Science.gov

Sample records for radiolucent electrode array

  1. Micromachined electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2007-12-11

    An electrode array is disclosed which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array, in certain embodiments, can include a plurality of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. In other embodiments of the electrode array, the electrodes can be fixed to the substrate. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, and can include electrode tips having an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis.

  2. Flexible retinal electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2006-10-24

    An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

  3. Electrode array for neural stimulation

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Okandan, Murat; Stein, David J.; Yang, Pin; Cesarano, III, Joseph; Dellinger, Jennifer

    2011-08-16

    An electrode array for neural stimulation is disclosed which has particular applications for use in a retinal prosthesis. The electrode array can be formed as a hermetically-sealed two-part ceramic package which includes an electronic circuit such as a demultiplexer circuit encapsulated therein. A relatively large number (up to 1000 or more) of individually-addressable electrodes are provided on a curved surface of a ceramic base portion the electrode array, while a much smaller number of electrical connections are provided on a ceramic lid of the electrode array. The base and lid can be attached using a metal-to-metal seal formed by laser brazing. Electrical connections to the electrode array can be provided by a flexible ribbon cable which can also be used to secure the electrode array in place.

  4. Electrodynamic Arrays Having Nanomaterial Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trigwell, Steven (Inventor); Biris, Alexandru S. (Inventor); Calle, Carlos I. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electrodynamic array of conductive nanomaterial electrodes and a method of making such an electrodynamic array. In one embodiment, a liquid solution containing nanomaterials is deposited as an array of conductive electrodes on a substrate, including rigid or flexible substrates such as fabrics, and opaque or transparent substrates. The nanomaterial electrodes may also be grown in situ. The nanomaterials may include carbon nanomaterials, other organic or inorganic nanomaterials or mixtures.

  5. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2006-12-12

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  6. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  7. Stretchable Micro-Electrode Array

    SciTech Connect

    Maghribi, M; Hamilton, J; Polla, D; Rose, K; Wilson, T; Krulevitch, P

    2002-03-08

    This paper focuses on the design consideration, fabrication processes and preliminary testing of the stretchable micro-electrode array. We are developing an implantable, stretchable micro-electrode array using polymer-based microfabrication techniques. The device will serve as the interface between an electronic imaging system and the human eye, directly stimulating retinal neurons via thin film conducting traces and electroplated electrodes. The metal features are embedded within a thin ({approx}50 micron) substrate fabricated using poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a biocompatible elastomeric material that has very low water permeability. The conformable nature of PDMS is critical for ensuring uniform contact with the curved surface of the retina. To fabricate the device, we developed unique processes for metalizing PDMS to produce robust traces capable of maintaining conductivity when stretched (5%, SD 1.5), and for selectively passivating the conductive elements. An in situ measurement of residual strain in the PDMS during curing reveals a tensile strain of 10%, explaining the stretchable nature of the thin metalized devices.

  8. Virtual electrodes for high-density electrode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Cela, Carlos J.; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2015-10-13

    The present embodiments are directed to implantable electrode arrays having virtual electrodes. The virtual electrodes may improve the resolution of the implantable electrode array without the burden of corresponding complexity of electronic circuitry and wiring. In a particular embodiment, a virtual electrode may include one or more passive elements to help steer current to a specific location between the active electrodes. For example, a passive element may be a metalized layer on a substrate that is adjacent to, but not directly connected to an active electrode. In certain embodiments, an active electrode may be directly coupled to a power source via a conductive connection. Beneficially, the passive elements may help to increase the overall resolution of the implantable array by providing additional stimulation points without requiring additional wiring or driver circuitry for the passive elements.

  9. Virtual electrodes for high-density electrode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Cela, Carlos Jose; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2017-05-23

    The present embodiments are directed to implantable electrode arrays having virtual electrodes. The virtual electrodes may improve the resolution of the implantable electrode array without the burden of corresponding complexity of electronic circuitry and wiring. In a particular embodiment, a virtual electrode may include one or more passive elements to help steer current to a specific location between the active electrodes. For example, a passive element may be a metalized layer on a substrate that is adjacent to, but not directly connected to an active electrode. In certain embodiments, an active electrode may be directly coupled to a power source via a conductive connection. Beneficially, the passive elements may help to increase the overall resolution of the implantable array by providing additional stimulation points without requiring additional wiring or driver circuitry for the passive elements.

  10. Active floating micro electrode arrays (AFMA).

    PubMed

    Kim, T; Troyk, P R; Bak, M

    2006-01-01

    Neuroscientists have widely used metal microelectrodes inserted into the cortex to record neural signals from, and provide electrical stimulation to, neural tissue for many years. Recently, the demand for implanting electrode arrays within the cortex, for both stimulation and recording, has rapidly increased. We are developing Active-floating-micro-electrode-arrays (AFMA) that are intended for use as a multielectrode cortical interface while minimizing the number of wires leading from the array to extra-dural circuitry or connectors. When combined with a wireless module, these new microelectrode arrays should allow for simulation and recording within free-roaming animals. This paper mainly discusses the design, fabrication, and packing of the first generation AFMA. Our long-term vision is a wireless-transmission electrode system, for stimulation and recording in free-roaming animals, which uses a family of modular active implantable electrode arrays.

  11. Optimization of return electrodes in neurostimulating arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Thomas; Goetz, Georges; Lei, Xin; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Objective. High resolution visual prostheses require dense stimulating arrays with localized inputs of individual electrodes. We study the electric field produced by multielectrode arrays in electrolyte to determine an optimal configuration of return electrodes and activation sequence. Approach. To determine the boundary conditions for computation of the electric field in electrolyte, we assessed current dynamics using an equivalent circuit of a multielectrode array with interleaved return electrodes. The electric field modeled with two different boundary conditions derived from the equivalent circuit was then compared to measurements of electric potential in electrolyte. To assess the effect of return electrode configuration on retinal stimulation, we transformed the computed electric fields into retinal response using a model of neural network-mediated stimulation. Main results. Electric currents at the capacitive electrode-electrolyte interface redistribute over time, so that boundary conditions transition from equipotential surfaces at the beginning of the pulse to uniform current density in steady state. Experimental measurements confirmed that, in steady state, the boundary condition corresponds to a uniform current density on electrode surfaces. Arrays with local return electrodes exhibit improved field confinement and can elicit stronger network-mediated retinal response compared to those with a common remote return. Connecting local return electrodes enhances the field penetration depth and allows reducing the return electrode area. Sequential activation of the pixels in large monopolar arrays reduces electrical cross-talk and improves the contrast in pattern stimulation. Significance. Accurate modeling of multielectrode arrays helps optimize the electrode configuration to maximize the spatial resolution, contrast and dynamic range of retinal prostheses.

  12. MEMS conformal electrode array for retinal implant.

    SciTech Connect

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Christenson, Todd R.; Myers, Ramona Lynn; Lemp, Thomas; Okandan, Murat; James, Conrad D.; Shul, Randy John; Stein, David J.; Baker, Michael Sean

    2003-03-01

    Retinal prosthesis projects around the world have been pursuing a functional replacement system for patients with retinal degeneration. In this paper, the concept for a micromachined conformal electrode array is outlined. Individual electrodes are designed to float on micromachined springs on a substrate that will enable the adjustment of spring constants-and therefore contact force-by adjusting the dimensions of the springs at each electrode. This also allows the accommodation of the varying curvature/topography of the retina. We believe that this approach provides several advantages by improving the electrode/tissue interface as well as generating some new options for in-situ measurements and overall system design.

  13. Radiolucent prosthetic gel.

    PubMed

    Beisang, A A; Geise, R A; Ersek, R A

    1991-05-01

    The successful use of silicone breast implants is complicated by their interference with mammography. We have evaluated clinically available implant filling materials and found that a new Bio-Oncotic gel approximates the radiolucency of normal breast tissue. Silicone implants completely obscure areas of the breast in mammography. Recently proposed as a filler material, peanut oil is significantly more radiolucent than normal tissue. Physiologic saline solution compares favorably as a tissue-density-simulating substance. However, saline's lack of lubricating properties results in leakage, making it less than optimal. Bio-Oncotic gel is biologically compatible. We conclude that this gel is the most appropriate filler for breast prostheses. Clinical studies are indicated.

  14. Variable focus microlens array with curved electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Min; Yang, Ren-Kai; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, a liquid crystal microlens array with a curved electrode is designed and fabricated. The fabrication process consists of two parts: fabricating the microlens array and assembling the liquid crystal cell. The first process utilizes the hydrophilic confinement effect, an inkjet printer, and the replication process to fabricate a microlens array on a glass substrate. A transparent, organic, conductive poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is spin-coated on the microlens array as a curved electrode, and the microlens array is further flattened by SU-8 photoresist. It is then assembled with indium tin oxide glass. Interference patterns for the liquid crystal microlens array are measured and agree well with theoretical calculations. From interference patterns, the focusing power range is measured to be from  -47.28 to  -331 diopters under 10 V, which corresponds to focal length from  -2.12 cm to  -0.3 cm at 532 nm wavelength. This technology could be useful for optical zoom systems or focus-tunable lens applications.

  15. Intense terahertz antenna array with interdigital electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lei; Shi, Wei; Xu, Ming; Chen, Yong

    2008-12-01

    In this work a powerful terahertz antenna array with interdigital electrodes is fabricated, and the performance of one antenna unit is compared with a conventional resonant dipole antenna. The antenna unit has a better capacity of generating THz wave compared with a conventional resonant dipole antenna at the same bias electrical field and the same laser energy. However only 23 % of THz wave transmitted through the ceramic substrate of antenna array, if there is a hole drilled through ceramic substrate to release the THz wave, the THz amplitude of entire interdigital antenna array with 8 antenna units can be more than 10 times larger than that of resonant dipole antenna. To get this result, the pump beam is focused into a linear beam by a cylindrical lens to trigger the antenna array, and the linear THz wave is focused by a polyethylene lens before it reaches ZnTe crystal.

  16. Optically transparent multi-suction electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Nagarah, John M.; Stowasser, Annette; Parker, Rell L.; Asari, Hiroki; Wagenaar, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Multielectrode arrays (MEAs) allow for acquisition of multisite electrophysiological activity with submillisecond temporal resolution from neural preparations. The signal to noise ratio from such arrays has recently been improved by substrate perforations that allow negative pressure to be applied to the tissue; however, such arrays are not optically transparent, limiting their potential to be combined with optical-based technologies. We present here multi-suction electrode arrays (MSEAs) in quartz that yield a substantial increase in the detected number of units and in signal to noise ratio from mouse cortico-hippocampal slices and mouse retina explants. This enables the visualization of stronger cross correlations between the firing rates of the various sources. Additionally, the MSEA's transparency allows us to record voltage sensitive dye activity from a leech ganglion with single neuron resolution using widefield microscopy simultaneously with the electrode array recordings. The combination of enhanced electrical signals and compatibility with optical-based technologies should make the MSEA a valuable tool for investigating neuronal circuits. PMID:26539078

  17. Resorbable scaffold based chronic neural electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Ceyssens, Frederik; van Kuyck, Kris; Vande Velde, Greetje; Welkenhuysen, Marleen; Stappers, Linda; Nuttin, Bart; Puers, Robert

    2013-06-01

    We have developed a novel type of neural electrode array for future brain-machine interfaces (BMI) and neural implants requiring high resolution recording and stimulation on the surface of brain lesions or on the cortex. The devices differ on two points from commonly used thin film electrode arrays: first, the thin film backbone of the implant is exceptionally thin (down to 5 microns) and finely patterned into spring-like structures. This increases the flexibility of the electrode array and allows stretching and conforming better to a quasi spherical cavity surface. Second, the thin film backbone of the device is reinforced with a porous layer of resorbable chitosan. This design aims at minimal invasiveness and low mechanical irritation during prolonged use, while the chitosan matrix ensures the implant is stiff enough for practical handling during the implantation procedure and dissolves afterwards. Furthermore, the chitosan adds haemostatic and antiseptic properties to the implant and improves adhesion. In the article, the design and fabrication process are presented. In vitro and long term in vivo test results over a 12 month period are shown. By adopting the use of a resorbable scaffold-like material as main constituent of neural implants, the presented work opens up the possibility of applying tissue engineering techniques to further improve neural implant technology.

  18. Copper nanowire arrays for transparent electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tongchuan; Leu, Paul W.

    2013-08-01

    Metallic nanowires have demonstrated high optical transmission and electrical conductivity with potential for application as transparent electrodes that may be used in flexible devices. In this paper, we systematically investigated the electrical and optical properties of 1D and 2D copper nanowire (Cu NW) arrays as a function of diameter and pitch and compared their performance to that of Cu thin films and our recent results on silver (Ag) NW arrays. Cu NWs exhibit enhanced transmission over thin films due to propagating resonance modes between NWs. For the same geometry, the transmission of Cu NW arrays is about the same as that of Ag NW arrays since the dispersion relation of propagating modes in metal nanowire arrays are independent of the metal permittivity. The sheet resistance is also comparable since the conductivity of Cu is about the same as that of Ag. Just as in Ag NWs, larger Cu NW diameters and pitches are favored for achieving higher solar transmission at a particular sheet resistance. Cu NW arrays may achieve solar transmission >90% with sheet resistances <10 Ω/sq and figure of merit σDC/σop>1000. One of the primary concerns with the use of Cu is oxidation and we also investigated the impact of a nickel (Ni) coating, which can serve as an anti-oxidation layer, on the electrical and optical properties.

  19. Spike sorting for large, dense electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Dan F. M.; Schulman, John; Hunter, Maximilian L.D.; Saleem, Aman B.; Grosmark, Andres; Belluscio, Mariano; Denfield, George H.; Ecker, Alexander S.; Tolias, Andreas S.; Solomon, Samuel; Buzsaki, Gyorgy; Carandini, Matteo; Harris, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    Developments in microfabrication technology have enabled the production of neural electrode arrays with hundreds of closely-spaced recording sites, and electrodes with thousands of sites are currently under development. These probes in principle allow the simultaneous recording of very large numbers of neurons. However, use of this technology requires the development of techniques for decoding the spike times of the recorded neurons, from the raw data captured from the probes. Here, we present a set of novel tools to solve this problem, implemented in a suite of practical, user-friendly, open-source software. We validate these methods on data from the cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus of rat, mouse, macaque, and marmoset, demonstrating error rates as low as 5%. PMID:26974951

  20. Integrated Arrays of Ion-Sensitive Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin; Kuhlman, Kimberly

    2003-01-01

    The figure depicts an example of proposed compact water-quality sensors that would contain integrated arrays of ion-sensitive electrodes (ISEs). These sensors would serve as electronic "tongues": they would be placed in contact with water and used to "taste" selected dissolved ions (that is, they would be used to measure the concentrations of the ions). The selected ions could be any or all of a variety of organic and inorganic cations and anions that could be regarded as contaminants or analytes, depending on the specific application. In addition, some of the ISEs could be made sensitive to some neutral analytes

  1. Silicon-based wire electrode array for neural interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Weihua; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Shanshan; Fang, Xiaolei; Chen, Sanyuan; Gui, Qiang; Tang, Rongyu; Chen, Yuanfang; Hong, Bo; Gao, Xiaorong; Chen, Hongda

    2014-09-01

    Objectives. Metal-wire electrode arrays are widely used to record and stimulate neurons. Commonly, these devices are fabricated from a long insulated metal wire by cutting it into the proper length and using the cross-section as the electrode site. The assembly of a micro-wire electrode array with regular spacing is difficult. With the help of micro-machine technology, a silicon-based wire electrode array (SWEA) is proposed to simplify the assembling process and provide a wire-type electrode with tapered tips. Approach. Silicon wires with regular spacing coated with metal are generated from a silicon wafer through micro-fabrication and are ordered into a 3D array. A silicon wafer is cut into a comb-like structure with hexagonal teeth on both sides by anisotropic etching. To establish an array of silicon-based linear needles through isotropic wet etching, the diameters of these hexagonal teeth are reduced; their sharp edges are smoothed out and their tips are sharpened. The needle array is coated with a layer of parylene after metallization. The tips of the needles are then exposed to form an array of linear neural electrodes. With these linear electrode arrays, an array of area electrodes can be fabricated. Main results. A 6  ×  6 array of wire-type electrodes based on silicon is developed using this method. The time required to manually assemble the 3D array decreases significantly with the introduction of micro-fabricated 2D array. Meanwhile, the tip intervals in the 2D array are accurate and are controlled at no more than 1%. The SWEA is effective both in vitro and in vivo. Significance. Using this method, the SWEA can be batch-prepared in advance along with its parameters, such as spacing, length, and diameter. Thus, neural scientists can assemble proper electrode arrays in a short time.

  2. Developing barbed microtip-based electrode arrays for biopotential measurement.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Li-Sheng; Tung, Shu-Wei; Kuo, Che-Hsi; Yang, Yao-Joe

    2014-07-10

    This study involved fabricating barbed microtip-based electrode arrays by using silicon wet etching. KOH anisotropic wet etching was employed to form a standard pyramidal microtip array and HF/HNO3 isotropic etching was used to fabricate barbs on these microtips. To improve the electrical conductance between the tip array on the front side of the wafer and the electrical contact on the back side, a through-silicon via was created during the wet etching process. The experimental results show that the forces required to detach the barbed microtip arrays from human skin, a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, and a polyvinylchloride (PVC) film were larger compared with those required to detach microtip arrays that lacked barbs. The impedances of the skin-electrode interface were measured and the performance levels of the proposed dry electrode were characterized. Electrode prototypes that employed the proposed tip arrays were implemented. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiography (ECG) recordings using these electrode prototypes were also demonstrated.

  3. Localization of dense intracranial electrode arrays using magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Werner K.; Halgren, Eric; Carlson, Chad; Belcher, Thomas L.; Cash, Sydney S.; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial electrode arrays are routinely used in the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with medically refractory epilepsy, and recordings from these electrodes have been increasingly employed in human cognitive neurophysiology due to their high spatial and temporal resolution. For both researchers and clinicians, it is critical to localize electrode positions relative to the subject-specific neuroanatomy. In many centers, a post-implantation MRI is utilized for electrode detection because of its higher sensitivity for surgical complications and the absence of radiation. However, magnetic susceptibility artifacts surrounding each electrode prohibit unambiguous detection of individual electrodes, especially those that are embedded within dense grid arrays. Here, we present an efficient method to accurately localize intracranial electrode arrays based on pre- and post-implantation MR images that incorporates array geometry and the individual's cortical surface. Electrodes are directly visualized relative to the underlying gyral anatomy of the reconstructed cortical surface of individual patients. Validation of this approach shows high spatial accuracy of the localized electrode positions (mean of 0.96 mm±0.81 mm for 271 electrodes across 8 patients). Minimal user input, short processing time, and utilization of radiation-free imaging are strong incentives to incorporate quantitatively accurate localization of intracranial electrode arrays with MRI for research and clinical purposes. Co-registration to a standard brain atlas further allows inter-subject comparisons and relation of intracranial EEG findings to the larger body of neuroimaging literature. PMID:22759995

  4. Method for the electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays

    DOEpatents

    Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Dirk, Shawn M.; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Brozik, Susan M.

    2015-12-15

    A method for preparing an electrochemical biosensor uses bias-assisted assembly of unreactive -onium molecules on an electrode array followed by post-assembly electro-addressable conversion of the unreactive group to a chemical or biological recognition group. Electro-addressable functionalization of electrode arrays enables the multi-target electrochemical sensing of biological and chemical analytes.

  5. Modiolus-hugging intracochlear electrode array with shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyou Sik; Jun, Sang Beom; Lim, Yoon Seob; Park, Se-Ik; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA-) embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications.

  6. Modiolus-Hugging Intracochlear Electrode Array with Shape Memory Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyou Sik; Lim, Yoon Seob; Park, Se-Ik; Kim, Sung June

    2013-01-01

    In the cochlear implant system, the distance between spiral ganglia and the electrodes within the volume of the scala tympani cavity significantly affects the efficiency of the electrical stimulation in terms of the threshold current level and spatial selectivity. Because the spiral ganglia are situated inside the modiolus, the central axis of the cochlea, it is desirable that the electrode array hugs the modiolus to minimize the distance between the electrodes and the ganglia. In the present study, we propose a shape-memory-alloy-(SMA-) embedded intracochlear electrode which gives a straight electrode a curved modiolus-hugging shape using the restoration force of the SMA as triggered by resistive heating after insertion into the cochlea. An eight-channel ball-type electrode array is fabricated with an embedded titanium-nickel SMA backbone wire. It is demonstrated that the electrode array changes its shape in a transparent plastic human cochlear model. To verify the safe insertion of the electrode array into the human cochlea, the contact pressures during insertion at the electrode tip and the contact pressures over the electrode length after insertion were calculated using a 3D finite element analysis. The results indicate that the SMA-embedded electrode is functionally and mechanically feasible for clinical applications. PMID:23762181

  7. Inflatable belt for the application of electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadleir, R. J.; Fox, R. A.; Turner, V. F.

    2000-02-01

    A prototype device for application of a multiple electrode array to the human abdomen is described and assessed. The device consists of a segmented pneumatic (PVC) belt that, upon inflation, presses electrodes onto the skin simultaneously and with predetermined relative spacings. A single belt can fit a wide range of subject sizes and is comfortable for subjects to wear. It may be useful under conditions where the time taken to attach electrodes is crucial—as in hospital emergency ward applications, and where the maintenance of constant relative electrode spacings is important. The noise performance of these electrodes was only slightly poorer than that obtained using adhesive ECG electrodes.

  8. μ-Foil Polymer Electrode Array for Intracortical Neural Recordings.

    PubMed

    Ejserholm, Fredrik; Köhler, Per; Granmo, Marcus; Schouenborg, Jens; Bengtsson, Martin; Wallman, Lars

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a multichannel electrode array-termed [Formula: see text]-foil-that comprises ultrathin and flexible electrodes protruding from a thin foil at fixed distances. In addition to allowing some of the active sites to reach less compromised tissue, the barb-like protrusions that also serves the purpose of anchoring the electrode array into the tissue. This paper is an early evaluation of technical aspects and performance of this electrode array in acute in vitro/in vivo experiments. The interface impedance was reduced by up to two decades by electroplating the active sites with platinum black. The platinum black also allowed for a reduced phase lag for higher frequency components. The distance between the protrusions of the electrode array was tailored to match the architecture of the rat cerebral cortex. In vivo acute measurements confirmed a high signal-to-noise ratio for the neural recordings, and no significant crosstalk between recording channels.

  9. Shape Optimization of Cochlear Implant Electrode Array Using Genetic Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Shape Optimization of Cochlear Implant Electrode Array using Genetic Algorithms Charles T.M. Choi, Ph.D., senior member, IEEE Department of...c.t.choi@ieee.org Abstract−Finite element analysis is used to compute the current distribution of the human cochlea during cochlear implant electrical...stimulation. Genetic algorithms are then applied in conjunction with the finite element analysis to optimize the shape of cochlear implant electrode array

  10. The standardized EEG electrode array of the IFCN.

    PubMed

    Seeck, Margitta; Koessler, Laurent; Bast, Thomas; Leijten, Frans; Michel, Christoph; Baumgartner, Christoph; He, Bin; Beniczky, Sándor

    2017-10-01

    Standardized EEG electrode positions are essential for both clinical applications and research. The aim of this guideline is to update and expand the unifying nomenclature and standardized positioning for EEG scalp electrodes. Electrode positions were based on 20% and 10% of standardized measurements from anatomical landmarks on the skull. However, standard recordings do not cover the anterior and basal temporal lobes, which is the most frequent source of epileptogenic activity. Here, we propose a basic array of 25 electrodes including the inferior temporal chain, which should be used for all standard clinical recordings. The nomenclature in the basic array is consistent with the 10-10-system. High-density scalp EEG arrays (64-256 electrodes) allow source imaging with even sub-lobar precision. This supplementary exam should be requested whenever necessary, e.g. search for epileptogenic activity in negative standard EEG or for presurgical evaluation. In the near future, nomenclature for high density electrodes arrays beyond the 10-10 system needs to be defined, to allow comparison and standardized recordings across centers. Contrary to the established belief that smaller heads needs less electrodes, in young children at least as many electrodes as in adults should be applied due to smaller skull thickness and the risk of spatial aliasing. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Recording and assessment of evoked potentials with electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Miljković, N; Malešević, N; Kojić, V; Bijelić, G; Keller, T; Popović, D B

    2015-09-01

    In order to optimize procedure for the assessment of evoked potentials and to provide visualization of the flow of action potentials along the motor systems, we introduced array electrodes for stimulation and recording and developed software for the analysis of the recordings. The system uses a stimulator connected to an electrode array for the generation of evoked potentials, an electrode array connected to the amplifier, A/D converter and computer for the recording of evoked potentials, and a dedicated software application. The method has been tested for the assessment of the H-reflex on the triceps surae muscle in six healthy humans. The electrode array with 16 pads was positioned over the posterior aspect of the thigh, while the recording electrode array with 16 pads was positioned over the triceps surae muscle. The stimulator activated all the pads of the stimulation electrode array asynchronously, while the signals were recorded continuously at all the recording sites. The results are topography maps (spatial distribution of evoked potentials) and matrices (spatial visualization of nerve excitability). The software allows the automatic selection of the lowest stimulation intensity to achieve maximal H-reflex amplitude and selection of the recording/stimulation pads according to predefined criteria. The analysis of results shows that the method provides rich information compared with the conventional recording of the H-reflex with regard the spatial distribution.

  12. [Radiolucent pigment gallstones (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wosiewitz, U; Wolpers, C; Quint, P

    1978-12-01

    Pigment gallstones may be subdivided into three different types: radiolucent and radioopaque stones in the gallbladder and radiolucent stones in the common bile duct. 35 of our patients had radiolucent pigment stones in the gallbladder; 21 of these were followed for years by repeated X-ray examination. There is only little enlargement of these stones as time passes by, however the number of these stones increases continuously. Chemical analysis could be done on such stones in 24 cases. The stones were composed of granular calcium bilirubinate and of asphalt-like products derived from abnormal bilirubin degradation. 5 patients had pigment stones in the common bile duct. These stones contained little cholesterol and exhibited a spongy microstructure characterized by small tubules with a diameter of 1 micrometer. They contained more lipids and bilirubin than the stones collected from the gallbladder and on extraction with organic solvents no asphalt-like residues could be obtained.

  13. Neuro-Prosthetic Implants With Adjustable Electrode Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay; DelCastillo, Linda Y.; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Johnson, Travis; West, William; Andersen, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Brushlike arrays of electrodes packaged with application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are undergoing development for use as electronic implants especially as neuro-prosthetic devices that might be implanted in brains to detect weak electrical signals generated by neurons. These implants partly resemble the ones reported in Integrated Electrode Arrays for Neuro-Prosthetic Implants (NPO-21198), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 2 (February 2003), page 48. The basic idea underlying both the present and previously reported implants is that the electrodes would pick up signals from neurons and the ASICs would amplify and otherwise preprocess the signals for monitoring by external equipment. The figure presents a simplified and partly schematic view of an implant according to the present concept. Whereas the electrodes in an implant according to the previously reported concept would be microscopic wires, the electrodes according to the present concept are in the form of microscopic needles. An even more important difference would be that, unlike the previously reported concept, the present concept calls for the inclusion of microelectromechanical actuators for adjusting the depth of penetration of the electrodes into brain tissue. The prototype implant now under construction includes an array of 100 electrodes and corresponding array of electrode contact pads formed on opposite faces of a plate fabricated by techniques that are established in the art of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). A mixed-signal ASIC under construction at the time of reporting the information for this article will include 100 analog amplifier channels (one amplifier per electrode). On one face of the mixed-signal ASIC there will be a solder-bump/micro-pad array that will have the same pitch as that of the electrode array, and that will be used to make the electrical and mechanical connections between the electrode array and the ASIC. Once the electrode array and the ASIC are soldered

  14. 3D nanogap interdigitated electrode array biosensors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwar Vikas; Whited, Allison M; Ragineni, Yaswanth; Barrett, Thomas W; King, Jeff; Solanki, Raj

    2010-06-01

    Three-dimensional interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) have been investigated as sensing elements for biosensors. Electric field and current density were simulated in the vicinity of these electrodes as a function of the electrode width, gap, and height to determine the optimum geometry. Both the height and the gap between the electrodes were found to have significant effect on the magnitude and distribution of the electric field and current density near the electrode surface, while the width of the electrodes was found to have a smaller effect on field strength and current density. IDEs were fabricated based on these simulations and their performance tested by detecting C-reactive protein (CRP), a stress-related protein and an important biomarker for inflammation, cardiovascular disease risk indicator, and postsurgical recuperation. CRP-specific antibodies were immobilized on the electrode surface and the formation of an immunocomplex (IC) with CRP was monitored. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed as the detection technique. EIS data at various concentrations (1 pg/mL to 10 microg/mL) of CRP spiked in buffer or diluted human serum was collected and fitted into an equivalent electrical circuit model. Change in resistance was found to be the parameter most sensitive to change in CRP concentration. The sensor response was linear from 0.1 ng/mL to 1 microg/mL in both buffer and 5% human serum samples. The CRP samples were validated using a commercially available ELISA for CRP detection. Hence, the viability of IDEs and EIS for the detection of serum biomarkers was established without using labeled or probe molecules.

  15. System of fabricating a flexible electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter [Pleasanton, CA; Polla, Dennis L [Roseville, MN; Maghribi, Mariam N [Davis, CA; Hamilton, Julie [Tracy, CA; Humayun, Mark S [La Canada, CA; Weiland, James D [Valencia, CA

    2012-01-28

    An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

  16. Flexible electrode array for artifical vision

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter; Polla, Dennis L.; Maghribi, Mariam N.; Hamilton, Julie

    2006-12-05

    An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

  17. System of fabricating a flexible electrode array

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter; Polla, Dennis L.; Maghribi, Mariam N.; Hamilton, Julie; Humayun, Mark S.; Weiland, James D.

    2010-10-12

    An image is captured or otherwise converted into a signal in an artificial vision system. The signal is transmitted to the retina utilizing an implant. The implant consists of a polymer substrate made of a compliant material such as poly(dimethylsiloxane) or PDMS. The polymer substrate is conformable to the shape of the retina. Electrodes and conductive leads are embedded in the polymer substrate. The conductive leads and the electrodes transmit the signal representing the image to the cells in the retina. The signal representing the image stimulates cells in the retina.

  18. Density controlled carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng F [Newton, MA; Tu, Yi [Belmont, MA

    2008-12-16

    CNT materials comprising aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with pre-determined site densities, catalyst substrate materials for obtaining them and methods for forming aligned CNTs with controllable densities on such catalyst substrate materials are described. The fabrication of films comprising site-density controlled vertically aligned CNT arrays of the invention with variable field emission characteristics, whereby the field emission properties of the films are controlled by independently varying the length of CNTs in the aligned array within the film or by independently varying inter-tubule spacing of the CNTs within the array (site density) are disclosed. The fabrication of microelectrode arrays (MEAs) formed utilizing the carbon nanotube material of the invention is also described.

  19. Multi-Electrode Array for Transcutaneous Lumbar Posterior Root Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Matthias; Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Danner, Simon M; Minassian, Karen; Mayr, Winfried

    2015-10-01

    Interest in transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the lumbosacral spinal cord is increasing in human electrophysiological and clinical studies. The stimulation effects on lower limb muscles depend on the depolarization of segmentally organized posterior root afferents and, thus, the rostro-caudal stimulation site. In previous studies, selective stimulation was achieved by varying the positions of single self-adhesive electrodes over the thoracolumbar spine. Here, we developed a multi-electrode surface array consisting of 3 × 8 electrode pads and tested its stimulation-site specificity. The array was placed longitudinally over the spine covering the T10-L2 vertebrae. Two different hydrogel layer configurations were utilized: a single layer adhered to all electrode pads of the array and a configuration comprised of eight separate strips attached to the three transverse electrode pads of each level. Voltage measurements demonstrated that an effectively focused field distribution along the longitudinal extent of the array was not accomplished when using the single continuous hydrogel layer, and segmental selective stimulation of the posterior root afferents was not possible. The separate strips produced a focused electric field distribution at the rostro-caudal level of the electrode pads selected for stimulation. This configuration allowed for the preferential elicitation of posterior root-muscle reflexes in either the L2-L4 innervated quadriceps or the L5-S2 innervated triceps surae muscle groups. Such multi-electrode array for transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation shall allow for improved control of stimulation conditions in electrophysiological studies and time-dependent and site-specific stimulation patterns for neuromodulation applications.

  20. Regular arrays of microdisc electrodes: simulation quantifies the fraction of 'dead' electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ordeig, Olga; Banks, Craig E; Davies, Trevor J; Del Campo, Javier; Mas, Roser; Muñoz, Francesc Xavier; Compton, Richard G

    2006-03-01

    Arrays of microdisc electrodes have found widespread use in electroanalysis. These are commonly produced lithographically and practical arrays may contain up to hundreds of individual disc electrodes (e.g. of gold, platinum, indium,...) to maximise sensitivity and minimise limits of detection. Typically, however, the lithographic fabrication process is imperfect resulting in a significant fraction (often tens of percent) of electrochemically inactive electrodes. We demonstrate that a 2-dimensional simulation based on the diffusion domain approximation in conjugation with simple experiments on the ferrocyanide redox couple in aqueous solutions can be used to rigorously 'count' the number of active electrodes in a non-destructive fashion. The agreement with an independent count in which active electrodes are identified via electro-plating with copper followed by ex situ microscopic examination is quantitatively excellent.

  1. Addressable electrode array device with IDA electrodes for high-throughput detection.

    PubMed

    Ino, Kosuke; Saito, Wataru; Koide, Masahiro; Umemura, Taizo; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2011-02-07

    An electrochemical device is proposed for high-throughput electrochemical detection that consists of 32 row and 32 column electrodes on a single glass substrate. The row and column electrodes are connected to interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes to form 1024 (32 × 32) addressable sensor points in the device. Electrochemical responses from each of the 1024 sensors were successfully acquired on the device within 1 min using redox cycling at individual IDA electrodes, which ensures application of the device to comprehensive, high-throughput electrochemical detection for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reporter gene assay for monitoring gene expressions, and DNA analysis.

  2. Meningitis and a safe dexamethasone-eluting intracochlear electrode array.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Dimitra; Chambers, Scott; Adams, Louise; Robins-Browne, Roy; Miller, Christopher; Enke, Ya Lang; Wei, Benjamin P C; O'Leary, Stephen; Cowan, Robert; Newbold, Carrie

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the potential risk of pneumococcal meningitis associated with the use of a dexamethasone-eluting intracochlear electrode array as compared with a control array. In two phases, adult Hooded-Wistar rats were implanted via the middle ear with an intracochlear array and were inoculated with Streptococcus pneumoniae 5 days post-surgery. Phase I created a dosing curve by implanting five groups (n = 6) with a control array, then inoculating 5 days later with different numbers of S. pneumoniae: 0 CFU, 10(3) CFU, 10(4) CFU, 10(4) CFU repeated, or 10(5) CFU (colony forming units). A target infection rate of 20% was aimed for and 10(4) CFU was the closest to this target with 33% infection rate. In phase II, we implanted two groups (n = 10), one with a dexamethasone-eluting array, the other a control array, and both groups were inoculated with 10(4) CFU of S. pneumoniae 5 days post-surgery. The dexamethasone-eluting array group had a 40% infection rate; the control array group had a 60% infection rate. This difference was not statistically significant with a P value of ≥0.5. The use of a dexamethasone-eluting intracochlear electrode array did not increase the risk of meningitis in rats when inoculated with S. pneumoniae via the middle ear 5 days following implantation.

  3. Graphene Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Next- Generation Microshutter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Mary; Sultana, Mahmooda; Hess, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Graphene is a single atomic layer of graphite. It is optically transparent and has high electron mobility, and thus has great potential to make transparent conductive electrodes. This invention contributes towards the development of graphene transparent conductive electrodes for next-generation microshutter arrays. The original design for the electrodes of the next generation of microshutters uses indium-tin-oxide (ITO) as the electrode material. ITO is widely used in NASA flight missions. The optical transparency of ITO is limited, and the material is brittle. Also, ITO has been getting more expensive in recent years. The objective of the invention is to develop a graphene transparent conductive electrode that will replace ITO. An exfoliation procedure was developed to make graphene out of graphite crystals. In addition, large areas of single-layer graphene were produced using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) with high optical transparency. A special graphene transport procedure was developed for transferring graphene from copper substrates to arbitrary substrates. The concept is to grow large-size graphene sheets using the LPCVD system through chemical reaction, transfer the graphene film to a substrate, dope graphene to reduce the sheet resistance, and pattern the film to the dimension of the electrodes in the microshutter array. Graphene transparent conductive electrodes are expected to have a transparency of 97.7%. This covers the electromagnetic spectrum from UV to IR. In comparison, ITO electrodes currently used in microshutter arrays have 85% transparency in mid-IR, and suffer from dramatic transparency drop at a wavelength of near-IR or shorter. Thus, graphene also has potential application as transparent conductive electrodes for Schottky photodiodes in the UV region.

  4. A comparison of retinal prosthesis electrode array substrate materials.

    PubMed

    Weiland, James D; Humayun, Mark S; Eckhardt, Helmut; Ufer, Stefan; Laude, Lucien; Basinger, Brooke; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2009-01-01

    Simulations of artificial vision suggest that 1000 electrodes may be required to restore vision to individuals with diseases of the outer retina. In order to achieve such an implant, new technology is needed, since the state-of-the-art implantable neural stimulator has at most 22 contacts with neural tissue. A critical component of this system is the multi-channel, stimulating electrode array. This array must meet very challenging, competing requirements for manufacturing, integration, surgical handling, and biocompatibility. Our lab has evaluated 3 polymers as retinal prosthesis substrates: polyimide, parylene, and silicone.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Electrode Arrays For Enhanced Chemical and Biological Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jie

    2003-01-01

    Applications of carbon nanotubes for ultra-sensitive electrical sensing of chemical and biological species have been a major focus in NASA Ames Center for Nanotechnology. Great progress has been made toward controlled growth and chemical functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays and integration into micro-fabricated chip devices. Carbon nanotube electrode arrays devices have been used for sub-attomole detection of DNA molecules. Interdigitated carbon nanotubes arrays devices have been applied to sub ppb (part per billion) level chemical sensing for many molecules at room temperature. Stability and reliability have also been addressed in our device development. These results show order of magnitude improvement in device performance, size and power consumption as compared to micro devices, promising applications of carbon nanotube electrode arrays for clinical molecular diagnostics, personal medical testing and monitoring, and environmental monitoring.

  6. Carbon Nanotube Electrode Arrays For Enhanced Chemical and Biological Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jie

    2003-01-01

    Applications of carbon nanotubes for ultra-sensitive electrical sensing of chemical and biological species have been a major focus in NASA Ames Center for Nanotechnology. Great progress has been made toward controlled growth and chemical functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays and integration into micro-fabricated chip devices. Carbon nanotube electrode arrays devices have been used for sub-attomole detection of DNA molecules. Interdigitated carbon nanotubes arrays devices have been applied to sub ppb (part per billion) level chemical sensing for many molecules at room temperature. Stability and reliability have also been addressed in our device development. These results show order of magnitude improvement in device performance, size and power consumption as compared to micro devices, promising applications of carbon nanotube electrode arrays for clinical molecular diagnostics, personal medical testing and monitoring, and environmental monitoring.

