful transfection onto individual HeLa cells with vector DNA encoding a green fluorescent. PMID:27507603

  13. Fabrication and photoelectrochemical properties of interdigitated array microelectrodes consisting of optically transparent and nontransparent band electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, Tsutomu; Niwa, Osamu; Morita, Masao

    1995-09-01

    Photogalvanic cells based on the photoinduced redox reactions of two redox couples can convert solar energy. However, their conversion efficiency is poor because of the recombination of photochemically produced active species before they reach the electrodes and the two-way electrode processes of those species. In an attempt to improve the conversion efficiency, the use of closely spaced electrodes structures has been proposed, such as a thin-layer photocell with a transparent electrode. A lithologic fabrication method for a new interdigitated array microelectrode (IDA) consisting of optically transparent (ITO) and nontransparent (Pt) arrays of band electrodes on a quartz substrate is presented. The new IDA is applied to the Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 3+} photogalvanic system. The effective separation of photoinduced active species between very closely spaced electrodes is achieved by utilizing the shadow of the nontransparent electrode generated by illumination from the rear of the IDA. This back-illumination method using the new IDA is effective in increasing the conversion efficiency.

  14. Multi-electrode array technologies for neuroscience and cardiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spira, Micha E.; Hai, Aviad

    2013-02-01

    At present, the prime methodology for studying neuronal circuit-connectivity, physiology and pathology under in vitro or in vivo conditions is by using substrate-integrated microelectrode arrays. Although this methodology permits simultaneous, cell-non-invasive, long-term recordings of extracellular field potentials generated by action potentials, it is 'blind' to subthreshold synaptic potentials generated by single cells. On the other hand, intracellular recordings of the full electrophysiological repertoire (subthreshold synaptic potentials, membrane oscillations and action potentials) are, at present, obtained only by sharp or patch microelectrodes. These, however, are limited to single cells at a time and for short durations. Recently a number of laboratories began to merge the advantages of extracellular microelectrode arrays and intracellular microelectrodes. This Review describes the novel approaches, identifying their strengths and limitations from the point of view of the end users -- with the intention to help steer the bioengineering efforts towards the needs of brain-circuit research.

  15. Study on Fabrication and UV Photoelectric Property of TiO2 Nanotube Array Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; Duan, Xiao-Long; Xing, Ming-Ming; Luo, Xi-Xian; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Liu, Wang

    2016-04-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube array electrodes were successfully fabricated by a two-step anodization method on Ti sheet substrates in an electrolyte composed of ammonium fluoride, deionized water, and glycol. The tube wall was smooth, and the average internal and external diameters, wall thickness, and tube length achieved were 80 nm, 90 nm, 10 nm, and 9 µm, respectively. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy results revealed that the TiO2 nanotube arrays presented an amorphous structure. When calcined at 300 °C, the arrays crystallized into the anatase phase, and the crystallization degree of the oxide layer increased as the temperature rose. Calcinating at 400 °C did not obviously disrupt the porous structure of the highly ordered arrays. However, higher temperature enlarged the diameter of the nanotube array and roughened the tube wall. When the temperature reached 600 °C, the nanotube mouth broke because of the excessive stress, causing the oxide layer's thinness and nanotube mouth clogging. The photoelectric test showed that the electrode presented obvious photoresponse under 300-400 nm UV excitation (maximized at 360 nm). The degree of crystallization and the micro-structure of the oxide layer can significantly affect the photoelectric properties of the electrode. After calcination at 400 °C, the TiO2 nanotube arrays, with highly ordered tubular structure directly connected to the Ti substrate, can ensure the rapid transportation of photo-induced electrons to the Ti substrate, while the high crystallinity of the arrays can help reduce the defect density of the nanotube and extend the lifetime of the photo-induced carriers. The electrode showed the best photoelectric property, and the photocurrent intensity was maximized (29.6 µA). However, the calcination process with over-temperature resulted in substantial loss of the TiO2 oxide layer, mouth clogging, and a severe decline in the photoelectric properties. PMID:27451743

  16. Study on Fabrication and UV Photoelectric Property of TiO2 Nanotube Array Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; Duan, Xiao-Long; Xing, Ming-Ming; Luo, Xi-Xian; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Liu, Wang

    2016-04-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube array electrodes were successfully fabricated by a two-step anodization method on Ti sheet substrates in an electrolyte composed of ammonium fluoride, deionized water, and glycol. The tube wall was smooth, and the average internal and external diameters, wall thickness, and tube length achieved were 80 nm, 90 nm, 10 nm, and 9 µm, respectively. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy results revealed that the TiO2 nanotube arrays presented an amorphous structure. When calcined at 300 °C, the arrays crystallized into the anatase phase, and the crystallization degree of the oxide layer increased as the temperature rose. Calcinating at 400 °C did not obviously disrupt the porous structure of the highly ordered arrays. However, higher temperature enlarged the diameter of the nanotube array and roughened the tube wall. When the temperature reached 600 °C, the nanotube mouth broke because of the excessive stress, causing the oxide layer's thinness and nanotube mouth clogging. The photoelectric test showed that the electrode presented obvious photoresponse under 300-400 nm UV excitation (maximized at 360 nm). The degree of crystallization and the micro-structure of the oxide layer can significantly affect the photoelectric properties of the electrode. After calcination at 400 °C, the TiO2 nanotube arrays, with highly ordered tubular structure directly connected to the Ti substrate, can ensure the rapid transportation of photo-induced electrons to the Ti substrate, while the high crystallinity of the arrays can help reduce the defect density of the nanotube and extend the lifetime of the photo-induced carriers. The electrode showed the best photoelectric property, and the photocurrent intensity was maximized (29.6 µA). However, the calcination process with over-temperature resulted in substantial loss of the TiO2 oxide layer, mouth clogging, and a severe decline in the photoelectric properties.

  17. Electrothermal flow on electrodes arrays at physiological conductivities.

    PubMed

    Koklu, Anil; Tansel, Osman; Oksuzoglu, Hakan; Sabuncu, Ahmet C

    2016-04-01

    AC electrothermal (ET) flow is inevitable for microfluidic systems dissipating electric energy in a conducting medium. Therefore, many practical applications of biomicrofluidics are prone to ET flow. Here, a series of observations are reported on ET flow in a microfluidic chamber that houses three electrode pairs. The observations indicate that the variations in liquid conductivity and channel height critically impact the structure and magnitude of the flow field. Observations indicate that after a critical conductivity a global ET flow is present in the chamber, while at lower conductivities a vortex is present at every electrode edge. In addition, no ET flow is observed when the chamber height is kept below a critical value at physiological conductivity (∼1.5 S/m). The experimental observations are compared with the numerical simulations of ET flow. The validity of the assumptions made in the current AC ET flow theory is also discussed in the light of the experimental data. The observations can be critical while designing microfluidic systems that involve power dissipation in conductive fluids. PMID:27074854

  18. Electrothermal flow on electrodes arrays at physiological conductivities.

    PubMed

    Koklu, Anil; Tansel, Osman; Oksuzoglu, Hakan; Sabuncu, Ahmet C

    2016-04-01

    AC electrothermal (ET) flow is inevitable for microfluidic systems dissipating electric energy in a conducting medium. Therefore, many practical applications of biomicrofluidics are prone to ET flow. Here, a series of observations are reported on ET flow in a microfluidic chamber that houses three electrode pairs. The observations indicate that the variations in liquid conductivity and channel height critically impact the structure and magnitude of the flow field. Observations indicate that after a critical conductivity a global ET flow is present in the chamber, while at lower conductivities a vortex is present at every electrode edge. In addition, no ET flow is observed when the chamber height is kept below a critical value at physiological conductivity (∼1.5 S/m). The experimental observations are compared with the numerical simulations of ET flow. The validity of the assumptions made in the current AC ET flow theory is also discussed in the light of the experimental data. The observations can be critical while designing microfluidic systems that involve power dissipation in conductive fluids.

  19. Nanoscale electrode arrays produced with microscale lithographic techniques for use in biomedical sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Terry, Jonathan G; Schmüser, Ilka; Underwood, Ian; Corrigan, Damion K; Freeman, Neville J; Bunting, Andrew S; Mount, Andrew R; Walton, Anthony J

    2013-12-01

    A novel technique for the production of nanoscale electrode arrays that uses standard microfabrication processes and micron-scale photolithography is reported here in detail. These microsquare nanoband edge electrode (MNEE) arrays have been fabricated with highly reproducible control of the key array dimensions, including the size and pitch of the individual elements and, most importantly, the width of the nanoband electrodes. The definition of lateral features to nanoscale dimensions typically requires expensive patterning techniques that are complex and low-throughput. However, the fabrication methodology used here relies on the fact that vertical dimensions (i.e. layer thicknesses) have long been manufacturable at the nanoscale using thin film deposition techniques that are well established in mainstream microelectronics. The authors report for the first time two aspects that highlight the particular suitability of these MNEE array systems for probe monolayer biosensing. The first is simulation, which shows the enhanced sensitivity to the redox reaction of the solution redox couple. The second is the enhancement of probe film functionalisation observed for the probe film model molecule, 6-mercapto-1-hexanol compared with microsquare electrodes. Such surface modification for specific probe layer biosensing and detection is of significance for a wide range of biomedical and other sensing and analytical applications. PMID:24206769

  20. Individual Optimization of the Insertion of a Preformed Cochlear Implant Electrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Thomas S.; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to show that individual adjustment of the curling behaviour of a preformed cochlear implant (CI) electrode array to the patient-specific shape of the cochlea can improve the insertion process in terms of reduced risk of insertion trauma. Methods. Geometry and curling behaviour of preformed, commercially available electrode arrays were modelled. Additionally, the anatomy of each small, medium-sized, and large human cochlea was modelled to consider anatomical variations. Finally, using a custom-made simulation tool, three different insertion strategies (conventional Advanced Off-Stylet (AOS) insertion technique, an automated implementation of the AOS technique, and a manually optimized insertion process) were simulated and compared with respect to the risk of insertion-related trauma. The risk of trauma was evaluated using a newly developed “trauma risk” rating scale. Results. Using this simulation-based approach, it was shown that an individually optimized insertion procedure is advantageous compared with the AOS insertion technique. Conclusion. This finding leads to the conclusion that, in general, consideration of the specific curling behaviour of a CI electrode array is beneficial in terms of less traumatic insertion. Therefore, these results highlight an entirely novel aspect of clinical application of preformed perimodiolar electrode arrays in general. PMID:26448764

  1. Nanoscale electrode arrays produced with microscale lithographic techniques for use in biomedical sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Terry, Jonathan G; Schmüser, Ilka; Underwood, Ian; Corrigan, Damion K; Freeman, Neville J; Bunting, Andrew S; Mount, Andrew R; Walton, Anthony J

    2013-12-01

    A novel technique for the production of nanoscale electrode arrays that uses standard microfabrication processes and micron-scale photolithography is reported here in detail. These microsquare nanoband edge electrode (MNEE) arrays have been fabricated with highly reproducible control of the key array dimensions, including the size and pitch of the individual elements and, most importantly, the width of the nanoband electrodes. The definition of lateral features to nanoscale dimensions typically requires expensive patterning techniques that are complex and low-throughput. However, the fabrication methodology used here relies on the fact that vertical dimensions (i.e. layer thicknesses) have long been manufacturable at the nanoscale using thin film deposition techniques that are well established in mainstream microelectronics. The authors report for the first time two aspects that highlight the particular suitability of these MNEE array systems for probe monolayer biosensing. The first is simulation, which shows the enhanced sensitivity to the redox reaction of the solution redox couple. The second is the enhancement of probe film functionalisation observed for the probe film model molecule, 6-mercapto-1-hexanol compared with microsquare electrodes. Such surface modification for specific probe layer biosensing and detection is of significance for a wide range of biomedical and other sensing and analytical applications.

  2. Triggering cell detachment from patterned electrode arrays by programmed subcellular release

    PubMed Central

    Wildt, Bridget; Wirtz, Denis; Searson, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    Programmed subcellular release is an in vitro technique for the quantitative study of cell detachment. The dynamics of cell contraction are measured by releasing cells from surfaces to which they are attached with spatial and temporal control. Release of subcellular regions of cells is achieved by plating cells on an electrode array created by standard microfabrication methods. The electrodes are then biochemically functionalized with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-terminated thiol. Application of a voltage pulse results in electrochemical desorption of the RGD-terminated thiols, triggering cell detachment. This method allows for the study of the full cascade of events from detachment to subsequent subcellular reorganization. Fabrication of the electrode arrays may take 1–2 d. Preparation for experiments, including surface functionalization and cell plating, can be completed in 10 h. A series of cell release experiments on one device may last several hours. PMID:20595956

  3. Triggering cell detachment from patterned electrode arrays by programmed subcellular release.

    PubMed

    Wildt, Bridget; Wirtz, Denis; Searson, Peter C

    2010-07-01

    Programmed subcellular release is an in vitro technique for the quantitative study of cell detachment. The dynamics of cell contraction are measured by releasing cells from surfaces to which they are attached with spatial and temporal control. Release of subcellular regions of cells is achieved by plating cells on an electrode array created by standard microfabrication methods. The electrodes are then biochemically functionalized with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD)-terminated thiol. Application of a voltage pulse results in electrochemical desorption of the RGD-terminated thiols, triggering cell detachment. This method allows for the study of the full cascade of events from detachment to subsequent subcellular reorganization. Fabrication of the electrode arrays may take 1-2 d. Preparation for experiments, including surface functionalization and cell plating, can be completed in 10 h. A series of cell release experiments on one device may last several hours. PMID:20595956

  4. Fabrication of nano-gap electrode arrays by the construction and selective chemical etching of nano-crosswire stacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-Ah (Inventor); Prokopuk, Nicholas (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods of fabricating nano-gap electrode structures in array configurations, and the structures so produced. The fabrication method involves depositing first and second pluralities of electrodes comprising nanowires using processes such as lithography, deposition of metals, lift-off processes, and chemical etching that can be performed using conventional processing tools applicable to electronic materials processing. The gap spacing in the nano-gap electrode array is defined by the thickness of a sacrificial spacer layer that is deposited between the first and second pluralities of electrodes. The sacrificial spacer layer is removed by etching, thereby leaving a structure in which the distance between pairs of electrodes is substantially equal to the thickness of the sacrificial spacer layer. Electrode arrays with gaps measured in units of nanometers are produced. In one embodiment, the first and second pluralities of electrodes are aligned in mutually orthogonal orientations.

  5. High Density Nano-Electrode Array for Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Mano Misra

    2010-05-07

    Bulk single crystals of Cd1-xZnxTe (x=0.04 to x=0.2) compound semiconductor is used for room temperature radiation detection. The production of large volume of Cd1-xZnxTe with low defect density is expensive. As a result there is a growing research interest in the production of nanostructured compound semiconductors such as Cd1-xZnxTe in an electrochemical route. In this investigation, Cd1-xZnxTe ternary compound semiconductor, referred as CZT, was electrodeposited in the form of nanowires onto a TiO2 nanotubular template from propylene carbonate as the non-aqueous electrolyte, using a pulse-reverse electrodeposition process at 130 ºC. The template acted as a support in growing ordered nanowire of CZT which acts as a one dimensional conductor. Cyclic Voltammogram (CV) studies were conducted in determining the potentials for the growth of nanowires of uniform stoichiometry. The morphologies and composition of CZT were characterized by using SEM, TEM and XRD. The STEM mapping carried out on the nanowires showed the uniform distribution of Cd, Zn and Te elements. TEM image showed that the nanowires were polycrystalline in nature. The Mott-Schottky analysis carried on the nanowires showed that the nanowires were a p-type semiconductor. The carrier density, band gap and resistivity of the Cd0.9Zn0.1Te nanowires were 4.29x1013 cm-3, 1.56 eV and 2.76x1011Ω-cm respectively. The high resistivity was attributed to the presence of deep defect states such as cadmium vacancies or Te antisites which were created by the anodic cycle of the pulse-reverse electrodeposition process. Stacks of series connected CZT nanowire arrays were tested with different bias potentials. The background current was in the order of tens of picoamperes. When exposed to radiation source Amerecium-241 (60 KeV, 4 μCi), the stacked CZT nanowires arrays showed sensing behavior. The sensitivity of the nanowire arrays increased as the number of stacks increased. The preliminary results indicate that the

  6. Biochips Containing Arrays of Carbon-Nanotube Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun; Meyyappan, M.; Koehne, Jessica; Cassell, Alan; Chen, Hua

    2008-01-01

    Biochips containing arrays of nanoelectrodes based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are being developed as means of ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) biomarkers for purposes of medical diagnosis and bioenvironmental monitoring. In mass production, these biochips could be relatively inexpensive (hence, disposable). These biochips would be integrated with computer-controlled microfluidic and microelectronic devices in automated hand-held and bench-top instruments that could be used to perform rapid in vitro genetic analyses with simplified preparation of samples. Carbon nanotubes are attractive for use as nanoelectrodes for detection of biomolecules because of their nanoscale dimensions and their chemical properties.

  7. Intracellular Protein Delivery and Gene Transfection by Electroporation Using a Microneedle Electrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong-O; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Park, Jung-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The impact of many biopharmaceuticals, including protein- and gene-based therapies, has been limited by the need for better methods of delivery into cells within tissues. Here, we present intracellular delivery of molecules and transfection with plasmid DNA by electroporation using a novel microneedle electrode array designed for targeted treatment of skin and other tissue surfaces. The microneedle array is molded out of polylactic acid. Electrodes and circuitry required for electroporation are applied to the microneedle array surface by a new metal-transfer micromolding method. The microneedle array maintains mechanical integrity after insertion into pig cadaver skin and is able to electroporate human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Quantitative measurements show that increasing electroporation pulse voltage increases uptake efficiency of calcein and bovine serum albumin, whereas increasing pulse length has lesser effects over the range studied. Uptake of molecules by up to 50 % of cells and transfection of 12 % of cells with a gene for green fluorescent protein is demonstrated at high cell viability. We conclude that the microneedle electrode array is able to electroporate cells, resulting in intracellular uptake of molecules, and has potential applications to improve intracellular delivery of proteins, DNA and other biopharmaceuticals. PMID:22328093

  8. Design of micro, flexible light-emitting diode arrays and fabrication of flexible electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dan; Wang, Weibiao; Liang, Zhongzhu; Liang, Jingqiu; Qin, Yuxin; Lv, Jinguang

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we design micro, flexible light-emitting diode (LED) array devices. Using theoretical calculations and finite element simulations, we analyze the deformation of the conventional single electrode bar. Through structure optimization, we obtain a three-dimensional (3D), chain-shaped electrode structure, which has a greater bending degree. The optimized electrodes not only have a bigger bend but can also be made to spin. When the supporting body is made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the maximum bending degree of the micro, flexible LED arrays (4  ×  1 arrays) was approximately 230 µm this was obtained using the finite element method. The device (4  ×  1 arrays) can stretch to 15%. This paper describes the fabrication of micro, flexible LED arrays using microelectromechancial (MEMS) technology combined with electroplating technology. Specifically, the isolated grooves are made by dry etching which can isolate and protect the light-emitting units. A combination of MEMS technology and wet etching is used to fabricate the large size spacing.

  9. Intracellular protein delivery and gene transfection by electroporation using a microneedle electrode array.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong-O; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Park, Jung-Hwan; Prausnitz, Mark R; Allen, Mark G

    2012-04-10

    The impact of many biopharmaceuticals, including protein- and gene-based therapies, has been limited by the need for better methods of delivery into cells within tissues. Here, intracellular delivery of molecules and transfection with plasmid DNA by electroporation is presented using a novel microneedle electrode array designed for the targeted treatment of skin and other tissue surfaces. The microneedle array is molded out of polylactic acid. Electrodes and circuitry required for electroporation are applied to the microneedle array surface by a new metal-transfer micromolding method. The microneedle array maintains mechanical integrity after insertion into pig cadaver skin and is able to electroporate human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Quantitative measurements show that increasing electroporation pulse voltage increases uptake efficiency of calcein and bovine serum albumin, whereas increasing pulse length has lesser effects over the range studied. Uptake of molecules by up to 50% of cells and transfection of 12% of cells with a gene for green fluorescent protein is demonstrated at high cell viability. It is concluded that the microneedle electrode array is able to electroporate cells, resulting in intracellular uptake of molecules, and has potential applications to improve intracellular delivery of proteins, DNA, and other biopharmaceuticals. PMID:22328093

  10. Flexible multi-electrode array with integrated bendable CMOS-chip for implantable systems.

    PubMed

    Winkin, N; Mokwa, W

    2012-01-01

    Micro-electrodes and micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) for stimulating neurons or recording action potentials are widely used in medical applications or biological research. For medical implants in many applications like brain implants or retinal implants there is a need for flexible MEAs with a large area and a large number of stimulation electrodes. In this work a flexible MEA with an embedded flexible silicon dummy CMOS-chip facing these challenges has been designed, manufactured and characterized. This approach offers the possibility by connecting and addressing several of these MEAs via a bus system, to increase the number and the density of electrodes significantly. This paper describes the design and fabrication process. Results on the mechanical and electrical behavior will be given and possible improvements for medical applications by this novel approach will be discussed.

  11. Preparation of nickel nanowire arrays electrode for urea electro-oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fen; Ye, Ke; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2015-03-01

    Fully metallic nickel nanowire arrays (NWAs) electrode is prepared by electrodepositing nickel within the pores and over-plating on the surface of polycarbonate template (PCT) with subsequent dissolution of the template in dichloromethane. The as-prepared electrode is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Urea electro-oxidation reaction in KOH solution on the nickel NWAs electrode is investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The results show that the nickel NWAs electrode achieves an onset oxidation potential of 0.25 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and a peak current density of 160 mA cm-2 in 5 mol L-1 KOH and 0.33 mol L-1 urea accompanied with considerable stability.

  12. A carbon-fiber electrode array for long-term neural recording

    PubMed Central

    Guitchounts, Grigori; Markowitz, Jeffrey E.; Liberti, William A.; Gardner, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Problem addressed Chronic neural recording in behaving animals is an essential method for studies of neural circuit function. However, stable recordings from small, densely packed neurons remains challenging, particularly over time-scales relevant for learning. Methodology We describe an assembly method for a 16 channel electrode array consisting of carbon fibers (<5 μm diameter) individually insulated with Parylene-C and fire-sharpened. The diameter of the array is approximately 26 microns, along the full extent of the implant. Results Carbon fiber arrays were tested in HVC (used as a proper name), a song motor nucleus, of singing zebra finches where individual neurons discharge with temporally precise patterns. Previous reports of activity in this population of neurons has required the use of high impedance electrodes on movable microdrives. Here, the carbon fiber electrodes provided stable multi-unit recordings over time-scales of months. Spike-sorting indicated that the multi-unit signals were dominated by one, or a small number of cells. Stable firing patterns during singing confirmed the stability of these clusters over time-scales of months. In addition, from a total of 10 surgeries, 16 projection neurons were found. This cell type is characterized by sparse - stereotyped firing firing patterns, providing unambiguous confirmation of single cell recordings. Significance Carbon fiber electrode bundles may provide a scalable solution for long-term neural recordings of densely packed neurons. PMID:23860226

  13. High frequency glow discharges at atmospheric pressure with micro-structured electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baars-Hibbe, L.; Sichler, P.; Schrader, C.; Lucas, N.; Gericke, K.-H.; Büttgenbach, S.

    2005-02-01

    Micro-structured electrode (MSE) arrays allow the generation of large-area uniform glow discharges over a wide pressure range up to atmospheric pressure. The electrode widths, thicknesses and distances in the micrometre range are realized by means of modern micro-machining and galvanic techniques. The electrode distance, the gap width d, is small enough to generate sufficiently high electric field strengths to ignite gas discharges by applying only moderate radio frequency (RF, 13.56 MHz) voltages (80-390 V in Ne, He, Ar, N2 and air). The non-thermal plasma system is characterized by a special probe measuring the electric parameters. We tested MSE arrays with d = 70, 25 and 15 µm. The MSE driven plasmas show a different behaviour from conventional RF discharge plasmas. Due to the very small electrode gap width we can describe the behaviour of the charged particles in the RF field of our system with the dc Townsend breakdown theory, depending on the pressure range and gas. With decreasing pressure, the gas discharges, especially in Ne and He, are increasingly dominated by field electron emission. With the MSE arrays as plasma sources several applications were developed and successfully tested, e.g. decomposition of waste gases and sterilization of food packaging materials at atmospheric pressure.

  14. Design and fabrication of a multi-electrode array for spinal cord epidural stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Lo, Yi-Kai; Gad, Parag; Edgerton, Reggie; Liu, Wentai

    2014-01-01

    A detailed design, fabrication, characterization and test of a flexible multi-site platinum/polyimide based electrode array for electrical epidural stimulation in spinal cord prosthesis is described in this paper. Carefully designed 8.4 μm-thick structure fabrication flow achieves an electrode surface modification with 3.8 times enhanced effective surface area without extra process needed. Measured impedance and phase of two type of electrodes are 2.35±0.21 KΩ and 2.10±0.11 KΩ, -34.25±8.07° and -27.71±8.27° at 1K Hz, respectively. The fabricated arrays were then in-vitro tested by a multichannel neural stimulation system in physiological saline to validate the capability for electrical stimulation. The measured channel isolation on adjacent electrode is about -34dB. Randles cell model was used to investigate the charging waveforms, the model parameters were then extracted by various methods. The measured charge transfer resistance, double layer capacitance, and solution resistance are 1.9 KΩ, 220 nF and 15 KΩ, respectively. The results show that the fabricated array is applicable for electrical stimulation with well characterized parameters. Combined with a multichannel stimulator, this system provides a full solution for versatile neural stimulation applications. PMID:25571566

  15. Design of Circle Array Pattern for Transparent Nanomesh-Type Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seungsu; Ganorkar, Shraddha; Kim, Jungyoon; Kim, Young-Hwan; Kim, Yong Tae; Kim, Seong-Il

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we report simulation results for the optical properties of nanomesh-type electrodes for transparent electrode. Usually, indium tin oxide (ITO) is commonly used for transparent conductor to solar cell, display, LED and other electronic modules. However, the cost is high due to the rarity of indium. An alternative way is use of transparent nanomesh-type metal electrode for solar cell. Finite different time domain (FDTD) method was used to simulate and analyze their optical properties. Various array patterns (square, circle and circle hexagonal array) of metal on glass (SiO2) substrates were designed and their properties of transmission and reflection were simulated by using the broad band (λ = 300~1200 nm) plane wave source. To compare basic characteristics of each pattern, various structural parameters such as hole diameter, pitch and metal thickness were applied. The effect of three typical metals, such as Ag, Au, and Al was also compared. In the results, we will discuss about large dip of transmission appeared at the particular wavelength region from the circle array pattern, which is design with pitch of 500 nm at the wavelength range 700 to 800 nm. The surface plasmonpolaritons (SPP) effect can be the cause of large dip and we could find a broad and high transmission from the properly designed in nanomesh-type electrodes, which was calculated as a function of wavelength. PMID:26726388

  16. Adult cortical plasticity studied with chronically implanted electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroshi; McManus, Justin N J; Ramalingam, Nirmala; Li, Wu; Marik, Sally A; Borgloh, Stephan Meyer Zum Alten; Gilbert, Charles D

    2015-02-11

    The functional architecture of adult cerebral cortex retains a capacity for experience-dependent change. This is seen after focal binocular lesions as rapid changes in receptive field (RF) of the lesion projection zone (LPZ) in the primary visual cortex (V1). To study the dynamics of the circuitry underlying these changes longitudinally, we implanted microelectrode arrays in macaque (Macaca mulatta) V1, eliminating the possibility of sampling bias, which was a concern in previous studies. With this method, we observed a rapid initial recovery in the LPZ and, during the following weeks, 63-89% of the sites in the LPZ showed recovery of visual responses with significant position tuning. The RFs shifted ∼3° away from the scotoma. In the absence of a lesion, visual stimulation surrounding an artificial scotoma did not elicit visual responses, suggesting that the postlesion RF shifts resulted from cortical reorganization. Interestingly, although both spikes and LFPs gave consistent prelesion position tuning, only spikes reflected the postlesion remapping.

  17. Analysis of traveling-wave electro-osmotic pumping with double-sided electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Hung-Chun; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Luo, Win-Jet

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, a series of numerical simulations was performed to investigate the pumping performance of electro-osmotic micropumps containing electrode arrays patterned on the upper and lower sides of a microchannel. The simulations have been analyzed with a linear electro-osmotic model based upon the Debye-Hückel theory of the double layer. The potential drop across the diffuse layer is assumed to be less than 25 mV (kBT/e), and there is a linear response between the surface charge and the voltage drop across the double layer. The double layer is not resolved but is lumped into effective parameters that are imported from the Debye-Hückel and Stern layers. We examined the effects of the relative positioning of the electrodes in the opposing arrays (i.e., symmetrical or staggered), and the phase lag and the angular frequency of the alternating current (ac) signals applied to the electrodes within the two arrays. A critical height of the microchannel was observed, below which the interactions of the applied electrical potentials on the walls became significant. The optimum pumping effect was obtained when the electrode arrays were symmetrical to one another around the centerline of the channel and were activated by ac potentials with a 0° phase shift. The corresponding angular frequency of the maximum pumping velocity for different phase shifts of the applied ac signals was also determined. Overall, the simulation results presented in this paper provide a useful insight into the optimal design parameters and operating conditions for micropumps containing two arrays of microelectrodes on the microchannel walls.

  18. Interdigitated array of Pt electrodes for electrical stimulation and engineering of aligned muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Ahadian, Samad; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Ostrovidov, Serge; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Hosseini, Vahid; Kaji, Hirokazu; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Khademhosseini, Ali; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2012-09-21

    Engineered skeletal muscle tissues could be useful for applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and bio-robotics. It is well-known that skeletal muscle cells are able to differentiate under electrical stimulation (ES), with an increase in myosin production, along with the formation of myofibers and contractile proteins. In this study, we describe the use of an interdigitated array of electrodes as a novel platform to electrically stimulate engineered muscle tissues. The resulting muscle myofibers were analyzed and quantified in terms of their myotube characteristics and gene expression. The engineered muscle tissues stimulated through the interdigitated array of electrodes demonstrated superior performance and maturation compared to the corresponding tissues stimulated through a conventional setup (i.e., through Pt wires in close proximity to the muscle tissue). In particular, the ES of muscle tissue (voltage 6 V, frequency 1 Hz and duration 10 ms for 1 day) through the interdigitated array of electrodes resulted in a higher degree of C2C12 myotube alignment (∼80%) as compared to ES using Pt wires (∼65%). In addition, higher amounts of C2C12 myotube coverage area, myotube length, muscle transcription factors and protein biomarkers were found for myotubes stimulated through the interdigitated array of electrodes compared to those stimulated using the Pt wires. Due to the wide array of potential applications of ES for two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) engineered tissues, the suggested platform could be employed for a variety of cell and tissue structures to more efficiently investigate their response to electrical fields.

  19. [Nonsurgical retreatment in a case of a radiolucent apical lesion].

    PubMed

    Vicente Gómez, A; Rodríguez Ponce, A

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of failure that was helpful solved without surgical endodontic treatment. We don't achieve clinical success besides endodontic treatment was twice remade. Finally we decided to put a temporary filling with calcium hydroxide and wait until apical radiolucency disappear and complete our treatment with gutta-percha, sealer and lateral condensation.

  20. [Nonsurgical retreatment in a case of a radiolucent apical lesion].

    PubMed

    Vicente Gómez, A; Rodríguez Ponce, A

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of failure that was helpful solved without surgical endodontic treatment. We don't achieve clinical success besides endodontic treatment was twice remade. Finally we decided to put a temporary filling with calcium hydroxide and wait until apical radiolucency disappear and complete our treatment with gutta-percha, sealer and lateral condensation. PMID:2640036

  1. Nano electrode arrays for in-situ identification and quantification of chemicals in water.

    SciTech Connect

    Gurule, Natalia J.; Kelly, Michael James; Brevnov, Dmitri A.; Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Yelton, William Graham

    2004-12-01

    The nano electrode arrays for in-situ identification and quantification of chemicals in water progress in four major directions. (1) We developed and engineering three nanoelectrode array designs which operate in a portable field mode or as distributed sensor network for water systems. (2) To replace the fragile glass electrochemical cells using in the lab, we design and engineered field-ready sampling heads that combine the nanoelectrode arrays with a high-speed potentiostat. (3) To utilize these arrays in a portable system we design and engineered a light weight high-speed potentiostat with pulse widths from 2 psec. to 100 msec. or greater. (4) Finally, we developed the parameters for an analytical method in low-conductivity solutions for Pb(II) detection, with initial studies for the analysis of As(III) and As(V) analysis in natural water sources.

  2. Time of Flight Electrochemistry: Diffusion Coefficient Measurements Using Interdigitated Array (IDA) Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fei; Kolesov, Grigory; Parkinson, Bruce A.

    2014-09-26

    A simple and straightforward method for measuring diffusion coefficients using interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes is reported. The method does not require that the exact electrode area be known but depends only the size of the gap between the IDA electrode pairs. Electroactive molecules produced at the generator electrode of the IDA by a voltage step or scan can diffuse to the collector electrode and the time delay before the current for the reverse electrochemical reaction is detected at the collector is used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. The measurement of the diffusion rate of Ru(NH3)6+2 in aqueous solution has been used as an example measuring diffusion coefficients using this method. Additionally, a digital simulation of the electrochemical response of the IDA electrodes was used to simulate the entire current/voltage/time behavior of the system and verify the experimentally measured diffusion coefficients. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  3. Microneedle Electrode Array for Electrical Impedance Myography to Characterize Neurogenic Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Li, Yi; Liu, Mingsheng; Cui, Liying; Yu, Yude

    2016-05-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a noninvasive technique for neuromuscular assessment, wherein a low-intensity alternating current is applied to a muscle, and the consequent surface voltage patterns are evaluated. Commercial wet electrodes are most commonly used for EIM. However, these electrodes are not suitable for use on small muscles, as they do not effectively solve the problem of high electrode-skin contact impedance (ESCI) that negatively influences the quality of recorded biopotentials. To address this problem, we fabricated a novel microneedle electrode array (MEA) that consists of 124-µm-long microneedles. Compared to wet electrodes, the MEA could pierce through the outer skin surface in a painless and micro-invasive manner, and could thus effectively reduce ESCI. The MEA has excellent test-retest reproducibility, with intraclass correlation coefficients exceeding 0.920. When used in combination with EIM, the MEA differentiated the affected muscles from the unaffected muscles in patients with neurogenic myopathy, by using EIM parameters of reactance and phase (p = 0.023 and 0.008, respectively). Thus, the novel MEA is a practical and reusable device for EIM assessment in cases of neurogenic myopathy. However, further refinement of the electrode is needed to enhance the clinical application of the system. PMID:26407702

  4. Periodically porous top electrodes on vertical nanowire arrays for highly sensitive gas detection.

    PubMed

    In, Hyun Jin; Field, Christopher R; Pehrsson, Pehr E

    2011-09-01

    Nanowires of various materials and configurations have been shown to be highly effective in the detection of chemical and biological species. In this paper, we report a novel, nanosphere-enabled approach to fabricating highly sensitive gas sensors based on ordered arrays of vertically aligned silicon nanowires topped with a periodically porous top electrode. The vertical array configuration helps to greatly increase the sensitivity of the sensor while the pores in the top electrode layer significantly improve sensing response times by allowing analyte gases to pass through freely. Herein, we show highly sensitive detection to both nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ammonia (NH(3)) in humidified air. NO(2) detection down to 10 parts per billion (ppb) is demonstrated and an order-of-magnitude improvement in sensor response time is shown in the detection of NH(3).

  5. Optimization of focality and direction in dense electrode array transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guler, Seyhmus; Dannhauer, Moritz; Erem, Burak; Macleod, Rob; Tucker, Don; Turovets, Sergei; Luu, Phan; Erdogmus, Deniz; Brooks, Dana H.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) aims to alter brain function non-invasively via electrodes placed on the scalp. Conventional tDCS uses two relatively large patch electrodes to deliver electrical current to the brain region of interest (ROI). Recent studies have shown that using dense arrays containing up to 512 smaller electrodes may increase the precision of targeting ROIs. However, this creates a need for methods to determine effective and safe stimulus patterns as the number of degrees of freedom is much higher with such arrays. Several approaches to this problem have appeared in the literature. In this paper, we describe a new method for calculating optimal electrode stimulus patterns for targeted and directional modulation in dense array tDCS which differs in some important aspects with methods reported to date. Approach. We optimize stimulus pattern of dense arrays with fixed electrode placement to maximize the current density in a particular direction in the ROI. We impose a flexible set of safety constraints on the current power in the brain, individual electrode currents, and total injected current, to protect subject safety. The proposed optimization problem is convex and thus efficiently solved using existing optimization software to find unique and globally optimal electrode stimulus patterns. Main results. Solutions for four anatomical ROIs based on a realistic head model are shown as exemplary results. To illustrate the differences between our approach and previously introduced methods, we compare our method with two of the other leading methods in the literature. We also report on extensive simulations that show the effect of the values chosen for each proposed safety constraint bound on the optimized stimulus patterns. Significance. The proposed optimization approach employs volume based ROIs, easily adapts to different sets of safety constraints, and takes negligible time to compute. An in-depth comparison study gives

  6. Efficient piezoelectric ZnO nanogenerators based on Au-coated silica sphere array electrode

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We reported ZnO nanorod-based piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) with Au-coated silica sphere array as an efficient top electrode. This electrode can readily bend the ZnO nanorods due to its enhanced surface roughness, thus resulting in more increased and regular piezoelectric charge output. Under a low external pushing force of 0.3 kgf, the output current and voltage were increased by approximately 2.01 and 1.51 times, respectively, in comparison with a conventional Au top electrode without silica spheres. Also, the effect of Au-coated silica spheres on the bending radius of ZnO nanorods was theoretically investigated. PMID:24305510

  7. Fabrication of a Micro-Needle Array Electrode by Thermal Drawing for Bio-Signals Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lei; Jiang, Qing; Chen, Keyun; Chen, Zhipeng; Pan, Chengfeng; Jiang, Lelun

    2016-01-01

    A novel micro-needle array electrode (MAE) fabricated by thermal drawing and coated with Ti/Au film was proposed for bio-signals monitoring. A simple and effective setup was employed to form glassy-state poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) into a micro-needle array (MA) by the thermal drawing method. The MA was composed of 6 × 6 micro-needles with an average height of about 500 μm. Electrode-skin interface impedance (EII) was recorded as the insertion force was applied on the MAE. The insertion process of the MAE was also simulated by the finite element method. Results showed that MAE could insert into skin with a relatively low compression force and maintain stable contact impedance between the MAE and skin. Bio-signals, including electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG), and electroencephalograph (EEG) were also collected. Test results showed that the MAE could record EMG, ECG, and EEG signals with good fidelity in shape and amplitude in comparison with the commercial Ag/AgCl electrodes, which proves that MAE is an alternative electrode for bio-signals monitoring. PMID:27322278

  8. Fabrication of a Micro-Needle Array Electrode by Thermal Drawing for Bio-Signals Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Lei; Jiang, Qing; Chen, Keyun; Chen, Zhipeng; Pan, Chengfeng; Jiang, Lelun

    2016-01-01

    A novel micro-needle array electrode (MAE) fabricated by thermal drawing and coated with Ti/Au film was proposed for bio-signals monitoring. A simple and effective setup was employed to form glassy-state poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) into a micro-needle array (MA) by the thermal drawing method. The MA was composed of 6 × 6 micro-needles with an average height of about 500 μm. Electrode-skin interface impedance (EII) was recorded as the insertion force was applied on the MAE. The insertion process of the MAE was also simulated by the finite element method. Results showed that MAE could insert into skin with a relatively low compression force and maintain stable contact impedance between the MAE and skin. Bio-signals, including electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG), and electroencephalograph (EEG) were also collected. Test results showed that the MAE could record EMG, ECG, and EEG signals with good fidelity in shape and amplitude in comparison with the commercial Ag/AgCl electrodes, which proves that MAE is an alternative electrode for bio-signals monitoring. PMID:27322278

  9. Development of Surrogate Spinal Cords for the Evaluation of Electrode Arrays Used in Intraspinal Implants

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng; Kmech, Jonn; Mushahwar, Vivian K.

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of a surrogate spinal cord for evaluating the mechanical suitability of electrode arrays for intraspinal implants. The mechanical and interfacial properties of candidate materials (including silicone elastomers and gelatin hydrogels) for the surrogate cord were tested. The elastic modulus was characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis, and compared with values of actual human spinal cords from the literature. Forces required to indent the surrogate cords to specified depths were measured to obtain values under static conditions. Importantly, to quantify surface properties in addition to mechanical properties normally considered, interfacial frictional forces were measured by pulling a needle out of each cord at a controlled rate. The measured forces were then compared to those obtained from rat spinal cords. Formaldehyde-crosslinked gelatin, 12 wt% in water, was identified as the most suitable material for the construction of surrogate spinal cords. To demonstrate the utility of surrogate spinal cords in evaluating the behavior of various electrode arrays, cords were implanted with two types of intraspinal electrode arrays (one made of individual microwires and another of microwires anchored with a solid base), and cord deformation under elongation was evaluated. The results demonstrate that the surrogate model simulates the mechanical and interfacial properties of the spinal cord, and enables in vitro screening of intraspinal implants. PMID:23358939

  10. In vivo neuronal action potential recordings via three-dimensional microscale needle-electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujishiro, Akifumi; Kaneko, Hidekazu; Kawashima, Takahiro; Ishida, Makoto; Kawano, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    Very fine needle-electrode arrays potentially offer both low invasiveness and high spatial resolution of electrophysiological neuronal recordings in vivo. Herein we report the penetrating and recording capabilities of silicon-growth-based three-dimensional microscale-diameter needle-electrodes arrays. The fabricated needles exhibit a circular-cone shape with a 3-μm-diameter tip and a 210-μm length. Due to the microscale diameter, our silicon needles are more flexible than other microfabricated silicon needles with larger diameters. Coating the microscale-needle-tip with platinum black results in an impedance of ~600 kΩ in saline with output/input signal amplitude ratios of more than 90% at 40 Hz-10 kHz. The needles can penetrate into the whisker barrel area of a rat's cerebral cortex, and the action potentials recorded from some neurons exhibit peak-to-peak amplitudes of ~300 μVpp. These results demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo neuronal action potential recordings with a microscale needle-electrode array fabricated using silicon growth technology.

  11. Three-dimensional nanotube electrode arrays for hierarchical tubular structured high-performance pseudocapacitors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Lin, Yuanjing; Chen, Jiaqi; Lin, Qingfeng; Wu, Yue; Su, Wenjun; Wang, Wenli; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-07-21

    Ordered three-dimensional (3-D) tubular arrays are highly attractive candidates for high performance pseudocapacitor electrodes. Here, we report 3-D fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) tubular arrays fabricated by a cost-effective ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) channels with high uniformity. The large surface area of such a structure leads to remarkable surface area enhancement up to 51.8 times compared to a planar structure. Combining with electrochemically deposited manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoflakes on the inner side wall of the FTO nanotubes, the unique hierarchical tubular structured pseudocapacitor electrode demonstrated the highest areal capacitance of 193.8 mF cm(-2) at the scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) and 184 mF cm(-2) at the discharge current density of 0.6 mA cm(-2), which is 18.5 times that of a planar electrode. And it also showed a volumetric capacitance of 112.6 F cm(-3) at the scan rate of 5 mV s(-1) and 108.8 F cm(-3) at the discharge current density of 0.6 mA cm(-2). In addition, the cyclic stability test also indicated that a nanostructured pseudocapacitive electrode has a much larger capacitance retention after 3000 cycles of the charge-discharge process compared with a planar electrode, primarily due to the mechanical stability of the nanostructure. Moreover, pseudocapacitor device fabrication based on such electrodes shows the volumetric capacitance of 17.5 F cm(-3), and the highest specific energy of 1.56 × 10(-3) Wh cm(-3). With the merit of facile fabrication procedures and largely enhanced electrochemical performance, such a 3-D structure has high potency for energy storage systems for a wide range of practical applications. PMID:27337295

  12. Single-crystalline Ni(OH)2 and NiO nanoplatelet arrays as supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangtian; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Fuqiang; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Wu, Nianqiang

    2011-12-01

    Vertically aligned Ni(OH)2 and NiO single-crystalline nanoplatelet arrays were directly grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by a simple hydrothermal method. The effects of the hydrothermal parameters on the morphology and crystal structure of the nanoarray film were investigated. Controlling the ammonia and persulfate concentrations was the key to controlling the morphology of the nanoarray film. The experimental results showed that the single-crystalline NiO nanoplatelet array was a promising candidate for the supercapacitor electrode. It exhibited a high specific capacitance, prompt charge/discharge rate, and good stability of cycling performance. It is believed that the vertically oriented aligned single-crystalline NiO nanoplatelet array is beneficial to the charge transfer in the electrode and to the ion transport in the solution during redox reaction.Vertically aligned Ni(OH)2 and NiO single-crystalline nanoplatelet arrays were directly grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by a simple hydrothermal method. The effects of the hydrothermal parameters on the morphology and crystal structure of the nanoarray film were investigated. Controlling the ammonia and persulfate concentrations was the key to controlling the morphology of the nanoarray film. The experimental results showed that the single-crystalline NiO nanoplatelet array was a promising candidate for the supercapacitor electrode. It exhibited a high specific capacitance, prompt charge/discharge rate, and good stability of cycling performance. It is believed that the vertically oriented aligned single-crystalline NiO nanoplatelet array is beneficial to the charge transfer in the electrode and to the ion transport in the solution during redox reaction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns of Ni(OH)2 and NiO powders; SEM and TEM images of Ni(OH)2 and NiO nanoplatelet arrays; and electrochemical performances for NiO nanoarrays and powders. See

  13. Electrochemical biosensor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA detection based on gold nanotubes array electrode platform.

    PubMed

    Torati, Sri Ramulu; Reddy, Venu; Yoon, Seok Soo; Kim, CheolGi

    2016-04-15

    The template assisted electrochemical deposition technique was used for the synthesis of gold nanotubes array (AuNTsA). The morphological structure of the synthesized AuNTsA was observed by scanning electron microscopy and found that the individual nanotubes are around 1.5 μm in length with a diameter of 200 nm. Nanotubes are vertically aligned to the Au thick film, which is formed during the synthesis process of nanotubes. The electrochemical performance of the AuNTsA was compared with the bare Au electrode and found that AuNTsA has better electron transfer surface than bare Au electrode which is due to the high surface area. Hence, the AuNTsA was used as an electrode for the fabrication of DNA hybridization biosensor for detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis DNA. The DNA hybridization biosensor constructed by AuNTsA electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry technique with Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) as an electrochemical redox indicator. The selectivity of the fabricated biosensor was illustrated by hybridization with complementary DNA and non-complementary DNA with probe DNA immobilized AuNTsA electrode using methylene blue as a hybridization indicator. The developed electrochemical DNA biosensor shows good linear range of complementary DNA concentration from 0.01 ng/μL to 100 ng/μL with high detection limit.

  14. Modeling of the cell-electrode interface noise for microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Yuan, Jie; Chan, Mansun

    2012-12-01

    Microelectrodes are widely used in the physiological recording of cell field potentials. As microelectrode signals are generally in the μV range, characteristics of the cell-electrode interface are important to the recording accuracy. Although the impedance of the microelectrode-solution interface has been well studied and modeled in the past, no effective model has been experimentally verified to estimate the noise of the cell-electrode interface. Also in existing interface models, spectral information is largely disregarded. In this work, we developed a model for estimating the noise of the cell-electrode interface from interface impedances. This model improves over existing noise models by including the cell membrane capacitor and frequency dependent impedances. With low-noise experiment setups, this model is verified by microelectrode array (MEA) experiments with mouse muscle myoblast cells. Experiments show that the noise estimated from this model has <;10% error, which is much less than estimations from existing models. With this model, noise of the cell-electrode interface can be estimated by simply measuring interface impedances. This model also provides insights for micro- electrode design to achieve good recording signal-to-noise ratio.

  15. A liquid crystal microlens array with aluminum and graphene electrodes for plenoptic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yu; Tong, Qing; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

    2015-12-01

    Currently, several semiconducting oxide materials such as typical indium tin oxide are widely used as the transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) in liquid crystal microlens arrays. In this paper, we fabricate a liquid crystal microlens array using graphene rather than semiconducting oxides as the TCE. Common optical experiments are carried out to acquire the focusing features of the graphene-based liquid crystal microlens array (GLCMLA) driven electrically. The acquired optical fields show that the GLCMLA can converge incident collimating lights efficiently. The relationship between the focal length and the applied voltage signal is presented. Then the GLCMLA is deployed in a plenoptic camera prototype and the raw images are acquired so as to verify their imaging capability. Our experiments demonstrate that graphene has already presented a broad application prospect in the area of adaptive optics.

  16. A parylene-silicon cochlear electrode array with integrated position sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianbai; Gulari, Mayurachat N; Wise, Kensall D

    2006-01-01

    A thin-film cochlear electrode array has been developed for a cochlear prosthesis to achieve improved sound perception and position accuracy. The array is fabricated using a bulk-silicon micromachining process that allows parylene deposition and patterning at wafer level, followed by a wet silicon release etch that is compatible with the use of boron etch-stops. The process is capable of realizing arrays with substrates stressed to hug the modiolar wall in the rest state and whose stiffness can be adjusted over a wide range. Built-in tip and curvature sensors respond to tip contact and bending-induced shank stress, respectively during in-vitro and in-vivo implants. The process is also compatible with the integration of parylene ribbon cables for lead transfer to an implanted electronics package. PMID:17946554

  17. A high performance three-phase enzyme electrode based on superhydrophobic mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays for glucose detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chenlong; Song, Zhiqian; Xiang, Qun; Jin, Jian; Feng, Xinjian

    2016-03-01

    We describe here a high performance oxygen-rich three-phase enzyme electrode based on superhydrophobic mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays for glucose detection. We demonstrate that its linear detection upper limit is 30 mM, more than 15 times higher than that can be obtained on the normal enzyme-electrode. Notably, the three-phase enzyme electrode output is insensitive to the significant oxygen level fluctuation in analyte solution.We describe here a high performance oxygen-rich three-phase enzyme electrode based on superhydrophobic mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays for glucose detection. We demonstrate that its linear detection upper limit is 30 mM, more than 15 times higher than that can be obtained on the normal enzyme-electrode. Notably, the three-phase enzyme electrode output is insensitive to the significant oxygen level fluctuation in analyte solution. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08370b

  18. Evaluation of Platinum-Black Stimulus Electrode Array for Electrical Stimulation of Retinal Cells in Retinal Prosthesis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Taiichiro; Kobayashi, Risato; Komiya, Ken; Fukushima, Takafumi; Tomita, Hiroshi; Sugano, Eriko; Kurino, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Tetsu; Tamai, Makoto; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa

    2007-04-01

    A retinal prosthesis system with a three-dimensionally (3D) stacked LSI chip has been proposed. We fabricated a new implantable stimulus electrode array deposited with Platinum-black (Pt-b) on a polyimide-based flexible printed circuit (FPC) for the electrical stimulation of the retinal cells. Impedance measurement of the Pt-b electrode-electrolyte interface in a saline solution was performed and the Pt-b electrode realized a very low impedance. The power consumption at the electrode array when retinal cells were stimulated by a stimulus current was evaluated. The power consumption of the Pt-b stimulus electrode array was 91% lower than that of a previously fabricated Al stimulus electrode array due to a convexo-concave surface. In the cytotoxicity test (CT), we confirmed that Pt implantation induced no cellular degeneration of the rat retina. In the animal experiments, electrically evoked potential (EEP) was successfully recorded using Japanese white rabbits. These results indicate that electrical stimulation using the Pt-b stimulus electrode array can restore visual sensation.

  19. Mandibular destructive radiolucent lesion: The first sign of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Fregnani, Eduardo-Rodrigues; Leite, Amanda-Almeida; Parahyba, Claudia-Joffily; Nesrallah, Ana-Cristina-Alo; Ramos-Perez, Flávia-Maria-de Moraes

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of a mandibular lesion as the first sign of multiple myeloma (MM) is uncommon. This report describes a case of MM diagnosed because of a mandibular lesion. A 62-year-old woman presented a destructive radiolucent lesion in the right mandibular ramus. The lesion caused rupture of the anterior cortical bone and extended from the retromolar area to the coronoid process. An incisional biopsy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed numerous pleomorphic plasma cells, some with binucleated nuclei. The tumor cells showed kappa light-chain restriction. Bone marrow biopsy showed findings of massive infiltration of neoplastic plasma cells, besides lesions in the vertebrae. The diagnosis of MM was established. The patient underwent autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Currently, the patient is under regular follow up after 40 months of initial treatment. In conclusion, MM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of destructive mandibular lesions. Key words:Mandible, multiple myeloma, radiolucent lesion. PMID:27703618

  20. Synthesis of molecular imprinted polymer modified TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode and their photoelectrocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Na; Chen Shuo; Wang Hongtao; Quan Xie Zhao Huimin

    2008-10-15

    A tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) modified TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode was prepared via surface molecular imprinting. Its surface was structured with surface voids and the nanotubes were open at top end with an average diameter of approximately 50 nm. The MIP-modified TiO{sub 2} nanotube array with anatase phase was identified by XRD and a distinguishable red shift in the absorption spectrum was observed. The MIP-modified electrode also exhibited a high adsorption capacity for TC due to its high surface area providing imprinted sites. Photocurrent was generated on the MIP-modified photoanode using the simulated solar spectrum and increased with the increase of positive bias potential. Under simulated solar light irradiation, the MIP-modified TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode exhibited enhanced photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity with the apparent first-order rate constant being 1.2-fold of that with TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode. The effect of the thickness of the MIP layer on the PEC activity was also evaluated. - Graphical abstract: A tetracycline hydrochloride molecularly imprinted polymer modified TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode was prepared via surface molecular imprinting. It showed improved response to simulated solar light and higher adsorption capability for tetracycline hydrochloride, thereby exhibiting increased PEC activity under simulated solar light irradiation. The apparent first-order rate constant was 1.2-fold of that on TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode.