  7. Biocompatibility of radiolucent breast implants.

    PubMed

    Young, V L; Lund, H; Destouet, J; Pidgeon, L; Ueda, K

    1991-09-01

    Current implants for breast augmentation containing silicone gel, saline, or both are radiopaque on mammographic examination and can totally obscure microcalcifications and soft-tissue masses. The effect of these implants on the detection of early breast cancers in patients who have undergone augmentation mammaplasty remains unproven and controversial. Implants filled with medium-chain triglycerides (peanut oil) are radiolucent on mammographic examination and allow visualization of both soft-tissue masses and microcalcifications. To investigate the biocompatibility of radiolucent implants, 10 cc of sterile, nonpyrogenic peanut oil was injected subcutaneously into rats using silicone gel as a control. Twenty-one rabbits had two 125-cc silicone shell implants inserted on either side of the chest wall. The right-sided shell was filled with 125 cc of sterile saline, and the left-sided shell was filled with 125 cc of sterile, nonpyrogenic peanut oil. Results were determined by both histologic and radiographic examination. Rats injected with peanut oil equivalent to 7 percent of their body weight rapidly absorbed the freely injected oil without detriment. Histologic examination of the lungs, liver, kidneys, and tissues adjacent to the injection sites demonstrated no abnormalities. There was no evidence of allergic, toxic, inflammatory, or neoplastic response. Eighteen of 21 rabbits survived more than 3 months. Radiographs showed the oil-filled implants to be radiolucent, whereas the saline-filled controls obscured the surrounding soft and bony tissues. Histologic examination demonstrated a fibrous capsule surrounding both types of implants. Histologic examination of the lungs, liver, and kidneys showed no significant abnormalities. These and previous studies have shown peanut oil to be biocompatible when freely injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously. This study demonstrates that a radiolucent, peanut oil-filled implant is biocompatible in animals and that

  8. Chronic impedance spectroscopy of an endovascular stent-electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opie, Nicholas L.; John, Sam E.; Rind, Gil S.; Ronayne, Stephen M.; Grayden, David B.; Burkitt, Anthony N.; May, Clive N.; O'Brien, Terence J.; Oxley, Thomas J.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Recently, we reported a minimally invasive stent-electrode array capable of recording neural signals from within a blood vessel. We now investigate the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements to infer changes occurring to the electrode-tissue interface from devices implanted in a cohort of sheep for up to 190 days. Approach. In a cohort of 15 sheep, endovascular stent-electrode arrays were implanted in the superior sagittal sinus overlying the motor cortex for up to 190 days. EIS was performed routinely to quantify viable electrodes for up to 91 days. An equivalent circuit model (ECM) was developed from the in vivo measurements to characterize the electrode-tissue interface changes occurring to the electrodes chronically implanted within a blood vessel. Post-mortem histological assessment of stent and electrode incorporation into the wall of the cortical vessels was compared to the electrical impedance measurements. Main results. EIS could be used to infer electrode viability and was consistent with x-ray analysis performed in vivo, and post-mortem evaluation. Viable electrodes exhibited consistent 1 kHz impedances across the 91 day measurement period, with the peak resistance frequency for the acquired data also stable over time. There was a significant change in 100 Hz phase angles, increasing from -67.8° ± 8.8° at day 0 to -43.8° ± 0.8° at day 91, which was observed to stabilize after eight days. ECM’s modeled to the data suggested this change was due to an increase in the capacitance of the electrode-tissue interface. This was supported by histological assessment with >85% of the implanted stent struts covered with neointima and incorporated into the blood vessel within two weeks. Conclusion. This work demonstrated that EIS could be used to determine the viability of electrode implanted chronically within a blood vessel. Impedance measurements alone were not observed to be a useful predictor of alterations occurring

  9. Micromachined conformal electrode array for retinal prosthesis application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okandan, Murat; Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Christenson, Todd R.; Lemp, Tom; Shul, Randy J.; Baker, Michael; James, Conrad; Myers, Ramona; Stein, David

    2003-01-01

    Retinal prosthesis projects around the world have been pursuing a functional replacement system for those with retinal degeneration. In this paper, we will outline the concept for a micromachined conformal electrode array and present preliminary fabrication results. Individual electrodes are designed to float on micromachined springs on a substrate that will enable the adjustment of spring constants and therefore contact force by adjusting the dimensions of the springs at each electrode. This will also allow us to accommodate the varying curvature/topography of the retina. We believe that this approach will provide several advantages by improving the electrode/tissue interface as well as generating some new options for in-situ measurements and overall system design.

  10. Microbead-based electrochemical immunoassay with interdigitated array electrodes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jennifer H; Kim, Sang Kyung; Hesketh, Peter J; Halsall, H Brian; Heineman, William R

    2004-05-15

    The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and miniaturized immunoassay by coupling a microbead-based immunoassay with an interdigitated array (IDA) electrode. An IDA electrode amplifies the signal by recycling an electrochemically redox-reversible molecule. The microfabricated platinum electrodes had 25 pairs of electrodes with 1.6-microm gaps and 2.4-microm widths. An enzyme-labeled sandwich immunoassay on paramagnetic microbeads with mouse IgG as the analyte and beta-galactosidase as the enzyme label was used as the model system. beta-Galactosidase converted p-aminophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside to p-aminophenol (PAP). This enzyme reaction was measured continuously by positioning the microbeads near the electrode surface with a magnet. Electrochemical recycling occurred with PAP oxidation to p-quinone imine (PQI) at +290 mV followed by PQI reduction to PAP at -300 mV vs Ag/AgCl. Dual-electrode detection amplified the signal fourfold compared to single-electrode detection, and the recycling efficiency reached 87%. A calibration curve of PAP concentration vs anodic current was linear between 10(-4) and 10(-6)M. A signal from 1000 beads in a 20-microL drop was detectable and the immunoassay was complete within 10 min with a detection limit of 3.5x10(-15)mol mouse IgG.

  11. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on the BDD nanograss array electrode

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of DNA biosensor has attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications, including gene analysis, clinical diagnostics, forensic study and more medical applications. Using electroactive daunomycin as an indicator, the hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry in this study. Results Electrochemical DNA biosensor was developed based on the BDD film electrode (fBDD) and BDD nanograss array electrode (nBDD). In comparison with fBDD and AuNPs/CA/fBDD electrode, the lower semicircle diameter of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy obtained on nBDD and AuNPs/CA/nBDD electrode indicated that the presence of nanograss array improved the reactive site, reduced the interfacial resistance, and made the electron transfer easier. Using electroactive daunomycin as an indicator, the hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry. Conclusions The experimental results demonstrated that the prepared AuNPs/CA/nBDD electrode was suitable for DNA hybridization with favorable performance of faster response, higher sensitivity, lower detection limit and satisfactory selectivity, reproducibility and stability. PMID:23575250

  12. Electrochemical DNA biosensor based on the BDD nanograss array electrode.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huali; Wei, Min; Wang, Jinshui

    2013-04-10

    The development of DNA biosensor has attracted considerable attention due to their potential applications, including gene analysis, clinical diagnostics, forensic study and more medical applications. Using electroactive daunomycin as an indicator, the hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry in this study. Electrochemical DNA biosensor was developed based on the BDD film electrode (fBDD) and BDD nanograss array electrode (nBDD). In comparison with fBDD and AuNPs/CA/fBDD electrode, the lower semicircle diameter of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy obtained on nBDD and AuNPs/CA/nBDD electrode indicated that the presence of nanograss array improved the reactive site, reduced the interfacial resistance, and made the electron transfer easier. Using electroactive daunomycin as an indicator, the hybridization detection was measured by differential pulse voltammetry. The experimental results demonstrated that the prepared AuNPs/CA/nBDD electrode was suitable for DNA hybridization with favorable performance of faster response, higher sensitivity, lower detection limit and satisfactory selectivity, reproducibility and stability.

  13. Dielectrophoretic spectroscopy using a microscopic electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirmani, Syed Abdul Mannan; Gudagunti, Fleming Dackson; Velmanickam, Logeeshan; Nawarathna, Dharmakeerthi; Lima, Ivan T.

    2017-02-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is a commonly used technique in biomedical engineering to manipulate biomolecules. DEP is defined as the force acting on dielectric particles when they are exposed to non-uniform electric fields. DEP effect can be divided in three categories: positive (dielectric particles are attracted to the electrodes), negative, and zero force DEP. The cross-over frequency is the frequency in which the DEP force is equal to zero. The cross-over frequency depends on the conductivity and the permittivity of the particles and of the suspended medium. The DEP cross-over frequency has been utilized in detecting/quantifying biomolecules. A manual procedure is commonly used to estimate the cross-over frequency of biomolecules. Therefore, the accuracy of this detection method is significantly limited. To address this issue, we designed and tested an automated procedure to carry out DEP spectroscopy in dielectric particles dissolved in a biological buffer solution. Our method efficiently measures the effect of the DEP force through a live video feed from the microscope camera and performs real-time image processing. It records the change in the fluorescence emission as the system automatically scans the electric frequency of the function generator over a specified time interval. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the method by extracting the crossover frequencies and the DEP spectrum of polystyrene beads with blue color dye (1000 nm diameter) and green fluorescent polystyrene beads with 500 nm diameter using this procedure. This approach can lead to the development of a biosensor with significantly higher sensitivity than existing detection methods.

  14. 3D EFT imaging with planar electrode array: Numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuykin, T.; Korjenevsky, A.

    2010-04-01

    Electric field tomography (EFT) is the new modality of the quasistatic electromagnetic sounding of conductive media recently investigated theoretically and realized experimentally. The demonstrated results pertain to 2D imaging with circular or linear arrays of electrodes (and the linear array provides quite poor quality of imaging). In many applications 3D imaging is essential or can increase value of the investigation significantly. In this report we present the first results of numerical simulation of the EFT imaging system with planar array of electrodes which allows 3D visualization of the subsurface conductivity distribution. The geometry of the system is similar to the geometry of our EIT breast imaging system providing 3D conductivity imaging in form of cross-sections set with different depth from the surface. The EFT principle of operation and reconstruction approach differs from the EIT system significantly. So the results of numerical simulation are important to estimate if comparable quality of imaging is possible with the new contactless method. The EFT forward problem is solved using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for the 8×8 square electrodes array. The calculated results of measurements are used then to reconstruct conductivity distributions by the filtered backprojections along electric field lines. The reconstructed images of the simple test objects are presented.

  15. Ultra-Compliant Transverse lntrafascicular Electrode Arrays for Electro-Pharmaceutics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-31

    Ultra-Compliant Transverse lntrafascicular Electrode Arrays for Electro- Pharmaceutics Final Report Reporting Period: 31 March 2015 - 31 March 2017...the document. Contents Ultra-Compliant Transverse lntrafascicular Electrode Arrays for Electro- Pharmaceutics I Project .Description...materials, with the addition of stimulating electrodes made of thin-ftJm iridium/iridium oxide and electrodes protruding from the probe surface

  16. The rational for a mid-scala electrode array.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P J

    2016-06-01

    Today increasing numbers of cochlear implant candidates have residual hearing that can be aided and hence is worth trying to preserve. This means that surgical technique and electrode array design must be adapted to minimize trauma. Wide opening of the round window is often preferred to reduce drill related trauma and to avoid pressure spikes during electrode array insertion. A recent meta-analysis suggested that there is no significant correlation between hearing preservation and either insertion depth or scala position. However, a slow insertion speed of at least 30seconds was associated with better hearing preservation. An electrode design is proposed that targets the middle of the scala tympani. This minimizes frictional forces from either lateral or medial wall during insertion and imposes less static pressure on cochlear structures following insertion. The flexibility to insert via the round window requires a 0.7-mm maximum dimension at the proximal end of the array. Micro-anatomical analysis by micro-CT indicated that a 420-degree insertion depth was optimal between cochlear coverage and available space within the scala tympani. Physical measurements showed that mean insertion forces remained below 10mN during insertion. A series of 20 human temporal bone insertions found a mean insertion depth of 400 degrees with no scala dislocations. Six clinical series, in total 94 cases, found postoperative hearing in 81% of cases with a mean loss of 12dB compared to preoperative levels. Speech understanding out to one year post-fitting trended better for a mid-scala design group than for a straight electrode array group; although the differences were not statistically significant. A mid-scala array design appears able to be inserted with minimal trauma, to return a predictable insertion depth across various sizes of cochleae and to support reasonable levels of speech understanding without relying on residual hearing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson

  17. Preparation, applications, and digital simulation of carbon interdigitated array electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Kolesov, Grigory; Parkinson, B A

    2014-08-05

    Carbon interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes with features sizes down to 1.2 μm were fabricated by controlled pyrolysis of patterned photoresist. Cyclic voltammetry of reversible redox species produced the expected steady-state currents. The collection efficiency depends on the IDA electrode spacing, which ranged from around 2.7 to 16.5 μm, with the smaller dimensions achieving higher collection efficiencies of up to 98%. The signal amplification because of redox cycling makes it possible to detect species at relatively low concentrations (10(-5) molar) and the small spacing allows detection of transient electrogenerated species with much shorter lifetimes (submillisecond). Digital simulation software that accounts for both the width and height of electrode elements as well as the electrode spacing was developed to model the IDA electrode response. The simulations are in quantitative agreement with experimental data for both a simple fast one electron redox reaction and an electron transfer with a following chemical reaction at the IDAs with larger gaps whereas currents measured for the smallest IDA electrodes, that were larger than the simulated currents, are attributed to convection from induced charge electrokinetic flow.

  18. Preparation, Applications, and Digital Simulation of Carbon Interdigitated Array Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fei; Kolesov, Grigory; Parkinson, Bruce A.

    2014-12-16

    Carbon interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes with features sizes down to 1.2 μm were fabricated by controlled pyrolysis of patterned photoresist. Cyclic voltam-metry of reversible redox species produced the expected steady-state currents. The collection efficiency depends on the IDA electrode spacing, which ranged from around 2.7 to 16.5 μm, with the smaller dimensions achieving higher collection efficiencies of up to 98%. The signal amplification because of redox cycling makes it possible to detect species at relatively low concentrations (10–5 molar) and the small spacing allows detection of transient electrogenerated species with much shorter lifetimes (submillisecond). Digital simulation software that accounts for both the width and height of electrode elements as well as the electrode spacing was developed to model the IDA electrode response. The simulations are in quantitative agreement with experimental data for both a simple fast one electron redox reaction and an electron transfer with a following chemical reaction at the IDAs with larger gaps whereas currents measured for the smallest IDA electrodes, that were larger than the simulated currents, are attributed to convection from induced charge electrokinetic flow. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Science Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  19. Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber electrode arrays for nucleic acid detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugam, Prabhu U.; Yu, Edmond; Riviere, Roger; Meyyappan, M.

    2010-10-01

    We present electrochemical detection of DNA targets that corresponds to Escherichia coli O157:H7 16S rRNA gene using a nanoelectrode array consisting of vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) electrodes. Parylene C is used as gap filling 'matrix' material to avoid high temperature processing in electrode construction. This easy to deposit film of several micron heights provides a conformal coating between the high aspect ratio VACNFs with negligible pin-holes. The low background currents show the potential of this approach for ultra-sensitive detection. Consistent and reproducible electrochemical-signals are achieved using a simple electrode preparation. This simple, reliable and low-cost approach is a forward step in developing practical sensors for applications like pathogen detection, early cancer diagnosis and environmental monitoring.

  20. Cell pairing using microwell array electrodes based on dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuki; Tomita, Masahiro; Mizutani, Fumio; Yasukawa, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-15

    We report a simple device with an array of 10,000 (100 × 100) microwells for producing vertical pairs of cells in individual microwells with a rapid manipulation based on positive dielectrophoresis (p-DEP). The areas encircled with micropoles which fabricated from an electrical insulating photosensitive polymer were used as microwells. The width (14 μm) and depth (25 μm) of the individual microwells restricted the size to two vertically aligned cells. The DEP device for the manipulation of cells consisted of a microfluidic channel with an upper indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode and a lower microwell array electrode fabricated on an ITO substrate. Mouse myeloma cells stained in green were trapped within 1 s in the microwells by p-DEP by applying an alternating current voltage between the upper ITO and the lower microwell array electrode. The cells were retained inside the wells even after switching off the voltage and washing with a fluidic flow. Other myeloma cells stained in blue were then trapped in the microwells occupied by the cells stained in green to form the vertical cell pairing in the microwells. Cells stained in different colors were paired within only 1 min and a pairing efficiency of over 50% was achieved.

  1. Micromachined three-dimensional electrode arrays for transcutaneous nerve tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaraman, Swaminathan; Bragg, Julian A.; Ross, James D.; Allen, Mark G.

    2011-08-01

    We report the development of metal transfer micromolded (MTM) three-dimensional microelectrode arrays (3D MEAs) for a transcutaneous nerve tracking application. The measurements of electrode-skin-electrode impedance (ESEI), electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction utilizing these minimally invasive 3D MEAs are demonstrated in this paper. The 3D MEAs used in these measurements consist of a metalized micro-tower array that can penetrate the outer layers of the skin in a painless fashion and are fabricated using MTM technology. Two techniques, an inclined UV lithography approach and a double-side exposure of thick negative tone resist, have been developed to fabricate the 3D MEA master structure. The MEAs themselves are fabricated from the master structure utilizing micromolding techniques. Metal patterns are transferred during the micromolding process, thereby ensuring reduced process steps compared to traditional silicon-based approaches. These 3D MEAs have been packaged utilizing biocompatible Kapton® substrates. ESEI measurements have been carried out on test human subjects with standard commercial wet electrodes as a reference. The 3D MEAs demonstrate an order of magnitude lower ESEI (normalized to area) compared to wet electrodes for an area that is 12.56 times smaller. This compares well with other demonstrated approaches in literature. For a nerve tracking demonstration, we have chosen EMG and nerve conduction measurements on test human subjects. The 3D MEAs show 100% improvement in signal power and SNR/√area as compared to standard electrodes. They also demonstrate larger amplitude signals and faster rise times during nerve conduction measurements. We believe that this microfabrication and packaging approach scales well to large-area, high-density arrays required for applications like nerve tracking. This development will increase the stimulation and recording fidelity of skin surface electrodes, while increasing their spatial resolution by an order of

  2. Integrated Electrode Arrays for Neuro-Prosthetic Implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik; Mojarradi, Mohammede

    2003-01-01

    Arrays of electrodes integrated with chip-scale packages and silicon-based integrated circuits have been proposed for use as medical electronic implants, including neuro-prosthetic devices that might be implanted in brains of patients who suffer from strokes, spinal-cord injuries, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The electrodes of such a device would pick up signals from neurons in the cerebral cortex, and the integrated circuit would perform acquisition and preprocessing of signal data. The output of the integrated circuit could be used to generate, for example, commands for a robotic arm. Electrode arrays capable of acquiring electrical signals from neurons already exist, but heretofore, there has been no convenient means to integrate these arrays with integrated-circuit chips. Such integration is needed in order to eliminate the need for the extensive cabling now used to pass neural signals to data-acquisition and -processing equipment outside the body. The proposed integration would enable progress toward neuro-prostheses that would be less restrictive of patients mobility. An array of electrodes would comprise a set of thin wires of suitable length and composition protruding from and supported by a fine-pitch micro-ball grid array or chip-scale package (see figure). The associated integrated circuit would be mounted on the package face opposite the probe face, using the solder bumps (the balls of the ball grid array) to make the electrical connections between the probes and the input terminals of the integrated circuit. The key innovation is the insertion of probe wires of the appropriate length and material into the solder bumps through a reflow process, thereby fixing the probes in place and electrically connecting them with the integrated circuit. The probes could be tailored to any distribution of lengths and made of any suitable metal that could be drawn into fine wires. Furthermore, the wires could be coated with an insulating layer using anodization or

  3. Vertically aligned carbon nanofiber nanoelectrode arrays: electrochemical etching and electrode reusability

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rakesh K.; Meyyappan, M.; Koehne, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers in the form of nanoelectrode arrays were grown on nine individual electrodes, arranged in a 3 × 3 array geometry, in a 2.5 cm2 chip. Electrochemical etching of the carbon nanofibers was employed for electrode activation and enhancing the electrode kinetics. Here, we report the effects of electrochemical etching on the fiber height and electrochemical properties. Electrode regeneration by amide hydrolysis and electrochemical etching is also investigated for electrode reusability. PMID:25089188

  4. Nanoband array electrode as a platform for high sensitivity enzyme-based glucose biosensing.

    PubMed

    Falk, Magnus; Sultana, Reshma; Swann, Marcus J; Mount, Andrew R; Freeman, Neville J

    2016-12-01

    We describe a novel glucose biosensor based on a nanoband array electrode design, manufactured using standard semiconductor processing techniques, and bio-modified with glucose oxidase immobilized at the nanoband electrode surface. The nanoband array architecture allows for efficient diffusion of glucose and oxygen to the electrode, resulting in a thousand-fold improvement in sensitivity and wide linear range compared to a conventional electrode. The electrode constitutes a robust and manufacturable sensing platform.

  5. A Active Micromachined Scalp Electrode Array for Eeg Signal Recording.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh-Taheri, Babak

    This thesis describes the design, microfabrication, and testing of an active scalp EEG (electroencephalograph) electrode that has several distinct advantages over existing technologies. These advantages are: (1) no electrolyte used, (2) no skin preparation, (3) significantly reduced sensor size, and (4) compatibility with EEG monitoring systems. The active electrode array is an integrated system made of an array of capacitive sensors with local integrated circuitry housed in a package with batteries to power the circuitry. This level of integration was required to achieve the functional performance obtained by the electrode. The electrode consists of a silicon sensor substrate fabricated at UCD and a custom circuit substrate fabricated at Orbit Semiconductors, using a 2 μm analog CMOS technology. The circuitry was designed for low 1/f noise. One side of the sensor substrate holds four capacitive sensors with rm Si_3N _4 as the dielectric material. The opposite side holds aluminum pads for bonding to the circuit substrate. A via hole technology was developed to make electrical contact to both sides of the sensor substrate. The via holes are 200 μm square openings etched through the silicon by a reactive ion etching (RIE) process using an rm SF_6/O_2 gas mixture, oxidized, and then filled with sputtered aluminum for contacts through the substrate. The via holes have an aspect ratio of 2:1 (length of opening to depth of hole). Silicon RIE etch rates of up to 18 mu/hr were obtained under optimum conditions, using a 0.8 μm aluminum mask. The circuit and sensor substrates were bonded with silver adhesive, and wire bonding was used to make electrical contacts between the substrates. The two substrates were then integrated in a custom package for testing. The electrode was tested on an electrical test bench and on human subjects in four modalities of EEG activity, namely: (1) spontaneous EEG, (2) sensory event-related potentials, (3) brain stem potentials, and (4

  6. Conformally encapsulated multi-electrode arrays with seamless insulation

    DOEpatents

    Tabada, Phillipe J.; Shah, Kedar G.; Tolosa, Vanessa; Pannu, Satinderall S.; Tooker, Angela; Delima, Terri; Sheth, Heeral; Felix, Sarah

    2016-11-22

    Thin-film multi-electrode arrays (MEA) having one or more electrically conductive beams conformally encapsulated in a seamless block of electrically insulating material, and methods of fabricating such MEAs using reproducible, microfabrication processes. One or more electrically conductive traces are formed on scaffold material that is subsequently removed to suspend the traces over a substrate by support portions of the trace beam in contact with the substrate. By encapsulating the suspended traces, either individually or together, with a single continuous layer of an electrically insulating material, a seamless block of electrically insulating material is formed that conforms to the shape of the trace beam structure, including any trace backings which provide suspension support. Electrical contacts, electrodes, or leads of the traces are exposed from the encapsulated trace beam structure by removing the substrate.

  7. Carbon nanofiber electrode array for electrochemical detection of dopamine using fast scan cyclic voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Koehne, Jessica E.; Marsh, Michael; Boakye, Adwoa; Douglas, Brandon; Kim, In Yong; Chang, Su-Youne; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Bennet, Kevin E.; Kimble, Christopher; Andrews, Russell; Meyyappan, M.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanofiber (CNF) electrode array was integrated with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Sensor System (WINCS) for detection of dopamine using fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). Dopamine detection performance by CNF arrays was comparable to that of traditional carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMs), demonstrating that CNF arrays can be utilized as an alternative carbon electrodes for neurochemical monitoring. PMID:21387028

  8. A low-cost interface for multi-electrode array data acquisition systems.

    PubMed

    Serra, Michael; Chan, Amy; Dubey, Maya; Gilman, Vladimir; Shea, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Multi-electrode array systems have enabled the in vitro electrophysiological study of neuronal networks. The data processing component of these systems consists of an advanced computer system and data acquisition electronics that collectively cost more than the multi-electrode arrays and amplifiers. Considering that these elaborate systems may be cost-prohibitive for many laboratories, we have developed a simple but novel method for recording groups of related multi-electrode array channels with a low-cost data acquisition system.

  9. Electrical breakdown gas detector featuring carbon nanotube array electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongyul; Pal, Sunil; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate here detection of dichloro-difluoro-methane and oxygen in mixtures with helium using a carbon nanotube electrical breakdown sensor device. The sensor is comprised of an aligned array of multiwalled carbon nanotubes deposited on a nickel based super-alloy (Inconel 600) as the anode; the counter electrode is a planar nickel sheet. By monitoring the electrical breakdown characteristics of oxygen and dichloro-difluoro-methane in a background of helium, we find that the detection limit for dichloro-difluoro-methane is approximately 0.1% and the corresponding limit for oxygen is approximately 1%. A phenomenologigal model is proposed to describe the trends observed in detection of the two mixtures. These results indicate that carbon nanotube based electrical breakdown sensors show potential as end detectors in gas-chromatography devices.

  10. Digital microfluidic operations on micro-electrode dot array architecture.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Teng, D; Fan, S-K

    2011-12-01

    As digital microfluidics-based biochips find more applications, their complexity is expected to increase significantly owing to the trend of multiple and concurrent assays on the chip. There is a pressing need to deliver a top-down design methodology that the biochip designer can leverage the same level of computer-aided design support as the semi-conductor industry now does. Moreover, as microelectronics fabrication technology is scaling up and integrated device performance is improving, it is expected that these microfluidic biochips will be integrated with microelectronic components in next-generation system-on-chip designs. This study presents the analysis and experiments of digital microfluidic operations on a novel electrowetting-on-dielectric-based 'micro-electrode dot array architecture' that fosters a development path for hierarchical top-down design approach for digital microfluidics. The proposed architecture allows dynamic configurations and activations of identical basic microfluidic unit called 'micro-electrode cells' to design microfluidic components, layouts, routing, microfluidic operations and applications of the biochip hierarchically. Fundamental microfluidic operations have been successfully performed by the architecture. In addition, this novel architecture demonstrates a number of advantages and flexibilities over the conventional digital microfluidics in performing advanced microfluidic operations.

  11. Fabrication of Linear Array and Top-Orthogonal-to-Bottom Electrode CMUT Arrays With a Sacrificial Release Process.

    PubMed

    Greenlay, Benjamin A; Zemp, Roger J

    2017-01-01

    The microfabrication processes for sacrificial-release-based capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer arrays are provided with an emphasis on top-orthogonal-to-bottom electrode 2-D arrays. These arrays have significant promise for high-quality 3-D imaging with reduced wiring complexity compared with fully wired arrays. The protocols and best practices are outlined in significant detail along with design considerations and notes of caution for pitfalls and factors impacting yield.

  12. Fabrication of Linear Array and Top-Orthogonal-to-Bottom Electrode (TOBE) CMUT Arrays with a Sacrificial Release Process.

    PubMed

    Greenlay, Benjamin; Zemp, Roger

    2016-10-24

    The microfabrication processes for sacrificial-release based capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer (CMUT) arrays are provided with an emphasis on top-orthogonal-to-bottom electrode (TOBE) 2D arrays. These arrays have significant promise for high-quality 3D imaging with reduced wiring complexity compared to fully-wired arrays. The protocols and best practices are outlined in significant detail along with design considerations and notes of caution for pitfalls and factors impacting yield.

  13. Electrochemical oxidation of methanol on Pt nanoparticles composited MnO 2 nanowire arrayed electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guang-Yu; Li, Hu-Lin

    2008-03-01

    By use of the membrane-template synthesis route, MnO 2 nanowire arrayed electrodes are successfully synthesized by means of the anodic deposition technique. The Pt nanoparticles composited MnO 2 nanowire arrayed electrodes (PME) are obtained through depositing Pt on MnO 2 nanowire arrayed electrode by cathode deposition technique. For comparison of electrochemical performance, Pt nanowire arrayed electrodes which have the same amount of Pt with PME are also prepared. The electro-oxidation of methanol on PME and Pt nanowire arrayed electrodes is investigated at room temperature by cyclic voltammetry, which show that about 110 mV decreased overpotential and 2.1-fold enhanced votammetric current are achieved on PME. The chronoamperometry result demonstrates that the resistance to carbon monoxide for PME is improved.

  14. Nano-Ampere Stimulation Window for Cultured Neurons on Micro-Electrode Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    the electrical potential and σ the conductivity of the NANO -AMPÈRE STIMULATION WINDOW FOR CULTURED NEURONS ON MICRO -ELECTRODE ARRAYS J.R. Buitenweg1... Nano -Ampere Stimulatin Window for Cultured Neurons on Micro -Electrode Arrays Contract Number Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project...membrane, using a nano -ampère current through the extracellular electrode. Also, a stimulation window is observed. These findings can be explained by a

  15. Design and characterisation of a thin-film electrode array with shared reference/counter electrodes for electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Yildiz; Olcer, Zehra; Sagiroglu, Mahmut Samil

    2014-07-15

    In the current study, a novel electrode array and integrated microfluidics have been designed and characterised in order to create a sensor chip which is not only easy, rapid and cheaper to produce but also have a smaller imprint and good electrochemical sensing properties. The current study includes the assessment of the effects of an Au quasi-reference electrode and the use of shared reference/counter electrodes for the array, in order to obtain a small array that can be produced using a fine metal mask. In the study, it is found that when Au is used as the quasi-reference electrode, the arrays with shared reference and counter electrodes result in faster electron transfer kinetics and prevent the potential change with respect to scan rate, and hence is advantageous with respect to conventional electrodes. In addition, the resulting novel electrode array has been shown to result in higher current density (10.52 µA/cm(2); HRP detection assay) and measured diffusion coefficient (14.40×10(-12) cm(2)/s; calculated from the data of cyclic voltammetry with 1mM potassium ferricyanide) with respect to conventional electrodes tested in the study. Using the new electrode arrays, the detection limits obtained from horse radish peroxidase (HRP) and bisphenol A assays were 12.5 ng/ml (2.84×10(-10) M ) and 10 ng/ml (44×10(-9) M), respectively. Performing the HRP detection assay in a flow injection system using array integrated microfluidics provided 25 times lower detection limit (11.36×10(-12) M), although Ti has been used as electrode material instead of Au. In short, incorporation of this new electrode array to lab-on-a-chip or MEMs (micro-electro mechanic systems) technologies may pave the way for easy to use automated biosensing devices that could be used for a variety of applications from diagnostics to environmental monitoring, and studies will continue to move forward in this direction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mapping the temporal pole with a specialized electrode array: technique and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Taylor J.; Rhone, Ariane E.; Nourski, Kirill V.; Granner, Mark A.; Oya, Hiroyuki; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Tranel, Daniel T.; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Howard, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Temporopolar cortex plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy and subserves important cognitive functions. Because of its shape and position in the middle cranial fossa, complete electrode coverage of the temporal pole (TP) is difficult to achieve using existing devices. We designed a novel TP electrode array that conforms to the surface of temporopolar cortex and achieves dense electrode coverage of this important brain region. A multi-pronged electrode array was designed that can be placed over the surface of the TP using a straightforward insertion technique. Twelve patients with medically intractable epilepsy were implanted with the TP electrode array for purposes of seizure localization. Select patients underwent cognitive mapping by electrocorticographic (ECoG) recording from the TP during a naming task. Use of the array resulted in excellent TP electrode coverage in all patients. High quality ECoG data were consistently obtained for purposes of delineating seizure activity and functional mapping. During a naming task, significant increases in ECoG power were observed within localized subregions of the TP. One patient developed a transient neurological deficit thought to be related to the mass effect of multiple intracranial recording arrays, including the TP array. This deficit resolved following removal of all electrodes. The TP electrode array overcomes limitations of existing devices and enables clinicians and researchers to obtain optimal multi-site recordings from this important brain region. PMID:24480831

  17. Electrophysiological detection of scalar changing perimodiolar cochlear electrode arrays: a long term follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mittmann, Philipp; Todt, I; Ernst, A; Rademacher, G; Mutze, S; Göricke, S; Schlamann, M; Ramalingam, R; Lang, S; Christov, F; Arweiler-Harbeck, D

    2016-12-01

    The position of the cochlear electrode array within the scala tympani is essential for an optimal hearing benefit. An intraoperative NRT-ratio was established, which can provide information about the intraoperative intracochlear electrode array position for perimodiolar electrodes. The aims of this study were to verify the longterm reliability for the NRT-ratio in perimodiolar electrodes. In a retrospective controlled study in a Tertiary Referral Center the electrophysiological data sets of 123 patients with implanted Nucleus Contour Advance electrodes were enclosed. Intraoperative and up to 1 year follow-up Auto-NRTs were evaluated. A NRT-ratio was calculated by dividing the average Auto-NRT data from electrode 16 to 18 with the average from electrode 5 to 7. Using a flat panel tomography system, the position of the electrode array was certified radiological. 31 patients with perimodiolar electrodes with 1 year follow-up data were included in the study. Eleven patients showed regular follow-up NRT-ratio with a correlated and radiologically confirmed electrode position. 20 patients showed mismatches between the NRT-ratio and the radiological position. These patients were highly variable in terms of duration of deafness and neural spectrum disorders. The NRT-ratio can be used to determine the intracochlear position of the electrode array for perimodiolar electrodes. Intraoperatively the NRT-ratio predicts the array position within the cochlea highly reliable for perimodiolar electrodes. We showed that after 6 months and a year, the NRT-ratio remains unchanged in most of the cases and shows a good correlation to the radiological determined position of the array. Nevertheless, the condition of the neural structures is highly important for reproducible responses. Limited validity is given in patients with degenerative and structural neural disorders.

  18. Inkjet printed electrode arrays for potential modulation of DNA self-assembled monolayers on gold.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunchao; Li, Paul C H; Parameswaran, M Ash; Yu, Hua-Zhong

    2008-11-15

    In this paper, we report a novel and cost-effective fabrication technique to produce electrode arrays that can be used for monitoring and electrical manipulation of the molecular orientation of DNA self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold. The electrode arrays were prepared from gold coated glass sides or compact discs (CD-Rs) by using standard office inkjet printers without any hardware or software modifications. In this method, electrode arrays of varied shape and size (from submillimeter to centimeter) can be rapidly fabricated and are suitable for standard electrochemical measurements. We were able to use a dual-channel potentiostat to control the electrodes individually and a fluorescence (FL) scanner to image the electrode array simultaneously. With such an integrated modulation setup, the structural switching behavior (from "lying" to "standing" position) and the enhanced hybridization reactivity of thiolate DNA SAMs on gold under potential control have been successfully demonstrated.

  19. Design of an impeller-mounted electrode array for EIT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, S. C.; Chin, R. K. Y.; York, T. A.

    2008-09-01

    The information content in electrical impedance tomography (EIT) reconstructions is limited by the number of independent impedance measurements acquired for each image frame. This paper describes the design and construction of an electrode array mounted onto a rotating impeller used for mixing processes. By combining the process compliant rotation of the electrodes with a dynamic measurement protocol, a substantial increase in the number of independent measurements is reported. A pitch-blade impeller is built and fitted with four electrodes. A number of challenges associated with operating a rotating electrode array have been addressed including a wireless communications protocol. The impeller has been accurately modelled and measurement simulations closely correspond to those acquired using the array. The apparatus has been used to successfully visualize a test distribution to a consistent standard compared to a conventional EIT electrode array and strategy. Presently, the limiting factor to this approach is the necessary high measurement acquistion rates which lead to restricted impeller velocities.

  20. Functional Electrical Stimulation of the Feline Larynx With a Flexible Ribbon Electrode Array.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Morgan R; Wark, Heather; McDonnall, Daniel; Smith, Marshall E

    2016-02-01

    Success of laryngeal reanimation through neurorrhaphy has been limited by synkinesis and preoperative muscle atrophy. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of epimysial electrode arrays as a means of delivering electrical stimulation to the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles in order to control laryngeal abduction. Ribbon electrode arrays with 4 or 8 electrode contacts were used. Four cats underwent implantation of electrode arrays along the surface of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles. The glottis was visualized with a 0° telescope while electrodes were stimulated at different amplitudes and pulse-width durations. Recordings of stimulated vocal folds were analyzed, and the degree of vocal fold abduction was measured in order to create recruitment curves for the left and right posterior cricoarytenoid. Recruitment curves from electrode channels within the array were compared. Electrodes oriented along the medial aspect of the posterior cricoarytenoid stimulated graded physiologic degrees of abduction depending on the amplitude of stimulation. Electrodes oriented laterally along the posterior cricoarytenoid stimulated greater degrees of simultaneous adduction with abduction. Acute studies of ribbon surface electrode arrays placed onto the posterior cricoarytenoid reproduce graded degrees of abduction necessary for the precise function of respiration and speech. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Predictors of radiolucent foreign body aspiration.

    PubMed

    Mortellaro, Vincent E; Iqbal, Corey; Fu, Roxanna; Curtis, Heather; Fike, Frankie B; St Peter, Shawn D

    2013-09-01

    Children frequently present for suspected foreign body aspiration, many have mild symptoms and/or negative radiographs raising the question of a radiolucent foreign body aspiration. Retrospective review of patients having bronchoscopy for suspected radiolucent foreign body aspiration from 2000 to 2010 collecting demographics, history, hospital presentation, radiographic, and operative details. Pearson's correlation was used between event history, presentation, radiographic details and bronchoscopically identified foreign body with P value <0.01. 138 patients, mean age 2.6 years, mean weight 15.6 kg, 68% male. Event symptoms: 81% witnessed events, 64% wheezing, 43% coughing, 39% choking, 6% stridor, and 0.7% lethargy. Hospital presentation: 70% persistent symptoms, wheezing 56%, coughing 15%, desaturations 11%, stridor 7%, choking 4%, and lethargy 1%. 92% of patients had a chest x-ray; air trapping found in 38%, and lung collapse in 21%. 2 patients received CT scans; 1 had lung collapse. Bronchoscopy identified foreign bodies in 93% of patients: food 68%, plastic 18%, non-descript 11%, rocks 3%. No correlations between event symptoms, hospital presentation, radiographs and foreign body presence. Event history, hospital presentation, and radiographs are insufficient in proving the absence of a radiolucent foreign body. Patients with suspected radiolucent foreign body aspiration should undergo diagnostic bronchoscopy prior to discharge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cone beam computed tomography and histological evaluations of a straight electrode array positioning in temporal bones.

    PubMed

    Mosnier, Isabelle; Célérier, Charlotte; Bensimon, Jean-Loup; de Seta, Daniele; Sterkers, Olivier; Nguyen, Yann; Bernardeschi, Daniele

    2017-03-01

    CBCT allows a precise evaluation of the dimensions and of the shape of the cochlear duct that is of primary importance for the choice of the length and the design of the electrode array. This radio-histological study confirms that CBCT is a reliable tool to be used in clinical studies to evaluate the position of straight electrode arrays within the cochlear scala. To validate the reliability of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the evaluation of cochlear anatomy and positioning of a straight electrode array, by comparing radiological images to histological analysis of cochlear implanted temporal bones. Eight temporal bones for four subjects were analysed before and after cochlear implantation with a straight electrode array. The size of the cochlea, the dimensions, and shape of the cochlear duct at 180° and 360° were evaluated on CBCT performed before implantation. Temporal bones then underwent histological analysis to determine the position of the electrode array. Scalar localization of the electrode array was assessed on CBCT performed after implantation, and compared with histological study. CBCT is a reliable radiological technique to differentiate variability not only of cochlear dimensions, but also of size and shape of the cochlea. Histological analysis confirmed the scalar position of the electrode array assessed by the CBCT in 7/8 temporal bones, but soft tissue trauma such as dissection of the spiral ligament was not identified by the CBCT.

  3. Parallel calculation of multi-electrode array correlation networks.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Pedro; Simonotto, Jennifer; Kaiser, Marcus; Silva, Fernando

    2009-11-15

    When calculating correlation networks from multi-electrode array (MEA) data, one works with extensive computations. Unfortunately, as the MEAs grow bigger, the time needed for the computation grows even more: calculating pair-wise correlations for current 60 channel systems can take hours on normal commodity computers whereas for future 1000 channel systems it would take almost 280 times as long, given that the number of pairs increases with the square of the number of channels. Even taking into account the increase of speed in processors, soon it can be unfeasible to compute correlations in a single computer. Parallel computing is a way to sustain reasonable calculation times in the future. We provide a general tool for rapid computation of correlation networks which was tested for: (a) a single computer cluster with 16 cores, (b) the Newcastle Condor System utilizing idle processors of university computers and (c) the inter-cluster, with 192 cores. Our reusable tool provides a simple interface for neuroscientists, automating data partition and job submission, and also allowing coding in any programming language. It is also sufficiently flexible to be used in other high-performance computing environments.

  4. USE OF COUPLED MULTI-ELECTRODE ARRAYS TO ADVANCE THE UNDERSTANDING OF SELECTED CORROSION PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    N.D. Budiansky; F. Bocher; H. Cong; M.F. Hurley; J.R. Scully

    2006-02-23

    The use of multi-coupled electrode arrays in various corrosion applications is discussed with the main goal of advancing the understanding of various corrosion phenomena. Both close packed and far spaced electrode configurations are discussed. Far spaced electrode arrays are optimized for high throughput experiments capable of elucidating the effects of various variables on corrosion properties. For instance the effects of a statistical distribution of flaws on corrosion properties can be examined. Close packed arrays enable unprecedented spatial and temporal information on the behavior of local anodes and cathodes. Interactions between corrosion sites can trigger or inhibit corrosion phenomena and affect corrosion damage evolution.

  5. Using multivariate analyses to compare subsets of electrodes and potentials within an electrode array for predicting sugar concentrations in mixed solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, Christopher Lyle; Steen, William Arthur

    2008-04-01

    A non-selective electrode array is presented for the quantification of fructose, galactose, and glucose in mixed solutions. A unique feature of this electrode array relative to other published work is the wide diversity of electrode materials incorporated within the array, being constructed of 41 different metals and metal alloys. Cyclic voltammograms were acquired for solutions containing a single sugar at varying concentrations, and the correlation between current and sugar concentration was calculated as a function of potential and electrode array element. The correlation plots identified potential regions and electrodes that scaled most linearly with sugar concentration, and the number of electrodes used in building predictive models was reduced to 15. Partial least squares regression models relating electrochemical response to sugar concentration were constructed using data from single electrodes and multiple electrodes within the array, and the predictive abilities of these models were rigorously compared using a non-parametric Wilcoxon test. Models using single electrodes (Pt:Rh (90:10) for fructose, Au:Ni (82:18) for galactose, and Au for glucose) were judged to be statistically superior or indistinguishable from those built with multiple electrodes. Additionally, for each sugar, interval partial least squares regression successfully identified a subset of potentials within a given electrode that generated a model of statistically equivalent predictive ability relative to the full potential model. While including data from multiple electrodes offered no benefit in predicting sugar concentration, use of the array afforded the versatility and flexibility of selecting the best single electrode for each sugar.

  6. Clinical applications of penetrating neural interfaces and Utah Electrode Array technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normann, Richard A.; Fernandez, Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    This paper briefly describes some of the recent progress in the development of penetrating microelectrode arrays and highlights the use of two of these devices, Utah electrode arrays and Utah slanted electrode arrays, in two therapeutic interventions: recording volitional skeletal motor commands from the central nervous system, and recording motor commands and evoking somatosensory percepts in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The paper also briefly explores other potential sites for microelectrode array interventions that could be profitably pursued and that could have important consequences in enhancing the quality of life of patients that has been compromised by disorders of the central and PNSs.

  7. Improved spike sorting for multi-electrode array data from mammalian retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Jason; Homann, Jan; Simmons, Kristy; Tkacik, Gasper; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Nelson, Philip

    2010-03-01

    Multi-electrode array technology provides an efficient means of simultaneously recording from many neurons. However, as arrays become larger, a greater computational burden falls on the spike-sorting algorithm. We have developed a new method for sorting multi-electrode signals and applied it to retinal ganglion cells. Our method is explicitly designed to scale well with increasing array size. It can dissect temporally overlapping spikes and accommodate the amplitude variation seen in spike bursts. The broad outline of our method is to (1) identify spikes in the raw data, cluster a subset, generate template waveforms, then (2) fit the templates to all the data using an iterative Bayesian algorithm. Each of these two steps makes use of the 2D spatial arrangement of the ganglion cells and electrodes, and the locality of signals from each individual cell. We demonstrate the method on data recorded from guinea pig retina on a 30-electrode array.

  8. Synchronization of neurons in micro-electrode array cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposti, F.; Signorini, M. G.

    2008-12-01

    A lot of methods were created in last decade for the spatio-temporal analysis of multi-electrode array (MEA) neuronal data sets. In this paper we show how a new simple analysis approach that considers the total network activity, is able to show interesting neuronal network system dynamical features. In particular, we perform two different analyses: a neuronal connectivity examination studying networks at different days in vitro (div) and an analysis of the long per- iod effects of the administration of two common neuroactive drugs, Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and D-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP5), to spontaneously spiking mature neuronal networks. Our analysis is performed considering burst topology, i.e., cataloguing network bursts as Global (if they involve more than the 25% of the MEA channels) or Local (if less that 25%). In the first analysis, this division allows to understand the network connectivity developments. The networking increases from div 1 to 6 building up an undifferentiated highly connected network. From div 6 to 10 the networking decreases (pruning) till reaching a plateau in a small-world like organization. The second analysis highlights substantial differences between long period effects of TTX and AP5. Results show that AP5, selectively blocking NMDA receptors and inhibiting long term potentiation, is unable to produce activity twisting in a network that already reached a developmental plateau, but it is able to desynchronize sub-network (Local) activity. TTX, on the other side, blocking any type of electrical communication among neurons, acts on the whole network synchronization. The important activity increment in the post-TTX epoch (+66%), together with the Global activity explosion, suggests the possibility of a long-term inhibitory-synapse depression mechanism.

  9. A Palladium-Tin Modified Microband Electrode Array for Nitrate Determination

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yexiang; Bian, Chao; Kuang, Jian; Wang, Jinfen; Tong, Jianhua; Xia, Shanhong

    2015-01-01

    A microband electrode array modified with palladium-tin bimetallic composite has been developed for nitrate determination. The microband electrode array was fabricated by Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technique. Palladium and tin were electrodeposited successively on the electrode, forming a double-layer structure. The effect of the Pd-Sn composite was investigated and its enhancement of catalytic activity and lifetime was revealed. The Pd-Sn modified electrode showed good linearity (R2 = 0.998) from 1 mg/L to 20 mg/L for nitrate determination with a sensitivity of 398 μA/(mg∙L−1∙cm2). The electrode exhibited a satisfying analytical performance after 60 days of storage, indicating a long lifetime. Good repeatability was also displayed by the Pd-Sn modified electrodes. The results provided an option for nitrate determination in water. PMID:26389904

  10. A Palladium-Tin Modified Microband Electrode Array for Nitrate Determination.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yexiang; Bian, Chao; Kuang, Jian; Wang, Jinfen; Tong, Jianhua; Xia, Shanhong

    2015-09-15

    A microband electrode array modified with palladium-tin bimetallic composite has been developed for nitrate determination. The microband electrode array was fabricated by Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technique. Palladium and tin were electrodeposited successively on the electrode, forming a double-layer structure. The effect of the Pd-Sn composite was investigated and its enhancement of catalytic activity and lifetime was revealed. The Pd-Sn modified electrode showed good linearity (R² = 0.998) from 1 mg/L to 20 mg/L for nitrate determination with a sensitivity of 398 μA/(mg∙L(-1)∙cm²). The electrode exhibited a satisfying analytical performance after 60 days of storage, indicating a long lifetime. Good repeatability was also displayed by the Pd-Sn modified electrodes. The results provided an option for nitrate determination in water.

  11. Electrodeposition of gold nanoparticle arrays on ITO glass as electrode with high electrocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kui; Wei, Juan; Zhu, Houjuan; Ma, Fang; Wang, Suhua

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Electrodeposition of gold nanoparticle arrays on ITO glass as catalytic-electrodes. ► The sizes and densities of the gold nanoparticles can be easily controlled. ► Such arrays on ITO glass shows high electrocatalytic activity and good stability. - Abstract: Herein, we reported a templateless, surfactantless, and simple electrochemical method to directly fabricate gold nanoparticle (AuNP) arrays on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates as effective electrocatalytic electrodes. The as-prepared AuNP arrays have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), etc. AuNPs with small sizes (<20 nm) were uniformly deposited on the ITO glass under constant current densities, and particle densities can be adjusted by varying the applied charges. The resultant AuNP array electrode showed higher catalytic activity and good stability toward electro-oxidation of ascorbic acid compared with other electrodes, such as bare ITO electrode, bare glassy carbon electrode and bulk gold film electrode.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of microsieve electrode array (µSEA) enabling cell positioning on 3D electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurink, B.; Tiggelaar, R. M.; Gardeniers, J. G. E.; Luttge, R.

    2017-01-01

    Here the fabrication and characterization of a novel microelectrode array for electrophysiology applications is described, termed a micro sieve electrode array (µSEA). This silicon based µSEA device allows for hydrodynamic parallel positioning of single cells on 3D electrodes realized on the walls of inverted pyramidal shaped pores. To realize the µSEA, a previously realized silicon sieving structure is provided with a patterned boron doped poly-silicon, connecting the contact electrodes with the 3D sensing electrodes in the pores. A LPCVD silicon-rich silicon nitride layer was used as insulation. The selective opening of this insulation layer at the ends of the wiring lines allows to generate well-defined contact and sensing electrodes according to the layout used in commercial microelectrode array readers. The main challenge lays in the simultaneously selective etching of material at both the planar surface (contact electrode) as well as in the sieving structure containing the (3D) pores (sensing electrodes). For the generation of 3D electrodes in the pores a self-aligning technique was developed using the pore geometry to our advantage. This technique, based on sacrificial layer etching, allows for the fine tuning of the sensing electrode surface area and thus supports the positioning and coupling of single cells on the electrode surface in relation to the cell size. Furthermore, a self-aligning silicide is formed on the sensing electrodes to favour the electrical properties. Experiments were performed to demonstrate the working principle of the µSEA using different types of neuronal cells. Capture efficiency in the pores was  >70% with a 70% survival rate of the cell maintained for up to 14 DIV. The TiSi2-boron-doped-poly-silicon sensing electrodes of the µSEA were characterized, which indicated noise levels of  <15 µV and impedance values of 360 kΩ. These findings potentially allow for future electrophysiological measurements using the µSEA.

  13. Investigation of Implantable Multi-Channel Electrode Array in Rat Cerebral Cortex Used for Recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Noriyuki; Fukayama, Osamu; Suzuki, Takafumi; Mabuchi, Kunihiko

    There have recently been many studies concerning the control of robot movements using neural signals recorded from the brain (usually called the Brain-Machine interface (BMI)). We fabricated implantable multi-electrode arrays to obtain neural signals from the rat cerebral cortex. As any multi-electrode array should have electrode alignment that minimizes invasion, it is necessary to customize the recording site. We designed three types of 22-channel multi-electrode arrays, i.e., 1) wide, 2) three-layered, and 3) separate. The first extensively covers the cerebral cortex. The second has a length of 2 mm, which can cover the area of the primary motor cortex. The third array has a separate structure, which corresponds to the position of the forelimb and hindlimb areas of the primary motor cortex. These arrays were implanted into the cerebral cortex of a rat. We estimated the walking speed from neural signals using our fabricated three-layered array to investigate its feasibility for BMI research. The neural signal of the rat and its walking speed were simultaneously recorded. The results revealed that evaluation using either the anterior electrode group or posterior group provided accurate estimates. However, two electrode groups around the center yielded poor estimates although it was possible to record neural signals.

  14. A MEMS-based flexible multichannel ECoG-electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubehn, Birthe; Bosman, Conrado; Oostenveld, Robert; Fries, Pascal; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    We present a micromachined 252-channel ECoG (electrocorticogram)-electrode array, which is made of a thin polyimide foil substrate enclosing sputtered platinum electrode sites and conductor paths. The array subtends an area of approximately 35 mm by 60 mm and is designed to cover large parts of a hemisphere of a macaque monkey's cortex. Eight omnetics connectors are directly soldered to the foil. This leads to a compact assembly size which enables a chronic implantation of the array and allows free movements of the animal between the recording sessions. The electrode sites are 1 mm in diameter and were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. At 1 kHz, the electrode impedances vary between 1.5 kΩ and 5 kΩ. The yield of functioning electrodes in three assembled devices is 99.5%. After implantation of a device with 100% working electrodes, standard electrocorticographic signals can be obtained from every electrode. The response to visual stimuli can be measured with electrodes lying on the visual cortex. After an implantation time of 4.5 months, all electrodes are still working and no decline in signal quality could be observed.

  15. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with single rod electrode.

    PubMed

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2014-11-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM). In this method, the tips of rods are machined individually to form a specific surface, and then a number of the machined rods are arranged to construct an electrode for EDM. The repetition of the EDM process using the electrode enables a number of lens elements to be produced on the mold surface. The effectiveness of our proposed method is demonstrated by shaping a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, in which the EDM process with a single rod electrode is repeatedly conducted.

  16. Nickel/silicon core/shell nanosheet arrays as electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.H. Zhang, P.; Wu, J.B.; Lin, Y.; Guo, R.Q.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Ni nanosheet arrays is the core and Si layer is the shell. • Ni nanosheet arrays act as a three-dimensional current collector to support Si. • Ni nanosheet arrays can improve the conductivity and stability of the electrode. • Ni/Si nanosheet arrays exhibit excellent cyclic and rate performance. - Abstract: Ni/Si core/shell nanosheet arrays are proposed to enhance the electrochemical lithium-storage properties of silicon. The arrays are characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The arrays are micro-sized in height, which are constructed by interconnected Ni nanosheet as the core and Si coating layer as the shell. The electrochemical properties as anode materials of lithium ion batteries are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The arrays can achieve high reversible capacity, good cycle stability and high rate capability. It is believed that the enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the electrode structure, because the interconnected Ni nanosheet can act as a three-dimensional current collector, and it has the ability of improving the electrode conductivity, enlarging the electrochemical reaction interface, and suppressing the electrode pulverization.

  17. [Optimal electrode array for ambulatory measuring of cardiac output based on the electrical impedance method].

    PubMed

    Song, Yilin; Gao, Shumei; Ikrashi, Akira; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2011-02-01

    Principle of ambulatory cardiac output (CO) measuring technique is introduced in this paper. A lot of experimental studies of the current distribution on the thorax under the condition that the current injection electrodes were adhered to different positions were carried out by using a developed multi-channel impedance mapping system. The static impedance contour maps (Zo-map) and its pulsatile component contour maps (deltaZ-map) under different measuring conditions were analyzed, and the applicability of a two-compartment coaxial cylindrical model using a spot-electrode array instead of the conventional band-electrode array for ambulatory CO measurement, as well as the optimal spot-electrode array, were discussed. Based on the experimental results and the daily use of the ambulatory CO measuring technique, the optimal spot-electrode array meeting the condition of the two-compartment coaxial cylindrical model was determined as that a pair of spot-electrodes for current injection was located on the positions behind the ears and on the right lower abdomen, and a pair of spot-electrodes for voltage pick-up places on the medial portion at the level of clavicle and on the portion above the xiphisternum.

  18. Graphene-based carbon-layered electrode array technology for neural imaging and optogenetic applications.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Wook; Schendel, Amelia A; Mikael, Solomon; Brodnick, Sarah K; Richner, Thomas J; Ness, Jared P; Hayat, Mohammed R; Atry, Farid; Frye, Seth T; Pashaie, Ramin; Thongpang, Sanitta; Ma, Zhenqiang; Williams, Justin C

    2014-10-20

    Neural micro-electrode arrays that are transparent over a broad wavelength spectrum from ultraviolet to infrared could allow for simultaneous electrophysiology and optical imaging, as well as optogenetic modulation of the underlying brain tissue. The long-term biocompatibility and reliability of neural micro-electrodes also require their mechanical flexibility and compliance with soft tissues. Here we present a graphene-based, carbon-layered electrode array (CLEAR) device, which can be implanted on the brain surface in rodents for high-resolution neurophysiological recording. We characterize optical transparency of the device at >90% transmission over the ultraviolet to infrared spectrum and demonstrate its utility through optical interface experiments that use this broad spectrum transparency. These include optogenetic activation of focal cortical areas directly beneath electrodes, in vivo imaging of the cortical vasculature via fluorescence microscopy and 3D optical coherence tomography. This study demonstrates an array of interfacing abilities of the CLEAR device and its utility for neural applications.

  19. A flexible microchannel electrode array for peripheral nerves to interface with neural prosthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrith, Ryan; Nothnagle, Caleb; Kim, Young-tae; Wijesundara, Muthu B. J.

    2016-05-01

    In order to control neural prosthetics by recording signals from peripheral nerves with the required specificity, high density electrode arrays that can be easily implanted on very small peripheral nerves (50μm-500μm) are needed. Interfacing with these small nerves is surgically challenging due to their size and fragile nature. To address this problem, a Flexible MicroChannel Electrode Array for interfacing with small diameter peripheral nerves and nerve fascicles was developed. The electrochemical characterization and electrophysiological recordings from the common peroneal nerve of a rat are presented along with demonstration of the surgical ease-of-use of the array.

  20. Microelectrode arrays: a general strategy for using oxidation reactions to site selectively modify electrode surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Bichlien H; Kesselring, David; Tesfu, Eden; Moeller, Kevin D

    2014-03-04

    Oxidation reactions are powerful tools for synthesis because they allow for the functionalization of molecules. Here, we present a general method for conducting these reactions on a microelectrode array in a site-selective fashion. The reactions are run as a competition between generation of a chemical oxidant at the electrodes in the array and reduction of the oxidant by a "confining agent" in the solution above the array. The "confining agent" does not need to be more reactive than the substrate fixed to the surface of the array. In many cases, the same substrate placed on the surface of the array can also be used in solution as the confining agent.

  1. Shaping of steel mold surface of lens array by electrical discharge machining with spherical ball electrode.

    PubMed

    Takino, Hideo; Hosaka, Takahiro

    2016-06-20

    We propose a method for fabricating a spherical lens array mold by electrical discharge machining (EDM) with a ball-type electrode. The electrode is constructed by arranging conductive spherical balls in an array. To fundamentally examine the applicability of the proposed EDM method to the fabrication of lens array molds, we use an electrode having a single ball to shape a lens array mold made of stainless steel with 16 spherical elements, each having a maximum depth of 0.5 mm. As a result, a mold surface is successfully shaped with a peak-to-valley shape accuracy of approximately 10 μm, and an average surface roughness of 0.85 μm.

  2. The new mid-scala electrode array: a radiologic and histologic study in human temporal bones.

    PubMed

    Hassepass, Frederike; Bulla, Stefan; Maier, Wolfgang; Laszig, Roland; Arndt, Susan; Beck, Rainer; Traser, Lousia; Aschendorff, Antje

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the quality of insertion of the newly developed midscala (MS) electrode, which targets a midscalar electrode position to reduce the risk of trauma to the lateral wall and the modiolus. Modern cochlear implant surgery aims for a safe intracochlear placement of electrode arrays with an ongoing debate regarding cochleostomy or round window (RW) insertion and the use of lateral wall or perimodiolar electrode placement. Intracochlear trauma after insertion of different electrodes depends on insertion mode and electrode design and may result in trauma to the delicate structures of the cochlear. We performed a temporal bone (TB) trial with insertion of the MS electrode in n = 20 TB's after a mastoidectomy and posterior tympanotomy. Insertion was performed either via the RW or a cochleostomy. Electrode positioning, length of insertion, and angle of insertion were analyzed with rotational tomography (RT). TBs were histologically analyzed. Results of RT and histology were compared. Scala tympani (ST) insertion could be accomplished reliably by both RW and via a cochleostomy approach. In 20 TBs, 1 scala vestibuli insertion, 1 incomplete (ST), and 1 elevation of basilar membrane were depicted. No trauma was found in 94.7% of all ST insertions. RT allowed determination of the intracochlear electrode position, which was specified by histologic sectioning. The new MS electrode seems to fulfill reliable atraumatic intracochlear placement via RW and cochleostomy approaches. RT is available for evaluation of intracochlear electrode position, serving as a potential quality control instrument in human implantation.

  3. Simulating pad-electrodes with high-definition arrays in transcranial electric stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kempe, René; Huang, Yu; Parra, Lucas C

    2014-04-01

    Research studies on transcranial electric stimulation, including direct current, often use a computational model to provide guidance on the placing of sponge-electrode pads. However, the expertise and computational resources needed for finite element modeling (FEM) make modeling impractical in a clinical setting. Our objective is to make the exploration of different electrode configurations accessible to practitioners. We provide an efficient tool to estimate current distributions for arbitrary pad configurations while obviating the need for complex simulation software. To efficiently estimate current distributions for arbitrary pad configurations we propose to simulate pads with an array of high-definition (HD) electrodes and use an efficient linear superposition to then quickly evaluate different electrode configurations. Numerical results on ten different pad configurations on a normal individual show that electric field intensity simulated with the sampled array deviates from the solutions with pads by only 5% and the locations of peak magnitude fields have a 94% overlap when using a dense array of 336 electrodes. Computationally intensive FEM modeling of the HD array needs to be performed only once, perhaps on a set of standard heads that can be made available to multiple users. The present results confirm that by using these models one can now quickly and accurately explore and select pad-electrode montages to match a particular clinical need.

  4. Rapid prototyping of flexible intrafascicular electrode arrays by picosecond laser structuring.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Matthias; de la Oliva, Natalia; Del Valle, Jaume; Delgado Martinez, Ignacio; Navarro, Xavier; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2017-07-11

    Interfacing the peripheral nervous system can be performed with a large variety of electrode arrays. However, stimulating and recording a nerve while having a reasonable amount of channels limits the number of available systems. Translational research towards human clinical trial requires device safety and biocompatibility but would benefit from design flexibility in the development process to individualize probes. Approach. We selected established medical grade implant materials like precious metals and parylene C to develop a rapid prototyping process for novel intrafascicular electrode arrays using a picosecond laser structuring. A design for a rodent animal model was developed in conjunction with an intrafascicular implantation strategy. Electrode characterization and optimization was performed first in saline solution in vitro before performance and biocompatibility were validated in sciatic nerves of rats in chronic implantation. Main Results. The novel fabrication process proved to be suitable for prototyping and building intrafascicular electrode arrays. Electrochemical properties of the electrode sites were enhanced and tested for long-term stability. Chronic implantation in the sciatic nerve of rats showed good biocompatibility, selectivity and stable stimulation thresholds. Significance. Established medical grade materials can be used for intrafascicular nerve electrode arrays when laser structuring defines structure size in the micro-scale. Design flexibility reduces re-design cycle time and material certificates are beneficial support for safety studies on the way to clinical trials. Creative Commons Attribution license.

  5. Insertion trauma of a cochlear implant electrode array with Nitinol inlay.

    PubMed

    Rau, Thomas S; Harbach, Lenka; Pawsey, Nick; Kluge, Marcel; Erfurt, Peter; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid

    2016-11-01

    The integration of a shape memory actuator is a potential mechanism to achieve a consistent perimodiolar position after electrode insertion during cochlear implant surgery. After warming up, and therefore activation of the shape memory effect, the electrode array will change from a straight configuration into a spiral shaped one leading to a final position close to the modiolus. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the integration of an additional thin wire (referred to as an "inlay") made of Nitinol, a well-established shape memory alloy, in a conventional hearing preservation electrode array will affect the insertion behaviour in terms of increased risk of insertion trauma. Six conventional Hybrid-L electrode arrays (Cochlear Ltd., Sydney, Australia) were modified to incorporate a wire inlay made of Nitinol. The diameter of the wires was 100 µm with a tapered tip region. Electrodes were inserted into human temporal bone specimens using a standard surgical approach. After insertion and embedding in epoxy resin, histological sections were prepared to evaluate insertion trauma. Insertion was straightforward and no difficulties were observed. The addition of a shape memory wire, thin but also strong enough to curl the electrode array, does not result in histologically detectable insertion trauma. Atraumatic insertion seems possible.

  6. Simulating pad-electrodes with high-definition arrays in transcranial electric stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempe, René; Huang, Yu; Parra, Lucas C.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Research studies on transcranial electric stimulation, including direct current, often use a computational model to provide guidance on the placing of sponge-electrode pads. However, the expertise and computational resources needed for finite element modeling (FEM) make modeling impractical in a clinical setting. Our objective is to make the exploration of different electrode configurations accessible to practitioners. We provide an efficient tool to estimate current distributions for arbitrary pad configurations while obviating the need for complex simulation software. Approach. To efficiently estimate current distributions for arbitrary pad configurations we propose to simulate pads with an array of high-definition (HD) electrodes and use an efficient linear superposition to then quickly evaluate different electrode configurations. Main results. Numerical results on ten different pad configurations on a normal individual show that electric field intensity simulated with the sampled array deviates from the solutions with pads by only 5% and the locations of peak magnitude fields have a 94% overlap when using a dense array of 336 electrodes. Significance. Computationally intensive FEM modeling of the HD array needs to be performed only once, perhaps on a set of standard heads that can be made available to multiple users. The present results confirm that by using these models one can now quickly and accurately explore and select pad-electrode montages to match a particular clinical need.

  7. Time of Flight Electrochemistry: Diffusion Coefficient Measurements Using Interdigitated Array (IDA) Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.; Kolesov, G.; Parkinson, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    A simple and straightforward method for measuring diffusion coefficients using interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes is reported. The method does not require that the exact electrode area be known but depends only the size of the gap between the IDA electrode pairs. Electroactive molecules produced at the generator electrode of the IDA by a voltage step or scan can diffuse to the collector electrode and the time delay before the current for the reverse electrochemical reaction is detected at the collector is used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. The measurement of the diffusion rate of Ru(NH3)62+ in aqueous solution has been used as an example measuring diffusion coefficients using this method. Additionally, a digital simulation of the electrochemical response of the IDA electrodes was used to simulate the entire current/voltage/time behavior of the system and verify the experimentally measured diffusion coefficients.

  8. Sensitivity- and effort-gain analysis: multilead ECG electrode array selection for activation time imaging.

    PubMed

    Hintermüller, Christoph; Seger, Michael; Pfeifer, Bernhard; Fischer, Gerald; Modre, Robert; Tilg, Bernhard

    2006-10-01

    Methods for noninvasive imaging of electric function of the heart might become clinical standard procedure the next years. Thus, the overall procedure has to meet clinical requirements as an easy and fast application. In this paper, we propose a new electrode array which improves the resolution of methods for activation time imaging considering clinical constraints such as easy to apply and compatibility with routine leads. For identifying the body-surface regions where the body surface potential (BSP) is most sensitive to changes in transmembrane potential (TMP), a virtual array method was used to compute local linear dependency (LLD) maps. The virtual array method computes a measure for the LLD in every point on the body surface. The most suitable number and position of the electrodes within the sensitive body surface regions was selected by constructing effort gain (EG) plots. Such a plot depicts the relative attainable rank of the leadfield matrix in relation to the increase in number of electrodes required to build the electrode array. The attainable rank itself was computed by a detector criterion. Such a criterion estimates the maximum number of source space eigenvectors not covered by noise when being mapped to the electrode space by the leadfield matrix and recorded by a detector. From the sensitivity maps, we found that the BSP is most sensitive to changes in TMP on the upper left frontal and dorsal body surface. These sensitive regions are covered best by an electrode array consisting of two L-shaped parts of approximately 30 cm x 30 cm and approximately 20 cm x 20 cm. The EG analysis revealed that the array meeting clinical requirements best and improving the resolution of activation time imaging consists of 125 electrodes with a regular horizontal and vertical spacing of 2-3 cm.

  9. Characterization of flexible ECoG electrode arrays for chronic recording in awake rats

    PubMed Central

    Yeager, John D.; Phillips, Derrick J.; Rector, David M.; Bahr, David F.

    2008-01-01

    We developed a 64 channel flexible polyimide ECoG electrode array and characterized its performance for long term implantation, chronic cortical recording and high resolution mapping of surface evoked potentials in awake rats. To achieve the longest possible recording periods, the flexibility of the electrode array, adhesion between the metals and carrier substrate, and biocompatibility was critical for maintaining the signal integrity. Experimental testing of thin film adhesion was applied to a gold – polyimide system in order to characterize relative interfacial fracture energies for several different adhesion layers, yielding an increase in overall device reliability. We tested several different adhesion techniques including: gold alone without an adhesion layer, titanium-tungsten, tantalum and chromium. We found the titanium-tungsten to be a suitable adhesion layer considering the biocompatibility requirements as well as stability and delamination resistance. While chromium and tantalum produced stronger gold adhesion, concerns over biocompatibility of these materials require further testing. We implanted the polyimide ECoG electrode arrays through a slit made in the skull of rats and recorded cortical surface evoked responses. The arrays performed reliably over a period of at least 100 days and signals compared well with traditional screw electrodes, with better high frequency response characteristics. Since the ultimate goal of chronically implanted electrode arrays is for neural prosthetic devices that need to last many decades, other adhesion layers that would prove safe for implantation may be tested in the same way in order to improve the device reliability. PMID:18640155

  10. Characterization of flexible ECoG electrode arrays for chronic recording in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Yeager, John D; Phillips, Derrick J; Rector, David M; Bahr, David F

    2008-08-30

    We developed a 64-channel flexible polyimide ECoG electrode array and characterized its performance for long-term implantation, chronic cortical recording and high resolution mapping of surface-evoked potentials in awake rats. To achieve the longest possible recording periods, the flexibility of the electrode array, adhesion between the metals and carrier substrate, and biocompatibility were critical for maintaining the signal integrity. Experimental testing of thin film adhesion was applied to a gold-polyimide system in order to characterize relative interfacial fracture energies for several different adhesion layers, yielding an increase in overall device reliability. We tested several different adhesion techniques including the following: gold alone without an adhesion layer, titanium-tungsten, tantalum and chromium. We found titanium-tungsten to be a suitable adhesion layer considering the biocompatibility requirements as well as stability and delamination resistance. While chromium and tantalum produced stronger gold adhesion, concerns over biocompatibility of these materials require further testing. We implanted the polyimide ECoG electrode arrays through a slit made in the skull of rats and recorded cortical surface evoked responses. The arrays performed reliably over a period of at least 100 days and signals compared well with traditional screw electrodes, with better high frequency response characteristics. Since the ultimate goal of chronically implanted electrode arrays is for neural prosthetic devices that need to last many decades, other adhesion layers that would prove safe for implantation may be tested in the same way in order to improve the device reliability.

  11. Stacked 3D RRAM Array with Graphene/CNT as Edge Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yue; Wu, Huaqiang; Wang, Kun; Wu, Riga; Song, Lin; Li, Tianyi; Wang, Jiangtao; Yu, Zhiping; Qian, He

    2015-09-08

    There are two critical challenges which determine the array density of 3D RRAM: 1) the scaling limit in both horizontal and vertical directions; 2) the integration of selector devices in 3D structure. In this work, we present a novel 3D RRAM structure using low-dimensional materials, including 2D graphene and 1D carbon nanotube (CNT), as the edge electrodes. A two-layer 3D RRAM with monolayer graphene as edge electrode is demonstrated. The electrical results reveal that the RRAM devices could switch normally with this very thin edge electrode at nanometer scale. Meanwhile, benefited from the asymmetric carrier transport induced by Schottky barrier at metal/CNT and oxide/CNT interfaces, a selector built-in 3D RRAM structure using CNT as edge electrode is successfully fabricated and characterized. Furthermore, the discussion of high array density potential is presented.

  12. Stacked 3D RRAM Array with Graphene/CNT as Edge Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yue; Wu, Huaqiang; Wang, Kun; Wu, Riga; Song, Lin; Li, Tianyi; Wang, Jiangtao; Yu, Zhiping; Qian, He

    2015-01-01

    There are two critical challenges which determine the array density of 3D RRAM: 1) the scaling limit in both horizontal and vertical directions; 2) the integration of selector devices in 3D structure. In this work, we present a novel 3D RRAM structure using low-dimensional materials, including 2D graphene and 1D carbon nanotube (CNT), as the edge electrodes. A two-layer 3D RRAM with monolayer graphene as edge electrode is demonstrated. The electrical results reveal that the RRAM devices could switch normally with this very thin edge electrode at nanometer scale. Meanwhile, benefited from the asymmetric carrier transport induced by Schottky barrier at metal/CNT and oxide/CNT interfaces, a selector built-in 3D RRAM structure using CNT as edge electrode is successfully fabricated and characterized. Furthermore, the discussion of high array density potential is presented. PMID:26348797

  13. Network dynamics of cultured hippocampal neurons in a multi-electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Takahisa; Kudoh, Suguru N.

    2005-02-01

    The neurons in dissociation culture autonomously re-organized their functional neuronal networks, after the process for elongating neurites and establishing synaptic connections. The spatio-temporal patterns of activity in the networks might be a reflection of functional neuron assemblies. The functional connections were dynamically modified by synaptic potentiation and the process may be required for reorganization of the functional group of neurons. Such neuron assemblies are critical for information processing in brain. To visualize the functional connections between neurons, we have analyzed the autonomous activity of synaptically induced action potentials in the living neuronal networks on a multi-electrode array, using "connection map analysis" that we developed for this purpose. Moreover, we designed aan original wide area covering electrode array and succeeded in recording spontaneous action potentials from wider area than commercial multi electrode arrays.

  14. Flexible, foldable, actively multiplexed, high-density electrode array for mapping brain activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Viventi, Jonathan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Vigeland, Leif; Frechette, Eric S; Blanco, Justin A; Kim, Yun-Soung; Avrin, Andrew E; Tiruvadi, Vineet R; Hwang, Suk-Won; Vanleer, Ann C; Wulsin, Drausin F; Davis, Kathryn; Gelber, Casey E; Palmer, Larry; Van der Spiegel, Jan; Wu, Jian; Xiao, Jianliang; Huang, Yonggang; Contreras, Diego; Rogers, John A; Litt, Brian

    2011-11-13

    Arrays of electrodes for recording and stimulating the brain are used throughout clinical medicine and basic neuroscience research, yet are unable to sample large areas of the brain while maintaining high spatial resolution because of the need to individually wire each passive sensor at the electrode-tissue interface. To overcome this constraint, we developed new devices that integrate ultrathin and flexible silicon nanomembrane transistors into the electrode array, enabling new dense arrays of thousands of amplified and multiplexed sensors that are connected using fewer wires. We used this system to record spatial properties of cat brain activity in vivo, including sleep spindles, single-trial visual evoked responses and electrographic seizures. We found that seizures may manifest as recurrent spiral waves that propagate in the neocortex. The developments reported here herald a new generation of diagnostic and therapeutic brain-machine interface devices.

  15. Improving resistivity survey resolution at sites with limited spatial extent using buried electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiflu, H.; Kruse, S.; Loke, M. H.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Harro, D.

    2016-12-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys are widely used in geological, environmental and engineering studies. However, the effectiveness of surface ERT surveys is limited by decreasing resolution with depth and near the ends of the survey line. Increasing the array length will increase depth of investigation, but may not be possible at urban sites where access is limited. One novel method of addressing these limitations while maintaining lateral coverage is to install an array of deep electrodes. Referred to here as the Multi-Electrode Resistivity Implant Technique (MERIT), self-driving pointed electrodes are implanted at depth below each surface electrode in an array, using direct-push technology. Optimal sequences of readings have been identified with the "Compare R" method of Wilkinson. Numerical, laboratory, and field case studies are applied to examine the effectiveness of the MERIT method, particularly for use in covered karst terrain. In the field case studies, resistivity images are compared against subsurface structure defined from borings, GPR surveys, and knowledge of prior land use. In karst terrain where limestone has a clay overburden, traditional surface resistivity methods suffer from lack of current penetration through the shallow clay layer. In these settings, the MERIT method is found to improve resolution of features between the surface and buried array, as well as increasing depth of penetration and enhancing imaging capabilities at the array ends. The method functions similar to a cross-borehole array between horizontal boreholes, and suffers from limitations common to borehole arrays. Inversion artifacts are common at depths close to the buried array, and because some readings involve high geometric factors, inversions are more susceptible to noise than traditional surface arrays. Results are improved by using errors from reciprocal measurements to weight the data during the inversion.

  16. Effects of pulse rate and electrode array design on intensity discrimination in cochlear implant users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreft, Heather A.; Donaldson, Gail S.; Nelson, David A.

    2004-10-01

    The effects of pulse rate on intensity discrimination were evaluated in 14 subjects with Clarion C-I cochlear implants. Subjects had a standard [Clarion spiral electrode array (SPRL group)] or perimodiolar electrode array [Clarion HiFocus electrode array with electrode positioning system (HF+EPS group)]. Weber fractions for intensity discrimination [WfdB=10 log ΔI/I] were evaluated at five levels over dynamic range at each of three pulse rates (200, 1625 and 6500 pps) using monopolar stimulation. Weber fractions were smaller for 200 pps stimuli than for 1625 or 6500 pps stimuli in both groups. Weber fractions were significantly smaller for SPRL subjects (mean WfdB=-9.1 dB) than for HF+EPS subjects (mean WfdB=-6.7 dB). Intensity difference limens (DLs) expressed as a percentage of dynamic range (DR) (ΔI%DR=ΔI/DRdB*100) did not vary systematically with pulse rate in either group. Larger intensity DLs combined with smaller dynamic ranges led to fewer intensity steps over the dynamic range for HF+EPS subjects (average 9 steps) compared to SPRL subjects (average 23 steps). The observed effects of pulse rate and electrode array design may stem primarily from an inverse relationship between absolute current amplitude and the size of intensity DLs. The combination of smaller dynamic ranges and larger Weber fractions in HF+EPS subjects could be the result of increased variability of neural outputs in these subjects. .

  17. Orthogonal electrode catheter array for mapping of endocardial focal site of ventricular activation

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, J.M.; Nyo, H.; Vera, Z.; Seibert, J.A.; Vogelsang, P.J. )

    1991-04-01

    Precise location of the endocardial site of origin of ventricular tachycardia may facilitate surgical and catheter ablation of this arrhythmia. The endocardial catheter mapping technique can locate the site of ventricular tachycardia within 4-8 cm2 of the earliest site recorded by the catheter. This report describes an orthogonal electrode catheter array (OECA) for mapping and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of endocardial focal site of origin of a plunge electrode paced model of ventricular activation in dogs. The OECA is an 8 F five pole catheter with four peripheral electrodes and one central electrode (total surface area 0.8 cm{sup 2}). In eight mongrel dogs, mapping was performed by arbitrarily dividing the left ventricle (LV) into four segments. Each segment was mapped with OECA to find the earliest segment. Bipolar and unipolar electrograms were obtained. The plunge electrode (not visible on fluoroscopy) site was identified by the earliest wave front arrival times of -30 msec or earlier at two or more electrodes (unipolar electrograms) with reference to the earliest recorded surface ECG (I, AVF, and V1). Validation of the proximity of the five electrodes of the OECA to the plunge electrode was performed by digital radiography and RFA. Pathological examination was performed to document the proximity of the OECA to the plunge electrode and also for the width, depth, and microscopic changes of the ablation. To find the segment with the earliest LV activation a total of 10 {plus minus} 3 (mean {plus minus} SD) positions were mapped. Mean arrival times at the two earlier electrodes were -39 {plus minus} 4 msec and -35 {plus minus} 3 msec. Digital radiography showed the plunge electrode to be within the area covered by all five electrodes in all eight dogs. The plunge electrode was within 1 cm2 area of the region of RFA in all eight dogs.