  1. A high performance three-phase enzyme electrode based on superhydrophobic mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays for glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenlong; Song, Zhiqian; Xiang, Qun; Jin, Jian; Feng, Xinjian

    2016-04-14

    We describe here a high performance oxygen-rich three-phase enzyme electrode based on superhydrophobic mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays for glucose detection. We demonstrate that its linear detection upper limit is 30 mM, more than 15 times higher than that can be obtained on the normal enzyme-electrode. Notably, the three-phase enzyme electrode output is insensitive to the significant oxygen level fluctuation in analyte solution.

  2. A high performance three-phase enzyme electrode based on superhydrophobic mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays for glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenlong; Song, Zhiqian; Xiang, Qun; Jin, Jian; Feng, Xinjian

    2016-04-14

    We describe here a high performance oxygen-rich three-phase enzyme electrode based on superhydrophobic mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays for glucose detection. We demonstrate that its linear detection upper limit is 30 mM, more than 15 times higher than that can be obtained on the normal enzyme-electrode. Notably, the three-phase enzyme electrode output is insensitive to the significant oxygen level fluctuation in analyte solution. PMID:26983941

  3. Non-invasive method for selection of electrodes and stimulus parameters for FES applications with intrafascicular arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowden, B. R.; Frankel, M. A.; Normann, R. A.; Clark, G. A.

    2012-02-01

    High-channel-count intrafascicular electrode arrays provide comprehensive and selective access to the peripheral nervous system. One practical difficulty in using several electrode arrays to evoke coordinated movements in paralyzed limbs is the identification of the appropriate stimulation channels and stimulus parameters to evoke desired movements. Here we present the use of a six degree-of-freedom load cell placed under the foot of a feline to characterize the muscle activation produced by three 100-electrode Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) implanted into the femoral nerves, sciatic nerves, and muscular branches of the sciatic nerves of three cats. Intramuscular stimulation was used to identify the endpoint force directions produced by 15 muscles of the hind limb, and these directions were used to classify the forces produced by each intrafascicular USEA electrode as flexion or extension. For 451 USEA electrodes, stimulus intensities for threshold and saturation muscle forces were identified, and the 3D direction and linearity of the force recruitment curves were determined. Further, motor unit excitation independence for 198 electrode pairs was measured using the refractory technique. This study demonstrates the utility of 3D endpoint force monitoring as a simple and non-invasive metric for characterizing the muscle-activation properties of hundreds of implanted peripheral nerve electrodes, allowing for electrode and parameter selection for neuroprosthetic applications.

  4. Response profiles of murine spiral ganglion neurons on multi-electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahnewald, Stefan; Tscherter, Anne; Marconi, Emanuele; Streit, Jürg; Widmer, Hans Rudolf; Garnham, Carolyn; Benav, Heval; Mueller, Marcus; Löwenheim, Hubert; Roccio, Marta; Senn, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Cochlear implants (CIs) have become the gold standard treatment for deafness. These neuroprosthetic devices feature a linear electrode array, surgically inserted into the cochlea, and function by directly stimulating the auditory neurons located within the spiral ganglion, bypassing lost or not-functioning hair cells. Despite their success, some limitations still remain, including poor frequency resolution and high-energy consumption. In both cases, the anatomical gap between the electrode array and the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) is believed to be an important limiting factor. The final goal of the study is to characterize response profiles of SGNs growing in intimate contact with an electrode array, in view of designing novel CI devices and stimulation protocols, featuring a gapless interface with auditory neurons. Approach. We have characterized SGN responses to extracellular stimulation using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). This setup allows, in our view, to optimize in vitro many of the limiting interface aspects between CIs and SGNs. Main results. Early postnatal mouse SGN explants were analyzed after 6-18 days in culture. Different stimulation protocols were compared with the aim to lower the stimulation threshold and the energy needed to elicit a response. In the best case, a four-fold reduction of the energy was obtained by lengthening the biphasic stimulus from 40 μs to 160 μs. Similarly, quasi monophasic pulses were more effective than biphasic pulses and the insertion of an interphase gap moderately improved efficiency. Finally, the stimulation with an external electrode mounted on a micromanipulator showed that the energy needed to elicit a response could be reduced by a factor of five with decreasing its distance from 40 μm to 0 μm from the auditory neurons. Significance. This study is the first to show electrical activity of SGNs on MEAs. Our findings may help to improve stimulation by and to reduce energy consumption of CIs and

  5. Close-field electroporation gene delivery using the cochlear implant electrode array enhances the bionic ear.

    PubMed

    Pinyon, Jeremy L; Tadros, Sherif F; Froud, Kristina E; Y Wong, Ann C; Tompson, Isabella T; Crawford, Edward N; Ko, Myungseo; Morris, Renée; Klugmann, Matthias; Housley, Gary D

    2014-04-23

    The cochlear implant is the most successful bionic prosthesis and has transformed the lives of people with profound hearing loss. However, the performance of the "bionic ear" is still largely constrained by the neural interface itself. Current spread inherent to broad monopolar stimulation of the spiral ganglion neuron somata obviates the intrinsic tonotopic mapping of the cochlear nerve. We show in the guinea pig that neurotrophin gene therapy integrated into the cochlear implant improves its performance by stimulating spiral ganglion neurite regeneration. We used the cochlear implant electrode array for novel "close-field" electroporation to transduce mesenchymal cells lining the cochlear perilymphatic canals with a naked complementary DNA gene construct driving expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. The focusing of electric fields by particular cochlear implant electrode configurations led to surprisingly efficient gene delivery to adjacent mesenchymal cells. The resulting BDNF expression stimulated regeneration of spiral ganglion neurites, which had atrophied 2 weeks after ototoxic treatment, in a bilateral sensorineural deafness model. In this model, delivery of a control GFP-only vector failed to restore neuron structure, with atrophied neurons indistinguishable from unimplanted cochleae. With BDNF therapy, the regenerated spiral ganglion neurites extended close to the cochlear implant electrodes, with localized ectopic branching. This neural remodeling enabled bipolar stimulation via the cochlear implant array, with low stimulus thresholds and expanded dynamic range of the cochlear nerve, determined via electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses. This development may broadly improve neural interfaces and extend molecular medicine applications.

  6. Aptamer-based array electrodes for quantitative interferon-γ detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Pui, Tze Sian; Kongsuphol, Patthara; Tang, Kum Cheong; Arya, Sunil K

    2014-03-15

    Present work describes the methylene blue tagged thiolated aptamer-modified gold micro-array based biosensor for specific detection of IFN-γ. The microchips with the microelectrode array were fabricated using standard silicon microfabrication technologies, and modified with methylene blue tagged aptamer using standard gold thiol chemistry. Electrodes were characterized and tested using Cyclic Voltammetric (CV) and Square Wave Voltammetry (SQW) measurements in a standard three-electrode format at room temperature. On an aptamer modified electrode, aptamer density was estimated to be about 4.4 × 10(12)molecules/cm(2). In IFN-γ studies, oxidation peak currents were found to decrease and more than 50% signal suppression was achieved at 500 ng/ml. Further, the magnitude of signal suppression was found to be logarithmically proportional to the IFN-γ in the concentration range of 1-500 ng/ml, with a detection limit of 1.3 ng/ml (i.e. 0.8 fmol in used sample volume of 10 µl). Biosensor showed negligible signal changes (5%) in a very high non-specific protein background, while still able to differentiate target protein IFN-γ at 5 ng/ml. The results indicated that our sensor binds selectively to target molecules, and the non-specific binding where adsorption of BSA protein molecules may be effectively omitted from consideration.

  7. An economical multi-channel cortical electrode array for extended periods of recording during behavior.

    PubMed

    Rennaker, R L; Ruyle, A M; Street, S E; Sloan, A M

    2005-03-15

    We report the development of a low-cost chronic multi-channel microwire electrode array for recording multi-unit cortical responses in behaving rodents. The design was motivated by three issues. First, standard connector systems tended to disconnect from the head-stage during extended periods of behavior. Disconnections resulted in a loss of data and an interruption of the animals' behavior. Second, the use of low insertion force connectors with locking mechanisms was cost prohibitive. Finally, connecting the head-stage to a skull-mounted connector on an unrestrained animal was highly stressful for both the researcher and animal. The design developed uses a high insertion force DIP socket separated from the skullcap that prevents inadvertent disconnects, is inexpensive, and simplifies connecting unrestrained rodents. Electrodes were implanted in layer IV of primary auditory cortex in 11 Sprague-Dawley rats. Performance of the electrodes was monitored for 6 weeks. None of the behaving animals became disconnected from the recording system during recording sessions lasting 6 h. The mean signal-to-noise ratio on all channels (154) following surgery was 3.9+/-0.2. Of the 154 channels implanted, 130 exhibited driven activity following surgery. Forty percent of the arrays continued to exhibit driven neural activity at 6 weeks.

  8. Large current difference in Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array with functionalization of peptides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array (VSNEA) was fabricated using a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches by chemical vapor deposition and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process for biomolecule sensing. To verify the feasibility for the detection of biomolecules, Au-coated VSNEA was functionalized using peptides having a fluorescent probe. Cyclic voltammograms of the peptide-functionalized Au-coated VSNEA show a steady-state electrochemical current behavior. Because of the critically small dimension and vertically aligned nature of VSNEA, the current density of Au-coated VSNEA was dramatically higher than that of Au film electrodes. Au-coated VSNEA further showed a large current difference with and without peptides that was nine times more than that of Au film electrodes. These results indicate that Au-coated VSENA is highly effective device to detect peptides compared to conventional thin-film electrodes. Au-coated VSNEA can also be used as a divergent biosensor platform in many applications. PMID:24279451

  9. Large current difference in Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array with functionalization of peptides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ilsoo; Kim, So-Eun; Han, Sanghun; Kim, Hyungsuk; Lee, Jaehyung; Jeong, Du-Won; Kim, Ju-Jin; Lim, Yong-Beom; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2013-11-26

    Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array (VSNEA) was fabricated using a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches by chemical vapor deposition and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process for biomolecule sensing. To verify the feasibility for the detection of biomolecules, Au-coated VSNEA was functionalized using peptides having a fluorescent probe. Cyclic voltammograms of the peptide-functionalized Au-coated VSNEA show a steady-state electrochemical current behavior. Because of the critically small dimension and vertically aligned nature of VSNEA, the current density of Au-coated VSNEA was dramatically higher than that of Au film electrodes. Au-coated VSNEA further showed a large current difference with and without peptides that was nine times more than that of Au film electrodes. These results indicate that Au-coated VSENA is highly effective device to detect peptides compared to conventional thin-film electrodes. Au-coated VSNEA can also be used as a divergent biosensor platform in many applications.

  10. Three-dimensional nanotube electrode arrays for hierarchical tubular structured high-performance pseudocapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuan; Lin, Yuanjing; Chen, Jiaqi; Lin, Qingfeng; Wu, Yue; Su, Wenjun; Wang, Wenli; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-07-01

    Ordered three-dimensional (3-D) tubular arrays are highly attractive candidates for high performance pseudocapacitor electrodes. Here, we report 3-D fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) tubular arrays fabricated by a cost-effective ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) channels with high uniformity. The large surface area of such a structure leads to remarkable surface area enhancement up to 51.8 times compared to a planar structure. Combining with electrochemically deposited manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoflakes on the inner side wall of the FTO nanotubes, the unique hierarchical tubular structured pseudocapacitor electrode demonstrated the highest areal capacitance of 193.8 mF cm-2 at the scan rate of 5 mV s-1 and 184 mF cm-2 at the discharge current density of 0.6 mA cm-2, which is 18.5 times that of a planar electrode. And it also showed a volumetric capacitance of 112.6 F cm-3 at the scan rate of 5 mV s-1 and 108.8 F cm-3 at the discharge current density of 0.6 mA cm-2. In addition, the cyclic stability test also indicated that a nanostructured pseudocapacitive electrode has a much larger capacitance retention after 3000 cycles of the charge-discharge process compared with a planar electrode, primarily due to the mechanical stability of the nanostructure. Moreover, pseudocapacitor device fabrication based on such electrodes shows the volumetric capacitance of 17.5 F cm-3, and the highest specific energy of 1.56 × 10-3 Wh cm-3. With the merit of facile fabrication procedures and largely enhanced electrochemical performance, such a 3-D structure has high potency for energy storage systems for a wide range of practical applications.Ordered three-dimensional (3-D) tubular arrays are highly attractive candidates for high performance pseudocapacitor electrodes. Here, we report 3-D fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) tubular arrays fabricated by a cost-effective ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) channels with

  11. Sensitive and Selective Detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA Using Vertical Silicon Nanowire Electrode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehyung; Hong, Min-Ho; Han, Sanghun; Na, Jukwan; Kim, Ilsoo; Kwon, Yong-Joon; Lim, Yong-beom; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) RNA was detected via an Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array (VSNEA). The VSNEA was fabricated by combining bottom-up and top-down approaches and then immobilized by artificial peptides for the recognition of HIV-1 RRE. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis was used to measure the electrochemical response of the peptide-immobilized VSNEA to the concentration and types of HIV-1 RRE RNA. DPV peaks showed linearity to the concentration of RNA with a detection limit down to 1.513 fM. It also showed the clear different peaks to the mutated HIV-1 RRE RNA. The high sensitivity and selectivity of VSNEA for the detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA may be attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio and total overlap diffusion mode of ions of the one-dimensional nanowire electrodes.

  12. Vertical nanowire electrode arrays as a scalable platform for intracellular interfacing to neuronal circuits

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jacob T.; Jorgolli, Marsela; Shalek, Alex K.; Yoon, Myung-Han; Gertner, Rona S.; Park, Hongkun

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the neuronal code - the rules by which neuronal circuits store and process information - is a major scientific challenge1,2. Currently, these efforts are impeded by a lack of experimental tools that are sensitive enough to quantify the strength of individual synaptic connections and also scalable enough to simultaneously measure and control a large number of mammalian neurons with single-cell resolution3,4. Here, we report a scalable intracellular electrode platform based on vertical nanowires that affords parallel electrical interfacing to multiple mammalian neurons. Specifically, we show that our vertical nanowire electrode arrays (VNEAs) can intracellularly record and stimulate neuronal activity in dissociated cultures of rat cortical neurons and can also be used to map multiple individual synaptic connections. The scalability of this platform, combined with its compatibility with silicon nanofabrication techniques, provides a clear path toward simultaneous, high-fidelity interfacing with hundreds of individual neurons. PMID:22231664

  13. Sensitive and Selective Detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA Using Vertical Silicon Nanowire Electrode Array.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyung; Hong, Min-Ho; Han, Sanghun; Na, Jukwan; Kim, Ilsoo; Kwon, Yong-Joon; Lim, Yong-Beom; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) RNA was detected via an Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array (VSNEA). The VSNEA was fabricated by combining bottom-up and top-down approaches and then immobilized by artificial peptides for the recognition of HIV-1 RRE. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis was used to measure the electrochemical response of the peptide-immobilized VSNEA to the concentration and types of HIV-1 RRE RNA. DPV peaks showed linearity to the concentration of RNA with a detection limit down to 1.513 fM. It also showed the clear different peaks to the mutated HIV-1 RRE RNA. The high sensitivity and selectivity of VSNEA for the detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA may be attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio and total overlap diffusion mode of ions of the one-dimensional nanowire electrodes.

  14. Design and development of a multichannel potentiometer for monitoring an electrode array and its application in flow analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pasquini, Celio; Raimundo, Jr., Ivo M.; Conceiçao, M.; Montenegro, B. S. M.; Araújo, Alberto N.; Couto, Cristina M. C. M.

    2002-01-01

    A versatile potentiometer that works with electrode arrays in flow injection and/or monosegmented flow systems is described. The potentiometer is controlled by a microcomputer that allows individual, sequential multiplexed or random accesses to eight electrodes while employing only one reference electrode. The instrument was demonstrated by monitoring an array of seven flow-through ion-selective electrodes for Ag+ and for three electrodes for Cl-, Ca2+ and K+. The figures of merit of the individual and multiplexed (summed) readings of the electrode array were compared. The absolute standard deviation of the measurements made by summing the potential of two or more electrodes was maintained constant, thus improving the precision of the measurements. This result shows that an attempt to combine the signals of the electrodes to produce a more intense signal in the Hadamard strategy is feasible and accompanied by a proportional improvement in the precision of individual measurements. The preliminary tests suggest that the system can allow for 270 determinations per hour, with a linear range from 1.0 × 10-2 to 1.0 × 10-4 mol l-1 for the three di¡erent analytes. Detection limits were estimated as 3.1 × 10-5, 3.0 × 10-6 and 1.0 × 10-5 mol l-1 for Cl-, Ca2+ and K+, respectively. PMID:18924730

  15. Analysis and design of a multisensory array for explosive substances based on solid electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Mark; Barrett, Richard; Rodriguez, Jose-Gonzalez

    2012-09-01

    The detection of explosives and explosive related compounds is a subject of importance in several areas including environmental health, de-mining efforts (land and sea) and security and defence against terrorist activity. The use of electrochemical methods is particularly attractive as many common explosives contain suitable chemical groups to be detected using electrochemical methods. The electrochemical detection of explosives and related compounds in solution using a virtual metal electrode array and differential pulse voltammetry was achieved. The multiple sets of voltammetric data were integrated using multivariate analysis and matched with known substances present in explosives. Seven explosive substances: 2,4-initrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 3,4-dinitrotoluene, 2-nitrotoluene , octogen (HMX), pentaerithrytol tetranitrate (PETN), trinitrotoluene (TNT) and cyclonite (RDX) and a taggant agent 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB) were subjected to analysis using four solid electrodes, namely glassy carbon, silver, gold and platinum in saline aqueous solutions to mimic an aquatic environment. The results obtained in Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) from the different experiments with each electrode were combined to produce a single voltammogram, which was subjected to chemometric analysis using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Principle Component Analysis Non-Iterative Partial Least Squares (PCA-NIPALS). A combination of the electrochemical signals obtained together with the use of chemometric analysis made it possible to discriminate between explosives and their mixtures and also to quantitate their concentration in saline solutions. These combinations created a mathematical array, which clearly separates the explosives, even if the electrochemical information is buried or mixed with the electrode background noise.

  16. Enzyme electrodes immobilized on hetero-structured metallic nanowire array for glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hargsoon; Deshpande, Devesh; Chintakuntla, Ritesh R.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2007-12-01

    The fabrication of hetero-structured vertically aligned nanowire arrays and enzyme immobilization on their surface is presented for a glucose sensor with high sensitivity. Hetero-structured nanowires of gold and platinum are fabricated by hybrid polycarbonate membrane assembly and electrochemical deposition processes and glucose oxidase are attached on their surface by covalent immobilization. Platinum and gold hetero-structured nanoelectrodes with enzyme are evaluated to detect hydrogen peroxide produced in the enzyme reaction without the need for the artificial redox mediator, which is not viable on a homogenous gold electrode. Chronoamperometric current behavior is demonstrated with various concentrations from 0.5 mM to 28 mM. In this research, the combination of enzyme immobilization and sensing surfaces on nanowire arrays has shown superior performance with regards to the sensitivity and response time.

  17. Multichannel 5 × 5-Site 3-Dimensional Si Microprobe Electrode Array for Neural Activity Recording System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, Takeshi; Takao, Hidekuni; Sawada, Kazuaki; Ishida, Makoto

    2003-04-01

    Multichannel 5 × 5-site Si microprobe electrode array has been developed for neural activity recording. Si microprobes were fabricated successfully at predetermined sites on a chip using Au dots and Si2H6 gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GS-MBE), a method based on vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth. Selective VLS Si growth allowed the design of three-dimensional (3D) microprobes with 40 μm spacing in a 5 × 5 array. The diameter and the length of the Si probe can be widely changed by changing the Au dot size and the Si growth time, respectively. In addition, the circular-cone-shaped Si probe has a shape suitable for penetration into neural tissues, and can be realized by increasing growth pressure. The mechanical strength of the Si probe was evaluated with observation of its bending and penetration into a gelatin membrane, which indicated that the Si probes are strong enough to withstand the application. Signal recording with the same amplitude as neural activity was also performed using the fabricated Si probe array chip. These results confirm that high-density neural signals from neural tissues can be obtained with the multichannel 3D VLS Si microprobe array chip.

  18. Wireless electrochemiluminescence bipolar electrode array for visualized genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Khoshfetrat, Seyyed Mehdi; Ranjbari, Mitra; Shayan, Mohsen; Mehrgardi, Masoud A; Kiani, Abolfazl

    2015-08-18

    The development of simple, inexpensive, hand-held, user-friendly biosensor for high throughput and multiplexed genotyping of various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a single run experiment by a nonspecialist user is the main challenge in the analysis of DNA. Visualizing the signal and possibility to monitor SNPs by a digital camera opens a new horizon for the routine applications. In the present manuscript, a novel wireless electrochemiluminescence (ECL) DNA array is introduced for the visualized genotyping of different SNPs on the basis of ECL of luminol/hydrogen peroxide system on a bipolar electrode (BPE) array platform. After modification of anodic poles of the array with the DNA probe and its hybridization with the targets, genotyping of various SNPs is carried out by exposing the array to different monobase modified luminol-platinum nanoparticles (M-L-PtNPs). Upon the hybridization of M-L-PtNPs to mismatch sites, the ECL of luminol is followed using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) or digital camera and the images are analyzed by ImageJ software. This biosensor can detect even thermodynamically stable SNP (G-T mismatches) in the range of 2-600 pM. Also, by combining the advantages of BPE and the high visual sensitivity of ECL, it could be easily expected to achieve sensitive screening of different SNPs. The present biosensor demonstrates the capability for the discrimination between PCR products of normal, heterozygous, and homozygous beta thalassemia genetic disorders. PMID:26176414

  19. Curved Microneedle Array-Based sEMG Electrode for Robust Long-Term Measurements and High Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjae; Kim, Taewan; Kim, Dong Sung; Chung, Wan Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Surface electromyography is widely used in many fields to infer human intention. However, conventional electrodes are not appropriate for long-term measurements and are easily influenced by the environment, so the range of applications of sEMG is limited. In this paper, we propose a flexible band-integrated, curved microneedle array electrode for robust long-term measurements, high selectivity, and easy applicability. Signal quality, in terms of long-term usability and sensitivity to perspiration, was investigated. Its motion-discriminating performance was also evaluated. The results show that the proposed electrode is robust to perspiration and can maintain a high-quality measuring ability for over 8 h. The proposed electrode also has high selectivity for motion compared with a commercial wet electrode and dry electrode. PMID:26153773

  20. Curved Microneedle Array-Based sEMG Electrode for Robust Long-Term Measurements and High Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minjae; Kim, Taewan; Kim, Dong Sung; Chung, Wan Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Surface electromyography is widely used in many fields to infer human intention. However, conventional electrodes are not appropriate for long-term measurements and are easily influenced by the environment, so the range of applications of sEMG is limited. In this paper, we propose a flexible band-integrated, curved microneedle array electrode for robust long-term measurements, high selectivity, and easy applicability. Signal quality, in terms of long-term usability and sensitivity to perspiration, was investigated. Its motion-discriminating performance was also evaluated. The results show that the proposed electrode is robust to perspiration and can maintain a high-quality measuring ability for over 8 h. The proposed electrode also has high selectivity for motion compared with a commercial wet electrode and dry electrode. PMID:26153773

  1. Curved Microneedle Array-Based sEMG Electrode for Robust Long-Term Measurements and High Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjae; Kim, Taewan; Kim, Dong Sung; Chung, Wan Kyun

    2015-07-06

    Surface electromyography is widely used in many fields to infer human intention. However, conventional electrodes are not appropriate for long-term measurements and are easily influenced by the environment, so the range of applications of sEMG is limited. In this paper, we propose a flexible band-integrated, curved microneedle array electrode for robust long-term measurements, high selectivity, and easy applicability. Signal quality, in terms of long-term usability and sensitivity to perspiration, was investigated. Its motion-discriminating performance was also evaluated. The results show that the proposed electrode is robust to perspiration and can maintain a high-quality measuring ability for over 8 h. The proposed electrode also has high selectivity for motion compared with a commercial wet electrode and dry electrode.

  2. A clinically applicable approach for detecting spontaneous action potential spikes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with a linear electrode array.

    PubMed

    Jahanmiri-Nezhad, Faezeh; Li, Xiaoyan; Barkhaus, Paul E; Rymer, William Z; Zhou, Ping

    2014-02-01

    Examination of spontaneous muscle activity is an important part of the routine electromyogram (EMG) in assessing neuromuscular diseases. The EMG is specifically valuable as a diagnostic test in supporting the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. High-density surface EMG is a relatively new technique that has until now been used in research but has the potential for clinical application. This study presents a simple high-density surface EMG method for automatic detection of spontaneous action potentials from surface electrode array recordings of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To reduce computational complexity while maintaining useful information from the electrode array recording, the multichannel high-density surface EMG was transferred to single-dimensional data by calculating the maximum difference across all channels of the electrode array. A spike detection threshold was then set in the single-dimensional domain to identify the firing times of each spontaneous action potential spike, whereas a spike extraction threshold was used to define the onset and offset of the spontaneous spikes. These data were used to extract the spontaneous spike waveforms from the electrode array EMG. A database of detected spontaneous spikes was thus obtained, including their waveforms, on all channels along with their corresponding firing times. This newly developed method makes use of the information from different channels of the electrode array EMG recording. It also has the primary feature of being simple and fast in implementation, with convenient parameter adjustment and user-computer interaction. Hence, it has good possibilities for clinical application.

  3. Urchin-like nanowire array: a strategy for high-performance ZnO-based electrode utilized in photoelectrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Hieu, Hoang Nhat; Dung, Nguyen Quoc; Kim, Jimin; Kim, Dojin

    2013-06-21

    The electrodes in photoelectrochemical cells responsible for the generation of hydrogen and oxygen by water splitting have been intensively studied because of their high photon-to-electron conversion efficiency. The morphology of nanostructures with these high-efficiency electrodes was systematically compared with the morphology of ZnO structures with vertically aligned nanorod arrays (NA), hollow hemisphere arrays (HA), urchin-like (UL) nanorod arrays, and thin films (TF). The UV-vis light absorption, photoresponse (current-voltage characteristics in the dark and under light), and photoelectrochemistry of the electrodes were measured. The highest photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of 65% at a specific UV wavelength for an electrode with a ZnO UL structure was derived from the UL morphology of high light-trapping efficiency and carrier collection efficiency. The UL morphology also produced a photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of 4.5% under a solar simulator by CdS-sensitization of the ZnO UL electrode. The value was the highest observed thus far among the ZnO-based electrodes. We demonstrated that photoresponse measurement is a practical and simple technique for the estimation of the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency of an electrode.

  4. Wall-like hierarchical metal oxide nanosheet arrays grown on carbon cloth for excellent supercapacitor electrodes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zongyu; Zhang, Zhen; Qi, Xiang; Ren, Xiaohui; Xu, Guanghua; Wan, Pengbo; Sun, Xiaoming; Zhang, Han

    2016-07-21

    Recently, considerable efforts have been made to satisfy the future requirements of electrochemical energy storage using novel functional electrode materials. Binary transition metal oxides (BTMOs) possess multiple oxidation states that enable multiple redox reactions, showing higher supercapacitive properties than single component metal oxides. In this work, a facile hydrothermal method is provided for the synthesis of wall-like hierarchical metal oxide MMoO4 (M = Ni, Co) nanosheet arrays, which are directly grown on flexible carbon cloth for use as advanced binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. By virtue of their intriguing structure, the resulted active material nanosheets with a high specific surface area can provide a large electroactive region, which could facilitate easy accession of electrolyte ions and fast charge transport, resulting in an enhanced electrochemical performance. Separately, the as-synthesized MMoO4 (M = Ni, Co) samples have exhibited superior specific capacitances (1483 F g(-1) of NiMoO4 and 452 F g(-1) of CoMoO4 at a current density of 2 A g(-1)), as well as excellent cycling stability (93.1% capacitance retention of NiMoO4 and 95.9% capacitance retention of CoMoO4 after 2000 cycles). The results show that the binder-free electrodes constructed by deposition of MMoO4 (M = Ni, Co) nanosheets on carbon cloth are promising candidates for the application of supercapacitors. PMID:27336591

  5. Imaging of CO2 plume scenarios in saline reservoirs by (non) optimized crosshole electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hagrey, S. A.; Strahser, M. H.; Rabbel, W.

    2009-12-01

    In the scope of the research project “CO2 MoPa” (modeling and parameterization of CO2 storage in deep saline formations for dimensions and risk analysis), one main task is to study the efficiency of electrical resistivity tomography in boreholes (BRT) in monitoring the subsurface distribution of CO2 sequestrated in deep saline reservoirs. Similar to ground surveys, BRT ones between a pair of borehole electrode arrays can be conducted in the tripotential quadrupole configurations of α, β and γ in vertical, lateral and horizontal modes. The circulating vertical mode is carried out within the same borehole (inhole) and between two boreholes (crosshole). The comprehensive dataset results from excluding the less stable inversion configurations from the whole set (of all possible independent non-reciprocal configurations). It should result in the best possible resolution. An optimized dataset takes into account the trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution of targets and processes. It has far less data size than the comprehensive one but almost the same resolution. Hagrey (2009) and Loke (pers. com.) extended four published 2D optimization algorithms of electrode arrays for ground surveys into BRT ones. Using an initial base dataset of the dipole-dipole configuration, the new configurations (from the remaining comprehensive dataset) with the largest increase in the model resolution matrix is added to the base dataset. After each iteration the number of arrays in the optimized dataset is increased and the procedure is repeated iteratively until the required data size is achieved. For BRT surveys between two vertical boreholes, ten (non)-standard and optimized configurations have been examined as a function of the multiparameters of, CO2 plume scenarios, burial depths, electrode configurations, aspect ratios, and forward and inversion setup constraints. In these 2.5D modeling studies problems of sharp and gradual boundaries for plume scenarios and

  6. Microfabricated electrospray emitter arrays with integrated extractor and accelerator electrodes for the propulsion of small spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandavino, S.; Ataman, C.; Ryan, C. N.; Chakraborty, S.; Courtney, D.; Stark, J. P. W.; Shea, H.

    2014-07-01

    Microfabricated electrospray thrusters could revolutionize the spacecraft industry by providing efficient propulsion capabilities to micro and nano satellites (1-100 kg). We present the modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of a new generation of devices, for the first time integrating in the fabrication process individual accelerator electrodes capable of focusing and accelerating the emitted sprays. Integrating these electrodes is a key milestone in the development of this technology; in addition to increasing the critical performance metrics of thrust, specific impulse and propulsive efficiency, the accelerators enable a number of new system features such as power tuning and thrust vectoring and balancing. Through microfabrication, we produced high density arrays (213 emitters cm-2) of capillary emitters, assembling them at wafer-level with an extractor/accelerator electrode pair separated by micro-sandblasted glass. Through IV measurements, we could confirm that acceleration could be decoupled from the extraction of the spray—an important element towards the flexibility of this technology. We present the largest reported internally fed microfabricated arrays operation, with 127 emitters spraying in parallel, for a total beam of 10-30 µA composed by 95% of ions. Effective beam focusing was also demonstrated, with plume half-angles being reduced from approximately 30° to 15° with 2000 V acceleration. Based on these results, we predict, with 3000 V acceleration, thrust per emitter of 38.4 nN, specific impulse of 1103 s and a propulsive efficiency of 22% with <1 mW/emitter power consumption.

  7. Optoacoustic multispectral imaging of radiolucent foreign bodies in tissue.

    PubMed

    Page, Leland; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph D

    2013-01-01

    Optoacoustic imaging is an emerging medical technology that uniquely combines the absorption contrast of optical imaging and the penetration depth of ultrasound. While it is not currently employed as a clinical imaging modality, the results of current research strongly support the use of optoacoustic-based methods in medical imaging. One such application is the diagnosis of the presence of soft tissue foreign bodies. Because many radiolucent foreign bodies have sufficient contrast for imaging in the optical domain, laser-induced optoacoustic imaging could be advantageous for the detection of such objects. Common foreign bodies have been scanned over a range of visible and near infrared wavelengths by using an optoacoustic method to obtain the spectroscopic properties of the materials commonly associated with these foreign bodies. The derived optical absorption spectra compared quite closely to the absorption spectra generated when using a conventional spectrophotometer. By using the probe-beam deflection technique, a novel, pressure-wave detection method, we successfully generated optoacoustic spectroscopic plots of a wooden foreign body embedded in a tissue phantom, which closely resembled the spectrum of the same object obtained in isolation. A practical application of such spectra is to assemble a library of spectroscopic data for radiolucent materials, from which specific characteristic wavelengths can be selected for use in optimizing imaging instrumentation and provide a basis for the identification of the material properties of particular foreign bodies.

  8. Using a sensitivity study to facilitate the design of a multi-electrode array to measure six cardiac conductivity values.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Barbara M

    2013-07-01

    When using the bidomain model to model the electrical activity of the heart, there are potentially six cardiac conductivity values involved: conductivity values in directions along and normal to the cardiac fibres with a sheet, as well as a conductivity value in the normal direction between the sheets, and these occur for both the extracellular and intracellular domains in the model. To date it has been common to assume that the two normal direction conductivity values are the same. However, recent work has demonstrated that six cardiac conductivity values, rather than four, are necessary for accurate modelling, which can then facilitate understanding of cardiovascular disease. To design a method to determine these conductivities, it is also necessary to design a suitable multi-electrode array, which can be used, in conjunction with an inversion technique, to retrieve conductivity values from measurements of potential made on the array. This work uses the results of a study, into the sensitivity of the measuring potentials to variability in the input conductivities, to facilitate the design of an array that could be used to retrieve six cardiac conductivity values, as well as fibre rotation angle. It is found that if an electrode in the array has a much lower value of potential than the other electrodes, then it tends to be much more sensitive to the input conductivities than the other electrodes. It also appears that inclusion of this type of electrode in the set of measuring electrodes is essential for accurately retrieving conductivity values. This technique is used to identify electrodes to be included in the array and using the final design it is demonstrated, using synthetic values of potential, that the six cardiac conductivity values, and the fibre rotation angle, can be retrieved very accurately.

  9. Unexpected Radiologic Findings for a Casting Type of Radiolucent Colorectal Foreign Body Composed of Polyurethane Foam.

    PubMed

    Sanjo, Emi; Tamamoto, Fumihiko; Ogawa, Shoichi; Sano, Maiko; Yoshimura, Tetsunori; Nozaki, Miwako

    2016-01-01

    Radiologic diagnosis of colorectal foreign bodies is usually not very difficult, because inserted materials are often clearly visible on plain abdominal radiographs. However, when they are radiolucent, a plain abdominal radiograph has been reported to be useless. As radiolucent colorectal foreign bodies appear as radiolucent artificial contours or air-trapped materials in the pelvis, almost always the diagnosis itself can be made by careful evaluation of plain abdominal radiographs. We encountered a case of casting type of radiolucent colorectal foreign body formed from polyurethane foam. It presented us with unexpected radiologic findings and led to diagnostic difficulties. PMID:27213072

  10. Unexpected Radiologic Findings for a Casting Type of Radiolucent Colorectal Foreign Body Composed of Polyurethane Foam

    PubMed Central

    Tamamoto, Fumihiko; Ogawa, Shoichi; Sano, Maiko; Yoshimura, Tetsunori; Nozaki, Miwako

    2016-01-01

    Radiologic diagnosis of colorectal foreign bodies is usually not very difficult, because inserted materials are often clearly visible on plain abdominal radiographs. However, when they are radiolucent, a plain abdominal radiograph has been reported to be useless. As radiolucent colorectal foreign bodies appear as radiolucent artificial contours or air-trapped materials in the pelvis, almost always the diagnosis itself can be made by careful evaluation of plain abdominal radiographs. We encountered a case of casting type of radiolucent colorectal foreign body formed from polyurethane foam. It presented us with unexpected radiologic findings and led to diagnostic difficulties. PMID:27213072

  11. Flexible Neural Electrode Array Based-on Porous Graphene for Cortical Microstimulation and Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yichen; Lyu, Hongming; Richardson, Andrew G.; Lucas, Timothy H.; Kuzum, Duygu

    2016-09-01

    Neural sensing and stimulation have been the backbone of neuroscience research, brain-machine interfaces and clinical neuromodulation therapies for decades. To-date, most of the neural stimulation systems have relied on sharp metal microelectrodes with poor electrochemical properties that induce extensive damage to the tissue and significantly degrade the long-term stability of implantable systems. Here, we demonstrate a flexible cortical microelectrode array based on porous graphene, which is capable of efficient electrophysiological sensing and stimulation from the brain surface, without penetrating into the tissue. Porous graphene electrodes show superior impedance and charge injection characteristics making them ideal for high efficiency cortical sensing and stimulation. They exhibit no physical delamination or degradation even after 1 million biphasic stimulation cycles, confirming high endurance. In in vivo experiments with rodents, same array is used to sense brain activity patterns with high spatio-temporal resolution and to control leg muscles with high-precision electrical stimulation from the cortical surface. Flexible porous graphene array offers a minimally invasive but high efficiency neuromodulation scheme with potential applications in cortical mapping, brain-computer interfaces, treatment of neurological disorders, where high resolution and simultaneous recording and stimulation of neural activity are crucial.

  12. Flexible Neural Electrode Array Based-on Porous Graphene for Cortical Microstimulation and Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yichen; Lyu, Hongming; Richardson, Andrew G.; Lucas, Timothy H.; Kuzum, Duygu

    2016-01-01

    Neural sensing and stimulation have been the backbone of neuroscience research, brain-machine interfaces and clinical neuromodulation therapies for decades. To-date, most of the neural stimulation systems have relied on sharp metal microelectrodes with poor electrochemical properties that induce extensive damage to the tissue and significantly degrade the long-term stability of implantable systems. Here, we demonstrate a flexible cortical microelectrode array based on porous graphene, which is capable of efficient electrophysiological sensing and stimulation from the brain surface, without penetrating into the tissue. Porous graphene electrodes show superior impedance and charge injection characteristics making them ideal for high efficiency cortical sensing and stimulation. They exhibit no physical delamination or degradation even after 1 million biphasic stimulation cycles, confirming high endurance. In in vivo experiments with rodents, same array is used to sense brain activity patterns with high spatio-temporal resolution and to control leg muscles with high-precision electrical stimulation from the cortical surface. Flexible porous graphene array offers a minimally invasive but high efficiency neuromodulation scheme with potential applications in cortical mapping, brain-computer interfaces, treatment of neurological disorders, where high resolution and simultaneous recording and stimulation of neural activity are crucial. PMID:27642117

  13. Flexible Neural Electrode Array Based-on Porous Graphene for Cortical Microstimulation and Sensing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yichen; Lyu, Hongming; Richardson, Andrew G; Lucas, Timothy H; Kuzum, Duygu

    2016-09-19

    Neural sensing and stimulation have been the backbone of neuroscience research, brain-machine interfaces and clinical neuromodulation therapies for decades. To-date, most of the neural stimulation systems have relied on sharp metal microelectrodes with poor electrochemical properties that induce extensive damage to the tissue and significantly degrade the long-term stability of implantable systems. Here, we demonstrate a flexible cortical microelectrode array based on porous graphene, which is capable of efficient electrophysiological sensing and stimulation from the brain surface, without penetrating into the tissue. Porous graphene electrodes show superior impedance and charge injection characteristics making them ideal for high efficiency cortical sensing and stimulation. They exhibit no physical delamination or degradation even after 1 million biphasic stimulation cycles, confirming high endurance. In in vivo experiments with rodents, same array is used to sense brain activity patterns with high spatio-temporal resolution and to control leg muscles with high-precision electrical stimulation from the cortical surface. Flexible porous graphene array offers a minimally invasive but high efficiency neuromodulation scheme with potential applications in cortical mapping, brain-computer interfaces, treatment of neurological disorders, where high resolution and simultaneous recording and stimulation of neural activity are crucial.

  14. Flexible Neural Electrode Array Based-on Porous Graphene for Cortical Microstimulation and Sensing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yichen; Lyu, Hongming; Richardson, Andrew G; Lucas, Timothy H; Kuzum, Duygu

    2016-01-01

    Neural sensing and stimulation have been the backbone of neuroscience research, brain-machine interfaces and clinical neuromodulation therapies for decades. To-date, most of the neural stimulation systems have relied on sharp metal microelectrodes with poor electrochemical properties that induce extensive damage to the tissue and significantly degrade the long-term stability of implantable systems. Here, we demonstrate a flexible cortical microelectrode array based on porous graphene, which is capable of efficient electrophysiological sensing and stimulation from the brain surface, without penetrating into the tissue. Porous graphene electrodes show superior impedance and charge injection characteristics making them ideal for high efficiency cortical sensing and stimulation. They exhibit no physical delamination or degradation even after 1 million biphasic stimulation cycles, confirming high endurance. In in vivo experiments with rodents, same array is used to sense brain activity patterns with high spatio-temporal resolution and to control leg muscles with high-precision electrical stimulation from the cortical surface. Flexible porous graphene array offers a minimally invasive but high efficiency neuromodulation scheme with potential applications in cortical mapping, brain-computer interfaces, treatment of neurological disorders, where high resolution and simultaneous recording and stimulation of neural activity are crucial. PMID:27642117

  15. Minimally invasive endovascular stent-electrode array for high-fidelity, chronic recordings of cortical neural activity.

    PubMed

    Oxley, Thomas J; Opie, Nicholas L; John, Sam E; Rind, Gil S; Ronayne, Stephen M; Wheeler, Tracey L; Judy, Jack W; McDonald, Alan J; Dornom, Anthony; Lovell, Timothy J H; Steward, Christopher; Garrett, David J; Moffat, Bradford A; Lui, Elaine H; Yassi, Nawaf; Campbell, Bruce C V; Wong, Yan T; Fox, Kate E; Nurse, Ewan S; Bennett, Iwan E; Bauquier, Sébastien H; Liyanage, Kishan A; van der Nagel, Nicole R; Perucca, Piero; Ahnood, Arman; Gill, Katherine P; Yan, Bernard; Churilov, Leonid; French, Christopher R; Desmond, Patricia M; Horne, Malcolm K; Kiers, Lynette; Prawer, Steven; Davis, Stephen M; Burkitt, Anthony N; Mitchell, Peter J; Grayden, David B; May, Clive N; O'Brien, Terence J

    2016-03-01

    High-fidelity intracranial electrode arrays for recording and stimulating brain activity have facilitated major advances in the treatment of neurological conditions over the past decade. Traditional arrays require direct implantation into the brain via open craniotomy, which can lead to inflammatory tissue responses, necessitating development of minimally invasive approaches that avoid brain trauma. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of chronically recording brain activity from within a vein using a passive stent-electrode recording array (stentrode). We achieved implantation into a superficial cortical vein overlying the motor cortex via catheter angiography and demonstrate neural recordings in freely moving sheep for up to 190 d. Spectral content and bandwidth of vascular electrocorticography were comparable to those of recordings from epidural surface arrays. Venous internal lumen patency was maintained for the duration of implantation. Stentrodes may have wide ranging applications as a neural interface for treatment of a range of neurological conditions. PMID:26854476

  16. Behavioral and cellular consequences of high-electrode count Utah Arrays chronically implanted in rat sciatic nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, H. A. C.; Mathews, K. S.; Normann, R. A.; Fernandez, E.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Before peripheral nerve electrodes can be used for the restoration of sensory and motor functions in patients with neurological disorders, the behavioral and histological consequences of these devices must be investigated. These indices of biocompatibility can be defined in terms of desired functional outcomes; for example, a device may be considered for use as a therapeutic intervention if the implanted subject retains functional neurons post-implantation even in the presence of a foreign body response. The consequences of an indwelling device may remain localized to cellular responses at the device-tissue interface, such as fibrotic encapsulation of the device, or they may affect the animal more globally, such as impacting behavioral or sensorimotor functions. The objective of this study was to investigate the overall consequences of implantation of high-electrode count intrafascicular peripheral nerve arrays, High Density Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (HD-USEAs; 25 electrodes mm-2). Approach. HD-USEAs were implanted in rat sciatic nerves for one and two month periods. We monitored wheel running, noxious sensory paw withdrawal reflexes, footprints, nerve morphology and macrophage presence at the tissue-device interface. In addition, we used a novel approach to contain the arrays in actively behaving animals that consisted of an organic nerve wrap. A total of 500 electrodes were implanted across all ten animals. Main results. The results demonstrated that chronic implantation (⩽8 weeks) of HD-USEAs into peripheral nerves can evoke behavioral deficits that recover over time. Morphology of the nerve distal to the implantation site showed variable signs of nerve fiber degeneration and regeneration. Cytology adjacent to the device-tissue interface also showed a variable response, with some electrodes having many macrophages surrounding the electrodes, while other electrodes had few or no macrophages present. This variability was also seen along the length

  17. Performance assessments of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes multi-electrode arrays using Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Du Won; Jung, Jongjin; Kim, Gook Hwa; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Kim, Ju Jin; Jung, Sang Don; Lee, Jeong-O

    2015-08-21

    In this work, Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells were used in place of primary neuronal cells to assess the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) multi-electrode arrays (MEA). To fabricate high-performance MEA, VACNTs were directly grown on graphene/Pt electrodes via plasma enhanced chemical deposition technique. Here, graphene served as an intermediate layer lowering contact resistance between VACNTs and Pt electrode. In order to lower the electrode impedance and to enhance the cell adhesion, VACNTs-MEAs were treated with UV-ozone for 20 min. Impedance of VACNTs electrode at 1 kHz frequency exhibits a reasonable value (110 kΩ) for extracellular signal recording, and the signal to noise ratio the is good enough to measure low signal amplitude (15.7). Spontaneous firing events from CAD cells were successfully measured with VACNTs MEAs that were also found to be surprisingly robust toward the biological interactions. PMID:26222018

  18. Performance assessments of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes multi-electrode arrays using Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Du Won; Jung, Jongjin; Kim, Gook Hwa; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Kim, Ju Jin; Jung, Sang Don; Lee, Jeong-O

    2015-08-21

    In this work, Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells were used in place of primary neuronal cells to assess the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) multi-electrode arrays (MEA). To fabricate high-performance MEA, VACNTs were directly grown on graphene/Pt electrodes via plasma enhanced chemical deposition technique. Here, graphene served as an intermediate layer lowering contact resistance between VACNTs and Pt electrode. In order to lower the electrode impedance and to enhance the cell adhesion, VACNTs-MEAs were treated with UV-ozone for 20 min. Impedance of VACNTs electrode at 1 kHz frequency exhibits a reasonable value (110 kΩ) for extracellular signal recording, and the signal to noise ratio the is good enough to measure low signal amplitude (15.7). Spontaneous firing events from CAD cells were successfully measured with VACNTs MEAs that were also found to be surprisingly robust toward the biological interactions.

  19. Ag nanoparticle-deposited TiO2 nanotube arrays for electrodes of Dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Go; Ohmi, Hayato; Tan, Wai Kian; Lockman, Zainovia; Muto, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Atsunori

    2015-05-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells composed of a photoanode of Ag nanoparticle (NP)-deposited TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays were fabricated. The TNT arrays were prepared by anodizing Ti films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrates. Efficient charge transportation through the ordered nanostructure of TNT arrays should be carried out compared to conventional particulate TiO2 electrodes. However, it has been a big challenge to grow TNT arrays on FTO glass substrates with the lengths needed for sufficient light-harvesting (tens of micrometers). In this work, we deposited Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the wall of TNT arrays to enhance light-harvesting property. Dye-sensitized solar cells with these Ag NP-deposited TNT arrays yielded a higher power conversion efficiency (2.03 %) than those without Ag NPs (1.39 %).

  20. Simplified calibration of single-plunge bipolar electrode array for field measurement during defibrillation.

    PubMed

    Deale, O Carlton; Ng, Kwong T; Kim-Van Housen, Ellen J; Lerman, Bruce B

    2002-10-01

    In an earlier study, the authors presented a calibration technique for a triaxial bipolar electrode array (EA) that used 72 data points collected during a global sweep of the electric field vector relative to the EA axes. Although necessary for the initial characterization of the EAs, this data requirement has to be significantly reduced for the technique to become a practical tool. Therefore, in the present study, an analysis is performed to determine the relation between the number of data points used in the calibration and the mean root-mean-square error. The analysis shows that 18 data points can produce results nearly identical to those obtained with the 72-point calibration, thus reducing the required amount of data fourfold. PMID:12374347

  1. Wall-like hierarchical metal oxide nanosheet arrays grown on carbon cloth for excellent supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zongyu; Zhang, Zhen; Qi, Xiang; Ren, Xiaohui; Xu, Guanghua; Wan, Pengbo; Sun, Xiaoming; Zhang, Han

    2016-07-01

    Recently, considerable efforts have been made to satisfy the future requirements of electrochemical energy storage using novel functional electrode materials. Binary transition metal oxides (BTMOs) possess multiple oxidation states that enable multiple redox reactions, showing higher supercapacitive properties than single component metal oxides. In this work, a facile hydrothermal method is provided for the synthesis of wall-like hierarchical metal oxide MMoO4 (M = Ni, Co) nanosheet arrays, which are directly grown on flexible carbon cloth for use as advanced binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors. By virtue of their intriguing structure, the resulted active material nanosheets with a high specific surface area can provide a large electroactive region, which could facilitate easy accession of electrolyte ions and fast charge transport, resulting in an enhanced electrochemical performance. Separately, the as-synthesized MMoO4 (M = Ni, Co) samples have exhibited superior specific capacitances (1483 F g-1 of NiMoO4 and 452 F g-1 of CoMoO4 at a current density of 2 A g-1), as well as excellent cycling stability (93.1% capacitance retention of NiMoO4 and 95.9% capacitance retention of CoMoO4 after 2000 cycles). The results show that the binder-free electrodes constructed by deposition of MMoO4 (M = Ni, Co) nanosheets on carbon cloth are promising candidates for the application of supercapacitors.Recently, considerable efforts have been made to satisfy the future requirements of electrochemical energy storage using novel functional electrode materials. Binary transition metal oxides (BTMOs) possess multiple oxidation states that enable multiple redox reactions, showing higher supercapacitive properties than single component metal oxides. In this work, a facile hydrothermal method is provided for the synthesis of wall-like hierarchical metal oxide MMoO4 (M = Ni, Co) nanosheet arrays, which are directly grown on flexible carbon cloth for use as advanced binder

  2. A semi-automated measurement technique for the assessment of radiolucency

    PubMed Central

    Pegg, E. C.; Kendrick, B. J. L.; Pandit, H. G.; Gill, H. S.; Murray, D. W.

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of radiolucency around an implant is qualitative, poorly defined and has low agreement between clinicians. Accurate and repeatable assessment of radiolucency is essential to prevent misdiagnosis, minimize cases of unnecessary revision, and to correctly monitor and treat patients at risk of loosening and implant failure. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a semi-automated imaging algorithm could improve repeatability and enable quantitative assessment of radiolucency. Six surgeons assessed 38 radiographs of knees after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty for radiolucency, and results were compared with assessments made by the semi-automated program. Large variation was found between the surgeon results, with total agreement in only 9.4% of zones and a kappa value of 0.602; whereas the automated program had total agreement in 81.6% of zones and a kappa value of 0.802. The software had a ‘fair to excellent’ prediction of the presence or the absence of radiolucency, where the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curves was 0.82 on average. The software predicted radiolucency equally well for cemented and cementless implants (p = 0.996). The identification of radiolucency using an automated method is feasible and these results indicate that it could aid the definition and quantification of radiolucency. PMID:24759544

  3. Progression of radiopacities and radiolucencies under amalgam restorations on bite-wing radiographs.

    PubMed

    Rudolphy, M P; Gorter, Y; van Loveren, C; Poorterman, J H; van Amerongen, J P

    1997-01-01

    Radiolucent and radiopaque areas in the dentine under amalgam fillings represent demineralized tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether caries progresses in radiolucent and radiopaque areas under amalgam fillings, by assessing their enlargement longitudinally on bite-wing radiographs. Bite-wings from dentitions of persons aged 17, 20 and 23 years were compared. For a 3-year evaluation, 365 teeth with class I and class II amalgam restorations were available on bite-wings; 16 radiopacities, 46 radiolucencies and 28 combinations could be followed longitudinally. All radiopacities remained the same size, 14 radiolucencies enlarged and 8 combinations enlarged. For a 6-year evaluation, 236 filled teeth were available; 10 radiopacities, 30 radiolucencies and 11 combinations could be compared longitudinally. All radiopacities remained the same size, 12 radiolucencies enlarged and 6 combinations enlarged. Because the radiopaque areas had not enlarged visibly on bite-wing radiographs over 3 or even 6 years, it was concluded that radiopacities may be non-progressing caries. A substantial number of radiolucent areas, with or without concomitant radiopacities, did not enlarge while radiolucent areas are considered as progressing caries.

  4. A New Semi-Automatic Approach to Find Suitable Virtual Electrodes in Arrays Using an Interpolation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Salchow, Christina; Valtin, Markus; Seel, Thomas; Schauer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Functional Electrical Stimulation via electrode arrays enables the user to form virtual electrodes (VEs) of dynamic shape, size, and position. We developed a feedback-control-assisted manual search strategy which allows the therapist to conveniently and continuously modify VEs to find a good stimulation area. This works for applications in which the desired movement consists of at least two degrees of freedom. The virtual electrode can be moved to arbitrary locations within the array, and each involved element is stimulated with an individual intensity. Meanwhile, the applied global stimulation intensity is controlled automatically to meet a predefined angle for one degree of freedom. This enables the therapist to concentrate on the remaining degree(s) of freedom while changing the VE position. This feedback-control-assisted approach aims to integrate the user’s opinion and the patient’s sensation. Therefore, our method bridges the gap between manual search and fully automatic identification procedures for array electrodes. Measurements in four healthy volunteers were performed to demonstrate the usefulness of our concept, using a 24-element array to generate wrist and hand extension. PMID:27478567

  5. A multi-electrode array and inversion technique for retrieving six conductivities from heart potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Barbara M; Johnston, Peter R

    2013-12-01

    A method for accurately finding cardiac bidomain conductivity parameters is a crucial part of efforts to study and understand the electrical functioning of the heart. The bidomain model considers current flowing along (longitudinal) and across (transverse) sheets of cardiac fibres, as well as between these sheets (normal), in both the extracellular and intracellular domains, which leads to six conductivity values. To match experimental studies, such a method must be able to determine these six conductivity values, not just the four where it is assumed that the transverse and normal conductivities are equal. This study presents a mathematical model, solution technique, multi-electrode array and two-pass inversion method, which can be used to retrieve all six conductivities from measurements of electrical potential made on the array. Simulated measurements of potential, to which noise is added, are used to demonstrate the ability of the method to retrieve the conductivity values. It is found that not only is it possible to accurately retrieve all six conductivity values, as well as a value for fibre rotation angle, but that the accuracy of such retrievals is comparable to the accuracy found in a previous study when only four conductivities (and fibre rotation) were retrieved.