  18. Spiral Ganglion Neuron Explant Culture and Electrophysiology on Multi Electrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Hahnewald, Stefan; Roccio, Marta; Tscherter, Anne; Streit, Jürg; Ambett, Ranjeeta; Senn, Pascal

    2016-10-19

    Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) participate in the physiological process of hearing by relaying signals from sensory hair cells to the cochlear nucleus in the brain stem. Loss of hair cells is a major cause of sensory hearing loss. Prosthetic devices such as cochlear implants function by bypassing lost hair cells and directly stimulating SGNs electrically, allowing for restoration of hearing in deaf patients. The performance of these devices depends on the functionality of SGNs, the implantation procedure and on the distance between the electrodes and the auditory neurons. We hypothesized, that reducing the distance between the SGNs and the electrode array of the implant would allow for improved stimulation and frequency resolution, with the best results in a gapless position. Currently we lack in vitro culture systems to study, modify and optimize the interaction between auditory neurons and electrode arrays and characterize their electrophysiological response. To address these issues, we developed an in vitro bioassay using SGN cultures on a planar multi electrode array (MEA). With this method we were able to perform extracellular recording of the basal and electrically induced activity of a population of spiral ganglion neurons. We were also able to optimize stimulation protocols and analyze the response to electrical stimuli as a function of the electrode distance. This platform could also be used to optimize electrode features such as surface coatings.

  19. Spiral Ganglion Neuron Explant Culture and Electrophysiology on Multi Electrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Hahnewald, Stefan; Roccio, Marta; Tscherter, Anne; Streit, Jürg; Ambett, Ranjeeta; Senn, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) participate in the physiological process of hearing by relaying signals from sensory hair cells to the cochlear nucleus in the brain stem. Loss of hair cells is a major cause of sensory hearing loss. Prosthetic devices such as cochlear implants function by bypassing lost hair cells and directly stimulating SGNs electrically, allowing for restoration of hearing in deaf patients. The performance of these devices depends on the functionality of SGNs, the implantation procedure and on the distance between the electrodes and the auditory neurons. We hypothesized, that reducing the distance between the SGNs and the electrode array of the implant would allow for improved stimulation and frequency resolution, with the best results in a gapless position. Currently we lack in vitro culture systems to study, modify and optimize the interaction between auditory neurons and electrode arrays and characterize their electrophysiological response. To address these issues, we developed an in vitro bioassay using SGN cultures on a planar multi electrode array (MEA). With this method we were able to perform extracellular recording of the basal and electrically induced activity of a population of spiral ganglion neurons. We were also able to optimize stimulation protocols and analyze the response to electrical stimuli as a function of the electrode distance. This platform could also be used to optimize electrode features such as surface coatings. PMID:27805613

  20. Three-dimensional micro-electrode array for recording dissociated neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Musick, Katherine; Khatami, David; Wheeler, Bruce C

    2009-07-21

    This work demonstrates the design, fabrication, packaging, characterization, and functionality of an electrically and fluidically active three-dimensional micro-electrode array (3D MEA) for use with neuronal cell cultures. The successful function of the device implies that this basic concept-construction of a 3D array with a layered approach-can be utilized as the basis for a new family of neural electrode arrays. The 3D MEA prototype consists of a stack of individually patterned thin films that form a cell chamber conducive to maintaining and recording the electrical activity of a long-term three-dimensional network of rat cortical neurons. Silicon electrode layers contain a polymer grid for neural branching, growth, and network formation. Along the walls of these electrode layers lie exposed gold electrodes which permit recording and stimulation of the neuronal electrical activity. Silicone elastomer micro-fluidic layers provide a means for loading dissociated neurons into the structure and serve as the artificial vasculature for nutrient supply and aeration. The fluidic layers also serve as insulation for the micro-electrodes. Cells have been shown to survive in the 3D MEA for up to 28 days, with spontaneous and evoked electrical recordings performed in that time. The micro-fluidic capability was demonstrated by flowing in the drug tetrotodoxin to influence the activity of the culture.

  1. Microfabrication of electrode patterns for high-frequency ultrasound transducer arrays.

    PubMed

    Bernassau, Anne L; García-Gancedo, Luis; Hutson, David; Démoré, Christine E M; McAneny, Jim J; Button, Tim W; Cochran, Sandy

    2012-08-01

    High-frequency ultrasound is needed for medical imaging with high spatial resolution. A key issue in the development of ultrasound imaging arrays to operate at high frequencies (≥30 MHz) is the need for photolithographic patterning of array electrodes. To achieve this directly on 1-3 piezocomposite, the material requires not only planar, parallel, and smooth surfaces, but also an epoxy composite filler that is resistant to chemicals, heat, and vacuum. This paper reports, first, on the surface finishing of 1-3 piezocomposite materials by lapping and polishing. Excellent surface flatness has been obtained, with an average surface roughness of materials as low as 3 nm and step heights between ceramic/polymer of ∼80 nm. Subsequently, high-frequency array elements were patterned directly on top of these surfaces using a photolithography process. A 30-MHz linear array electrode pattern with 50-μm element pitch has been patterned on the lapped and polished surface of a high-frequency 1-3 piezocomposite. Excellent electrode edge definition and electrical contact to the composite were obtained. The composite has been lapped to a final thickness of ∼55 μm. Good adhesion of electrodes on the piezocomposite has been achieved and electrical impedance measurements have demonstrated their basic functionality. The array was then packaged, and acoustic pulse-echo measurements were performed. These results demonstrate that direct patterning of electrodes by photolithography on 1-3 piezocomposite is feasible for fabrication of high-frequency ultrasound arrays. Furthermore, this method is more conducive to mass production than other reported array fabrication techniques.

  2. Arrayed liquid crystal microlens based on graphene electrode for imaging application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wei; Chen, Cheng; Wu, Yong; Luo, Jun; Lei, Yu; Tong, Qing; Zhang, Xinyu; Xie, Changsheng

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an arrayed liquid crystal (LC) microlens (ALCM) based on graphene electrode instead of common indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode material is designed and fabricated, and the corresponding testing results have been obtained and presented. The graphene film used as patterned electrode in the project is grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) over copper foils, which demonstrate the properties of low sheet resistance and high transmittance of more than 90% in current stage. The key fabrication of the arrayed LC microlens based on graphene electrode includes the graphene transfering, ultraviolet lithography, ICP etching, liquid crystalline polymer encapsulation, etc. In the test of the arrayed LC microlens, the point spread functions (PSF) of incident laser beams with different wavelengths, such as red laser of ~600nm wavelength, and green laser of ~532nm wavelength, have been obtained. In addition, the arrayed LC microlenses are also used in visible light imaging. During the imaging tests, each microlens in the arrayed LC microlens can perform imaging process, independently.

  3. Fabrication and electrical properties of single wall carbon nanotube channel and graphene electrode based transistors arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Yun, H.; McAllister, K.; Lee, S. W.; Na, J.; Kim, G. T.; Lee, B. J.; Kim, J. J.; Jeong, G. H.; Lee, I.; Kim, K. S.

    2015-07-20

    A transistor structure composed of an individual single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) channel with a graphene electrode was demonstrated. The integrated arrays of transistor devices were prepared by transferring patterned graphene electrode patterns on top of the aligned SWNT along one direction. Both single and multi layer graphene were used for the electrode materials; typical p-type transistor and Schottky diode behavior were observed, respectively. Based on our fabrication method and device performances, several issues are suggested and discussed to improve the device reliability and finally to realize all carbon based future electronic systems.

  4. High yield, single droplet electrode arrays for nanoscale printed electronics.

    PubMed

    Caironi, Mario; Gili, Enrico; Sakanoue, Tomo; Cheng, Xiaoyang; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2010-03-23

    In this work we demonstrate two building blocks of a scalable manufacturing technology for nanoscale electronic devices based on direct-write printing: an architecture for high-yield printing of electrode gaps with 100 nm dimension and a low-temperature silver complex ink for integration of organic materials with high conductivity metal interconnects. We use single printed droplets that are made to dewet slowly from each other to allow reliable, high yield patterning even in the presence of certain surface defects.

  5. Fabrication of comb interdigitated electrodes array (IDA) for a microbead-based electrochemical assay system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Kyung; Hesketh, Peter J; Li, Changming; Thomas, Jennifer H; Halsall, H Brian; Heineman, William R

    2004-11-01

    This research is directed towards developing a more sensitive and rapid electrochemical sensor for enzyme labeled immunoassays by coupling redox cycling at interdigitated electrode arrays (IDA) with the enzyme label beta-galactosidase. Coplanar and comb IDA electrodes with a 2.4 microm gap were fabricated and their redox cycling currents were measured. ANSYS was used to model steady state currents for electrodes with different geometries. Comb IDA electrodes enhanced the signal about three times more than the coplanar IDAs, which agreed with the results of the simulation. Magnetic microbead-based enzyme assay, as a typical example of biochemical detection, was done using the comb and coplanar IDAs. The enzymes could be placed close to the sensing electrodes (approximately 10 microm for the comb IDAs) and detection took less than 1 min with a limit of detection of 70 amol of beta-galactosidase. We conclude that faster and more sensitive assays can be achieved with the comb IDA.

  6. A Lithographically-Patterned, Elastic Multi-electrode Array for Surface Stimulation of the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, Kathleen W.; Giuly, Richard J.; Guo, Liang; Hochman, Shawn; DeWeerth, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    A new, scalable process for microfabrication of a silicone-based, elastic multi-electrode array (MEA) is presented. The device is constructed by spinning poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) silicone elastomer onto a glass slide, depositing and patterning gold to construct wires and electrodes, spinning on a second PDMS layer, and then micropatterning the second PDMS layer to expose electrode contacts. The micropatterning of PDMS involves a custom reactive ion etch (RIE) process that preserves the underlying gold thin film. Once completed, the device can be removed from the glass slide for conformal interfacing with neural tissue. Prototype MEAs feature electrodes smaller than those known to be reported on silicone substrate (60 μm diameter exposed electrode area) and were capable of selectively stimulating the surface of the in vitro isolated spinal cord of the juvenile rat. Stretchable serpentine traces were also incorporated into the functional PDMS-based MEA, and their implementation and testing is described. PMID:17914674

  7. Controllable in-situ cell electroporation with cell positioning and impedance monitoring using micro electrode array

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a novel microarray chip for in-situ, real-time and selective electroporation on individual cells integrated with cell positioning and impedance monitoring. An array of quadrupole-electrode units (termed positioning electrodes) and pairs of planar center electrodes located at the centers of each quadrupole-electrode unit were fabricated on the chip. The positioning electrodes are used to trap and position living cells onto the center electrodes based on negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP). The center electrodes are used for in-situ cell electroporation, and also used to measure cell impedance for monitoring cellular dynamics in real time. Controllably selective electroporation and electrical measurement on the cells in array are realized. We present an evidence of selective electroporation through use of fluorescent dyes. Subsequently we use in-situ and real-time impedance measurement to monitor the process, which demonstrates the dynamic behavior of the cell electroporation. Finally, we show the use of this device to perform successful transfection onto individual HeLa cells with vector DNA encoding a green fluorescent. PMID:27507603

  8. Electrical Stimulation of Mammalian Retinal Ganglion Cells Using Dense Arrays of Small-Diameter Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekirnjak, Chris; Hottowy, Pawel; Sher, Alexander; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Litke, Alan M.; Chichilnisky, E. J.

    Current epiretinal implants contain a small number of electrodes with diameters of a few hundred microns. Smaller electrodes are desirable to increase the spatial resolution of artificial sight. To lay the foundation for the next generation of retinal prostheses, we assessed the stimulation efficacy of micro-fabricated arrays of 61 platinum disk electrodes with diameters 8-12 μm, spaced 60 μm apart. Isolated pieces of rat, guinea pig, and monkey retina were placed on the multi-electrode array ganglion cell side down and stimulated through individual electrodes with biphasic, charge-balanced current pulses. Spike responses from retinal ganglion cells were recorded either from the same or a neighboring electrode. Most pulses evoked only 1-2 spikes with short latencies (0.3-10 ms), and rarely was more than one recorded ganglion cell stimulated. Threshold charge densities for eliciting spikes in ganglion cells were typically below 0.15 mC/cm2 for pulse durations between 50 and 200 μs, corresponding to charge thresholds of ˜ 100 pC. Stimulation remained effective after several hours and at frequencies up to 100 Hz. Application of cadmium chloride did not abolish evoked spikes, implying direct activation. Thus, electrical stimulation of mammalian retina with small-diameter electrodes is achievable, providing high temporal and spatial precision with low charge densities.

  9. Electrical stimulation with a penetrating optic nerve electrode array elicits visuotopic cortical responses in cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yiliang; Yan, Yan; Chai, Xinyu; Ren, Qiushi; Chen, Yao; Li, Liming

    2013-06-01

    Objective. A visual prosthesis based on penetrating electrode stimulation within the optic nerve (ON) is a potential way to restore partial functional vision for blind patients. We investigated the retinotopic organization of ON stimulation and its spatial resolution. Approach. A five-electrode array was inserted perpendicularly into the ON or a single electrode was advanced to different depths within the ON (˜1-2 mm behind the eyeball, 13 cats). A sparse noise method was used to map ON electrode position and the visual cortex. Cortical responses were recorded by a 5 × 6 array. The visuotopic correspondence between the retinotopic position of the ON electrode was compared with the visual evoked cortical map and the electrical evoked potentials elicited in response to ON stimulation. Main results. Electrical stimulation with penetrating ON electrodes elicited cortical responses in visuotopographically corresponding areas of the cortex. Stimulation of the temporal side of the ON elicited cortical responses corresponding to the central visual field. The visual field position shifted from the lower to central visual field as the electrode penetrated through the depth of the ON. A spatial resolution of ˜ 2° to 3° within a limited cortical visuotopic representation could be obtained by this approach. Significance. Visuotopic electrical stimulation with a relatively fine spatial resolution can be accomplished using penetrating electrodes implanted at multiple sites and at different depths within the ON just behind the globe. This study also provides useful experimental data for the design of electrode density and the distribution of penetrating ON electrodes for a visual prosthesis.

  10. Intraoperative sonography-guided removal of radiolucent foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Leung, A; Patton, A; Navoy, J; Cummings, R J

    1998-01-01

    This article reports our use of intraoperative sonography to guide in real time, the removal of radiolucent foreign bodies from five patients. Two of these patients had undergone previous unsuccessful attempts at surgical removal in the operating room. The technique is cost effective, readily available, and can be very helpful in locating difficult-to-find radiolucent foreign bodies at the time of surgery.

  11. Multi-electrode array technologies for neuroscience and cardiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spira, Micha E.; Hai, Aviad

    2013-02-01

    At present, the prime methodology for studying neuronal circuit-connectivity, physiology and pathology under in vitro or in vivo conditions is by using substrate-integrated microelectrode arrays. Although this methodology permits simultaneous, cell-non-invasive, long-term recordings of extracellular field potentials generated by action potentials, it is 'blind' to subthreshold synaptic potentials generated by single cells. On the other hand, intracellular recordings of the full electrophysiological repertoire (subthreshold synaptic potentials, membrane oscillations and action potentials) are, at present, obtained only by sharp or patch microelectrodes. These, however, are limited to single cells at a time and for short durations. Recently a number of laboratories began to merge the advantages of extracellular microelectrode arrays and intracellular microelectrodes. This Review describes the novel approaches, identifying their strengths and limitations from the point of view of the end users -- with the intention to help steer the bioengineering efforts towards the needs of brain-circuit research.

  12. Electrothermal flow on electrodes arrays at physiological conductivities.

    PubMed

    Koklu, Anil; Tansel, Osman; Oksuzoglu, Hakan; Sabuncu, Ahmet C

    2016-04-01

    AC electrothermal (ET) flow is inevitable for microfluidic systems dissipating electric energy in a conducting medium. Therefore, many practical applications of biomicrofluidics are prone to ET flow. Here, a series of observations are reported on ET flow in a microfluidic chamber that houses three electrode pairs. The observations indicate that the variations in liquid conductivity and channel height critically impact the structure and magnitude of the flow field. Observations indicate that after a critical conductivity a global ET flow is present in the chamber, while at lower conductivities a vortex is present at every electrode edge. In addition, no ET flow is observed when the chamber height is kept below a critical value at physiological conductivity (∼1.5 S/m). The experimental observations are compared with the numerical simulations of ET flow. The validity of the assumptions made in the current AC ET flow theory is also discussed in the light of the experimental data. The observations can be critical while designing microfluidic systems that involve power dissipation in conductive fluids.

  13. Study on Fabrication and UV Photoelectric Property of TiO2 Nanotube Array Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; Duan, Xiao-Long; Xing, Ming-Ming; Luo, Xi-Xian; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Liu, Wang

    2016-04-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube array electrodes were successfully fabricated by a two-step anodization method on Ti sheet substrates in an electrolyte composed of ammonium fluoride, deionized water, and glycol. The tube wall was smooth, and the average internal and external diameters, wall thickness, and tube length achieved were 80 nm, 90 nm, 10 nm, and 9 µm, respectively. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy results revealed that the TiO2 nanotube arrays presented an amorphous structure. When calcined at 300 °C, the arrays crystallized into the anatase phase, and the crystallization degree of the oxide layer increased as the temperature rose. Calcinating at 400 °C did not obviously disrupt the porous structure of the highly ordered arrays. However, higher temperature enlarged the diameter of the nanotube array and roughened the tube wall. When the temperature reached 600 °C, the nanotube mouth broke because of the excessive stress, causing the oxide layer's thinness and nanotube mouth clogging. The photoelectric test showed that the electrode presented obvious photoresponse under 300-400 nm UV excitation (maximized at 360 nm). The degree of crystallization and the micro-structure of the oxide layer can significantly affect the photoelectric properties of the electrode. After calcination at 400 °C, the TiO2 nanotube arrays, with highly ordered tubular structure directly connected to the Ti substrate, can ensure the rapid transportation of photo-induced electrons to the Ti substrate, while the high crystallinity of the arrays can help reduce the defect density of the nanotube and extend the lifetime of the photo-induced carriers. The electrode showed the best photoelectric property, and the photocurrent intensity was maximized (29.6 µA). However, the calcination process with over-temperature resulted in substantial loss of the TiO2 oxide layer, mouth clogging, and a severe decline in the photoelectric properties.

  14. Nanoscale electrode arrays produced with microscale lithographic techniques for use in biomedical sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Terry, Jonathan G; Schmüser, Ilka; Underwood, Ian; Corrigan, Damion K; Freeman, Neville J; Bunting, Andrew S; Mount, Andrew R; Walton, Anthony J

    2013-12-01

    A novel technique for the production of nanoscale electrode arrays that uses standard microfabrication processes and micron-scale photolithography is reported here in detail. These microsquare nanoband edge electrode (MNEE) arrays have been fabricated with highly reproducible control of the key array dimensions, including the size and pitch of the individual elements and, most importantly, the width of the nanoband electrodes. The definition of lateral features to nanoscale dimensions typically requires expensive patterning techniques that are complex and low-throughput. However, the fabrication methodology used here relies on the fact that vertical dimensions (i.e. layer thicknesses) have long been manufacturable at the nanoscale using thin film deposition techniques that are well established in mainstream microelectronics. The authors report for the first time two aspects that highlight the particular suitability of these MNEE array systems for probe monolayer biosensing. The first is simulation, which shows the enhanced sensitivity to the redox reaction of the solution redox couple. The second is the enhancement of probe film functionalisation observed for the probe film model molecule, 6-mercapto-1-hexanol compared with microsquare electrodes. Such surface modification for specific probe layer biosensing and detection is of significance for a wide range of biomedical and other sensing and analytical applications.

  15. Individual Optimization of the Insertion of a Preformed Cochlear Implant Electrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Thomas S.; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to show that individual adjustment of the curling behaviour of a preformed cochlear implant (CI) electrode array to the patient-specific shape of the cochlea can improve the insertion process in terms of reduced risk of insertion trauma. Methods. Geometry and curling behaviour of preformed, commercially available electrode arrays were modelled. Additionally, the anatomy of each small, medium-sized, and large human cochlea was modelled to consider anatomical variations. Finally, using a custom-made simulation tool, three different insertion strategies (conventional Advanced Off-Stylet (AOS) insertion technique, an automated implementation of the AOS technique, and a manually optimized insertion process) were simulated and compared with respect to the risk of insertion-related trauma. The risk of trauma was evaluated using a newly developed “trauma risk” rating scale. Results. Using this simulation-based approach, it was shown that an individually optimized insertion procedure is advantageous compared with the AOS insertion technique. Conclusion. This finding leads to the conclusion that, in general, consideration of the specific curling behaviour of a CI electrode array is beneficial in terms of less traumatic insertion. Therefore, these results highlight an entirely novel aspect of clinical application of preformed perimodiolar electrode arrays in general. PMID:26448764

  16. Fabrication and utility of a transparent graphene neural electrode array for electrophysiology, in vivo imaging, and optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong-Wook; Brodnick, Sarah K; Ness, Jared P; Atry, Farid; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Sandberg, Amelia; Mikael, Solomon; Richner, Thomas J; Novello, Joseph; Kim, Hyungsoo; Baek, Dong-Hyun; Bong, Jihye; Frye, Seth T; Thongpang, Sanitta; Swanson, Kyle I; Lake, Wendell; Pashaie, Ramin; Williams, Justin C; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2016-11-01

    Transparent graphene-based neural electrode arrays provide unique opportunities for simultaneous investigation of electrophysiology, various neural imaging modalities, and optogenetics. Graphene electrodes have previously demonstrated greater broad-wavelength transmittance (∼90%) than other transparent materials such as indium tin oxide (∼80%) and ultrathin metals (∼60%). This protocol describes how to fabricate and implant a graphene-based microelectrocorticography (μECoG) electrode array and subsequently use this alongside electrophysiology, fluorescence microscopy, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and optogenetics. Further applications, such as transparent penetrating electrode arrays, multi-electrode electroretinography, and electromyography, are also viable with this technology. The procedures described herein, from the material characterization methods to the optogenetic experiments, can be completed within 3-4 weeks by an experienced graduate student. These protocols should help to expand the boundaries of neurophysiological experimentation, enabling analytical methods that were previously unachievable using opaque metal-based electrode arrays.

  17. Model-based analysis of multiple electrode array stimulation for epiretinal visual prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Jerel K.; Grill, Warren M.

    2013-06-01

    Objective. Epiretinal stimulation, which uses an array of electrodes implanted on the inner retinal surface to relay a representation of the visual scene to the neuronal elements of the retina, has seen considerable success. The objective of the present study was to quantify the effects of multi-electrode stimulation on the patterns of neural excitation in a computational model of epiretinal stimulation. Approach. A computational model of retinal ganglion cells was modified to represent the morphology of human retinal ganglion cells and validated against published experimental data. The ganglion cell model was then combined with a model of an axon of the nerve fiber layer to produce a population model of the inner retina. The response of the population of model neurons to epiretinal stimulation with a multi-electrode array was quantified across a range of electrode geometries using a novel means to quantify the model response—the minimum radius circle bounding the activated model neurons as a proxy for the evoked phosphene. Main results. Multi-electrode stimulation created unique phosphenes, such that the number of potential phosphenes can far exceed the number of electrode contacts. Significance. The ability to exploit the spatial and temporal interactions of stimulation may be critical to improvements in the performance of epiretinal prostheses.

  18. Fabrication of nano-gap electrode arrays by the construction and selective chemical etching of nano-crosswire stacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-Ah (Inventor); Prokopuk, Nicholas (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods of fabricating nano-gap electrode structures in array configurations, and the structures so produced. The fabrication method involves depositing first and second pluralities of electrodes comprising nanowires using processes such as lithography, deposition of metals, lift-off processes, and chemical etching that can be performed using conventional processing tools applicable to electronic materials processing. The gap spacing in the nano-gap electrode array is defined by the thickness of a sacrificial spacer layer that is deposited between the first and second pluralities of electrodes. The sacrificial spacer layer is removed by etching, thereby leaving a structure in which the distance between pairs of electrodes is substantially equal to the thickness of the sacrificial spacer layer. Electrode arrays with gaps measured in units of nanometers are produced. In one embodiment, the first and second pluralities of electrodes are aligned in mutually orthogonal orientations.

  19. Microfluidic cells with interdigitated array gold electrodes: Fabrication and electrochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Daniela; Gutz, Ivano G R

    2005-12-15

    Microfluidic flow cells combined with an interdigitated array (IDA) electrode and/or individually driven interdigitated electrodes were fabricated and characterized for application as detectors for flow injection analysis. The gold electrodes were produced by a process involving heat transfer of a toner mask onto the gold surface of a CD-R and etching of the toner-free gold region by short exposure to iodine-iodide solution. The arrays of electrodes with individual area of 0.01cm(2) (0.10cm of lengthx0.10cm of width and separated by gaps of 0.05 or 0.03cm) were assembled in microfluidic flow cells with 13 or 19mum channel depth. The electrochemical characterization of the cells was made by voltammetry under stationary conditions and the influence of experimental parameters related to geometry of the channels and electrodes were studied by using K(4)Fe(CN)(6) as model system. The obtained results for peaks currents (I(p)) are in excellent agreement with the expected ones for a reversible redox system under stationary thin-layer conditions. Two different configurations of the working electrodes, E(i), auxiliary electrode, A, and reference electrode, R, on the chip were examined: E(i)/R/A and R/E(i)/A, with the first presenting certain uncompensated resistance. This is because the potentiostat actively compensates the iR drop occurring in the electrolyte thin layer between A and R, but not from R to each E(i). This is confirmed by the smaller difference between the cathodic and anodic peak potentials for the second configuration. Evaluation of the microfluidic flow cells combined with (individually driven) interdigitated array electrodes as biamperometric or amperometric detectors for FIA reveals stable and reproducible operation, with peak heights presenting relative standard deviations of less than 2.2%. For electrochemically reversible species, FIA peaks with enhanced current signal were obtained due to redox cycling under flow operation. The versatility of

  20. Intracellular Protein Delivery and Gene Transfection by Electroporation Using a Microneedle Electrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong-O; Kim, Yeu-Chun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Park, Jung-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    The impact of many biopharmaceuticals, including protein- and gene-based therapies, has been limited by the need for better methods of delivery into cells within tissues. Here, we present intracellular delivery of molecules and transfection with plasmid DNA by electroporation using a novel microneedle electrode array designed for targeted treatment of skin and other tissue surfaces. The microneedle array is molded out of polylactic acid. Electrodes and circuitry required for electroporation are applied to the microneedle array surface by a new metal-transfer micromolding method. The microneedle array maintains mechanical integrity after insertion into pig cadaver skin and is able to electroporate human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Quantitative measurements show that increasing electroporation pulse voltage increases uptake efficiency of calcein and bovine serum albumin, whereas increasing pulse length has lesser effects over the range studied. Uptake of molecules by up to 50 % of cells and transfection of 12 % of cells with a gene for green fluorescent protein is demonstrated at high cell viability. We conclude that the microneedle electrode array is able to electroporate cells, resulting in intracellular uptake of molecules, and has potential applications to improve intracellular delivery of proteins, DNA and other biopharmaceuticals. PMID:22328093

  1. Design of micro, flexible light-emitting diode arrays and fabrication of flexible electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dan; Wang, Weibiao; Liang, Zhongzhu; Liang, Jingqiu; Qin, Yuxin; Lv, Jinguang

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we design micro, flexible light-emitting diode (LED) array devices. Using theoretical calculations and finite element simulations, we analyze the deformation of the conventional single electrode bar. Through structure optimization, we obtain a three-dimensional (3D), chain-shaped electrode structure, which has a greater bending degree. The optimized electrodes not only have a bigger bend but can also be made to spin. When the supporting body is made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the maximum bending degree of the micro, flexible LED arrays (4  ×  1 arrays) was approximately 230 µm this was obtained using the finite element method. The device (4  ×  1 arrays) can stretch to 15%. This paper describes the fabrication of micro, flexible LED arrays using microelectromechancial (MEMS) technology combined with electroplating technology. Specifically, the isolated grooves are made by dry etching which can isolate and protect the light-emitting units. A combination of MEMS technology and wet etching is used to fabricate the large size spacing.

  2. Biochips Containing Arrays of Carbon-Nanotube Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun; Meyyappan, M.; Koehne, Jessica; Cassell, Alan; Chen, Hua

    2008-01-01

    Biochips containing arrays of nanoelectrodes based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are being developed as means of ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) biomarkers for purposes of medical diagnosis and bioenvironmental monitoring. In mass production, these biochips could be relatively inexpensive (hence, disposable). These biochips would be integrated with computer-controlled microfluidic and microelectronic devices in automated hand-held and bench-top instruments that could be used to perform rapid in vitro genetic analyses with simplified preparation of samples. Carbon nanotubes are attractive for use as nanoelectrodes for detection of biomolecules because of their nanoscale dimensions and their chemical properties.

  3. High Density Nano-Electrode Array for Radiation Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Mano Misra

    2010-05-07

    Bulk single crystals of Cd1-xZnxTe (x=0.04 to x=0.2) compound semiconductor is used for room temperature radiation detection. The production of large volume of Cd1-xZnxTe with low defect density is expensive. As a result there is a growing research interest in the production of nanostructured compound semiconductors such as Cd1-xZnxTe in an electrochemical route. In this investigation, Cd1-xZnxTe ternary compound semiconductor, referred as CZT, was electrodeposited in the form of nanowires onto a TiO2 nanotubular template from propylene carbonate as the non-aqueous electrolyte, using a pulse-reverse electrodeposition process at 130 ºC. The template acted as a support in growing ordered nanowire of CZT which acts as a one dimensional conductor. Cyclic Voltammogram (CV) studies were conducted in determining the potentials for the growth of nanowires of uniform stoichiometry. The morphologies and composition of CZT were characterized by using SEM, TEM and XRD. The STEM mapping carried out on the nanowires showed the uniform distribution of Cd, Zn and Te elements. TEM image showed that the nanowires were polycrystalline in nature. The Mott-Schottky analysis carried on the nanowires showed that the nanowires were a p-type semiconductor. The carrier density, band gap and resistivity of the Cd0.9Zn0.1Te nanowires were 4.29x1013 cm-3, 1.56 eV and 2.76x1011Ω-cm respectively. The high resistivity was attributed to the presence of deep defect states such as cadmium vacancies or Te antisites which were created by the anodic cycle of the pulse-reverse electrodeposition process. Stacks of series connected CZT nanowire arrays were tested with different bias potentials. The background current was in the order of tens of picoamperes. When exposed to radiation source Amerecium-241 (60 KeV, 4 μCi), the stacked CZT nanowires arrays showed sensing behavior. The sensitivity of the nanowire arrays increased as the number of stacks increased. The preliminary results indicate that the

  4. Mapping the fine structure of cortical activity with different micro-ECoG electrode array geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi; Gkogkidis, C. Alexis; Iljina, Olga; Fiederer, Lukas D. J.; Henle, Christian; Mader, Irina; Kaminsky, Jan; Stieglitz, Thomas; Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Ball, Tonio

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Innovations in micro-electrocorticography (µECoG) electrode array manufacturing now allow for intricate designs with smaller contact diameters and/or pitch (i.e. inter-contact distance) down to the sub-mm range. The aims of the present study were: (i) to investigate whether frequency ranges up to 400 Hz can be reproducibly observed in µECoG recordings and (ii) to examine how differences in topographical substructure between these frequency bands and electrode array geometries can be quantified. We also investigated, for the first time, the influence of blood vessels on signal properties and assessed the influence of cortical vasculature on topographic mapping. Approach. The present study employed two µECoG electrode arrays with different contact diameters and inter-contact distances, which were used to characterize neural activity from the somatosensory cortex of minipigs in a broad frequency range up to 400 Hz. The analysed neural data were recorded in acute experiments under anaesthesia during peripheral electrical stimulation. Main results. We observed that µECoG recordings reliably revealed multi-focal cortical somatosensory response patterns, in which response peaks were often less than 1 cm apart and would thus not have been resolvable with conventional ECoG. The response patterns differed by stimulation site and intensity, they were distinct for different frequency bands, and the results of functional mapping proved independent of cortical vascular. Our analysis of different frequency bands exhibited differences in the number of activation peaks in topographical substructures. Notably, signal strength and signal-to-noise ratios differed between the two electrode arrays, possibly due to their different sensitivity for variations in spatial patterns and signal strengths. Significance. Our findings that the geometry of µECoG electrode arrays can strongly influence their recording performance can help to make informed decisions that maybe

  5. Mapping the fine structure of cortical activity with different micro-ECoG electrode array geometries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Gkogkidis, C Alexis; Iljina, Olga; Fiederer, Lukas D J; Henle, Christian; Mader, Irina; Kaminsky, Jan; Stieglitz, Thomas; Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Ball, Tonio

    2017-10-01

    Innovations in micro-electrocorticography (µECoG) electrode array manufacturing now allow for intricate designs with smaller contact diameters and/or pitch (i.e. inter-contact distance) down to the sub-mm range. The aims of the present study were: (i) to investigate whether frequency ranges up to 400 Hz can be reproducibly observed in µECoG recordings and (ii) to examine how differences in topographical substructure between these frequency bands and electrode array geometries can be quantified. We also investigated, for the first time, the influence of blood vessels on signal properties and assessed the influence of cortical vasculature on topographic mapping. The present study employed two µECoG electrode arrays with different contact diameters and inter-contact distances, which were used to characterize neural activity from the somatosensory cortex of minipigs in a broad frequency range up to 400 Hz. The analysed neural data were recorded in acute experiments under anaesthesia during peripheral electrical stimulation. We observed that µECoG recordings reliably revealed multi-focal cortical somatosensory response patterns, in which response peaks were often less than 1 cm apart and would thus not have been resolvable with conventional ECoG. The response patterns differed by stimulation site and intensity, they were distinct for different frequency bands, and the results of functional mapping proved independent of cortical vascular. Our analysis of different frequency bands exhibited differences in the number of activation peaks in topographical substructures. Notably, signal strength and signal-to-noise ratios differed between the two electrode arrays, possibly due to their different sensitivity for variations in spatial patterns and signal strengths. Our findings that the geometry of µECoG electrode arrays can strongly influence their recording performance can help to make informed decisions that maybe important in number of clinical contexts, including

  6. Hierarchical mesoporous nickel cobaltite nanoneedle/carbon cloth arrays as superior flexible electrodes for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Deyang; Yan, Hailong; Lu, Yang; Qiu, Kangwen; Wang, Chunlei; Tang, Chengchun; Zhang, Yihe; Cheng, Chuanwei; Luo, Yongsong

    2014-03-01

    Hierarchical mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanoneedle arrays on carbon cloth have been fabricated by a simple hydrothermal approach combined with a post-annealing treatment. Such unique array nanoarchitectures exhibit remarkable electrochemical performance with high capacitance and desirable cycle life at high rates. When evaluated as an electrode material for supercapacitors, the NiCo2O4 nanoneedle arrays supported on carbon cloth was able to deliver high specific capacitance of 660 F g-1 at current densities of 2 A g-1 in 2 M KOH aqueous solution. In addition, the composite electrode shows excellent mechanical behavior and long-term cyclic stability (91.8% capacitance retention after 3,000 cycles). The fabrication method presented here is facile, cost-effective, and scalable, which may open a new pathway for real device applications.

  7. Hierarchical mesoporous nickel cobaltite nanoneedle/carbon cloth arrays as superior flexible electrodes for supercapacitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchical mesoporous NiCo2O4 nanoneedle arrays on carbon cloth have been fabricated by a simple hydrothermal approach combined with a post-annealing treatment. Such unique array nanoarchitectures exhibit remarkable electrochemical performance with high capacitance and desirable cycle life at high rates. When evaluated as an electrode material for supercapacitors, the NiCo2O4 nanoneedle arrays supported on carbon cloth was able to deliver high specific capacitance of 660 F g-1 at current densities of 2 A g-1 in 2 M KOH aqueous solution. In addition, the composite electrode shows excellent mechanical behavior and long-term cyclic stability (91.8% capacitance retention after 3,000 cycles). The fabrication method presented here is facile, cost-effective, and scalable, which may open a new pathway for real device applications. PMID:24661431

  8. Flexible transistor active matrix array with all screen-printed electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Boyu; Lin, Jiawei; Chan, Paddy K. L.

    2013-09-01

    Flexible transistor active matrix array is fabricated on PEN substrate using all screen-printed gate, source and drain electrodes. Parylene-C and DNTT act as gate dielectric layer and semiconductor, respectively. The transistor possesses high mobility (0.33 cm2V-1 s-1), large on/off ratio (< 106) and low leakage current (~10 pA). Active matrix array consists of 10×10 transistors were demonstrated. Transistors exhibited average mobility of 0.29 cm2V-1s-1 and on/off ratio larger than 104 in array form. In the transistor array, we achieve 75μm channel length and a size of 2 mm × 2 mm for each element in the array which indicates the current screen-printing method has large potential in large-area circuits and display applications.

  9. Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Polyaniline Arrays Coated Graphene Aerogel Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Xi, Yunlong; Li, Junzhi; Wei, Guodong; Klyui, N. I.; Han, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Flexible supercapacitors(SCs) made by reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based aerogel usually suffer from the low energy density, short cycle life and bad flexibility. In this study, a new, synthetic strategy was developed for enhancing the electrochemical performances of rGO aerogel-based supercapacitor via electrodeposition polyaniline arrays on the prepared ultralight rGO aerogel. The novel hybrid composites with coated polyaniline (PANI) arrays growing on the rGO surface can take full advantage of the rich open-pore and excellent conductivity of the crosslinking framework structure of 3D rGO aerogel and high capacitance contribution from the PANI. The obtained hybrid composites exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 432 F g-1 at the current density of 1 A g-1, robust cycling stability to maintain 85% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles and high energy density of 25 W h kg-1. Furthermore, the flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor have superior flexibility and outstanding stability under different bending states from the straight state to the 90° status. The high-performance flexible all-solid-state SCs together with the lighting tests demonstrate it possible for applications in portable electronics.

  10. Flexible multi-electrode array with integrated bendable CMOS-chip for implantable systems.

    PubMed

    Winkin, N; Mokwa, W

    2012-01-01

    Micro-electrodes and micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) for stimulating neurons or recording action potentials are widely used in medical applications or biological research. For medical implants in many applications like brain implants or retinal implants there is a need for flexible MEAs with a large area and a large number of stimulation electrodes. In this work a flexible MEA with an embedded flexible silicon dummy CMOS-chip facing these challenges has been designed, manufactured and characterized. This approach offers the possibility by connecting and addressing several of these MEAs via a bus system, to increase the number and the density of electrodes significantly. This paper describes the design and fabrication process. Results on the mechanical and electrical behavior will be given and possible improvements for medical applications by this novel approach will be discussed.

  11. Preparation of nickel nanowire arrays electrode for urea electro-oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fen; Ye, Ke; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2015-03-01

    Fully metallic nickel nanowire arrays (NWAs) electrode is prepared by electrodepositing nickel within the pores and over-plating on the surface of polycarbonate template (PCT) with subsequent dissolution of the template in dichloromethane. The as-prepared electrode is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Urea electro-oxidation reaction in KOH solution on the nickel NWAs electrode is investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The results show that the nickel NWAs electrode achieves an onset oxidation potential of 0.25 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and a peak current density of 160 mA cm-2 in 5 mol L-1 KOH and 0.33 mol L-1 urea accompanied with considerable stability.