  6. Compliant bipolar electrostatic gripper with micropillar electrodes array for manipulation at macroscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhelika, Radon; Hemthavy, Pasomphone; Takahashi, Kunio; Saito, Shigeki

    2016-05-01

    A compliant electrostatic gripper with bipolar voltage polarity for a pick-and-place manipulation is presented. The compliance, realized by the introduction of an array of micropillars which act as the electrode, extends the application of electrostatic-based gripper to manipulating fragile, rough-surfaced dielectric objects at macro scale. A prototype consisting of two arrays is developed by a chemical etching process. The experimental force is then compared with the theoretical force obtained from a simulation, showing a discrepancy between them. The sources of the discrepancy are analyzed to provide design insight for force improvement. To assess the reliability, the prototype is used for a manipulation demonstration of flat-surfaced paper. The result shows a good repeatability, and the necessary pick-up condition is confirmed. Subsequently, as the proof of the concept, another pick-up for rough-surfaced objects represented by a tissue paper with different roughness condition is also demonstrated. The effect of the rough surfaces to the generated forces is qualitatively discussed.

  7. Lithographic Microfabrication of a 16-Electrode Array on a Probe Tip for High Spatial Resolution Electrochemical Localization of Exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wigström, Joakim; Dunevall, Johan; Najafinobar, Neda; Lovrić, Jelena; Wang, Jun; Ewing, Andrew G; Cans, Ann-Sofie

    2016-02-16

    We report the lithographic microfabrication of a movable thin film microelectrode array (MEA) probe consisting of 16 platinum band electrodes placed on top of a supporting borosilicate glass substrate. These 1.2 μm wide electrodes were tightly packed and positioned parallel in two opposite rows within a 20 μm × 25 μm square area and with a distance less than 10 μm from the edge of the glass substrate. We demonstrate the ability to control and place the probe in close proximity to the surface of adherent bovine chromaffin cells and to amperometrically record single exocytosis release events with high spatiotemporal resolution. The two-dimensional position of single exocytotic events occurring in the center gap area separating the two rows of MEA band electrodes and that were codetected by electrodes in both rows was determined by analysis of the fractional detection of catecholamine released between electrodes and exploiting random walk simulations. Hence, two-dimensional electrochemical imaging recording of exocytosis release between the electrodes within this area was achieved. Similarly, by modeling the current spikes codetected by parallel adjacent band electrodes positioned in the same electrode row, a one-dimensional imaging of exocytosis with submicrometer resolution was accomplished within the area. The one- and two-dimensional electrochemical imaging using the MEA probe allowed for high spatial resolution of exocytosis activity and revealed heterogeneous release of catecholamine at the chromaffin cell surface.

  8. Microfluidic Device with Tunable Post Arrays and Integrated Electrodes for Studying Cellular Release

    PubMed Central

    Selimovic, Asmira; Erkal, Jayda L.; Spence, Dana M.; Martin, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a planar, pillar array device that can be used to image either side of a tunable membrane, as well as sample and detect small molecules in a cell-free region of the microchip. The pores are created by sealing two parallel PDMS microchannels (a cell channel and a collector channel) over a gold pillar array (5 or 10 µm in height), with the device being characterized and optimized for small molecule cross-over while excluding a flowing cell line (here, red blood cells, RBCs). The device was characterized in terms of the flow rate dependence of cross-over of analyte and cell exclusion as well as the ability to perform amperometric detection of catechol and nitric oxide (NO) as they cross-over into the collector channel. Using catechol as the test analyte, the limits of detection (LOD) of the cross-over for the 10 µm and 5 µm pillar array heights were shown to be 50 nM and 106 nM, respectively. Detection of NO was made possible with a glassy carbon detection electrode (housed in the collector channel) modified with Pt-black and Nafion, to enhance sensitivity and selectivity, respectively. Reproducible cross-over of NO as a function of concentration resulted in a linear correlation (r2 = 0.995, 7.6 µM - 190 µM), with an LOD for NO of 230 nM on the glassy carbon-Pt-black-0.05% Nafion electrode. The applicability of the device was demonstrated by measuring the NO released from hypoxic RBCs, with the device allowing the released NO to cross-over into a cell free channel where it was detected in close to real-time. This type of device is an attractive alternative to the use of 3-dimensional devices with polycarbonate membranes, as either side of the membrane can be imaged and facile integration of electrochemical detection is possible. PMID:25105251

  9. Microfluidic device with tunable post arrays and integrated electrodes for studying cellular release.

    PubMed

    Selimovic, Asmira; Erkal, Jayda L; Spence, Dana M; Martin, R Scott

    2014-11-21

    In this paper, we describe the development of a planar, pillar array device that can be used to image either side of a tunable membrane, as well as sample and detect small molecules in a cell-free region of the microchip. The pores are created by sealing two parallel PDMS microchannels (a cell channel and a collector channel) over a gold pillar array (5 or 10 μm in height), with the device being characterized and optimized for small molecule cross-over while excluding a flowing cell line (here, red blood cells, RBCs). The device was characterized in terms of the flow rate dependence of analyte cross-over and cell exclusion as well as the ability to perform amperometric detection of catechol and nitric oxide (NO) as they cross-over into the collector channel. Using catechol as the test analyte, the limits of detection (LOD) of the cross-over for the 10 μm and 5 μm pillar array heights were shown to be 50 nM and 105 nM, respectively. Detection of NO was made possible with a glassy carbon detection electrode (housed in the collector channel) modified with Pt-black and Nafion, to enhance sensitivity and selectivity, respectively. Reproducible cross-over of NO as a function of concentration resulted in a linear correlation (r(2) = 0.995, 7.6-190 μM), with an LOD for NO of 230 nM on the glassy carbon/Pt-black/0.05% Nafion electrode. The applicability of the device was demonstrated by measuring the NO released from hypoxic RBCs, with the device allowing the released NO to cross-over into a cell free channel where it was detected in close to real-time. This type of device is an attractive alternative to the use of 3-dimensional devices with polycarbonate membranes, as either side of the membrane can be imaged and facile integration of electrochemical detection is possible. PMID:25105251

  10. Two-Point Stretchable Electrode Array for Endoluminal Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Measurements of Lipid-Laden Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    PubMed

    Packard, René R Sevag; Zhang, XiaoXiao; Luo, Yuan; Ma, Teng; Jen, Nelson; Ma, Jianguo; Demer, Linda L; Zhou, Qifa; Sayre, James W; Li, Rongsong; Tai, Yu-Chong; Hsiai, Tzung K

    2016-09-01

    Four-point electrode systems are commonly used for electric impedance measurements of biomaterials and tissues. We introduce a 2-point system to reduce electrode polarization for heterogeneous measurements of vascular wall. Presence of endoluminal oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and lipids alters the electrochemical impedance that can be measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We developed a catheter-based 2-point micro-electrode configuration for intravascular deployment in New Zealand White rabbits. An array of 2 flexible round electrodes, 240 µm in diameter and separated by 400 µm was microfabricated and mounted on an inflatable balloon catheter for EIS measurement of the oxLDL-rich lesions developed as a result of high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Upon balloon inflation, the 2-point electrode array conformed to the arterial wall to allow deep intraplaque penetration via alternating current (AC). The frequency sweep from 10 to 300 kHz generated an increase in capacitance, providing distinct changes in both impedance (Ω) and phase (ϕ) in relation to varying degrees of intraplaque lipid burden in the aorta. Aortic endoluminal EIS measurements were compared with epicardial fat tissue and validated by intravascular ultrasound and immunohistochemistry for plaque lipids and foam cells. Thus, we demonstrate a new approach to quantify endoluminal EIS via a 2-point stretchable electrode strategy.

  11. Two-Point Stretchable Electrode Array for Endoluminal Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Measurements of Lipid-Laden Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    PubMed

    Packard, René R Sevag; Zhang, XiaoXiao; Luo, Yuan; Ma, Teng; Jen, Nelson; Ma, Jianguo; Demer, Linda L; Zhou, Qifa; Sayre, James W; Li, Rongsong; Tai, Yu-Chong; Hsiai, Tzung K

    2016-09-01

    Four-point electrode systems are commonly used for electric impedance measurements of biomaterials and tissues. We introduce a 2-point system to reduce electrode polarization for heterogeneous measurements of vascular wall. Presence of endoluminal oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and lipids alters the electrochemical impedance that can be measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We developed a catheter-based 2-point micro-electrode configuration for intravascular deployment in New Zealand White rabbits. An array of 2 flexible round electrodes, 240 µm in diameter and separated by 400 µm was microfabricated and mounted on an inflatable balloon catheter for EIS measurement of the oxLDL-rich lesions developed as a result of high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Upon balloon inflation, the 2-point electrode array conformed to the arterial wall to allow deep intraplaque penetration via alternating current (AC). The frequency sweep from 10 to 300 kHz generated an increase in capacitance, providing distinct changes in both impedance (Ω) and phase (ϕ) in relation to varying degrees of intraplaque lipid burden in the aorta. Aortic endoluminal EIS measurements were compared with epicardial fat tissue and validated by intravascular ultrasound and immunohistochemistry for plaque lipids and foam cells. Thus, we demonstrate a new approach to quantify endoluminal EIS via a 2-point stretchable electrode strategy. PMID:26857007

  12. A new high-density (25 electrodes/mm2) penetrating microelectrode array for recording and stimulating sub-millimeter neuroanatomical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, H. A. C.; Sharma, R.; Mathews, K. S.; Fernandez, E.; Yoo, J.; Christensen, B.; Tresco, P.; Rieth, L.; Solzbacher, F.; Normann, R. A.; Tathireddy, P.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Among the currently available neural interface devices, there has been a need for a penetrating electrode array with a high electrode-count and high electrode-density (the number of electrodes/mm2) that can be used for electrophysiological studies of sub-millimeter neuroanatomical structures. We have developed such a penetrating microelectrode array with both a high electrode-density (25 electrodes/mm2) and high electrode-count (up to 96 electrodes) for small nervous system structures, based on the existing Utah Slanted Electrode Array (USEA). Such high electrode-density arrays are expected to provide greater access to nerve fibers than the conventionally spaced USEA especially in small diameter nerves. Approach. One concern for such high density microelectrode arrays is that they may cause a nerve crush-type injury upon implantation. We evaluated this possibility during acute (<10 h) in vivo experiments with electrode arrays implanted into small diameter peripheral nerves of anesthetized rats (sciatic nerve) and cats (pudendal nerve). Main results. Successful intrafascicular implantation and viable nerve function was demonstrated via microstimulation, single-unit recordings and histological analysis. Measurements of the electrode impedances and quantified electrode dimensions demonstrated fabrication quality. The results of these experiments show that such high density neural interfaces can be implanted acutely into neural tissue without causing a complete nerve crush injury, while mediating intrafascicular access to fibers in small diameter peripheral nerves. Significance. This new penetrating microelectrode array has characteristics un-matched by other neural interface devices currently available for peripheral nervous system neurophysiological research.

  13. Nanoscale Electrochemical Sensor Arrays: Redox Cycling Amplification in Dual-Electrode Systems.

    PubMed

    Wolfrum, Bernhard; Kätelhön, Enno; Yakushenko, Alexey; Krause, Kay J; Adly, Nouran; Hüske, Martin; Rinklin, Philipp

    2016-09-20

    Micro- and nanofabriation technologies have a tremendous potential for the development of powerful sensor array platforms for electrochemical detection. The ability to integrate electrochemical sensor arrays with microfluidic devices nowadays provides possibilities for advanced lab-on-a-chip technology for the detection or quantification of multiple targets in a high-throughput approach. In particular, this is interesting for applications outside of analytical laboratories, such as point-of-care (POC) or on-site water screening where cost, measurement time, and the size of individual sensor devices are important factors to be considered. In addition, electrochemical sensor arrays can monitor biological processes in emerging cell-analysis platforms. Here, recent progress in the design of disease model systems and organ-on-a-chip technologies still needs to be matched by appropriate functionalities for application of external stimuli and read-out of cellular activity in long-term experiments. Preferably, data can be gathered not only at a singular location but at different spatial scales across a whole cell network, calling for new sensor array technologies. In this Account, we describe the evolution of chip-based nanoscale electrochemical sensor arrays, which have been developed and investigated in our group. Focusing on design and fabrication strategies that facilitate applications for the investigation of cellular networks, we emphasize the sensing of redox-active neurotransmitters on a chip. To this end, we address the impact of the device architecture on sensitivity, selectivity as well as on spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, we highlight recent work on redox-cycling concepts using nanocavity sensor arrays, which provide an efficient amplification strategy for spatiotemporal detection of redox-active molecules. As redox-cycling electrochemistry critically depends on the ability to miniaturize and integrate closely spaced electrode systems, the

  14. Nanoscale Electrochemical Sensor Arrays: Redox Cycling Amplification in Dual-Electrode Systems.

    PubMed

    Wolfrum, Bernhard; Kätelhön, Enno; Yakushenko, Alexey; Krause, Kay J; Adly, Nouran; Hüske, Martin; Rinklin, Philipp

    2016-09-20

    Micro- and nanofabriation technologies have a tremendous potential for the development of powerful sensor array platforms for electrochemical detection. The ability to integrate electrochemical sensor arrays with microfluidic devices nowadays provides possibilities for advanced lab-on-a-chip technology for the detection or quantification of multiple targets in a high-throughput approach. In particular, this is interesting for applications outside of analytical laboratories, such as point-of-care (POC) or on-site water screening where cost, measurement time, and the size of individual sensor devices are important factors to be considered. In addition, electrochemical sensor arrays can monitor biological processes in emerging cell-analysis platforms. Here, recent progress in the design of disease model systems and organ-on-a-chip technologies still needs to be matched by appropriate functionalities for application of external stimuli and read-out of cellular activity in long-term experiments. Preferably, data can be gathered not only at a singular location but at different spatial scales across a whole cell network, calling for new sensor array technologies. In this Account, we describe the evolution of chip-based nanoscale electrochemical sensor arrays, which have been developed and investigated in our group. Focusing on design and fabrication strategies that facilitate applications for the investigation of cellular networks, we emphasize the sensing of redox-active neurotransmitters on a chip. To this end, we address the impact of the device architecture on sensitivity, selectivity as well as on spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, we highlight recent work on redox-cycling concepts using nanocavity sensor arrays, which provide an efficient amplification strategy for spatiotemporal detection of redox-active molecules. As redox-cycling electrochemistry critically depends on the ability to miniaturize and integrate closely spaced electrode systems, the

  15. Production of atmospheric pressure diffuse nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge using the array needles-plate electrode in air

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Dezheng; Wang Wenchun; Jia Li; Nie Dongxia; Shi Hengchao

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, a bidirectional high pulse voltage with 20 ns rising time is employed to generate an atmospheric pressure diffuse dielectric barrier discharge using the array needles-plate electrode configuration. Both double needle and multiple needle electrode configurations nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharges are investigated. It is found that a diffuse discharge plasma with low gas temperature can be obtained, and the plasma volume increases with the increase of the pulse peak voltage, but remains almost constant with the increase of the pulse repetition rate. In addition to showing the potential application on a topographically nonuniform surface treatment of the discharge, the multiple needle-plate electrode configuration with different needle-plate electrode gaps are also employed to generate diffuse discharge plasma.

  16. Biaxially stretchable supercapacitors based on the buckled hybrid fiber electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Weiya; Zhang, Qiang; Luan, Pingshan; Cai, Le; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xiao; Fan, Qingxia; Zhou, Wenbin; Xiao, Zhuojian; Gu, Xiaogang; Chen, Huiliang; Li, Kewei; Xiao, Shiqi; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Huaping; Xie, Sishen

    2015-07-01

    In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the fibers endow the supercapacitor with 100% stretchability along all directions. In addition, the supercapacitor exhibited good transparency, as well as excellent electrochemical properties and stability after being stretched 5000 times.In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the

  17. Barbed channels enhance unidirectional connectivity between neuronal networks cultured on multi electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    le Feber, Joost; Postma, Wybren; de Weerd, Eddy; Weusthof, Marcel; Rutten, Wim L. C.

    2015-01-01

    Cultured neurons on multi electrode arrays (MEAs) have been widely used to study various aspects of neuronal (network) functioning. A possible drawback of this approach is the lack of structure in these networks. At the single cell level, several solutions have been proposed to enable directed connectivity, and promising results were obtained. At the level of connected sub-populations, a few attempts have been made with promising results. First assessment of the designs' functionality, however, suggested room for further improvement. We designed a two chamber MEA aiming to create a unidirectional connection between the networks in both chambers (“emitting” and “receiving”). To achieve this unidirectionality, all interconnecting channels contained barbs that hindered axon growth in the opposite direction (from receiving to emitting chamber). Visual inspection showed that axons predominantly grew through the channels in the promoted direction. This observation was confirmed by spontaneous activity recordings. Cross-correlation between the signals from two electrodes inside the channels suggested signal propagation at ≈2 m/s from emitting to receiving chamber. Cross-correlation between the firing patterns in both chambers indicated that most correlated activity was initiated in the emitting chamber, which was also reflected by a significantly lower fraction of partial bursts (i.e., a one-chamber-only burst) in the emitting chamber. Finally, electrical stimulation in the emitting chamber induced a fast response in that chamber, and a slower response in the receiving chamber. Stimulation in the receiving chamber evoked a fast response in that chamber, but no response in the emitting chamber. These results confirm the predominantly unidirectional nature of the connecting channels from emitting to receiving chamber. PMID:26578869

  18. Fabrication of nano-electrode arrays of free-standing carbon nanotubes on nano-patterned substrate by imprint method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W. S.; Kim, J. W.; Choi, D. G.; Han, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of isolated carbon nanotubes with uniform outer diameters and ordered spacing over wafer-scale areas was investigated for fabrication of nano-electrode arrays on silicon wafers for field emission and sensor devices. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were grown on TiN electrode layer with iron catalyst patterned by nano-imprint lithography (NIL), which allows the precise placement of individual CNTs on a substrate. The proposed techniques, including plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and NIL, are simple, inexpensive, and reproducible methods for fabrication of nano-scale devices in large areas. The catalyst patterns were defined by an array of circles with 200 nm in diameter, and variable lengths of pitch. The nano-patterned master and Fe catalyst were observed with good pattern fidelity over a large area by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nano-electrodes of MWCNTs had diameters ranging from 50 nm to 100 nm and lengths of about 300 nm. Field emission tests showed the reducing ignition voltage as the geometry of nanotube arrays was controlled by catalyst patterning. These results showed a wafer-scale approach to the control of the size, pitch, and position of nano-electrodes of nanotubes for various applications including electron field-emission sources, electrochemical probes, functionalized sensor elements, and so on.

  19. Opto- μECoG array: a hybrid neural interface with transparent μECoG electrode array and integrated LEDs for optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Sirowatka, Brenton; Weber, Arthur; Li, Wen

    2013-10-01

    Electrocorticogram (ECoG) recordings, taken from electrodes placed on the surface of the cortex, have been successfully implemented for control of brain machine interfaces (BMIs). Optogenetics, direct optical stimulation of neurons in brain tissue genetically modified to express channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), enables targeting of specific types of neurons with sub-millisecond temporal precision. In this work, we developed a BMI device, called an Opto- μECoG array, which combines ECoG recording and optogenetics-based stimulation to enable multichannel, bi-directional interactions with neurons. The Opto- μECoG array comprises two sub-arrays, each containing a 4 × 4 distribution of micro-epidural transparent electrodes ( ∼ 200 μm diameter) and embedded light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for optical neural stimulation on a 2.5 × 2.5 mm² footprint to match the bilateral hemispherical area of the visual cortex in a rat. The transparent electrodes were fabricated with indium tin oxide (ITO). Parylene-C served as the main structural and packaging material for flexibility and biocompatibility. Optical, electrical, and thermal characteristics of the fabricated device were investigated and in vivo experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the device.

  20. Presence and consequence of tooth periapical radiolucency in patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Grønkjær, Lea Ladegaard; Holmstrup, Palle; Schou, Søren; Schwartz, Kristoffer; Kongstad, Johanne; Jepsen, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Background Periapical radiolucency is the radiographic sign of inflammatory bone lesions around the apex of the tooth. We determined the prevalence and predictors of periapical radiolucency in patients with cirrhosis and the association with systemic inflammation status and cirrhosis-related complications. Methods A total of 110 cirrhosis patients were consecutively enrolled. Periapical radiolucency was defined as the presence of radiolucency or widening of the periapical periodontal ligament space to more than twice the normal width. Predictors of periapical radiolucency and the association with systemic inflammation markers and cirrhosis-related complications were explored by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Periapical radiolucency was present in one or more teeth in 46% of the patients. Strong predictors were gross caries (odds ratio [OR] 3.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43–6.79) and severe periodontitis (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.04–15.20). Also old age (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01–1.19) and smoking (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.02–17.62) were predictors. However, cirrhosis etiology (alcoholic vs nonalcoholic) or severity (Model of End-Stage Liver Disease score) were not predictors. The patients with periapical radiolucency had higher C-reactive protein (15.8 mg/L vs 8.1 mg/L, P=0.02) and lower albumin contents (25 g/L vs 28 g/L, P=0.04) than those without. Furthermore, the patients with periapical radiolucency had a higher prevalence of cirrhosis-related complications such as ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, and/or variceal bleeding (46% vs 27%, P=0.05). Conclusion Periapical radiolucency is often present as an element of poor oral health status and likely has an adverse clinical significance, which should motivate diagnostic and clinical attention to the findings. PMID:27695370

  1. Presence and consequence of tooth periapical radiolucency in patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Grønkjær, Lea Ladegaard; Holmstrup, Palle; Schou, Søren; Schwartz, Kristoffer; Kongstad, Johanne; Jepsen, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Background Periapical radiolucency is the radiographic sign of inflammatory bone lesions around the apex of the tooth. We determined the prevalence and predictors of periapical radiolucency in patients with cirrhosis and the association with systemic inflammation status and cirrhosis-related complications. Methods A total of 110 cirrhosis patients were consecutively enrolled. Periapical radiolucency was defined as the presence of radiolucency or widening of the periapical periodontal ligament space to more than twice the normal width. Predictors of periapical radiolucency and the association with systemic inflammation markers and cirrhosis-related complications were explored by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Periapical radiolucency was present in one or more teeth in 46% of the patients. Strong predictors were gross caries (odds ratio [OR] 3.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43–6.79) and severe periodontitis (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.04–15.20). Also old age (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01–1.19) and smoking (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.02–17.62) were predictors. However, cirrhosis etiology (alcoholic vs nonalcoholic) or severity (Model of End-Stage Liver Disease score) were not predictors. The patients with periapical radiolucency had higher C-reactive protein (15.8 mg/L vs 8.1 mg/L, P=0.02) and lower albumin contents (25 g/L vs 28 g/L, P=0.04) than those without. Furthermore, the patients with periapical radiolucency had a higher prevalence of cirrhosis-related complications such as ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, and/or variceal bleeding (46% vs 27%, P=0.05). Conclusion Periapical radiolucency is often present as an element of poor oral health status and likely has an adverse clinical significance, which should motivate diagnostic and clinical attention to the findings.

  2. Velocity Selective Neural Signal Recording Using a Space-Time Electrode Array.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Fatemeh; Seydnejad, Saeid R

    2015-09-01

    Extracting the activity of a particular neural fiber from the extracellular recording of a peripheral nerve is quite important from different clinical perspectives. While traditional neural recording methods are unable to provide such granularity, new signal recording and processing techniques have offered promising solutions recently. A multi-electrode cuff in conjunction with a delay and sum beamforming structure has been used to detect the activity of different fibers in a nerve based on the propagation velocity of action potentials. However, as it is shown in this paper, simple delay and sum beamforming method encounters severe selectivity problem and signal distortion especially at higher velocities. In addition to scrutinizing the performance of the delay and sum beamformer and its inherent problems, here we propose a new beamforming method, based on broadband sensor array signal processing techniques, which exhibits much better selectivity with uniform frequency-velocity response. Our simulation results show how the new method can faithfully extract individual neural fiber activities and explore potential applications which could emerge from using such technique.

  3. An integrated multi-electrode-optrode array for in vitro optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Welkenhuysen, Marleen; Hoffman, Luis; Luo, Zhengxiang; De Proft, Anabel; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle; Debyser, Zeger; Gielen, Georges; Puers, Robert; Braeken, Dries

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of a group of cells or tissue needs to be very precise in order to exercise effective control over the cell population under investigation. Optogenetic tools have already demonstrated to be of great value in the study of neuronal circuits and in neuromodulation. Ideally, they should permit very accurate resolution, preferably down to the single cell level. Further, to address a spatially distributed sample, independently addressable multiple optical outputs should be present. In current techniques, at least one of these requirements is not fulfilled. In addition to this, it is interesting to directly monitor feedback of the modulation by electrical registration of the activity of the stimulated cells. Here, we present the fabrication and characterization of a fully integrated silicon-based multi-electrode-optrode array (MEOA) for in vitro optogenetics. We demonstrate that this device allows for artifact-free electrical recording. Moreover, the MEOA was used to reliably elicit spiking activity from ChR2-transduced neurons. Thanks to the single cell resolution stimulation capability, we could determine spatial and temporal activation patterns and spike latencies of the neuronal network. This integrated approach to multi-site combined optical stimulation and electrical recording significantly advances today’s tool set for neuroscientists in their search to unravel neuronal network dynamics. PMID:26832455

  4. Evaluation of micro Electroretinograms Recorded with Multiple Electrode Array to Assess Focal Retinal Function

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Momo; Sunagawa, Genshiro A.; Kondo, Mineo; Takahashi, Masayo; Mandai, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) are used to objectively assess the mass function of the retina, whereas focal ERGs are used to evaluate the focal retinal function. The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a multiple electrode array (MEA) system for recording ex vivo micro ERGs (mERGs) together with multiunit spike responses of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to assess focal retinal function in isolated mouse retinas. The a- and b-waves of the full-field ERGs were present in the mERG. The b-wave was blocked by L-AP4, an inhibitor of the mGluR6 receptor, and the OFF-component was blocked by exposure to PDA, an antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors, with a corresponding RGC responses. mERGs were also recorded from mice with progressive retinal degeneration, the C57BL/6J-Pde6brd1-2J/J (rd1) mice, from which conventional full-field ERGs are non-recordable. A blockade of the glutamate receptors indicated that the negative wave of rd1 mice do not originate from the photoreceptors but from the second or third order neurons. This technique of recording mERGs will be useful in assessing the focal properties of the retinas obtained from eyes with pathology and also to follow the recovery of the physiology of the retina in regenerative studies. PMID:27480484

  5. THE 4-AMINOPYRIDINE IN VITRO EPILEPSY MODEL ANALYZED WITH A PERFORATED MULTI-ELECTRODE ARRAY

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Sulser, Alfredo; Wang, Jing; Motamedi, Gholam K.; Avoli, Massimo; Vicini, Stefano; Dzakpasu, Rhonda

    2010-01-01

    Epileptiform discharges recorded in the 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in vitro epilepsy model are mediated by glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling. Using a 60-channel perforated multi-electrode array (pMEA) on corticohippocampal slices from 2 to 3 week old mice we recorded interictal- and ictal-like events. When glutamatergic transmission was blocked, interictal-like events events no longer initiated in the hilus or CA3/CA1 pyramidal layers but originated from the dentate gyrus granule and molecular layers. Furthermore, frequencies of interictal-like events were reduced and durations were increased in these regions while cortical discharges were completely blocked. Following GABAA receptor blockade interictal-like events no longer propagated to the dentate gyrus while their frequency in CA3 increased; in addition, ictal-like cortical events became shorter while increasing in frequency. Lastly, drugs that affect tonic and synaptic GABAergic conductance modulate the frequency, duration, initiation and propagation of interictal-like events. These findings confirm and expand on previous studies indicating that multiple synaptic mechanisms contribute to synchronize neuronal network activity in forebrain structures. PMID:20955719

  6. All-carbon multi-electrode array for real-time in vitro measurements of oxidizable neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Bernardi, Ettore; Plaitano, Marilena; Franchino, Claudio; Gosso, Sara; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Olivero, Paolo; Carabelli, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    We report on the ion beam fabrication of all-carbon multi electrode arrays (MEAs) based on 16 graphitic micro-channels embedded in single-crystal diamond (SCD) substrates. The fabricated SCD-MEAs are systematically employed for the in vitro simultaneous amperometric detection of the secretory activity from populations of chromaffin cells, demonstrating a new sensing approach with respect to standard techniques. The biochemical stability and biocompatibility of the SCD-based device combined with the parallel recording of multi-electrodes array allow: i) a significant time saving in data collection during drug screening and/or pharmacological tests over a large number of cells, ii) the possibility of comparing altered cell functionality among cell populations, and iii) the repeatition of acquisition runs over many cycles with a fully non-toxic and chemically robust bio-sensitive substrate. PMID:26857940

  7. All-carbon multi-electrode array for real-time in vitro measurements of oxidizable neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Bernardi, Ettore; Plaitano, Marilena; Franchino, Claudio; Gosso, Sara; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Olivero, Paolo; Carabelli, Valentina

    2016-02-01

    We report on the ion beam fabrication of all-carbon multi electrode arrays (MEAs) based on 16 graphitic micro-channels embedded in single-crystal diamond (SCD) substrates. The fabricated SCD-MEAs are systematically employed for the in vitro simultaneous amperometric detection of the secretory activity from populations of chromaffin cells, demonstrating a new sensing approach with respect to standard techniques. The biochemical stability and biocompatibility of the SCD-based device combined with the parallel recording of multi-electrodes array allow: i) a significant time saving in data collection during drug screening and/or pharmacological tests over a large number of cells, ii) the possibility of comparing altered cell functionality among cell populations, and iii) the repeatition of acquisition runs over many cycles with a fully non-toxic and chemically robust bio-sensitive substrate.

  8. All-carbon multi-electrode array for real-time in vitro measurements of oxidizable neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Bernardi, Ettore; Plaitano, Marilena; Franchino, Claudio; Gosso, Sara; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Olivero, Paolo; Carabelli, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    We report on the ion beam fabrication of all-carbon multi electrode arrays (MEAs) based on 16 graphitic micro-channels embedded in single-crystal diamond (SCD) substrates. The fabricated SCD-MEAs are systematically employed for the in vitro simultaneous amperometric detection of the secretory activity from populations of chromaffin cells, demonstrating a new sensing approach with respect to standard techniques. The biochemical stability and biocompatibility of the SCD-based device combined with the parallel recording of multi-electrodes array allow: i) a significant time saving in data collection during drug screening and/or pharmacological tests over a large number of cells, ii) the possibility of comparing altered cell functionality among cell populations, and iii) the repeatition of acquisition runs over many cycles with a fully non-toxic and chemically robust bio-sensitive substrate. PMID:26857940

  9. Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of BODIPY, Ru(bpy)32+, and 9,10-Diphenylanthracene Using Interdigitated Array Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B.; Kolesov, Grigory; Parkinson, Bruce A.

    2013-07-10

    Interdigitated array electrodes (IDAs) were used to produce steady-state electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) by annihilation of oxidized and reduced forms of a substituted boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye, 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA), and ruthenium(II) tris(bypiridine) (Ru-(bpy)32+). Digital simulations were in good agreement with the experimentally obtained currents and light outputs. Coreactant experiments, using tri-n-propylamine and benzoyl peroxide as a sacrificial homogeneous reductant or oxidant, show currents corresponding to electrode reactions of the dyes and not the oxidation or reduction of the coreactants. The results show that interdigitated arrays can produce stable ECL where the light intensity is magnified due to the larger currents as a consequence of feedback between generator and collector electrodes in the IDA. The light output for ECL is around 100 times higher than that obtained with regular planar electrodes with similar area. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center of Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  10. Construction of high-capacitance 3D CoO@polypyrrole nanowire array electrode for aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cheng; Zhang, Yangwei; Li, Yuanyuan; Liu, Jinping

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a supercapacitor electrode composed of well-aligned CoO nanowire array grown on 3D nickel foam with polypyrrole (PPy) uniformly immobilized onto or firmly anchored to each nanowire surface to boost the pseudocapacitive performance. The electrode architecture takes advantage of the high electrochemical activity from both the CoO and PPy, the high electronic conductivity of PPy, and the short ion diffusion pathway in ordered mesoporous nanowires. These merits together with the elegant synergy between CoO and PPy lead to a high specific capacitance of 2223 F g(-1) approaching the theoretical value, good rate capability, and cycling stability (99.8% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles). An aqueous asymmetric supercapacitor device with a maximum voltage of 1.8 V fabricated by using our hybrid array as the positive electrode and activated carbon film as the negative electrode has demonstrated high energy density (~43.5 Wh kg(-1)), high power density (~5500 W kg(-1) at 11.8 Wh kg(-1)) and outstanding cycleability (~20,000 times). After charging for only ~10 s, two such 4 cm(2) asymmetric supercapacitors connected in series can efficiently power 5 mm diameter red, yellow, and green round LED indicators (lasting for 1 h for red LED) and drive a mini 130 rotation-motor robustly.

  11. Investigating Functional Regeneration in Organotypic Spinal Cord Co-cultures Grown on Multi-electrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Heidemann, Martina; Streit, Jürg; Tscherter, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Adult higher vertebrates have a limited potential to recover from spinal cord injury. Recently, evidence emerged that propriospinal connections are a promising target for intervention to improve functional regeneration. So far, no in vitro model exists that grants the possibility to examine functional recovery of propriospinal fibers. Therefore, a representative model that is based on two organotypic spinal cord sections of embryonic rat, cultured next to each other on multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) was developed. These slices grow and, within a few days in vitro, fuse along the sides facing each other. The design of the used MEAs permits the performance of lesions with a scalpel blade through this fusion site without inflicting damage on the MEAs. The slices show spontaneous activity, usually organized in network activity bursts, and spatial and temporal activity parameters such as the location of burst origins, speed and direction of their propagation and latencies between bursts can be characterized. Using these features, it is also possible to assess functional connection of the slices by calculating the amount of synchronized bursts between the two sides. Furthermore, the slices can be morphologically analyzed by performing immunohistochemical stainings after the recordings. Several advantages of the used techniques are combined in this model: the slices largely preserve the original tissue architecture with intact local synaptic circuitry, the tissue is easily and repeatedly accessible and neuronal activity can be detected simultaneously and non-invasively in a large number of spots at high temporal resolution. These features allow the investigation of functional regeneration of intraspinal connections in isolation in vitro in a sophisticated and efficient way. PMID:26436646

  12. Fabrication of ordered NiO coated Si nanowire array films as electrodes for a high performance lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Qiu, M C; Yang, L W; Qi, X; Li, Jun; Zhong, J X

    2010-12-01

    Highly ordered NiO coated Si nanowire array films are fabricated as electrodes for a high performance lithium ion battery via depositing Ni on electroless-etched Si nanowires and subsequently annealing. The structures and morphologies of as-prepared films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. When the potential window versus lithium was controlled, the coated NiO can be selected to be electrochemically active to store and release Li+ ions, while highly conductive crystalline Si cores function as nothing more than a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway. The hybrid nanowire array films exhibit superior cyclic stability and reversible capacity compared to that of NiO nanostructured films. Owing to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowire array films will be promising anode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

  13. CT-derived estimation of cochlear morphology and electrode array position in relation to word recognition in Nucleus-22 recipients.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Margaret W; Ketten, Darlene R; Holden, Laura K; Harding, Gary W; Smith, Peter G; Gates, George A; Neely, J Gail; Kletzker, G Robert; Brunsden, Barry; Blocker, Barbara

    2002-09-01

    This study extended the findings of Ketten et al. [Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. Suppl. 175:1-16 (1998)] by estimating the three-dimensional (3D) cochlear lengths, electrode array intracochlear insertion depths, and characteristic frequency ranges for 13 more Nucleus-22 implant recipients based on in vivo computed tomography (CT) scans. Array insertion depths were correlated with NU-6 word scores (obtained one year after SPEAK strategy use) by these patients and the 13 who used the SPEAK strategy from the Ketten et al. study. For these 26 patients, the range of cochlear lengths was 29.1-37.4 mm. Array insertion depth range was 11.9-25.9 mm, and array insertion depth estimated from the surgeon's report was 1.14 mm longer than CT-based estimates. Given the assumption that the human hearing range is fixed (20-20,000 Hz) regardless of cochlear length, characteristic frequencies at the most apical electrode (estimated with Greenwood's equation [Greenwood DD (1990) A cochlear frequency--position function of several species--29 years later. J Acoust. Soc. Am. 33: 1344-1356] and a patient-specific constant as) ranged from 308 to 3674 Hz. Patients' NU-6 word scores were significantly correlated with insertion depth as a percentage of total cochlear length (R = 0.452; r2 = 0.204; p = 0.020), suggesting that part of the variability in word recognition across implant recipients can be accounted for by the position of the electrode array in the cochlea. However, NU-6 scores ranged from 4% to 81% correct for patients with array insertion depths between 47% and 68% of total cochlear length. Lower scores appeared related to low spiral ganglion cell survival (e.g., lues), aberrant current paths that produced facial nerve stimulation by apical electrodes (i.e., otosclerosis), central auditory processing difficulty, below-average verbal abilities, and early Alzheimer's disease. Higher scores appeared related to patients' high-average to above-average verbal abilities. Because most

  14. Metal-organic framework derived hybrid Co3O4-carbon porous nanowire arrays as reversible oxygen evolution electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian Yi; Dai, Sheng; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Hybrid porous nanowire arrays composed of strongly interacting Co3O4 and carbon were prepared by a facile carbonization of the metal-organic framework grown on Cu foil. The resulting material, possessing a high surface area of 251 m(2) g(-1) and a large carbon content of 52.1 wt %, can be directly used as the working electrode for oxygen evolution reaction without employing extra substrates or binders. This novel oxygen evolution electrode can smoothly operate in alkaline solutions (e.g., 0.1 and 1.0 M KOH), affording a low onset potential of 1.47 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode) and a stable current density of 10.0 mA cm(-2) at 1.52 V in 0.1 M KOH solution for at least 30 h, associated with a high Faradaic efficiency of 99.3%. The achieved ultrahigh oxygen evolution activity and strong durability, with superior performance in comparison to the state-of-the-art noble-metal/transition-metal and nonmetal catalysts, originate from the unique nanowire array electrode configuration and in situ carbon incorporation, which lead to the large active surface area, enhanced mass/charge transport capability, easy release of oxygen gas bubbles, and strong structural stability. Furthermore, the hybrid Co3O4-carbon porous nanowire arrays can also efficiently catalyze oxygen reduction reaction, featuring a desirable four-electron pathway for reversible oxygen evolution and reduction, which is potentially useful for rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and other important clean energy devices. PMID:25216300

  15. Metal-organic framework derived hybrid Co3O4-carbon porous nanowire arrays as reversible oxygen evolution electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian Yi; Dai, Sheng; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Hybrid porous nanowire arrays composed of strongly interacting Co3O4 and carbon were prepared by a facile carbonization of the metal-organic framework grown on Cu foil. The resulting material, possessing a high surface area of 251 m(2) g(-1) and a large carbon content of 52.1 wt %, can be directly used as the working electrode for oxygen evolution reaction without employing extra substrates or binders. This novel oxygen evolution electrode can smoothly operate in alkaline solutions (e.g., 0.1 and 1.0 M KOH), affording a low onset potential of 1.47 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode) and a stable current density of 10.0 mA cm(-2) at 1.52 V in 0.1 M KOH solution for at least 30 h, associated with a high Faradaic efficiency of 99.3%. The achieved ultrahigh oxygen evolution activity and strong durability, with superior performance in comparison to the state-of-the-art noble-metal/transition-metal and nonmetal catalysts, originate from the unique nanowire array electrode configuration and in situ carbon incorporation, which lead to the large active surface area, enhanced mass/charge transport capability, easy release of oxygen gas bubbles, and strong structural stability. Furthermore, the hybrid Co3O4-carbon porous nanowire arrays can also efficiently catalyze oxygen reduction reaction, featuring a desirable four-electron pathway for reversible oxygen evolution and reduction, which is potentially useful for rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and other important clean energy devices.

  16. Analytical and numerical solutions of the potential and electric field generated by different electrode arrays in a tumor tissue under electrotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Electrotherapy is a relatively well established and efficient method of tumor treatment. In this paper we focus on analytical and numerical calculations of the potential and electric field distributions inside a tumor tissue in a two-dimensional model (2D-model) generated by means of electrode arrays with shapes of different conic sections (ellipse, parabola and hyperbola). Methods Analytical calculations of the potential and electric field distributions based on 2D-models for different electrode arrays are performed by solving the Laplace equation, meanwhile the numerical solution is solved by means of finite element method in two dimensions. Results Both analytical and numerical solutions reveal significant differences between the electric field distributions generated by electrode arrays with shapes of circle and different conic sections (elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic). Electrode arrays with circular, elliptical and hyperbolic shapes have the advantage of concentrating the electric field lines in the tumor. Conclusion The mathematical approach presented in this study provides a useful tool for the design of electrode arrays with different shapes of conic sections by means of the use of the unifying principle. At the same time, we verify the good correspondence between the analytical and numerical solutions for the potential and electric field distributions generated by the electrode array with different conic sections. PMID:21943385

  17. Supported noble metals on hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube arrays as highly ordered electrodes for fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changkun; Yu, Hongmei; Li, Yongkun; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yun; Song, Wei; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube (H-TNT) arrays serve as highly ordered nanostructured electrode supports, which are able to significantly improve the electrochemical performance and durability of fuel cells. The electrical conductivity of H-TNTs increases by approximately one order of magnitude in comparison to air-treated TNTs. The increase in the number of oxygen vacancies and hydroxyl groups on the H-TNTs help to anchor a greater number of Pt atoms during Pt electrodeposition. The H-TNTs are pretreated by using a successive ion adsorption and reaction (SIAR) method that enhances the loading and dispersion of Pt catalysts when electrodeposited. In the SIAR method a Pd activator can be used to provide uniform nucleation sites for Pt and leads to increased Pt loading on the H-TNTs. Furthermore, fabricated Pt nanoparticles with a diameter of 3.4 nm are located uniformly around the pretreated H-TNT support. The as-prepared and highly ordered electrodes exhibit excellent stability during accelerated durability tests, particularly for the H-TNT-loaded Pt catalysts that have been annealed in ultrahigh purity H2 for a second time. There is minimal decrease in the electrochemical surface area of the as-prepared electrode after 1000 cycles compared to a 68 % decrease for the commercial JM 20 % Pt/C electrode after 800 cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that after the H-TNT-loaded Pt catalysts are annealed in H2 for the second time, the strong metal-support interaction between the H-TNTs and the Pt catalysts enhances the electrochemical stability of the electrodes. Fuel-cell testing shows that the power density reaches a maximum of 500 mWcm(-2) when this highly ordered electrode is used as the anode. When used as the cathode in a fuel cell with extra-low Pt loading, the new electrode generates a specific power density of 2.68 kWg(Pt) (-1) . It is indicated that H-TNT arrays, which have highly ordered nanostructures, could be used as ordered electrode supports.

  18. Human interface design using Button-type PEDOT electrode array in EIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, Hun; In Oh, Tong; Yoon, Sun; Kim, Kap Jin; Woo, Eung Je

    2010-04-01

    Animal and human experiments using a multi-channel EIT system requires a cumbersome procedure to attach multiple electrodes. We have to ensure good contact of all electrodes and manage many lead wires during experiments. The problem becomes more severe as we increase the number of electrodes. These may limit the applicability of the imaging method in practice. Noting this technical difficulty, there have been a few trials to design human interface means such as electrode belts, helmets or rings. In this study, we developed an electrode belt for long-term monitoring of human lung ventilation. The belt includes 16 embossed electrodes which make good contact with the skin. The electrode is made by conductive polymer and metallic thread. Soft cushion and wide contact area minimize uncomfortable sensation and reduce contact impedances. The electrodes are attached to an elastic fabric belt at equal spacing. We describe details of its design and fabrication. Using the electrode belt and recently developed multi-frequency EIT system KHU Mark2, we show time-difference chest images of three human subjects during normal breathing cycles.

  19. An array of highly flexible electrodes with a tailored configuration locked by gelatin during implantation—initial evaluation in cortex cerebri of awake rats

    PubMed Central

    Agorelius, Johan; Tsanakalis, Fotios; Friberg, Annika; Thorbergsson, Palmi T.; Pettersson, Lina M. E.; Schouenborg, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Background: A major challenge in the field of neural interfaces is to overcome the problem of poor stability of neuronal recordings, which impedes long-term studies of individual neurons in the brain. Conceivably, unstable recordings reflect relative movements between electrode and tissue. To address this challenge, we have developed a new ultra-flexible electrode array and evaluated its performance in awake non-restrained animals. Methods:An array of eight separated gold leads (4 × 10 μm), individually flexible in 3D, were cut from a gold sheet using laser milling and insulated with Parylene C. To provide structural support during implantation into rat cortex, the electrode array was embedded in a hard gelatin based material, which dissolves after implantation. Recordings were made during 3 weeks. At termination, the animals were perfused with fixative and frozen to prevent dislocation of the implanted electrodes. A thick slice of brain tissue, with the electrode array still in situ, was made transparent using methyl salicylate to evaluate the conformation of the implanted electrode array. Results: Median noise levels and signal/noise remained relatively stable during the 3 week observation period; 4.3–5.9 μV and 2.8–4.2, respectively. The spike amplitudes were often quite stable within recording sessions and for 15% of recordings where single-units were identified, the highest-SNR unit had an amplitude higher than 150 μV. In addition, high correlations (>0.96) between unit waveforms recorded at different time points were obtained for 58% of the electrode sites. The structure of the electrode array was well preserved 3 weeks after implantation. Conclusions: A new implantable multichannel neural interface, comprising electrodes individually flexible in 3D that retain its architecture and functionality after implantation has been developed. Since the new neural interface design is adaptable, it offers a versatile tool to explore the function of various brain

  20. Re-evaluation of EMG-torque relation in chronic stroke using linear electrode array EMG recordings

    PubMed Central

    Bhadane, Minal; Liu, Jie; Rymer, W. Zev; Zhou, Ping; Li, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to re-evaluate the controversial reports of EMG-torque relation between impaired and non-impaired sides using linear electrode array EMG recordings. Ten subjects with chronic stroke performed a series of submaximal isometric elbow flexion tasks. A 20-channel linear array was used to record surface EMG of the biceps brachii muscles from both impaired and non-impaired sides. M-wave recordings for bilateral biceps brachii muscles were also made. Distribution of the slope of the EMG-torque relations for the individual channels showed a quasi-symmetrical “M” shaped pattern. The lowest value corresponded to the innervation zone (IZ) location. The highest value from the slope curve for each side was selected for comparison to minimize the effect of electrode placement and IZ asymmetry. The slope was greater on the impaired side in 4 of 10 subjects. There were a weak correlation between slope ratio and strength ratio and a moderate to high correlation between slope ratio and M-wave ratio between two sides. These findings suggest that the EMG-torque relations are likely mediated and influenced by multiple factors. Our findings emphasize the importance of electrode placement and suggest the primary role of peripheral adaptive changes in the EMG-torque relations in chronic stroke. PMID:27349938

  1. Electrode array-eluted dexamethasone protects against electrode insertion trauma induced hearing and hair cell losses, damage to neural elements, increases in impedance and fibrosis: A dose response study.

    PubMed

    Bas, Esperanza; Bohorquez, Jorge; Goncalves, Stefania; Perez, Enrique; Dinh, Christine T; Garnham, Carolyn; Hessler, Roland; Eshraghi, Adrien A; Van De Water, Thomas R

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of dexamethasone base (DXMb) containing electrode arrays in a guinea pig model of cochlear implantation to determine if eluted DXMb could protect the cochlea against electrode insertion trauma (EIT)-induced: 1) loss of hair cells; 2) disruption of neural elements; 3) increases in hearing thresholds; 4) increased electrical impedance and 5) fibrosis. A guinea pig model of EIT-induced hearing and hair cell losses was used to test silicone electrode arrays that contained either 10%, 1%, 0.1%, or 0% levels of micronized DXMb. These four types of electrode arrays were implanted into the scala tympani via basal turn cochleostomies and left in place for 3 months. Hearing thresholds were determined by ABR and CAP recordings in response to a series of defined pure tone stimuli (i.e. 16-0.5 kHz). Changes in impedance were measured between the implant electrode and a reference electrode. Hair cell counts and neural element integrity were determined by confocal microscopy analyses of stained organ of Corti whole mounts obtained from 90 day post-implantation animals. Fibrosis was measured in Masson trichrome stained cross-sections through the organ of Corti. The results showed that either 10% or 1.0% DXMb eluting electrode arrays protected; hearing thresholds, hair cells, and neural elements against EIT-induced losses and damage. Electrode arrays with 0.1% DXMb only partial protected against EIT-induced hearing loss and damage to the cochlea. Protection of hearing thresholds and organ of Corti sensory elements by electrode-eluted DXMb was still apparent at 3 months post-EIT. All three concentrations of DXMb in the electrode arrays prevented EIT-induced increases in impedance. EIT-initiated fibrosis was significantly reduced within the implanted cochlea of the two DXMb concentrations tested. In conclusion, DXMb eluting electrodes protected the cochlea against long term increases in hearing thresholds, loss of hair cells, damage to neural elements and

  2. Electrode array-eluted dexamethasone protects against electrode insertion trauma induced hearing and hair cell losses, damage to neural elements, increases in impedance and fibrosis: A dose response study.

    PubMed

    Bas, Esperanza; Bohorquez, Jorge; Goncalves, Stefania; Perez, Enrique; Dinh, Christine T; Garnham, Carolyn; Hessler, Roland; Eshraghi, Adrien A; Van De Water, Thomas R

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of dexamethasone base (DXMb) containing electrode arrays in a guinea pig model of cochlear implantation to determine if eluted DXMb could protect the cochlea against electrode insertion trauma (EIT)-induced: 1) loss of hair cells; 2) disruption of neural elements; 3) increases in hearing thresholds; 4) increased electrical impedance and 5) fibrosis. A guinea pig model of EIT-induced hearing and hair cell losses was used to test silicone electrode arrays that contained either 10%, 1%, 0.1%, or 0% levels of micronized DXMb. These four types of electrode arrays were implanted into the scala tympani via basal turn cochleostomies and left in place for 3 months. Hearing thresholds were determined by ABR and CAP recordings in response to a series of defined pure tone stimuli (i.e. 16-0.5 kHz). Changes in impedance were measured between the implant electrode and a reference electrode. Hair cell counts and neural element integrity were determined by confocal microscopy analyses of stained organ of Corti whole mounts obtained from 90 day post-implantation animals. Fibrosis was measured in Masson trichrome stained cross-sections through the organ of Corti. The results showed that either 10% or 1.0% DXMb eluting electrode arrays protected; hearing thresholds, hair cells, and neural elements against EIT-induced losses and damage. Electrode arrays with 0.1% DXMb only partial protected against EIT-induced hearing loss and damage to the cochlea. Protection of hearing thresholds and organ of Corti sensory elements by electrode-eluted DXMb was still apparent at 3 months post-EIT. All three concentrations of DXMb in the electrode arrays prevented EIT-induced increases in impedance. EIT-initiated fibrosis was significantly reduced within the implanted cochlea of the two DXMb concentrations tested. In conclusion, DXMb eluting electrodes protected the cochlea against long term increases in hearing thresholds, loss of hair cells, damage to neural elements and

  3. Impedance biosensor based on interdigitated electrode array for detection of E.coli O157:H7 in food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh Dastider, Shibajyoti; Barizuddin, Syed; Dweik, Majed; Almasri, Mahmoud F.

    2012-05-01

    An impedance biosensor was designed, fabricated and tested for detection of viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 in food samples. This device consists of interdigitated microelectrode array (IDEA) fabricated using thin layer of sputtered gold, embedded under a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel. The array of electrodes is designed to detect viable EColi in different food products. The active surface area of the detection array was modified using goat anti-E.coli polyclonal IgG antibody. Contaminated food samples were tested by infusing the supernatant containing bacteria over the IDEA's, through the microchannel. Antibody-antigen binding on the electrodes results in impedance change. Four serial concentrations of E.coli contaminated food samples (3x102 CFUmL-1 to 3x105 CFUmL-1) were tested. The biosensor successfully detected the E.coli samples, with the lower detection limit being 3x103 CFUmL-1 (up to 3cells/μl). Comparing the test results with an IDEA impedance biosensor without microchannel (published elsewhere) indicates that this biosensor have two order of magnitude times higher sensitivity. The proposed biosensor provides qualitative and quantitative detection, and potentially could be used for detection of other type of bacteria by immobilizing the specific type of antibody.

  4. Matrix-addressable, active electrode arrays for neural stimulation using organic semiconductors—cytotoxicity and pilot experiments in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feili, Dara; Schuettler, Martin; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Organic field effect transistors can be integrated into micromachined polyimide-based neural stimulation electrode arrays in order to build active switching matrices. With this approach, a matrix of N × M electrode contacts requires only N + M interconnects to a stimulator when active switching elements are used instead of N × M interconnects. In this paper, we demonstrated that pentacene-based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) can be used to drive stimulation currents through neural electrodes in a physiological-like environment. In order to prove the general applicability as an implant material, the cytotoxicity of pentacene was evaluated with respect to potential effects on cell viability. The results of these tests indicate that extracts from pentacene inhibit neither proliferation nor metabolism of the tested mouse fibroblasts. However, some effect on cell spreading was observed when cells were in direct contact to pentacene for 48 h. In pilot experiments it was demonstrated for the very first time that pentacene transistors can be used as switching elements, acting as voltage-controlled current sources, capable of driving currents suitable for electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve via a tripolar cuff electrode.

  5. Non-invasive long-term and real-time analysis of endocrine cells on micro-electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Raoux, Matthieu; Bornat, Yannick; Quotb, Adam; Catargi, Bogdan; Renaud, Sylvie; Lang, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive high-throughput and long-term monitoring of endocrine cells is important for drug research, phenotyping, tissue engineering and pre-transplantation quality control. Here we report a novel approach to obtain simultaneous long-term electrical recordings of different islet cell types using multi-electrode arrays. We implemented wavelet transforms to resolve the low signal/noise ratio inherent to these measurements and extracted on-line a signature specific of cell activity. The architecture employed allows multiplexing a large number of electrodes for high-throughput screening. This method should be of considerable advantage in endocrine research and may be extended to other excitable cells previously not accessible to the technique. PMID:22199167

  6. Electrochemical impedance measurement of prostate cancer cells using carbon nanotube array electrodes in a microfluidic channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heung Yun, Yeo; Dong, Zhongyun; Shanov, Vesselin N.; Schulz, Mark J.

    2007-11-01

    Highly aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes were synthesized in the shape of towers and embedded into fluidic channels as electrodes for impedance measurement of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Tower electrodes up to 8 mm high were grown and easily peeled off a silicon substrate. The nanotube electrodes were then successfully soldered onto patterned printed circuit boards and cast into epoxy under pressure. After polishing the top of the tower electrodes, RF plasma was used to enhance the electrocatalytic effect by removing excess epoxy and activating the open end of the nanotubes. Electrodeposition of Au particles on the plasma-treated tower electrodes was done at a controlled density. Finally, the nanotube electrodes were embedded into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was carried out with different conditions. Preliminary electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results using deionized water, buffer solution, and LNCaP prostate cancer cells showed that nanotube electrodes can distinguish the different solutions and could be used in future cell-based biosensor development.

  7. Conformable actively multiplexed high-density surface electrode array for brain interfacing

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan

    2015-01-13

    Provided are methods and devices for interfacing with brain tissue, specifically for monitoring and/or actuation of spatio-temporal electrical waveforms. The device is conformable having a high electrode density and high spatial and temporal resolution. A conformable substrate supports a conformable electronic circuit and a barrier layer. Electrodes are positioned to provide electrical contact with a brain tissue. A controller monitors or actuates the electrodes, thereby interfacing with the brain tissue. In an aspect, methods are provided to monitor or actuate spatio-temporal electrical waveform over large brain surface areas by any of the devices disclosed herein.

  8. Enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting from Si quantum dots/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays composite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhong; Cui, Xiaoli; Hao, Hongchen; Lu, Ming; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Si quantum dots were firstly applied to modify TiO{sub 2} nanotubes and enhanced visible light response was demonstrated for the resulted Si QDs/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. Si QDs are promising in photoelectrochemical water splitting and photocatalysis since their low cost, abundance and environmentally-friendliness. - Highlights: • A novel nanocomposite Si QDs/TiO{sub 2} nanotubes was fabricated and characterized. • Enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting was firstly demonstrated for Si QDs/TiO{sub 2}. • The visible light response of TiO{sub 2} increased with the presence of Si QDs. - Abstract: This work firstly introduced Si quantum dots (QDs) to modify TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays for photoelectrochemical water splitting. A systematic study using surface and optical characterization tools reveals the nature of the combination of Si QDs and TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that Si QDs were assembled on the surface of vertically aligned TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays. The UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicate the improved visible light absorbance. The enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting was demonstrated under visible light illumination and the photocurrent density was 1.6 times larger than that of pristine TiO{sub 2} electrodes. Electrochemical impedance behavior was measured for the electrodes and the impedance is slightly reduced for the nanocomposite electrode with the presence of Si QDs. This work demonstrated that Si QDs would be a novel and effective choice for improving the utilization of visible light for TiO{sub 2} nanotubes.

  9. Sixty-four channel wearable acquisition system for long-term surface electromyogram recording with electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Pozzo, M; Bottin, A; Ferrabone, R; Merletti, R

    2004-07-01

    The use of mono- and bi-dimensional electromyogram (EMG) electrode arrays for the assessment of the neuromuscular system can provide an insight into muscle physiology not achieved with classical bipolar surface EMG. Among the advantages of multichannel EMG detection, there is a) the possibility of estimating muscle fibre conduction velocity, even during motor tasks, and b) the possibility to increase the number of detection points on a muscle, improving the performance of pattern-based EMG decomposition methods. For these reasons, the development and use of multichannel surface EMG devices and techniques were chosen as the primary goals within the European RTD Project 'Neuromuscular assessment in the elderly worker' (NEW). The specific requirements of Project NEW called for the availability of a user-friendly, small-sized EMG acquisition system for field use, suitable for multichannel EMG recording using electrode arrays from one or more muscles. A market survey established that none of the commercially available EMG acquisition systems featured all the desired specifications, nor could they be easily adapted for specific use. The paper describes the design of an innovative acquisition system for long-term multichannel EMG recording fulfilling these requirements and comprising adhesive electrode arrays for artifact-free EMG acquisition during work activity and a portable, user-friendly, battery-powered acquisition system for multichannel EMG recording and storage on a removable PCMCIA card. The system has been used extensively within Project NEW for laboratory and field tests and can find applications in other fields of basic and applied research, including ergonomics, occupational and sports medicine.

  10. Radiolucent rim as a possible diagnostic aid for differentiating jaw lesions.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Baharvand, Maryam; Rahmani, Somayeh; Jafari, Soudeh; Parvaei, Parvin

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we formulate a new proposal that complements previous classifications in order to assist dental practitioners in performing a differential diagnosis based on patients' radiographs. We used general search engines and specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, MedLine Plus, Science Direct, Scopus, and well-recognized textbooks to find relevant studies by using keywords such as "jaw disease," "jaw lesions," "radiolucent rim," "radiolucent border," and "radiolucent halo." More than 200 articles were found, of which 70 were broadly relevant to the topic. We ultimately included 50 articles that were closely related to the topic of interest. When the relevant data were compiled, the following eight lesions were identified as having a radiolucent rim: periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia, florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, cemento-ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. We propose a novel subcategory, jaw lesions with a radiolucent rim, which includes eight entities. The implementation of this new category can help improve the diagnoses that dental practitioners make based on patients' radiographs. PMID:26730374

  11. Radiolucent rim as a possible diagnostic aid for differentiating jaw lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Rahmani, Somayeh; Jafari, Soudeh; Parvaei, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we formulate a new proposal that complements previous classifications in order to assist dental practitioners in performing a differential diagnosis based on patients' radiographs. We used general search engines and specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, MedLine Plus, Science Direct, Scopus, and well-recognized textbooks to find relevant studies by using keywords such as "jaw disease," "jaw lesions," "radiolucent rim," "radiolucent border," and "radiolucent halo." More than 200 articles were found, of which 70 were broadly relevant to the topic. We ultimately included 50 articles that were closely related to the topic of interest. When the relevant data were compiled, the following eight lesions were identified as having a radiolucent rim: periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia, florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, cemento-ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. We propose a novel subcategory, jaw lesions with a radiolucent rim, which includes eight entities. The implementation of this new category can help improve the diagnoses that dental practitioners make based on patients' radiographs. PMID:26730374

  12. Hybrid core-shell nanowire electrodes utilizing vertically aligned carbon nanofiber arrays for high-performance energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klankowski, Steven Arnold

    Nanostructured electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage systems have been shown to improve both rate performance and capacity retention, while allowing considerably longer cycling lifetime. The nano-architectures provide enhanced kinetics by means of larger surface area, higher porosity, better material interconnectivity, shorter diffusion lengths, and overall mechanical stability. Meanwhile, active materials that once were excluded from use due to bulk property issues are now being examined in new nanoarchitecture. Silicon was such a material, desired for its large lithium-ion storage capacity of 4,200 mAh g-1 and low redox potential of 0.4 V vs. Li/Li+; however, a ˜300% volume expansion and increased resistivity upon lithiation limited its broader applications. In the first study, the silicon-coated vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) array presents a unique core-shell nanowire (NW) architecture that demonstrates both good capacity and high rate performance. In follow-up, the Si-VACNFs NW electrode demonstrates enhanced power rate capabilities as it shows excellent storage capacity at high rates, attributed to the unique nanoneedle structure that high vacuum sputtering produces on the three-dimensional array. Following silicon's success, titanium dioxide has been explored as an alternative high-rate electrode material by utilizing the dual storage mechanisms of Li+ insertion and pseudocapacitance. The TiO 2-coated VACNFs shows improved electrochemical activity that delivers near theoretical capacity at larger currents due to shorter Li+ diffusion lengths and highly effective electron transport. A unique cell is formed with the Si-coated and TiO2-coated electrodes place counter to one another, creating the hybrid of lithium ion battery-pseudocapacitor that demonstrated both high power and high energy densities. The hybrid cell operates like a battery at lower current rates, achieving larger discharge capacity, while retaining one-third of

  13. Planar multi-electrode array sensor for localized electrochemical corrosion detection

    DOEpatents

    Tormoen, Garth William; Brossia, Christopher Sean

    2014-01-07

    A planarized type of coupled multi-electrode corrosion sensing device. Electrode pads are fabricated on a thin backing, such as a thin film. Each pad has an associated electrical lead for connection to auxiliary electronic circuitry, which may include a resistor associated with each electrical pad. The design permits the device to be easily placed in small crevices or under coatings such as paint.

  14. Binary cobalt ferrite nanomesh arrays as the advanced binder-free electrode for applications in oxygen evolution reaction and supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Huijuan; Mu, Yanping; Bai, Yuanjuan; Wang, Yu

    2016-09-01

    The porous CoFe2O4nanomesh arrays are successfully synthesized on nickel foam substrate through a high temperature and pressure hydrothermal method, following by the thermal post-treatment in air. The CoFe2O4 nanomesh arrays own numerous pores and large specific surface area, which is in favor of exposing more active sites. In consideration of the structural preponderances and versatility of the materials, the CoFe2O4 nanomesh arrays have been researched as the binder-free electrode materials for electrocatalysis and supercapacitors. When the CoFe2O4nanomesh arrays on nickel foam (CoFe2O4 NM-As/Ni) directly act as the free-binder catalyst toward catalyzing the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of electrochemical water splitting, CoFe2O4 NM-As/Ni exhibits an admirable OER property with a low onset potential of 1.47 V(corresponding to the onset overpotential of 240 mV), a minimal overpotential (η10 = 253 mV), a small Tafel slope (44 mV dec-1), large anodic currents and long-term durability for 35 h in alkaline media. In addition, as an electrode of supercapacitors, CoFe2O4 NM-As/Ni obtains a desired specific capacitance (1426 F/g at the current density of 1 A/g), remarkable rate capability (1024 F/g at the current density of 20 A/g) and eminent capacitance retention (92.6% after 3000 cycles). The above results demonstrate the CoFe2O4 NM-As/Ni possesses great potential application in electrocatalysis and supercapacitors.

  15. Differential Diagnosis of a Periapical Radiolucent Lesion. A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Malek, Matthew; Cortes, Lina M; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates a methodological approach to diagnosing a periapical radiolucency that could not be diagnosed using only basic clinical and radiographic findings. The patient was a 59-year-old Hispanic female with a small tender mass on the lower gingiva associated with tooth #25. Radiographic appearance demonstrated a well-defined radiolucent lesion at the apices of the mandibular incisors. The patient had no significant medical history. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) showed bony expansion of the buccal plate. Differential diagnosis included non-endodontic unilocular radiolucent lesions in the anterior mandibular region. Biopsy findings were consistent with periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia (PCOD). In conclusion, clinical appearance of PCOD varies from non-expansile and asymptomatic to being expansile and sometimes symptomatic. In the latter cases, it may be necessary to use additional diagnostic tools to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:26521329

  16. Improving electrochemical performance of flexible thin film electrodes with micropillar array structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myllymaa, Sami; Pirinen, Sami; Myllymaa, Katja; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.; Pakkanen, Tuula T.; Lappalainen, Reijo

    2012-12-01

    For reliable function, bioelectrodes require a stable, low-impedance contact with the target tissue. In biosignal monitoring applications, in which low ion current densities are recorded, it is important to minimize electrode contact impedances. Recently, several flexible electrode concepts have been introduced for single-patient use. These electrodes conform well on the patient skin enabling an artifact-free, low-noise recording. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer was used as an electrode substrate material. One half of the substrates were surface-patterned with micropillars produced by using micro-working robot-made mold inserts and a replica molding technique. The substrates were subsequently coated with thin films of titanium (Ti), copper (Cu), silver (Ag) or silver-silver chloride (Ag/AgCl). Electrical impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that the micropillar structure caused statistically significant reductions in impedance modulus and phase for each coating candidate. The relative effect was strongest for pure Ag, for which the values of the real part (Z‧) and the imaginary part (Z″) decreased to less than one tenth of the original (smooth) values. However, Ag/AgCl, as expected, proved to be a superior electrode material. Coating with chloride drastically reduced the interfacial impedance compared to pure Ag. Further significant reduction was achieved by the micropillars, since the phase angle declined from 10-13° (for smooth samples, f < 50 Hz) to a value as low as 5°. Equivalent circuit modeling was used to obtain a better understanding of phenomena occurring at various electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The knowledge obtained in this study will be exploited in the further development of flexible electrodes and miniaturized biointerfaces with improved electrochemical characteristics.

  17. Generation of large-scale, barrier-free diffuse plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure using array wire electrodes and nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Lun; Liu, Minghai

    2014-10-01

    This paper introduces a method to generate large-scale diffuse plasmas by using a repetition nanosecond pulse generator and a parallel array wire-electrode configuration. We investigated barrier-free diffuse plasmas produced in the open air in parallel and cross-parallel array line-line electrode configurations. We found that, when the distance between the wire-electrode pair is small, the discharges were almost extinguished. Also, glow-like diffuse plasmas with little discharge weakening were obtained in an appropriate range of line-line distances and with a cathode-grounding cross-electrode configuration. As an example, we produced a large-scale, stable diffuse plasma with volumes as large as 18 × 15 × 15 cm3, and this discharge region can be further expanded. Additionally, using optical and electrical measurements, we showed that the electron temperature was higher than the gas temperature, which was almost the same as room temperature. Also, an array of electrode configuration with more wire electrodes had helped to prevent the transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge. Comparing the current waveforms of configurations with 1 cell and 9 cells, we found that adding cells significantly increased the conduction current and the electrical energy delivered in the electrode gaps.

  18. Generation of large-scale, barrier-free diffuse plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure using array wire electrodes and nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Lun; Liu, Minghai

    2014-10-15

    This paper introduces a method to generate large-scale diffuse plasmas by using a repetition nanosecond pulse generator and a parallel array wire-electrode configuration. We investigated barrier-free diffuse plasmas produced in the open air in parallel and cross-parallel array line-line electrode configurations. We found that, when the distance between the wire-electrode pair is small, the discharges were almost extinguished. Also, glow-like diffuse plasmas with little discharge weakening were obtained in an appropriate range of line-line distances and with a cathode-grounding cross-electrode configuration. As an example, we produced a large-scale, stable diffuse plasma with volumes as large as 18 × 15 × 15 cm{sup 3}, and this discharge region can be further expanded. Additionally, using optical and electrical measurements, we showed that the electron temperature was higher than the gas temperature, which was almost the same as room temperature. Also, an array of electrode configuration with more wire electrodes had helped to prevent the transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge. Comparing the current waveforms of configurations with 1 cell and 9 cells, we found that adding cells significantly increased the conduction current and the electrical energy delivered in the electrode gaps.

  19. Branched zinc oxide nanorods arrays modified paper electrode for electrochemical immunosensing by combining biocatalytic precipitation reaction and competitive immunoassay mode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoqiang; Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Jinghua; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2015-12-15

    Branched zinc oxide nanorods (BZR) arrays, an array with high charge carries collection efficiency and specific surface area, are grown on the reduced graphene oxide-paper working electrode for the first time to construct a paper-based electrochemical (EC) immunosensor. Typically, the BZR are fabricated via a simple hydrothermal process, which can provide abundant sites for antibodies loading. By combining the large surface area of porous zinc oxide (PZS) and good biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), PZS-AuNPs (PZS@Au) nanocomposites are designed to label horseradish peroxide (HRP) and antigens. After a competitive reaction between antigens and PZS@Au nanocomposites labeled antigens, the signal labels are introduced into the immunosensor, in which, HRP participate in biocatalytic precipitation process. The produced precipitate reduces the electrode surface area and hinders the electron transfer. With the increase of concentration of antigens, the signal labels introduced into the sensor decrease, thus, a signal-on immunoassay for α-fetoprotein detection is constructed. The proposed paper-based EC immunosensor combines enzymatic biocatalytic precipitation reaction and competitive immunoassay mode for the first time, and possesses a wide linear range from 0.2 pg mL(-1) to 500 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.08 pg mL(-1). In addition, the proposed method is simple, sensitive and specific and can be a promising platform for other protein detection.

  20. Virus enabled 3d nano-array electrodes for integrated Lithium/Sodium-ion microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yihang

    Multilayers of functional materials (carbon/electrode/nickel) were hierarchically architectured over tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) templates that were genetically modified to self-assemble in a vertical manner on current-collectors for battery applications. The spaces formed between individual rods effectively accommodated the volume expansion and contraction of electrodes during charge/discharge, while surface carbon coating engineered over these nanorods further enhance the electronic conductivity. The microbattery based on self aligned nanoforests with precise arrangement of various auxiliary material layers including a central nanometric metal core as direct electronic pathway to current collector, can deliver high energy density and stable cycling stability. C/LiFePO4/Ni/TMV nanoforest cathodes for Li-ion batteries and C/Sn/Ni/TMV nanoforest anodes for Na-ion batteries were assembled using physical sputtering deposition. Both 3D nanoforest electrodes show exceptional cycling stability and rate capability.

  1. Development of advanced catalytic layer based on vertically aligned conductive polymer arrays for thin-film fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shangfeng; Yi, Baolian; Cao, Longsheng; Song, Wei; Zhao, Qing; Yu, Hongmei; Shao, Zhigang

    2016-10-01

    The degradation of carbon supports significantly influences the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), particularly in the cathode, which must be overcome for the wide application of fuel cells. In this study, advanced catalytic layer with electronic conductive polymer-polypyrrole (PPy) nanowire as ordered catalyst supports for PEMFCs is prepared. A platinum-palladium (PtPd) catalyst thin layer with whiskerette shapes forms along the long axis of the PPy nanowires. The resulting arrays are hot-pressed on both sides of a Nafion® membrane to construct a membrane electrode assembly (without additional ionomer). The ordered thin catalyst layer (approximately 1.1 μm) is applied in a single cell as the anode and the cathode without additional Nafion® ionomer. The single cell yields a maximum performance of 762.1 mW cm-2 with a low Pt loading (0.241 mg Pt cm-2, anode + cathode). The advanced catalyst layer indicates better mass transfer in high current density than that of commercial Pt/C-based electrode. The mass activity is 1.08-fold greater than that of DOE 2017 target. Thus, the as-prepared electrodes have the potential for application in fuel cells.

  2. Lift-Off Free Fabrication Approach for Periodic Structures with Tunable Nano Gaps for Interdigitated Electrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Partel, Stefan; Dincer, Can; Kasemann, Stephan; Kieninger, Jochen; Edlinger, Johannes; Urban, Gerald

    2016-01-26

    We report a simple, low-cost and lift-off free fabrication approach for periodic structures with adjustable nanometer gaps for interdigitated electrode arrays (IDAs). It combines an initial structure and two deposition process steps; first a dielectric layer is deposited, followed by a metal evaporation. The initial structure can be realized by lithography or any other structuring technique (e.g., nano imprint, hot embossing or injection molding). This method allows the fabrication of nanometer sized gaps and completely eliminates the need for a lift-off process. Different substrate materials like silicon, Pyrex or polymers can be used. The electrode gap is controlled primarily by sputter deposition of the initial structure, and thus, adjustable gaps in the nanometer range can be realized independently of the mask or stamp pattern. Electrochemical characterizations using redox cycling in ferrocenemethanol (FcMeOH) demonstrate signal amplification factors of more than 110 together with collection factors higher than 99%. Furthermore, the correlation between the gap width and the amplification factor was studied to obtain an electrochemical performance assessment of the nano gap electrodes. The results demonstrate an exponential relationship between amplification factor and gap width. PMID:26625012

  3. Flexible, high-density microphotodiode array with integrated sputtered iridium oxide electrodes for retinal stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Frank; Chang, Mao-Yen; Yang, Chung-Hua; Teng, Chih-Ciao; Fan, Long-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    To assess the charge-injection capacity of the sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) electrode on the retinal CMOS image sensor (CIS) chip, a polyimide-based flex device was designed and fabricated to package the retinal CIS chip. The polyimide-flex-based packaging process keeps the surface of photosensors clean, and the measured connection resistance meets the packaging requirement of the low-power retinal CIS chip. The in vitro experimental results show that the small SIROF electrodes can provide a biphasic charge injection per phase of 3.9 nC/ph to achieve the stimulation threshold at a polarization potential of -0.44 V.

  4. Fabrication of Carbon-Platinum Interdigitated Array Electrodes and Their Application for Investigating Homogeneous Hydrogen Evolution Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fei; Divan, Ralu; Parkinson, Bruce A.

    2015-06-29

    Carbon interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes have been applied to study the homogeneous hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst [Ni(PPh2NBn2)2]2+ (where PPh2NBn2 is 1,5-dibenzyl-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane). The existence of reaction intermediates in the catalytic cycle is inferred from the electrochemical behavior of a glassy carbon disk electrodes and carbon IDA electrodes. The currents on IDA electrodes for an EC’ (electron transfer reaction followed by a catalytic reaction) mechanism are derived from the number of redox cycles and the contribution of non-catalytic currents. The catalytic reaction rate constant was then extracted from the IDA current equations. Applying the IDA current and kinetic equations to the electrochemical response of the [Ni(PPh2NBn2)2]2+ catalyst yielded a rate constant of 0.10 s-1 for the hydrogen evolution reaction that agrees with the literature value. The quantitative analysis of IDA cyclic voltammetry can be used as a simple and straightforward method for determining rate constants in other catalytic systems. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE. Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  5. Flexible coaxial-type fiber solid-state asymmetrical supercapacitor based on Ni3S2 nanorod array and pen ink electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jian; Li, Songzhan; Zhou, Kai; Song, Zengcai; Li, Borui; Chen, Zhao; Chen, Tian; Guo, Yaxiong; Fang, Guojia

    2016-08-01

    Fiber supercapacitors have attracted public attentions because of their merits of relatively high capacitance density, flexibility and easy integration with various electronic devices. In this work, a flexible coaxial-type fiber solid-state asymmetrical supercapacitor (ASC) based on Ni3S2 nanorod array electrode and pen ink electrode was successfully fabricated. The Ni3S2 nanorod array electrode was synthesized by directly growing Ni3S2 nanorod arrays on a nickel wire through a facile hydrothermal method and the pen ink electrode as negative electrode was synthesized by a simple dip-coating method. The solid-state ASC device presents a stable voltage window of 1.4 V and behaves a high specific capacitance of 34.9 F g-1 (87.25 F cm-1) at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1. Compared with the symmetric supercapacitor (SSC) based on Ni3S2 electrodes, the ASC device provide an increased energy density of 8.2 Wh kg-1 (0.81 mWh cm-3) at the power density of 214.6 W kg-1 (21.12 mW cm-3). In addition, the ASC device also exhibits excellent electrochemical stability with 93.1% of initial specific capacitance after 3000 consecutive cycles and good mechanical stability. These encouraging results present its great potential in flexible solid-state energy storage devices.

  6. Flexible coaxial-type fiber solid-state asymmetrical supercapacitor based on Ni3S2 nanorod array and pen ink electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jian; Li, Songzhan; Zhou, Kai; Song, Zengcai; Li, Borui; Chen, Zhao; Chen, Tian; Guo, Yaxiong; Fang, Guojia

    2016-08-01

    Fiber supercapacitors have attracted public attentions because of their merits of relatively high capacitance density, flexibility and easy integration with various electronic devices. In this work, a flexible coaxial-type fiber solid-state asymmetrical supercapacitor (ASC) based on Ni3S2 nanorod array electrode and pen ink electrode was successfully fabricated. The Ni3S2 nanorod array electrode was synthesized by directly growing Ni3S2 nanorod arrays on a nickel wire through a facile hydrothermal method and the pen ink electrode as negative electrode was synthesized by a simple dip-coating method. The solid-state ASC device presents a stable voltage window of 1.4 V and behaves a high specific capacitance of 34.9 F g-1 (87.25 F cm-1) at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1. Compared with the symmetric supercapacitor (SSC) based on Ni3S2 electrodes, the ASC device provide an increased energy density of 8.2 Wh kg-1 (0.81 mWh cm-3) at the power density of 214.6 W kg-1 (21.12 mW cm-3). In addition, the ASC device also exhibits excellent electrochemical stability with 93.1% of initial specific capacitance after 3000 consecutive cycles and good mechanical stability. These encouraging results present its great potential in flexible solid-state energy storage devices.

  7. Carbon nanotube array based sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Christopher L.; Noy, Aleksandr; Swierkowski, Stephan P.; Fisher, Karl A.; Woods, Bruce W.

    2005-09-20

    A sensor system comprising a first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and a second electrode. The first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode are positioned to produce an air gap between the first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode. A measuring device is provided for sensing changes in electrical capacitance between the first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode.

  8. Flexible gold electrode array for multiplexed immunoelectrochemical measurement of three protein biomarkers for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Lu, Cai-Yu; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2014-11-26

    In this work, we report a simple and novel electrochemical multiplexed immunosensor on a flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slice deposited with 8 × 8 nano-Au film electrodes for simultaneous detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA), prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Primary antibodies linked with magnetic beads (Ab1-MBs) were modified on the nano-Au film electrodes via magnetic force. In the presence of corresponding antigen, horse radish peroxidase-secondary antibody-conjugated gold nanorods (HRP-Ab2-gold NRs) were brought into the surface of electrodes, generating obvious electrochemical signals of H2O2 reduction reactions. Based on this, the designed immunosensor provide good performance in sensitivity and specificity during the detection of above three biomarkers for prostate cancer. The electrochemical multiplexed immunosensor was verified for selective and accurate detection of complex samples in human serum. Data suggested that the reported multiplexed immunosensing strategy holds great promise for applications in clinical assay and diseases diagnosis. PMID:25333408

  9. Insertion of linear 8.4 μm diameter 16 channel carbon fiber electrode arrays for single unit recordings

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Paras R.; Na, Kyounghwan; Zhang, Huanan; Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Yoon, Euisik; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Single carbon fiber electrodes (d=8.4 μm) insulated with parylene-c and functionalized with PEDOT:pTS have been shown to record single unit activity but manual implantation of these devices with forceps can be difficult. Without an improvement in the insertion method any increase in the channel count by fabricating carbon fiber arrays would be impractical. In this study, we utilize a water soluble coating and structural backbones that allow us to create, implant, and record from fully functionalized arrays of carbon fibers with ~150 μm pitch. Approach Two approaches were tested for the insertion of carbon fiber arrays. The first method used a PEG coating that temporarily stiffened the fibers while leaving a small portion at the tip exposed. The small exposed portion (500 μm – 1 mm) readily penetrated the brain allowing for an insertion that did not require the handling of each fiber by forceps. The second method involved the fabrication of silicon support structures with individual shanks spaced 150 μm apart. Each shank consisted of a small groove that held an individual carbon fiber. Main results Our results showed that the PEG coating allowed for the chronic implantation of carbon fiber arrays in 5 rats with unit activity detected at 31 days post-implant. The silicon support structures recorded single unit activity in 3 acute rat surgeries. In one of those surgeries a stacked device with 3 layers of silicon support structures and carbon fibers was built and shown to readily insert into the brain with unit activity on select sites. Significance From these studies we have found that carbon fibers spaced at ~150 μm readily insert into the brain. This greatly increases the recording density of chronic neural probes and paves the way for even higher density devices that have a minimal scarring response. PMID:26035638

  10. Insertion of linear 8.4 μm diameter 16 channel carbon fiber electrode arrays for single unit recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Paras R.; Na, Kyounghwan; Zhang, Huanan; Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Yoon, Euisik; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Single carbon fiber electrodes (d = 8.4 μm) insulated with parylene-c and functionalized with PEDOT:pTS have been shown to record single unit activity but manual implantation of these devices with forceps can be difficult. Without an improvement in the insertion method any increase in the channel count by fabricating carbon fiber arrays would be impractical. In this study, we utilize a water soluble coating and structural backbones that allow us to create, implant, and record from fully functionalized arrays of carbon fibers with ˜150 μm pitch. Approach. Two approaches were tested for the insertion of carbon fiber arrays. The first method used a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coating that temporarily stiffened the fibers while leaving a small portion at the tip exposed. The small exposed portion (500 μm-1 mm) readily penetrated the brain allowing for an insertion that did not require the handling of each fiber by forceps. The second method involved the fabrication of silicon support structures with individual shanks spaced 150 μm apart. Each shank consisted of a small groove that held an individual carbon fiber. Main results. Our results showed that the PEG coating allowed for the chronic implantation of carbon fiber arrays in five rats with unit activity detected at 31 days post-implant. The silicon support structures recorded single unit activity in three acute rat surgeries. In one of those surgeries a stacked device with three layers of silicon support structures and carbon fibers was built and shown to readily insert into the brain with unit activity on select sites. Significance. From these studies we have found that carbon fibers spaced at ˜150 μm readily insert into the brain. This greatly increases the recording density of chronic neural probes and paves the way for even higher density devices that have a minimal scarring response.

  11. Automated lettuce nutrient solution management using an array of ion-selective electrodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated sensing and control of macronutrients in hydroponic solutions would allow more efficient management of nutrients for crop growth in closed systems. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a computer-controlled nutrient management system with an array of ion-selective electro...

  12. Interdigitated 50 nm Ti electrode arrays fabricated using XeF2 enhanced focused ion beam etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santschi, Ch; Jenke, M.; Hoffmann, P.; Brugger, J.

    2006-06-01

    The fabrication of interdigitated titanium nanoelectrode arrays of 50 nm in width and spacing is described in this work. The nanoarrays have been realized using a Ga+ focused ion beam (FIB). FIB milling is typically accompanied by redeposition of removed material, which represents an important hindrance for milling closely spaced nanostructures. Redeposition effects have been reduced by means of XeF2 gas assistance, which increases the etch yield by a factor of seven compared with pure ion milling. Furthermore, we used a simple adsorption model, which led to the conclusion that dwell time and refresh time should be <500 ns and >30 ms, respectively, for optimized XeF2 assisted Ti milling. The measured resistance R of the electrodes is higher than 1 GΩ.

  13. Ordered Polypyrrole Nanowire Arrays Grown on a Carbon Cloth Substrate for a High-Performance Pseudocapacitor Electrode.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zi-Hang; Song, Yu; Xu, Xin-Xin; Liu, Xiao-Xia

    2015-11-18

    Highly aligned nanoarchitecture arrays directly grown on conducting substrates open up a new direction to accelerate Faradaic reactions for charge storage as well as address "dead volume" limitations for high-performance pseudocapacitor electrodes. Here we reported the electrochemical fabrication of well-ordered polypyrrole (PPy) nanowire arrays (NWAs) on surfaces of carbon fibers in an untreated carbon cloth to construct hierarchical structures constituted by the three-dimensional conductive carbon fiber skeleton and the atop well-ordered electroactive polymer nanowires. The morphologies, wetting behaviors, and charge-storage performances of the polymer were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, contact-angle measurement, cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The well-ordered PPy NWA electrode exhibited a high specific capacitance of 699 F/g at 1 A/g with excellent rate capability, and 92.4% and 81.5% of its capacitance could be retained at 10 and 20 A/g, respectively. An extremely high energy density of 164.07 Wh/kg could be achieved by the PPy NWAs at a power density of 0.65 kW/kg. It also displayed a quite high energy density of 133.79 Wh/kg at a high power density of 13 kW/kg. The assembled symmetric supercapacitor of PPy NWAs//PPy NWAs also exhibited excellent rate capability, and only 19% of its energy density decreased when the power density increased 20 times from 0.65 to 13 kW/kg.

  14. Development and characterization of a diamond-insulated graphitic multi electrode array realized with ion beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Carbone, Emilio; Croin, Luca; Enrico, Emanuele; Forneris, Jacopo; Gosso, Sara; Olivero, Paolo; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carabelli, Valentina

    2014-12-30

    The detection of quantal exocytic events from neurons and neuroendocrine cells is a challenging task in neuroscience. One of the most promising platforms for the development of a new generation of biosensors is diamond, due to its biocompatibility, transparency and chemical inertness. Moreover, the electrical properties of diamond can be turned from a perfect insulator into a conductive material (resistivity ~mΩ·cm) by exploiting the metastable nature of this allotropic form of carbon. A 16‑channels MEA (Multi Electrode Array) suitable for cell culture growing has been fabricated by means of ion implantation. A focused 1.2 MeV He+ beam was scanned on a IIa single-crystal diamond sample (4.5 × 4.5 × 0.5 mm3) to cause highly damaged sub-superficial structures that were defined with micrometric spatial resolution. After implantation, the sample was annealed. This process provides the conversion of the sub-superficial highly damaged regions to a graphitic phase embedded in a highly insulating diamond matrix. Thanks to a three-dimensional masking technique, the endpoints of the sub-superficial channels emerge in contact with the sample surface, therefore being available as sensing electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements of solutions with increasing concentrations of adrenaline were performed to characterize the biosensor sensitivity. The reported results demonstrate that this new type of biosensor is suitable for in vitro detection of catecholamine release.

  15. Commercialisation of CMOS Integrated Circuit Technology in Multi-Electrode Arrays for Neuroscience and Cell-Based Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Anthony H. D.; Robbins, Jon; Bowen, Chris R.; Taylor, John

    2011-01-01

    The adaptation of standard integrated circuit (IC) technology as a transducer in cell-based biosensors in drug discovery pharmacology, neural interface systems and electrophysiology requires electrodes that are electrochemically stable, biocompatible and affordable. Unfortunately, the ubiquitous Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) IC technology does not meet the first of these requirements. For devices intended only for research, modification of CMOS by post-processing using cleanroom facilities has been achieved. However, to enable adoption of CMOS as a basis for commercial biosensors, the economies of scale of CMOS fabrication must be maintained by using only low-cost post-processing techniques. This review highlights the methodologies employed in cell-based biosensor design where CMOS-based integrated circuits (ICs) form an integral part of the transducer system. Particular emphasis will be placed on the application of multi-electrode arrays for in vitro neuroscience applications. Identifying suitable IC packaging methods presents further significant challenges when considering specific applications. The various challenges and difficulties are reviewed and some potential solutions are presented. PMID:22163884

  16. Commercialisation of CMOS integrated circuit technology in multi-electrode arrays for neuroscience and cell-based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Graham, Anthony H D; Robbins, Jon; Bowen, Chris R; Taylor, John

    2011-01-01

    The adaptation of standard integrated circuit (IC) technology as a transducer in cell-based biosensors in drug discovery pharmacology, neural interface systems and electrophysiology requires electrodes that are electrochemically stable, biocompatible and affordable. Unfortunately, the ubiquitous Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) IC technology does not meet the first of these requirements. For devices intended only for research, modification of CMOS by post-processing using cleanroom facilities has been achieved. However, to enable adoption of CMOS as a basis for commercial biosensors, the economies of scale of CMOS fabrication must be maintained by using only low-cost post-processing techniques. This review highlights the methodologies employed in cell-based biosensor design where CMOS-based integrated circuits (ICs) form an integral part of the transducer system. Particular emphasis will be placed on the application of multi-electrode arrays for in vitro neuroscience applications. Identifying suitable IC packaging methods presents further significant challenges when considering specific applications. The various challenges and difficulties are reviewed and some potential solutions are presented.

  17. Development and characterization of a diamond-insulated graphitic multi electrode array realized with ion beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Carbone, Emilio; Croin, Luca; Enrico, Emanuele; Forneris, Jacopo; Gosso, Sara; Olivero, Paolo; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carabelli, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The detection of quantal exocytic events from neurons and neuroendocrine cells is a challenging task in neuroscience. One of the most promising platforms for the development of a new generation of biosensors is diamond, due to its biocompatibility, transparency and chemical inertness. Moreover, the electrical properties of diamond can be turned from a perfect insulator into a conductive material (resistivity ~mΩ·cm) by exploiting the metastable nature of this allotropic form of carbon. A 16‑channels MEA (Multi Electrode Array) suitable for cell culture growing has been fabricated by means of ion implantation. A focused 1.2 MeV He+ beam was scanned on a IIa single-crystal diamond sample (4.5 × 4.5 × 0.5 mm3) to cause highly damaged sub-superficial structures that were defined with micrometric spatial resolution. After implantation, the sample was annealed. This process provides the conversion of the sub-superficial highly damaged regions to a graphitic phase embedded in a highly insulating diamond matrix. Thanks to a three-dimensional masking technique, the endpoints of the sub-superficial channels emerge in contact with the sample surface, therefore being available as sensing electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements of solutions with increasing concentrations of adrenaline were performed to characterize the biosensor sensitivity. The reported results demonstrate that this new type of biosensor is suitable for in vitro detection of catecholamine release. PMID:25558992

  18. Development and Characterization of a Diamond-Insulated Graphitic Multi Electrode Array Realized with Ion Beam Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Carbone, Emilio; Croin, Luca; Enrico, Emanuele; Forneris, Jacopo; Gosso, Sara; Olivero, Paolo; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carabelli, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The detection of quantal exocytic events from neurons and neuroendocrine cells is a challenging task in neuroscience. One of the most promising platforms for the development of a new generation of biosensors is diamond, due to its biocompatibility, transparency and chemical inertness. Moreover, the electrical properties of diamond can be turned from a perfect insulator into a conductive material (resistivity ∼mΩ·cm) by exploiting the metastable nature of this allotropic form of carbon. A 16-channels MEA (Multi Electrode Array) suitable for cell culture growing has been fabricated by means of ion implantation. A focused 1.2 MeV He+ beam was scanned on a IIa single-crystal diamond sample (4.5 × 4.5 × 0.5 mm3) to cause highly damaged sub-superficial structures that were defined with micrometric spatial resolution. After implantation, the sample was annealed. This process provides the conversion of the sub-superficial highly damaged regions to a graphitic phase embedded in a highly insulating diamond matrix. Thanks to a three-dimensional masking technique, the endpoints of the sub-superficial channels emerge in contact with the sample surface, therefore being available as sensing electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements of solutions with increasing concentrations of adrenaline were performed to characterize the biosensor sensitivity. The reported results demonstrate that this new type of biosensor is suitable for in vitro detection of catecholamine release. PMID:25558992

  19. Carbon nanotube multi-electrode array chips for noninvasive real-time measurement of dopamine, action potentials, and postsynaptic potentials.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ikuro; Fukuda, Mao; Shirakawa, Keiichi; Jiko, Hideyasu; Gotoh, Masao

    2013-11-15

    Multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) can be used for noninvasive, real-time, and long-term recording of electrophysiological activity and changes in the extracellular chemical microenvironment. Neural network organization, neuronal excitability, synaptic and phenotypic plasticity, and drug responses may be monitored by MEAs, but it is still difficult to measure presynaptic activity, such as neurotransmitter release, from the presynaptic bouton. In this study, we describe the development of planar carbon nanotube (CNT)-MEA chips that can measure both the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine as well as electrophysiological responses such as field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) and action potentials (APs). These CNT-MEA chips were fabricated by electroplating the indium-tin oxide (ITO) microelectrode surfaces. The CNT-plated ITO electrode exhibited electrochemical response, having much higher current density compared with the bare ITO electrode. Chronoamperometric measurements using these CNT-MEA chips detected dopamine at nanomolar concentrations. By placing mouse striatal brain slices on the CNT-MEA chip, we successfully measured synaptic dopamine release from spontaneous firings with a high S/N ratio of 62. Furthermore, APs and fPSPs were measured from cultured hippocampal neurons and slices with high temporal resolution and a 100-fold greater S/N ratio. Our CNT-MEA chips made it possible to measure neurotransmitter dopamine (presynaptic activities), postsynaptic potentials, and action potentials, which have a central role in information processing in the neuronal network. CNT-MEA chips could prove useful for in vitro studies of stem cell differentiation, drug screening and toxicity, synaptic plasticity, and pathogenic processes involved in epilepsy, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23774164

  20. Honeycomb pattern array of vertically standing core-shell nanorods: Its application to Li energy electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youn-Su; Nam, Sang Hoon; Lee, Sang Ho; Shim, Hee-Sang; Kim, Won Bae; Ahn, Hyo-Jin

    2008-09-08

    An energy storage electrode system is fabricated via a template method with one-dimensional nanostructures that are hexagonally patterned in a honeycomblike fashion and vertically standing nanorods made of a gold-coated carbon nanotube core and a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} shell layer. The performance of this system for Li insertion and extraction shows an increased capacity along with an enhanced rate performance, which could be attributed to the aligned nanostructures having increased reaction sites, facilitated charge transport, and improved stability in the face of mechanical stress.

  1. Carbon nanotube-based multi electrode arrays for neuronal interfacing: progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Bareket-Keren, Lilach; Hanein, Yael

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) coatings have been demonstrated over the past several years as a promising material for neuronal interfacing applications. In particular, in the realm of neuronal implants, CNTs have major advantages owing to their unique mechanical and electrical properties. Here we review recent investigations utilizing CNTs in neuro-interfacing applications. Cell adhesion, neuronal engineering and multi electrode recordings with CNTs are described. We also highlight prospective advances in this field, in particular, progress toward flexible, bio-compatible CNT-based technology. PMID:23316141

  2. Performance and Durability of Thin Film Thermocouple Array on a Porous Electrode.

    PubMed

    Guk, Erdogan; Ranaweera, Manoj; Venkatesan, Vijay; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Management of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermal gradients is vital to limit thermal expansion mismatch and thermal stress. However, owing to harsh operation conditions of SOFCs and limited available space in stack configuration, the number of techniques available to obtain temperature distribution from the cell surface is limited. The authors previously developed and studied a thermocouple array pattern to detect surface temperature distribution on an SOFC in open circuit conditions. In this study, the performance in terms of mechanical durability and oxidation state of the thin film thermoelements of the thermocouple array on the porous SOFC cathode is investigated. A thin-film multi-junction thermocouple array was sputter deposited using a magnetron sputter coater. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterisation techniques were carried out to understand characteristics of the thin film before and after temperature (20 °C-800 °C) measurement. Temperature readings from the sensor agreed well with the closely placed commercial thermocouple during heating segments. However, a sensor failure occurred at around 350 °C during the cooling segment. The SEM and XPS tests revealed cracks on the thin film thermoelements and oxidation to the film thickness direction.

  3. Performance and Durability of Thin Film Thermocouple Array on a Porous Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Guk, Erdogan; Ranaweera, Manoj; Venkatesan, Vijay; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Management of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermal gradients is vital to limit thermal expansion mismatch and thermal stress. However, owing to harsh operation conditions of SOFCs and limited available space in stack configuration, the number of techniques available to obtain temperature distribution from the cell surface is limited. The authors previously developed and studied a thermocouple array pattern to detect surface temperature distribution on an SOFC in open circuit conditions. In this study, the performance in terms of mechanical durability and oxidation state of the thin film thermoelements of the thermocouple array on the porous SOFC cathode is investigated. A thin-film multi-junction thermocouple array was sputter deposited using a magnetron sputter coater. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterisation techniques were carried out to understand characteristics of the thin film before and after temperature (20 °C–800 °C) measurement. Temperature readings from the sensor agreed well with the closely placed commercial thermocouple during heating segments. However, a sensor failure occurred at around 350 °C during the cooling segment. The SEM and XPS tests revealed cracks on the thin film thermoelements and oxidation to the film thickness direction. PMID:27563893

  4. Performance and Durability of Thin Film Thermocouple Array on a Porous Electrode.

    PubMed

    Guk, Erdogan; Ranaweera, Manoj; Venkatesan, Vijay; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Management of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermal gradients is vital to limit thermal expansion mismatch and thermal stress. However, owing to harsh operation conditions of SOFCs and limited available space in stack configuration, the number of techniques available to obtain temperature distribution from the cell surface is limited. The authors previously developed and studied a thermocouple array pattern to detect surface temperature distribution on an SOFC in open circuit conditions. In this study, the performance in terms of mechanical durability and oxidation state of the thin film thermoelements of the thermocouple array on the porous SOFC cathode is investigated. A thin-film multi-junction thermocouple array was sputter deposited using a magnetron sputter coater. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterisation techniques were carried out to understand characteristics of the thin film before and after temperature (20 °C-800 °C) measurement. Temperature readings from the sensor agreed well with the closely placed commercial thermocouple during heating segments. However, a sensor failure occurred at around 350 °C during the cooling segment. The SEM and XPS tests revealed cracks on the thin film thermoelements and oxidation to the film thickness direction. PMID:27563893

  5. Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyang; Leung, Calvin; Gao, Fan; Gu, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA) with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM⁻¹·cm⁻²) among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water) was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors. PMID:26404303

  6. Preparation of CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube heterojunction arrays electrode and investigation of its photoelectrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingting; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Teng, Wei

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the synthesis steps of CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction arrays electrode. - Highlights: • CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube heterojunction arrays electrode was successfully fabricated via a modified SILAR method. • Morphology, chemical compositions and the photoelectrochemical properties were studied. • The formed heterojunction structure is demonstrated as n–n type heterojunction. - Abstract: CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube heterojunction arrays electrode was synthesized via a modified successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The morphology, crystalline structure and chemical composition of the composite electrode were characterized with field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), respectively. The optical properties were investigated by UV–vis diffusion reflection spectra (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra as well as the photoelectrochemical measurements. Significantly enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTs electrode were observed under visible light irradiation, which could be attributed to the high absorption coefficient of CuInS{sub 2} in visible region and the heterostructure formed between CuInS{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}.

  7. Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyang; Leung, Calvin; Gao, Fan; Gu, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA) with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM−1·cm−2) among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water) was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors. PMID:26404303

  8. Gold-coated carbon nanotube electrode arrays: Immunosensors for impedimetric detection of bone biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Madhumati; Patil, Mitali; Epur, Rigved; Yun, Yeoheung; Shanov, Vasselin; Schulz, Mark; Heineman, William R; Datta, Moni K; Kumta, Prashant N

    2016-03-15

    C-terminal telopeptide (cTx), a fragment generated during collagen degradation, is a key biomarker of bone resorption during the bone remodeling process. The presence of varying levels of cTx in the bloodstream can hence be indicative of abnormal bone metabolism. This study focuses on the development of an immunosensor utilizing carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes coated with gold nanoparticles for the detection of cTx, which could ultimately lead to the development of an inexpensive and rapid point-of-care (POC) tool for bone metabolism detection and prognostics. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was implemented to monitor and detect the antigen-antibody binding events occurring on the surface of the gold-deposited CNT electrode. Type I cTx was used as the model protein to test the developed sensor. The sensor was accordingly characterized at various stages of development for evaluation of the optimal sensor performance. The biosensor could detect cTx levels as low as 0.05 ng/mL. The feasibility of the sensor for point-of-care (POC) applications was further demonstrated by determining the single frequency showing maximum changes in impedance, which was determined to be 18.75 Hz.

  9. Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Due-Hansen, J.; Midtbø, K.; Poppe, E.; Summanwar, A.; Jensen, G. U.; Breivik, L.; Wang, D. T.; Schjølberg-Henriksen, K.

    2012-07-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUTs) can be used to realize miniature ultrasound probes. Through-silicon vias (TSVs) allow for close integration of the CMUT and read-out electronics. A fabrication process enabling the realization of a CMUT array with TSVs is being developed. The integrated process requires the formation of highly doped polysilicon electrodes with low surface roughness. A process for polysilicon film deposition, doping, CMP, RIE and thermal annealing that resulted in a film with sheet resistance of 4.0 Ω/□ and a surface roughness of 1 nm rms has been developed. The surface roughness of the polysilicon film was found to increase with higher phosphorus concentrations. The surface roughness also increased when oxygen was present in the thermal annealing ambient. The RIE process for etching CMUT cavities in the doped polysilicon gave a mean etch depth of 59.2 ± 3.9 nm and a uniformity across the wafer ranging from 1.0 to 4.7%. The two presented processes are key processes that enable the fabrication of CMUT arrays suitable for applications in for instance intravascular cardiology and gastrointestinal imaging.

  10. A flexible microneedle array as low-voltage electroporation electrodes for in vivo DNA and siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zewen; Zheng, Shuquan; Wang, Renxin; Bu, Xiangli; Ma, Huailei; Wu, Yidi; Zhu, Ling; Hu, Zhiyuan; Liang, Zicai; Li, Zhihong

    2014-10-21

    In vivo electroporation is an appealing method to deliver nucleic acid into living tissues, but the clinical application of such a method was limited due to severe tissue damage and poor coverage of the tissue surface. Here we present the validation of a novel flexible microneedle array electrode (MNAE) chip, in which the microneedle array and the flexible substrate are integrated together to simultaneously facilitate low-voltage electroporation and accomplish good coverage of the tissue surface. The efficient delivery of both DNA and siRNA was demonstrated on mice. Upon penetrating the high-resistance stratum corneum, the electroporation voltage was reduced to about 35 V, which was generally recognized safe for humans. Also, a pathological analysis of the microneedle-electroporated tissues was carried out to thoroughly assess the skin damage, which is an important consideration in pre-clinical studies of electroporation devices. This MNAE constitutes a novel way of in vivo delivery of siRNA and DNA to certain tissues or organs with satisfactory efficiency and good adaptation to the tissue surface profile as well as minimum tissue damage, thus avoiding the disadvantages of existing electroporation methods. PMID:25182174

  11. A flexible microneedle array as low-voltage electroporation electrodes for in vivo DNA and siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zewen; Zheng, Shuquan; Wang, Renxin; Bu, Xiangli; Ma, Huailei; Wu, Yidi; Zhu, Ling; Hu, Zhiyuan; Liang, Zicai; Li, Zhihong

    2014-10-21

    In vivo electroporation is an appealing method to deliver nucleic acid into living tissues, but the clinical application of such a method was limited due to severe tissue damage and poor coverage of the tissue surface. Here we present the validation of a novel flexible microneedle array electrode (MNAE) chip, in which the microneedle array and the flexible substrate are integrated together to simultaneously facilitate low-voltage electroporation and accomplish good coverage of the tissue surface. The efficient delivery of both DNA and siRNA was demonstrated on mice. Upon penetrating the high-resistance stratum corneum, the electroporation voltage was reduced to about 35 V, which was generally recognized safe for humans. Also, a pathological analysis of the microneedle-electroporated tissues was carried out to thoroughly assess the skin damage, which is an important consideration in pre-clinical studies of electroporation devices. This MNAE constitutes a novel way of in vivo delivery of siRNA and DNA to certain tissues or organs with satisfactory efficiency and good adaptation to the tissue surface profile as well as minimum tissue damage, thus avoiding the disadvantages of existing electroporation methods.

  12. ITO@Cu2S tunnel junction nanowire arrays as efficient counter electrode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Xing; Ge, Qian-Qing; Yu, Bin-Bin; Zou, Yu-Gang; Jiang, Wen-Jie; Song, Wei-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun; Hu, Jin-Song

    2014-01-01

    Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cell (QDSSC) has been considered as an alternative to new generation photovoltaics, but it still presents very low power conversion efficiency. Besides the continuous effort on improving photoanodes and electrolytes, the focused investigation on charge transfer at interfaces and the rational design for counter electrodes (CEs) are recently receiving much attention. Herein, core-shell nanowire arrays with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanowire core and Cu2S nanocrystal shell (ITO@Cu2S) were dedicatedly designed and fabricated as new efficient CEs for QDSSCs in order to improve charge collection and transport and to avoid the intrinsic issue of copper dissolution in popular and most efficient Cu/Cu2S CEs. The high-quality tunnel junctions formed between n-type ITO nanowires and p-type Cu2S nanocrystals led to the considerable decrease in sheet resistance and charge transfer resistance and thus facilitated the electron transport during the operation of QDSSCs. The three-dimensional structure of nanowire arrays provided high surface area for more active catalytic sites and easy accessibility for an electrolyte. As a result, the power conversion efficiency of QDSSCs with the designed ITO@Cu2S CEs increased by 84.5 and 33.5% compared to that with planar Au and Cu2S CEs, respectively.

  13. Algorithm for real-time detection of signal patterns using phase synchrony: an application to an electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Saman; MacKay, William A.; van Dam, R. Michael; Thompson, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Real-time analysis of multi-channel spatio-temporal sensor data presents a considerable technical challenge for a number of applications. For example, in brain-computer interfaces, signal patterns originating on a time-dependent basis from an array of electrodes on the scalp (i.e. electroencephalography) must be analyzed in real time to recognize mental states and translate these to commands which control operations in a machine. In this paper we describe a new technique for recognition of spatio-temporal patterns based on performing online discrimination of time-resolved events through the use of correlation of phase dynamics between various channels in a multi-channel system. The algorithm extracts unique sensor signature patterns associated with each event during a training period and ranks importance of sensor pairs in order to distinguish between time-resolved stimuli to which the system may be exposed during real-time operation. We apply the algorithm to electroencephalographic signals obtained from subjects tested in the neurophysiology laboratories at the University of Toronto. The extension of this algorithm for rapid detection of patterns in other sensing applications, including chemical identification via chemical or bio-chemical sensor arrays, is also discussed.