  12. Safety and efficacy of explanting or replacing suprachoroidal electrode arrays in a feline model.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ronald T; Nayagam, David A X; Williams, Richard A; Allen, Penelope J; Salinas-La Rosa, Cesar M; Luu, Chi D; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Ayton, Lauren N; Basa, Meri; Yeoh, Jonathan; Saunders, Alexia L; Shepherd, Robert K; Williams, Chris E

    2015-04-01

    A key requirement for retinal prostheses is the ability for safe removal or replacement. We examined whether suprachoroidal electrode arrays can be removed or replaced after implantation. Suprachoroidal electrode arrays were unilaterally implanted into 13 adult felines. After 1 month, arrays were surgically explanted (n = 6), replaced (n = 5) or undisturbed (n = 2). The retina was assessed periodically using fundus photography and optical coherence tomography. Three months after the initial implantation, the function of replaced or undisturbed arrays was assessed by measuring the responses of the visual cortex to retinal electrical stimulation. The histopathology of tissues surrounding the implant was examined. Array explantation or replacement was successful in all cases. Fundus photography showed localized disruption to the tapetum lucidum near the implant's tip in seven subjects following implantation. Although optical coherence tomography showed localized retinal changes, there were no widespread statistically significant differences in the thickness of the retinal layers or choroid. The distance between the electrodes and retina increased after device replacement but returned to control values within eight weeks (P < 0.03). Staphylomas developed near the scleral wound in five animals after device explantation. Device replacement did not alter the cortical evoked potential threshold. Histopathology showed localized outer nuclear layer thinning, tapetal disruption and pseudo-rosette formation, but the overall retinal morphology was preserved. It is feasible to remove or replace conformable medical grade silicone electrode arrays implanted suprachoroidally. The scleral wound requires careful closure to minimize the risk of staphylomas. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. Tungsten oxide@polypyrrole core-shell nanowire arrays as novel negative electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengmei; Zhan, Xueying; Cheng, Zhongzhou; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Qisheng; Xu, Kai; Safdar, Muhammad; He, Jun

    2015-02-11

    Among active pseudocapacitive materials, polypyrrole (PPy) is a promising electrode material in electrochemical capacitors. PPy-based materials research has thus far focused on its electrochemical performance as a positive electrode rather than as a negative electrode for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). Here high-performance electrochemical supercapacitors are designed with tungsten oxide@PPy (WO3 @PPy) core-shell nanowire arrays and Co(OH)2 nanowires grown on carbon fibers. The WO3 @PPy core-shell nanowire electrode exhibits a high capacitance (253 mF/cm2) in negative potentials (-1.0-0.0 V). The ASCs packaged with CF-Co(OH)2 as a positive electrode and CF-WO3 @PPy as a negative electrode display a high volumetric capacitance up to 2.865 F/cm3 based on volume of the device, an energy density of 1.02 mWh/cm3 , and very good stability performance. These findings promote the application of PPy-based nanostructures as advanced negative electrodes for ASCs.

  14. The fabrication of low-impedance nanoporous gold multiple-electrode arrays for neural electrophysiology studies.

    PubMed

    Seker, Erkin; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny; Begley, Matthew R; Reed, Michael L; Staley, Kevin J; Yarmush, Martin L

    2010-03-26

    Neural electrodes are essential tools for the study of the nervous system and related diseases. Low electrode impedance is a figure of merit for sensitive detection of neural electrical activity and numerous studies have aimed to reduce impedance. Unfortunately, most of these efforts have been tethered by a combination of poor functional coating adhesion, complicated fabrication techniques, and poor fabrication repeatability. We address these issues with a facile method for reliably producing multiple-electrode arrays with low impedance by patterning highly adherent nanoporous gold films using conventional microfabrication techniques. The high surface area-to-volume ratio of self-assembled nanoporous gold results in a more than 25-fold improvement in the electrode-electrolyte impedance, where at 1 kHz, 850 kOmega impedance for conventional Au electrodes is reduced to 30 kOmega for nanoporous gold electrodes. Low impedance provides a superior signal-to-noise ratio for detection of neural activity in noisy environments. We systematically studied the effect of film morphology on electrode impedance and successfully recorded field potentials from rat hippocampal slices. Here, we present our fabrication approach, the relationship between film morphology and impedance, and field potential recordings.

  15. Planar patterned stretchable electrode arrays based on flexible printed circuits

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R E; Boyce, C M; Boyce, M C; Pruitt, B L

    2013-01-01

    For stretchable electronics to achieve broad industrial application, they must be reliable to manufacture and must perform robustly while undergoing large deformations. We present a new strategy for creating planar stretchable electronics and demonstrate one such device, a stretchable microelectrode array based on flex circuit technology. Stretchability is achieved through novel, rationally designed perforations that provide islands of low strain and continuous low-strain pathways for conductive traces. This approach enables the device to maintain constant electrical properties and planarity while undergoing applied strains up to 15%. Materials selection is not limited to polyimide composite devices and can potentially be implemented with either soft or hard substrates and can incorporate standard metals or new nano-engineered conductors. By using standard flex circuit technology, our planar microelectrode device achieved constant resistances for strains up to 20% with less than a 4% resistance offset over 120,000 cycles at 10% strain. PMID:24244075

  16. Planar patterned stretchable electrode arrays based on flexible printed circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Boyce, C. M.; Boyce, M. C.; Pruitt, B. L.

    2013-10-01

    For stretchable electronics to achieve broad industrial application, they must be reliable to manufacture and must perform robustly while undergoing large deformations. We present a new strategy for creating planar stretchable electronics and demonstrate one such device, a stretchable microelectrode array based on flex circuit technology. Stretchability is achieved through novel, rationally designed perforations that provide islands of low strain and continuous low-strain pathways for conductive traces. This approach enables the device to maintain constant electrical properties and planarity while undergoing applied strains up to 15%. Materials selection is not limited to polyimide composite devices and can potentially be implemented with either soft or hard substrates and can incorporate standard metals or new nano-engineered conductors. By using standard flex circuit technology, our planar microelectrode device achieved constant resistances for strains up to 20% with less than a 4% resistance offset over 120 000 cycles at 10% strain.

  17. Development of a safe dexamethasone-eluting electrode array for cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Dimitra; Chambers, Scott; Enke, Ya Lang; Timbol, Godofredo; Risi, Frank; Miller, Christopher; Cowan, Robert; Newbold, Carrie

    2014-09-01

    Cochlear implantation can result in trauma leading to increased tissue response and loss of residual hearing. A single intratympanic application of the corticosteroid dexamethasone is sometimes used clinically during surgery to combat the potential effect of trauma on residual hearing. This project looked at the safety and efficacy of dexamethasone eluted from an intracochlear array in vivo. Three trials were conducted using normal hearing adult guinea pigs implanted with successive iterations of dexamethasone-eluting (DX1, DX2, and DX3) or non-eluting (control) intracochlear electrode arrays. The experimental period for each animal was 90 days during which hearing tests were performed at multiple time points. There was no significant difference between matched control array and dexamethasone array groups in terms of spiral ganglion neuron density, organ of Corti condition, or fibrosis and ossification. A cochleostomy seal was present in all implanted cochleae. There were no differences in the degree of hearing threshold shifts between DX1 and DX3 and their respective control arrays. Cochleae implanted with DX2 arrays showed less hearing loss and marginally better spiral ganglion neuron survival than their control array counterparts. Post-explant inspection of the DX2 and DX3 arrays revealed a difference in pore density following dexamethasone elution. The dexamethasone doses used were safe in the guinea pig cochlea. Dexamethasone did not inhibit formation of a cochleostomy seal. The level of hearing protection afforded by dexamethasone eluting from an intracochlear array may depend upon the degree of elution and level of trauma inflicted.

  18. Gated Molecular Transport in Highly Ordered Heterogeneous Nanochannel Array Electrode.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xingyu; Yang, Qian; Yan, Fei; Zhang, Bowen; Su, Bin

    2016-12-07

    In biology, all protein channels share a common feature of containing narrow pore regions with hydrophobic functional groups and selectivity filter regions abundant with charged residues, which work together to account for fast and selective mass transport in and out of cells. In this work, an ultrathin layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was evaporated on the top orifices of charged silica nanochannels (2-3 nm in diameter and 60 nm in length) vertically attached to the electrode surface, and the resulting structure is designated as heterogeneous silica nanochannels (HSNs). As evidenced by voltammetric studies, the transport of ionic species in these HSNs was controlled by both hydrophobic rejection and electrostatic force arising from the top PDMS layer and from the bottom silica nanochannels, respectively. Anionic species encountered both hydrophobic rejection and electrostatic repulsion forces, and thus, their transport was strongly prohibited, while the transport of cationic species was permitted once the electrostatic attraction exceeded the hydrophobic rejection. Moreover, the magnitude of hydrophobic force could be regulated by the PDMS layer thickness, and that of the electrostatic force can be modulated by the salt concentration, solution pH, or applied voltage. It was demonstrated that the HSNs could be activated from an OFF state (no ion can transport) to an ON state (only cation transport occurs) by decreasing the salt concentration, increasing the solution pH, or applying negative voltages.

  19. A carbon-fiber electrode array for long-term neural recording.

    PubMed

    Guitchounts, Grigori; Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Liberti, William A; Gardner, Timothy J

    2013-08-01

    Chronic neural recording in behaving animals is an essential method for studies of neural circuit function. However, stable recordings from small, densely packed neurons remains challenging, particularly over time-scales relevant for learning. We describe an assembly method for a 16-channel electrode array consisting of carbon fibers (<5 µm diameter) individually insulated with Parylene-C and fire-sharpened. The diameter of the array is approximately 26 µm along the full extent of the implant. Carbon fiber arrays were tested in HVC (used as a proper name), a song motor nucleus, of singing zebra finches where individual neurons discharge with temporally precise patterns. Previous reports of activity in this population of neurons have required the use of high impedance electrodes on movable microdrives. Here, the carbon fiber electrodes provided stable multi-unit recordings over time-scales of months. Spike-sorting indicated that the multi-unit signals were dominated by one, or a small number of cells. Stable firing patterns during singing confirmed the stability of these clusters over time-scales of months. In addition, from a total of 10 surgeries, 16 projection neurons were found. This cell type is characterized by sparse stereotyped firing patterns, providing unambiguous confirmation of single cell recordings. Carbon fiber electrode bundles may provide a scalable solution for long-term neural recordings of densely packed neurons.

  20. Breast cancer detection using high-density flexible electrode arrays and electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Matthew S; Barbre, Curtis; Chola, Aditya; Cunningham, Gisselle; Woods, Virginia; Viventi, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    While mammography remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening, additional adjunctive tools for early detection of breast cancer are needed especially for young women, women with dense breast tissue and those at increased risk due to genetic factors. These patient populations, along with those populations for whom mammography is not readily available, require alternative technologies capable of effectively detecting breast cancer. One such adjunctive modality for breast cancer detection is Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). It is a non-invasive technique that measures tissue conductivity by injecting a small current through a surface electrode while measuring electrode voltage(s). The surface measurements are then used to reconstruct a conductivity mapping of the tissue. The difference in conductivities between healthy tissue and that of carcinoma enable EIT to detect cancer. Electrical Impedance Tomography does not subject the patient to ionizing radiation, and offers significant potential for detecting very small tumors in early stages of development at a low cost. While prior systems have demonstrated success using EIT for breast cancer detection, the resolution of the reconstructed image was limited by the spatial resolution of the sensing electrode array. Here, we report the use of higher density (3mm spacing) flexible micro-electrode arrays to obtain tissue impedance maps. Accurate EIT reconstruction is highly dependent on the spatial resolution and fidelity of the surface measurements. High-density, flexible arrays that conform to the breast surface can offer great potential in reconstructing higher resolution conductivity maps than have been previously achieved.

  1. Preparation and characterization of vertically columnar boron doped diamond array electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Yu, Hongtao; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Yaobin

    2014-06-01

    A vertically columnar boron doped diamond (BDD) array electrode was fabricated by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. Observed by scanning electron microscopy, the fabricated samples were structured with aligned columns whose diameter and height was 8 μm and 12 μm, respectively, and the minimum interval of neighboring columns was 2 μm. The results of electrochemistry measurement showed that the columnar BDD array electrode possessed high oxygen evolution potential and low background current. Besides that, comparing with flat BDD electrode, the columnar BDD array electrode showed higher electrochemical activity (due to its inner active surface being up to 4.25 cm2), lower impedance of electric double layer, and especially enhanced electrical response signal (2.12 μA/μM, 4 times of flat BDD in glucose detection as a sample). These excellent performances may open the door for the BDD materials to be applied in wide areas including electrochemical detection, electrochemistry degradation, electrochemical synthesis, and so on.

  2. Selective anodic desorption for assembly of different thiol monolayers on the individual electrodes of an array.

    PubMed

    Collman, James P; Hosseini, Ali; Eberspacher, Todd A; Chidsey, Christopher E D

    2009-06-02

    The close proximity of two individually addressable electrodes in an interdigitated array provides a unique platform for electrochemical study of multicatalytic processes. Here, we report a "plug-and-play" approach to control the underlying self-assembled monolayer and the electroactive species on each individually addressable electrode of an interdigitated array. The method presented here uses selective anodic desorption of a monolayer from one of the individually addressable electrodes and rapid formation of a different self-assembled monolayer on the freshly cleaned electrode. We illustrate this strategy by introducing variations in the length of the linker to the electroactive species in the self-assembled monolayer, which determines the rate of electron transfer. In order to separate the assembly of the monolayer from the choice of the electroactive species, we use CuI-catalyzed triazole formation ("click" chemistry) to covalently attach an acetylene-terminated electroactive species to an azide-terminated thiol monolayer selectively on each electrode. The resulting variations in the electron-transfer rate to surface-attached ferrocene and in the rate of catalytic oxidation of ascorbate by the ferrocenium/ferrocene couple demonstrate an application of this approach.

  3. Improving Impedance of Implantable Microwire Multi-Electrode Arrays by Ultrasonic Electroplating of Durable Platinum Black

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sharanya Arcot; Rolston, John D.; Guo, Liang; Potter, Steve M.

    2010-01-01

    Implantable microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have been a boon for neural stimulation and recording experiments. Commercially available MEAs have high impedances, due to their low surface area and small tip diameters, which are suitable for recording single unit activity. Lowering the electrode impedance, but preserving the small diameter, would provide a number of advantages, including reduced stimulation voltages, reduced stimulation artifacts and improved signal-to-noise ratio. Impedance reductions can be achieved by electroplating the MEAs with platinum (Pt) black, which increases the surface area but has little effect on the physical extent of the electrodes. However, because of the low durability of Pt black plating, this method has not been popular for chronic use. Sonicoplating (i.e. electroplating under ultrasonic agitation) has been shown to improve the durability of Pt black on the base metals of macro-electrodes used for cyclic voltammetry. This method has not previously been characterized for MEAs used in chronic neural implants. We show here that sonicoplating can lower the impedances of microwire multi-electrode arrays (MMEA) by an order of magnitude or more (depending on the time and voltage of electroplating), with better durability compared to pulsed plating or traditional DC methods. We also show the improved stimulation and recording performance that can be achieved in an in vivo implantation study with the sonicoplated low-impedance MMEAs, compared to high-impedance unplated electrodes. PMID:20485478

  4. Interdigitated electrode array based sensors for environmental monitoring of caesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickson, I. D.; Boxall, C.; Port, S. N.

    2010-03-01

    The requirement for on-line and in-situ monitoring of analytes in process and effluent streams and in ground waters has become increasingly more important in recent years. We therefore describe the development of the transduction element for a fully automated online instrument for the detection of caesium. The sensor layer for this instrument employs an Ion Selective Conductimetric Microsensor (ISCOM) as the detector. This is based upon a plasticized polymeric membrane incorporating a selective ionophore, overlaying two interdigitated microelectrode arrays. A direct relationship has been observed between the bulk conductance (as determined by the microelectrodes) of the ionophore loaded membrane and the concentration of the primary ions in solution. Caesium selective ISCOMs were prepared using an ion selective membrane containing the commercially available ionophore Calix [6]arene-hexaacetic acid hexaethyl ester, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and plasticiser Nitrophenylether (NPOE). The relative levels of membrane components have also been varied in order to further enhance the ISCOM response. We also present preliminary data concerning the caesium selectivity with respect to a range of possible interferents, including rubidium.

  5. Adult Cortical Plasticity Studied with Chronically Implanted Electrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Hiroshi; McManus, Justin N.J.; Ramalingam, Nirmala; Li, Wu; Marik, Sally A.; Meyer zum Alten Borgloh, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The functional architecture of adult cerebral cortex retains a capacity for experience-dependent change. This is seen after focal binocular lesions as rapid changes in receptive field (RF) of the lesion projection zone (LPZ) in the primary visual cortex (V1). To study the dynamics of the circuitry underlying these changes longitudinally, we implanted microelectrode arrays in macaque (Macaca mulatta) V1, eliminating the possibility of sampling bias, which was a concern in previous studies. With this method, we observed a rapid initial recovery in the LPZ and, during the following weeks, 63–89% of the sites in the LPZ showed recovery of visual responses with significant position tuning. The RFs shifted ∼3° away from the scotoma. In the absence of a lesion, visual stimulation surrounding an artificial scotoma did not elicit visual responses, suggesting that the postlesion RF shifts resulted from cortical reorganization. Interestingly, although both spikes and LFPs gave consistent prelesion position tuning, only spikes reflected the postlesion remapping. PMID:25673865

  6. Analysis of traveling-wave electro-osmotic pumping with double-sided electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Hung-Chun; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Luo, Win-Jet

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, a series of numerical simulations was performed to investigate the pumping performance of electro-osmotic micropumps containing electrode arrays patterned on the upper and lower sides of a microchannel. The simulations have been analyzed with a linear electro-osmotic model based upon the Debye-Hückel theory of the double layer. The potential drop across the diffuse layer is assumed to be less than 25 mV (kBT/e), and there is a linear response between the surface charge and the voltage drop across the double layer. The double layer is not resolved but is lumped into effective parameters that are imported from the Debye-Hückel and Stern layers. We examined the effects of the relative positioning of the electrodes in the opposing arrays (i.e., symmetrical or staggered), and the phase lag and the angular frequency of the alternating current (ac) signals applied to the electrodes within the two arrays. A critical height of the microchannel was observed, below which the interactions of the applied electrical potentials on the walls became significant. The optimum pumping effect was obtained when the electrode arrays were symmetrical to one another around the centerline of the channel and were activated by ac potentials with a 0° phase shift. The corresponding angular frequency of the maximum pumping velocity for different phase shifts of the applied ac signals was also determined. Overall, the simulation results presented in this paper provide a useful insight into the optimal design parameters and operating conditions for micropumps containing two arrays of microelectrodes on the microchannel walls.

  7. Analysis of traveling-wave electro-osmotic pumping with double-sided electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hung-Chun; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Luo, Win-Jet

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, a series of numerical simulations was performed to investigate the pumping performance of electro-osmotic micropumps containing electrode arrays patterned on the upper and lower sides of a microchannel. The simulations have been analyzed with a linear electro-osmotic model based upon the Debye-Hückel theory of the double layer. The potential drop across the diffuse layer is assumed to be less than 25 mV (k(B)T/e), and there is a linear response between the surface charge and the voltage drop across the double layer. The double layer is not resolved but is lumped into effective parameters that are imported from the Debye-Hückel and Stern layers. We examined the effects of the relative positioning of the electrodes in the opposing arrays (i.e., symmetrical or staggered), and the phase lag and the angular frequency of the alternating current (ac) signals applied to the electrodes within the two arrays. A critical height of the microchannel was observed, below which the interactions of the applied electrical potentials on the walls became significant. The optimum pumping effect was obtained when the electrode arrays were symmetrical to one another around the centerline of the channel and were activated by ac potentials with a 0° phase shift. The corresponding angular frequency of the maximum pumping velocity for different phase shifts of the applied ac signals was also determined. Overall, the simulation results presented in this paper provide a useful insight into the optimal design parameters and operating conditions for micropumps containing two arrays of microelectrodes on the microchannel walls. © 2011 American Physical Society

  8. Interdigitated array of Pt electrodes for electrical stimulation and engineering of aligned muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Ahadian, Samad; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Ostrovidov, Serge; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Hosseini, Vahid; Kaji, Hirokazu; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Khademhosseini, Ali; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2012-09-21

    Engineered skeletal muscle tissues could be useful for applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and bio-robotics. It is well-known that skeletal muscle cells are able to differentiate under electrical stimulation (ES), with an increase in myosin production, along with the formation of myofibers and contractile proteins. In this study, we describe the use of an interdigitated array of electrodes as a novel platform to electrically stimulate engineered muscle tissues. The resulting muscle myofibers were analyzed and quantified in terms of their myotube characteristics and gene expression. The engineered muscle tissues stimulated through the interdigitated array of electrodes demonstrated superior performance and maturation compared to the corresponding tissues stimulated through a conventional setup (i.e., through Pt wires in close proximity to the muscle tissue). In particular, the ES of muscle tissue (voltage 6 V, frequency 1 Hz and duration 10 ms for 1 day) through the interdigitated array of electrodes resulted in a higher degree of C2C12 myotube alignment (∼80%) as compared to ES using Pt wires (∼65%). In addition, higher amounts of C2C12 myotube coverage area, myotube length, muscle transcription factors and protein biomarkers were found for myotubes stimulated through the interdigitated array of electrodes compared to those stimulated using the Pt wires. Due to the wide array of potential applications of ES for two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) engineered tissues, the suggested platform could be employed for a variety of cell and tissue structures to more efficiently investigate their response to electrical fields.

  9. 3D porous NiMoO4 nanoflakes arrays for advanced supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikary, Munesh Chandra; Priyadarsini, M. H.; Rath, Sanjit Kumar; Das, Chapal Kumar

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, supercapacitors have been considered as one of the auspicious energy storage devices. In this work, two different kinds of mixed metal oxide NiMoO4 nanoflakes arrays were directly grown on 3D Ni foam. The electrode exhibited high specific capacitance of 2004 F/g at the current density of 2 A/g in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Additionally, it also exhibited low equivalent series resistance of 0.62 Ω and excellent cycling stability (80% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles). With these extraordinary electrochemical properties, the electrode material can be considered as potential candidate for supercapacitor applications.

  10. Fabrication of a carbon nanotube protruding electrode array for a retinal prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Dai, Hongjie; Fishman, Harvey A.; Harris, James S.

    2005-01-01

    Implantable retinal prosthetic devices consisting of microelectrode arrays are being built in attempts to restore vision. Current retinal prostheses use metal planar electrodes. We are developing a novel electro-neural interface using carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles as flexible, protruding microelectrodes. We have synthesized vertically self-assembled, multi-walled CNT bundles by thermal chemical vapor deposition. Using conventional silicon-based micro-fabrication processes, these CNT bundles were integrated onto pre-patterned circuits. CNT protruding electrodes have significant potentials in providing safer stimulation for retinal prostheses. They could also act as recording units to sense electrical and chemical activities in neural systems for fundamental neuroscience research.

  11. Fabrication of sub-20 nm nanopore arrays in membranes with embedded metal electrodes at wafer scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jingwei; Wang, Deqiang; Nam, Sung-Wook; Peng, Hongbo; Bruce, Robert; Gignac, Lynn; Brink, Markus; Kratschmer, Ernst; Rossnagel, Stephen; Waggoner, Phil; Reuter, Kathleen; Wang, Chao; Astier, Yann; Balagurusamy, Venkat; Luan, Binquan; Kwark, Young; Joseph, Eric; Guillorn, Mike; Polonsky, Stanislav; Royyuru, Ajay; Papa Rao, S.; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2014-07-01

    We introduce a method to fabricate solid-state nanopores with sub-20 nm diameter in membranes with embedded metal electrodes across a 200 mm wafer using CMOS compatible semiconductor processes. Multi-layer (metal-dielectric) structures embedded in membranes were demonstrated to have high uniformity (+/-0.5 nm) across the wafer. Arrays of nanopores were fabricated with an average size of 18 +/- 2 nm in diameter using a Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) method in lieu of TEM drilling. Shorts between the membrane-embedded metals were occasionally created after pore formation, but the RIE based pores had a much better yield (99%) of unshorted electrodes compared to TEM drilled pores (<10%). A double-stranded DNA of length 1 kbp was translocated through the multi-layer structure RIE-based nanopore demonstrating that the pores were open. The ionic current through the pore can be modulated with a gain of 3 using embedded electrodes functioning as a gate in 0.1 mM KCl aqueous solution. This fabrication approach can potentially pave the way to manufacturable nanopore arrays with the ability to electrically control the movement of single or double-stranded DNA inside the pore with embedded electrodes.We introduce a method to fabricate solid-state nanopores with sub-20 nm diameter in membranes with embedded metal electrodes across a 200 mm wafer using CMOS compatible semiconductor processes. Multi-layer (metal-dielectric) structures embedded in membranes were demonstrated to have high uniformity (+/-0.5 nm) across the wafer. Arrays of nanopores were fabricated with an average size of 18 +/- 2 nm in diameter using a Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) method in lieu of TEM drilling. Shorts between the membrane-embedded metals were occasionally created after pore formation, but the RIE based pores had a much better yield (99%) of unshorted electrodes compared to TEM drilled pores (<10%). A double-stranded DNA of length 1 kbp was translocated through the multi-layer structure RIE-based nanopore

  12. Nano electrode arrays for in-situ identification and quantification of chemicals in water.

    SciTech Connect

    Gurule, Natalia J.; Kelly, Michael James; Brevnov, Dmitri A.; Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant; Yelton, William Graham

    2004-12-01

    The nano electrode arrays for in-situ identification and quantification of chemicals in water progress in four major directions. (1) We developed and engineering three nanoelectrode array designs which operate in a portable field mode or as distributed sensor network for water systems. (2) To replace the fragile glass electrochemical cells using in the lab, we design and engineered field-ready sampling heads that combine the nanoelectrode arrays with a high-speed potentiostat. (3) To utilize these arrays in a portable system we design and engineered a light weight high-speed potentiostat with pulse widths from 2 psec. to 100 msec. or greater. (4) Finally, we developed the parameters for an analytical method in low-conductivity solutions for Pb(II) detection, with initial studies for the analysis of As(III) and As(V) analysis in natural water sources.

  13. Graphene-modified interdigitated array electrode: fabrication, characterization, and electrochemical immunoassay application.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yuko; Furukawa, Kazuaki; Hayashi, Katsuyoshi; Takamura, Makoto; Hibino, Hiroki; Tamechika, Emi

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a new procedure for fabricating interdigitated array gold electrodes (Au-IDA) modified with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). In this procedure, we coated the gold surface of the micrometer order electrodes with graphene oxide (GO) prior to the reduction and the lift-off processes to avoid short-circuiting the pair of electrodes by conductive rGO flakes after the reduction. We then studied the basic electrochemical activity of the prepared electrodes, rGO/Au-IDA, mainly on p-aminophenol (pAP), because pAP is a good probe for an electrochemical immunoassay. The voltammograms showed that denser rGO provides better electrode reactivity for pAP. We confirmed that redox cycling between the anode and cathode at the rGO/Au-IDA was established, which yields more sensitive detection than with a single electrode. As one application of the electrochemical immunoassay using the rGO/Au-IDA, we demonstrated the quantitative detection of cortisol, a stress marker, at levels found in human saliva.

  14. Microneedle Electrode Array for Electrical Impedance Myography to Characterize Neurogenic Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Li, Yi; Liu, Mingsheng; Cui, Liying; Yu, Yude

    2016-05-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a noninvasive technique for neuromuscular assessment, wherein a low-intensity alternating current is applied to a muscle, and the consequent surface voltage patterns are evaluated. Commercial wet electrodes are most commonly used for EIM. However, these electrodes are not suitable for use on small muscles, as they do not effectively solve the problem of high electrode-skin contact impedance (ESCI) that negatively influences the quality of recorded biopotentials. To address this problem, we fabricated a novel microneedle electrode array (MEA) that consists of 124-µm-long microneedles. Compared to wet electrodes, the MEA could pierce through the outer skin surface in a painless and micro-invasive manner, and could thus effectively reduce ESCI. The MEA has excellent test-retest reproducibility, with intraclass correlation coefficients exceeding 0.920. When used in combination with EIM, the MEA differentiated the affected muscles from the unaffected muscles in patients with neurogenic myopathy, by using EIM parameters of reactance and phase (p = 0.023 and 0.008, respectively). Thus, the novel MEA is a practical and reusable device for EIM assessment in cases of neurogenic myopathy. However, further refinement of the electrode is needed to enhance the clinical application of the system.

  15. Time of Flight Electrochemistry: Diffusion Coefficient Measurements Using Interdigitated Array (IDA) Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fei; Kolesov, Grigory; Parkinson, Bruce A.

    2014-09-26

    A simple and straightforward method for measuring diffusion coefficients using interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes is reported. The method does not require that the exact electrode area be known but depends only the size of the gap between the IDA electrode pairs. Electroactive molecules produced at the generator electrode of the IDA by a voltage step or scan can diffuse to the collector electrode and the time delay before the current for the reverse electrochemical reaction is detected at the collector is used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. The measurement of the diffusion rate of Ru(NH3)6+2 in aqueous solution has been used as an example measuring diffusion coefficients using this method. Additionally, a digital simulation of the electrochemical response of the IDA electrodes was used to simulate the entire current/voltage/time behavior of the system and verify the experimentally measured diffusion coefficients. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  16. A Cosmic Dust Sensor Based on an Array of Grid Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. W.; Bugiel, S.; Strack, H.; Srama, R.

    2014-04-01

    We described a low mass and high sensitivity cosmic dust trajectory sensor using a array of grid segments[1]. the sensor determines the particle velocity vector and the particle mass. An impact target is used for the detection of the impact plasma of high speed particles like interplanetary dust grains or high speed ejecta. Slower particles are measured by three planes of grid electrodes using charge induction. In contrast to conventional Dust Trajectory Sensor based on wire electrodes, grid electrodes a robust and sensitive design with a trajectory resolution of a few degree. Coulomb simulation and laboratory tests were performed in order to verify the instrument design. The signal shapes are used to derive the particle plane intersection points and to derive the exact particle trajectory. The accuracy of the instrument for the incident angle depends on the particle charge, the position of the intersection point and the signal-to-noise of the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). There are some advantages of this grid-electrodes based design with respect to conventional trajectory sensor using individual wire electrodes: the grid segment electrodes show higher amplitudes (close to 100%induced charge) and the overall number of measurement channels can be reduced. This allows a compact instrument with low power and mass requirements.

  17. Experimental and DFT theoretical studies of surface enhanced Raman scattering effect on the silver nano arrays modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lisheng; Fang, Yan; Wang, Peijie

    2012-07-01

    Well-ordered silver nano arrays, prepared using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template by laser molecular beam epitaxy (L-MBE) method, were adhered to the work electrode using conductive adhesive to be a Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate. Variable SERS signals of paranitrobenzoic acid (PNA) on the electrode modified with silver nano arrays were recorded with electric potential ranging from 0.1 to -0.5 V. The SERS spectra of PNA using DFT-B3PW91 with lanl2dz based on two models were calculated. It indicate that the adsorption orientation of probe molecules on the silver nano arrays with potential change of the electrode.

  18. Cell pairing using a dielectrophoresis-based device with interdigitated array electrodes.

    PubMed

    Şen, Mustafa; Ino, Kosuke; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Shiku, Hitoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2013-09-21

    We present a chip device with an array of 900 gourd-shaped microwells designed to pair single cells of different types. The device consists of interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes and uses positive dielectrophoresis to trap cells within the microwells. Each side of a microwell is on a different comb of the IDA, so that cells of different types are trapped on opposite sides of the microwells, leading to close cell pairing. Using this device, a large number of cell pairs can be formed easily and rapidly, making it a highly attractive tool for controllable cell pairing in a range of biological applications.

  19. Effects of electrode array length on frequency-place mismatch and speech perception with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Venail, Frederic; Mathiolon, Caroline; Menjot de Champfleur, Sophie; Piron, Jean Pierre; Sicard, Marielle; Villemus, Françoise; Vessigaud, Marie Aude; Sterkers-Artieres, Françoise; Mondain, Michel; Uziel, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Frequency-place mismatch often occurs after cochlear implantation, yet its effect on speech perception outcome remains unclear. In this article, we propose a method, based on cochlea imaging, to determine the cochlear place-frequency map. We evaluated the effect of frequency-place mismatch on speech perception outcome in subjects implanted with 3 different lengths of electrode arrays. A deeper insertion was responsible for a larger frequency-place mismatch and a decreased and delayed speech perception improvement by comparison with a shallower insertion, for which a similar but slighter effect was noticed. Our results support the notion that selecting an electrode array length adapted to each individual's cochlear anatomy may reduce frequency-place mismatch and thus improve speech perception outcome.

  20. Periodically porous top electrodes on vertical nanowire arrays for highly sensitive gas detection.

    PubMed

    In, Hyun Jin; Field, Christopher R; Pehrsson, Pehr E

    2011-09-02

    Nanowires of various materials and configurations have been shown to be highly effective in the detection of chemical and biological species. In this paper, we report a novel, nanosphere-enabled approach to fabricating highly sensitive gas sensors based on ordered arrays of vertically aligned silicon nanowires topped with a periodically porous top electrode. The vertical array configuration helps to greatly increase the sensitivity of the sensor while the pores in the top electrode layer significantly improve sensing response times by allowing analyte gases to pass through freely. Herein, we show highly sensitive detection to both nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ammonia (NH(3)) in humidified air. NO(2) detection down to 10 parts per billion (ppb) is demonstrated and an order-of-magnitude improvement in sensor response time is shown in the detection of NH(3).

  1. Neural recording stability of chronic electrode arrays in freely behaving primates.

    PubMed

    Linderman, Michael D; Gilja, Vikash; Santhanam, Gopal; Afshar, Afsheen; Ryu, Stephen; Meng, Teresa H; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2006-01-01

    Chronically implanted electrode arrays have enabled a broad range of advances, particularly in the field of neural prosthetics. Those successes motivate development of prototype implantable prosthetic processors for long duration, continuous use in freely behaving subjects. However, traditional experimental protocols have provided limited information regarding the stability of the electrode arrays and their neural recordings. In this paper we present preliminary results derived from long duration neural recordings in a freely behaving primate which show variations in action potential shape and RMS noise across a range of time scales. These preliminary results suggest that spike sorting algorithms can no longer assume stable neural signals and will need to transition to adaptive signal processing methodologies to maximize performance.

  2. Optimization of focality and direction in dense electrode array transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guler, Seyhmus; Dannhauer, Moritz; Erem, Burak; Macleod, Rob; Tucker, Don; Turovets, Sergei; Luu, Phan; Erdogmus, Deniz; Brooks, Dana H.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) aims to alter brain function non-invasively via electrodes placed on the scalp. Conventional tDCS uses two relatively large patch electrodes to deliver electrical current to the brain region of interest (ROI). Recent studies have shown that using dense arrays containing up to 512 smaller electrodes may increase the precision of targeting ROIs. However, this creates a need for methods to determine effective and safe stimulus patterns as the number of degrees of freedom is much higher with such arrays. Several approaches to this problem have appeared in the literature. In this paper, we describe a new method for calculating optimal electrode stimulus patterns for targeted and directional modulation in dense array tDCS which differs in some important aspects with methods reported to date. Approach. We optimize stimulus pattern of dense arrays with fixed electrode placement to maximize the current density in a particular direction in the ROI. We impose a flexible set of safety constraints on the current power in the brain, individual electrode currents, and total injected current, to protect subject safety. The proposed optimization problem is convex and thus efficiently solved using existing optimization software to find unique and globally optimal electrode stimulus patterns. Main results. Solutions for four anatomical ROIs based on a realistic head model are shown as exemplary results. To illustrate the differences between our approach and previously introduced methods, we compare our method with two of the other leading methods in the literature. We also report on extensive simulations that show the effect of the values chosen for each proposed safety constraint bound on the optimized stimulus patterns. Significance. The proposed optimization approach employs volume based ROIs, easily adapts to different sets of safety constraints, and takes negligible time to compute. An in-depth comparison study gives

  3. Optimization of focality and direction in dense electrode array transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

    PubMed Central

    Guler, Seyhmus; Dannhauer, Moritz; Erem, Burak; Macleod, Rob; Tucker, Don; Turovets, Sergei; Luu, Phan; Erdogmus, Deniz; Brooks, Dana H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) aims to alter brain function noninvasively via electrodes placed on the scalp. Conventional tDCS uses two relatively large patch electrodes to deliver electrical currents to the brain region of interest (ROI). Recent studies have shown that using dense arrays containing up to 512 smaller electrodes may increase the precision of targeting ROIs. However, this creates a need for methods to determine effective and safe stimulus patterns as the degrees of freedom is much higher with such arrays. Several approaches to this problem have appeared in the literature. In this paper, we describe a new method for calculating optimal electrode stimulus pattern for targeted and directional modulation in dense array tDCS which differs in some important aspects with methods reported to date. Approach We optimize stimulus pattern of dense arrays with fixed electrode placement to maximize the current density in a particular direction in the ROI. We impose a flexible set of safety constraints on the current power in the brain, individual electrode currents, and total injected current, to protect subject safety. The proposed optimization problem is convex and thus efficiently solved using existing optimization software to find unique and globally optimal electrode stimulus patterns. Main results Solutions for four anatomical ROIs based on a realistic head model are shown as exemplary results. To illustrate the differences between our approach and previously introduced methods, we compare our method with two of the other leading methods in the literature. We also report on extensive simulations that show the effect of the values chosen for each proposed safety constraint bound on the optimized stimulus patterns. Significance The proposed optimization approach employs volume based ROIs, easily adapts to different sets of safety constraints, and takes negligible time to compute. In-depth comparison study gives insight into the

  4. Theoretical Optimization of Stimulation Strategies for a Directionally Segmented Deep Brain Stimulation Electrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, YiZi; Peña, Edgar; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Goal Programming deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems currently involves a clinician manually sweeping through a range of stimulus parameter settings to identify the setting that delivers the most robust therapy for a patient. With the advent of DBS arrays with a higher number and density of electrodes, this trial and error process becomes unmanageable in a clinical setting. This study developed a computationally efficient, model-based algorithm to estimate an electrode configuration that will most strongly activate tissue within a volume of interest. Methods The cerebellar-receiving area of motor thalamus, the target for treating essential tremor with DBS, was rendered from imaging data and discretized into grid points aligned in approximate afferent and efferent axonal pathway orientations. A finite-element model (FEM) was constructed to simulate the volumetric tissue voltage during DBS. We leveraged the principle of voltage superposition to formulate a convex optimization-based approach to maximize activating function (AF) values at each grid point (via three different criteria), hence increasing the overall probability of action potential initiation and neuronal entrainment within the target volume. Results For both efferent and afferent pathways, this approach achieved global optima within several seconds. The optimal electrode configuration and resulting AF values differed across each optimization criteria and between axonal orientations. Conclusion This approach only required a set of FEM simulations equal to the number of DBS array electrodes, and could readily accommodate anisotropic-inhomogeneous tissue conductances or other axonal orientations. Significance The algorithm provides an efficient, flexible determination of optimal electrode configurations for programming DBS arrays. PMID:26208259

  5. Efficient piezoelectric ZnO nanogenerators based on Au-coated silica sphere array electrode

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We reported ZnO nanorod-based piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs) with Au-coated silica sphere array as an efficient top electrode. This electrode can readily bend the ZnO nanorods due to its enhanced surface roughness, thus resulting in more increased and regular piezoelectric charge output. Under a low external pushing force of 0.3 kgf, the output current and voltage were increased by approximately 2.01 and 1.51 times, respectively, in comparison with a conventional Au top electrode without silica spheres. Also, the effect of Au-coated silica spheres on the bending radius of ZnO nanorods was theoretically investigated. PMID:24305510

  6. Influence of electrode array stiffness and diameter on hearing in cochlear implanted guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Drouillard, Mylène; Torres, Renato; Mamelle, Elisabeth; De Seta, Daniele; Sterkers, Olivier; Ferrary, Evelyne

    2017-01-01

    During cochlear implantation, electrode array translocation and trauma should be avoided to preserve residual hearing. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of physical parameters of the array on residual hearing and cochlear structures during insertion. Three array prototypes with different stiffnesses or external diameters were implanted in normal hearing guinea pigs via a motorized insertion tool carried on a robot-based arm, and insertion forces were recorded. Array prototypes 0.4 and 0.4R had 0.4 mm external diameter and prototype 0.3 had 0.3 mm external diameter. The axial stiffness was set to 1 for the 0.4 prototype and the stiffnesses of the 0.4R and 0.3 prototypes were calculated from this as 6.8 and 0.8 (relative units), respectively. Hearing was assessed preoperatively by the auditory brainstem response (ABR), and then at day 7 and day 30 post-implantation. A study of the macroscopic anatomy was performed on cochleae harvested at day 30 to examine the scala location of the array. At day 7, guinea pigs implanted with the 0.4R array had significantly poorer hearing results than those implanted with the 0.3 array (26±17.7, 44±23.4, 33±20.5 dB, n = 7, vs 5±8.7, 1±11.6, 12±11.5 dB, n = 6, mean±SEM, respectively, at 8, 16 and 24 kHz, p<0.01) or those implanted with the 0.4 array (44±23.4 dB, n = 7, vs 28±21.7 dB, n = 7, at 16 kHz, p<0.05). Hearing remained stable from day 7 to day 30. The maximal peak of insertion force was higher with the 0.4R array than with the 0.3 array (56±23.8 mN, n = 7, vs 26±8.7 mN, n = 6). Observation of the cochleae showed that an incorrectly positioned electrode array or fibrosis were associated with hearing loss ≥40 dB (at 16 kHz). An optimal position in the scala tympani with a flexible and thin array and prevention of fibrosis should be the primary objectives to preserve hearing during cochlear implantation. PMID:28837630

  7. Bipolar Electrode Array Embedded in a Polymer Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cell.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Chen, Shulun; AlTal, Faleh; Hu, Shiyu; Bouffier, Laurent; Wantz, Guillaume

    2017-09-20

    A linear array of aluminum discs is deposited between the driving electrodes of an extremely large planar polymer light-emitting electrochemical cell (PLEC). The planar PLEC is then operated at a constant bias voltage of 100 V. This promotes in situ electrochemical doping of the luminescent polymer from both the driving electrodes and the aluminum discs. These aluminum discs function as discrete bipolar electrodes (BPEs) that can drive redox reactions at their extremities. Time-lapse fluorescence imaging reveals that p- and n-doping that originated from neighboring BPEs can interact to form multiple light-emitting p-n junctions in series. This provides direct evidence of the working principle of bulk homojunction PLECs. The propagation of p-doping is faster from the BPEs than from the positive driving electrode due to electric field enhancement at the extremities of BPEs. The effect of field enhancement and the fact that the doping fronts only need to travel the distance between the neighboring BPEs to form a light-emitting junction greatly reduce the response time for electroluminescence in the region containing the BPE array. The near simultaneous formation of multiple light-emitting p-n junctions in series causes a measurable increase in cell current. This indicates that the region containing a BPE is much more conductive than the rest of the planar cell despite the latter's greater width. The p- and n-doping originating from the BPEs is initially highly confined. Significant expansion and divergence of doping occurred when the region containing the BPE array became more conductive. The shape and direction of expanded doping strongly suggest that the multiple light-emitting p-n junctions, formed between and connected by the array of metal BPEs, have functioned as a single rod-shaped BPE. This represents a new type of BPE that is formed in situ and as a combination of metal, doped polymers, and forward-biased p-n junctions connected in series.