  14. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Self-patterned aluminium interconnects and ring electrodes for arrays of microcavity plasma devices encapsulated in Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. S.; Park, S.-J.; Eden, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Automatic formation of Al interconnects and ring electrodes, fully encapsulated by alumina, in planar arrays of Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 microcavity plasma devices has been accomplished by electrochemical processing of Al foil. Following the fabrication of cylindrical microcavities (50-350 µm in diameter) in 127 µm thick Al foil, virtually complete anodization of the foil yields azimuthally symmetric Al electrodes surrounding each cavity and interconnects between adjacent microcavities that are produced and simultaneously buried within a transparent Al2O3 film without the need for conventional patterning techniques. The diameter and pitch of the microcavities prior to anodization, as well as the anodization process parameters, determine which of the microcavity plasma devices in a one- or two-dimensional array are connected electrically. Data presented for 200 µm diameter cavities with a pitch of 150-225 µm illustrate the patterning of the interconnects and electrode connectivity after 4-10 h of anodization in oxalic acid. Self-patterned, linear arrays comprising 25 dielectric barrier devices have been excited by a sinusoidal or bipolar pulse voltage waveform and operated in 400-700 Torr of rare gas. Owing to the electrochemical conversion of most of the Al foil into Al2O3, the self-formed arrays exhibit an areal capacitance ~82% lower than that characteristic of previous Al/Al2O3 device arrays (Park et al 2006 J. Appl. Phys. 99 026107).

  15. A flexible electrode array for muscle impedance measurements in the mouse hind limb: A tool to speed research in neuromuscular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Rutkove, S. B.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a bioelectrical impedance technique focused on the assessment of neuromuscular diseases using tetrapolar surface arrays. Recently, we have shown that reproducible and sensitive EIM measurements can be made on the gastrocnemius muscle of the mouse hind limb and that these are sensitive to disease alterations. A dedicated array would help speed data acquisition and provide additional sensitivity to disease-induced alterations. A flexible electrode array was developed with electrode sizes of 1mm × 1mm by Parlex, Inc. Tetrapolar electrode sets were arranged both parallel to (longitudinal) and orthogonally to (transverse) the major muscle fiber direction of the gastrocnemius muscle. Measurements were made with a dedicated EIM system. A total of 11 healthy animals and 7 animals with spinal muscular atrophy (a form of motor neuron disease) were evaluated after the fur was completely removed with a depilatory agent from the hind limb. Standard electrophysiologic testing (compound motor action potential amplitude and motor unit number estimation) was also performed. The flexible electrode array demonstrated high repeatability in both the longitudinal and transverse directions in the healthy and diseased animals (with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively, for phase angle measured transversely). In addition, differences between healthy and diseased animals were identifiable. For example, the 50 kHz transverse phase angle was higher in the healthy as compared to the SMA animals (16.8° ± 0.5 vs. 14.3° ± 0.7, respectively) at 21 weeks of age (p = 0.01). Differences in anisotropy were also identifiable. Correlations to several standard neurophysiologic parameters also appeared promising. This novel flexible tetrapolar electrode array can be used on the mouse hind limb and provides multidirectional data that can be used to assess muscle health. This technique has the potential of finding widespread use in

  16. Effect of a single element subcutaneous array electrode added to a transvenous electrode configuration on the defibrillation field and the defibrillation threshold.

    PubMed

    Kühlkamp, V; Dörnberger, V; Khalighi, K; Mewis, C; Suchalla, R; Ziemer, G; Seipel, L

    1998-12-01

    Even with the use of biphasic shocks, up to 5% of patients need an additional subcutaneous lead to obtain a defibrillation safety margin of at least 10 J. The number of patients requiring additional subcutaneous leads may even increase, because recent generation devices have a < 34 J maximum output in order to decrease their size. In 20 consecutive patients, a single element subcutaneous array lead was implanted in addition to a transvenous lead system consisting of a right ventricular (RV) and a vena cava superior lead using a single infraclavicular incision. The RV lead acted as the cathode; the subcutaneous lead and the lead in the subclavian vein acted as the anode. The biphasic defibrillation threshold was determined using a binary search protocol. Patients were randomized as to whether to start them with the transvenous lead configuration or the combination of the transvenous lead and the subcutaneous lead. In addition, a simplified assessment of the defibrillation field was performed by determining the interelectrode area for the transvenous lead only and the transvenous lead in combination with the subcutaneous lead from a biplane chest X ray. The intraoperative defibrillation threshold was reconfirmed after 1 week, after 3 months, and after 12 months. The mean defibrillation threshold with the additional subcutaneous lead was significantly (P = 0.0001) lower (5.7 +/- 2.9 J) than for the transvenous lead system (9.5 +/- 4.6 J). With the subcutaneous lead, the impedance of the high voltage circuit decreased from 48.9 +/- 7.4 omega to 39.2 +/- 5.0 omega. In the frontal plane, the interelectrode area increased by 11.3% +/- 5.5% (P < 0.0001) and in the lateral plane by 29.5% +/- 12.4% (P < 0.0001). The defibrillation threshold did not increase during follow-up. Complications with the subcutaneous electrode were not observed during a follow-up of 15.8 +/- 2 months. The single finger array lead is useful in order to lower the defibrillation threshold and can be

  17. Enhanced light emission in vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes with trench etching and arrayed p-electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tseng-Hsing; Wang, Shui-Jinn; Tu, Yung-Chun; Hung, Chien-Hsiung; Lin, Che-An; Lin, Yung-Cheng; You, Zong-Sian

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the effect of trench etching and arrayed p-electrodes in improving current spreading and the efficiency of light extraction of GaN-based vertical-structured light-emitting diodes (VLEDs). Both simulated and experimental results on the uniformities of current distribution and light emission are presented and discussed. For a 2 × 2 array VLED with a die size of 1020 × 1020 μm2, enhancements in light output power by 0.38% (6.03%) and wall-plug efficiency by 2.79% (2.32%) at 364.4 mA/mm2 (728.9 mA/mm2) as compared with that of regular VLED are achieved experimentally, which are attributed to improved current spreading from the arrayed p-electrode and trench designs as well as enhanced light emission from the trench region.

  18. Percutaneous Retrieval of a Radiolucent Foreign Body from an EVAR Device by Combining Different Image Modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Barbiero, Giulio; Cognolato, Diego; Polverosi, Roberta; Guarise, Alessandro

    2009-07-15

    Percutaneous extraction techniques are an established method for removing endovascular foreign bodies. Generally, the foreign body to be removed is radiopaque (i.e., catheter and guidewire fragments, vena cava filters, embolization coils, endovascular stents). We propose an application of these techniques to remove a radiolucent foreign body (i.e., pigtail cover) by means of a combination of different imaging techniques (fluoroscopy, digital subtraction angiography, ultrasound, and computed axial tomography).

  19. Laser Doppler flowmetry: an aid in differential diagnosis of apical radiolucencies.

    PubMed

    Chandler, N P; Love, R M; Sundqvist, G

    1999-05-01

    The case of a patient having 2 teeth with associated apical radiolucencies that responded to conventional pulp tests is presented. A decision was made to reexamine the patient at intervals rather than perform root canal treatment. During a recall visit, use of an available laser Doppler flowmeter allowed detection of blood flow within the affected teeth. A diagnosis of periapical cemental dysplasia (cementoma) was made. PMID:10348523

  20. Percutaneous retrieval of a radiolucent anchoring sleeve embolized in pulmonary artery during pacemaker implantation.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Michifumi; Yamane, Teiichi; Sadaoka, Shunichi; Tokutake, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Kenichi; Hioki, Mika; Narui, Ryohsuke; Tanigawa, Shinichi; Inada, Keiichi; Matsuo, Seiichiro; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2016-08-01

    An 85-year-old female presented to our institution with symptomatic sick sinus syndrome. During pacemaker implantation, an anchoring sleeve in the right ventricular lead was embolized in the left pulmonary artery. Although the anchoring sleeve was radiolucent, digital subtraction angiography revealed an angiographic filling defect in the lower branch of the left pulmonary artery, and a snare catheter enabled the anchoring sleeve to be grasped and extracted.

  1. Observation of initial postoperative radiolucent lines using a modern pegged-glenoid design

    PubMed Central

    Everding, Nathan G.; Levy, Jonathan C.; Formaini, Nathan T.; Blum, Sara; Gil, Carlos C.; Verde, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Glenoid component loosening remains a common mode of failure for total shoulder arthroplasty and has inspired improvements in implant design, instrumentation, and surgical technique. The purpose of this manuscript was to evaluate the incidence of radiolucent lines and glenoid seating on initial postoperative radiographs using a modern pegged-glenoid design, instrumentation, and surgical technique. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 100 pegged-glenoid total shoulder replacements. In cases of excessive glenoid version, the glenoid was asymmetrically reamed to recreate more normal version. Initial postoperative radiographs were evaluated for the presence of radiolucent lines and completeness of glenoid seating. The preoperative glenoid version measured on axial computed tomography (CT) scans was used to compare differences in version among those with complete and incompletely seated glenoids. Results: The rate of radiolucent lines observed on postoperative radiographs was 0%. Complete glenoid seating (Grade A) was observed in 81 patients (observer 1) and 82 patients (observer 2). Measurements of preoperative CT scans found a higher percentage of abnormal glenoid version for incompletely seated glenoids (47%) than completely seated glenoids (34%) but no significant difference (P = 0.327). The mean preoperative glenoid retroversion for incompletely seated glenoids was 12.1° and 9.1° for completely seated glenoids (P = 0.263). Conclusions: Modern surgical techniques, surgical instrumentation, and peg glenoid design have facilitated the ability to eliminate radiolucent lines on initial postoperative radiographs with high rates of complete seating of glenoid components. Incomplete seating may be related to incomplete correction of glenoid version. PMID:27186058

  2. Decoding continuous limb movements from high-density epidural electrode arrays using custom spatial filters

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, A R.; Taylor, D M

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to identify spatial filtering methods that would improve decoding of continuous arm movements from epidural field potentials as well as demonstrate the use of the epidural signals in a closed-loop brain-machine interface (BMI) system in monkeys. Approach Eleven spatial filtering options were compared offline using field potentials collected from 64-channel high-density epidural arrays in monkeys. Arrays were placed over arm/hand motor cortex in which intracortical microelectrodes had previously been implanted and removed leaving focal cortical damage but no lasting motor deficits. Spatial filters tested included: no filtering, common average referencing (CAR), principle component analysis (PCA), and eight novel modifications of the common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm. The spatial filtering method and decoder combination that performed the best offline was then used online where monkeys controlled cursor velocity using continuous wrist position decoded from epidural field potentials in real time. Main results Optimized CSP methods improved continuous wrist position decoding accuracy by 69% over CAR and by 80% compared to no filtering. Kalman decoders performed better than linear regression decoders and benefitted from including more spatially-filtered signals but not from pre-smoothing the calculated power spectra. Conversely, linear regression decoders required fewer spatially-filtered signals and were improved by pre-smoothing the power values. The ‘position-to-velocity’ transformation used during online control enabled the animals to generate smooth closed-loop movement trajectories using the somewhat limited position information available in the epidural signals. The monkeys’ online performance significantly improved across days of closed-loop training. Significance Most published BMI studies that use electrocortographic signals to decode continuous limb movements either use no spatial filtering or CAR. This study suggests a

  3. Decoding continuous limb movements from high-density epidural electrode arrays using custom spatial filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marathe, A. R.; Taylor, D. M.

    2013-06-01

    Objective. Our goal was to identify spatial filtering methods that would improve decoding of continuous arm movements from epidural field potentials as well as demonstrate the use of the epidural signals in a closed-loop brain-machine interface (BMI) system in monkeys. Approach. Eleven spatial filtering options were compared offline using field potentials collected from 64-channel high-density epidural arrays in monkeys. Arrays were placed over arm/hand motor cortex in which intracortical microelectrodes had previously been implanted and removed leaving focal cortical damage but no lasting motor deficits. Spatial filters tested included: no filtering, common average referencing (CAR), principle component analysis, and eight novel modifications of the common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm. The spatial filtering method and decoder combination that performed the best offline was then used online where monkeys controlled cursor velocity using continuous wrist position decoded from epidural field potentials in real time. Main results. Optimized CSP methods improved continuous wrist position decoding accuracy by 69% over CAR and by 80% compared to no filtering. Kalman decoders performed better than linear regression decoders and benefitted from including more spatially-filtered signals but not from pre-smoothing the calculated power spectra. Conversely, linear regression decoders required fewer spatially-filtered signals and were improved by pre-smoothing the power values. The ‘position-to-velocity’ transformation used during online control enabled the animals to generate smooth closed-loop movement trajectories using the somewhat limited position information available in the epidural signals. The monkeys’ online performance significantly improved across days of closed-loop training. Significance. Most published BMI studies that use electrocorticographic signals to decode continuous limb movements either use no spatial filtering or CAR. This study suggests a

  4. Multi-electrode array recordings of neuronal avalanches in organotypic cultures.

    PubMed

    Plenz, Dietmar; Stewart, Craig V; Shew, Woodrow; Yang, Hongdian; Klaus, Andreas; Bellay, Tim

    2011-08-01

    The cortex is spontaneously active, even in the absence of any particular input or motor output. During development, this activity is important for the migration and differentiation of cortex cell types and the formation of neuronal connections. In the mature animal, ongoing activity reflects the past and the present state of an animal into which sensory stimuli are seamlessly integrated to compute future actions. Thus, a clear understanding of the organization of ongoing i.e. spontaneous activity is a prerequisite to understand cortex function. Numerous recording techniques revealed that ongoing activity in cortex is comprised of many neurons whose individual activities transiently sum to larger events that can be detected in the local field potential (LFP) with extracellular microelectrodes, or in the electroencephalogram (EEG), the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), and the BOLD signal from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The LFP is currently the method of choice when studying neuronal population activity with high temporal and spatial resolution at the mesoscopic scale (several thousands of neurons). At the extracellular microelectrode, locally synchronized activities of spatially neighbored neurons result in rapid deflections in the LFP up to several hundreds of microvolts. When using an array of microelectrodes, the organizations of such deflections can be conveniently monitored in space and time. Neuronal avalanches describe the scale-invariant spatiotemporal organization of ongoing neuronal activity in the brain. They are specific to the superficial layers of cortex as established in vitro, in vivo in the anesthetized rat, and in the awake monkey. Importantly, both theoretical and empirical studies suggest that neuronal avalanches indicate an exquisitely balanced critical state dynamics of cortex that optimizes information transfer and information processing. In order to study the mechanisms of neuronal avalanche development, maintenance, and

  5. Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays with special surface and synergistic effects as high-performance positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Han; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Wen; Li, Gao-Ren

    2015-10-28

    High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (∼1470 F g(-1) at 5 mV s(-1)) and excellent cycling stability with ∼98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and special synergistic effects among Co(OH)2, RGO, and NiO. The high-performance ASCs are assembled using Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs as positive electrodes and active carbon (AC) as negative electrodes, and they exhibit a high energy density (115 Wh kg(-1)), a high power density (27.5 kW kg(-1)) and an excellent cycling stability (less 5% Csp loss after 10 000 cycles). This study shows an important breakthrough in the design and fabrication of multi-walled hybrid nanotube arrays as positive electrodes for ASCs.

  6. Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays with special surface and synergistic effects as high-performance positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Han; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Wen; Li, Gao-Ren

    2015-10-28

    High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (∼1470 F g(-1) at 5 mV s(-1)) and excellent cycling stability with ∼98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and special synergistic effects among Co(OH)2, RGO, and NiO. The high-performance ASCs are assembled using Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs as positive electrodes and active carbon (AC) as negative electrodes, and they exhibit a high energy density (115 Wh kg(-1)), a high power density (27.5 kW kg(-1)) and an excellent cycling stability (less 5% Csp loss after 10 000 cycles). This study shows an important breakthrough in the design and fabrication of multi-walled hybrid nanotube arrays as positive electrodes for ASCs. PMID:26416358

  7. Conservative management of dens evaginatus and attached supernumerary tooth/odontome in mandibular premolar with dual radiolucencies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naseem; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Mittal, Priya; Logani, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an innovative, nonsurgical regenerative endodontic treatment protocol “SealBio” was introduced to manage mature nonvital permanent teeth with periapical lesions. This paper explains the management of an unusual case of dens evaginatus and an attached supernumerary tooth/an odontome associated with two distinct radiolucencies in a mandibular premolar with “SealBio” technique and discusses the various hypotheses on the pathogenesis of unusual malformation and associated pericervical cyst-like radiolucency in the involved tooth. PMID:26604586

  8. Calibrated single-plunge bipolar electrode array for mapping myocardial vector fields in three dimensions during high-voltage transthoracic defibrillation.

    PubMed

    Deale, O C; Ng, K T; Kim-Van Housen, E J; Lerman, B B

    2001-08-01

    Mapping of the myocardial scalar electric potential during defibrillation is normally performed with unipolar electrodes connected to voltage dividers and a global potential reference. Unfortunately, vector potential gradients that are calculated from these data tend to exhibit a high sensitivity to measurement errors. This paper presents a calibrated single-plunge bipolar electrode array (EA) that avoids the error sensitivity of unipolar electrodes. The EA is triaxial, uses a local potential reference, and simultaneously measures all three components of the myocardial electric field vector. An electrode spacing of approximately 500 microm allows the EA to be direct-coupled to high-input-impedance, isolated, differential amplifiers and eliminates the need for voltage dividers. Calibration is performed with an electrolytic tank in which an accurately measured, uniform electric field is produced. For each EA, unique calibration matrices are determined which transform potential difference readings from the EA to orthogonal components of the electric field vector. Elements of the matrices are evaluated by least squares multiple regression analysis of data recorded during rotation of the electric field. The design of the electrolytic tank and electrode holder allows the electric field vector to be rotated globally with respect to the electrode axes. The calibration technique corrects for both field perturbation by the plunge electrode body and deviations from orthogonality of the electrode axes. A unique feature of this technique is that it eliminates the need for mechanical measurement of the electrode spacing. During calibration, only angular settings and voltages are recorded. For this study, ten EAs were calibrated and their root-mean-square (rms) errors evaluated. The mean of the vector magnitude rms errors over the set of ten EAs was 0.40% and the standard deviation 0.07%. Calibrated EAs were also tested for multisite mapping in four dogs during high

  9. A large-area diffuse air discharge plasma excited by nanosecond pulse under a double hexagon needle-array electrode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Wen-Chun; Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Jiang, Peng-Chao

    2014-01-01

    A large-area diffuse air discharge plasma excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse is generated under a double hexagon needle-array electrode at atmospheric pressure. The images of the diffuse discharge, electric characteristics, and the optical emission spectra emitted from the diffuse air discharge plasma are obtained. Based on the waveforms of pulse voltage and current, the power consumption, and the power density of the diffuse air discharge plasma are investigated under different pulse peak voltages. The electron density and the electron temperature of the diffuse plasma are estimated to be approximately 1.42×10(11) cm(-3) and 4.4 eV, respectively. The optical emission spectra are arranged to determine the rotational and vibrational temperatures by comparing experimental with simulated spectra. Meanwhile, the rotational and vibrational temperatures of the diffuse discharge plasma are also discussed under different pulse peak voltages and pulse repetition rates, respectively. In addition, the diffuse air discharge plasma can form an area of about 70×50 mm(2) on the surface of dielectric layer and can be scaled up to the required size.

  10. Improvement of Electrical Stimulation Protocol for Simultaneous Measurement of Extracellular Potential with On-Chip Multi-Electrode Array System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Fumimasa; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    Cardiotoxicity testing with a multi-electrode array (MEA) system requires the stable beating of cardiomyocytes for the measurement of the field potential duration (FPD), because different spontaneous beating rates cause different responses of FPD prolongation induced by drugs, and the beating rate change effected by drugs complicates the FPD prolongation assessment. We have developed an on-chip MEA system with electrical stimulation for the measurement of the FPD during the stable beating of human embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters. Using a conventional bipolar stimulation protocol, we observed such large artifacts in electrical stimulation that we could not estimate the FPD quantitatively. Therefore, we improved the stimulation protocol by using sequential rectangular pulses in which the positive and negative stimulation voltages and number of pulses could be changed flexibly. The balanced voltages and number of pulses for sequential rectangular pulses enabled the recording of small negative artifacts only, which hardly affected the FPD measurement of human-ES-cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters. These conditions of electrical stimulation are expected to find applications for the control of constant beating for cardiotoxicity testing.

  11. Upper-limb stroke rehabilitation using electrode-array based functional electrical stimulation with sensing and control innovations.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, M; Freeman, C T; Hallewell, E; Hughes, A-M; Laila, D S

    2016-04-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has shown effectiveness in restoring upper-limb movement post-stroke when applied to assist participants' voluntary intention during repeated, motivating tasks. Recent clinical trials have used advanced controllers that precisely adjust FES to assist functional reach and grasp tasks with FES applied to three muscle groups, showing significant reduction in impairment. The system reported in this paper advances the state-of-the-art by: (1) integrating an FES electrode array on the forearm to assist complex hand and wrist gestures; (2) utilising non-contact depth cameras to accurately record the arm, hand and wrist position in 3D; and (3) employing an interactive touch table to present motivating virtual reality (VR) tasks. The system also uses iterative learning control (ILC), a model-based control strategy which adjusts the applied FES based on the tracking error recorded on previous task attempts. Feasibility of the system has been evaluated in experimental trials with 2 unimpaired participants and clinical trials with 4 hemiparetic, chronic stroke participants. The stroke participants attended 17, 1 hour training sessions in which they performed functional tasks, such as button pressing using the touch table and closing a drawer. Stroke participant results show that the joint angle error norm reduced by an average of 50.3% over 6 attempts at each task when assisted by FES. PMID:26947097

  12. Direct-current Stimulation and Multi-electrode Array Recording of Seizure-like Activity in Mice Brain Slice Preparation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsiang-Chin; Chang, Wei-Jen; Chang, Wei-Pang; Shyu, Bai-Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Cathodal transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) induces suppressive effects on drug-resistant seizures. To perform effective actions, the stimulation parameters (e.g., orientation, field strength, and stimulation duration) need to be examined in mice brain slice preparations. Testing and arranging the orientation of the electrode relative to the position of the mice brain slice are feasible. The present method preserves the thalamocingulate pathway to evaluate the effect of DCS on anterior cingulate cortex seizure-like activities. The results of the multichannel array recordings indicated that cathodal DCS significantly decreased the amplitude of the stimulation-evoked responses and duration of 4-aminopyridine and bicuculline-induced seizure-like activity. This study also found that cathodal DCS applications at 15 min caused long-term depression in the thalamocingulate pathway. The present study investigates the effects of DCS on thalamocingulate synaptic plasticity and acute seizure-like activities. The current procedure can test the optimal stimulation parameters including orientation, field strength, and stimulation duration in an in vitro mouse model. Also, the method can evaluate the effects of DCS on cortical seizure-like activities at both the cellular and network levels. PMID:27341682

  13. Upper-limb stroke rehabilitation using electrode-array based functional electrical stimulation with sensing and control innovations.

    PubMed

    Kutlu, M; Freeman, C T; Hallewell, E; Hughes, A-M; Laila, D S

    2016-04-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has shown effectiveness in restoring upper-limb movement post-stroke when applied to assist participants' voluntary intention during repeated, motivating tasks. Recent clinical trials have used advanced controllers that precisely adjust FES to assist functional reach and grasp tasks with FES applied to three muscle groups, showing significant reduction in impairment. The system reported in this paper advances the state-of-the-art by: (1) integrating an FES electrode array on the forearm to assist complex hand and wrist gestures; (2) utilising non-contact depth cameras to accurately record the arm, hand and wrist position in 3D; and (3) employing an interactive touch table to present motivating virtual reality (VR) tasks. The system also uses iterative learning control (ILC), a model-based control strategy which adjusts the applied FES based on the tracking error recorded on previous task attempts. Feasibility of the system has been evaluated in experimental trials with 2 unimpaired participants and clinical trials with 4 hemiparetic, chronic stroke participants. The stroke participants attended 17, 1 hour training sessions in which they performed functional tasks, such as button pressing using the touch table and closing a drawer. Stroke participant results show that the joint angle error norm reduced by an average of 50.3% over 6 attempts at each task when assisted by FES.

  14. Model-Based Comparison of Deep Brain Stimulation Array Functionality with Varying Number of Radial Electrodes and Machine Learning Feature Sets.

    PubMed

    Teplitzky, Benjamin A; Zitella, Laura M; Xiao, YiZi; Johnson, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    electrodes minimally improved in the ability to steer, shift, and sculpt axonal activation around a DBS lead and a simple feature set consisting of the RoA center of mass and orientation enabled robust machine learning classification. These results provide important design constraints for future development of high-density DBS arrays.

  15. Model-Based Comparison of Deep Brain Stimulation Array Functionality with Varying Number of Radial Electrodes and Machine Learning Feature Sets.

    PubMed

    Teplitzky, Benjamin A; Zitella, Laura M; Xiao, YiZi; Johnson, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    electrodes minimally improved in the ability to steer, shift, and sculpt axonal activation around a DBS lead and a simple feature set consisting of the RoA center of mass and orientation enabled robust machine learning classification. These results provide important design constraints for future development of high-density DBS arrays. PMID:27375470

  16. Model-Based Comparison of Deep Brain Stimulation Array Functionality with Varying Number of Radial Electrodes and Machine Learning Feature Sets

    PubMed Central

    Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Zitella, Laura M.; Xiao, YiZi; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    electrodes minimally improved in the ability to steer, shift, and sculpt axonal activation around a DBS lead and a simple feature set consisting of the RoA center of mass and orientation enabled robust machine learning classification. These results provide important design constraints for future development of high-density DBS arrays. PMID:27375470

  17. Development of a multi-electrode array for spinal cord epidural stimulation to facilitate stepping and standing after a complete spinal cord injury in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stimulation of the spinal cord has been shown to have great potential for improving function after motor deficits caused by injury or pathological conditions. Using a wide range of animal models, many studies have shown that stimulation applied to the neural networks intrinsic to the spinal cord can result in a dramatic improvement of motor ability, even allowing an animal to step and stand after a complete spinal cord transection. Clinical use of this technology, however, has been slow to develop due to the invasive nature of the implantation procedures, the lack of versatility in conventional stimulation technology, and the difficulty of ascertaining specific sites of stimulation that would provide optimal amelioration of the motor deficits. Moreover, the development of tools available to control precise stimulation chronically via biocompatible electrodes has been limited. In this paper, we outline the development of this technology and its use in the spinal rat model, demonstrating the ability to identify and stimulate specific sites of the spinal cord to produce discrete motor behaviors in spinal rats using this array. Methods We have designed a chronically implantable, rapidly switchable, high-density platinum based multi-electrode array that can be used to stimulate at 1–100 Hz and 1–10 V in both monopolar and bipolar configurations to examine the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of spinal cord epidural stimulation in complete spinal cord transected rats. Results In this paper, we have demonstrated the effectiveness of using high-resolution stimulation parameters in the context of improving motor recovery after a spinal cord injury. We observed that rats whose hindlimbs were paralyzed can stand and step when specific sets of electrodes of the array are stimulated tonically (40 Hz). Distinct patterns of stepping and standing were produced by stimulation of different combinations of electrodes on the array located at specific

  18. Role of a distal pocket in the catalytic O2 reduction by cytochrome c oxidase models immobilized on interdigitated array electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Collman, James P.; Decréau, Richard A.; Lin, Hengwei; Hosseini, Ali; Yang, Ying; Dey, Abhishek; Eberspacher, Todd A.

    2009-01-01

    Five iron porphyrins with different superstructures were immobilized on self-assembled-monolayer (SAM)-coated interdigitated-array (IDAs) gold–platinum electrodes. The selectivity of the catalysts i.e., limited formation of partially reduced oxygen species (PROS) in the electrocatalytic reduction of dioxygen, is a function of 2 rates: (i) the rate of electron transfer from the electrode to the catalyst, which is controlled by the length, and conjugation of the linker from the catalyst to the electrode and (ii) the rate of bound oxygen (superoxide) hydrolysis, which correlates with the presence of a water cluster in the gas-binding pocket influencing the rate of oxygen binding; these factors are controlled by the nature of the porphyrin superstructure. The structurally biomimetic Tris-imidazole model is the most selective. PMID:19380725

  19. Micro-electrode array recordings reveal reductions in both excitation and inhibition in cultured cortical neuron networks lacking Shank3.

    PubMed

    Lu, C; Chen, Q; Zhou, T; Bozic, D; Fu, Z; Pan, J Q; Feng, G

    2016-02-01

    Numerous risk genes have recently been implicated in susceptibility to autism and schizophrenia. Translating such genetic findings into disease-relevant neurobiological mechanisms is challenging due to the lack of throughput assays that can be used to assess their functions on an appropriate scale. To address this issue, we explored the feasibility of using a micro-electrode array (MEA) as a potentially scalable assay to identify the electrical network phenotypes associated with risk genes. We first characterized local and global network firing in cortical neurons with MEAs, and then developed methods to analyze the alternation between the network active period (NAP) and the network inactive period (NIP), each of which lasts tens of seconds. We then evaluated the electric phenotypes of neurons derived from Shank3 knockout (KO) mice. Cortical neurons cultured on MEAs displayed a rich repertoire of spontaneous firing, and Shank3 deletion led to reduced firing activity. Enhancing excitation with CX546 rescued the deficit in the spike rate in the Shank3 KO network. In addition, the Shank3 KO network produced a shorter NIP, and this altered network firing pattern was normalized by clonazepam, a positive modulator of the GABAA receptor. MEA recordings revealed electric phenotypes that displayed altered excitation and inhibition in the network lacking Shank3. Thus, our study highlights MEAs as an experimental framework for measuring multiple robust neurobiological end points in dynamic networks and as an assay system that could be used to identify electric phenotypes in cultured neuronal networks and to analyze additional risk genes identified in psychiatric genetics. PMID:26598066

  20. Feasibility of anomaly detection and characterization using trans-admittance mammography with 60 × 60 electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingkang; Wi, Hun; Lee, Eun Jung; Woo, Eung Je; In Oh, Tong

    2014-10-01

    Electrical impedance imaging has the potential to detect an early stage of breast cancer due to higher admittivity values compared with those of normal breast tissues. The tumor size and extent of axillary lymph node involvement are important parameters to evaluate the breast cancer survival rate. Additionally, the anomaly characterization is required to distinguish a malignant tumor from a benign tumor. In order to overcome the limitation of breast cancer detection using impedance measurement probes, we developed the high density trans-admittance mammography (TAM) system with 60 × 60 electrode array and produced trans-admittance maps obtained at several frequency pairs. We applied the anomaly detection algorithm to the high density TAM system for estimating the volume and position of breast tumor. We tested four different sizes of anomaly with three different conductivity contrasts at four different depths. From multifrequency trans-admittance maps, we can readily observe the transversal position and estimate its volume and depth. Specially, the depth estimated values were obtained accurately, which were independent to the size and conductivity contrast when applying the new formula using Laplacian of trans-admittance map. The volume estimation was dependent on the conductivity contrast between anomaly and background in the breast phantom. We characterized two testing anomalies using frequency difference trans-admittance data to eliminate the dependency of anomaly position and size. We confirmed the anomaly detection and characterization algorithm with the high density TAM system on bovine breast tissue. Both results showed the feasibility of detecting the size and position of anomaly and tissue characterization for screening the breast cancer.

  1. Synthesis and photoinduced charge-transfer properties of a ZnFe2O4-sensitized TiO2 nanotube array electrode.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinyong; Hou, Yang; Zhao, Qidong; Chen, Guohua

    2011-03-15

    TiO2 nanotube arrays sensitized with ZnFe2O4 nano-crystals were successfully fabricated by a two-step process of anodization and a vacuum-assistant impregnation method followed by annealing. The sample was studied by an environmental scanning electron microscope, a transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray diffraction to characterize its morphology and chemical composition. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra and a photoelectrochemical measurement approved that the ZnFe2O4 sensitization enhanced the probability of photoinduced charge separation and extended the range of the photoresponse of TiO2 nanotube arrays from the UV to visible region. In addition, the behaviors of photoinduced charge transfer in a TiO2 nanotube array electrode before and after sensitization by ZnFe2O4 nanocrystals were comparatively studied. The photoluminescence of the TiO2 nanotube array electrode became suppressed, and the surface photovoltage responses on the spectrum were significantly enhanced after the introduction of ZnFe2O4 nanocrystals. The transfer dynamics of the photoinduced charges were observed directly by a transient photovoltage measurement, which revealed a fast charge separation at the interface between ZnFe2O4 nanocrystals and TiO2 nanotubes upon light excitation.

  2. Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays with special surface and synergistic effects as high-performance positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Han; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Wen; Li, Gao-Ren

    2015-10-01

    High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (~1470 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and excellent cycling stability with ~98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and special synergistic effects among Co(OH)2, RGO, and NiO. The high-performance ASCs are assembled using Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs as positive electrodes and active carbon (AC) as negative electrodes, and they exhibit a high energy density (115 Wh kg-1), a high power density (27.5 kW kg-1) and an excellent cycling stability (less 5% Csp loss after 10 000 cycles). This study shows an important breakthrough in the design and fabrication of multi-walled hybrid nanotube arrays as positive electrodes for ASCs.High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (~1470 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and excellent cycling stability with ~98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and

  3. Identification of radiolucent foreign bodies in tissue using optoacoustic spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Leland; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2011-03-01

    One of the leading causes of medical malpractice claims in emergency medicine is the misdiagnosis of the presence of foreign bodies. Radiolucent foreign bodies are especially difficult to differentiate from surrounding soft tissue, gas, and bone using existing clinical imaging modalities. Because many radiolucent foreign bodies have sufficient contrast for imaging in the optical domain, we are exploring the use of laser-induced optoacoustic imaging for the detection of foreign bodies, especially in orbital and craniofacial injuries, in which the foreign bodies are likely to lie within the penetration depth of visible and near infrared wavelengths. In order to evaluate the performance of optoacoustic imaging for clinical detection and characterization, common foreign bodies have been scanned over a range of visible and near infrared wavelengths to obtain the spectroscopic properties of the materials commonly associated with these foreign bodies. The foreign bodies are also being embedded in realistic ex vivo tissue phantoms to evaluate the changes that may occur in the spectroscopic absorption of the materials due to the interaction with tissue absorbers. Ultimately, we anticipate that spectroscopic characterization will help identify specific wavelengths to be used for imaging foreign bodies that will provide useful diagnostic data about the material properties of the object, thereby enabling the characterization, as well as the location, of the objects. This information will aid the clinician in choosing the optimal treatment course for the patient.

  4. CUSTOM-FIT RADIOLUCENT CRANIAL IMPLANTS FOR NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL RECORDING AND STIMULATION

    PubMed Central

    Mulliken, Grant H; Bichot, Narcisse P; Ghadooshahy, Azriel; Sharma, Jitendra; Kornblith, Simon; Philcock, Michael; Desimone, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background Recording and manipulating neural activity in awake behaving animal models requires long-term implantation of cranial implants that must address a variety of design considerations, which include preventing infection, minimizing tissue damage, mechanical strength of the implant, and MRI compatibility. New Method Here we address these issues by designing legless, custom-fit cranial implants using structural MRI-based reconstruction of the skull and that are made from carbon-reinforced PEEK. Results We report several novel custom-fit radiolucent implant designs, which include a legless recording chamber, a legless stimulation chamber, a multi-channel microdrive and a head post. The fit to the skull was excellent in all cases, with no visible gaps between the base of the implants and the skull. The wound margin was minimal in size and showed no sign of infection or skin recession. Comparison with Existing Methods Cranial implants used for neurophysiological investigation in awake behaving animals often employ methyl methacrylate (MMA) to serve as a bonding agent to secure the implant to the skull. Other designs rely on radially extending legs to secure the implant. Both of these methods have significant drawbacks. MMA is toxic to bone and frequently leads to infection while radially extending legs cause the skin to recede away from the implant, ultimately exposing bone and proliferating granulation tissue. Conclusions These radiolucent implants constitute a set of technologies suitable for reliable long-term recording, which minimize infection and tissue damage. PMID:25542350

  5. Enhanced Sensitivity for Electrochemical Detection Using Screen-Printed Diamond Electrodes via the Random Microelectrode Array Effect.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takeshi; Udagawa, Ikuto; Aikawa, Tatsuo; Sakamoto, Hironori; Shitanda, Isao; Hoshi, Yoshinao; Itagaki, Masayuki; Yuasa, Makoto

    2016-02-01

    The electrochemical properties of screen-printed diamond electrodes with various insulating polyester (PES) resin binder/boron-doped diamond powder (BDDP) ratios were investigated for high sensitivity electrochemical detection. For PES/BDDP weight ratios in the range of 0.3-0.5, the BDDP-printed electrodes exhibited cyclic voltammetry (CV) characteristics for Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) that are typical of a planar electrode, whereas microelectrode-like characteristics with sigmoidal CV curves were observed for PES/BDDP ratios of 1.0-2.0. Cu elemental mapping images of copper-electrodeposited BDDP-printed electrodes indicated the formation of island structures with conductive BDDP domains surrounded by an insulating PES matrix for large PES/BDDP ratios. The electrochemical detection of ascorbic acid (AA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was also investigated using polycrystalline BDD thin-film and BDDP-printed electrodes (PES/BDDP ratio = 0.3 and 1.0). As a result, the signal-to-background (S/B) ratios for the voltammetric detection of AA and 8-OHdG were in the order BDDP-printed electrode (PES/BDDP = 1.0) > BDDP-printed electrode (PES/BDDP = 0.3) > polycrystalline BDD thin film electrode, based on the large faradaic current with respect to the background current. Therefore, the BDDP-printed electrode with a large insulating binder/BDDP ratio has the potential for use as a disposable electrode for electrochemical detection. The electrode is cheaper, lighter and more sensitive than conventional BDD electrodes. PMID:26750090

  6. Novel molecularly imprinted stir bar sorptive extraction based on an 8-electrode array for preconcentration of trace exogenous estrogens in meat.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Li; Gan, Ning; Wang, Jiayu; Gao, Huiju; Hu, Futao; Wang, Hongfei; Li, Tianhua

    2015-01-01

    A novel 8-electrode array as stir bar was designed for selective extraction of trace level exogenous estrogens from food samples, followed by liquid desorption and HPLC-photodiode array detection. The array consisted of 8 screen-printed electrodes and each electrode was modified with Fe3O4@meso-/macroporous TiO2 microspheres and molecularly imprinted film (m-TiMIF). The fabrication of the imprinted film coating was very simple without organic solvents and chemical grafting. Both bisphenol A (BPA) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) were employed as templates in m-TiMIF fabrication in order to enrich both targets simultaneously. Interestingly, the imprinted stir bar array showed higher extraction capacity and selectivity for BPA and DES than the non-imprinted counterpart. Meanwhile, it exhibited fast adsorption and desorption kinetics due to increased mass transport in the ultra-thin film. Importantly, the m-TiMIF coating was robust enough for at least 20 uses without obvious alteration in extraction performance. The main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, including stir speeding, sample pH, ionic strength, extraction time, desorption solvent and time, were optimized. Under optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (S/N=3) of the developed method were 0.28 and 0.47 μg L(-1) for BPA and DES respectively, with enrichment factors of 32.6 and 52.8-fold. The linear ranges were 3.0-1500 μg L(-1) and 4.0-1500 μg L(-1) for BPA and DES, respectively. The m-TiMIF-coating conferred better recovery and selectivity, compared with the commercial stir bar coating. The new method was successfully applied to assess BPA and DES in pork and chicken samples with satisfactory recovery. PMID:25467478

  7. In situ synthesis of porous array films on a filament induced micro-gap electrode pair and their use as resistance-type gas sensors with enhanced performances.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zongke; Duan, Guotao; Zhang, Hongwen; Wang, Yingying; Xu, Lei; Cai, Weiping

    2015-09-14

    Resistance-type metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors with high sensitivity and low detection limit have been explored for practical applications. They require both sensing films with high sensitivity to target gases and an appropriate structure of the electrode-equipped substrate to support the sensing films, which is still challenging. In this paper, a new gas sensor of metal-oxide porous array films on a micro-gap electrode pair is designed and implemented by taking ZnO as a model material. First, a micro-gap electrode pair was constructed by sputtering deposition on a filament template, which was used as the sensor's supporting substrate. Then, the sensing film, made up of ZnO porous periodic arrays, was in situ synthesized onto the supporting substrate by a solution-dipping colloidal lithography strategy. The results demonstrated the validity of the strategy, and the as-designed sensor shows a small device-resistance, an enhanced sensing performance with high resolution and an ultralow detection limit. This work provides an alternative method to promote the practical application of resistance-type gas sensors.

  8. Advanced LSI-based amperometric sensor array with light-shielding structure for effective removal of photocurrent and mode selectable function for individual operation of 400 electrodes.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kumi Y; Matsudaira, Masahki; Nakano, Masanori; Ino, Kosuke; Sakamoto, Chika; Kanno, Yusuke; Kubo, Reyushi; Kunikata, Ryota; Kira, Atsushi; Suda, Atsushi; Tsurumi, Ryota; Shioya, Toshihito; Yoshida, Shinya; Muroyama, Masanori; Ishikawa, Tomohiro; Shiku, Hitoshi; Satoh, Shiro; Esashi, Masayoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2015-02-01

    We have developed a large-scale integrated (LSI) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based amperometric sensor array system called "Bio-LSI" as a platform for electrochemical bio-imaging and multi-point biosensing with 400 measurement points. In this study, we newly developed a Bio-LSI chip with a light-shield structure and a mode-selectable function with the aim of extending the application range of Bio-LSI. The light shield created by the top metal layer of the LSI chip significantly reduces the noise generated by the photocurrent, whose value is less than 1% of the previous Bio-LSI without the light shield. The mode-selectable function enables the individual operation of 400 electrodes in off, electrometer, V1, and V2 mode. The off-mode cuts the electrode from the electric circuit. The electrometer-mode reads out the electrode potential. The V1-mode and the V2-mode set the selected sensor electrode at two different independent voltages and read out the current. We demonstrated the usefulness of the mode-selectable function. First, we displayed a dot picture based on the redox reactions of 2.0 mM ferrocenemethanol at 400 electrodes by applying two different independent voltages using the V1 and V2 modes. Second, we carried out a simultaneous detection of O2 and H2O2 using the V1 and V2 modes. Third, we used the off and V1 modes for the modification of the osmium-polyvinylpyridine gel polymer containing horseradish peroxidase (Os-HRP) at the selected electrodes, which act as sensors for H2O2. These results confirm that the advanced version of Bio-LSI is a promising tool that can be applied to a wide range of analytical fields.

  9. Endogenous cholinergic tone modulates spontaneous network level neuronal activity in primary cortical cultures grown on multi-electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cortical cultures grown long-term on multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) are frequently and extensively used as models of cortical networks in studies of neuronal firing activity, neuropharmacology, toxicology and mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity. However, in contrast to the predominantly asynchronous neuronal firing activity exhibited by intact cortex, electrophysiological activity of mature cortical cultures is dominated by spontaneous epileptiform-like global burst events which hinders their effective use in network-level studies, particularly for neurally-controlled animat (‘artificial animal’) applications. Thus, the identification of culture features that can be exploited to produce neuronal activity more representative of that seen in vivo could increase the utility and relevance of studies that employ these preparations. Acetylcholine has a recognised neuromodulatory role affecting excitability, rhythmicity, plasticity and information flow in vivo although its endogenous production by cortical cultures and subsequent functional influence upon neuronal excitability remains unknown. Results Consequently, using MEA electrophysiological recording supported by immunohistochemical and RT-qPCR methods, we demonstrate for the first time, the presence of intrinsic cholinergic neurons and significant, endogenous cholinergic tone in cortical cultures with a characterisation of the muscarinic and nicotinic components that underlie modulation of spontaneous neuronal activity. We found that tonic muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR) activation affects global excitability and burst event regularity in a culture age-dependent manner whilst, in contrast, tonic nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) activation can modulate burst duration and the proportion of spikes occurring within bursts in a spatio-temporal fashion. Conclusions We suggest that the presence of significant endogenous cholinergic tone in cortical cultures and the comparability of its modulatory effects

  10. Carbon- and Binder-Free NiCo2O4 Nanoneedle Array Electrode for Sodium-Ion Batteries: Electrochemical Performance and Insight into Sodium Storage Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Shin, Hyun-Sup; Lee, Chan-Woo; Jung, Kyu-Nam

    2016-02-01

    Sodium (Na)-ion batteries (NIBs) have attracted significant interest as an alternative chemistry to lithium (Li)-ion batteries for large-scale stationary energy storage systems. Discovering high-performance anode materials is a great challenge for the commercial success of NIB technology. Transition metal oxides with tailored nanoarchitectures have been considered as promising anodes for NIBs due to their high capacity. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of a nanostructured oxide-only electrode, i.e., carbon- and binder-free NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array (NCO-NNA), and its feasibility as an anode for NIBs. Furthermore, we provide an in-depth experimental study of the Na storage reaction (sodiation and desodiation) in NCO-NNA. The NCO-NNA electrode is fabricated on a conducting substrate by a hydrothermal method with subsequent heat treatment. When tested in an electrochemical Na half-cell, the NCO-NNA electrode exhibits excellent Na storage capability: a charge capacity as high as 400 mAh g-1 is achieved at a current density of 50 mA g-1. It also shows a greatly improved cycle life (~215 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles) in comparison to a conventional powder-type electrode (~30 mAh g-1). However, the Na storage performance is still inferior to that of Li, which is mainly due to sluggish kinetics of sodiation-desodiation accompanied by severe volume change.

  11. Carbon- and Binder-Free NiCo2O4 Nanoneedle Array Electrode for Sodium-Ion Batteries: Electrochemical Performance and Insight into Sodium Storage Reaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Won; Shin, Hyun-Sup; Lee, Chan-Woo; Jung, Kyu-Nam

    2016-12-01

    Sodium (Na)-ion batteries (NIBs) have attracted significant interest as an alternative chemistry to lithium (Li)-ion batteries for large-scale stationary energy storage systems. Discovering high-performance anode materials is a great challenge for the commercial success of NIB technology. Transition metal oxides with tailored nanoarchitectures have been considered as promising anodes for NIBs due to their high capacity. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of a nanostructured oxide-only electrode, i.e., carbon- and binder-free NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array (NCO-NNA), and its feasibility as an anode for NIBs. Furthermore, we provide an in-depth experimental study of the Na storage reaction (sodiation and desodiation) in NCO-NNA. The NCO-NNA electrode is fabricated on a conducting substrate by a hydrothermal method with subsequent heat treatment. When tested in an electrochemical Na half-cell, the NCO-NNA electrode exhibits excellent Na storage capability: a charge capacity as high as 400 mAh g(-1) is achieved at a current density of 50 mA g(-1). It also shows a greatly improved cycle life (~215 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles) in comparison to a conventional powder-type electrode (~30 mAh g(-1)). However, the Na storage performance is still inferior to that of Li, which is mainly due to sluggish kinetics of sodiation-desodiation accompanied by severe volume change.

  12. Long term in vitro functional stability and recording longevity of fully integrated wireless neural interfaces based on the Utah Slant Electrode Array.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Asha; Rieth, Loren; Tathireddy, Prashant; Harrison, Reid; Oppermann, Hermann; Klein, Matthias; Töpper, Michael; Jung, Erik; Normann, Richard; Clark, Gregory; Solzbacher, Florian

    2011-08-01

    We evaluate the encapsulation and packaging reliability of a fully integrated wireless neural interface based on a Utah Slant Electrode Array/integrated neural interface-recording version 5 (USEA/INI-R5) system by monitoring the long term in vitro functional stability and recording longevity. The INI encapsulated with 6 µm Parylene-C was immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for a period of over 276 days (with the monitoring of the functional device still ongoing). The full functionality (wireless radio-frequency power, command and signal transmission) and the ability of the electrodes to record artificial neural signals even after 276 days of PBS soaking with little change (within 14%) in signal/noise amplitude constitute a major milestone in long term stability and allow us to study and evaluate the encapsulation reliability, functional stability and its potential usefulness for a wireless neural interface for future chronic implants. PMID:21775785

  13. Multiple Apical Radiolucencies and External Cervical Resorption Associated with Varicella Zoster Virus: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kreena; Schirru, Elia; Niazi, Sadia; Mitchell, Philip; Mannocci, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is responsible for the primary infection chickenpox. After the initial infection, it remains latent but can reactivate, resulting in shingles (herpes zoster). Previous reports have implicated VZV in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis, but the involvement of the virus has not been investigated fully. The present case describes a patient who suffered from a severe episode of shingles and subsequently developed periapical radiolucencies of all the teeth in the affected nerve distribution. Molecular and culture techniques showed the presence of VZV DNA in the root canal system in the absence of bacteria. This confirms that VZV can cause localized pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis. The lesions healed after endodontic treatment, implying chemomechanical debridement using sodium hypochlorite irrigation and a calcium hydroxide interim dressing may be effective against the virus. PMID:27133503

  14. Single-pulse driven, large-aperture 2×1 array plasma-electrodes optical switch for SG-II upgrading facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Wu, Dengsheng; Zheng, Jiangang; Zheng, Kuixing; Zhu, Qihua; Zhang, Xiongjun

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate the design and performance of an optical switch that has been constructed for the SG-II upgrading facility. The device is a longitudinal, potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP), 360 mm×360 mm aperture, and 2×1 array electro-optical switch driven by a 20 kV output switching-voltage pulse generator through two plasma electrodes produced at the rise edge of the switching-voltage pulse. The results show that the temporal responses and the spatial performance of the optical switch fulfill the operation requirements of the SG-II upgrading facility.

  15. Comprehensive Chronic Laminar Single-Unit, Multi-Unit, and Local Field Potential Recording Performance With Planar Single Shank Electrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Du, Zhanhong; Gugel, Zhannetta V.; Smith, Matthew A.; Chase, Steven M.; Bodily, Lance M; Caparosa, Ellen M.; Friedlander, Robert M.; Cui, X. Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Background Intracortical electrode arrays that can record extracellular action potentials from small, targeted groups of neurons are critical for basic neuroscience research and emerging clinical applications. In general, these electrode devices suffer from reliability and variability issues, which have led to comparative studies of existing and emerging electrode designs to optimize performance. Comparisons of different chronic recording devices have been limited to single-unit (SU) activity and employed a bulk averaging approach treating brain architecture as homogeneous with respect to electrode distribution. New Method In this study, we optimize the methods and parameters to quantify evoked multi-unit (MU) and local field potential (LFP) recordings in 8 mice visual cortices. Results These findings quantify the large recording differences stemming from anatomical differences in depth and the layer dependent relative changes to SU and MU recording performance over 6-months. For example, performance metrics in Layer V and stratum pyramidale were initially higher than Layer II/III, but decrease more rapidly. On the other hand, Layer II/III maintained recording metrics longer. In addition, chronic changes at the level of layer IV are evaluated using visually evoked current source density. Comparison with Existing Method(s) The use of MU and LFP activity for evaluation and tracking biological depth provides a more comprehensive characterization of the electrophysiological performance landscape of microelectrodes. Conclusions A more extensive spatial and temporal insight into the chronic electrophysiological performance over time will help uncover the biological and mechanical failure mechanisms of the neural electrodes and direct future research toward the elucidation of design optimization for specific applications. PMID:25542351

  16. Conveniently fabricated heterojunction ZnO/TiO2 electrodes using TiO2 nanotube arrays for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rui; Yang, Wein-Duo; Qiang, Liang-Sheng; Liu, Hsin-Yi

    2012-12-01

    TiO2 nanotube arrays with an inner average pore diameter of 83 nm and a length of 14 μm are grown on Ti foils by electrochemical anodization in ammonium fluoride-water-glycerol solution. ZnO is introduced into the TiO2 nanotube arrays by a convenient electrodeposition technique. ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposites supported on Ti substrate are used as the photo-anode electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The morphology, structure and electrochemical properties are investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffusion reflection spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry measurements. It is found that ZnO have been embedded in the TiO2 nanotube arrays, and changed some photoelectric properties. The conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells is more than doubled, compared with that of bare TiO2 nanotube arrays with deposited 60 min. This improvement comes from the synergetic effect between ZnO and TiO2, which increases dye absorption, electron transport and electron lifetime.

  17. Ni foam supported three-dimensional vertically aligned and networked layered CoO nanosheet/graphene hybrid array as a high-performance oxygen evolution electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Weiyong; Zhao, Ming; Yuan, Jia; Li, Chang Ming

    2016-07-01

    The sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) represents a major kinetic bottleneck in water splitting. Herein we report the synthesis of a novel Ni foam (NF) supported 3-D vertically aligned and interconnected layered CoO nanosheet array with controlled density, layer thickness, and interlayer spacing, and the conformal self-assembly of graphene on this nanosheet array. The obtained CoO layered nanosheet/graphene hybrid nanoarray was directly used as an OER electrode, showing a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of 330 mV and a Tafel slope of 79 mV dec-1, both of which are much lower than pristine NF and the nanosheet array without graphene, and are among the lowest reported for Co-based OER catalysts and transition metal oxide-based ones measured under the same conditions. In addition, it can retain 92.4% of the current density after 66 h of chronoamperometry testing at a potential of 1.0 V vs. SCE, and 94.3% of the current density at 1.0 V vs. SCE after 200 cyclic voltammetry cycles (0-1.0 V vs. SCE). The excellent catalytic activity and stability toward OER are ascribed to the 3-D NF supported robustly grown networked layered nanosheet array structure and the synergistic effects between CoO layered nanosheets and graphene.

  18. Using Eye Movement to Control a Computer: A Design for a Lightweight Electro-Oculogram Electrode Array and Computer Interface

    PubMed Central

    Iáñez, Eduardo; Azorin, Jose M.; Perez-Vidal, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a human-computer interface based on electro-oculography (EOG) that allows interaction with a computer using eye movement. The EOG registers the movement of the eye by measuring, through electrodes, the difference of potential between the cornea and the retina. A new pair of EOG glasses have been designed to improve the user's comfort and to remove the manual procedure of placing the EOG electrodes around the user's eye. The interface, which includes the EOG electrodes, uses a new processing algorithm that is able to detect the gaze direction and the blink of the eyes from the EOG signals. The system reliably enabled subjects to control the movement of a dot on a video screen. PMID:23843986

  19. Study of interdigitated electrode arrays using experiments and finite element models for the evaluation of sterilization processes.