  8. Fabrication of a Micro-Needle Array Electrode by Thermal Drawing for Bio-Signals Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Lei; Jiang, Qing; Chen, Keyun; Chen, Zhipeng; Pan, Chengfeng; Jiang, Lelun

    2016-01-01

    A novel micro-needle array electrode (MAE) fabricated by thermal drawing and coated with Ti/Au film was proposed for bio-signals monitoring. A simple and effective setup was employed to form glassy-state poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) into a micro-needle array (MA) by the thermal drawing method. The MA was composed of 6 × 6 micro-needles with an average height of about 500 μm. Electrode-skin interface impedance (EII) was recorded as the insertion force was applied on the MAE. The insertion process of the MAE was also simulated by the finite element method. Results showed that MAE could insert into skin with a relatively low compression force and maintain stable contact impedance between the MAE and skin. Bio-signals, including electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG), and electroencephalograph (EEG) were also collected. Test results showed that the MAE could record EMG, ECG, and EEG signals with good fidelity in shape and amplitude in comparison with the commercial Ag/AgCl electrodes, which proves that MAE is an alternative electrode for bio-signals monitoring. PMID:27322278

  9. In vivo estimates of the position of advanced bionics electrode arrays in the human cochlea.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Margaret W; Holden, Timothy A; Whiting, Bruce R; Voie, Arne H; Brunsden, Barry; Neely, J Gail; Saxon, Eugene A; Hullar, Timothy E; Finley, Charles C

    2007-04-01

    A new technique for determining the position of each electrode in the cochlea is described and applied to spiral computed tomography data from 15 patients implanted with Advanced Bionics HiFocus I, Ij, or Helix arrays. ANALYZE imaging software was used to register 3-dimensional image volumes from patients' preoperative and postoperative scans and from a single body donor whose unimplanted ears were scanned clinically, with micro computed tomography and with orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning (OPFOS) microscopy. By use of this registration, we compared the atlas of OPFOS images of soft tissue within the body donor's cochlea with the bone and fluid/ tissue boundary available in patient scan data to choose the midmodiolar axis position and judge the electrode position in the scala tympani or scala vestibuli, including the distance to the medial and lateral scalar walls. The angular rotation 0 degrees start point is a line joining the midmodiolar axis and the middle of the cochlear canal entry from the vestibule. The group mean array insertion depth was 477 degrees (range, 286 degrees to 655 degrees). The word scores were negatively correlated (r = -0.59; p = .028) with the number of electrodes in the scala vestibuli. Although the individual variability in all measures was large, repeated patterns of suboptimal electrode placement were observed across subjects, underscoring the applicability of this technique.

  10. Innovative method to suppress local geometry distortions for fabrication of interdigitated electrode arrays with nano gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partel, S.; Urban, G.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a method to optimize the lithography process for the fabrication of interdigitated electrode arrays (IDA) for a lift-off free electrochemical biosensor. The biosensor is based on amperometric method to allow a signal amplification by redox cycling. We already demonstrated a method to fabricate IDAs with nano gaps with conventional mask aligner lithography and two subsequent deposition processes. By decreasing the distance down to the nanometer range the linewidth variation is becoming the most critical factor and can result in a short circuit of the electrodes. Therefore, the light propagation and the resist pattern of the mask aligner lithography process are simulated to optimize the lithography process. To optimize the outer finger structure assistant features (AsFe) were introduced. The AsFe allow an optimization of the intensity distribution at the electrode fingers. Hence, the periodicity is expanded and the outer structure of the IDA is practically a part of the periodic array. The better CD uniformity can be obtained by adding three assistant features which generate an equal intensity distributions for the complete finger pattern. Considering a mask optimization of the outer structures would also be feasible. However, due to the strong impact of the gap between mask and wafer at contact lithography it is not practicable. The better choice is to create the same intensity distribution for all finger structures. With the introduction of the assistant features large areas with electrode gap sizes in the sub 100 nm region are demonstrated.

  11. A histological analysis of human median and ulnar nerves following implantation of Utah slanted electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Michael B; Wark, Heather A C; Hutchinson, Douglas T

    2016-01-01

    For decades, epineurial electrodes have been used in clinical therapies involving the stimulation of peripheral nerves. However, next generation peripheral nerve interfaces for applications such as neuroprosthetics would benefit from an increased ability to selectively stimulate and record from nerve tissue. This increased selectivity may require the use of more invasive devices, such as the Utah Slanted Electrode Array (USEA). Previous research with USEAs has described the histological response to the implantation of these devices in cats and rats; however, no such data has been presented in humans. Therefore, we describe here the degree of penetration and foreign body reaction to USEAs after a four-week implantation period in human median and ulnar nerves. We found that current array designs penetrate a relatively small percentage of the available endoneurial tissue in these large nerves. When electrode tips were located within the endoneurial tissue, labels for axons and myelin were found in close proximity to electrodes. Consistent with other reports, we found activated macrophages attached to explanted devices, as well as within the tissue surrounding the implantation site. Despite this inflammatory response, devices were able to successfully record single- or multi-unit action potentials and elicit sensory percepts. However, modifying device design to allow for greater nerve penetration, as well as mitigating the inflammatory response to such devices, would likely increase device performance and should be investigated in future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fabrication of sub-20 nm nanopore arrays in membranes with embedded metal electrodes at wafer scales.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jingwei; Wang, Deqiang; Nam, Sung-Wook; Peng, Hongbo; Bruce, Robert; Gignac, Lynn; Brink, Markus; Kratschmer, Ernst; Rossnagel, Stephen; Waggoner, Phil; Reuter, Kathleen; Wang, Chao; Astier, Yann; Balagurusamy, Venkat; Luan, Binquan; Kwark, Young; Joseph, Eric; Guillorn, Mike; Polonsky, Stanislav; Royyuru, Ajay; Papa Rao, S; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2014-08-07

    We introduce a method to fabricate solid-state nanopores with sub-20 nm diameter in membranes with embedded metal electrodes across a 200 mm wafer using CMOS compatible semiconductor processes. Multi-layer (metal-dielectric) structures embedded in membranes were demonstrated to have high uniformity (± 0.5 nm) across the wafer. Arrays of nanopores were fabricated with an average size of 18 ± 2 nm in diameter using a Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) method in lieu of TEM drilling. Shorts between the membrane-embedded metals were occasionally created after pore formation, but the RIE based pores had a much better yield (99%) of unshorted electrodes compared to TEM drilled pores (<10%). A double-stranded DNA of length 1 kbp was translocated through the multi-layer structure RIE-based nanopore demonstrating that the pores were open. The ionic current through the pore can be modulated with a gain of 3 using embedded electrodes functioning as a gate in 0.1 mM KCl aqueous solution. This fabrication approach can potentially pave the way to manufacturable nanopore arrays with the ability to electrically control the movement of single or double-stranded DNA inside the pore with embedded electrodes.

  13. Insertion of electrode array using percutaneous cochlear implantation technique: a cadaveric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, Ramya; Mitchell, Jason E.; Noble, Jack; Schurzig, Daniel; Blachon, Grégoire; McRackan, Theodore R.; Webster, Robert J.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael; Labadie, Robert F.

    2011-03-01

    Cochlear implantation is a surgical procedure for treating patients with hearing loss in which an electrode array is inserted into the cochlea. The traditional surgical approach requires drilling away a large portion of the bone behind the ear to provide anatomical reference and access to the cochlea. A minimally-invasive technique, called percutaneous cochlear implantation (PCI), has been proposed that involves drilling a linear path from the lateral skull to the cochlea avoiding vital structures and inserting the implant using that drilled path. The steps required to achieve PCI safely include: placing three bone-implanted markers surrounding the ear, obtaining a CT scan, planning a surgical path to the cochlea avoiding vital anatomy, designing and constructing a microstereotactic frame that mounts on the markers and constrains the drill to the planned path, affixing the frame on the markers, using it to drill to the cochlea, and inserting the electrode through the drilled path. We present in this paper a cadaveric study demonstrating the PCI technique on three temporal bone cadaveric specimens for inserting electrode array into the cochlea. A custom fixture, called a Microtable, which is a type of microstereotactic frame that can be constructed in less than five minutes, was fabricated for each specimen and used to reach the cochlea. The insertion was successfully performed on all three specimens. Postinsertion CT scans confirm the correct placement of the electrodes inside the cochlea without any damage to the facial nerve.

  14. Fabrication of a Micro-Needle Array Electrode by Thermal Drawing for Bio-Signals Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lei; Jiang, Qing; Chen, Keyun; Chen, Zhipeng; Pan, Chengfeng; Jiang, Lelun

    2016-06-17

    A novel micro-needle array electrode (MAE) fabricated by thermal drawing and coated with Ti/Au film was proposed for bio-signals monitoring. A simple and effective setup was employed to form glassy-state poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) into a micro-needle array (MA) by the thermal drawing method. The MA was composed of 6 × 6 micro-needles with an average height of about 500 μm. Electrode-skin interface impedance (EII) was recorded as the insertion force was applied on the MAE. The insertion process of the MAE was also simulated by the finite element method. Results showed that MAE could insert into skin with a relatively low compression force and maintain stable contact impedance between the MAE and skin. Bio-signals, including electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG), and electroencephalograph (EEG) were also collected. Test results showed that the MAE could record EMG, ECG, and EEG signals with good fidelity in shape and amplitude in comparison with the commercial Ag/AgCl electrodes, which proves that MAE is an alternative electrode for bio-signals monitoring.

  15. Development of a trans-admittance mammography (TAM) using 60×60 electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingkang; Liu, Qin; In Oh, Tong; Woo, Eung Je; Seo, Jin Keun

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a trans-admittance mammography (TAM) system as a supplementary or alternative method of the X-ray mammography to diagnose the breast cancer. Mechanical structure of the system is similar to the X-ray mammography with the breast placed between two plates. The pair of plates is movable to accommodate breasts with different sizes and rotatable to provide multiple images with different projection angles. Without using ionizing radiation, it acquires a projection image of tissue admittivity values. One plate is a flat solid electrode where we apply a constant sinusoidal voltage with a variable frequency. The other is equipped with 60×60 array of current-sensing electrodes, of which potentials are kept at the signal reference level. The electrode array is connected to six switching modules and each module routes current signals from 600 electrodes to two ammeter modules. Each ammeter module includes six channels of ammeters and each one of them comprises an independent current-to-voltage converter, voltage amplifier, ADC and digital phase-sensitive demodulator. Each ammeter sequentially measures exit currents from 50 electrodes chosen by the corresponding switching module. An FPGA controls six ammeters to collect real- and imaginary-parts of trans-admittance data from 300 electrodes. A separate FPGA arbitrates data and command exchanges between a DSP-based main controller and ammeter modules. It also generates a sinusoidal voltage signal to be applied to the breast. All the 3600 complex current data from 12 ammeter modules are transferred to the main controller, which is interfaced to a PC through an isolated USB. The system is provided with a program to display real- and imaginary-parts of measured trans-admittance maps. The measured maps at multiple frequencies are incorporated into a frequency-difference anomaly detection algorithm. In this paper, we describe the design and construction of the system.

  16. In vivo neuronal action potential recordings via three-dimensional microscale needle-electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Fujishiro, Akifumi; Kaneko, Hidekazu; Kawashima, Takahiro; Ishida, Makoto; Kawano, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Very fine needle-electrode arrays potentially offer both low invasiveness and high spatial resolution of electrophysiological neuronal recordings in vivo. Herein we report the penetrating and recording capabilities of silicon-growth-based three-dimensional microscale-diameter needle-electrodes arrays. The fabricated needles exhibit a circular-cone shape with a 3-μm-diameter tip and a 210-μm length. Due to the microscale diameter, our silicon needles are more flexible than other microfabricated silicon needles with larger diameters. Coating the microscale-needle-tip with platinum black results in an impedance of ~600 kΩ in saline with output/input signal amplitude ratios of more than 90% at 40 Hz–10 kHz. The needles can penetrate into the whisker barrel area of a rat's cerebral cortex, and the action potentials recorded from some neurons exhibit peak-to-peak amplitudes of ~300 μVpp. These results demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo neuronal action potential recordings with a microscale needle-electrode array fabricated using silicon growth technology. PMID:24785307

  17. How to Culture, Record and Stimulate Neuronal Networks on Micro-electrode Arrays (MEAs)

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Chadwick M.; Rolston, John D.; Potter, Steve M.

    2010-01-01

    For the last century, many neuroscientists around the world have dedicated their lives to understanding how neuronal networks work and why they stop working in various diseases. Studies have included neuropathological observation, fluorescent microscopy with genetic labeling, and intracellular recording in both dissociated neurons and slice preparations. This protocol discusses another technology, which involves growing dissociated neuronal cultures on micro-electrode arrays (also called multi-electrode arrays, MEAs). There are multiple advantages to using this system over other technologies. Dissociated neuronal cultures on MEAs provide a simplified model in which network activity can be manipulated with electrical stimulation sequences through the array's multiple electrodes. Because the network is small, the impact of stimulation is limited to observable areas, which is not the case in intact preparations. The cells grow in a monolayer making changes in morphology easy to monitor with various imaging techniques. Finally, cultures on MEAs can survive for over a year in vitro which removes any clear time limitations inherent with other culturing techniques.1 Our lab and others around the globe are utilizing this technology to ask important questions about neuronal networks. The purpose of this protocol is to provide the necessary information for setting up, caring for, recording from and electrically stimulating cultures on MEAs. In vitro networks provide a means for asking physiologically relevant questions at the network and cellular levels leading to a better understanding of brain function and dysfunction. PMID:20517199

  18. Development of Surrogate Spinal Cords for the Evaluation of Electrode Arrays Used in Intraspinal Implants

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng; Kmech, Jonn; Mushahwar, Vivian K.

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of a surrogate spinal cord for evaluating the mechanical suitability of electrode arrays for intraspinal implants. The mechanical and interfacial properties of candidate materials (including silicone elastomers and gelatin hydrogels) for the surrogate cord were tested. The elastic modulus was characterized using dynamic mechanical analysis, and compared with values of actual human spinal cords from the literature. Forces required to indent the surrogate cords to specified depths were measured to obtain values under static conditions. Importantly, to quantify surface properties in addition to mechanical properties normally considered, interfacial frictional forces were measured by pulling a needle out of each cord at a controlled rate. The measured forces were then compared to those obtained from rat spinal cords. Formaldehyde-crosslinked gelatin, 12 wt% in water, was identified as the most suitable material for the construction of surrogate spinal cords. To demonstrate the utility of surrogate spinal cords in evaluating the behavior of various electrode arrays, cords were implanted with two types of intraspinal electrode arrays (one made of individual microwires and another of microwires anchored with a solid base), and cord deformation under elongation was evaluated. The results demonstrate that the surrogate model simulates the mechanical and interfacial properties of the spinal cord, and enables in vitro screening of intraspinal implants. PMID:23358939

  19. Visual electrochemiluminescence detection of cancer biomarkers on a closed bipolar electrode array chip.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mei-Sheng; Liu, Zhen; Shi, Hai-Wei; Chen, Hong-Yuan; Xu, Jing-Juan

    2015-01-06

    This paper describes a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) imaging platform for simultaneous detection of cancer biomarkers based on a closed bipolar electrode (BPE) array. It consists of two separated channel arrays: detection channel array and sensing channel array, which are connected by a group of parallel ITO BPEs on a glass substrate. Besides, two parallel ITO strips are fabricated at the two sides of BPE array and employed as driving electrodes. After Au films are electrochemically deposited on the cathodes of the BPE array, nanobioprobes including biorecognition elements (aptamer or antibody) and a novel electrochemical tag, which is synthesized by doping thionine in silica nanoparticles (Th@SiO2 NPs), are introduced into the cathodes by immunoreaction or DNA hybridization. The Th@SiO2 coupled nanobioprobes as both recognition probes and signal amplification indicators could mediate the ECL signals of Ru(bpy)3(2+)/tripropylamine (TPA) on the anodes of BPE array through faradaic reaction due to the charge neutrality of BPE. Thus, multiplex detection of cancer biomarkers (adenosine triphosphate (ATP), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), α-fetoprotein (AFP) and thrombin) is realized by forming specific sensing interfaces onto the cathodic poles of BPEs in different sensing channels and reported by the ECL images of the Ru(bpy)3(2+)/TPA system on the anodic poles of BPEs in detection channels. The results demonstrate that this visual ECL platform enables sensitive detection with excellent reproducibility, which may open a new door toward the development of simple, sensitive, cost-effective, and high throughput detection methods on biochips.

  20. Long-term stability of intracortical recordings using perforated and arrayed Parylene sheath electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Seth A.; Kim, Brian J.; Kuo, Jonathan T. W.; Lee, Curtis D.; Meng, Ellis; Pikov, Victor

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Acquisition of reliable and robust neural recordings with intracortical neural probes is a persistent challenge in the field of neuroprosthetics. We developed a multielectrode array technology to address chronic intracortical recording reliability and present in vivo recording results. Approach. The 2 × 2 Parylene sheath electrode array (PSEA) was microfabricated and constructed from only Parylene C and platinum. The probe includes a novel three-dimensional sheath structure, perforations, and bioactive coatings that improve tissue integration and manage immune response. Coatings were applied using a sequential dip-coating method that provided coverage over the entire probe surface and interior of the sheath structure. A sharp probe tip taper facilitated insertion with minimal trauma. Fabricated probes were subject to examination by optical and electron microscopy and electrochemical testing prior to implantation. Main results. 1 × 2 arrays were successfully fabricated on wafer and then packaged together to produce 2 × 2 arrays. Then, probes having electrode sites with adequate electrochemical properties were selected. A subset of arrays was treated with bioactive coatings to encourage neuronal growth and suppress inflammation and another subset of arrays was implanted in conjunction with a virally mediated expression of Caveolin-1. Arrays were attached to a custom-made insertion shuttle to facilitate precise insertion into the rat motor cortex. Stable electrophysiological recordings were obtained during the period of implantation up to 12 months. Immunohistochemical evaluation of cortical tissue around individual probes indicated a strong correlation between the electrophysiological performance of the probes and histologically observable proximity of neurons and dendritic sprouting. Significance. The PSEA demonstrates the scalability of sheath electrode technology and provides higher electrode count and density to access a greater volume for recording

  1. Initial Operative Experience and Short-term Hearing Preservation Results With a Mid-scala Cochlear Implant Electrode Array.

    PubMed

    Svrakic, Maja; Roland, J Thomas; McMenomey, Sean O; Svirsky, Mario A

    2016-12-01

    To describe our initial operative experience and hearing preservation results with the Advanced Bionics (AB) Mid Scala Electrode (MSE). Retrospective review. Tertiary referral center. Sixty-three MSE implants in pediatric and adult patients were compared with age- and sex-matched 1j electrode implants from the same manufacturer. All patients were severe to profoundly deaf. Cochlear implantation with either the AB 1j electrode or the AB MSE. The MSE and 1j electrodes were compared in their angular depth of insertion and pre to postoperative change in hearing thresholds. Hearing preservation was analyzed as a function of angular depth of insertion. Secondary outcome measures included operative time, incidence of abnormal intraoperative impedance and telemetry values, and incidence of postsurgical complications. Depth of insertion was similar for both electrodes, but was more consistent for the MSE array and more variable for the 1j array. Patients with MSE electrodes had better hearing preservation. Thresholds shifts at four audiometric frequencies ranging from 250 to 2000 Hz were 10, 7, 2, and 6 dB smaller for the MSE electrode than for the 1j (p < 0.05). Hearing preservation at low frequencies was worse with deeper insertion, regardless of array. Secondary outcome measures were similar for both electrodes. The MSE electrode resulted in more consistent insertion depth and somewhat better hearing preservation than the 1j electrode. Differences in other surgical outcome measures were small or unlikely to have a meaningful effect.

  2. Stripe- or square-patterned arrays of tin dioxide nanowires for use in lithium-ion battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Won Bae

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports a novel electrode design for use in electrochemical lithium-ion storage. 3-dimensional patterns of tin dioxide nanowires that are grown directly over current collectors are suggested as electrode frameworks, representing the synergetic combination of nanometer-sized 1-dimensional electrode materials and micrometer-scaled hollow channels formed between the patterned nanowire arrays. The lithium-ion storage properties are investigated by changing the pattern geometries of these nanowire arrays in the shape of stripes and squares. The proposed electrode platforms show the enhanced electrochemical storage performances, which might be attributed to the effective diffusion of liquid phase electrolyte through the hollow channels between these patterned nanowire arrays. More interestingly, with increasing the hollow channels in these proposed systems, the high-rate performance and cycling stability are improved even further due to the structural effect of these electrode frameworks.

  3. Electrochemical biosensor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA detection based on gold nanotubes array electrode platform.

    PubMed

    Torati, Sri Ramulu; Reddy, Venu; Yoon, Seok Soo; Kim, CheolGi

    2016-04-15

    The template assisted electrochemical deposition technique was used for the synthesis of gold nanotubes array (AuNTsA). The morphological structure of the synthesized AuNTsA was observed by scanning electron microscopy and found that the individual nanotubes are around 1.5 μm in length with a diameter of 200 nm. Nanotubes are vertically aligned to the Au thick film, which is formed during the synthesis process of nanotubes. The electrochemical performance of the AuNTsA was compared with the bare Au electrode and found that AuNTsA has better electron transfer surface than bare Au electrode which is due to the high surface area. Hence, the AuNTsA was used as an electrode for the fabrication of DNA hybridization biosensor for detection of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis DNA. The DNA hybridization biosensor constructed by AuNTsA electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry technique with Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) as an electrochemical redox indicator. The selectivity of the fabricated biosensor was illustrated by hybridization with complementary DNA and non-complementary DNA with probe DNA immobilized AuNTsA electrode using methylene blue as a hybridization indicator. The developed electrochemical DNA biosensor shows good linear range of complementary DNA concentration from 0.01 ng/μL to 100 ng/μL with high detection limit.

  4. Concurrent recordings of bladder afferents from multiple nerves using a microfabricated PDMS microchannel electrode array.

    PubMed

    Delivopoulos, Evangelos; Chew, Daniel J; Minev, Ivan R; Fawcett, James W; Lacour, Stéphanie P

    2012-07-21

    In this paper we present a compliant neural interface designed to record bladder afferent activity. We developed the implant's microfabrication process using multiple layers of silicone rubber and thin metal so that a gold microelectrode array is embedded within four parallel polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels (5 mm long, 100 μm wide, 100 μm deep). Electrode impedance at 1 kHz was optimized using a reactive ion etching (RIE) step, which increased the porosity of the electrode surface. The electrodes did not deteriorate after a 3 month immersion in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C. Due to the unique microscopic topography of the metal film on PDMS, the electrodes are extremely compliant and can withstand handling during implantation (twisting and bending) without electrical failure. The device was transplanted acutely to anaesthetized rats, and strands of the dorsal branch of roots L6 and S1 were surgically teased and inserted in three microchannels under saline immersion to allow for simultaneous in vivo recordings in an acute setting. We utilized a tripole electrode configuration to maintain background noise low and improve the signal to noise ratio. The device could distinguish two types of afferent nerve activity related to increasing bladder filling and contraction. To our knowledge, this is the first report of multichannel recordings of bladder afferent activity.

  5. Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome: Impedance changes over time with different cochlear implant electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Powell, Harry R F; Birman, Catherine S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess if large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS), with the increase in perilymphatic pressure, affects impedance changes over time with different types of Cochlear(®) implant electrode arrays Contour, Straight, and CI 422. To report speech perception outcomes for these cochlear implant recipients. Retrospective case review of impedance levels and categories of auditory performance. Impedance data were collected at switch on, 1 month, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after cochlear implantation and compared with control (non-LVAS cochlear implant recipient) data for each array type. Forty-seven patients with exclusive LVAS and no other vestibulocochlear abnormalities or other identifiable cause of deafness were eligible for inclusion in the study. In LVAS patients, there was a significant difference in impedance between the three types of device (P < 0.0001). Time since switch on was associated with a decrease in impedance for all three devices (P < 0.0001). The mean impedance reduced between switch on and 1 month and remained relatively constant thereafter. Sound variation with softening of sounds was seen in four CI 422 (Straight Research Array) recipients due to ongoing fluctuations in electrode compliance. For all three array types, there was no significant difference in the mean impedance between the LVAS patients and controls over the first 12 months. In keeping with previous studies cochlear implant recipients with LVAS hear very well through the cochlear implant.

  6. Electrochemical biosensor array for liver diagnosis using silanization technique on nanoporous silicon electrode.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-Jung; Yun, Dong-Hwa; Min, Nam-Ki; Hong, Suk-In

    2007-01-01

    An electrochemical biosensor array system was fabricated for the diagnosis and monitoring of liver diseases. Analysis on this array system with multiple samples was performed for point-of-care testing or home-use applications. Cholesterol, bilirubin and aminotransferases present in the serum are well-known biomarkers for liver diseases. For this study, we describe our biosensor array system consisting of cholesterol, bilirubin and glutamate sensors. To immobilize sensing enzymes on the array system, we employed a silanization technique. We observed that porous silicon layers formed on each working electrode notably increase the effective surface area. Sensing electrodes were placed in sampling wells to minimize the cross-interference effect so that multiple sampling would be possible with a low noise current. Compared with traditional analyte measurement procedures, our novel analytical device demonstrated acceptable sensitivities for the analyses of multiple samples and analytes without a marked cross-interference effect. The device sensitivities observed were 0.2656 microA/mM for cholesterol, 0.15354 mA/mM for bilirubin, 0.13698 microA/(U/l) for alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and 0.45439 microA/(U/l) for aspartate aminotransferase (AST).

  7. Fast switching electrochromic display using a viologen-modified ZnO nanowire array electrode.

    PubMed

    Sun, X W; Wang, J X

    2008-07-01

    We report an electrochromic (EC) display using a viologen-modified ZnO nanowire array as the EC electrode. The ZnO nanowire array was grown directly on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass by a low temperature aqueous thermal decomposition method and then modified with viologen molecules. The ZnO nanowire electrochromic device shows fast switching time (170 and 142 ms for coloration and bleaching respectively for a 1 cm (2) cell), high coloration efficiency (196 C (-1) cm (2)) and good stability. The improved performance of the ZnO nanowires EC device can be attributed to the large surface area and high crystalline and good electron transport properties of the ZnO nanowire array.

  8. Evaluation of Platinum-Black Stimulus Electrode Array for Electrical Stimulation of Retinal Cells in Retinal Prosthesis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Taiichiro; Kobayashi, Risato; Komiya, Ken; Fukushima, Takafumi; Tomita, Hiroshi; Sugano, Eriko; Kurino, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Tetsu; Tamai, Makoto; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa

    2007-04-01

    A retinal prosthesis system with a three-dimensionally (3D) stacked LSI chip has been proposed. We fabricated a new implantable stimulus electrode array deposited with Platinum-black (Pt-b) on a polyimide-based flexible printed circuit (FPC) for the electrical stimulation of the retinal cells. Impedance measurement of the Pt-b electrode-electrolyte interface in a saline solution was performed and the Pt-b electrode realized a very low impedance. The power consumption at the electrode array when retinal cells were stimulated by a stimulus current was evaluated. The power consumption of the Pt-b stimulus electrode array was 91% lower than that of a previously fabricated Al stimulus electrode array due to a convexo-concave surface. In the cytotoxicity test (CT), we confirmed that Pt implantation induced no cellular degeneration of the rat retina. In the animal experiments, electrically evoked potential (EEP) was successfully recorded using Japanese white rabbits. These results indicate that electrical stimulation using the Pt-b stimulus electrode array can restore visual sensation.

  9. A high performance three-phase enzyme electrode based on superhydrophobic mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays for glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenlong; Song, Zhiqian; Xiang, Qun; Jin, Jian; Feng, Xinjian

    2016-04-14

    We describe here a high performance oxygen-rich three-phase enzyme electrode based on superhydrophobic mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays for glucose detection. We demonstrate that its linear detection upper limit is 30 mM, more than 15 times higher than that can be obtained on the normal enzyme-electrode. Notably, the three-phase enzyme electrode output is insensitive to the significant oxygen level fluctuation in analyte solution.

  10. Synthesis of molecular imprinted polymer modified TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode and their photoelectrocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Na; Chen Shuo; Wang Hongtao; Quan Xie Zhao Huimin

    2008-10-15

    A tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) modified TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode was prepared via surface molecular imprinting. Its surface was structured with surface voids and the nanotubes were open at top end with an average diameter of approximately 50 nm. The MIP-modified TiO{sub 2} nanotube array with anatase phase was identified by XRD and a distinguishable red shift in the absorption spectrum was observed. The MIP-modified electrode also exhibited a high adsorption capacity for TC due to its high surface area providing imprinted sites. Photocurrent was generated on the MIP-modified photoanode using the simulated solar spectrum and increased with the increase of positive bias potential. Under simulated solar light irradiation, the MIP-modified TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode exhibited enhanced photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity with the apparent first-order rate constant being 1.2-fold of that with TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode. The effect of the thickness of the MIP layer on the PEC activity was also evaluated. - Graphical abstract: A tetracycline hydrochloride molecularly imprinted polymer modified TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode was prepared via surface molecular imprinting. It showed improved response to simulated solar light and higher adsorption capability for tetracycline hydrochloride, thereby exhibiting increased PEC activity under simulated solar light irradiation. The apparent first-order rate constant was 1.2-fold of that on TiO{sub 2} nanotube array electrode.

  11. Non-invasive method for selection of electrodes and stimulus parameters for FES applications with intrafascicular arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowden, B. R.; Frankel, M. A.; Normann, R. A.; Clark, G. A.

    2012-02-01

    High-channel-count intrafascicular electrode arrays provide comprehensive and selective access to the peripheral nervous system. One practical difficulty in using several electrode arrays to evoke coordinated movements in paralyzed limbs is the identification of the appropriate stimulation channels and stimulus parameters to evoke desired movements. Here we present the use of a six degree-of-freedom load cell placed under the foot of a feline to characterize the muscle activation produced by three 100-electrode Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) implanted into the femoral nerves, sciatic nerves, and muscular branches of the sciatic nerves of three cats. Intramuscular stimulation was used to identify the endpoint force directions produced by 15 muscles of the hind limb, and these directions were used to classify the forces produced by each intrafascicular USEA electrode as flexion or extension. For 451 USEA electrodes, stimulus intensities for threshold and saturation muscle forces were identified, and the 3D direction and linearity of the force recruitment curves were determined. Further, motor unit excitation independence for 198 electrode pairs was measured using the refractory technique. This study demonstrates the utility of 3D endpoint force monitoring as a simple and non-invasive metric for characterizing the muscle-activation properties of hundreds of implanted peripheral nerve electrodes, allowing for electrode and parameter selection for neuroprosthetic applications.

  12. Response profiles of murine spiral ganglion neurons on multi-electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahnewald, Stefan; Tscherter, Anne; Marconi, Emanuele; Streit, Jürg; Widmer, Hans Rudolf; Garnham, Carolyn; Benav, Heval; Mueller, Marcus; Löwenheim, Hubert; Roccio, Marta; Senn, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    Objective. Cochlear implants (CIs) have become the gold standard treatment for deafness. These neuroprosthetic devices feature a linear electrode array, surgically inserted into the cochlea, and function by directly stimulating the auditory neurons located within the spiral ganglion, bypassing lost or not-functioning hair cells. Despite their success, some limitations still remain, including poor frequency resolution and high-energy consumption. In both cases, the anatomical gap between the electrode array and the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) is believed to be an important limiting factor. The final goal of the study is to characterize response profiles of SGNs growing in intimate contact with an electrode array, in view of designing novel CI devices and stimulation protocols, featuring a gapless interface with auditory neurons. Approach. We have characterized SGN responses to extracellular stimulation using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). This setup allows, in our view, to optimize in vitro many of the limiting interface aspects between CIs and SGNs. Main results. Early postnatal mouse SGN explants were analyzed after 6-18 days in culture. Different stimulation protocols were compared with the aim to lower the stimulation threshold and the energy needed to elicit a response. In the best case, a four-fold reduction of the energy was obtained by lengthening the biphasic stimulus from 40 μs to 160 μs. Similarly, quasi monophasic pulses were more effective than biphasic pulses and the insertion of an interphase gap moderately improved efficiency. Finally, the stimulation with an external electrode mounted on a micromanipulator showed that the energy needed to elicit a response could be reduced by a factor of five with decreasing its distance from 40 μm to 0 μm from the auditory neurons. Significance. This study is the first to show electrical activity of SGNs on MEAs. Our findings may help to improve stimulation by and to reduce energy consumption of CIs and

  13. The pattern and degree of capsular fibrous sheaths surrounding cochlear electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Ishai, Reuven; Herrmann, Barbara S; Nadol, Joseph B; Quesnel, Alicia M

    2017-02-17

    An inflammatory tissue reaction around the electrode array of a cochlear implant (CI) is common, in particular at the electrode insertion region (cochleostomy) where mechanical trauma often occurs. However, the factors determining the amount and causes of fibrous reaction surrounding the stimulating electrode, especially medially near the perimodiolar location, are unclear. Temporal bone (TB) specimens from patients who had undergone cochlear implantation during life with either Advanced Bionics (AB) Clarion ™ or HiRes90K™ (Sylmar, CA, USA) devices that have a half-band and a pre-curved electrode, or Cochlear ™ Nucleus (Sydney, Australia) device that have a full-band and a straight electrode were evaluated. The thickness of the fibrous tissue surrounding the electrode array of both types of CI devices at both the lower (LB) and upper (UB) basal turns of the cochlea was quantified at three locations: the medial, inferior, and superior aspects of the sheath. Fracture of the osseous spiral lamina and/or marked displacement of the basilar membrane were interpreted as evidence of intracochlear trauma. In addition, post-operative word recognition scores, duration of implantation, and post-operative programming data were evaluated. Seven TBs from six patients implanted with AB devices and five TBs from five patients implanted with Nucleus devices were included. A fibrous capsule around the stimulating electrode array was present in all twelve specimens. TBs implanted with AB device had a significantly thicker fibrous capsule at the medial aspect than at the inferior or superior aspects at both locations (LB and UB) of the cochlea (Wilcoxon signed-ranks test, p < 0.01). TBs implanted with a Nucleus device had no difference in the thickness of the fibrous capsule surrounding the track of the electrode array (Wilcoxon signed-ranks test, p > 0.05). Nine of fourteen (64%) basal turns of the cochlea (LB and UB of seven TBs) implanted with AB devices demonstrated

  14. Close-field electroporation gene delivery using the cochlear implant electrode array enhances the bionic ear.

    PubMed

    Pinyon, Jeremy L; Tadros, Sherif F; Froud, Kristina E; Y Wong, Ann C; Tompson, Isabella T; Crawford, Edward N; Ko, Myungseo; Morris, Renée; Klugmann, Matthias; Housley, Gary D

    2014-04-23

    The cochlear implant is the most successful bionic prosthesis and has transformed the lives of people with profound hearing loss. However, the performance of the "bionic ear" is still largely constrained by the neural interface itself. Current spread inherent to broad monopolar stimulation of the spiral ganglion neuron somata obviates the intrinsic tonotopic mapping of the cochlear nerve. We show in the guinea pig that neurotrophin gene therapy integrated into the cochlear implant improves its performance by stimulating spiral ganglion neurite regeneration. We used the cochlear implant electrode array for novel "close-field" electroporation to transduce mesenchymal cells lining the cochlear perilymphatic canals with a naked complementary DNA gene construct driving expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. The focusing of electric fields by particular cochlear implant electrode configurations led to surprisingly efficient gene delivery to adjacent mesenchymal cells. The resulting BDNF expression stimulated regeneration of spiral ganglion neurites, which had atrophied 2 weeks after ototoxic treatment, in a bilateral sensorineural deafness model. In this model, delivery of a control GFP-only vector failed to restore neuron structure, with atrophied neurons indistinguishable from unimplanted cochleae. With BDNF therapy, the regenerated spiral ganglion neurites extended close to the cochlear implant electrodes, with localized ectopic branching. This neural remodeling enabled bipolar stimulation via the cochlear implant array, with low stimulus thresholds and expanded dynamic range of the cochlear nerve, determined via electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses. This development may broadly improve neural interfaces and extend molecular medicine applications.

  15. Lateral displacement as a function of particle size using a piecewise curved planar interdigitated electrode array.

    PubMed

    Han, Ki-Ho; Han, Song-I; Frazier, A Bruno

    2009-10-21

    We describe the lateral displacement of a particle passing over a planar interdigitated electrode array at an angle as a function of the particle size. The lateral displacement was also measured as a function of the angle between the electrode and the direction of flow. A simplified line charge model was used for numerically estimating the lateral displacement of fluorescent polystyrene (PS) beads with three different diameters. Using the lateral displacement as a function of particle size, we developed a lateral dielectrophoretic (DEP) microseparator, which enables continuous discrimination of particles by size. The microchannel was divided into three regions, each with an electrode array placed at a different angle with respect to the direction of flow. The experiment using an admixture of 3-, 5-, and 10-microm PS beads showed that the lateral DEP microseparator could continuously separate out 99.86% of the 3-microm beads, 98.82% of the 5-microm beads, and 99.69% of the 10-microm beads, simply by using a 200-kHz 12-Vp-p AC voltage to create the lateral DEP force. The lateral DEP microseparator is thus a practical device for simultaneously separating particles according to size from a heterogeneous admixture.