    PubMed

    Oberländer, Jan; Jildeh, Zaid B; Kirchner, Patrick; Wendeler, Luisa; Bromm, Alexander; Iken, Heiko; Wagner, Patrick; Keusgen, Michael; Schöning, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a sensor to evaluate sterilization processes with hydrogen peroxide vapor has been characterized. Experimental, analytical and numerical methods were applied to evaluate and study the sensor behavior. The sensor set-up is based on planar interdigitated electrodes. The interdigitated electrode structure consists of 614 electrode fingers spanning over a total sensing area of 20 mm². Sensor measurements were conducted with and without microbiological spores as well as after an industrial sterilization protocol. The measurements were verified using an analytical expression based on a first-order elliptical integral. A model based on the finite element method with periodic boundary conditions in two dimensions was developed and utilized to validate the experimental findings. PMID:26473883

  20. Unique Core-Shell Nanorod Arrays with Polyaniline Deposited into Mesoporous NiCo2O4 Support for High-Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Nawishta; Xia, Qiuying; Yang, Mei; Xia, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Polyaniline (PANI), one of the most attractive conducting polymers for supercapacitors, demonstrates a great potential as high performance pseudocapacitor materials. However, the poor cycle life owing to structural instability remains as the major hurdle for its practical application; hence, making the structure-to-performance design on the PANI-based supercapacitors is highly desirable. In this work, unique core-shell NiCo2O4@PANI nanorod arrays (NRAs) are rationally designed and employed as the electrode material for supercapacitors. With highly porous NiCo2O4 as the conductive core and strain buffer support and nanoscale PANI layer as the electrochemically active component, such a heterostructure achieves favorably high capacitance while maintaining good cycling stability and rate capability. By adopting the optimally uniform and intimate coating of PANI, the fabricated electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 901 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte and outstanding capacitance retention of ∼91% after 3000 cycles at a high current density of 10 A g(-1), which is superior to the electrochemical performance of most reported PANI-based pseudocapacitors in literature. The enhanced electrochemical performance demonstrates the complementary contributions of both componential structures in the hybrid electrode design. Also, this work propels a new direction of utilizing porous matrix as the highly effective support for polymers toward efficient energy storage.

  1. Carbon- and Binder-Free NiCo2O4 Nanoneedle Array Electrode for Sodium-Ion Batteries: Electrochemical Performance and Insight into Sodium Storage Reaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Won; Shin, Hyun-Sup; Lee, Chan-Woo; Jung, Kyu-Nam

    2016-12-01

    Sodium (Na)-ion batteries (NIBs) have attracted significant interest as an alternative chemistry to lithium (Li)-ion batteries for large-scale stationary energy storage systems. Discovering high-performance anode materials is a great challenge for the commercial success of NIB technology. Transition metal oxides with tailored nanoarchitectures have been considered as promising anodes for NIBs due to their high capacity. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of a nanostructured oxide-only electrode, i.e., carbon- and binder-free NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array (NCO-NNA), and its feasibility as an anode for NIBs. Furthermore, we provide an in-depth experimental study of the Na storage reaction (sodiation and desodiation) in NCO-NNA. The NCO-NNA electrode is fabricated on a conducting substrate by a hydrothermal method with subsequent heat treatment. When tested in an electrochemical Na half-cell, the NCO-NNA electrode exhibits excellent Na storage capability: a charge capacity as high as 400 mAh g(-1) is achieved at a current density of 50 mA g(-1). It also shows a greatly improved cycle life (~215 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles) in comparison to a conventional powder-type electrode (~30 mAh g(-1)). However, the Na storage performance is still inferior to that of Li, which is mainly due to sluggish kinetics of sodiation-desodiation accompanied by severe volume change. PMID:26831683

  2. Hierarchical 3-dimensional nickel-iron nanosheet arrays on carbon fiber paper as a novel electrode for non-enzymatic glucose sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Palanisamy; Maiyalagan, Thandavarayan; Marsili, Enrico; Ghosh, Srabanti; Niedziolka-Jönsson, Joanna; Jönsson-Niedziolka, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Three-dimensional nickel-iron (3-D/Ni-Fe) nanostructures are exciting candidates for various applications because they produce more reaction-active sites than 1-D and 2-D nanostructured materials and exhibit attractive optical, electrical and catalytic properties. In this work, freestanding 3-D/Ni-Fe interconnected hierarchical nanosheets, hierarchical nanospheres, and porous nanospheres are directly grown on a flexible carbon fiber paper (CFP) substrate by a single-step hydrothermal process. Among the nanostructures, 3-D/Ni-Fe interconnected hierarchical nanosheets show excellent electrochemical properties because of its high conductivity, large specific active surface area, and mesopores on its walls (vide infra). The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet array modified CFP substrate is further explored as a novel electrode for electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensor application. The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays exhibit significant catalytic activity towards the electrochemical oxidation of glucose, as compared to the 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanospheres, and porous nanospheres. The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays can access a large amount of glucose molecules on their surface (mesopore walls) for an efficient electrocatalytic oxidation process. Moreover, 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays showed higher sensitivity (7.90 μA μM-1 cm-2) with wide linear glucose concentration ranging from 0.05 μM to 0.2 mM, and the low detection limit (LOD) of 0.031 μM (S/N = 3) is achieved by the amperometry method. Further, the 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet array modified CFP electrode can be demonstrated to have excellent selectivity towards the detection of glucose in the presence of 500-fold excess of major important interferents. All these results indicate that 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays are promising candidates for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.Three-dimensional nickel-iron (3-D/Ni-Fe) nanostructures are exciting candidates for

  3. Effects of dose reduction on the detectability of standardized radiolucent lesions in digital panoramic radiography.

    PubMed

    Dula, K; Sanderink, G; van der Stelt, P F; Mini, R; Buser, D

    1998-08-01

    Dose reduction in digital panoramic radiography was studied. Intentional underexposure was performed with the Orthophos DS while six different human mandibles were radiographed. Exposure settings were 69 kV/15 mA (standard), 64 kV/16 mA, and 60 kV/16 mA. Standardized spherical defects, each either 1 or 1.25 mm in diameter, were simulated in 288 of 432 images, and seven observers decided whether defects were present or not. Areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves were calculated. They showed no significant differences in the detectability of the 1-mm defect at 69, 64, or 60 kV. For the 1.25-mm defect, no difference was found between the 69 and 60 kV images, but a statistically significant different detectability was found for 64 kV images in comparison with both 69 and 60 kV images. A dose reduction of up to 43% was ascertained with a Pedo-RT-Humanoid phantom when panoramic radiography was performed at 60 kV/16 mA. The conclusion is that with the Orthophos DS, it seems possible to reduce the dose rate of x-rays without loss of diagnostic quality in the case of radiolucent changes. PMID:9720100

  4. Effects of dose reduction on the detectability of standardized radiolucent lesions in digital panoramic radiography.

    PubMed

    Dula, K; Sanderink, G; van der Stelt, P F; Mini, R; Buser, D

    1998-08-01

    Dose reduction in digital panoramic radiography was studied. Intentional underexposure was performed with the Orthophos DS while six different human mandibles were radiographed. Exposure settings were 69 kV/15 mA (standard), 64 kV/16 mA, and 60 kV/16 mA. Standardized spherical defects, each either 1 or 1.25 mm in diameter, were simulated in 288 of 432 images, and seven observers decided whether defects were present or not. Areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves were calculated. They showed no significant differences in the detectability of the 1-mm defect at 69, 64, or 60 kV. For the 1.25-mm defect, no difference was found between the 69 and 60 kV images, but a statistically significant different detectability was found for 64 kV images in comparison with both 69 and 60 kV images. A dose reduction of up to 43% was ascertained with a Pedo-RT-Humanoid phantom when panoramic radiography was performed at 60 kV/16 mA. The conclusion is that with the Orthophos DS, it seems possible to reduce the dose rate of x-rays without loss of diagnostic quality in the case of radiolucent changes.

  5. Evaluation of adhesive-free crossed-electrode poly(vinylidene fluoride) copolymer array transducers for high frequency imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagle, Sanat; Decharat, Adit; Habib, Anowarul; Ahluwalia, Balpreet S.; Melandsø, Frank

    2016-07-01

    High frequency crossed-electrode transducers have been investigated, both as single and dual layer transducers. Prototypes of these transducers were developed for 4 crossed lines (yielding 16 square elements) on a polymer substrate, using a layer-by-layer deposition method for poly(vinylidene fluoride–trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF–TrFE)] with intermediate sputtered electrodes. The transducer was characterized using various methods [LCR analyzer, a pulse–echo experimental setup, and a numerical Finite element method (FEM) model] and evaluated in terms of uniformity of bandwidth and acoustical energy output. All 16 transducer elements produced broad-banded ultrasonic spectra with small variation in central frequency and ‑6 dB bandwidth. The frequency responses obtained experimentally were verified using a numerical model.

  6. Posterior cruciate supplementing total knee replacement using conforming inserts and cruciate recession. Effect on range of motion and radiolucent lines.

    PubMed

    Scott, R D; Thornhill, T S

    1994-12-01

    This study was performed to determine if a sagittally curved conforming tibial insert can be used with a retained, but balanced, posterior cruciate ligament without deleterious effects on range of motion (ROM) and tibial radiolucencies, as compared with a flatter insert that is less conforming and does not require cruciate balancing. The authors reviewed 50 consecutive primary knees implanted with flatter posterior lipped inserts and 50 consecutive primary knees with curved inserts and posterior cruciate ligament balancing. The average ROM for both groups was the same postoperatively as preoperatively: 111 degrees for the posterior lipped inserts and 113 degrees for the curved inserts. The incidence of tibial radiolucent lines was 8% for both groups. The authors conclude that sagittally curved, more conforming tibial inserts with retained, but balanced, posterior cruciate ligaments, do not adversely effect ROM and tibial radiolucencies. Their use forms an attractive compromise between the schools of cruciate preservation and cruciate substitution, maximizing their advantages while minimizing their disadvantages. Functional ROM can be achieved while bone stock is preserved, the joint line is restored, and wear characteristics are improved.

  7. Spatio-temporal mapping of variation potentials in leaves of Helianthus annuus L. seedlings in situ using multi-electrode array

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dong-Jie; Wang, Zhong-Yi; Huang, Lan; Jia, Yong-Peng; Leng, John Q.

    2014-01-01

    Damaging thermal stimuli trigger long-lasting variation potentials (VPs) in higher plants. Owing to limitations in conventional plant electrophysiological recording techniques, recorded signals are composed of signals originating from all of the cells that are connected to an electrode. This limitation does not enable detailed spatio-temporal distributions of transmission and electrical activities in plants to be visualised. Multi-electrode array (MEA) enables the recording and imaging of dynamic spatio-temporal electrical activities in higher plants. Here, we used an 8 × 8 MEA with a polar distance of 450 μm to measure electrical activities from numerous cells simultaneously. The mapping of the data that were recorded from the MEA revealed the transfer mode of the thermally induced VPs in the leaves of Helianthus annuus L. seedlings in situ. These results suggest that MEA can enable recordings with high spatio-temporal resolution that facilitate the determination of the bioelectrical response mode of higher plants under stress. PMID:24961469

  8. Spatio-temporal mapping of variation potentials in leaves of Helianthus annuus L. seedlings in situ using multi-electrode array.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-Jie; Wang, Zhong-Yi; Huang, Lan; Jia, Yong-Peng; Leng, John Q

    2014-06-25

    Damaging thermal stimuli trigger long-lasting variation potentials (VPs) in higher plants. Owing to limitations in conventional plant electrophysiological recording techniques, recorded signals are composed of signals originating from all of the cells that are connected to an electrode. This limitation does not enable detailed spatio-temporal distributions of transmission and electrical activities in plants to be visualised. Multi-electrode array (MEA) enables the recording and imaging of dynamic spatio-temporal electrical activities in higher plants. Here, we used an 8 × 8 MEA with a polar distance of 450 μm to measure electrical activities from numerous cells simultaneously. The mapping of the data that were recorded from the MEA revealed the transfer mode of the thermally induced VPs in the leaves of Helianthus annuus L. seedlings in situ. These results suggest that MEA can enable recordings with high spatio-temporal resolution that facilitate the determination of the bioelectrical response mode of higher plants under stress.

  9. Increasing Electrochemiluminescence Intensity of a Wireless Electrode Array Chip by Thousands of Times Using a Diode for Sensitive Visual Detection by a Digital Camera.

    PubMed

    Qi, Liming; Xia, Yong; Qi, Wenjing; Gao, Wenyue; Wu, Fengxia; Xu, Guobao

    2016-01-19

    Both a wireless electrochemiluminescence (ECL) electrode microarray chip and the dramatic increase in ECL by embedding a diode in an electromagnetic receiver coil have been first reported. The newly designed device consists of a chip and a transmitter. The chip has an electromagnetic receiver coil, a mini-diode, and a gold electrode array. The mini-diode can rectify alternating current into direct current and thus enhance ECL intensities by 18 thousand times, enabling a sensitive visual detection using common cameras or smart phones as low cost detectors. The detection limit of hydrogen peroxide using a digital camera is comparable to that using photomultiplier tube (PMT)-based detectors. Coupled with a PMT-based detector, the device can detect luminol with higher sensitivity with linear ranges from 10 nM to 1 mM. Because of the advantages including high sensitivity, high throughput, low cost, high portability, and simplicity, it is promising in point of care testing, drug screening, and high throughput analysis. PMID:26669809

  10. A Wireless and Batteryless Microsystem with Implantable Grid Electrode/3-Dimensional Probe Array for ECoG and Extracellular Neural Recording in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Chiou, Jin-Chern

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of an integrated wireless microsystem platform that provides the possibility to support versatile implantable neural sensing devices in free laboratory rats. Inductive coupled coils with low dropout regulator design allows true long-term recording without limitation of battery capacity. A 16-channel analog front end chip located on the headstage is designed for high channel account neural signal conditioning with low current consumption and noise. Two types of implantable electrodes including grid electrode and 3D probe array are also presented for brain surface recording and 3D biopotential acquisition in the implanted target volume of tissue. The overall system consumes less than 20 mA with small form factor, 3.9 × 3.9 cm2 mainboard and 1.8 × 3.4 cm2 headstage, is packaged into a backpack for rats. Practical in vivo recordings including auditory response, brain resection tissue and PZT-induced seizures recording demonstrate the correct function of the proposed microsystem. Presented achievements addressed the aforementioned properties by combining MEMS neural sensors, low-power circuit designs and commercial chips into system-level integration. PMID:23567528

  11. TiO2 nanotube array photoelectrocatalyst and Ni-Sb-SnO2 electrocatalyst bifacial electrodes: a new type of bifunctional hybrid platform for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, So Young; Choi, Wonyong; Park, Hyunwoong

    2015-01-28

    Bifunctional hybrid electrodes capable of generating various reactive oxygen species (ROS) over a wide range of potentials were developed by coupling electrocatalysts and photoelectrocatalysts. To achieve this, Ni-doped Sb-SnO2 (NSS) was deposited on one side of a titanium (Ti) foil while the other side was anodized to grow a TiO2 nanotube array (TNA) for electrochemical ozone generation and photoelectrochemical hydroxyl radical generation, respectively. Surface characterization indicated that NSS and TNA were formed and spatially separated yet electrically connected through the Ti substrate. While each catalyst possessed unique electrochemical properties, the coupling of both catalysts resulted in mixed electrochemical properties that drove electrocatalysis at high potentials and photoelectrocatalysis at low potentials. The performance of the NSS/TNA electrode for phenol decomposition was ∼3 times greater than that of single-layer catalysts and ∼1.5 times greater than the combined catalytic performances of the individual NSS and TNA catalysts. This synergistic effect was attributed partly to the simultaneous generation of hydroxyl radicals and ozone, followed by the production of other ROS. A mechanism for the generation of ROS was discussed.

  12. TiO2 nanotube array photoelectrocatalyst and Ni-Sb-SnO2 electrocatalyst bifacial electrodes: a new type of bifunctional hybrid platform for water treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, So Young; Choi, Wonyong; Park, Hyunwoong

    2015-01-28

    Bifunctional hybrid electrodes capable of generating various reactive oxygen species (ROS) over a wide range of potentials were developed by coupling electrocatalysts and photoelectrocatalysts. To achieve this, Ni-doped Sb-SnO2 (NSS) was deposited on one side of a titanium (Ti) foil while the other side was anodized to grow a TiO2 nanotube array (TNA) for electrochemical ozone generation and photoelectrochemical hydroxyl radical generation, respectively. Surface characterization indicated that NSS and TNA were formed and spatially separated yet electrically connected through the Ti substrate. While each catalyst possessed unique electrochemical properties, the coupling of both catalysts resulted in mixed electrochemical properties that drove electrocatalysis at high potentials and photoelectrocatalysis at low potentials. The performance of the NSS/TNA electrode for phenol decomposition was ∼3 times greater than that of single-layer catalysts and ∼1.5 times greater than the combined catalytic performances of the individual NSS and TNA catalysts. This synergistic effect was attributed partly to the simultaneous generation of hydroxyl radicals and ozone, followed by the production of other ROS. A mechanism for the generation of ROS was discussed. PMID:25561436

  13. Atmospheric air diffuse array-needles dielectric barrier discharge excited by positive, negative, and bipolar nanosecond pulses in large electrode gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Yang, De-zheng; Wang, Wen-chun; Liu, Zhi-jie; Wang, Sen; Jiang, Peng-chao; Zhang, Shuai

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, positive, negative, and bipolar nanosecond pulses are employed to generate stable and diffuse discharge plasma using array needles-plate electrode configuration at atmospheric pressure. A comparison study of discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma vibrational temperature and rotational temperatures in three pulsed polarity discharges is carried on under different discharge conditions. It is found that bipolar pulse is beneficial to the excitation of diffuse dielectric barrier discharge, which can generate a room temperature plasma with more homogeneous and higher discharge intensity compared with unipolar discharges. Under the condition of 6 mm electrode gap distance, 26 kV pulse peak voltage, and 150 Hz pulse repetition rate, the emission intensity of N2 (C3Πu → B3Πg) of the bipolar pulsed discharge is 4 times higher than the unipolar discharge (both positive and negative), while the plasma gas temperature is kept at 300 K, which is about 10-20 K lower than the unipolar discharge plasma.

  14. Electrostatic precipitator with precipitator electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Junkers, G.

    1980-12-16

    The invention relates to an electrostatic precipitator with collecting electrodes which are arranged in rows adjacent to each other and in respective pairs at equal distances from a respective discharge electrode with which they cooperate. Spring elements are provided between the collecting electrodes and influence the stiffness and oscillating properties of the array of the collecting electrodes.

  15. Evaluation of juxta-apical radiolucency in cone beam CT images

    PubMed Central

    Harada, N; Araki, K; Sano, T; Goto, T K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse the position and relationship of juxta-apical radiolucency (JAR) to the mandibular canal and buccal and/or lingual cortical plates using cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods: A retrospective study was carried out to analyse the JAR on CBCT for 27 patients. These findings were compared with 27 age- and sex-matched patients without the presence of JAR, which acted as the control group. The CBCT images were analysed according to a checklist, to evaluate the position of the JAR and its relationship to the mandibular canal. Then, any thinning or perforation of either the buccal or lingual cortical plate due to JAR was noted, and a classification to quantify the thinning of cortical plates was proposed. The findings in the two groups were analysed using a paired comparison by McNemar test. Results: A statistical increased thinning of cortical plates was seen in the JAR group compared with the control group, and most of the cases were in the J3 group. None of the patients in either the JAR or the control group showed perforation of the buccal and/or lingual cortical plate on CBCT images. Conclusions: A classification to quantify the thinning of cortical plates was proposed, which may be used for objective evaluation of the thinning of the cortical plates in future studies. The present study gives an insight into the relationship of the juxta-apical area with the mandibular canal and cortical plates in the mandible using CBCT. PMID:24694213

  16. Fabrication of electrodes with ultralow platinum loading by RF plasma processing of self-assembled arrays of Au@Pt nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Ipshita; Kumaran, V.; Santhanam, Venugopal

    2016-07-01

    Conductive, carbon-free, electrocatalytically active, nanostructured electrodes with ultra-low platinum loading were fabricated using self-assembly of octadecanethiol-coated Au@Pt nanoparticles followed by RF plasma treatment. Bilayer arrays of Au@Pt nanoparticles with platinum loadings of 0.50, 1.04, 1.44, and 1.75 μg cm‑2 (corresponding to 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 atomic layer coverage of platinum on nominally 5 nm gold core) were subjected to RF argon plasma treatment for various durations and their electrical conductivity, morphological evolution, and electrocatalytic activity characterized. Samples with monolayer and above platinum coverages exhibit maximum electrochemically active surface areas values of ∼100 m2/gpt and specific activities that are ∼4× to 6× of a reference platinum nanoparticle bilayer array. The underlying gold core influences the structural evolution of the samples upon RF plasma treatment and leads to the formation of highly active Pt(110) facets on the surface at an optimal plasma treatment duration, which also corresponds to the onset of a sharp decline in lateral sheet resistance. The sample having a two atom thick platinum coating has the highest total mass activity of 48 ± 3 m2/g(pt+au), corresponding to 44% Pt atom utilization, while also exhibiting enhanced CO tolerance as well as high methanol oxidation reaction and oxygen reduction reaction activity.

  17. Multifunctional microelectrode array (mMEA) chip for neural-electrical and neural-chemical interfaces: characterization of comb interdigitated electrode towards dopamine detection.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Min-Chieh; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Annie Ho, Ja-An; Chen, You-Yin

    2013-03-15

    Microelectrode array platforms have attracted considerable interest owing to their ability to facilitate interactive communications between investigators and neuronal network. We herein present an integrated multifunctional microelectrode array (mMEA) chip harnessed with multiple measurement modalities of both neural-electrical and neural-chemical recordings to enable simultaneous monitoring of action potential and the level of the specific neurotransmitter. A dopamine sensor modality fabricated in interdigitated electrodes (IDE) fashion was realized and characterized, subsequently applied to trace dopamine exocytosis in PC12 cells cultured on such mMEA chip. Facile fabrication process leveraging electroplating technique to implement the regulation of gap width was investigated and resulted in preferred IDE configuration. Collection efficiency and amplification effect were systematically evaluated. The as-fabricated sensing device exhibited a favorable diffusion-determining behavior reflected by the steady state current output, and in virtue of this feature, to detect dopamine in connection with limit of detection at 0.62 μM. The current signal was observed linear against the level of dopamine over the investigated concentration range with a resulting sensitivity of 0.096 nA μM(-1).

  18. Fabrication of electrodes with ultralow platinum loading by RF plasma processing of self-assembled arrays of Au@Pt nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Ipshita; Kumaran, V.; Santhanam, Venugopal

    2016-07-01

    Conductive, carbon-free, electrocatalytically active, nanostructured electrodes with ultra-low platinum loading were fabricated using self-assembly of octadecanethiol-coated Au@Pt nanoparticles followed by RF plasma treatment. Bilayer arrays of Au@Pt nanoparticles with platinum loadings of 0.50, 1.04, 1.44, and 1.75 μg cm-2 (corresponding to 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 atomic layer coverage of platinum on nominally 5 nm gold core) were subjected to RF argon plasma treatment for various durations and their electrical conductivity, morphological evolution, and electrocatalytic activity characterized. Samples with monolayer and above platinum coverages exhibit maximum electrochemically active surface areas values of ˜100 m2/gpt and specific activities that are ˜4× to 6× of a reference platinum nanoparticle bilayer array. The underlying gold core influences the structural evolution of the samples upon RF plasma treatment and leads to the formation of highly active Pt(110) facets on the surface at an optimal plasma treatment duration, which also corresponds to the onset of a sharp decline in lateral sheet resistance. The sample having a two atom thick platinum coating has the highest total mass activity of 48 ± 3 m2/g(pt+au), corresponding to 44% Pt atom utilization, while also exhibiting enhanced CO tolerance as well as high methanol oxidation reaction and oxygen reduction reaction activity.

  19. Automated setup of functional electrical stimulation for drop foot using a novel 64 channel prototype stimulator and electrode array: results from a gait-lab based study.

    PubMed

    Heller, Ben W; Clarke, Alison J; Good, Timothy R; Healey, T Jamie; Nair, Siva; Pratt, Emma J; Reeves, Mark L; van der Meulen, Jill M; Barker, Anthony T

    2013-01-01

    Functional electrical stimulation is commonly used to correct drop foot following stroke or multiple sclerosis. This technique is successful for many patients, but previous studies have shown that a significant minority have difficulty identifying correct sites to place the electrodes in order to produce acceptable foot movement. Recently there has been some interest in the use of 'virtual electrodes', the process of stimulating a subset of electrodes chosen from an array, thus allowing the site of stimulation to be moved electronically rather than physically. We have developed an algorithm for automatically determining the best site of stimulation and tested it on a computer linked to a small, battery-powered prototype stimulator with 64 individual output channels. Stimulation was delivered via an 8×8 array adhered to the leg by high-resistivity self-adhesive hydrogel. Ten participants with stroke (ages 53-71 years) and 11 with MS (ages 40-80 years) were recruited onto the study and performed two walks of 10 m for each of the following conditions: own setup (PS), clinician setup (CS), automated setup (AS) and no stimulation (NS). The PS and CS conditions used the participant's own stimulator with two conventional electrodes; the AS condition used the new stimulator and algorithm. Outcome measures were walking speed, foot angle at initial contact and the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion. Mean walking speed with no stimulation was 0.61 m/s; all FES setups significantly increased speed relative to this (AS p<0.05, PS p<0.01, CS p<0.01). Speed for PS (0.72 m/s) was faster than both AS (0.65 m/s, p<0.01) and CS (0.68 m/s, p<0.05). Frontal plane foot orientation at heel-strike was more neutral for AS (0.3° everted) than in the NS (11.2° inverted, p<0.01), PS (4.5° inverted, p<0.05) and CS (3.1° inverted, p<0.05) conditions. Dorsiflexion angles for AS (4.2°) were larger than NS (-3.0°, p<0.01), not different to PS (4.3°, p>0.05) and less dorsiflexed than CS (6

  20. Design considerations in the use of interdigitated microsensor electrode arrays (IMEs) for impedimetric characterization of biomimetic hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liju; Guiseppi-Wilson, Adilah; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2011-04-01

    Microlithographically fabricated interdigitated microsensor electrodes (IMEs) were cleaned, surface activated, chemically functionalized (amine) and derivatized with an Acrloyl-PEG-NHS to receive a spun-applied monomer cocktail of UV polymerizable monomer. IMEs were 2050.5, 1550.5, 1050.5 and 0550.5 possessing lines and spaces that were 20, 15, 10, and 5 μm respectively; 5 mm line lengths and were 50 lines on each opposing bus. Bioactive hydrogels were synthesized from spun-applied and UV-crosslinked tetraethyleneglycol diacrylate (TEGDA) (crosslinker), 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), polyethyleneglycol(200) monomethacrylate (PEGMA), N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]-acrylamide (HMMA) and poly(HEMA) (MW 60,000) (viscosity modifier) and 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone (DMPA) (photoinitiator) to produce a 5 μm thick p(HEMA-co-PEGMA-co-HMMA) hydrogel membrane on the IMEs. Unmodified and hydrogel coated IMEs where characterized by AC electrical impedance spectroscopy using 50 mV p-t-p over the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz in aqueous PBS 7.4 buffer and in buffer containing 50 mM [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4- ) solution at RT. Impedimetric responses were found to scale with the device geometric parameters. Equivalent circuit modeling revealed deviations from ideality at lower device dimensions suggesting an implication of the substrate surface charge on the double layer capacitance of the electrodes. Diffusion coefficients derived from the Warburg component are in accord with literature values.

  1. Hierarchical NiO Nanoflake Arrays on Nickel Foam as a Supercapacitor Electrode with High Capacitance and High Rate Capability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangwu; He, Bing; Guo, Wenyue; Zhao, Lianming; Xue, Qingzhong; Li, Hulin

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report a simple and cost-effective method for fabricating hierarchical NiO nanoflake arrays on nickel foam. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope are employed to study the morphology and structure of the as-synthesized NiO materials. Galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements demonstrate that the hierarchical NiO nanocomposite displays excellent capacitive behavior between the potential range of -0.1-0.5 V, and a maximum specific capacitance as high as 823 F g-1 can be achieved at a charge/discharge current density of 4 A g-1, and it only decreases by 20% when the current density increases to 12 A g-1. The remarkable electrochemical performance of this hierarchical NiO nanocomposite indicates the areat application potential in supercapacitors. PMID:27451782

  2. Excimer laser deinsulation of Parylene-C on iridium for use in an activated iridium oxide film-coated Utah electrode array

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Je-Min; Negi, Sandeep; Tathireddy, Prashant; Solzbacher, Florian; Song, Jong-In; Rieth, Loren W.

    2013-01-01

    Implantable microelectrodes provide a measure to electrically stimulate neurons in the brain and spinal cord and record their electrophysiological activity. A material with a high charge capacity such as activated or sputter-deposited iridium oxide film (AIROF or SIROF) is used as an interface. The Utah electrode array (UEA) uses SIROF for its interface material with neural tissue and oxygen plasma etching (OPE) with an aluminium foil mask to expose the active area, where the interface between the electrode and neural tissue is formed. However, deinsulation of Parylene-C using OPE has limitations, including the lack of uniformity in the exposed area and reproducibility. While the deinsulation of Parylene-C using an excimer laser is proven to be an alternative for overcoming the limitations, the iridium oxide (IrOx) suffers from fracture when high laser fluence (>1000 mJ/cm2) is used. Iridium (Ir), which has a much higher fracture resistance than IrOx, can be deposited before excimer laser deinsulation and then the exposed Ir film area can be activated by electrochemical treatment to acquire the AIROF. Characterisation of the laser-ablated Ir film and AIROF by surface analysis (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, and atomic force microscope) and electrochemical analysis (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry) shows that the damage on the Ir film induced by laser irradiation is significantly less than that on SIROF, and the AIROF has a high charge storage capacity. The results show the potential of the laser deinsulation technique for use in high performance AIROF-coated UEA fabrication. PMID:23458659

  3. Electrode Migration in Patients with Perimodiolar Cochlear Implant Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mittmann, Philipp; Rademacher, Grit; Mutze, Sven; Ernst, Arneborg; Todt, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Migration of a cochlear implant electrode is a hitherto uncommon complication. So far, array migration has only been observed in lateral wall electrodes. Between 1999 and 2014, a total of 27 patients received bilateral perimodiolar electrode arrays at our institution. The insertion depth angle was estimated on the initial postoperative scans and compared with the insertion depth angle of the postoperative scans performed after contralateral cochlear implantation. Seven (25.93%) patients were found to have an electrode array migration of more than 15°. Electrode migration in perimodiolar electrodes seems to be less frequent and to occur to a lower extent than in lateral wall electrodes. Electrode migration was clinically asymptomatic in all cases.

  4. Long-term reliability of Al2O3 and Parylene C bilayer encapsulated Utah electrode array based neural interfaces for chronic implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xianzong; Rieth, Loren; Williams, Layne; Negi, Sandeep; Bhandari, Rajmohan; Caldwell, Ryan; Sharma, Rohit; Tathireddy, Prashant; Solzbacher, Florian

    2014-04-01

    Objective. We focus on improving the long-term stability and functionality of neural interfaces for chronic implantation by using bilayer encapsulation. Approach. We evaluated the long-term reliability of Utah electrode array (UEA) based neural interfaces encapsulated by 52 nm of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 and 6 µm of Parylene C bilayer, and compared these to devices with the baseline Parylene-only encapsulation. Three variants of arrays including wired, wireless, and active UEAs were used to evaluate this bilayer encapsulation scheme, and were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 57 °C for accelerated lifetime testing. Main results. The median tip impedance of the bilayer encapsulated wired UEAs increased from 60 to 160 kΩ during the 960 days of equivalent soak testing at 37 °C, the opposite trend to that typically observed for Parylene encapsulated devices. The loss of the iridium oxide tip metallization and etching of the silicon tip in PBS solution contributed to the increase of impedance. The lifetime of fully integrated wireless UEAs was also tested using accelerated lifetime measurement techniques. The bilayer coated devices had stable power-up frequencies at ˜910 MHz and constant radio-frequency signal strength of -50 dBm during up to 1044 days (still under testing) of equivalent soaking time at 37 °C. This is a significant improvement over the lifetime of ˜100 days achieved with Parylene-only encapsulation at 37 °C. The preliminary samples of bilayer coated active UEAs with a flip-chip bonded ASIC chip had a steady current draw of ˜3 mA during 228 days of soak testing at 37 °C. An increase in the current draw has been consistently correlated to device failures, so is a sensitive metric for their lifetime. Significance. The trends of increasing electrode impedance of wired devices and performance stability of wireless and active devices support the significantly greater encapsulation performance of this bilayer encapsulation compared

  5. LONG-TERM RELIABILITY OF AL2O3 AND PARYLENE C BILAYER ENCAPSULATED UTAH ELECTRODE ARRAY BASED NEURAL INTERFACES FOR CHRONIC IMPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xianzong; Rieth, Loren; Williams, Layne; Negi, Sandeep; Bhandari, Rajmohan; Caldwell, Ryan; Sharma, Rohit; Tathireddy, Prashant; Solzbacher, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Objective We focus on improving the long-term stability and functionality of neural interfaces for chronic implantation by using bilayer encapsulation. Approach We evaluated the long-term reliability of Utah electrode array (UEA) based neural interfaces encapsulated by 52 nm of atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 and 6 μm of Parylene C bilayer, and compared these to devices with the baseline Parylene-only encapsulation. Three variants of arrays including wired, wireless, and active UEAs were used to evaluate this bilayer encapsulation scheme, and were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 57 °C for accelerated lifetime testing. Main results The median tip impedance of the bilayer encapsulated wired UEAs increased from 60 kΩ to 160 kΩ during the 960 days of equivalent soak testing at 37 °C, the opposite trend as typically observed for Parylene encapsulated devices. The loss of the iridium oxide tip metallization and etching of the silicon tip in PBS solution contributed to the increase of impedance. The lifetime of fully integrated wireless UEAs was also tested using accelerated lifetime measurement techniques. The bilayer coated devices had stable power-up frequencies at ~910 MHz and constant RF signal strength of -50 dBm during up to 1044 days (still under testing) of equivalent soaking time at 37 °C. This is a significant improvement over the lifetime of ~ 100 days achieved with Parylene-only encapsulation at 37 °C. The preliminary samples of bilayer coated active UEAs with a flip-chip bonded ASIC chip had a steady current draw of ~ 3 mA during 228 days of soak testing at 37 °C. An increase in current draw has been consistently correlated to device failures, so is a sensitive metric for their lifetime. Significance The trends of increasing electrode impedance of wired devices and performance stability of wireless and active devices support the significantly greater encapsulation performance of this bilayer encapsulation compared with Parylene

  6. Self-aligned tip deinsulation of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 and parylene C coated Utah electrode array based neural interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xianzong; Rieth, Loren; Negi, Sandeep; Bhandari, Rajmohan; Caldwell, Ryan; Sharma, Rohit; Tathireddy, Prashant; Solzbacher, Florian

    2014-03-01

    The recently developed alumina and parylene C bilayer encapsulation improved the lifetime of neural interfaces. Tip deinsulation of Utah electrode array based neural interfaces is challenging due to the complex 3D geometries and high aspect ratios of the devices. A three-step self-aligned process was developed for tip deinsulation of bilayer encapsulated arrays. The deinsulation process utilizes laser ablation to remove parylene C, O2 reactive ion etching to remove carbon and parylene residues, and buffered oxide etch to remove alumina deposited by atomic layer deposition, and expose the IrOx tip metallization. The deinsulated iridium oxide area was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine the morphology, surface morphology, composition, and electrical properties of the deposited layers and deinsulated tips. The alumina layer was found to prevent the formation of micro cracks on iridium oxide during the laser ablation process, which has been previously reported as a challenge for laser deinsulation of parylene films. The charge injection capacity, charge storage capacity, and impedance of deinsulated iridium oxide were characterized to determine the deinsulation efficacy compared to parylene-only insulation. Deinsulated iridium oxide with bilayer encapsulation had higher charge injection capacity (240 versus 320 nC) and similar electrochemical impedance (2.5 versus 2.5 kΩ) compared to deinsulated iridium oxide with only parylene coating for an area of 2 × 10-4 cm2. Tip impedances were in the range of 20-50 kΩ, with a median of 32 kΩ and a standard deviation of 30 kΩ, showing the effectiveness of the self-aligned deinsulation process for alumina and parylene C bilayer encapsulation. The relatively uniform tip impedance values demonstrated the consistency of tip exposures.

  7. SELF ALIGNED TIP DEINSULATION OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITED AL2O3 AND PARYLENE C COATED UTAH ELECTRODE ARRAY BASED NEURAL INTERFACES

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xianzong; Rieth, Loren; Negi, Sandeep; Bhandari, Rajmohan; Caldwell, Ryan; Sharma, Rohit; Tathireddy, Prashant; Solzbacher, Florian

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed alumina and Parylene C bi-layer encapsulation improved the lifetime of neural interfaces. Tip deinsulation of Utah electrode array based neural interfaces is challenging due to the complex 3D geometries and high aspect ratios of the devices. A three-step self-aligned process was developed for tip deinsulation of bilayer encapsulated arrays. The deinsulation process utilizes laser ablation to remove Parylene C, O2 reactive ion etching to remove carbon and Parylene residues, and buffered oxide etch to remove alumina deposited by atomic layer deposition, and expose the IrOx tip metallization. The deinsulated iridium oxide area was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to determine the morphology, surface morphology, composition, and electrical properties of the deposited layers and deinsulated tips. The alumina layer was found to prevent the formation of micro cracks on iridium oxide during the laser ablation process, which has been previously reported as a challenge for laser deinsulation of Parylene films. The charge injection capacity, charge storage capacity, and impedance of deinsulated iridium oxide were characterized to determine the deinsulation efficacy compared to Parylene-only insulation. Deinsulated iridium oxide with bilayer encapsulation had higher charge injection capacity (240 vs 320 nC) and similar electrochemical impedance (2.5 vs 2.5 kΩ) compared to deinsulated iridium oxide with only Parylene coating for an area of 2 × 10−4 cm2. Tip impedances were in the ranges of 20 to 50 kΩ, with median of 32 KΩ and standard deviation of 30 kΩ, showing the effectiveness of the self-aligned deinsulation process for alumina and Parylene C bi-layer encapsulation. The relatively uniform tip impedance values demonstrated the consistency of tip exposures. PMID:24771981

  8. Design, Fabrication and Characterization of a Low-Impedance 3D Electrode Array System for Neuro-Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Kusko, Mihaela; Craciunoiu, Florea; Amuzescu, Bogdan; Halitzchi, Ferdinand; Selescu, Tudor; Radoi, Antonio; Popescu, Marian; Simion, Monica; Bragaru, Adina; Ignat, Teodora

    2012-01-01

    Recent progress in patterned microelectrode manufacturing technology and microfluidics has opened the way to a large variety of cellular and molecular biosensor-based applications. In this extremely diverse and rapidly expanding landscape, silicon-based technologies occupy a special position, given their statute of mature, consolidated, and highly accessible areas of development. Within the present work we report microfabrication procedures and workflows for 3D patterned gold-plated microelectrode arrays (MEA) of different shapes (pyramidal, conical and high aspect ratio), and we provide a detailed characterization of their physical features during all the fabrication steps to have in the end a reliable technology. Moreover, the electrical performances of MEA silicon chips mounted on standardized connector boards via ultrasound wire-bonding have been tested using non-destructive electrochemical methods: linear sweep and cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy. Further, an experimental recording chamber package suitable for in vitro electrophysiology experiments has been realized using custom-design electronics for electrical stimulus delivery and local field potential recording, included in a complete electrophysiology setup, and the experimental structures have been tested on newborn rat hippocampal slices, yielding similar performance compared to commercially available MEA equipments. PMID:23208555

  9. Optogenetic Mapping of Functional Connectivity in Freely Moving Mice via Insertable Wrapping Electrode Array Beneath the Skull.

    PubMed

    Park, Ah Hyung; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Changju; Kim, Jeongjin; Lee, Han Eol; Paik, Se-Bum; Lee, Keon Jae; Kim, Daesoo

    2016-02-23

    Spatiotemporal mapping of neural interactions through electrocorticography (ECoG) is the key to understanding brain functions and disorders. For the entire brain cortical areas, this approach has been challenging, especially in freely moving states, owing to the need for extensive craniotomy. Here, we introduce a flexible microelectrode array system, termed iWEBS, which can be inserted through a small cranial slit and stably wrap onto the curved cortical surface. Using iWEBS, we measured dynamic changes of signals across major cortical domains, namely, somatosensory, motor, visual and retrosplenial areas, in freely moving mice. iWEBS robustly displayed somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in corresponding cortical areas to specific somatosensory stimuli. We also used iWEBS for mapping functional interactions between cortical areas in the propagation of spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs), the neurological marker of absence seizures, triggered by optogenetic inhibition of a specific thalamic nucleus. This demonstrates that iWEBS represents a significant improvement over conventional ECoG recording methodologies and, therefore, is a competitive recording system for mapping wide-range brain connectivity under various behavioral conditions. PMID:26735496

  10. Assessment of neurovascular dynamics during transient ischemic attack by the novel integration of micro-electrocorticography electrode array with functional photoacoustic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Hang; Liao, Lun-De; Tan, Stacey Sze Hui; Kwon, Ki Yong; Ling, Ji Min; Bandla, Aishwarya; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian; Tan, Eddie Tung Wee; Li, Wen; Ng, Wai Hoe; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Chen, You-Yin; Thakor, Nitish V

    2015-10-01

    This study developed a novel system combining a 16-channel micro-electrocorticography (μECoG) electrode array and functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM) to examine changes in neurovascular functions following transient ischemic attack (TIA) in rats. To mimic the pathophysiology of TIA, a modified photothrombotic ischemic model was developed by using 3 min illumination of 5 mW continuous-wave (CW) green laser light focusing on a distal branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Cerebral blood volume (CBV), hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2), somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and alpha-to-delta ratio (ADR) were measured pre- and post-ischemia over a focal cortical region (i.e., 1.5×1.5 mm(2)). Unexpectedly, the SO2, peak-to-peak amplitude (PPA) of SSEPs and ADR recovered and achieved levels greater than the baseline values at the 4th hour post-ischemia induction without any intervention, whereas the CBV value only partially recovered. In other words, transient ischemia led to increased neural activity when the relative CBV was reduced, which may further compromise neural integrity or lead to subsequent vascular disease. This novel μECoG-fPAM system complements currently available imaging techniques and represents a promising technology for studying neurovascular coupling in animal models.

  11. Points to consider for a validation study of iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes using a multi-electrode array system.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Yasunari; Yamazaki, Daiju; Kurokawa, Junko; Inutsuka, Takashi; Sekino, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs) provide a novel assay system to assess cardiac safety in drug development to overcome a problem of species difference in non-clinical testing during drug development. Using the multi-electrode array (MEA) platform, electrophysiological activities of iPS-CMs can be recorded easily to assess QT prolongation and proarrhythmic potential of drug candidates. Here we have established a standardized protocol to evaluate the possibility of iPS-CMs, and shared the protocol with an international consortium. To obtain reproducible and reliable experimental data from these cells, we determined the optimal experimental conditions, such as cell density, MEA coating, culture conditions, high-pass filter frequency, definition of early afterdepolarization or triggered activity, and calibration compounds. Based on the protocol, our validation study using 60 compounds is in progress. Thus, MEA-based experiments using iPS-CMs would be a standard testing method to evaluate QT prolongation and proarrhythmic potentials. PMID:27369811

  12. Assessment of neurovascular dynamics during transient ischemic attack by the novel integration of micro-electrocorticography electrode array with functional photoacoustic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Hang; Liao, Lun-De; Tan, Stacey Sze Hui; Kwon, Ki Yong; Ling, Ji Min; Bandla, Aishwarya; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian; Tan, Eddie Tung Wee; Li, Wen; Ng, Wai Hoe; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Chen, You-Yin; Thakor, Nitish V

    2015-10-01

    This study developed a novel system combining a 16-channel micro-electrocorticography (μECoG) electrode array and functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM) to examine changes in neurovascular functions following transient ischemic attack (TIA) in rats. To mimic the pathophysiology of TIA, a modified photothrombotic ischemic model was developed by using 3 min illumination of 5 mW continuous-wave (CW) green laser light focusing on a distal branch of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Cerebral blood volume (CBV), hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2), somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and alpha-to-delta ratio (ADR) were measured pre- and post-ischemia over a focal cortical region (i.e., 1.5×1.5 mm(2)). Unexpectedly, the SO2, peak-to-peak amplitude (PPA) of SSEPs and ADR recovered and achieved levels greater than the baseline values at the 4th hour post-ischemia induction without any intervention, whereas the CBV value only partially recovered. In other words, transient ischemia led to increased neural activity when the relative CBV was reduced, which may further compromise neural integrity or lead to subsequent vascular disease. This novel μECoG-fPAM system complements currently available imaging techniques and represents a promising technology for studying neurovascular coupling in animal models. PMID:26149348

  13. A Micro-Electrode Array device coupled to a laser-based system for the local stimulation of neurons by optical release of glutamate.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, Diego; Menegon, Andrea; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Valtorta, Flavia; Ferrigno, Giancarlo

    2008-10-30

    Optical stimulation is a promising approach to investigate the local dynamic responses of cultured neurons. In particular, flash photolysis of caged compounds offers the advantage of allowing the rapid change of concentration of either extracellular or intracellular molecules, such as neurotransmitters or second messengers, for the stimulation or modulation of neuronal activity. We describe here the use of an ultra-violet (UV) laser diode coupled to an optical fibre for the local activation of caged compounds combined with a Micro-Electrode Array (MEA) device. Local uncaging was achieved by UV irradiation through the optical fibre previously positioned by using a red laser diode. The size of the stimulation was determined using caged fluorescein, whereas its efficacy was tested by studying the effect of uncaging the neurotransmitter glutamate. Uncaged glutamate evoked neuronal responses that were recorded using either fluorescence measurements or electrophysiological recordings with MEAs, thus showing the ability of our system to induce local neuronal excitation. This method allows overcoming the limitations of the MEA system related to unfocused electrical stimulation and induction of electrical artefacts. In addition, the coupling of a UV laser diode to an optical fibre allows a precise local stimulation and a quick change of the stimulation point.

  14. A modular 256-channel micro electrode array platform for in vitro and in vivo neural stimulation and recording: BioMEA.

    PubMed

    Charvet, G; Billoint, O; Gharbi, S; Heuschkel, M; Georges, C; Kauffmann, T; Pellissier, A; Yvert, B; Guillemaud, R

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the dynamics of large neural networks, where information is widely distributed over thousands of cells, one of today's challenges is to successfully monitor the simultaneous activity of as many neurons as possible. This is made possible by using the Micro-Electrode Array (MEA) technology allowing neural cell culture and/or tissue slice experimentation in vitro. Thanks to development of microelectronics' technologies, a novel data acquisition system based on MEA technology has been developed, the BioMEA™. It combines the most advanced MEA biochips with integrated electronics, and a novel user-friendly software interface. To move from prototype (result of the RMNT research project NEUROCOM) to manufactured product, a number of changes have been made. Here, we present a 256-channel MEA data acquisition system with integrated electronics (BioMEA™) allowing simultaneous recording and stimulation of neural networks for in vitro and in vivo applications. This integration is a first step towards an implantable device for BCI (Brain Computer Interface) studies and neural prosthesis. PMID:21095937

  15. [The meaning and usefulness of spiral CT for radiolucent ureteric stones diagnosis: our experience].

    PubMed

    Passavanti, Giandomenico; Pizzuti, Valerio; Costantini, Fabio Massimo; Bragaglia, Alessandro; Franci, Luca; Paolini, Riccardo

    2003-03-01

    calculi dimensions and the indirect signs of the functionality of the kidney affected, without having to use the contrast medium. This method needs very limited execution times and allows a diagnostic of possible collateral pathologies. The main disadvantage of spiral TC, if compared to conventional radiology, is that the patient is exposed to a larger quantity of ionizing radiations, although such an inconvenience will be overcome by the new and more technologically advanced machines. According to our experience, though based on a limited number of cases, spiral TC allowed us to get a quick diagnosis of radio-lucent lithiasis, to see the seat and dimensions of the calculi and finally to chose the most effective treatment. We can therefore think of a diagnostic protocol, for ureteral colics with hydronephrosis or complicated by hyperpyrexia or sepsis, with spiral TC in order to have a quick diagnosis and start the most effective therapy in case an ultrasonographic research should not result diriment.

  16. Vertically aligned ZnO@CuS@PEDOT core@shell nanorod arrays decorated with MnO₂ nanoparticles for a high-performance and semi-transparent supercapacitor electrode.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Moreno, Jorge; Navarrete-Astorga, Elena; Dalchiele, Enrique A; Schrebler, Ricardo; Ramos-Barrado, José R; Martín, Francisco

    2014-05-30

    Hybrid nano-architectures with high electrochemical performance for supercapacitors have been designed by growing hierarchical ZnO NRs@CuS@PEDOT@MnO2 core@shell heterostructured nanorod arrays on ITO/glass substrates. This hybrid nano-structured electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, with a high specific areal capacitance of 19.85 mF cm(-2), good rate capability, cycling stability and diffused coloured transparency.

  17. Vertically aligned ZnO@CuS@PEDOT core@shell nanorod arrays decorated with MnO₂ nanoparticles for a high-performance and semi-transparent supercapacitor electrode.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Moreno, Jorge; Navarrete-Astorga, Elena; Dalchiele, Enrique A; Schrebler, Ricardo; Ramos-Barrado, José R; Martín, Francisco

    2014-05-30

    Hybrid nano-architectures with high electrochemical performance for supercapacitors have been designed by growing hierarchical ZnO NRs@CuS@PEDOT@MnO2 core@shell heterostructured nanorod arrays on ITO/glass substrates. This hybrid nano-structured electrode exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, with a high specific areal capacitance of 19.85 mF cm(-2), good rate capability, cycling stability and diffused coloured transparency. PMID:24756158

  18. FeCo2O4 submicron-tube arrays grown on Ni foam as high rate-capability and cycling-stability electrodes allowing superior energy and power densities with symmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baogang; Tang, Shaochun; Vongehr, Sascha; Xie, Hao; Zhu, Jian; Meng, Xiangkang

    2016-02-11

    Template-free chemical growth on Ni foam and thermal treatment results in homogeneous FeCo2O4 submicron-tube arrays which serve as binder-free electrodes with high capacitance, rate-capability and cycling-stability owing to FeCo2O4 conductivity, high porosity, and strong bonding between tubes and Ni foam, all allowing even symmetric devices to have superior energy density.

  19. Electrical Responses and Spontaneous Activity of Human iPS-Derived Neuronal Networks Characterized for 3-month Culture with 4096-Electrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Marinaro, Federica; Zordan, Stefano; Nieus, Thierry; Berdondini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The recent availability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) holds great promise as a novel source of human-derived neurons for cell and tissue therapies as well as for in vitro drug screenings that might replace the use of animal models. However, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge on the functional properties of hiPSC-derived neuronal networks, thus limiting their application. Here, upon optimization of cell culture protocols, we demonstrate that both spontaneous and evoked electrical spiking activities of these networks can be characterized on-chip by taking advantage of the resolution provided by CMOS multielectrode arrays (CMOS-MEAs). These devices feature a large and closely-spaced array of 4096 simultaneously recording electrodes and multi-site on-chip electrical stimulation. Our results show that networks of human-derived neurons can respond to electrical stimulation with a physiological repertoire of spike waveforms after 3 months of cell culture, a period of time during which the network undergoes the expression of developing patterns of spontaneous spiking activity. To achieve this, we have investigated the impact on the network formation and on the emerging network-wide functional properties induced by different biochemical substrates, i.e., poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO), poly-l-ornithine (PLO), and polyethylenimine (PEI), that were used as adhesion promoters for the cell culture. Interestingly, we found that neuronal networks grown on PDLO coated substrates show significantly higher spontaneous firing activity, reliable responses to low-frequency electrical stimuli, and an appropriate level of PSD-95 that may denote a physiological neuronal maturation profile and synapse stabilization. However, our results also suggest that even 3-month culture might not be sufficient for human-derived neuronal network maturation. Taken together, our results highlight the tight relationship existing between substrate coatings and emerging network

  20. Electrical Responses and Spontaneous Activity of Human iPS-Derived Neuronal Networks Characterized for 3-month Culture with 4096-Electrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Marinaro, Federica; Zordan, Stefano; Nieus, Thierry; Berdondini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The recent availability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) holds great promise as a novel source of human-derived neurons for cell and tissue therapies as well as for in vitro drug screenings that might replace the use of animal models. However, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge on the functional properties of hiPSC-derived neuronal networks, thus limiting their application. Here, upon optimization of cell culture protocols, we demonstrate that both spontaneous and evoked electrical spiking activities of these networks can be characterized on-chip by taking advantage of the resolution provided by CMOS multielectrode arrays (CMOS-MEAs). These devices feature a large and closely-spaced array of 4096 simultaneously recording electrodes and multi-site on-chip electrical stimulation. Our results show that networks of human-derived neurons can respond to electrical stimulation with a physiological repertoire of spike waveforms after 3 months of cell culture, a period of time during which the network undergoes the expression of developing patterns of spontaneous spiking activity. To achieve this, we have investigated the impact on the network formation and on the emerging network-wide functional properties induced by different biochemical substrates, i.e., poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO), poly-l-ornithine (PLO), and polyethylenimine (PEI), that were used as adhesion promoters for the cell culture. Interestingly, we found that neuronal networks grown on PDLO coated substrates show significantly higher spontaneous firing activity, reliable responses to low-frequency electrical stimuli, and an appropriate level of PSD-95 that may denote a physiological neuronal maturation profile and synapse stabilization. However, our results also suggest that even 3-month culture might not be sufficient for human-derived neuronal network maturation. Taken together, our results highlight the tight relationship existing between substrate coatings and emerging

  1. Electrical Responses and Spontaneous Activity of Human iPS-Derived Neuronal Networks Characterized for 3-month Culture with 4096-Electrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Marinaro, Federica; Zordan, Stefano; Nieus, Thierry; Berdondini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The recent availability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) holds great promise as a novel source of human-derived neurons for cell and tissue therapies as well as for in vitro drug screenings that might replace the use of animal models. However, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge on the functional properties of hiPSC-derived neuronal networks, thus limiting their application. Here, upon optimization of cell culture protocols, we demonstrate that both spontaneous and evoked electrical spiking activities of these networks can be characterized on-chip by taking advantage of the resolution provided by CMOS multielectrode arrays (CMOS-MEAs). These devices feature a large and closely-spaced array of 4096 simultaneously recording electrodes and multi-site on-chip electrical stimulation. Our results show that networks of human-derived neurons can respond to electrical stimulation with a physiological repertoire of spike waveforms after 3 months of cell culture, a period of time during which the network undergoes the expression of developing patterns of spontaneous spiking activity. To achieve this, we have investigated the impact on the network formation and on the emerging network-wide functional properties induced by different biochemical substrates, i.e., poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO), poly-l-ornithine (PLO), and polyethylenimine (PEI), that were used as adhesion promoters for the cell culture. Interestingly, we found that neuronal networks grown on PDLO coated substrates show significantly higher spontaneous firing activity, reliable responses to low-frequency electrical stimuli, and an appropriate level of PSD-95 that may denote a physiological neuronal maturation profile and synapse stabilization. However, our results also suggest that even 3-month culture might not be sufficient for human-derived neuronal network maturation. Taken together, our results highlight the tight relationship existing between substrate coatings and emerging network

  2. A radiolucent chair for sitting-posture radiographs in non-ambulatory children: use in biplanar digital slot-scanning.