  16. A novel stretchable micro-electrode array (SMEA) design for directional stretching of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshfetrat Pakazad, S.; Savov, A.; van de Stolpe, A.; Dekker, R.

    2014-03-01

    Stretchable micro-electrode arrays (SMEAs) are useful tools to study the electrophysiology of living cells seeded on the devices under mechanical stimulation. For such applications, the SMEAs are used as cell culture substrates; therefore, the surface topography and mechanical properties of the devices should be minimally affected by the embedded stretchable electrical interconnects. In this paper, a novel design and micro-fabrication technology for a pneumatically actuated SMEA are presented to achieve stretchability with minimal surface area dedicated to the electrical interconnects and a well-defined surface strain distribution combined with integrated diverse micro-patterns to enable alignment and directional stretching of cells. The special mechanical design also enables the SMEA to have a prolonged electro-mechanical fatigue life time required for long-term cyclic stretching of the cell cultures (stable resistance of electrical interconnects for more than 160 thousand cycles of 20% stretching and relaxing). The proposed fabrication method is based on the state of the art micro-fabrication techniques and materials and circumvents the processing problems associated with using unconventional methods and materials to fabricate stretchable electrode arrays. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy characterization of the SMEA shows 4.5 MΩ impedance magnitude at 1 kHz for a TiN electrode 12 um in diameter. Cell culture experiments demonstrate the robustness of the SMEAs for long-term culturing experiments and compatibility with inverted fluorescent microscopy.

  17. Fabrication of focus-tunable liquid crystal microlens array with spherical electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Ming; Su, Guo-Dung J.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a new approach to fabricate a liquid crystal (LC) microlens array with spherical-shaped electrode is demonstrated, which can create the inhomogeneous electric field. Inkjet-printing, hydrophilic confinement, self-assemble and replication process is used to form the convex microlens array on glass. After the spherical-shaped electrode is done, we assemble it with ITO glass to form a liquid crystal cell. We used Zemax® to simulate the liquid crystal lens as a Gradient-index (GRIN) lens. The simulation results show that a GRIN lens model can well match with the theoretical focal length of liquid crystal lens. The dimension of the glass is 1.5 cm x 1.5 cm x 0.7 mm which has 7 concave microlens on the top surface. These microlens have same diameter and height about 300 μm and 85 μm. The gap between each other is 100 μm. We first fabricate microlens array on silicon substrate by hydrophilic confinement, which between hydrophilicity of silicon substrate and hydrophobicity of SU-8, and inkjet printing process. Then we start replication process with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to transfer microlens array form silicon to glass substrate. After the transparent conducted polymer, PEDOT:PSS, is spin-coated on the microlens arrays surface, we flatten it by NOA65. Finally we assemble it with ITO glass and inkjet liquid crystal. From measuring the interference rings, the optical power range is from 47.28 to 331 diopter. This will be useful for the optical zoom system or focus-tunable lens applications.

  18. Digital holographic characterization of liquid microlenses array fabricated in electrode-less configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccio, L.; Vespini, V.; Grilli, S.; Paturzo, M.; Finizio, A.; De Nicola, S.; Ferraro, P.

    2009-06-01

    We show how thin liquid film on polar dielectric substrate can form an array of liquid micro-lenses. The effect is driven by the pyroelectric effect leading to a new concept in electro-wetting (EW). EW is a viable method for actuation of liquids in microfluidic systems and requires the design and fabrication of complex electrodes for suitable actuation of liquids. When compared to conventional electrowetting devices, the pyroelectric effect allowed to have an electrode-less and circuitless configuration. In our case the surface electric charge induced by the thermal stimulus is able to pattern selectively the surface wettability according to geometry of the ferroelectric domains micro-engineered into the lithium niobate crystal. We show that different geometries of liquid microlenses can be obtained showing also a tuneability of the focal lenses down to 1.6 mm. Thousand of liquid microlenses, each with 100 μm diameter, can be formed and actuated. Also different geometries such as hemi-cylindrical and toroidal liquid structures can be easily obtained. By means of a digital holography method, an accurate characterization of the micro-lenses curvature is performed and presented. The preliminary results concerning the imaging capability of the micro-lens array are also reported. Microlens array can find application in medical stereo-endoscopy, imaging, telecommunication and optical data storage too.

  19. Top-orthogonal-to-bottom-electrode (TOBE) CMUT arrays for 3-D ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Sampaleanu, Alex; Zhang, Peiyu; Kshirsagar, Abhijeet; Moussa, Walied; Zemp, Roger J

    2014-02-01

    Two-dimensional ultrasound arrays hold great promise for 3-D imaging; however, wiring of each channel becomes impractical for large arrays or for small-footprint catheter probes for which the number of wires must be limited. Capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers offer a promising solution for such 2-D array applications, but channel routing is still non-trivial. A top-orthogonal-to-bottom-electrode (TOBE) 2-D CMUT array architecture is presented along with row-column addressing schemes for low-channel-count 3-D ultrasound imaging. An N × N TOBE array is capable of obtaining 3-D images using only 2N channels. An interfacing scheme is presented in which transmit-receive signals are routed along rows while bias voltages are applied along columns, effectively allowing for single-element transmit/receive control. Simulations demonstrated potentially finer resolution and improved side lobe suppression over a previously published row-column-based imaging method. Laser vibrometer testing was done to measure membrane displacement in air and confirmed that single-element air-coupled actuation in transmit mode could be achieved using our proposed interfacing scheme. Acoustic testing was also performed in both transmit and receive modes to characterize the ability of the proposed interfacing scheme to achieve dominant-element transmission and reception in immersion operation. It was seen that membrane displacement in both modes was indeed largely confined to the active area.

  20. Fast Orthogonal Row-Column Electronic Scanning With Top-Orthogonal-to-Bottom Electrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Ceroici, Chris; Harrison, Tyler; Zemp, Roger J

    2017-06-01

    Recently, top-orthogonal-to-bottom electrode 2-D arrays were introduced as a practical design for 3-D ultrasound imaging without requiring the wiring of a 2-D grid of elements. However, previously proposed imaging schemes suffered from speed or image-quality limitations. Here, we propose a new imaging scheme which we call Fast Orthogonal Row-Column Electronic Scanning (FORCES). This new approach takes advantage of bias sensitivity to enable high-quality and fast B-scan imaging. We compare this imaging scheme with an equivalent linear array, a previously proposed row-column imaging scheme, as well as with the Explososcan imaging scheme for 2-D arrays through simulations. In a point phantom simulation, the lateral (azimuthal) resolution of a 64 ×64 element 6.67-MHz λ /2-pitch array using the FORCES imaging scheme with an f-number of 1.7 was 0.52 mm with similar in-plane image quality to an equivalent linear array but with improved and electronically steerable elevational resolution. When compared with other 3-D imaging schemes in point phantom simulations, the FORCES imaging scheme showed an azimuthal resolution improvement of 54% compared with Explososcan. Compared with a previously introduced row-column method, the FORCES imaging scheme had similar resolution but a 25-dB decrease in sidelobe amplitude, significantly impacting contrast to noise in scattering phantoms.

  1. Penetrating microelectrode arrays with low-impedance sputtered iridium oxide electrode coatings.

    PubMed

    Cogan, Stuart F; Ehrlich, Julia; Plante, Timothy D; Van Wagenen, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Sputtered iridium oxide (SIROF) is a candidate low-impedance coating for neural stimulation and recording electrodes. SIROF on planar substrates has exhibited a high charge-injection capacity and impedance suitable for indwelling cortical microelectrode applications. In the present work, the properties of SIROF electrode coatings deposited onto multi-shank penetrating arrays intended for intracortical and intraneural applications were examined. The charge-injection properties under constant current pulsing were evaluated for a range of pulsewidths and current densities using voltage transients to determine maximum potential excursions in an inorganic model of interstitial fluid at 37 degrees C. The charge-injection capacity of the SIROFs was significantly improved by the use of positive potential biasing in the interpulse period, but even without bias, the SIROFs reversibly inject higher charge than other iridium oxides or platinum. Typical deliverable charge levels of 25 to 160 nC/phase were obtained with 2000 mum(2) electrodes depending on pulsewidth and interpulse bias. Similar sized platinum electrodes could inject 3 to 8 nC/phase.

  2. Three-dimensional nanotube electrode arrays for hierarchical tubular structured high-performance pseudocapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yuan; Lin, Yuanjing; Chen, Jiaqi; Lin, Qingfeng; Wu, Yue; Su, Wenjun; Wang, Wenli; Fan, Zhiyong

    2016-07-01

    Ordered three-dimensional (3-D) tubular arrays are highly attractive candidates for high performance pseudocapacitor electrodes. Here, we report 3-D fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) tubular arrays fabricated by a cost-effective ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) channels with high uniformity. The large surface area of such a structure leads to remarkable surface area enhancement up to 51.8 times compared to a planar structure. Combining with electrochemically deposited manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanoflakes on the inner side wall of the FTO nanotubes, the unique hierarchical tubular structured pseudocapacitor electrode demonstrated the highest areal capacitance of 193.8 mF cm-2 at the scan rate of 5 mV s-1 and 184 mF cm-2 at the discharge current density of 0.6 mA cm-2, which is 18.5 times that of a planar electrode. And it also showed a volumetric capacitance of 112.6 F cm-3 at the scan rate of 5 mV s-1 and 108.8 F cm-3 at the discharge current density of 0.6 mA cm-2. In addition, the cyclic stability test also indicated that a nanostructured pseudocapacitive electrode has a much larger capacitance retention after 3000 cycles of the charge-discharge process compared with a planar electrode, primarily due to the mechanical stability of the nanostructure. Moreover, pseudocapacitor device fabrication based on such electrodes shows the volumetric capacitance of 17.5 F cm-3, and the highest specific energy of 1.56 × 10-3 Wh cm-3. With the merit of facile fabrication procedures and largely enhanced electrochemical performance, such a 3-D structure has high potency for energy storage systems for a wide range of practical applications.Ordered three-dimensional (3-D) tubular arrays are highly attractive candidates for high performance pseudocapacitor electrodes. Here, we report 3-D fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) tubular arrays fabricated by a cost-effective ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method in anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) channels with

  3. Sensitive and Selective Detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA Using Vertical Silicon Nanowire Electrode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehyung; Hong, Min-Ho; Han, Sanghun; Na, Jukwan; Kim, Ilsoo; Kwon, Yong-Joon; Lim, Yong-beom; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) RNA was detected via an Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array (VSNEA). The VSNEA was fabricated by combining bottom-up and top-down approaches and then immobilized by artificial peptides for the recognition of HIV-1 RRE. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis was used to measure the electrochemical response of the peptide-immobilized VSNEA to the concentration and types of HIV-1 RRE RNA. DPV peaks showed linearity to the concentration of RNA with a detection limit down to 1.513 fM. It also showed the clear different peaks to the mutated HIV-1 RRE RNA. The high sensitivity and selectivity of VSNEA for the detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA may be attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio and total overlap diffusion mode of ions of the one-dimensional nanowire electrodes.

  4. Ion chromatography detector based on solid-state ion-selective electrode array.

    PubMed

    Lee, D K; Lee, H J; Cha, G S; Nam, H; Paeng, K J

    2000-12-15

    A variety of neutral carrier type ionophores for monovalent cations were employed to prepare solid-state cation-selective electrodes (SSEs) for use as a detector in single-column ion chromatography (IC). The polyurethane-based pseudoreference electrode made it possible to assemble an array type SSE detector for IC. An SSE-based detector provides not only the overall chromatogram for the separated ion species (monensin methyl ester-nonactin-based membrane), but also the enhanced chromatogram for specified ions of interest (valinomycin as K+ and nonactin for NH4+). This feature makes it possible to perform highly quantitative analysis with low detection limits even if the separation efficiency of the ion-exchange is not sufficient. Since SSE-based IC detectors are easily miniaturized and replaceable at low cost, they are an ideal component of a portable IC system.

  5. Vertical nanowire electrode array: a highly scalable platform for intracellular interfacing to neuronal circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgolli, Marsela; Robinson, Jacob; Shalek, Alex; Yoon, Myung-Han; Gertner, Rona; Park, Hongkun

    2012-02-01

    Interrogation of complex neuronal network requires new experimental tools that are sensitive enough to quantify the strengths of synaptic connections, yet scalable enough to couple to a large number of neurons simultaneously. Here, we will present a new, highly scalable intracellular electrode platform based on vertical nanowires that affords parallel interfacing to multiple mammalian neurons. Specifically, we show that our vertical nanowire electrode arrays can intracellularly record and stimulate neuronal activity in dissociated cultures of rat cortical neurons and be used to map multiple individual synaptic connections. This platform's scalability and full compatibility with silicon nanofabrication techniques provide a clear path toward simultaneous high-fidelity interfacing with hundreds of individual neurons, opening up exciting new avenues for neuronal circuit studies and prosthetics.

  6. Vertical nanowire electrode arrays as a scalable platform for intracellular interfacing to neuronal circuits

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jacob T.; Jorgolli, Marsela; Shalek, Alex K.; Yoon, Myung-Han; Gertner, Rona S.; Park, Hongkun

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the neuronal code - the rules by which neuronal circuits store and process information - is a major scientific challenge1,2. Currently, these efforts are impeded by a lack of experimental tools that are sensitive enough to quantify the strength of individual synaptic connections and also scalable enough to simultaneously measure and control a large number of mammalian neurons with single-cell resolution3,4. Here, we report a scalable intracellular electrode platform based on vertical nanowires that affords parallel electrical interfacing to multiple mammalian neurons. Specifically, we show that our vertical nanowire electrode arrays (VNEAs) can intracellularly record and stimulate neuronal activity in dissociated cultures of rat cortical neurons and can also be used to map multiple individual synaptic connections. The scalability of this platform, combined with its compatibility with silicon nanofabrication techniques, provides a clear path toward simultaneous, high-fidelity interfacing with hundreds of individual neurons. PMID:22231664

  7. Electrochemical characterization of recessed nanodisk-array electrodes prepared from track-etched membranes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi; Audi, Ahmad A; Dible, Gregory P

    2006-10-01

    Recessed nanodisk-array electrodes (RNEs) fabricated from track-etched polycarbonate membranes (TEPCMs) having cylindrical nanopores (50 nm in diameter) were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Such electrodes were prepared by depositing a gold thin film onto a TEPCM via sputtering or thermal evaporation. CV of the RNEs showed the transition from linear to radial diffusion modes of redox-active molecules with decreasing scan rate. The resulting change in maximum faradic current, which is the peak current in a peak-shaped CV and the plateau current in a sigmoidal CV, provides a simple means for calculating the pore length and effective pore density within a RNE. This method permits us to assess the completeness of the seal between a TEPCM and gold film as well as the extent to which air bubbles block the nanopores.

  8. A Stretchable Microneedle Electrode Array for Stimulating and Measuring Intramuscular Electromyographic Activity.

    PubMed

    Guvanasen, Gareth S; Guo, Liang; Aguilar, Ricardo J; Cheek, Ashton L; Shafor, Chancellor S; Rajaraman, Swaminathan; Nichols, T Richard; DeWeerth, Stephen P

    2017-09-01

    We have developed a stretchablemicroneedle electrode array (sMEA) to stimulate andmeasure the electrical activity of muscle across multiple sites. The technology provides the signal fidelity and spatial resolution of intramuscular electrodesacross a large area of tissue. Our sMEA is composed of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, conductive-PDMS traces, and stainless-steel penetrating electrodes. The traces and microneedles maintain a resistance of less than 10 [Formula: see text] when stretched up to a ~63% tensile strain, which allows for the full range of physiological motion of felinemuscle. The device and its constituent materials are cytocompatible for at least 28 days in vivo. When implanted in vivo, the device measures electromyographic (EMG) activity with clear compound motor unit action potentials. The sMEA also maintains a stable connection with moving muscle while electrically stimulating the tissue. This technology has direct application to wearable sensors, neuroprostheses, and electrophysiological studies of animals and humans.

  9. Utilization of graphene electrode in transparent microwell arrays for high throughput cell trapping and lysis.

    PubMed

    Ameri, S Kabiri; Singh, P K; Sonkusale, S

    2014-11-15

    Here we present a high-throughput, transparent microfluidic device with embedded microwell arrays sandwiched between transparent electrodes made from graphene (at the bottom) and indium tin oxide (at the top) for dielectrophoretic cell trapping and electrical lysis. Graphene suppresses unwanted faradaic reaction effects on the cells and the medium that is typically observed in ITO based electrodes from application of DC field for electrical lysis. This is because graphene is more electrochemically inert than indium tin oxide (ITO) where ITO undergoes reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction in the presence of electrolyte in most standard cell media. This redox process also compromises ITO's electrical properties and optical transparency over multiple use. The presented microfluidic device shows high efficiency for cell trapping and lysis and an electrochemically stable behavior for long operational life.

  10. Atypical presentation of an impacted radiolucent esophageal foreign body.

    PubMed

    Parray, Tariq; Shah, Sonia; Apuya, Jesus S; Shah, Shailesh

    2010-10-01

    Patients with impacted esophageal foreign bodies usually present with gastrointestinal and rarely with respiratory symptoms. Impacted esophageal foreign bodies may be identified by radiologic studies. Ingested radiolucent foreign bodies may be more difficult to diagnose, especially if the patient presents with minimal symptoms. We report a rare case of a child who presented with stridor and obstructive sleep apnea. The cause of respiratory symptoms was thought to be due to enlarged tonsils and adenoids, and the patient was scheduled for tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. On re-evaluation by the surgeon on the day of surgery, the procedure was changed to diagnostic microlaryngoscopy and bronchoscopy to rule out any other cause. The patient's respiratory symptoms were resolved when an incidental discovery and retrieval of the radiolucent esophageal foreign body was made. The diagnosis of radiolucent esophageal foreign body can be difficult and can be easily missed without reasonable clinical suspicion.

  11. Analysis and design of a multisensory array for explosive substances based on solid electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Mark; Barrett, Richard; Rodriguez, Jose-Gonzalez

    2012-09-01

    The detection of explosives and explosive related compounds is a subject of importance in several areas including environmental health, de-mining efforts (land and sea) and security and defence against terrorist activity. The use of electrochemical methods is particularly attractive as many common explosives contain suitable chemical groups to be detected using electrochemical methods. The electrochemical detection of explosives and related compounds in solution using a virtual metal electrode array and differential pulse voltammetry was achieved. The multiple sets of voltammetric data were integrated using multivariate analysis and matched with known substances present in explosives. Seven explosive substances: 2,4-initrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 3,4-dinitrotoluene, 2-nitrotoluene , octogen (HMX), pentaerithrytol tetranitrate (PETN), trinitrotoluene (TNT) and cyclonite (RDX) and a taggant agent 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB) were subjected to analysis using four solid electrodes, namely glassy carbon, silver, gold and platinum in saline aqueous solutions to mimic an aquatic environment. The results obtained in Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) from the different experiments with each electrode were combined to produce a single voltammogram, which was subjected to chemometric analysis using Partial Least Squares (PLS) and Principle Component Analysis Non-Iterative Partial Least Squares (PCA-NIPALS). A combination of the electrochemical signals obtained together with the use of chemometric analysis made it possible to discriminate between explosives and their mixtures and also to quantitate their concentration in saline solutions. These combinations created a mathematical array, which clearly separates the explosives, even if the electrochemical information is buried or mixed with the electrode background noise.

  12. Cochlear implantation through the round window with a straight slotted electrode array: optimizing the surgical procedure.

    PubMed

    Mom, Thierry; Bachy, Aurélie; Houette, Aubry; Pavier, Yoann; Pastourel, Rémy; Gabrillargues, Jean; Saroul, Nicolas; Gilain, Laurent; Avan, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The question addressed here is how optimizing the quality of insertion through the round window with the lower morbidity, when using a straight and slotted electrode array of regular length. This retrospective analysis includes all cases implanted with a cochlear implant Digisonic SP (Neurelec-Oticon Medical) since 2004. We checked the operative charts, the depth of insertion, and the follow-up. For comparisons, contingency tables were used and a Chi-square test was performed. A p value <0.05 was considered significant. 126 cases of patients with non-malformed cochleas were implanted through the round window. The mean age was 53.8 ± 16.2 for adults and 3.6 ± 2.6 for children (24 cases). The mean follow-up was 33 ± 22 months. The straight electrode array had either a square or a soft pointed tip (n = 84). Full insertion was achieved in 79 out of 84 cases with a soft tip vs. 18 out of 42 square tips (χ (2) = 41.41, DOF = 1, p < 0.0001). Two cases were stuck at the round window niche by a prominent crista fenestrae. In all cases but one, the chorda tympany was preserved. In one case, a misrouting to the vestibule required a revision surgery. Implantation through the round window with a straight and slotted electrode array with a soft tip (Digisonic SP, Neurelec-Oticon Medical) can lead to a full insertion in 94 % of cases. Drilling out a prominent crista fenestrae is recommended.

  13. Vapor detection performance of vertically aligned, ordered arrays of silicon nanowires with a porous electrode.

    PubMed

    Field, Christopher R; In, Hyun Jin; Begue, Nathan J; Pehrsson, Pehr E

    2011-06-15

    Vertically aligned, ordered arrays of silicon nanowires capped with a porous top electrode are used to detect gas phase ammonia and nitrogen dioxide in humidified air. The sensors had very fast response times and large signal-to-noise ratios. Calibration curves were created using both an initial slope method and a fixed-time point method. The initial-slope method had a power law dependence that correlates well with concentration, demonstrating a viable alternative for eventual quantitative vapor detection and enabling shorter sampling and regeneration times.

  14. The Effect of Scala Tympani Morphology on Basilar Membrane Contact With a Straight Electrode Array: A Human Temporal Bone Study.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Juul; Risi, Frank; Campbell, Luke; Chambers, Scott; O'Leary, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Scala tympani morphology influences the insertion dynamics and intra-scalar position of straight electrode arrays. Hearing preservation is the goal of cochlear implantation with current thin straight electrode arrays. These hug the lateral wall, facilitating full, atraumatic insertions. However, most studies still report some postoperative hearing loss. This study explores the influence of scala tympani morphology on array position relative to the basilar membrane and its possible contribution to postoperative hearing loss. Twenty-six fresh-frozen human temporal bones implanted with a straight electrode array were three-dimensionally reconstructed from micro-photographic histological sections. Insertion depth and the proximity between the array and basilar membrane were recorded. Lateral wall shape was quantified as a curvature ratio. Insertion depths ranged from 233 to 470 degrees. The mean first point of contact between the array and basilar membrane was 185 degrees; arrays tended to remain in contact with the membrane after first contacting it. Eighty-nine and 93% of arrays that reached the upper basal (>240-360 degrees) and second (>360-720 degrees) turns respectively contacted the basilar membrane in these regions. Scalar wall curvature ratio decreased significantly (the wall became steeper) from the basal to second turns. This shift correlated with a reduced distance between the array and basilar membrane. Scala tympani morphology influences the insertion dynamics and intra-scalar position of a straight electrode array. In addition to gross trauma of cochlear structures, contact between the array and basilar membrane and how this impacts membrane function should be considered in hearing preservation cases.

  15. Wireless electrochemiluminescence bipolar electrode array for visualized genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Khoshfetrat, Seyyed Mehdi; Ranjbari, Mitra; Shayan, Mohsen; Mehrgardi, Masoud A; Kiani, Abolfazl

    2015-08-18

    The development of simple, inexpensive, hand-held, user-friendly biosensor for high throughput and multiplexed genotyping of various single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a single run experiment by a nonspecialist user is the main challenge in the analysis of DNA. Visualizing the signal and possibility to monitor SNPs by a digital camera opens a new horizon for the routine applications. In the present manuscript, a novel wireless electrochemiluminescence (ECL) DNA array is introduced for the visualized genotyping of different SNPs on the basis of ECL of luminol/hydrogen peroxide system on a bipolar electrode (BPE) array platform. After modification of anodic poles of the array with the DNA probe and its hybridization with the targets, genotyping of various SNPs is carried out by exposing the array to different monobase modified luminol-platinum nanoparticles (M-L-PtNPs). Upon the hybridization of M-L-PtNPs to mismatch sites, the ECL of luminol is followed using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) or digital camera and the images are analyzed by ImageJ software. This biosensor can detect even thermodynamically stable SNP (G-T mismatches) in the range of 2-600 pM. Also, by combining the advantages of BPE and the high visual sensitivity of ECL, it could be easily expected to achieve sensitive screening of different SNPs. The present biosensor demonstrates the capability for the discrimination between PCR products of normal, heterozygous, and homozygous beta thalassemia genetic disorders.

  16. Curved Microneedle Array-Based sEMG Electrode for Robust Long-Term Measurements and High Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minjae; Kim, Taewan; Kim, Dong Sung; Chung, Wan Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Surface electromyography is widely used in many fields to infer human intention. However, conventional electrodes are not appropriate for long-term measurements and are easily influenced by the environment, so the range of applications of sEMG is limited. In this paper, we propose a flexible band-integrated, curved microneedle array electrode for robust long-term measurements, high selectivity, and easy applicability. Signal quality, in terms of long-term usability and sensitivity to perspiration, was investigated. Its motion-discriminating performance was also evaluated. The results show that the proposed electrode is robust to perspiration and can maintain a high-quality measuring ability for over 8 h. The proposed electrode also has high selectivity for motion compared with a commercial wet electrode and dry electrode. PMID:26153773

  17. Recording sensory and motor information from peripheral nerves with Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Clark, Gregory A; Ledbetter, Noah M; Warren, David J; Harrison, Reid R

    2011-01-01

    Recording and stimulation via high-count penetrating microelectrode arrays implanted in peripheral nerves may help restore precise motor and sensory function after nervous system damage or disease. Although previous work has demonstrated safety and relatively successful stimulation for long-term implants of 100-electrode Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (USEAs) in feline sciatic nerve [1], two major remaining challenges were 1) to maintain viable recordings of nerve action potentials long-term, and 2) to overcome contamination of unit recordings by myoelectric (EMG) activity in awake, moving animals. In conjunction with improvements to USEAs themselves, we have redesigned several aspects of our USEA containment and connector systems. Although further increases in unit yield and long-term stability remain desirable, here we report considerable progress toward meeting both of these goals: We have successfully recorded unit activity from USEAs implanted intrafascicularly in sciatic nerve for periods up to 4 months (the terminal experimental time point), and we have developed a containment system that effectively eliminates or substantially reduces EMG contamination of unit recordings in the moving animal. In addition, we used a 100-channel wireless recording integrated circuit attached to implanted USEAs to transmit broadband or spike-threshold data from nerve. Neural data thusly obtained during imposed limb movements were decoded blindly to drive a virtual prosthetic limb in real time. These results support the possibility of using USEAs in peripheral nerves to provide motor control and cutaneous or proprioceptive sensory feedback in individuals after limb loss or spinal cord injury.

  18. Development of interdigitated array electrodes with surface-enhanced Raman scattering functionality.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Monirul; Ueno, Kosei; Juodkazis, Saulius; Yokota, Yukie; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Interdigitated array electrodes with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) functionality for in situ qualitative and quantitative analysis of electroactive species are demonstrated. Gold nanostructured interdigitated array electrodes (NIDAEs) were fabricated by electron beam lithography, and used for an electrochemical SERS study of K(3)[Fe(CN(6))] in aqueous KClO(4) solution in single and generation-collection modes. The generation-collection mode experiment showed amplification of the SERS band intensity for adsorbed ferricyanide ions at the negative end of the applied potential, while in single mode it was reduced to near zero. This new finding reveals that NIDAEs offer a new opportunity for analytical science by improving analytical sensitivity and detection ability of electroactive species. The electric fields accumulating at nanogaps are promising for manipulating linear and nonlinear optical phenomena. In addition, miniaturized NIDAEs are of great importance for developing lab-on-a-chip devices, and are useful for measurements within small space/volume domains, requiring only small amounts and/or concentrations of analytes.

  19. Neural Activity Propagation in an Unfolded Hippocampal Preparation with a Penetrating Micro-electrode Array

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales-Reyes, Luis E.; Durand, Dominique M.

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes a method for preparing a new in vitro flat hippocampus preparation combined with a micro-machined array to map neural activity in the hippocampus. The transverse hippocampal slice preparation is the most common tissue preparation to study hippocampus electrophysiology. A longitudinal hippocampal slice was also developed in order to investigate longitudinal connections in the hippocampus. The intact mouse hippocampus can also be maintained in vitro because its thickness allows adequate oxygen diffusion. However, these three preparations do not provide direct access to neural propagation since some of the tissue is either missing or folded. The unfolded intact hippocampus provides both transverse and longitudinal connections in a flat configuration for direct access to the tissue to analyze the full extent of signal propagation in the hippocampus in vitro. In order to effectively monitor the neural activity from the cell layer, a custom made penetrating micro-electrode array (PMEA) was fabricated and applied to the unfolded hippocampus. The PMEA with 64 electrodes of 200 µm in height could record neural activity deep inside the mouse hippocampus. The unique combination of an unfolded hippocampal preparation and the PMEA provides a new in-vitro tool to study the speed and direction of propagation of neural activity in the two-dimensional CA1-CA3 regions of the hippocampus with a high signal to noise ratio. PMID:25868081

  20. Microfluidic system for dielectrophoretic separation based on a trapezoidal electrode array.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungyoung; Park, Je-Kyun

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents a novel microfluidic device for dielectrophoretic separation based on a trapezoidal electrode array (TEA). In this method, particles with different dielectric properties are separated by the device composed of the TEA for the dielectrophoretic deflection of particles under negative dielectrophoresis (DEP) and poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) microfluidic channel with a sinuous and expanded region. Polystyrene microparticles are exposed to an electric field generated from the TEA in the microfluidic channel and are dielectrophoretically focused to make all of them line up to one sidewall. When these particles arrive at the region of another TEA for dielectrophoretic separation, they are separated having different positions along the perpendicular direction to the fluid flow due to their different dielectrophoretic velocities. To evaluate the separation process and performance, both the effect of the flow rate on dielectrophoretic focusing and the influence of the number of trapezoidal electrodes on dielectrophoretic separation are investigated. Now that this method utilizes the TEA as a source of negative DEP, non-specific particle adhering to the electrode surface can be prevented; conventional separation approaches depending on the positive DEP force suffer from this problem. In addition, since various particle types are continuously separated, this method can be easily applicable to the separation and analysis of various dielectric particles with high particle recovery and selectivity.

  1. Gene electrotransfer into skin using noninvasive multi-electrode array for vaccination and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Kos, Spela; Vanvarenberg, Kevin; Dolinsek, Tanja; Cemazar, Maja; Jelenc, Jure; Préat, Véronique; Sersa, Gregor; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle

    2017-04-01

    Skin is an attractive target for gene electrotransfer due to its easy accessibility and its interesting immune properties. Since electrodes are often invasive and frequently induce discomfort during pulse application, there is a fundamental need for non-invasive electrodes for skin delivery. We developed circular pin non-invasive multi-electrode array (MEA), suitable for different clinical applications. MEA was first employed to deliver a luciferase reporter gene. Then, it was used to deliver a DNA vaccine coding for ovalbumin or a plasmid encoding hCAP-18/LL-37 for promoting wound healing. The results demonstrated a strong gene expression and an efficient delivery of both, DNA vaccine and wound healing agent, dependent on the pulses applied. The use of MEA to deliver the ovalbumin plasmid demonstrated a strong immune response, as evidenced by the presence of antibodies in sera, the IFN-gamma response and the delayed tumor growth when the mice were subsequently challenged with B16-OVA cells. The delivery of a plasmid encoding hCAP-18/LL-37 significantly accelerated wound closure. The easy applicability and non-invasiveness of MEA make it suitable for various clinical applications that require gene electrotransfer to skin. Specifically, by adapting electric pulses to the expected action of a transgene, non-invasive MEA can be employed either for vaccination or for wound healing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Imaging of CO2 plume scenarios in saline reservoirs by (non) optimized crosshole electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hagrey, S. A.; Strahser, M. H.; Rabbel, W.

    2009-12-01

    In the scope of the research project “CO2 MoPa” (modeling and parameterization of CO2 storage in deep saline formations for dimensions and risk analysis), one main task is to study the efficiency of electrical resistivity tomography in boreholes (BRT) in monitoring the subsurface distribution of CO2 sequestrated in deep saline reservoirs. Similar to ground surveys, BRT ones between a pair of borehole electrode arrays can be conducted in the tripotential quadrupole configurations of α, β and γ in vertical, lateral and horizontal modes. The circulating vertical mode is carried out within the same borehole (inhole) and between two boreholes (crosshole). The comprehensive dataset results from excluding the less stable inversion configurations from the whole set (of all possible independent non-reciprocal configurations). It should result in the best possible resolution. An optimized dataset takes into account the trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution of targets and processes. It has far less data size than the comprehensive one but almost the same resolution. Hagrey (2009) and Loke (pers. com.) extended four published 2D optimization algorithms of electrode arrays for ground surveys into BRT ones. Using an initial base dataset of the dipole-dipole configuration, the new configurations (from the remaining comprehensive dataset) with the largest increase in the model resolution matrix is added to the base dataset. After each iteration the number of arrays in the optimized dataset is increased and the procedure is repeated iteratively until the required data size is achieved. For BRT surveys between two vertical boreholes, ten (non)-standard and optimized configurations have been examined as a function of the multiparameters of, CO2 plume scenarios, burial depths, electrode configurations, aspect ratios, and forward and inversion setup constraints. In these 2.5D modeling studies problems of sharp and gradual boundaries for plume scenarios and

  3. [Nonsurgical retreatment in a case of a radiolucent apical lesion].

    PubMed

    Vicente Gómez, A; Rodríguez Ponce, A

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of failure that was helpful solved without surgical endodontic treatment. We don't achieve clinical success besides endodontic treatment was twice remade. Finally we decided to put a temporary filling with calcium hydroxide and wait until apical radiolucency disappear and complete our treatment with gutta-percha, sealer and lateral condensation.

  4. Residual Hearing Preservation with the Evo® Cochlear Implant Electrode Array: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Danieli, Fabiana; Magalhães, Ana Tereza de Matos; Gnansia, Dan; Hoen, Michel

    2016-10-01

    Introduction The preservation of residual hearing is currently an important challenge for cochlear implant surgeries. Indeed, if patients exhibit functional hearing after cochlear implantation, they can benefit from the combination of acoustical stimulation, usually in the low-frequencies and electrical stimulation in the high-frequencies. This combined mode of stimulation has proven to be beneficial both in terms of speech perception and of sound quality. Finding the right procedures for conducting soft-surgeries and designing electrode arrays dedicated to hearing preservation is an open issue. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the combination of a soft-surgery procedure implicating round-window insertion and the use of dexamethasone and hyaluronic acid during surgery, with the use of a specifically designed straight soft electrode array, on hearing preservation in patients with functional hearing in the low frequencies. Methods This pre-clinical trial was conducted on seven patients with residual hearing in the low frequencies. The surgical method used employed a round window insertion and the use of topical dexamethasone. Results The soft-surgery protocol could be successfully followed in five patients. In this group, the average hearing threshold shift compared with pre-operative values was of 18.7 +/- 16.1 dB HL up to 500 Hz and 15.7 +/- 15.1 up to 1 kHz, demonstrating satisfying levels of hearing preservation. Conclusion We were able to demonstrate the possibility of preserving residual hearing in most of the patients using the EVO electrode. Significant residual hearing preservation levels were was obtained when a soft surgical approach involving round window insertion, dexamethasone and hyaluronic use during the surgery.

  5. Residual Hearing Preservation with the Evo® Cochlear Implant Electrode Array: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Danieli, Fabiana; Magalhães, Ana Tereza de Matos; Gnansia, Dan; Hoen, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The preservation of residual hearing is currently an important challenge for cochlear implant surgeries. Indeed, if patients exhibit functional hearing after cochlear implantation, they can benefit from the combination of acoustical stimulation, usually in the low-frequencies and electrical stimulation in the high-frequencies. This combined mode of stimulation has proven to be beneficial both in terms of speech perception and of sound quality. Finding the right procedures for conducting soft-surgeries and designing electrode arrays dedicated to hearing preservation is an open issue. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the combination of a soft-surgery procedure implicating round-window insertion and the use of dexamethasone and hyaluronic acid during surgery, with the use of a specifically designed straight soft electrode array, on hearing preservation in patients with functional hearing in the low frequencies. Methods This pre-clinical trial was conducted on seven patients with residual hearing in the low frequencies. The surgical method used employed a round window insertion and the use of topical dexamethasone. Results The soft-surgery protocol could be successfully followed in five patients. In this group, the average hearing threshold shift compared with pre-operative values was of 18.7 +/− 16.1 dB HL up to 500 Hz and 15.7 +/− 15.1 up to 1 kHz, demonstrating satisfying levels of hearing preservation. Conclusion We were able to demonstrate the possibility of preserving residual hearing in most of the patients using the EVO electrode. Significant residual hearing preservation levels were was obtained when a soft surgical approach involving round window insertion, dexamethasone and hyaluronic use during the surgery. PMID:27746839

  6. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence of BODIPY, Ru(bpy)3(2+), and 9,10-diphenylanthracene using interdigitated array electrodes.

    PubMed

    Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B; Kolesov, G; Parkinson, B A

    2013-07-10

    Interdigitated array electrodes (IDAs) were used to produce steady-state electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) by annihilation of oxidized and reduced forms of a substituted boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye, 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA), and ruthenium(II) tris(bypiridine) (Ru(bpy)3(2+)). Digital simulations were in good agreement with the experimentally obtained currents and light outputs. Coreactant experiments, using tri-n-propylamine and benzoyl peroxide as a sacrificial homogeneous reductant or oxidant, show currents corresponding to electrode reactions of the dyes and not the oxidation or reduction of the coreactants. The results show that interdigitated arrays can produce stable ECL where the light intensity is magnified due to the larger currents as a consequence of feedback between generator and collector electrodes in the IDA. The light output for ECL is around 100 times higher than that obtained with regular planar electrodes with similar area.

  7. Effect of surface modifications on ZnO nanorod arrays electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zi; Huang, Yunhua; Liao, Qingliang; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Yue

    2012-01-01

    High quality, large area and well-oriented ZnO nanorod arrays electrodes were successfully synthesized on conductive transparent oxide substrates by low-temperature hydrothermal methods for dye-sensitized solar cells. Aiming at getting further enhancement and study the effect of the surface modification on cell performance, ZnO thin film and ZnO nanoparticles are carried out to modify the as-grown ZnO nanorod arrays. The morphology, structure and photoluminescence property of the modified ZnO electrodes are characterized in detail. Furthermore, the I-V characterization result shows that these modification methods have distinct influences on the performance of the cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays electrode. The overall conversion efficiency can be optimized by choosing the suitable modification route.