    PubMed

    Bouloussa, Houssam; Dubory, Arnaud; Seiler, Catherine; Morel, Baptiste; Bachy, Manon; Vialle, Raphaël

    2015-11-01

    EOS imaging (EOS System; EOS imaging, Paris, France) enables fast 2-D/3-D imaging of children in standing load-bearing position. Non-ambulatory children with neuromuscular scoliosis need evaluation of their spinal balance while in a normal daily position. We designed a customized chair fitting the EOS patient-area dimensions to obtain images in natural sitting postures. The chair is a 360° rotating orthopaedic chair made of fully radiolucent polyethylene and equipped with an adjustable headrest and three-point belts. Out of 41 consecutive patients, 36 (88%, 95% confidence interval 74-96%) had successful imaging. In most patients with severe neuromuscular trunk deformities, the EOS system combined with our chair was useful for assessing preoperative trunk collapse, pelvic obliquity and postoperative corrections in all planes. This specific device changed our daily practice for the assessment of spinal deformities in non-ambulatory patients. PMID:26111869

  3. VFSARES-a very fast simulated annealing FORTRAN program for interpretation of 1-D DC resistivity sounding data from various electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shashi Prakash

    2012-05-01

    Employing the very fast simulated annealing (VFSA) global optimization technique, a FORTRAN program is developed for the interpretation of one-dimensional direct current resistivity sounding data from various electrode arrays. The VFSA optimization depicts various good fitting solutions (models) after analyzing a large number of models within a predefined model space. Various models that yield reasonably well fitting responses with the observed response lie along a narrow elongated region of the model space. Therefore, instead of selecting the global model on the basis of the lowest misfit error, it is better to analyze histograms and probability density functions (PDFs) of such models for depicting the global model. In a multidimensional model space, the most appropriate region to select suitable models to compute the mean model is the one in which the PDF is larger in comparison to the other regions of the model space. Initially, accepted models with misfit errors less than the predefined threshold value are selected and lognormal PDFs for each model parameter are computed. Subsequently, mean model and uncertainties are computed using the models in which each model parameter has a PDF more than the defined threshold value (>68.2%). The mean model computed from such models is very close to the actual subsurface structure (global model). It is observed that the mean model computed using models with a PDF more than 95% for each model parameters yields the actual model. Moreover uncertainty computed using models with such a high PDF and lying in a small model space will be small and it will not be considered as the actual global uncertainty. Resistivity sounding (synthetic and field) data over different subsurface structures are optimized using the VFSA program developed in the present study. Optimization results reveal that the actual model always locates within the estimated uncertainty in the mean model. Since the approach requires much less computing time (a few

  4. Hollow Electrode Discharge Triodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbach, K. H.; Peterkin, F. E.; Tessnow, T.

    1996-10-01

    The current through a direct current micro-hollow electrode (electrode hole diameter: 0.7 mm) discharge in argon was shown to be controllable by means of a third, external electrode placed close to the cathode opening. By increasing the potential of the positively biased control electrode from zero to 30 V the discharge current could be linearly reduced from 5 μA to 0.75 μA, at a discharge voltage of 300 V. The current-voltage characteristic of the micro-hollow electrode discharge was found to have a positive slope, allowing parallel discharge operation without ballast. By drilling holes through a metal-plated, dielectric film, an array of hollow electrode discharges could be generated. It was shown that each discharge responds individually to variations in the potential of the corresponding external control electrode. The simplicity of the electrode configuration and the possibility of linear, electrical control of the individual discharge currents offers the possibility to use these triode arrays in addressable flat panel displays (patent pending).

  5. Electrode for electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.; Nelson, P.A.; Miller, W.E.

    1980-05-09

    An electrode structure for a secondary electrochemical cell includes an outer enclosure defining a compartment containing electrochemical active material. The enclosure includes a rigid electrically conductive metal sheet with perforated openings over major side surfaces. The enclosure can be assembled as first and second trays each with a rigid sheet of perforated electrically conductive metal at major side surfaces and normally extending flanges at parametric margins. The trays can be pressed together with moldable active material between the two to form an expandable electrode. A plurality of positive and negative electrodes thus formed are arranged in an alternating array with porous frangible interelectrode separators within the housing of the secondary electrochemical cell.

  6. Electrode for electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Nelson, Paul A.; Miller, William E.

    1981-01-01

    An electrode structure for a secondary electrochemical cell includes an outer enclosure defining a compartment containing electrochemical active material. The enclosure includes a rigid electrically conductive metal sheet with perforated openings over major side surfaces. The enclosure can be assembled as first and second trays each with a rigid sheet of perforated electrically conductive metal at major side surfaces and normally extending flanges at parametric margins. The trays can be pressed together with moldable active material between the two to form an expandable electrode. A plurality of positive and negative electrodes thus formed are arranged in an alternating array with porous frangible interelectrode separators within the housing of the secondary electrochemical cell.

  7. Fabrication of high performance flexible micro-supercapacitor arrays with hybrid electrodes of MWNT/V2O5 nanowires integrated with a SnO2 nanowire UV sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daeil; Yun, Junyeong; Lee, Geumbee; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2014-09-01

    We report on the on-chip fabrication of high performance flexible micro-supercapacitor (MSC) arrays with hybrid electrodes of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)/V2O5 nanowire (NW) composites and a solid electrolyte, which could power the SnO2 NW UV sensor integrated on the same flexible substrate. The patterned MSC using hybrid electrodes of MWNT/V2O5 NW composites with 10 vol% of V2O5 NWs exhibited excellent electrochemical performance with a high volume capacitance of 80 F cm-3 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1 in a PVA-LiCl electrolyte and good cycle performance to maintain 82% of the capacitance after 10 000 cycles at a current density of 11.6 A cm-3. The patterned MSC also showed an excellent energy density of 6.8 mW h cm-3, comparable to that of a Li-thin film battery (1-10 mW h cm-3), and a power density of 80.8 W cm-3 comparable to that of state-of-the-art MSCs. In addition, the flexible MSC array on a PET substrate showed mechanical stability over bending with a bending radius down to 1.5 mm under both compressive and tensile stress. Even after 1000 bending cycles at a bending radius of 7 mm, 94% of the initial capacitance was maintained. Furthermore, we have shown the operation of a SnO2 NW UV sensor using such a fabricated MSC array integrated into the same circuit on the PET substrate.We report on the on-chip fabrication of high performance flexible micro-supercapacitor (MSC) arrays with hybrid electrodes of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)/V2O5 nanowire (NW) composites and a solid electrolyte, which could power the SnO2 NW UV sensor integrated on the same flexible substrate. The patterned MSC using hybrid electrodes of MWNT/V2O5 NW composites with 10 vol% of V2O5 NWs exhibited excellent electrochemical performance with a high volume capacitance of 80 F cm-3 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1 in a PVA-LiCl electrolyte and good cycle performance to maintain 82% of the capacitance after 10 000 cycles at a current density of 11.6 A cm-3. The patterned MSC also

  8. Microdischarge arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wenhui

    Microhollow cathode discharges (MHCDs) are DC or pulsed gas discharges between two electrodes, separated by a dielectric, and containing a concentric hole. The diameter of the hole, in this hollow cathode configuration, is in the hundred-micrometer range. MHCDs satisfy the two conditions necessary for an efficient excimer radiation sources: (1) high energy electrons which are required to provide a high concentration of excited or ionized rare gas atoms; (2) high pressure operation which favors excimer formation (a three-body process). Flat panel excimer sources require parallel operation of MHCDs. Based on the current-voltage characteristics of MHCD discharges, which have positive slopes in the low current (Townsend) mode and in the abnormal glow mode, stable arrays of MHCD discharges in argon and xenon could be generated in these current ranges without ballasting each MHCD separately. In the Townsend range, these arrays could be operated up to pressures of 400 Torr. In the abnormal glow mode, discharge arrays were found to be stable up to atmospheric pressure. By using semi-insulating silicon as the anode material, the stable operation of MHCD arrays could be extended to the current range with constant voltage (normal glow) and also that with negative differential conductance (hollow cathode discharge region). Experiments with a cathode geometry without microholes, i.e. excluding the hollow cathode phase, revealed that stable operation of discharges over an extended area were possible. The discharge structure in this configuration reduces to only the cathode fall and negative glow, with the negative glow plasma serving to conduct the discharge current radially to the circular anode. With decreasing current, a transition from homogenous plasma to self-organized plasma filaments is observed. Array formation was not only studied with discharges in parallel, but also with MHCD discharges in series. By using a sandwich electrode configuration, a tandem discharge was

  9. Graphene-wrapped polyaniline nanowire arrays on nitrogen-doped carbon fabric as novel flexible hybrid electrode materials for high-performance supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pingping; Li, Yingzhi; Zhao, Xin; Wu, Lihao; Zhang, Qinghua

    2014-05-13

    We report the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheet wrapped polyaniline (PANI) nanowire arrays grown on nitrogen-doped carbon fiber cloth (eCFC). The RGO coating layer is important to accommodate volume change and mechanical deformation of the coated PANI nanowires arrays during the long-term charge/discharge processes. The resulting hierarchical symmetric supercapacitor based on RGO/PANI/eCFC composites shows an enhanced capacitive behavior with a maximum energy density of 25.4 Wh kg(-1), a maximum power density of 92.2 kW kg(-1) and a specific capacitance of 1145 F g(-1), which is higher than that of PANI/eCFC (1050 F g(-1)) and GO/PANI/eCFC (940 F g(-1)). Moreover, the assembled supercapacitor exhibits excellent charge/discharge rates and a good cycling stability, retaining over 94% of its initial capacitance after 5000 cycles.

  10. A hierarchical three-dimensional NiCo2O4 nanowire array/carbon cloth as an air electrode for nonaqueous Li-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Ming; Gao, Ting-Ting; Yang, Yin; Sun, Qian; Fu, Zheng-Wen

    2013-10-14

    A 3D NiCo2O4 nanowire array/carbon cloth (NCONW/CC) was employed as the cathode for Li-air batteries with a non-aqueous electrolyte. After its discharge, novel porous ball-like Li2O2 was found to be deposited on the tip of NiCo2O4 nanowires. The special structure of Li2O2 and active sites of catalysts are also discussed.

  11. ENOBIO dry electrophysiology electrode; first human trial plus wireless electrode system.

    PubMed

    Ruffini, Giulio; Dunne, Stephen; Farres, Esteve; Cester, Ivan; Watts, Paul C P; Silva, S P; Grau, Carles; Fuentemilla, Lluis; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Vandecasteele, Bjorn

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the first human trials with the ENOBIO electrophysiology electrode prototype plus the initial results of a new wireless prototype with flexible electrodes based on the same platform. The results indicate that a dry active electrode that employs a CNT array as the electrode interface can perform on a par with traditional "wet" electrodes for the recording of EEG, ECG, EOG and EMG. We also demonstrate a new platform combining wireless technology plus flexible electrodes for improved comfort for applications that take advantage of the dry electrode concept.

  12. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob; Fan, Xiyun

    1998-01-01

    An electrode composition for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5-4.5 volts.

  13. Electrode compositions

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.; Fan, X.

    1998-10-27

    An electrode composition is described for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. The electrode composition contains an electrically active powder in a solid polymer and, as a dispersant, a C{sub 8}-C{sub 15} alkyl capped oligomer of a hexanoic acid that is electrochemically inert at 2.5--4.5 volts.

  14. Double interconnection fuel cell array

    DOEpatents

    Draper, R.; Zymboly, G.E.

    1993-12-28

    A fuel cell array is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes and outer electrodes, with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections contacting the inner electrode, each cell having only three metallic felt electrical connectors which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other. 5 figures.

  15. Double interconnection fuel cell array

    DOEpatents

    Draper, Robert; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1993-01-01

    A fuel cell array (10) is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells (12) which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes (14) and outer electrodes (18 and 18'), with solid electrolyte (16 and 16') between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections (20 and 20') contacting the inner electrode (14), each cell (12) having only three metallic felt electrical connectors (22) which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other.

  16. Double-layer electrode based on TiO2 nanotubes arrays for enhancing photovoltaic properties in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    He, Zuoli; Que, Wenxiu; Sun, Peng; Ren, Jiangbo

    2013-12-26

    The present work reports a rapid and facile method to fabricate a novel double-layer TiO2 photoanode, which is based on highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays and monodispersive scattering microspheres. This double-layer TiO2 sphere/TNTA photoanode have got many unique structural and optical properties from TiO2 scattering microspheres, such as high specific surface area, multiple interparticle scattering, and efficient light-harvesting. Results indicate that this as-fabricated double-layer TiO2 sphere/TNTA front-illumination dye-sensitized solar cell, which is fabricated from the TiO2 nanotube arrays with a 17.4 μm length after TiCl4 treatment, exhibits a pronounced power conversion efficiency of 7.24% under an AM1.5 G irradiation, which can be attributed to the increased incident photon-to-current conversion and light-harvesting efficiency. PMID:24304127

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Boquist, Carl W.; Marchant, David D.

    1978-01-01

    A ceramic-metal composite suitable for use in a high-temperature environment consists of a refractory ceramic matrix containing 10 to 50 volume percent of a continuous high-temperature metal reinforcement. In a specific application of the composite, as an electrode in a magnetohydrodynamic generator, the one surface of the electrode which contacts the MHD fluid may have a layer of varying thickness of nonreinforced refractory ceramic for electrode temperature control. The side walls of the electrode may be coated with a refractory ceramic insulator. Also described is an electrode-insulator system for a MHD channel.

  18. Statistical generation of training sets for measuring NO3(-), NH4(+) and major ions in natural waters using an ion selective electrode array.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Amy V; Hemond, Harold F

    2016-05-18

    Knowledge of ionic concentrations in natural waters is essential to understand watershed processes. Inorganic nitrogen, in the form of nitrate and ammonium ions, is a key nutrient as well as a participant in redox, acid-base, and photochemical processes of natural waters, leading to spatiotemporal patterns of ion concentrations at scales as small as meters or hours. Current options for measurement in situ are costly, relying primarily on instruments adapted from laboratory methods (e.g., colorimetric, UV absorption); free-standing and inexpensive ISE sensors for NO3(-) and NH4(+) could be attractive alternatives if interferences from other constituents were overcome. Multi-sensor arrays, coupled with appropriate non-linear signal processing, offer promise in this capacity but have not yet successfully achieved signal separation for NO3(-) and NH4(+)in situ at naturally occurring levels in unprocessed water samples. A novel signal processor, underpinned by an appropriate sensor array, is proposed that overcomes previous limitations by explicitly integrating basic chemical constraints (e.g., charge balance). This work further presents a rationalized process for the development of such in situ instrumentation for NO3(-) and NH4(+), including a statistical-modeling strategy for instrument design, training/calibration, and validation. Statistical analysis reveals that historical concentrations of major ionic constituents in natural waters across New England strongly covary and are multi-modal. This informs the design of a statistically appropriate training set, suggesting that the strong covariance of constituents across environmental samples can be exploited through appropriate signal processing mechanisms to further improve estimates of minor constituents. Two artificial neural network architectures, one expanded to incorporate knowledge of basic chemical constraints, were tested to process outputs of a multi-sensor array, trained using datasets of varying degrees of

  19. Working Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komorsky-Lovrić, Šebojka

    In electrochemistry an electrode is an electronic conductor in contact with an ionic conductor. The electronic conductor can be a metal, or a semiconductor, or a mixed electronic and ionic conductor. The ionic conductor is usually an electrolyte solution; however, solid electrolytes and ionic melts can be used as well. The term "electrode" is also used in a technical sense, meaning the electronic conductor only. If not specified otherwise, this meaning of the term "electrode" is the subject of the present chapter. In the simplest case the electrode is a metallic conductor immersed in an electrolyte solution. At the surface of the electrode, dissolved electroactive ions change their charges by exchanging one or more electrons with the conductor. In this electrochemical reaction both the reduced and oxidized ions remain in solution, while the conductor is chemically inert and serves only as a source and sink of electrons. The technical term "electrode" usually also includes all mechanical parts supporting the conductor (e.g., a rotating disk electrode or a static mercury drop electrode). Furthermore, it includes all chemical and physical modifications of the conductor, or its surface (e.g., a mercury film electrode, an enzyme electrode, and a carbon paste electrode). However, this term does not cover the electrolyte solution and the ionic part of a double layer at the electrode/solution interface. Ion-selective electrodes, which are used in potentiometry, will not be considered in this chapter. Theoretical and practical aspects of electrodes are covered in various books and reviews [1-9].

  20. Study on dynamics of photoexcited charge injection and trapping in CdS quantum dots sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanowire array film electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Shan; Cheng, Ke; Yuan, Zhanqiang; Xu, Suyun; Cheng, Gang; Du, Zuliang

    2014-05-19

    The photoexcited electrons transfer dynamics of the CdS quantum dots (QDs) deposited in TiO{sub 2} nanowire array films are studied using surface photovoltage (SPV) and transient photovoltage (TPV) techniques. By comparing the SPV results with different thicknesses of QDs layers, we can separate the dynamic characteristics of photoexcited electrons injection and trapping. It is found that the TPV signals of photoexcited electrons trapped in the CdS QDs occur at timescales of about 2 × 10{sup −8} s, which is faster than that of the photoexcited electrons injected from CdS into TiO{sub 2}. More than 90 nm of the thickness of the CdS QDs layer will seriously affect the photoexcited electrons transfer and injection.

  1. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  2. Architecturing hierarchical function layers on self-assembled viral templates as 3D nano-array electrodes for integrated Li-ion microbatteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihang; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yujie; Luo, Yanting; Xu, Yunhua; Brown, Adam; Culver, James N; Lundgren, Cynthia A; Xu, Kang; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-01-01

    This work enables an elegant bottom-up solution to engineer 3D microbattery arrays as integral power sources for microelectronics. Thus, multilayers of functional materials were hierarchically architectured over tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) templates that were genetically modified to self-assemble in a vertical manner on current-collectors, so that optimum power and energy densities accompanied with excellent cycle-life could be achieved on a minimum footprint. The resultant microbattery based on self-aligned LiFePO(4) nanoforests of shell-core-shell structure, with precise arrangement of various auxiliary material layers including a central nanometric metal core as direct electronic pathway to current collector, delivers excellent energy density and stable cycling stability only rivaled by the best Li-ion batteries of conventional configurations, while providing rate performance per foot-print and on-site manufacturability unavailable from the latter. This approach could open a new avenue for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications, which would significantly benefit from the concept that electrochemically active components be directly engineered and fabricated as an integral part of the integrated circuit (IC). PMID:23252613

  3. A new strategy for achieving vertically-erected and hierarchical TiO2 nanosheets array/carbon cloth as a binder-free electrode for protein impregnation, direct electrochemistry and mediator-free glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; He, Ziming; Khoo, Si Yun; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-03-15

    We present a new approach to directly grow uniform and highly-ordered TiO2 nanosheets array (NSA) on a low-cost flexible carbon cloth substrate while simultaneously fulfill precise TiO2 nanostructure tailoring and crystal phase control. The unique vertically-erected TiO2 NSA/carbon cloth with hierarchical structures was directly explored as electrode for enzyme immobilization and biosensing applications without suffering any influences of insulating binders usually used to fix nanomaterials on conductive substrates during sensor fabrications. Efficient direct electron transfer was successfully achieved for glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized on the TiO2 NSA/carbon cloth, which produces a stable, mediator-free glucose sensor with good selectivity, high-sensitivity (52 μA mM(-1)cm(-2)), low response time (<5s) and low detection limit (23.4 μM, S/N=3). The mechanism of the superior direct electrochemical properties and sensing performance was investigated in detail, and discussed from the aspects of material nanostructure and crystalline form of TiO2 NSA, and an intimate contact between TiO2 and carbon cloth resulted from direct crystallization and growth of TiO2 nanosheets on the substrate. PMID:26528809

  4. A new strategy for achieving vertically-erected and hierarchical TiO2 nanosheets array/carbon cloth as a binder-free electrode for protein impregnation, direct electrochemistry and mediator-free glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; He, Ziming; Khoo, Si Yun; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-03-15

    We present a new approach to directly grow uniform and highly-ordered TiO2 nanosheets array (NSA) on a low-cost flexible carbon cloth substrate while simultaneously fulfill precise TiO2 nanostructure tailoring and crystal phase control. The unique vertically-erected TiO2 NSA/carbon cloth with hierarchical structures was directly explored as electrode for enzyme immobilization and biosensing applications without suffering any influences of insulating binders usually used to fix nanomaterials on conductive substrates during sensor fabrications. Efficient direct electron transfer was successfully achieved for glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized on the TiO2 NSA/carbon cloth, which produces a stable, mediator-free glucose sensor with good selectivity, high-sensitivity (52 μA mM(-1)cm(-2)), low response time (<5s) and low detection limit (23.4 μM, S/N=3). The mechanism of the superior direct electrochemical properties and sensing performance was investigated in detail, and discussed from the aspects of material nanostructure and crystalline form of TiO2 NSA, and an intimate contact between TiO2 and carbon cloth resulted from direct crystallization and growth of TiO2 nanosheets on the substrate.

  5. Microfabricated ion trap array

    DOEpatents

    Blain, Matthew G.; Fleming, James G.

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  6. Liquid electrode

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  7. Oriented nanotube electrodes for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Arthur J.; Zhu, Kai; Wang, Qing

    2013-03-05

    An electrode having an oriented array of multiple nanotubes is disclosed. Individual nanotubes have a lengthwise inner pore defined by interior tube walls which extends at least partially through the length of the nanotube. The nanotubes of the array may be oriented according to any identifiable pattern. Also disclosed is a device featuring an electrode and methods of fabrication.

  8. Electrode migration after cochlear implant surgery: more common than expected?

    PubMed

    Dietz, Aarno; Wennström, Minna; Lehtimäki, Antti; Löppönen, Heikki; Valtonen, Hannu

    2016-06-01

    The overall complication rate of cochlear implant surgery is low and so-called electrode failures (electrode migration, misplacement, etc.,) account for only a minority of all complications. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of electrode migration as the cause for increased impedance values and non-auditory stimulation in the basal channels. Within the scope of a quality control process, the cochlear implant database of the Kuopio University Hospital (Finland) was reviewed. Patients with gradual elevation of impedance values and/or non-auditory stimulation of the basal electrode channels were re-examined and cone-beam computed tomography was administered. There were 162 cochlear implant recipients and 201 implanted devices registered in the database. A total of 18 patients (18 devices) were identified having significantly increased impedance values or non-auditory stimulation of the basal electrodes. Cone-beam computed tomography revealed extra-cochlear electrodes in 12 of these patients due to the migration of the electrode array. All extruded electrodes were lateral wall electrodes, i.e., straight electrode arrays (Cochlear CI422 and Med-El devices). The most common feature of electrode migration was the gradual increase of the impedance values in the basal electrodes, even though telemetry could also be unsuspicious. Electrode migration after cochlear implant surgery may be more common than previously reported. At surgery, special attention should be paid to the reliable fixation of the electrode array. This study underlines the importance of postoperative imaging after cochlear implant surgery.

  9. Atypical “seizure-like” activity in cortical reverberating networks in vitro can be caused by LPS-induced inflammation: a multi-electrode array study from a hundred neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gullo, Francesca; Amadeo, Alida; Donvito, Giulia; Lecchi, Marzia; Costa, Barbara; Constanti, Andrew; Wanke, Enzo

    2014-01-01

    We show here that a mild sterile inflammation induced by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in a neuron/astrocyte/microglial cortical network, modulates neuronal excitability and can initiate long-duration burst events resembling epileptiform seizures, a recognized feature of various central nervous neurodegenerative, neurological and acute systemic diseases associated with neuroinflammation. To study this action, we simultaneously analyzed the reverberating bursting activity of a hundred neurons by using in vitro multi-electrode array methods. ∼5 h after LPS application, we observed a net increase in the average number of spikes elicited in engaged cells and within each burst, but no changes neither in spike waveforms nor in burst rate. This effect was characterized by a slow, twofold exponential increase of the burst duration and the appearance of rarely occurring long burst events that were never seen during control recordings. These changes and the time-course of microglia-released proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), were blocked by pre-treatment with 50 nM minocycline, an established anti-inflammatory agent which was inactive when applied alone. Assay experiments also revealed that application of 60 pM exogenous TNF-α after 12–15 h, produced non-washable changes of neuronal excitability, completely different from those induced by LPS, suggesting that TNF-α release alone was not responsible for our observed findings. Our results indicate that the link between neuroinflammation and hyperexcitability can be unveiled by studying the long-term activity of in vitro neuronal/astrocyte/microglial networks. PMID:25404893

  10. Nanoelectrode array for electrochemical analysis

    DOEpatents

    Yelton, William G.; Siegal, Michael P.

    2009-12-01

    A nanoelectrode array comprises a plurality of nanoelectrodes wherein the geometric dimensions of the electrode controls the electrochemical response, and the current density is independent of time. By combining a massive array of nanoelectrodes in parallel, the current signal can be amplified while still retaining the beneficial geometric advantages of nanoelectrodes. Such nanoelectrode arrays can be used in a sensor system for rapid, non-contaminating field analysis. For example, an array of suitably functionalized nanoelectrodes can be incorporated into a small, integrated sensor system that can identify many species rapidly and simultaneously under field conditions in high-resistivity water, without the need for chemical addition to increase conductivity.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic electrode

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, David D.; Killpatrick, Don H.

    1978-01-01

    An electrode capable of withstanding high temperatures and suitable for use as a current collector in the channel of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator consists of a sintered powdered metal base portion, the upper surface of the base being coated with a first layer of nickel aluminide, an intermediate layer of a mixture of nickel aluminide - refractory ceramic on the first layer and a third or outer layer of a refractory ceramic material on the intermediate layer. The sintered powdered metal base resists spalling by the ceramic coatings and permits greater electrode compliance to thermal shock. The density of the powdered metal base can be varied to allow optimization of the thermal conductivity of the electrode and prevent excess heat loss from the channel.

  12. Cermet electrode

    DOEpatents

    Maskalick, Nicholas J.

    1988-08-30

    Disclosed is a cermet electrode consisting of metal particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or alloys or mixtures thereof immobilized by zirconia stabilized in cubic form which contains discrete deposits of about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof. The solid oxide electrode can be made by covering a substrate with particles of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixtures thereof, growing a stabilized zirconia solid oxide skeleton around the particles thereby immobilizing them, contacting the skeleton with a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, and heating the skeleton to a temperature of at least 500.degree. C. The electrode can also be made by preparing a slurry of nickel, cobalt, iron, or mixture and a compound of praseodymium, dysprosium, terbium, or a mixture thereof, depositing the slurry on a substrate, heating the slurry to dryness, and growing a stabilized zirconia skeleton around the metal particles.

  13. Individual finger classification from surface EMG: Influence of electrode set.

    PubMed

    Celadon, Nicolo; Dosen, Strahinja; Paleari, Marco; Farina, Dario; Ariano, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to minimize the number of channels, determining acceptable electrode locations and optimizing electrode-recording configurations to decode isometric flexion and extension of individual fingers. Nine healthy subjects performed cyclical isometric contractions activating individual fingers. During the experiment they tracked a moving visual marker indicating the contraction type (flexion/extension), desired activation level and the finger that should be employed. Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals were detected from the forearm muscles using a matrix of 192 channels (24 longitudinal columns and 8 transversal rows, 10 mm inter-electrode distance). The classification was evaluated in the context of a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) with different sets of EMG electrodes: A) one linear array of 8 electrodes, B) two arrays of 8 electrodes each, C) a set with one electrode on the barycenter of each sEMG activity area, D) all the recorded channels. The results showed that the classification accuracy depended on the electrode set (F=14.67, p<;0.001). The best reduction approaches were the barycenter calculation and the use of two linear arrays of electrodes, which performed similarly to each other (both > 82% of average success rate). Considering the computation time and electrode positioning, it is concluded that two arrays of 8 electrodes provide an optimal configuration to classify the isometric flexion and extension of individual fingers.

  14. Photoelectrochemical electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Rembaum, A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The surface of a moderate band gap semiconductor such as p-type molybdenum sulfide is modified to contain an adherent film of charge mediating ionene polymer containing an electroactive unit such as bipyridimium. Electron transport between the electrode and the mediator film is favorable and photocorrosion and recombination processes are suppressed. Incorporation of particles of catalyst such as platinum within the film provides a reduction in overvoltage. The polymer film is readily deposited on the electrode surface and can be rendered stable by ionic or addition crosslinking. Catalyst can be predispersed in the polymer film or a salt can be impregnated into the film and reduced therein.

  15. Dielectrophoretic systems without embedded electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Cummings, Eric B.; Singh, Anup K.

    2006-03-21

    Method and apparatus for dielectrophoretic separation of particles in a fluid based using array of insulating structures arranged in a fluid flow channel. By utilizing an array of insulating structures, a spatially inhomogeneous electric field is created without the use of the embedded electrodes conventionally employed for dielectrophoretic separations. Moreover, by using these insulating structures a steady applied electric field has been shown to provide for dielectrophoresis in contrast to the conventional use of an alternating electric field. In a uniform array of posts, dielectrophoretic effects have been produced flows having significant pressure-driven and electrokinetic transport. Above a threshold applied electric field, filaments of concentrated and rarefied particles appear in the flow as a result of dielectrophoresis. Above a higher threshold applied voltage, dielectrophoresis produces zones of highly concentrated and immobilized particles. These patterns are strongly influenced by the angle of the array of insulating structures with respect to the mean applied electric field and the shape of the insulating structures.

  16. Regenerative scaffold electrodes for peripheral nerve interfacing.

    PubMed

    Clements, Isaac P; Mukhatyar, Vivek J; Srinivasan, Akhil; Bentley, John T; Andreasen, Dinal S; Bellamkonda, Ravi V

    2013-07-01

    Advances in neural interfacing technology are required to enable natural, thought-driven control of a prosthetic limb. Here, we describe a regenerative electrode design in which a polymer-based thin-film electrode array is integrated within a thin-film sheet of aligned nanofibers, such that axons regenerating from a transected peripheral nerve are topographically guided across the electrode recording sites. Cultures of dorsal root ganglia were used to explore design parameters leading to cellular migration and neurite extension across the nanofiber/electrode array boundary. Regenerative scaffold electrodes (RSEs) were subsequently fabricated and implanted across rat tibial nerve gaps to evaluate device recording capabilities and influence on nerve regeneration. In 20 of these animals, regeneration was compared between a conventional nerve gap model and an amputation model. Characteristic shaping of regenerated nerve morphology around the embedded electrode array was observed in both groups, and regenerated axon profile counts were similar at the eight week end point. Implanted RSEs recorded evoked neural activity in all of these cases, and also in separate implantations lasting up to five months. These results demonstrate that nanofiber-based topographic cues within a regenerative electrode can influence nerve regeneration, to the potential benefit of a peripheral nerve interface suitable for limb amputees. PMID:23033438

  17. Fracture characterisation using geoelectric null-arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, Pierik; Negro, François; Szalai, Sándor; Milnes, Ellen

    2013-06-01

    The term "geoelectric null-array" is used for direct current electrode configurations yielding a potential difference of zero above a homogeneous half-space. This paper presents a comparative study of the behaviour of three null-arrays, midpoint null-array (MAN), Wenner-γ null-array and Schlumberger null-array in response to a fracture, both in profiling and in azimuthal mode. The main objective is to determine which array(s) best localise fractures or best identify their orientation. Forward modelling of the three null-arrays revealed that the Wenner-γ and Schlumberger null-arrays localise vertical fractures the most accurately, whilst the midpoint null-array combined with the Schlumberger null-array allows accurate orientation of a fracture. Numerical analysis then served as a basis to interpret the field results. Field test measurements were carried out above a quarry in Les Breuleux (Switzerland) with the three null-arrays and classical arrays. The results were cross-validated with quarry-wall geological mapping. In real field circumstances, the Wenner-γ null-array proved to be the most efficient and accurate in localising fractures. The orientations of the fractures according to the numerical results were most efficiently determined with the midpoint null-array, whilst the Schlumberger null-array adds accuracy to the results. This study shows that geoelectrical null-arrays are more suitable than classical arrays for the characterisation of fracture geometry.

  18. Magnetic arrays

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, David L.; Kim, Won-jong; Williams, Mark E.

    1997-05-20

    Electromagnet arrays which can provide selected field patterns in either two or three dimensions, and in particular, which can provide single-sided field patterns in two or three dimensions. These features are achieved by providing arrays which have current densities that vary in the windings both parallel to the array and in the direction of array thickness.

  19. Magnetic arrays

    DOEpatents

    Trumper, D.L.; Kim, W.; Williams, M.E.

    1997-05-20

    Electromagnet arrays are disclosed which can provide selected field patterns in either two or three dimensions, and in particular, which can provide single-sided field patterns in two or three dimensions. These features are achieved by providing arrays which have current densities that vary in the windings both parallel to the array and in the direction of array thickness. 12 figs.

  20. Electrostatic coalescence system with independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Hovarongkura, A. David; Henry, Jr., Joseph D.

    1981-01-01

    An improved electrostatic coalescence system is provided in which independent AC and DC hydrophilic electrodes are employed to provide more complete dehydration of an oil emulsion. The AC field is produced between an AC electrode array and the water-oil interface wherein the AC electrode array is positioned parallel to the interface which acts as a grounded electrode. The emulsion is introduced into the AC field in an evenly distributed manner at the interface. The AC field promotes drop-drop and drop-interface coalescence of the water phase in the entering emulsion. The continuous oil phase passes upward through the perforated AC electrode array and enters a strong DC field produced between closely spaced DC electrodes in which small dispersed droplets of water entrained in the continuous phase are removed primarily by collection at hydrophilic DC electrodes. Large droplets of water collected by the electrodes migrate downward through the AC electrode array to the interface. All phase separation mechanisms are utilized to accomplish more complete phase separation.

  1. Injector-concentrator electrodes for microchannel electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2003-05-06

    An input port geometry, with injector-concentrator electrodes, for planar microchannel array for electrophoresis. This input port geometry enables efficient extraction and injection of the DNA sample from a single input port. The geometry, which utilizes injector-concentrator electrodes, allows simultaneous concentration, in different channels, of the sample into a longitudinally narrow strip just before releasing it for a run with enhanced injection spatial resolution, and time resolution. Optional multiple electrodes, at a different bias than the concentrator electrodes, may be used to discriminate against sample impurity ions. Electrode passivation can be utilized to prevent electrolysis. An additional electrode in or on the input hole can better define the initial loading. The injector-concentrator electrodes are positioned so that they cross the drift channel in a narrow strip at the bond plane between the top and bottom plates of the instrument and are located close to the inlet hole. The optional sample purification electrodes are located at a greater distance from the input hole than the injector-concentrate electrodes.

  2. Kokkos Array

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards Daniel Sunderland, Harold Carter

    2012-09-12

    The Kokkos Array library implements shared-memory array data structures and parallel task dispatch interfaces for data-parallel computational kernels that are performance-portable to multicore-CPU and manycore-accelerator (e.g., GPGPU) devices.

  3. Focused shock spark discharge drill using multiple electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Moeny, William M.; Small, James G.

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge focused drill provided with one pulse forming line or a number of pulse forming lines. The pulse forming line is connected to an array of electrodes which would form a spark array. One of the electrodes of each of the array is connected to the high voltage side of the pulse forming line and the other electrodes are at ground potential. When discharged in a liquid, these electrodes produce intense focused shock waves that can pulverize or fracture rock. By delaying the firing of each group of electrodes, the drill can be steered within the earth. Power can be fed to the pulse forming line either downhole or from the surface area. A high voltage source, such as a Marx generator, is suitable for pulse charging the lines.

  4. An Integrated ISFET Sensor Array

    PubMed Central

    Nakazato, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    A monolithically integrated ISFET sensor array and interface circuit are described. A new high-density, low-power source-drain follower was developed for the sensor array. ISFETs were formed by depositing Au/Ti extended-gate electrodes on standard MOSFETs, then thin silicon nitride layers using catalytic chemical vapor deposition and/or SU-8 protective layers were formed on the extended-gate electrodes. Applications for the array include: (1) pH detection by statistical distribution observing time and space fluctuations; (2) DNA detection using thiol-modified or silane-coupled oligonucleotides; (3) bio-image sensing by converting photons to electrons using Photosystem I of Thermosynechococcus elongatus, and sensing the converted electric charges by ISFETs. PMID:22291539

  5. Systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.R.; McCabe, A.P.H.; Vrquhart, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Selected Contents of this book are: Efficient Systolic Arrays for the Solution of Toeplitz Systems, The Derivation and Utilization of Bit Level Systolic Array Architectures, an Efficient Systolic Array for Distance Computation Required in a Video-Codec Based Motion-Detection, On Realizations of Least-Squares Estimation and Kalman Filtering by Systolic Arrays, and Comparison of Systolic and SIMD Architectures for Computer Vision Computations.

  6. Nanocylinder arrays

    DOEpatents

    Tuominen, Mark; Schotter, Joerg; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Russell, Thomas P.

    2009-08-11

    Pathways to rapid and reliable fabrication of nanocylinder arrays are provided. Simple methods are described for the production of well-ordered arrays of nanopores, nanowires, and other materials. This is accomplished by orienting copolymer films and removing a component from the film to produce nanopores, that in turn, can be filled with materials to produce the arrays. The resulting arrays can be used to produce nanoscale media, devices, and systems.

  7. Nanocylinder arrays

    DOEpatents

    Tuominen, Mark; Schotter, Joerg; Thurn-Albrecht, Thomas; Russell, Thomas P.

    2007-03-13

    Pathways to rapid and reliable fabrication of nanocylinder arrays are provided. Simple methods are described for the production of well-ordered arrays of nanopores, nanowires, and other materials. This is accomplished by orienting copolymer films and removing a component from the film to produce nanopores, that in turn, can be filled with materials to produce the arrays. The resulting arrays can be used to produce nanoscale media, devices, and systems.

  8. Magnetically actuated microshutter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, David B.; Aslam, Shahid; Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Fettig, Rainer K.; Franz, David E.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Li, Mary J.; Monroy, Carlos J.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Schwinger, David S.

    2001-10-01

    Two-dimensional microshutter arrays are being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) for use in the near-infrared region. Functioning as focal plane object selection devices, the microshutter arrays are 2-D programmable masks with high efficiency and high contrast. The NGST environment requires cryogenic operation at 45 K. Arrays are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a unit cell size of 100x100 micrometer. Individual shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with minimized mechanical stress concentration. The mechanical shutter arrays are fabricated with MEMS technologies. The processing includes a RIE front-etch to form shutters out of the nitride membrane, an anisotropic back-etch for wafer thinning, and a deep RIE (DRIE) back-etch down to the nitride shutter membrane to form frames and to relieve the shutters from the silicon substrate. A layer of magnetic material is deposited onto each shutter. Onto the side-wall of the support structure a metal layer is deposited that acts as a vertical hold electrode. Shutters are rotated into the support structure by means of an external magnet that is swept across the shutter array for opening. Addressing is performed through a scheme using row and column address lines on each chip and external addressing electronics.

  9. Neonatal Auditory Brainstem Responses Recorded from Four Electrode Montages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Andrew; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Simultaneous auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to click stimuli at 30 and 60 decibels were recorded from 16 full-term neonates with 4 different electrode arrays. Results indicated that ABR waveforms were morphologically similar to those recorded in adults. Waveform expression was variable with different electrode recording montages. (Author/DB)

  10. resterilizable electrode for electrosurgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engstrom, E. R.; Houge, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Required properties of flexibility, electrical conductivity, tensile strength, and tear resistance of electrosurgical electrodes is retained through utilization of flexible-polymer/conductive particle composites for electrodes.

  11. The in-capillary DPPH-capillary electrophoresis-the diode array detector combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode for screening and quantifying major antioxidants in Cuscuta chinensis Lam.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Tian, Ji; Li, Jin; Azietaku, John Teye; Zhang, Bo-Li; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Chang, Yan-Xu

    2016-07-01

    An in-capillary 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-CE-the DAD (in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD) combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode has been developed to screen and quantify the active antioxidant components of Cuscuta chinensis Lam. The operation parameters were optimized with regard to the pH and concentration of buffer solution, SDS, β-CDs, organic modifier, as well as separation voltage and temperature. Six antioxidants including chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, rutin, hyperin, isoquercitrin, and astragalin were screened and the total antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully evaluated based on the decreased peak area of DPPH by the established DPPH-CE-DAD method. Sensitivity was enhanced under reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode and 10- to 31-fold of magnitude improvement in detection sensitivity for each analyte was attained. The results demonstrated that the newly established in-capillary DPPH-CE-DAD method combined with reversed-electrode polarity stacking mode could integrate sample concentration, the oxidizing reaction, separation, and detection into one capillary to fully automate the system. It was considered a suitable technique for the separation, screening, and determination of trace antioxidants in natural products.

  12. High power density fuel cell comprising an array of microchannels

    DOEpatents

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2013-10-15

    A fuel cell according to one embodiment includes a porous electrolyte support structure defining an array of microchannels, the microchannels including fuel and oxidant microchannels; fuel electrodes formed along some of the microchannels; and oxidant electrodes formed along other of the microchannels. A method of making a fuel cell according to one embodiment includes forming an array of walls defining microchannels therebetween using at least one of molding, stamping, extrusion, injection and electrodeposition; processing the walls to make the walls porous, thereby creating a porous electrolyte support structure; forming anode electrodes along some of the microchannels; and forming cathode electrodes along other of the microchannels. Additional embodiments are also disclosed.

  13. Ion-Selective Electrodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Mark A.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) is reviewed in seven sections: books, conferences, reviews; potentiometric membrane electrodes; glass and solid-state membrane electrodes; liquid and polymer membrane ISEs; coated wire electrodes, ion-selective field effect transistors, and microelectrodes; gas sensors and selective bioelectrode…

  14. Diagnostics for the Biased Electrode Experiment on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Roquemore, S.J. Zweben, C.E. Bush, R. Kaita, R. J. Marsalsa, and R.J. Maqueda

    2009-03-20

    A linear array of four small biased electrodes was installed in NSTX in an attempt to control the width of the scrape-off layer (SOL) by creating a strong local poloidal electric field. The set of electrodes were separated poloidally by a 1 cm gap between electrodes and were located slightly below the midplane of NSTX, 1 cm behind the RF antenna and oriented so that each electrode is facing approximately normal to the magnetic field. Each electrode can be independently biased to ±100 volts. Present power supplies limit the current on two electrodes to 30 amps the other two to 10 amps each. The effect of local biasing was measured with a set of Langmuir probes placed between the electrodes and another set extending radially outward from the electrodes, and also by the gas puff imaging diagnostic (GPI) located 1 m away along the magnetic field lines intersecting the electrodes. Two fast cameras were also aimed directly at the electrode array. The hardware and controls of the biasing experiment will be presented and the initial effects on local plasma parameters will be discussed.

  15. Nanoelectrode array formation by electrolytic nanoparticle impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, T. R.; Holter, J.; Young, N.; Compton, R. G.

    2016-07-01

    We report the fabrication of functional nanoelectrode arrays by the electrolysis of AgBr nanoparticles (NPs) impacting on a glassy carbon electrode from suspension in aqueous solution. The impacted NPs result in Ag NP deposits of similar size to the originating NP, with the coverage of these arrays easily controlled by the time of the deposition step. The NPs constituting the array are deposited randomly across the surface with little aggregation or agglomeration. The fabricated arrays are themselves electrochemically active, mediating the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2.

  16. Imprinting of molecular recognition sites combined with π-donor-acceptor interactions using bis-aniline-crosslinked Au-CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles array on electrodes: Development of electrochemiluminescence sensor for the ultrasensitive and selective detection of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yukun; Fang, Guozhen; Wang, Xiaomin; Liu, Guiyang; Wang, Shuo

    2016-03-15

    A novel strategy is reported for the fabrication of bis-aniline-crosslinked Au nanoparticles (NPs)-CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) array composite by facil one-step co-electropolymerization of thioaniline-functionalized AuNPs and thioaniline-functionalized CdSe/ZnS QDs onto thioaniline-functionalized Au elctrodes (AuE). Stable and enhanced cathodic electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of CdSe/ZnS QDs is observed on the modified electrode in neutral solution, suggesting promising applications in ECL sensing. An advanced ECL sensor is explored for detection of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) which quenches the ECL signal through electron-transfer pathway. The sensitive determination of MCPA with limit of detection (LOD) of 2.2 nmolL(-1) (S/N=3) is achieved by π-donor-acceptor interactions between MCPA and the bis-aniline bridging units. Impressively, the imprinting of molecular recognition sites into the bis-aniline-crosslinked AuNPs-CdSe/ZnS QDs array yields a functionalized electrode with an extremely sensitive response to MCPA in a linear range of 10 pmolL(-1)-50 μmolL(-1) with a LOD of 4.3 pmolL(-1 ()S/N=3). The proposed ECL sensor with high sensitivity, good selectivity, reproducibility and stability has been successfully applied for the determination of MCPA in real samples with satisfactory recoveries. In this study, ECL sensor combined the merits of QDs-ECL and molecularly imprinting technology is reported for the first time. The developed ECL sensor holds great promise for the fabrication of QDs-based ECL sensors with improved sensitivity and furthermore opens the door to wide applications of QDs-based ECL in food safety and environmental monitoring.

  17. Imprinting of molecular recognition sites combined with π-donor-acceptor interactions using bis-aniline-crosslinked Au-CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles array on electrodes: Development of electrochemiluminescence sensor for the ultrasensitive and selective detection of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yukun; Fang, Guozhen; Wang, Xiaomin; Liu, Guiyang; Wang, Shuo

    2016-03-15

    A novel strategy is reported for the fabrication of bis-aniline-crosslinked Au nanoparticles (NPs)-CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) array composite by facil one-step co-electropolymerization of thioaniline-functionalized AuNPs and thioaniline-functionalized CdSe/ZnS QDs onto thioaniline-functionalized Au elctrodes (AuE). Stable and enhanced cathodic electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of CdSe/ZnS QDs is observed on the modified electrode in neutral solution, suggesting promising applications in ECL sensing. An advanced ECL sensor is explored for detection of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) which quenches the ECL signal through electron-transfer pathway. The sensitive determination of MCPA with limit of detection (LOD) of 2.2 nmolL(-1) (S/N=3) is achieved by π-donor-acceptor interactions between MCPA and the bis-aniline bridging units. Impressively, the imprinting of molecular recognition sites into the bis-aniline-crosslinked AuNPs-CdSe/ZnS QDs array yields a functionalized electrode with an extremely sensitive response to MCPA in a linear range of 10 pmolL(-1)-50 μmolL(-1) with a LOD of 4.3 pmolL(-1 ()S/N=3). The proposed ECL sensor with high sensitivity, good selectivity, reproducibility and stability has been successfully applied for the determination of MCPA in real samples with satisfactory recoveries. In this study, ECL sensor combined the merits of QDs-ECL and molecularly imprinting technology is reported for the first time. The developed ECL sensor holds great promise for the fabrication of QDs-based ECL sensors with improved sensitivity and furthermore opens the door to wide applications of QDs-based ECL in food safety and environmental monitoring. PMID:26569444

  18. HSPES membrane electrode assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved fuel cell electrode, as well as fuel cells and membrane electrode assemblies that include such an electrode, in which the electrode includes a backing layer having a sintered layer thereon, and a non-sintered free-catalyst layer. The invention also features a method of forming the electrode by sintering a backing material with a catalyst material and then applying a free-catalyst layer.

  19. Bivoltametric titrations using electrodes with innovative geometry.

    PubMed

    Surmann, P; Peter, B; Stark, C

    1996-09-01

    Electrodes with different surface areas were investigated for the determination of reversible, quasireversible, irreversible or electroinactive substrates. Two kinds of electrodes were constructed, a helical electrode with a given asymmetry and a platinum array electrode with a variable area. These electrodes were applied for the cerimetry of ammonium iron(II) sulfate and for the bromatometry of various organic substances. The theoretically derived effects on the shape of the voltametric titration curve are verified experimentally. It is possible to sharpen one side of the peak and to broaden the other side, depending on the system and the side of the peak one is interested in. It is possible to improve the bivoltametric determination of hydroquinone, benzocaine and sulfaguanidine by bromatometry by the directed employment of electrodes of different areas. For the bromatometric determination of electrochemically irreversible substrates the use of the electrode geometries proposed is a way to obtain a sharp bend and a steep decrease of titration curves with low values of the constant current which is a basic requirement for the accuracy.

  20. High voltage load resistor array

    DOEpatents

    Lehmann, Monty Ray

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  1. High-performance supercapacitor and lithium-ion battery based on 3D hierarchical NH4F-induced nickel cobaltate nanosheet-nanowire cluster arrays as self-supported electrodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuejiao; Qu, Baihua; Hu, Lingling; Xu, Zhi; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong

    2013-10-21

    A facile hydrothermal method is developed for large-scale production of three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical porous nickel cobaltate nanowire cluster arrays derived from nanosheet arrays with robust adhesion on Ni foam. Based on the morphology evolution upon reaction time, a possible formation process is proposed. The role of NH4F in formation of the structure has also been investigated based on different NH4F amounts. This unique structure significantly enhances the electroactive surface areas of the NiCo2O4 arrays, leading to better interfacial/chemical distributions at the nanoscale, fast ion and electron transfer and good strain accommodation. Thus, when it is used for supercapacitor testing, a specific capacitance of 1069 F g(-1) at a very high current density of 100 A g(-1) was obtained. Even after more than 10,000 cycles at various large current densities, a capacitance of 2000 F g(-1) at 10 A g(-1) with 93.8% retention can be achieved. It also exhibits a high-power density (26.1 kW kg(-1)) at a discharge current density of 80 A g(-1). When used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), it presents a high reversible capacity of 976 mA h g(-1) at a rate of 200 mA g(-1) with good cycling stability and rate capability. This array material is rarely used as an anode material. Our results show that this unique 3D hierarchical porous nickel cobaltite is promising for electrochemical energy applications.

  2. On Using Residual Voltage to Estimate Electrode Model Parameters for Damage Detection

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ashwati; Kelly, Shawn K.

    2016-01-01

    Current technology has enabled a significant increase in the number of electrodes for electrical stimulation. For large arrays of electrodes, it becomes increasingly difficult to monitor and detect failures at the stimulation site. In this paper, we propose the idea that the residual voltage from a biphasic electrical stimulation pulse can serve to recognize damage at the electrode-tissue interface. We use a simple switch circuit approach to estimate the relaxation time constant of the electrode model, which essentially models the residual voltage in biphasic electrical stimulation, and compare it with standard electrode characterization techniques. Out of 15 electrodes in a polyimide-based SIROF array, our approach highlights 3 damaged electrodes, consistent with measurements made using cyclic voltammetry and electrode impedance spectroscopy. PMID:27231725

  3. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  4. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  5. Controlled porosity in electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Bae, Chang-Jun; Halloran, John William; Fu, Qiang; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Erdonmez, Can K.

    2015-06-23

    Porous electrodes in which the porosity has a low tortuosity are generally provided. In some embodiments, the porous electrodes can be designed to be filled with electrolyte and used in batteries, and can include low tortuosity in the primary direction of ion transport during charge and discharge of the battery. In some embodiments, the electrodes can have a high volume fraction of electrode active material (i.e., low porosity). The attributes outlined above can allow the electrodes to be fabricated with a higher energy density, higher capacity per unit area of electrode (mAh/cm.sup.2), and greater thickness than comparable electrodes while still providing high utilization of the active material in the battery during use. Accordingly, the electrodes can be used to produce batteries with high energy densities, high power, or both compared to batteries using electrodes of conventional design with relatively highly tortuous pores.

  6. High performance cermet electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Isenberg, Arnold O.; Zymboly, Gregory E.

    1986-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of increasing the operating cell voltage of a solid oxide electrochemical cell having metal electrode particles in contact with an oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte. The metal electrode is heated with the cell, and oxygen is passed through the oxygen-transporting ceramic electrolyte to the surface of the metal electrode particles so that the metal electrode particles are oxidized to form a metal oxide layer between the metal electrode particles and the electrolyte. The metal oxide layer is then reduced to form porous metal between the metal electrode particles and the ceramic electrolyte.

  7. Pitch ranking, electrode discrimination, and physiological spread-of-excitation using Cochlear's dual-electrode mode.

    PubMed

    Goehring, Jenny L; Neff, Donna L; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L; Hughes, Michelle L

    2014-08-01

    This study compared pitch ranking, electrode discrimination, and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) spatial excitation patterns for adjacent physical electrodes (PEs) and the corresponding dual electrodes (DEs) for newer-generation Cochlear devices (Cochlear Ltd., Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia). The first goal was to determine whether pitch ranking and electrode discrimination yield similar outcomes for PEs and DEs. The second goal was to determine if the amount of spatial separation among ECAP excitation patterns (separation index, Σ) between adjacent PEs and the PE-DE pairs can predict performance on the psychophysical tasks. Using non-adaptive procedures, 13 subjects completed pitch ranking and electrode discrimination for adjacent PEs and the corresponding PE-DE pairs (DE versus each flanking PE) from the basal, middle, and apical electrode regions. Analysis of d' scores indicated that pitch-ranking and electrode-discrimination scores were not significantly different, but rather produced similar levels of performance. As expected, accuracy was significantly better for the PE-PE comparison than either PE-DE comparison. Correlations of the psychophysical versus ECAP Σ measures were positive; however, not all test/region correlations were significant across the array. Thus, the ECAP separation index is not sensitive enough to predict performance on behavioral tasks of pitch ranking or electrode discrimination for adjacent PEs or corresponding DEs.

  8. Pitch ranking, electrode discrimination, and physiological spread-of-excitation using Cochlear's dual-electrode mode

    PubMed Central

    Goehring, Jenny L.; Neff, Donna L.; Baudhuin, Jacquelyn L.; Hughes, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared pitch ranking, electrode discrimination, and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) spatial excitation patterns for adjacent physical electrodes (PEs) and the corresponding dual electrodes (DEs) for newer-generation Cochlear devices (Cochlear Ltd., Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia). The first goal was to determine whether pitch ranking and electrode discrimination yield similar outcomes for PEs and DEs. The second goal was to determine if the amount of spatial separation among ECAP excitation patterns (separation index, Σ) between adjacent PEs and the PE-DE pairs can predict performance on the psychophysical tasks. Using non-adaptive procedures, 13 subjects completed pitch ranking and electrode discrimination for adjacent PEs and the corresponding PE-DE pairs (DE versus each flanking PE) from the basal, middle, and apical electrode regions. Analysis of d′ scores indicated that pitch-ranking and electrode-discrimination scores were not significantly different, but rather produced similar levels of performance. As expected, accuracy was significantly better for the PE-PE comparison than either PE-DE comparison. Correlations of the psychophysical versus ECAP Σ measures were positive; however, not all test/region correlations were significant across the array. Thus, the ECAP separation index is not sensitive enough to predict performance on behavioral tasks of pitch ranking or electrode discrimination for adjacent PEs or corresponding DEs. PMID:25096106

  9. Robustness of the magnetoresistance of nanoparticle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estévez, V.; Bascones, E.

    2011-08-01

    Recent work has found that the interplay between spin accumulation and Coulomb blockade in nanoparticle arrays results in peaky I-V and tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) curves and in huge values of the TMR. We analyze how these effects are influenced by a polarization asymmetry of the electrodes, the dimensionality of the array, the temperature, resistance, or charge disorder, and long-range interactions. We show that the magnitude and voltage dependence of the TMR do not change with the dimensionality of the array or the presence of junction resistance disorder. A different polarization in the electrodes modifies the peak shape in the I-V and TMR curves but not their order of magnitude. Increasing the temperature or length of the interaction reduces to some extent the size of the peaks, the reduction being due to long-range interactions that are smaller in longer arrays. Charge disorder should be avoided to observe large TMR values.

  10. Electrostatic quadrupole array for focusing parallel beams of charged particles

    DOEpatents

    Brodowski, John

    1982-11-23

    An array of electrostatic quadrupoles, capable of providing strong electrostatic focusing simultaneously on multiple beams, is easily fabricated from a single array element comprising a support rod and multiple electrodes spaced at intervals along the rod. The rods are secured to four terminals which are isolated by only four insulators. This structure requires bias voltage to be supplied to only two terminals and eliminates the need for individual electrode bias and insulators, as well as increases life by eliminating beam plating of insulators.

  11. Improved biomedical electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Newly designed electrode is prefilled, disposable, electrolyte-saturated spong. New design permits longe periods of storage without deterioration, and readiness in matter of seconds. Electrodes supply signals for electroencephalogram, electro-oculogram, and electrocardiogram.

  12. Corneal-shaping electrode

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D.; Hutson, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a circulating saline electrode for changing corneal shape in eyes. The electrode comprises a tubular nonconductive electrode housing having an annular expanded base which has a surface substantially matched to a subject corneal surface. A tubular conductive electrode connected to a radiofrequency generating source is disposed within the electrode housing and longitudinally aligned therewith. The electrode has a generally hemispherical head having at least one orifice. Saline solution is circulated through the apparatus and over the cornea to cool the corneal surface while radiofrequency electric current emitted from the electrode flows therefrom through the cornea to a second electrode, on the rear of the head. This current heats the deep corneal stroma and thereby effects corneal reshaping as a biological response to the heat.

  13. Dry electrodes for electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Meziane, N; Webster, J G; Attari, M; Nimunkar, A J

    2013-09-01

    Patient biopotentials are usually measured with conventional disposable Ag/AgCl electrodes. These electrodes provide excellent signal quality but are irritating for long-term use. Skin preparation is usually required prior to the application of electrodes such as shaving and cleansing with alcohol. To overcome these difficulties, researchers and caregivers seek alternative electrodes that would be acceptable in clinical and research environments. Dry electrodes that operate without gel, adhesive or even skin preparation have been studied for many decades. They are used in research applications, but they have yet to achieve acceptance for medical use. So far, a complete comparison and evaluation of dry electrodes is not well described in the literature. This work compares dry electrodes for biomedical use and physiological research, and reviews some novel systems developed for cardiac monitoring. Lastly, the paper provides suggestions to develop a dry-electrode-based system for mobile and long-term cardiac monitoring applications.

  14. Neurotoxicity testing using Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs): a growing trend

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are groups of extracellular electrodes that are 10-30 microns in diameter and can be utilized in vivo or in vitro. For in vitro uses, an MEA typically contains up to 64 electrodes and can be utilized to measure the activity of cells and tissues that a...

  15. Compartmented electrode structure

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi; Gay, Eddie C.; Martino, Fredric J.

    1977-06-14

    Electrodes for secondary electrochemical cells are provided with compartments for containing particles of the electrode reactant. The compartments are defined by partitions that are generally impenetrable to the particles of reactant and, in some instances, to the liquid electrolyte used in the cell. During cycling of the cell, reactant material initially loaded into a particular compartment is prevented from migrating and concentrating within the lower portion of the electrode or those portions of the electrode that exhibit reduced electrical resistance.

  16. The CMG Nickel Electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depaul, R. A.; Gutridge, I.

    1981-01-01

    The development and design of the Controlled Microgeometry electrode are described. Advantages of the electrode over others in existance include a higher number of ampere hours per kilogram and the ability to make them over a wide range of thicknesses. The parameters that control the performance of the electrode can be individually controlled over a wide range. Therefore, the electrode may be designed to give the optimum performance for a given duty cycle.

  17. Programmable Aperture with MEMS Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Samuel; Li, Mary; Kutyrev, Alexander; Kletetschka, Gunther; Fettig, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    A microshutter array (MSA) has been developed for use as an aperture array for multi-object selections in James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) technology. Light shields, molybdenum nitride (MoN) coating on shutters, and aluminum/aluminum oxide coatings on interior walls are put on each shutter for light leak prevention, and to enhance optical contrast. Individual shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure that permits shutters to open 90 deg. with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. The shutters are actuated magnetically, latched, and addressed electrostatically. Also, micromechanical features are tailored onto individual shutters to prevent stiction. An individual shutter consists of a torsion hinge, a shutter blade, a front electrode that is coated on the shutter blade, a backside electrode that is coated on the interior walls, and a magnetic cobalt-iron coating. The magnetic coating is patterned into stripes on microshutters so that shutters can respond to an external magnetic field for the magnetic actuation. A set of column electrodes is placed on top of shutters, and a set of row electrodes on sidewalls is underneath the shutters so that they can be electrostatically latched open. A linear permanent magnet is aligned with the shutter rows and is positioned above a flipped upside-down array, and sweeps across the array in a direction parallel to shutter columns. As the magnet sweeps across the array, sequential rows of shutters are rotated from their natural horizontal orientation to a vertical open position, where they approach vertical electrodes on the sidewalls. When the electrodes are biased with a sufficient electrostatic force to overcome the mechanical restoring force of torsion bars, shutters remain latched to vertical electrodes in their open state. When the bias is removed, or is insufficient, the shutters return to their horizontal, closed positions. To release a shutter, both the electrode on the shutter and the one on the back wall where

  18. Wafer-scale fabrication of penetrating neural microelectrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Rajmohan

    In order to have an efficient neural interface, uniformity and predictability of electrodes electrical, and mechanical characteristics are desired. Furthermore, the electrodes should have small active sites to selectively record or stimulate neural signals. Also, there should be close geometrical match between the electrode array and the targeted tissue for long-term stability. Currently the Utah electrode array (UEA) is in either constant electrode length (UEA) or varying length configurations (Utah slant electrode array: USEA). The current processes used to fabricate the UEAs impose limitations in the tolerances of the electrode array geometry. Furthermore, the flat architecture of the UEA and convoluted geometry of the targeted tissue results in poor coupling between the two "mating" surfaces, leading in active electrode tips that are not in proximity to the neuronal tissue. Therefore, a robust, flexible and high precision fabrication technology is needed that can produce (a) uniformly shaped microelectrodes (b) small and uniformly exposed active tip sites and (c) convoluted electrode arrays for better geometrical match. This dissertation presents a wafer-scale fabrication process for both the UEA and the USEA. A wafer-scale etching method has been developed and optimum etching conditions are established to achieve uniform shape electrode arrays. Also, the etching rate of silicon columns, produced by dicing, is studied as a function of temperature, etching time and stirring rate in the acid solution. Furthermore, a novel photoresist based masking technique for procuring extremely small active area has been developed on wafer-scale. In this technique, the tip exposure is controlled by varying the spin speed during photoresist coating. The technique allows fabrication of uniformly exposed tip lengths, over a range of 30 to 350 microm in length. Lastly, a novel array fabrication technique is developed for building a variety of neural interface devices having

  19. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  20. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Swain, Greg; Fischer, Anne ,; Bennett, Jason; Lowe, Michael

    2009-05-19

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  1. Insulated ECG electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portnoy, W. M.; David, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Insulated, capacitively coupled electrode does not require electrolyte paste for attachment. Other features of electrode include wide range of nontoxic material that may be employed for dielectric because of sputtering technique used. Also, electrode size is reduced because there is no need for external compensating networks with FET operational amplifier.

  2. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Miller, John L.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

  3. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  4. Fuel cell electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Strmcnik, Dusan; Cuesta, Angel; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad

    2015-06-23

    A process includes patterning a surface of a platinum group metal-based electrode by contacting the electrode with an adsorbate to form a patterned platinum group metal-based electrode including platinum group metal sites blocked with adsorbate molecules and platinum group metal sites which are not blocked.

  5. Microresonator electrode design

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, III, Roy H.; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Branch, Darren W.

    2016-05-10

    A microresonator with an input electrode and an output electrode patterned thereon is described. The input electrode includes a series of stubs that are configured to isolate acoustic waves, such that the waves are not reflected into the microresonator. Such design results in reduction of spurious modes corresponding to the microresonator.

  6. High voltage solar array experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennerud, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    The interaction between the components of a high voltage solar array and a simulated space plasma is studied to obtain data for the design of a high voltage solar array capable of 15kW at 2 to 16kV. Testing was conducted in a vacuum chamber 1.5-m long by 1.5-m diameter having a plasma source which simulated the plasma conditions existing in earth orbit between 400 nautical miles and synchronous altitude. Test samples included solar array segments pinholes in insulation covering high voltage electrodes, and plain dielectric samples. Quantitative data are presented in the areas of plasma power losses, plasma and high voltage induced damage, and dielectric properties. Limitations of the investigation are described.

  7. Microlens arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutley, Michael C.; Stevens, Richard F.; Daly, Daniel J.

    1992-04-01

    Microlenses have been with us for a long time as indeed the very word lens reminds us. Many early lenses,including those made by Hooke and Leeuwenhoek in the 17th century were small and resembled lentils. Many languages use the same word for both (French tilentillelt and German "Linse") and the connection is only obscure in English because we use the French word for the vegetable and the German for the optic. Many of the applications for arrays of inicrolenses are also well established. Lippmann's work on integral photography at the turn of the century required lens arrays and stimulated an interest that is very much alive today. At one stage, lens arrays played an important part in high speed photography and various schemes have been put forward to take advantage of the compact imaging properties of combinations of lens arrays. The fact that many of these ingenious schemes have not been developed to their full potential has to a large degree been due to the absence of lens arrays of a suitable quality and cost.

  8. Highly stretchable resistive pressure sensors using a conductive elastomeric composite on a micropyramid array.

    PubMed

    Choong, Chwee-Lin; Shim, Mun-Bo; Lee, Byoung-Sun; Jeon, Sanghun; Ko, Dong-Su; Kang, Tae-Hyung; Bae, Jihyun; Lee, Sung Hoon; Byun, Kyung-Eun; Im, Jungkyun; Jeong, Yong Jin; Park, Chan Eon; Park, Jong-Jin; Chung, U-In

    2014-06-01

    A stretchable resistive pressure sensor is achieved by coating a compressible substrate with a highly stretchable electrode. The substrate contains an array of microscale pyramidal features, and the electrode comprises a polymer composite. When the pressure-induced geometrical change experienced by the electrode is maximized at 40% elongation, a sensitivity of 10.3 kPa(-1) is achieved. PMID:24536023

  9. Spark gap electrode erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krompholz, H.; Kristiansen, M.

    1984-12-01

    The results of a one-year contract on electrode erosion phenomena are summarized. The arc voltage drop in a spark gap was measured for various electrode, gas, and pressure combinations. A previously developed model of self breakdown voltage distribution was extended. A jet model for electrode erosion was proposed and an experimental arrangement for testing the model was constructed. The effects of inhomogeneities and impurities in the electrodes were investigated. Some of the work described here is scheduled for completion in 1985 under a current grant (AFOSR 84-0032). The areas of investigation described here include: (1) Self breakdown voltage distributions; (2) Electrode erosion; (3) Spark gap voltage recovery.

  10. Virtual electrode design for increasing spatial resolution in retinal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Loizos, Kyle; Cela, Carlos; Marc, Robert; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2016-06-01

    Retinal prostheses systems are currently used to restore partial vision to patients blinded by degenerative diseases by electrically stimulating surviving retinal cells. To obtain likely maximum resolution, electrode size is minimised, allowing for a large quantity on an array and localised stimulation regions. Besides the small size leading to fabrication difficulties and higher electrochemical charge density, there are challenges associated with the number of drivers needed for a large electrode count as well as the strategies to deliver sufficient power to these drivers wirelessly. In hopes to increase electrode resolution while avoiding these issues, the authors propose a new 'virtual electrode' design to increase locations of likely stimulation. Passive metallisation strategically placed between disk electrodes, combined with alternating surrounding stimuli, channel current into a location between electrodes, producing a virtual stimulation site. A computational study was conducted to optimise the passive metal element geometry, quantify the expected current density output, and simulate retinal ganglion cell activity due to virtual electrode stimulation. Results show that this procedure leads to array geometry that focuses injected current and achieves retinal ganglion cell stimulation in a region beneath the 'virtual electrode,' creating an alternate stimulation site without additional drivers. PMID:27382477

  11. Negative electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transiton metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum alloy and an amount of a ternary alloy sufficient to provide at least about 5 percent overcharge capacity relative to a negative electrode solely of the lithium-aluminum alloy, the ternary alloy comprising lithium, aluminum, and iron or cobalt, and an electrolyte containing lithium ions in contact with both of the positive and the negative electrodes. The ternary alloy is present in the electrode in the range of from about 5 percent to about 50 percent by weight of the electrode composition and may include lithium-aluminum-nickel alloy in combination with either the ternary iron or cobalt alloys. A plurality of series connected cells having overcharge capacity can be equalized on the discharge side without expensive electrical equipment.

  12. Amplified Thermionic Cooling Using Arrays of Nanowires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok; Choi, Daniel; Shcheglov, Kirill; Hishinuma, Yoshikazu

    2007-01-01

    A class of proposed thermionic cooling devices would incorporate precise arrays of metal nanowires as electron emitters. The proposed devices could be highly miniaturized, enabling removal of heat from locations, very close to electronic devices, that have previously been inaccessible for heat-removal purposes. The resulting enhancement of removal of heat would enable operation of the devices at higher power levels and higher clock speeds. Moreover, the mass, complexity, and bulk of electronic circuitry incorporating these highly miniaturized cooling devices could be considerably reduced, relative to otherwise equivalent circuitry cooled by conventional electromechanical, thermoelectric, and fluidic means. In thermionic cooling, one exploits the fact that because only the highest-energy electrons are thermionically emitted, collecting those electrons to prevent their return to the emitting electrode results in the net removal of heat from that electrode. Collection is effected by applying an appropriate positive bias potential to another electrode placed near the emitting electrode. The concept underlying the proposal is that the thermionic-emission current and, hence, the cooling effect attainable by use of an array of nanowires could be significantly greater than that attainable by use of a single emitting electrode or other electron- emitting surface. The wires in an array according to the proposal would protrude perpendicularly from a planar surface and their heights would be made uniform to within a sub-nanometer level of precision

  13. Computation of optimized arrays for 3-D electrical imaging surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loke, M. H.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Uhlemann, S. S.; Chambers, J. E.; Oxby, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    3-D electrical resistivity surveys and inversion models are required to accurately resolve structures in areas with very complex geology where 2-D models might suffer from artefacts. Many 3-D surveys use a grid where the number of electrodes along one direction (x) is much greater than in the perpendicular direction (y). Frequently, due to limitations in the number of independent electrodes in the multi-electrode system, the surveys use a roll-along system with a small number of parallel survey lines aligned along the x-direction. The `Compare R' array optimization method previously used for 2-D surveys is adapted for such 3-D surveys. Offset versions of the inline arrays used in 2-D surveys are included in the number of possible arrays (the comprehensive data set) to improve the sensitivity to structures in between the lines. The array geometric factor and its relative error are used to filter out potentially unstable arrays in the construction of the comprehensive data set. Comparisons of the conventional (consisting of dipole-dipole and Wenner-Schlumberger arrays) and optimized arrays are made using a synthetic model and experimental measurements in a tank. The tests show that structures located between the lines are better resolved with the optimized arrays. The optimized arrays also have significantly better depth resolution compared to the conventional arrays.

  14. Global Arrays

    2006-02-23

    The Global Arrays (GA) toolkit provides an efficient and portable “shared-memory” programming interface for distributed-memory computers. Each process in a MIMD parallel program can asynchronously access logical blocks of physically distributed dense multi-dimensional arrays, without need for explicit cooperation by other processes. Unlike other shared-memory environments, the GA model exposes to the programmer the non-uniform memory access (NUMA) characteristics of the high performance computers and acknowledges that access to a remote portion of the sharedmore » data is slower than to the local portion. The locality information for the shared data is available, and a direct access to the local portions of shared data is provided. Global Arrays have been designed to complement rather than substitute for the message-passing programming model. The programmer is free to use both the shared-memory and message-passing paradigms in the same program, and to take advantage of existing message-passing software libraries. Global Arrays are compatible with the Message Passing Interface (MPI).« less

  15. Pacific Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakatsu, H.; Takeo, A.; Isse, T.; Nishida, K.; Shiobara, H.; Suetsugu, D.

    2014-12-01

    Based on our recent results on broadband ocean bottom seismometry, we propose a next generation large-scale array experiment in the ocean. Recent advances in ocean bottom broadband seismometry (e.g., Suetsugu & Shiobara, 2014, Annual Review EPS), together with advances in the seismic analysis methodology, have now enabled us to resolve the regional 1-D structure of the entire lithosphere/asthenosphere system, including seismic anisotropy (both radial and azimuthal), with deployments of ~10-15 broadband ocean bottom seismometers (BBOBSs) (namely "ocean-bottom broadband dispersion survey"; Takeo et al., 2013, JGR; Kawakatsu et al., 2013, AGU; Takeo, 2014, Ph.D. Thesis; Takeo et al., 2014, JpGU). Having ~15 BBOBSs as an array unit for 2-year deployment, and repeating such deployments in a leap-frog way (an array of arrays) for a decade or so would enable us to cover a large portion of the Pacific basin. Such efforts, not only by giving regional constraints on the 1-D structure, but also by sharing waveform data for global scale waveform tomography, would drastically increase our knowledge of how plate tectonics works on this planet, as well as how it worked for the past 150 million years. International collaborations might be sought.

  16. Integrated field emission array for ion desorption

    DOEpatents

    Resnick, Paul J; Hertz, Kristin L; Holland, Christopher; Chichester, David; Schwoebel, Paul

    2013-09-17

    An integrated field emission array for ion desorption includes an electrically conductive substrate; a dielectric layer lying over the electrically conductive substrate comprising a plurality of laterally separated cavities extending through the dielectric layer; a like plurality of conically-shaped emitter tips on posts, each emitter tip/post disposed concentrically within a laterally separated cavity and electrically contacting the substrate; and a gate electrode structure lying over the dielectric layer, including a like plurality of circular gate apertures, each gate aperture disposed concentrically above an emitter tip/post to provide a like plurality of annular gate electrodes and wherein the lower edge of each annular gate electrode proximate the like emitter tip/post is rounded. Also disclosed herein are methods for fabricating an integrated field emission array.

  17. Integrated field emission array for ion desorption

    DOEpatents

    Resnick, Paul J; Hertz, Kristin L.; Holland, Christopher; Chichester, David

    2016-08-23

    An integrated field emission array for ion desorption includes an electrically conductive substrate; a dielectric layer lying over the electrically conductive substrate comprising a plurality of laterally separated cavities extending through the dielectric layer; a like plurality of conically-shaped emitter tips on posts, each emitter tip/post disposed concentrically within a laterally separated cavity and electrically contacting the substrate; and a gate electrode structure lying over the dielectric layer, including a like plurality of circular gate apertures, each gate aperture disposed concentrically above an emitter tip/post to provide a like plurality of annular gate electrodes and wherein the lower edge of each annular gate electrode proximate the like emitter tip/post is rounded. Also disclosed herein are methods for fabricating an integrated field emission array.

  18. Microelectrode arrays fabricated using a novel hybrid microfabrication method

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Mark W.; Snyder, Russell L.; Middlebrooks, John C.; Bachman, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present novel hybrid microfabrication methods for microelectrode arrays that combine microwire assembly, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) manufacturing techniques and precision tool-based micromachining. This combination enables hybrid microfabrication to produce complex geometries and structures, increase material selection, and improve integration. A 32-channel shank microelectrode array was fabricated to highlight the hybrid microfabrication techniques. The electrode shank was 130 μm at its narrowest, had a 127 μm thickness and had iridium oxide electrode sites that were 25 μm in diameter with 150 μm spacing. Techniques used to fabricate this electrode include microassembly of insulated gold wires into a micromold, micromolding the microelectrode shank, post molding machining, sacrificial release of the microelectrode and electrodeposition of iridium oxide onto the microelectrode sites. Electrode site position accuracy was shown to have a standard deviation of less than 4 μm. Acute in vivo recordings with the 32-channel shank microelectrode array demonstrated comparable performance to that obtained with commercial microelectrode arrays . This new approach to microelectrode array fabrication will enable new microelectrodes, such as multi-sided arrays, drug eluding electrodes and biodegradable shanks. PMID:21979567

  19. Bifunctional alkaline oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe the identification and testing of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate-temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Recent work on Na(x)Pt3O4, a potential bifunctional catalyst, is described, as well as the application of novel approaches to the development of more efficient bifunctional electrode structures. The three dual-character electrodes considered here showed similar superior performance; the Pt/RhO2 and Rh/RhO2 electrodes showed slightly better performance than the Pt/IrO2 electrode. It is concluded that Na(x)Pt3O4 continues to be a promising bifunctional oxygen electrode catalyst but requires further investigation and development.

  20. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  1. Nanoscopic electrode molecular probes

    DOEpatents

    Krstic, Predrag S.; Meunier, Vincent

    2012-05-22

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for enhancing the electron transport property measurements of a molecule when the molecule is placed between chemically functionalized carbon-based nanoscopic electrodes to which a suitable voltage bias is applied. The invention includes selecting a dopant atom for the nanoscopic electrodes, the dopant atoms being chemically similar to atoms present in the molecule, and functionalizing the outer surface and terminations of the electrodes with the dopant atoms.

  2. Auditory Prosthesis with a Penetrating Nerve Array

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Russell L.

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary auditory prostheses (“cochlear implants”) employ arrays of stimulating electrodes implanted in the scala tympani of the cochlea. Such arrays have been implanted in some 100,000 profoundly or severely deaf people worldwide and arguably are the most successful of present-day neural prostheses. Nevertheless, most implant users show poor understanding of speech in noisy backgrounds, poor pitch recognition, and poor spatial hearing, even when using bilateral implants. Many of these limitations can be attributed to the remote location of stimulating electrodes relative to excitable cochlear neural elements. That is, a scala tympani electrode array lies within a bony compartment filled with electrically conductive fluid. Moreover, scala tympani arrays typically do not extend to the apical turn of the cochlea in which low frequencies are represented. In the present study, we have tested in an animal model an alternative to the conventional cochlear implant: a multielectrode array implanted directly into the auditory nerve. We monitored the specificity of stimulation of the auditory pathway by recording extracellular unit activity at 32 sites along the tonotopic axis of the inferior colliculus. The results demonstrate the activation of specific auditory nerve populations throughout essentially the entire frequency range that is represented by characteristic frequencies in the inferior colliculus. Compared to conventional scala tympani stimulation, thresholds for neural excitation are as much as 50-fold lower and interference between electrodes stimulated simultaneously is markedly reduced. The results suggest that if an intraneural stimulating array were incorporated into an auditory prosthesis system for humans, it could offer substantial improvement in hearing replacement compared to contemporary cochlear implants. PMID:17265124

  3. Fabrication of Dry Electrode for Recording Bio-potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Guo, Kai; Pei, Wei-Hua; Gui, Qiang; Li, Xiao-Qian; Chen, Hong-Da; Yang, Jian-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Development of minimally invasive dry electrodes for recording biopotentials is presented. The detailed fabrication process is outlined. A dry electrode is formed by a number of microneedles. The lengths of the microneedles are about 150μm and the diameters are about 50μm. The tips of the microneedles are sharp enough to penetrate into the skin. The silver/silver chloride is grown on microneedle arrays and demonstrates good character. The electrocardiogram shows that the dry electrode is suitable for recording biopotentials.

  4. Pocket ECG electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, Gordon F. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A low-noise electrode suited for sensing electrocardiograms when chronically and subcutaneously implanted in a free-ranging subject. The electrode comprises a pocket-shaped electrically conductive member with a single entrance adapted to receive body fluids. The exterior of the member and the entrance region is coated with electrical insulation so that the only electrolyte/electrode interface is within the member remote from artifact-generating tissue. Cloth straps are bonded to the member to permit the electrode to be sutured to tissue and to provide electrical lead flexure relief.

  5. Pocket ECG electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, G. F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A low noise electrode suited for sensing electrocardiograms when chronically and subcutaneously implanted in a free ranging subject is described. The electrode comprises a pocket shaped electrically conductive member with a single entrance adapted to receive body fluids. The exterior of the member and the entrance region is coated with electrical insulation so that the only electrolyte/electrode interface is within the member, remote from artifact-generating tissue. Cloth straps are bonded to the member to permit the electrode to be sutured to tissue and to provide electrical lead flexure relief.

  6. Highly compliant transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shian, Samuel; Diebold, Roger M.; McNamara, Alena; Clarke, David R.

    2012-08-01

    Adaptive optical devices based on electric field induced deformation of dielectric elastomers require transparent and highly compliant electrodes to conform to large shape changes. Electrical, optical, and actuation properties of acrylic elastomer electrodes fabricated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) have been evaluated. Based on these properties, a figure of merit is introduced for evaluating the overall performance of deformable transparent electrodes. This clearly indicates that SWCNTs outperform AgNWs. Under optimal conditions, optical transparency as high as 91% at 190% maximum actuation strain is readily achievable using SWCNT electrodes.

  7. Multilayer Ferritin Array for Bionanobattery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R., Jr. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A thin-film electrode for a bio-nanobattery is produced by consecutively depositing arrays of a ferritin protein on a substrate, employing a spin self-assembly procedure. By this procedure, a first ferritin layer is first formed on the substrate, followed by building a second, oppositely-charged ferritin layer on the top of the first ferritin layer to form a bilayer structure. Oppositely-charged ferritin layers are subsequently deposited on top of each other until a desired number of bilayer structures is produced. An ordered, uniform, stable and robust, thin-film electrode material of enhanced packing density is presented, which provides optimal charge density for the bio-nanobattery.

  8. Interpenetrating polyaniline-gold electrodes for SERS and electrochemical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. M.; Semancik, S.

    2016-11-01

    Facile fabrication of nanostructured electrode arrays is critical for development of bimodal SERS and electrochemical biosensors. In this paper, the variation of applied potential at a polyaniline-coated Pt electrode is used to selectivity deposit Au on the polyaniline amine sites or on the underlying Pt electrode. By alternating the applied potential, the Au is grown simultaneously from the top and the bottom of the polyaniline film, leading to an interpenetrated, nanostructured polymer-metal composite extending from the Pt electrode to the electrolyte solution. The resulting films have unique pH-dependent electrochemical properties, e.g. they retain electrochemical activity in both acidic and neutral solutions, and they also include SERS-active nanostructures. By varying the concentration of chloroaurate used during deposition, Au nanoparticles, nanodendrites, or nanosheets can be selectively grown. For the films deposited under optimal conditions, using 5 mmol/L chloroaurate, the SERS enhancement factor for Rhodamine 6G was found to be as high as 1.1 × 106 with spot-to-spot and electrode-to-electrode relative standard deviations as low as 8% and 12%, respectively. The advantages of the reported PANI-Au composite electrodes lie in their facile fabrication, enabling the targeted deposition of tunable nanostructures on sensing arrays, and their ability to produce orthogonal optical and electrochemical analytical results.

  9. A Multiplexed, Two-Electrode Platform for Biosensing based on DNA-Mediated Charge Transport

    PubMed Central

    Furst, Ariel L.; Hill, Michael G.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a thin layer, multiplexed biosensing platform that features two working-electrode arrays for detecting small molecules, nucleic acid sequences, and DNA-binding proteins. DNA duplexes are patterned onto the primary electrode array, while a secondary electrode array is used both to initiate DNA monolayer formation, and for electrochemical readout via DNA-mediated charge transport (DNA CT) chemistry. Electrochemical reduction of Cu(phendione)22+ (phendione is 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione) at the secondary electrodes induces covalent attachment via click chemistry of ethynyl-labeled DNA probe duplexes onto the primary electrodes that have been treated with azide-terminated alkythiols. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry confirm that catalyst activation at the secondary electrode is essential to maintain the integrity of the DNA monolayer. Electrochemical readout of DNA CT processes that occur at the primary electrode is accomplished at the secondary electrode. The two-electrode system enables the platform to function as a collector-generator using either ferrocyanide or ferricyanide as mediators with methylene blue and DNA charge transport. Electrochemical measurements at the secondary electrode eliminate the need for large background corrections. The resulting sensitivity of this platform enables the reliable and simultaneous detection of femtomoles of the transcription factors TATA-binding protein and CopG on a single multiplexed device. PMID:26042916

  10. A Multiplexed, Two-Electrode Platform for Biosensing Based on DNA-Mediated Charge Transport.

    PubMed

    Furst, Ariel L; Hill, Michael G; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2015-06-16

    We have developed a thin layer, multiplexed biosensing platform that features two working-electrode arrays for detecting small molecules, nucleic acid sequences, and DNA-binding proteins. DNA duplexes are patterned onto the primary electrode array, while a secondary electrode array is used both to initiate DNA monolayer formation and for electrochemical readout via DNA-mediated charge transport (DNA CT) chemistry. Electrochemical reduction of Cu(phendione)2(2+) (phendione is 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione) at the secondary electrodes induces covalent attachment via click chemistry of ethynyl-labeled DNA probe duplexes onto the primary electrodes that have been treated with azide-terminated alkylthiols. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry confirm that catalyst activation at the secondary electrode is essential to maintain the integrity of the DNA monolayer. Electrochemical readout of DNA CT processes that occur at the primary electrode is accomplished also at the secondary electrode. The two-electrode system enables the platform to function as a collector-generator using either ferrocyanide or ferricyanide as mediators with methylene blue and DNA charge transport. Electrochemical measurements at the secondary electrode eliminate the need for large background corrections. The resulting sensitivity of this platform enables the reliable and simultaneous detection of femtomoles of the transcription factors TATA-binding protein and CopG on a single multiplexed device.

  11. A Gold Sensors Array for Imaging The Real Tissue Phantom in Electrical Impedance Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanti Bera, Tushar; Nagaraju, J.

    2015-02-01

    Surface electrodes in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) phantoms usually reduce the SNR of the boundary potential data due to their design and development errors. A novel gold sensors array with high geometric precision is developed for EIT phantoms to improve the resistivity image quality. Gold thin films are deposited on a flexible FR4 sheet using electro-deposition process to make a sixteen electrode array with electrodes of identical geometry. A real tissue gold electrode phantom is developed with chicken tissue paste and the fat cylinders as the inhomogeneity. Boundary data are collected using a USB based high speed data acquisition system in a LabVIEW platform for different inhomogeneity positions. Resistivity images are reconstructed using EIDORS and compared with identical stainless steel electrode systems. Image contrast parameters are calculated from the resistivity matrix and the reconstructed images are evaluated for both the phantoms. Image contrast and image resolution of resistivity images are improved with gold electrode array.

  12. Long term flight electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, B.

    1975-01-01

    The reproducibility, stability, and methods of preparation for the various types and forms of biomedical electrodes are discussed. A critical and selective compilation of information on biological and/or physiological electrodes is presented. A discussion of plant hydrocolloids, clays, hydrophyllic colloids, synthetic waxes, and acrylic polymers is included.

  13. Electrodes with fiber structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benczur-Uermoessy, G.; Berger, G.; Haschka, F.

    1986-01-01

    An electrode framework with a fiber structure, universally applicable in alkaline storage battery systems, was developed and readied for production. Storage batteries with these electrodes present higher energy and power densities and are economical to produce. The design is applicable to all rechargable storage batteries and might replace the previous variety of designs.

  14. Membrane Bioprobe Electrodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rechnitz, Garry A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the design of ion selective electrodes coupled with immobilized enzymes which operate either continuously or on drop-sized samples. Cites techniques for urea, L-phenylalanine and amygdalin. Micro size electrodes for use in single cells are discussed. (GH)

  15. Shielded Coaxial Optrode Arrays for Neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, Jeffrey R.; Connolly, Timothy; Varela, Juan A.; Lundberg, Jaclyn; Burns, Michael J.; Chiles, Thomas C.; Christianson, John P.; Naughton, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in the study of the brain has been greatly facilitated by the development of new tools capable of minimally-invasive, robust coupling to neuronal assemblies. Two prominent examples are the microelectrode array (MEA), which enables electrical signals from large numbers of neurons to be detected and spatiotemporally correlated, and optogenetics, which enables the electrical activity of cells to be controlled with light. In the former case, high spatial density is desirable but, as electrode arrays evolve toward higher density and thus smaller pitch, electrical crosstalk increases. In the latter, finer control over light input is desirable, to enable improved studies of neuroelectronic pathways emanating from specific cell stimulation. Here, we introduce a coaxial electrode architecture that is uniquely suited to address these issues, as it can simultaneously be utilized as an optical waveguide and a shielded electrode in dense arrays. Using optogenetically-transfected cells on a coaxial MEA, we demonstrate the utility of the architecture by recording cellular currents evoked from optical stimulation. We also show the capability for network recording by radiating an area of seven individually-addressed coaxial electrode regions with cultured cells covering a section of the extent. PMID:27375415

  16. Bipolar battery with array of sealed cells

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Smaga, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A lithium alloy/metal sulfide battery as a dipolar battery is disclosed with an array of stacked cells with the anode and cathode electrode materials in each cell sealed in a confining structure and separated from one another except across separator material interposed therebetween. The separator material is contained in a module having separate perforated metallic sheets that sandwich opposite sides of the separator material for the cell and an annular insulating spacer that surrounds the separator material beyond the perforations and is also sandwiched between and sealed to the sheets. The peripheral edges of the sheets project outwardly beyond the spacer, traverse the side edges of the adjacent electrode material to form cup-like electrode holders, and are fused to the adjacent current collector or end face members of the array. Electrolyte is infused into the electrolyte cavity through the perforations of one of the metallic sheets with the perforations also functioning to allow ionic conductance across the separator material between the adjacent electrodes. A gas-tight housing provides an enclosure of the array.

  17. Global Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Palmer, Bruce J.

    2015-11-01

    Global Arrays (GA) is a distributed-memory programming model that allows for shared-memory-style programming combined with one-sided communication, to create a set of tools that combine high performance with ease-of-use. GA exposes a relatively straightforward programming abstraction, while supporting fully-distributed data structures, locality of reference, and high-performance communication. GA was originally formulated in the early 1990’s to provide a communication layer for the Northwest Chemistry (NWChem) suite of chemistry modeling codes that was being developed concurrently.

  18. Bifunctional catalytic electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisar, Alan (Inventor); Murphy, Oliver J. (Inventor); Clarke, Eric (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to an oxygen electrode for a unitized regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell and the unitized regenerative fuel cell having the oxygen electrode. The oxygen electrode contains components electrocatalytically active for the evolution of oxygen from water and the reduction of oxygen to water, and has a structure that supports the flow of both water and gases between the catalytically active surface and a flow field or electrode chamber for bulk flow of the fluids. The electrode has an electrocatalyst layer and a diffusion backing layer interspersed with hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. The diffusion backing layer consists of a metal core having gas diffusion structures bonded to the metal core.

  19. Electrodes for microfluidic applications

    DOEpatents

    Crocker, Robert W.; Harnett, Cindy K.; Rognlien, Judith L.

    2006-08-22

    An electrode device for high pressure applications. These electrodes, designed to withstand pressure of greater than 10,000 psi, are adapted for use in microfluidic devices that employ electrokinetic or electrophoretic flow. The electrode is composed, generally, of an outer electrically insulating tubular body having a porous ceramic frit material disposed in one end of the outer body. The pores of the porous ceramic material are filled with an ion conductive polymer resin. A conductive material situated on the upper surface of the porous ceramic frit material and, thus isolated from direct contact with the electrolyte, forms a gas diffusion electrode. A metal current collector, in contact with the gas diffusion electrode, provides connection to a voltage source.

  20. HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRODES

    DOEpatents

    Murray, J.J.

    1963-04-23

    S>This patent relates to electrode structure for creating an intense direct current electric field which may have a field strength of the order of two to three times that heretofore obtained, with automatic suppression of arcing. The positive electrode is a conventional conductive material such as copper while the negative electrode is made from a special material having a resistivity greater than that of good conductors and less than that of good insulators. When an incipient arc occurs, the moderate resistivity of the negative electrode causes a momentary, localized decrease in the electric field intensity, thus suppressing the flow of electrons and avoiding arcing. Heated glass may be utilized for the negative electrode, since it provides the desired combination of resistivity, capacity, dielectric strength, mechani-cal strength, and thermal stability. (AEC)

  1. Array-type NH.sub.3 sensor

    DOEpatents

    West, David Lawrence; Montgomery, Frederick Charles; Armstrong, Timothy R; Warmack, Robert J

    2013-12-31

    An array-type sensor that senses NH.sub.3 includes non-Nernstian sensing elements constructed from metal and/or metal-oxide electrodes on an O.sub.2 ion conducting substrate. In one example sensor, one electrode may be made of platinum, another electrode may be made of manganese (III) oxide (Mn.sub.2O.sub.3), and another electrode may be made of tungsten trioxide (WO.sub.3). Some sensing elements may further include an electrode made of La.sub.0.6Sr.sub.0.4Co.sub.0.2Fe.sub0.8O.sub.3 and another electrode made of LaCr.sub.0.95.Mg.sub.0.05O.sub.3.

  2. Discharge electrode structure for electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, T.J.

    1980-10-28

    An electrostatic precipitator is described for extracting particles and other contaminants from a gaseous stream to be purified, the contaminants being ionized by means of a discharge electrode structure which includes a column of dielectric material whose central axis is coincident with the axis of a collector tube within which the column is disposed. The column has a crosssectional geometry that defines a circular series of longitudinally-extending niches. Supported between the ends of the column is a circular array of fine gauge wires each of which is suspended with a respective niche. A high voltage is impressed between the wires in the array and the inner surface of the collector tube to create an electrostatic field in the annular region between the discharge electrode structure and the tube to ionize contaminants in the gaseous stream passing therethrough. The surfaces of the niches acquire bound electrostatic charges whereby the voltage gradient established between the discharge electrode structure and the tube is substantially uniform, thereby attaining optimum collecting and ionization conditions.

  3. Photoelectrochemistry of Semiconductor Nanowire Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Mallouk, Thomas E; Redwing, Joan M

    2009-11-10

    This project supported research on the growth and photoelectrochemical characterization of semiconductor nanowire arrays, and on the development of catalytic materials for visible light water splitting to produce hydrogen and oxygen. Silicon nanowires were grown in the pores of anodic aluminum oxide films by the vapor-liquid-solid technique and were characterized electrochemically. Because adventitious doping from the membrane led to high dark currents, silicon nanowire arrays were then grown on silicon substrates. The dependence of the dark current and photovoltage on preparation techniques, wire diameter, and defect density was studied for both p-silicon and p-indium phosphide nanowire arrays. The open circuit photovoltage of liquid junction cells increased with increasing wire diameter, reaching 350 mV for micron-diameter silicon wires. Liquid junction and radial p-n junction solar cells were fabricated from silicon nano- and microwire arrays and tested. Iridium oxide cluster catalysts stabilized by bidentate malonate and succinate ligands were also made and studied for the water oxidation reaction. Highlights of this project included the first papers on silicon and indium phosphide nanowire solar cells, and a new procedure for making ligand-stabilized water oxidation catalysts that can be covalently linked to molecular photosensitizers or electrode surfaces.

  4. Slanted liquid microlens array by using diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, DooSeub; Kim, JunOh; Lee, JunSik; Kim, CheolJoong; Koo, GyoHyun; Won, Yong Hyub

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to describe a slanted liquid microlens array using diffusers. Ordinary liquid microlens has vertical side walls. The shape of it, however, has several weaknesses such as a low value of diopter and a difficulty in evaporating electrode. The diffuser causes UV light to spread slantly not straightly. This research shows a result of a slanted liquid micro lens having side walls with an angle of 74 degrees and verifies a high value of diopter and a well-filmed electrode. In order to achieve a high percentage of fill factor, it also presents matching values for refractive indices of the two media, oil and chamber.

  5. Fabrication of Electrostatically Actuated Microshutters Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, L.; Li, M.; Kelly, D.; Kutyrev, A.; Moseley, S.

    2016-01-01

    A new fabrication process has been developed to actuate microshutter arrays (MSA) electrostatically at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The microshutters, made with silicon nitride membranes with a pixel size of 100 x 200 sq microns, rotate on torsion bars. The microshutters are actuated, latched, and addressed electrostatically by applying voltages on the electrodes the front and back sides of the microshutters. The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide was used to insulate electrodes on the back side of walls; the insulation can withstand over 100 V. The ALD aluminum oxide is dry etched, and then the microshutters are released in vapor HF.

  6. Electrodes for sealed secondary batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boies, D. B.; Child, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    Self-supporting membrane electrode structures, in which active ingredients and graphite are incorporated in a polymeric matrix, improve performance of electrodes in miniature, sealed, alkaline storage batteries.

  7. Layered electrode for electrochemical cells

    DOEpatents

    Swathirajan, Swathy; Mikhail, Youssef M.

    2001-01-01

    There is provided an electrode structure comprising a current collector sheet and first and second layers of electrode material. Together, the layers improve catalyst utilization and water management.

  8. Active C4 Electrodes for Local Field Potential Recording Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Freedman, David; Sahin, Mesut; Ünlü, M. Selim; Knepper, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular neural recording, with multi-electrode arrays (MEAs), is a powerful method used to study neural function at the network level. However, in a high density array, it can be costly and time consuming to integrate the active circuit with the expensive electrodes. In this paper, we present a 4 mm × 4 mm neural recording integrated circuit (IC) chip, utilizing IBM C4 bumps as recording electrodes, which enable a seamless active chip and electrode integration. The IC chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process for both in vitro and in vivo applications. It has an input-referred noise of 4.6 μVrms for the bandwidth of 10 Hz to 10 kHz and a power dissipation of 11.25 mW at 2.5 V, or 43.9 μW per input channel. This prototype is scalable for implementing larger number and higher density electrode arrays. To validate the functionality of the chip, electrical testing results and acute in vivo recordings from a rat barrel cortex are presented. PMID:26861324

  9. Active C4 Electrodes for Local Field Potential Recording Applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Freedman, David; Sahin, Mesut; Ünlü, M Selim; Knepper, Ronald

    2016-02-04

    Extracellular neural recording, with multi-electrode arrays (MEAs), is a powerful method used to study neural function at the network level. However, in a high density array, it can be costly and time consuming to integrate the active circuit with the expensive electrodes. In this paper, we present a 4 mm × 4 mm neural recording integrated circuit (IC) chip, utilizing IBM C4 bumps as recording electrodes, which enable a seamless active chip and electrode integration. The IC chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.13 μm BiCMOS process for both in vitro and in vivo applications. It has an input-referred noise of 4.6 μV rms for the bandwidth of 10 Hz to 10 kHz and a power dissipation of 11.25 mW at 2.5 V, or 43.9 μW per input channel. This prototype is scalable for implementing larger number and higher density electrode arrays. To validate the functionality of the chip, electrical testing results and acute in vivo recordings from a rat barrel cortex are presented.

  10. Cell specific electrodes for neuronal network reconstruction and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bendali, Amel; Bouguelia, Sihem; Roupioz, Yoann; Forster, Valérie; Mailley, Pascal; Benosman, Ryad; Livache, Thierry; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2014-07-01

    Direct interfacing of neurons with electronic devices has been investigated for both prosthetic and neuro-computing applications. In vitro neuronal networks provide great tools not only for improving neuroprostheses but also to take advantage of their computing abilities. However, it is often difficult to organize neuronal networks according to specific cell distributions. Our aim was to develop a cell-type specific immobilization of neurons on individual electrodes to produce organized in vitro neuronal networks on multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). We demonstrate the selective capture of retinal neurons on antibody functionalized surfaces following the formation of self-assembled monolayers from protein-thiol conjugates by simple contact and protein-polypyrrole deposits by electrochemical functionalization. This neuronal selection was achieved on gold for either cone photoreceptors or retinal ganglion neurons using a PNA lectin or a Thy1 antibody, respectively. Anti-fouling of un-functionalized gold surfaces was optimized to increase the capture efficiencies. The technique was extended to electrode arrays by addressing electropolymerization of pyrrole monomers and pyrrole-protein conjugates to active electrodes. Retinal ganglion cell recording on the array further demonstrated the integrity of these neurons following their selection on polypyrrole-coated electrodes. Therefore, this protein-polypyrrole electrodeposition could provide a new approach to generate organized in vitro neuronal networks.

  11. Measuring electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bordenick, John E.

    1989-01-01

    A pH measuring electrode assembly for immersion in a solution includes an enclosed cylindrical member having an aperture at a lower end thereof. An electrolyte is located in the cylindrical member above the level of the aperture and an electrode is disposed in this electrolyte. A ring formed of an ion porous material is mounted relative to the cylindrical member so that a portion of this ring is rotatable relative to and is covering the aperture in the cylindrical member. A suitable mechanism is also provided for indicating which one of a plurality of portions of the ring is covering the aperture and to keep track of which portions of the ring have already been used and become clogged. Preferably, the electrode assembly also includes a glass electrode member in the center thereof including a second electrolyte and electrode disposed therein. The cylindrical member is resiliently mounted relative to the glass electrode member to provide for easy rotation of the cylindrical member relative to the glass electrode member for changing of the portion of the ring covering the aperture.

  12. Measuring electrode assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bordenick, J.E.

    1988-04-26

    A pH measuring electrode assembly for immersion in a solution includes an enclosed cylindrical member having an aperture at a lower end thereof. An electrolyte is located in the cylindrical member above the level of the aperture and an electrode is disposed in this electrolyte. A ring formed of an ion porous material is mounted relative to the cylindrical member so that a portion of this ring is rotatable relative to and is covering the aperture in the cylindrical member. A suitable mechanism is also provided for indicating which one of a plurality of portions of the ring is covering the aperture and to keep track of which portions of the ring have already been used and become clogged. Preferably, the electrode assembly also includes a glass electrode member in the center thereof including a second electrolyte and electrode disposed therein. The cylindrical member is resiliently mounted relative to the glass electrode member to provide for easy rotation of the cylindrical member relative to the glass electrode member for changing of the portion of the ring covering the aperture. 2 figs.

  13. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo; Vissers, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  14. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Vissers, D.R.

    1981-12-30

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell are described. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  15. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    1999-01-01

    An electrical resistance tomography method using steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constain the models.

  16. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1999-06-22

    An electrical resistance tomography method is described which uses steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constrain the models. 2 figs.

  17. Donor-Acceptor Heterojunction Configurations Based on DNA-Multichromophore Arrays.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mitsunobu; Tsuto, Koji; Jomura, Ayumi; Takada, Tadao; Yamana, Kazushige

    2015-08-10

    Multichromophore arrays of bis(2-thienyl)diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) and naphthalenediimide (NDI) with two Zn(II) -cyclens were constructed using thymidine DNA as a scaffold through the binding of the Zn(II) -cyclens with thymine bases. We demonstrate photocurrent generation in a donor-acceptor heterojunction configuration consisting of the DPP (donor) and NDI (acceptor) arrays co-immobilized on an Au electrode. The co-immobilized electrode exhibited good photocurrent responses because of the efficient charge separation between the DPP and NDI arrays. In contrast, an immobilized electrode consisting of randomly assembled DPP-NDI arrays generated no photocurrent response because DPP formed ground-state charge-transfer complexes with NDI in the randomly assembled arrays. Therefore, our approach to generate donor-acceptor heterojunctions based on DNA-multichromophore arrays is a useful method to efficiently generate photocurrent. PMID:26179473

  18. Microshutter Arrays for the NGST MOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodgate, B. E.; Aslam, S.; Blumenstock, K. A.; Ewin, A.; Fettig, R. K.; Franz, D.; Kotecki, C.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Li, M.; Monroy, C.; Moseley, S. H.; Mott, D. B.; Schwinger, D. S.; Wesenberg, R. P.; Zheng, Y.

    2001-05-01

    Two-dimensional microshutter arrays have been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) for use in the near-infrared region. Functioning as object selection devices, the microshutter arrays are designed for the transmission of light with high efficiency and high contrast. The NGST environment requires cryogenic operation at 45K. Arrays are close-packed silicon nitride membranes with a pixel size of 100μ m x 100 μ m. The mechanical shutter arrays are fabricated with Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems technologies. Individual shutters are patterned with a torsion flexure permitting shutters to open 90 degrees with a minimized mechanical stress concentration. The processing includes a Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) front-etch to form shutters out of the nitride membrane, an anisotropic back-etch for wafer thinning, and a deep RIE (DRIE) back-etch down to the nitride shutter membrane to form frames and to relieve shutters from the silicon substrate. Two schemes for microshutter array actuation and selection are being developed. In the first approach shutters are addressed and selected by a CMOS circuit embedded in the shutter array frame. Actuation is performed by a macro-motion of the whole array support structure utilizing a double-shutter concept. In the second scheme the shutters are coated with a layer of high permeability magnetic material. They are rotated out of the plane by magnetic forcess produced by the interaction of the field produced by an external magnet that is swept across the shutter array and a metal layer on the shutters. To address the shutters a system of transparent electrodes, row and column address lines on each chip and external addressing electronics is used. Vertical walls of the shutter support structure are metallized and act as an electrode to hold selected shutters open at 90 degrees out of the plane. This project is supported by NASA funding.

  19. Note: electrode polarization of Galinstan electrodes for liquid impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Brett L; Kellis, Nathan A; Mazzeo, Brian A

    2011-04-01

    Electrode polarization is a significant obstacle in the impedance measurements of ionic liquids. An atomically smooth electrode surface could potentially reduce unwanted impedance contributions from electrode polarization. Liquid metal electrodes were formed by adhering Galinstan to acrylic plates in a parallel-plate capacitor arrangement. Electrode polarization was compared to a similar cell with stainless steel electrodes. The impedance of salt and protein solutions (β-lactoglobulin) was measured from 40 Hz to 110 MHz. Because of oxide layer formation, the performance of the Galinstan electrode is significantly different than the theoretical ideal.

  20. Note: Electrode polarization of Galinstan electrodes for liquid impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, Brett L.; Kellis, Nathan A.; Mazzeo, Brian A.

    2011-04-01

    Electrode polarization is a significant obstacle in the impedance measurements of ionic liquids. An atomically smooth electrode surface could potentially reduce unwanted impedance contributions from electrode polarization. Liquid metal electrodes were formed by adhering Galinstan to acrylic plates in a parallel-plate capacitor arrangement. Electrode polarization was compared to a similar cell with stainless steel electrodes. The impedance of salt and protein solutions (β-lactoglobulin) was measured from 40 Hz to 110 MHz. Because of oxide layer formation, the performance of the Galinstan electrode is significantly different than the theoretical ideal.