  8. Scalar localization by cone-beam computed tomography of cochlear implant carriers: a comparative study between straight and periomodiolar precurved electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Eric; Karkas, Alexandre; Attye, Arnaud; Lefournier, Virginie; Escude, Bernard; Schmerber, Sebastien

    2015-03-01

    To compare the incidence of dislocation of precurved versus straight flexible cochlear implant electrode arrays using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) image analyses. Consecutive nonrandomized case-comparison study. Tertiary referral center. Analyses of patients' CBCT images after cochlear implant surgery. Precurved and straight flexible electrode arrays from two different manufacturers were implanted. A round window insertion was performed in most cases. Two cases necessitated a cochleostomy. The patients' CBCT images were reconstructed in the coronal oblique, sagittal oblique, and axial oblique section. The insertion depth angle and the incidence of dislocation from the scala tympani to the scala vestibuli were determined. The CBCT images and the incidence of dislocation were analyzed in 54 patients (61 electrode arrays). Thirty-one patients were implanted with a precurved perimodiolar electrode array and 30 patients with a straight flexible electrode array. A total of nine (15%) scalar dislocations were observed in both groups. Eight (26%) scalar dislocations were observed in the precurved array group and one (3%) in the straight array group. Dislocation occurred at an insertion depth angle between 170 and 190 degrees in the precurved array group and at approximately 370 degrees in the straight array group. With precurved arrays, dislocation usually occurs in the ascending part of the basal turn of the cochlea. With straight flexible electrode arrays, the incidence of dislocation was lower, and it seems that straight flexible arrays have a higher chance of a confined position within the scala tympani than perimodiolar precurved arrays.

  9. A planar interdigitated ring electrode array via dielectrophoresis for uniform patterning of cells.

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Lo-Chang; Yang, Chun-Hui; Chiu, Chi-Li; Chen, Chen-Lin; Wang, Yueh; Lee, Hsinyu; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Ho, Ming-Chih; Wo, Andrew M

    2008-12-01

    Uniform patterning of cells is highly desirable for most cellular studies involving cell-cell interactions but is often difficult in an in vitro environment. This paper presents the development of a collagen-coated planar interdigitated ring electrode (PIRE) array utilizing positive dielectrophoresis to pattern cells uniformly. Key features of the PIRE design include: (1) maximizing length along the edges where the localized maximum in the electric field exists; (2) making the inner gap slightly smaller than the outer gap in causing the electric field strength near the center of a PIRE being generally stronger than that near the outer edge of the same PIRE. Results of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HepG2, adhered on a 6x6 PIRE array show that cells patterned within minutes with good uniformity (48+/-6 cells per PIRE). Cell viability test revealed healthy patterned cells after 24h that were still confined to the collagen-coated PIREs. Furthermore, quantification of fluorescence intensity of living cells shows an acceptable reproducibility of cell viability among PIREs (mean normalized intensity per PIRE was 1+/-0.138). The results suggest that the PIRE array would benefit applications that desire uniform cellular patterning, and improve both response and reproducibility of cell-based biosensors.

  10. The research of differential reference electrode arrayed flexible IGZO glucose biosensor based on microfluidic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-Syun; Chou, Jung-Chuan; Liao, Yi-Hung; Chen, Ruei-Ting; Huang, Min-Siang; Wu, Tong-Yu

    2017-03-01

    This study used a fast, simple, and low-cost method to fabricate arrayed flexible glucose biosensor, and the glucose biosensor was integrated with microfluidic framework for investigating sensing characteristics of glucose biosensor at the dynamic conditions. The indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) was adopted as sensing membrane and it was deposited on aluminum electrodes / polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by the radio frequency sputtering system. Then, we utilized screen-printed technology to accomplish miniaturization of glucose biosensor. Finally, the glucose sensing membrane was composed of glucose oxidase (GOx) and nafion, which was dropped on IGZO sensing membrane to complete glucose biosensor. According to the experimental results, we found that optimal sensing characteristics of arrayed flexible IGZO glucose biosensor at the dynamic conditions were better than at the static conditions. The optimal average sensitivity and linearity of the arrayed flexible IGZO glucose biosensor were 7.255 mV/mM and 0.994 at 20 µL/min flow rate, respectively.

  11. Flexible Neural Electrode Array Based-on Porous Graphene for Cortical Microstimulation and Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yichen; Lyu, Hongming; Richardson, Andrew G.; Lucas, Timothy H.; Kuzum, Duygu

    2016-01-01

    Neural sensing and stimulation have been the backbone of neuroscience research, brain-machine interfaces and clinical neuromodulation therapies for decades. To-date, most of the neural stimulation systems have relied on sharp metal microelectrodes with poor electrochemical properties that induce extensive damage to the tissue and significantly degrade the long-term stability of implantable systems. Here, we demonstrate a flexible cortical microelectrode array based on porous graphene, which is capable of efficient electrophysiological sensing and stimulation from the brain surface, without penetrating into the tissue. Porous graphene electrodes show superior impedance and charge injection characteristics making them ideal for high efficiency cortical sensing and stimulation. They exhibit no physical delamination or degradation even after 1 million biphasic stimulation cycles, confirming high endurance. In in vivo experiments with rodents, same array is used to sense brain activity patterns with high spatio-temporal resolution and to control leg muscles with high-precision electrical stimulation from the cortical surface. Flexible porous graphene array offers a minimally invasive but high efficiency neuromodulation scheme with potential applications in cortical mapping, brain-computer interfaces, treatment of neurological disorders, where high resolution and simultaneous recording and stimulation of neural activity are crucial. PMID:27642117

  12. Flexible Neural Electrode Array Based-on Porous Graphene for Cortical Microstimulation and Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yichen; Lyu, Hongming; Richardson, Andrew G.; Lucas, Timothy H.; Kuzum, Duygu

    2016-09-01

    Neural sensing and stimulation have been the backbone of neuroscience research, brain-machine interfaces and clinical neuromodulation therapies for decades. To-date, most of the neural stimulation systems have relied on sharp metal microelectrodes with poor electrochemical properties that induce extensive damage to the tissue and significantly degrade the long-term stability of implantable systems. Here, we demonstrate a flexible cortical microelectrode array based on porous graphene, which is capable of efficient electrophysiological sensing and stimulation from the brain surface, without penetrating into the tissue. Porous graphene electrodes show superior impedance and charge injection characteristics making them ideal for high efficiency cortical sensing and stimulation. They exhibit no physical delamination or degradation even after 1 million biphasic stimulation cycles, confirming high endurance. In in vivo experiments with rodents, same array is used to sense brain activity patterns with high spatio-temporal resolution and to control leg muscles with high-precision electrical stimulation from the cortical surface. Flexible porous graphene array offers a minimally invasive but high efficiency neuromodulation scheme with potential applications in cortical mapping, brain-computer interfaces, treatment of neurological disorders, where high resolution and simultaneous recording and stimulation of neural activity are crucial.

  13. Behavioral and cellular consequences of high-electrode count Utah Arrays chronically implanted in rat sciatic nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, H. A. C.; Mathews, K. S.; Normann, R. A.; Fernandez, E.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Before peripheral nerve electrodes can be used for the restoration of sensory and motor functions in patients with neurological disorders, the behavioral and histological consequences of these devices must be investigated. These indices of biocompatibility can be defined in terms of desired functional outcomes; for example, a device may be considered for use as a therapeutic intervention if the implanted subject retains functional neurons post-implantation even in the presence of a foreign body response. The consequences of an indwelling device may remain localized to cellular responses at the device-tissue interface, such as fibrotic encapsulation of the device, or they may affect the animal more globally, such as impacting behavioral or sensorimotor functions. The objective of this study was to investigate the overall consequences of implantation of high-electrode count intrafascicular peripheral nerve arrays, High Density Utah Slanted Electrode Arrays (HD-USEAs; 25 electrodes mm-2). Approach. HD-USEAs were implanted in rat sciatic nerves for one and two month periods. We monitored wheel running, noxious sensory paw withdrawal reflexes, footprints, nerve morphology and macrophage presence at the tissue-device interface. In addition, we used a novel approach to contain the arrays in actively behaving animals that consisted of an organic nerve wrap. A total of 500 electrodes were implanted across all ten animals. Main results. The results demonstrated that chronic implantation (⩽8 weeks) of HD-USEAs into peripheral nerves can evoke behavioral deficits that recover over time. Morphology of the nerve distal to the implantation site showed variable signs of nerve fiber degeneration and regeneration. Cytology adjacent to the device-tissue interface also showed a variable response, with some electrodes having many macrophages surrounding the electrodes, while other electrodes had few or no macrophages present. This variability was also seen along the length

  14. Decreasing lateral diffusion of photo-generated carriers for light-addressable potentiometric array by using meshed working electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dong; Liu, ShiBin; Yin, ShiMin; Liang, JinTao

    2016-09-01

    Lateral diffusion of photon-generated carriers is a critical factor affecting the signal stability and spatial resolution of light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) array. LAPS with meshed working electrode for rejecting lateral diffusion is presented. Simulation shows that using meshed working electrode can resist the lateral distribution. In an experiment, the inhibition of lateral distribution and the signal stability was studied. Results showed, using the meshed working electrode, the ability to reject the lateral distribution and the signal stability is obviously enhanced. Research in this paper may help to enhance spatial resolution and detection stability of LAPS.

  15. Performance assessments of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes multi-electrode arrays using Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Du Won; Jung, Jongjin; Kim, Gook Hwa; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Kim, Ju Jin; Jung, Sang Don; Lee, Jeong-O.

    2015-08-01

    In this work, Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells were used in place of primary neuronal cells to assess the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) multi-electrode arrays (MEA). To fabricate high-performance MEA, VACNTs were directly grown on graphene/Pt electrodes via plasma enhanced chemical deposition technique. Here, graphene served as an intermediate layer lowering contact resistance between VACNTs and Pt electrode. In order to lower the electrode impedance and to enhance the cell adhesion, VACNTs-MEAs were treated with UV-ozone for 20 min. Impedance of VACNTs electrode at 1 kHz frequency exhibits a reasonable value (110 kΩ) for extracellular signal recording, and the signal to noise ratio the is good enough to measure low signal amplitude (15.7). Spontaneous firing events from CAD cells were successfully measured with VACNTs MEAs that were also found to be surprisingly robust toward the biological interactions.

  16. Performance assessments of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes multi-electrode arrays using Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Du Won; Jung, Jongjin; Kim, Gook Hwa; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Kim, Ju Jin; Jung, Sang Don; Lee, Jeong-O

    2015-08-21

    In this work, Cath.a-differentiated (CAD) cells were used in place of primary neuronal cells to assess the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) multi-electrode arrays (MEA). To fabricate high-performance MEA, VACNTs were directly grown on graphene/Pt electrodes via plasma enhanced chemical deposition technique. Here, graphene served as an intermediate layer lowering contact resistance between VACNTs and Pt electrode. In order to lower the electrode impedance and to enhance the cell adhesion, VACNTs-MEAs were treated with UV-ozone for 20 min. Impedance of VACNTs electrode at 1 kHz frequency exhibits a reasonable value (110 kΩ) for extracellular signal recording, and the signal to noise ratio the is good enough to measure low signal amplitude (15.7). Spontaneous firing events from CAD cells were successfully measured with VACNTs MEAs that were also found to be surprisingly robust toward the biological interactions.

  17. Simultaneous multi-electrode array recording and two-photon calcium imaging of neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Shew, Woodrow L.; Bellay, Timothy; Plenz, Dietmar

    2010-01-01

    A complete understanding of how brain circuits function will require measurement techniques which monitor large scale network activity simultaneously with the activity of local neural populations at a small scale. Here we present a useful step towards achieving this aim: simultaneous two-photon calcium imaging and multi-electrode array (MEA) recordings. The primary challenge of this method is removing an electrical artifact from the MEA signals that is caused by the imaging laser. Here we show that artifact removal can be achieved with a simple filtering scheme. As a demonstration of this technique we compare large-scale local field potential signals to single-neuron activity in a small-scale group of cells recorded from rat acute slices under two conditions: suppressed vs. intact inhibitory interactions between neurons. PMID:20659501

  18. Detection and classification of multiple finger movements using a chronically implanted Utah Electrode Array.

    PubMed

    Egan, Joshua; Baker, Justin; House, Paul; Greger, Bradley

    2011-01-01

    The ability to detect and classify individual and combined finger movements from neural data is rapidly advancing. The work that has been done has demonstrated the feasibility of decoding finger movements from acutely recorded neurons. There is a need for a recording model that meets the chronic requirements of a neuroprosthetic application and to address this need we have developed an algorithm that can detect and classify individual and combined finger movements using neuronal data acquired from a chronically implanted Utah Electrode Array (UEA). The algorithm utilized the firing rates of individual neurons and performed with an average sensitivity and an average specificity that were both greater than 92% across all movement types. These results lend further support that a chronically implanted UEA is suitable for acquiring and decoding neuronal data and also demonstrate a decoding method that can detect and classify finger movements without any a priori knowledge of the data, task, or behavior.

  19. Large-scale mapping of cortical synaptic projections with extracellular electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Shein-Idelson, Mark; Pammer, Lorenz; Hemberger, Mike; Laurent, Gilles

    2017-09-01

    Understanding circuit computation in the nervous system requires sampling activity over large neural populations and maximizing the number of features that can be extracted. By combining planar arrays of extracellular electrodes with the three-layered cortex of turtles, we show that synaptic signals induced along individual axons as well as action potentials can be easily captured. Two types of information can be extracted from these signals, the neuronal subtype (inhibitory or excitatory)-whose identification is more reliable than with traditional measures such as action potential width-and a (partial) spatial map of functional axonal projections from individual neurons. Because our approach is algorithmic, it can be carried out in parallel on hundreds of simultaneously recorded neurons. Combining our approach with soma triangulation, we reveal an axonal projection bias among a population of pyramidal neurons in turtle cortex and confirm this bias through anatomical reconstructions.

  20. Effective parameters for stimulation of dissociated cultures using multi-electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Daniel A; Pine, Jerome; Potter, Steve M

    2004-09-30

    Electrical stimulation through multi-electrode arrays is used to evoke activity in dissociated cultures of cortical neurons. We study the efficacies of a variety of pulse shapes under voltage control as well as current control, and determine useful parameter ranges that optimize efficacy while preventing damage through electrochemistry. For any pulse shape, stimulation is found to be mediated by negative currents. We find that positive-then-negative biphasic voltage-controlled pulses are more effective than any of the other pulse shapes tested, when compared at the same peak voltage. These results suggest that voltage-control, with its inherent control over limiting electrochemistry, may be advantageous in a wide variety of stimulation scenarios, possibly extending to in-vivo experiments.

  1. Innervation zones of fasciculating motor units: observations by a linear electrode array.

    PubMed

    Jahanmiri-Nezhad, Faezeh; Barkhaus, Paul E; Rymer, William Z; Zhou, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the innervation zone (IZ) in the biceps brachii muscle in healthy subjects and those with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using a 20-channel linear electromyogram (EMG) electrode array. Raster plots of individual waveform potentials were studied to estimate the motor unit IZ. While this work mainly focused on fasciculation potentials (FPs), a limited number of motor unit potentials (MUPs) from voluntary activity of 12 healthy and seven ALS subjects were also examined. Abnormal propagation of MUPs and scattered IZs were observed in fasciculating units, compared with voluntarily activated MUPs in healthy and ALS subjects. These findings can be related to muscle fiber reinnervation following motor neuron degeneration in ALS and the different origin sites of FPs compared with voluntary MUPs.

  2. An X-ray fluorescence microscopic analysis of the tissue surrounding the multi-channel cochlear implant electrode array.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Kathryn; Cardamone, Tina; Furness, John B; Clark, Jonathan C M; Patrick, James F; Clark, Graeme M

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the tissue surrounding the University of Melbourne's (UOMs) multi-channel cochlear implant electrode array and cochlear limited replacements, after long-term implantations. In particular, it aimed to identify the particulate material in the fibrous tissue capsule of the arrays implanted in 1978, 1983, and 1998, by using the Australian Synchrotron for X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) to reveal the characteristic spectrum of metal, in particular platinum. This also helped to determine its format and chemical state. Tissue was retrieved following the recipient's death in 2007. Tissue was fixed and sections taken across the UOM and Cochlear Corporation (CI-22 and CI-24) electrode tracks. These were stained with Masson's trichrome. The Australian Synchrotron enabled XFM to accurately identify platinum from its characteristic fluorescence spectrum. There was a fibrous tissue capsule (about 100-µm thick) and small regions of calcification around the UOM and CI-22 arrays, but a thinner capsule (40-60-µm thick) around CI-24, and a greater degree of calcification. Dark particulate matter was observed within macrophages and especially in fibrous tissue in proximity to the UOM and CI-22 arrays. This was identified as platinum using X-ray fluorescence. There was also diffusion of platinum into the tissue surrounding the UOM and CI-22 electrodes and fine particles had penetrated the spiral ligament. The larger particulate matter in the tissue around the UOM and CI-22 arrays suggested that it had flaked off in the manufacturing of the UOM electrodes. The more diffuse spread of platinum in the tissue around the UOM and CI-22 electrodes was likely due to electrolysis, probably from charge imbalance with the bipolar pulses from the UOM implant. This did not occur with the Cochlear CI-24 device. Furthermore, the widespread fine particles of platinum could have also been due to corrosion, especially from the UOM electrodes.

  3. Nanoparticle-enhanced sensitivity of a nanogap-interdigitated electrode array impedimetric biosensor.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwar V; Bhura, Dheeraj K; Nandamuri, Gopichand; Whited, Allison M; Evans, David; King, Jeff; Solanki, Raj

    2011-11-15

    Interdigitated electrode (IDE) arrays with nanometer-scale gaps have been utilized to enhance the sensitivity of affinity-based detection. The geometry of nanogap IDEs was first optimized on the basis of simulations of the electric field and current density. It was determined that the gap (G) between the electrodes was the most important geometric parameter in determining the distribution and strength of the electric field and the current density compared to the width (W) and height (H) of the IDEs. Several devices were materialized and analyzed for their sensitivity to the electrochemical environment using faradic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as the detection technique. Nanogap optimized IDEs were then employed as biosensors for the label-free, affinity-based detection of antitissue transglutaminase antibodies (αtTG-Abs), a biomarker for the detection of autoimmune disorder celiac sprue, triggered by ingesting gluten. The label-free biosensor assay was found to be less sensitive compared to on-chip ELISA. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were then employed to improve the sensitivity of the nanogap IDE-based biosensor. With GNPs, the transducer sensitivity increased by 350% over that of label-free detection. The suitability of nanogap IDEs as biosensor transducers for EIS in label-free and GNP-labeled formats was established. The immunobiosensor assay detection sensitivity with the GNPs was found comparable to ELISA.

  4. Electrochemical signal amplification for immunosensor based on 3D interdigitated array electrodes.

    PubMed

    Han, Donghoon; Kim, Yang-Rae; Kang, Chung Mu; Chung, Taek Dong

    2014-06-17

    We devised an electrochemical redox cycling based on three-dimensional interdigitated array (3D IDA) electrodes for signal amplification to enhance the sensitivity of chip-based immunosensors. The 3D IDA consists of two closely spaced parallel indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes that are positioned not only on the bottom but also the ceiling, facing each other along a microfluidic channel. We investigated the signal intensities from various geometric configurations: Open-2D IDA, Closed-2D IDA, and 3D IDA through electrochemical experiments and finite-element simulations. The 3D IDA among the four different systems exhibited the greatest signal amplification resulting from efficient redox cycling of electroactive species confined in the microchannel so that the faradaic current was augmented by a factor of ∼100. We exploited the enhanced sensitivity of the 3D IDA to build up a chronocoulometric immunosensing platform based on the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) protocol. The mouse IgGs on the 3D IDA showed much lower detection limits than on the Closed-2D IDA. The detection limit for mouse IgG measured using the 3D IDA was ∼10 fg/mL, while it was ∼100 fg/mL for the Closed-2D IDA. Moreover, the proposed immunosensor system with the 3D IDA successfully worked for clinical analysis as shown by the sensitive detection of cardiac troponin I in human serum down to 100 fg/mL.

  5. Organs-on-Chips with combined multi-electrode array and transepithelial electrical resistance measurement capabilities.

    PubMed

    Maoz, Ben M; Herland, Anna; Henry, Olivier Y F; Leineweber, William D; Yadid, Moran; Doyle, John; Mannix, Robert; Kujala, Ville J; FitzGerald, Edward A; Parker, Kevin Kit; Ingber, Donald E

    2017-06-27

    Here we demonstrate that microfluidic cell culture devices, known as Organs-on-a-Chips can be fabricated with multifunctional, real-time, sensing capabilities by integrating both multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) and electrodes for transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements into the chips during their fabrication. To prove proof-of-concept, simultaneous measurements of cellular electrical activity and tissue barrier function were carried out in a dual channel, endothelialized, heart-on-a-chip device containing human cardiomyocytes and a channel-separating porous membrane covered with a primary human endothelial cell monolayer. These studies confirmed that the TEER-MEA chip can be used to simultaneously detect dynamic alterations of vascular permeability and cardiac function in the same chip when challenged with the inflammatory stimulus tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or the cardiac targeting drug isoproterenol. Thus, this Organ Chip with integrated sensing capability may prove useful for real-time assessment of biological functions, as well as response to therapeutics.

  6. Ion Accumulation and Migration Effects on Redox Cycling in Nanopore Electrode Arrays at Low Ionic Strength.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chaoxiong; Xu, Wei; Wichert, William R A; Bohn, Paul W

    2016-03-22

    Ion permselectivity can lead to accumulation in zero-dimensional nanopores, producing a significant increase in ion concentration, an effect which may be combined with unscreened ion migration to improve sensitivity in electrochemical measurements, as demonstrated by the enormous current amplification (∼2000-fold) previously observed in nanopore electrode arrays (NEA) in the absence of supporting electrolyte. Ionic strength is a key experimental factor that governs the magnitude of the additional current amplification (AFad) beyond simple redox cycling through both ion accumulation and ion migration effects. Separate contributions from ion accumulation and ion migration to the overall AFad were identified by studying NEAs with varying geometries, with larger AFad values being achieved in NEAs with smaller pores. In addition, larger AFad values were observed for Ru(NH3)6(3/2+) than for ferrocenium/ferrocene (Fc(+)/Fc) in aqueous solution, indicating that coupling efficiency in redox cycling can significantly affect AFad. While charged species are required to observe migration effects or ion accumulation, poising the top electrode at an oxidizing potential converts neutral species to cations, which can then exhibit current amplification similar to starting with the cation. The electrical double layer effect was also demonstrated for Fc/Fc(+) in acetonitrile and 1,2-dichloroethane, producing AFad up to 100× at low ionic strength. The pronounced AFad effects demonstrate the advantage of coupling redox cycling with ion accumulation and migration effects for ultrasensitive electrochemical measurements.

  7. In vitro extracellular recording and stimulation performance of nanoporous gold-modified multi-electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Hee; Kim, Gook Hwa; Kim, Ah Young; Han, Young Hwan; Chung, Myung-Ae; Jung, Sang-Don

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Nanoporous gold (Au) structures can reduce the impedance and enhance the charge injection capability of multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) used for interfacing neuronal networks. Even though there are various nanoporous Au preparation techniques, fabrication of MEA based on low-cost electro-codeposition of Ag:Au has not been performed. In this work, we have modified a Au MEA via the electro-codeposition of Ag:Au alloy, followed by the chemical etching of Ag, and report on the in vitro extracellular recording and stimulation performance of the nanoporous Au-modified MEA. Approach. Ag:Au alloy was electro-codeposited on a bilayer lift-off resist sputter-deposition passivated Au MEA followed by chemical etching of Ag to form a porous Au structure. Main results. The porous Au structure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and tunneling electron microscopy and found to have an interconnected nanoporous Au structure. The impedance value of the nanoporous Au-modified MEA is 15.4 ± 0.55 kΩ at 1 kHz, accompanied by the base noise V rms of 2.4 ± 0.3 μV. The charge injection limit of the nanoporous Au-modified electrode estimated from voltage transient measurement is approximately 1 mC cm-2, which is comparable to roughened platinum and carbon nanotube electrodes. The charge injection capability of the nanoporous Au-modified MEA was confirmed by observing stimulus-induced spikes at above 0.2 V. The nanoporous Au-modified MEA showed mechanical durability upon ultrasonic treatment for up to an hour. Significance. Electro-codeposition of Ag:Au alloy combined with chemical etching Ag is a low-cost process for fabricating nanoporous Au-modified MEA suitable for establishing the stimulus-response relationship of cultured neuronal networks.

  8. Three-dimensional carbon interdigitated electrode arrays for redox-amplification.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Rahul R; Madou, Marc J

    2014-03-18

    Three-dimensional (3D) carbon interdigitated electrode arrays (IDEAs) were fabricated using inexpensive, conventional, UV photolithography of SU-8 with modified exposure and post exposure bake settings followed by pyrolysis in an inert environment. The sensor performance was investigated as a function of both the IDEA digit width/gap ratio and digit height under flow and no flow conditions. We demonstrated a gradual increase in redox amplification with an increase in the IDEA digit width/gap ratio. The highest amplification of 37 was obtained for a width/gap ratio of 1.58 and for an electrode height of 1.1 μm. Redox amplification also increases significantly with an increase in the IDEA height, from a factor of 9 at a 0.22 μm digit height to a factor of 37 at a 1.1 μm height. The effect of potential sweep rates on redox amplification was also investigated. As the sweep rate was decreased from 50 mV/s to 5 mV/s, the collection efficiency increased from 0.92 to 0.97, whereas the amplification increased from 7 to 25. Under flow conditions, the amplification decreases substantially as the cycling of the redox species is impeded by convection, resulting in a drop in collection efficiency. The highest amplification of 37 dropped to 4 for the same electrode at a flow rate of 500 nL/s. Under flow, redox amplification increased with an increase in the IDEA height.

  9. Mandibular destructive radiolucent lesion: The first sign of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Fregnani, Eduardo-Rodrigues; Leite, Amanda-Almeida; Parahyba, Claudia-Joffily; Nesrallah, Ana-Cristina-Alo; Ramos-Perez, Flávia-Maria-de Moraes

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of a mandibular lesion as the first sign of multiple myeloma (MM) is uncommon. This report describes a case of MM diagnosed because of a mandibular lesion. A 62-year-old woman presented a destructive radiolucent lesion in the right mandibular ramus. The lesion caused rupture of the anterior cortical bone and extended from the retromolar area to the coronoid process. An incisional biopsy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed numerous pleomorphic plasma cells, some with binucleated nuclei. The tumor cells showed kappa light-chain restriction. Bone marrow biopsy showed findings of massive infiltration of neoplastic plasma cells, besides lesions in the vertebrae. The diagnosis of MM was established. The patient underwent autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Currently, the patient is under regular follow up after 40 months of initial treatment. In conclusion, MM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of destructive mandibular lesions. Key words:Mandible, multiple myeloma, radiolucent lesion. PMID:27703618

  10. A Diagnostic Dilemma for the Pediatrician: Radiolucent Tracheobronchial Foreign Body.

    PubMed

    Taşkınlar, Hakan; Bahadır, Gökhan Berktuğ; Erdoğan, Cankat; Yiğit, Doğakan; Avlan, Dinçer; Naycı, Ali

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the role of clinical history, physical examinations, and radiological findings in the evaluation of patients with suspected radiolucent foreign body aspiration. The medical records of 236 children (under the age of 18 years), on whom a rigid bronchoscopy was performed between 1999 and 2015 because of suspected radiolucent foreign body aspiration, were analyzed retrospectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of clinical history, physical examinations, and radiological findings were evaluated. In 71.1% of all cases, the children were under the age of 3 years. The bronchoscopy showed the presence of a foreign body in 52.9% of cases, with the locations of the foreign bodies being as follows: (1) right main bronchus, 47.2%; (2) left main bronchus, 36.0%; (3) trachea, 11.2%; (4) both bronchi, 5.6%. Organic foreign bodies were found in 78% of the patients, whereas inorganic foreign bodies were detected in 22% of the patients. The sensitivity and specificity of clinical history, physical examinations, and radiological findings were 98.4% and 54.9%, 47.2% and 74.7%, and 35.2% and 92.7%, respectively. Tracheobronchial foreign body aspirations usually occur prior to the age of 3 years, with the most frequently aspirated foreign bodies being food or items of a radiolucent nature. Clinical history, physical examinations, and radiological findings are not able to detect the presence of a radiolucent foreign body aspiration in children. Therefore, a bronchoscopy should be performed on children in whom a choking event has been witnessed, even in cases of normal radiological and clinical findings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Self-supported metallic nanopore arrays with highly oriented nanoporous structures as ideally nanostructured electrodes for supercapacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huaping; Wang, Chengliang; Vellacheri, Ranjith; Zhou, Min; Xu, Yang; Fu, Qun; Wu, Minghong; Grote, Fabian; Lei, Yong

    2014-12-03

    Self-supported metallic nanopore arrays with highly oriented nanoporous structures are fabricated and applied as ideally nanostructured electrodes for supercapacitor applications. Their large specific surface area can ensure a high capacitance, and their highly oriented and stable nanoporous structure can facilitate ion transport.

  12. A New Semi-Automatic Approach to Find Suitable Virtual Electrodes in Arrays Using an Interpolation Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Salchow, Christina; Valtin, Markus; Seel, Thomas; Schauer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Functional Electrical Stimulation via electrode arrays enables the user to form virtual electrodes (VEs) of dynamic shape, size, and position. We developed a feedback-control-assisted manual search strategy which allows the therapist to conveniently and continuously modify VEs to find a good stimulation area. This works for applications in which the desired movement consists of at least two degrees of freedom. The virtual electrode can be moved to arbitrary locations within the array, and each involved element is stimulated with an individual intensity. Meanwhile, the applied global stimulation intensity is controlled automatically to meet a predefined angle for one degree of freedom. This enables the therapist to concentrate on the remaining degree(s) of freedom while changing the VE position. This feedback-control-assisted approach aims to integrate the user’s opinion and the patient’s sensation. Therefore, our method bridges the gap between manual search and fully automatic identification procedures for array electrodes. Measurements in four healthy volunteers were performed to demonstrate the usefulness of our concept, using a 24-element array to generate wrist and hand extension. PMID:27478567

  13. Compliant bipolar electrostatic gripper with micropillar electrodes array for manipulation at macroscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhelika, Radon; Hemthavy, Pasomphone; Takahashi, Kunio; Saito, Shigeki

    2016-05-01

    A compliant electrostatic gripper with bipolar voltage polarity for a pick-and-place manipulation is presented. The compliance, realized by the introduction of an array of micropillars which act as the electrode, extends the application of electrostatic-based gripper to manipulating fragile, rough-surfaced dielectric objects at macro scale. A prototype consisting of two arrays is developed by a chemical etching process. The experimental force is then compared with the theoretical force obtained from a simulation, showing a discrepancy between them. The sources of the discrepancy are analyzed to provide design insight for force improvement. To assess the reliability, the prototype is used for a manipulation demonstration of flat-surfaced paper. The result shows a good repeatability, and the necessary pick-up condition is confirmed. Subsequently, as the proof of the concept, another pick-up for rough-surfaced objects represented by a tissue paper with different roughness condition is also demonstrated. The effect of the rough surfaces to the generated forces is qualitatively discussed.

  14. Preparation of NiCo2S4 flaky arrays on Ni foam as binder-free supercapacitor electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zeheng; Zhu, Xiao; Wang, Kun; Ma, Guo; Cheng, He; Xu, Feifei

    2015-08-01

    NiCo2S4 flaky structured arrays on nickel foam were prepared hydrothermally by means of an anion-exchange method, with NiCo2O4 nanorod arrays as precursors, and were directly applied as a binder-free supercapacitor electrode. Such a 3D structured electrode combines the advantages of both one dimensional and two dimensional materials, and can effectively improve the electrochemical performance. As a result, the as-prepared NiCo2S4 flaky structure electrode shows much enhanced electrochemical performance, with a high specific capacitance (2044 F g-1 at 1 A g-1) and good cycling stability (capacity retention of 77% after 2000 cycles), suggesting its promising application for electrochemical capacitors.

  15. Two-point stretchable electrode array for endoluminal electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements of lipid-laden atherosclerotic plaques

    PubMed Central

    Sevag Packard, René R.; Zhang, XiaoXiao; Luo, Yuan; Ma, Teng; Jen, Nelson; Ma, Jianguo; Demer, Linda L.; Zhou, Qifa; Sayre, James W.; Li, Rongsong; Tai, Yu-Chong; Hsiai, Tzung K.

    2017-01-01

    Four-point electrode systems are commonly used for electric impedance measurements of biomaterials and tissues. We introduce a 2-point system to reduce electrode polarization for heterogeneous measurements of vascular wall. Presence of endoluminal oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and lipids alters the electrochemical impedance that can be measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We developed a catheter-based 2-point micro-electrode configuration for intravascular deployment in New Zealand White rabbits. An array of 2 flexible round electrodes, 240 μm in diameter and separated by 400 μm was microfabricated and mounted on an inflatable balloon catheter for EIS measurement of the oxLDL-rich lesions developed as a result of high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Upon balloon inflation, the 2-point electrode array conformed to the arterial wall to allow deep intraplaque penetration via alternating current (AC). The frequency sweep from 10 – 300 kHz generated an increase in capacitance, providing distinct changes in both impedance (Ω) and phase (ϕ) in relation to varying degrees of intraplaque lipid burden in the aorta. Aortic endoluminal EIS measurements were compared with epicardial fat tissue and validated by intravascular ultrasound and immunohistochemistry for plaque lipids and foam cells. Thus, we demonstrate a new approach to quantify endoluminal EIS via a 2-point stretchable electrode strategy. PMID:26857007

  16. A new high-density (25 electrodes/mm2) penetrating microelectrode array for recording and stimulating sub-millimeter neuroanatomical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, H. A. C.; Sharma, R.; Mathews, K. S.; Fernandez, E.; Yoo, J.; Christensen, B.; Tresco, P.; Rieth, L.; Solzbacher, F.; Normann, R. A.; Tathireddy, P.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Among the currently available neural interface devices, there has been a need for a penetrating electrode array with a high electrode-count and high electrode-density (the number of electrodes/mm2) that can be used for electrophysiological studies of sub-millimeter neuroanatomical structures. We have developed such a penetrating microelectrode array with both a high electrode-density (25 electrodes/mm2) and high electrode-count (up to 96 electrodes) for small nervous system structures, based on the existing Utah Slanted Electrode Array (USEA). Such high electrode-density arrays are expected to provide greater access to nerve fibers than the conventionally spaced USEA especially in small diameter nerves. Approach. One concern for such high density microelectrode arrays is that they may cause a nerve crush-type injury upon implantation. We evaluated this possibility during acute (<10 h) in vivo experiments with electrode arrays implanted into small diameter peripheral nerves of anesthetized rats (sciatic nerve) and cats (pudendal nerve). Main results. Successful intrafascicular implantation and viable nerve function was demonstrated via microstimulation, single-unit recordings and histological analysis. Measurements of the electrode impedances and quantified electrode dimensions demonstrated fabrication quality. The results of these experiments show that such high density neural interfaces can be implanted acutely into neural tissue without causing a complete nerve crush injury, while mediating intrafascicular access to fibers in small diameter peripheral nerves. Significance. This new penetrating microelectrode array has characteristics un-matched by other neural interface devices currently available for peripheral nervous system neurophysiological research.

  17. Nanoscale Electrochemical Sensor Arrays: Redox Cycling Amplification in Dual-Electrode Systems.

    PubMed

    Wolfrum, Bernhard; Kätelhön, Enno; Yakushenko, Alexey; Krause, Kay J; Adly, Nouran; Hüske, Martin; Rinklin, Philipp

    2016-09-20

    Micro- and nanofabriation technologies have a tremendous potential for the development of powerful sensor array platforms for electrochemical detection. The ability to integrate electrochemical sensor arrays with microfluidic devices nowadays provides possibilities for advanced lab-on-a-chip technology for the detection or quantification of multiple targets in a high-throughput approach. In particular, this is interesting for applications outside of analytical laboratories, such as point-of-care (POC) or on-site water screening where cost, measurement time, and the size of individual sensor devices are important factors to be considered. In addition, electrochemical sensor arrays can monitor biological processes in emerging cell-analysis platforms. Here, recent progress in the design of disease model systems and organ-on-a-chip technologies still needs to be matched by appropriate functionalities for application of external stimuli and read-out of cellular activity in long-term experiments. Preferably, data can be gathered not only at a singular location but at different spatial scales across a whole cell network, calling for new sensor array technologies. In this Account, we describe the evolution of chip-based nanoscale electrochemical sensor arrays, which have been developed and investigated in our group. Focusing on design and fabrication strategies that facilitate applications for the investigation of cellular networks, we emphasize the sensing of redox-active neurotransmitters on a chip. To this end, we address the impact of the device architecture on sensitivity, selectivity as well as on spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically, we highlight recent work on redox-cycling concepts using nanocavity sensor arrays, which provide an efficient amplification strategy for spatiotemporal detection of redox-active molecules. As redox-cycling electrochemistry critically depends on the ability to miniaturize and integrate closely spaced electrode systems, the

  18. Robust myoelectric signal detection based on stochastic resonance using multiple-surface-electrode array made of carbon nanotube composite paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirata, Kento; Inden, Yuki; Kasai, Seiya; Oya, Takahide; Hagiwara, Yosuke; Kaeriyama, Shunichi; Nakamura, Hideyuki

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the robust detection of surface electromyogram (EMG) signals based on the stochastic resonance (SR) phenomenon, in which the response to weak signals is optimized by adding noise, combined with multiple surface electrodes. Flexible carbon nanotube composite paper (CNT-cp) was applied to the surface electrode, which showed good performance that is comparable to that of conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes. The SR-based EMG signal system integrating an 8-Schmitt-trigger network and the multiple-CNT-cp-electrode array successfully detected weak EMG signals even when the subject’s body is in the motion, which was difficult to achieve using the conventional technique. The feasibility of the SR-based EMG detection technique was confirmed by demonstrating its applicability to robot hand control.

  19. Biaxially stretchable supercapacitors based on the buckled hybrid fiber electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nan; Zhou, Weiya; Zhang, Qiang; Luan, Pingshan; Cai, Le; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xiao; Fan, Qingxia; Zhou, Wenbin; Xiao, Zhuojian; Gu, Xiaogang; Chen, Huiliang; Li, Kewei; Xiao, Shiqi; Wang, Yanchun; Liu, Huaping; Xie, Sishen

    2015-07-01

    In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the fibers endow the supercapacitor with 100% stretchability along all directions. In addition, the supercapacitor exhibited good transparency, as well as excellent electrochemical properties and stability after being stretched 5000 times.In order to meet the growing need for smart bionic devices and epidermal electronic systems, biaxial stretchability is essential for energy storage units. Based on porous single-walled carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) hybrid fiber, we designed and fabricated a biaxially stretchable supercapacitor, which possesses a unique configuration of the parallel buckled hybrid fiber array. Owing to the reticulate SWCNT film and the improved fabrication technique, the hybrid fiber retained its porous architecture both outwardly and inwardly, manifesting a superior capacity of 215 F g-1. H3PO4-polyvinyl alcohol gel with an optimized component ratio was introduced as both binder and stretchable electrolyte, which contributed to the regularity and stability of the buckled fiber array. The buckled structure and the quasi one-dimensional character of the

  20. Fabrication of nano-electrode arrays of free-standing carbon nanotubes on nano-patterned substrate by imprint method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W. S.; Kim, J. W.; Choi, D. G.; Han, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of isolated carbon nanotubes with uniform outer diameters and ordered spacing over wafer-scale areas was investigated for fabrication of nano-electrode arrays on silicon wafers for field emission and sensor devices. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were grown on TiN electrode layer with iron catalyst patterned by nano-imprint lithography (NIL), which allows the precise placement of individual CNTs on a substrate. The proposed techniques, including plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and NIL, are simple, inexpensive, and reproducible methods for fabrication of nano-scale devices in large areas. The catalyst patterns were defined by an array of circles with 200 nm in diameter, and variable lengths of pitch. The nano-patterned master and Fe catalyst were observed with good pattern fidelity over a large area by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nano-electrodes of MWCNTs had diameters ranging from 50 nm to 100 nm and lengths of about 300 nm. Field emission tests showed the reducing ignition voltage as the geometry of nanotube arrays was controlled by catalyst patterning. These results showed a wafer-scale approach to the control of the size, pitch, and position of nano-electrodes of nanotubes for various applications including electron field-emission sources, electrochemical probes, functionalized sensor elements, and so on.

  1. Combining Multiple Electrode Arrays for Two-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Imaging Using the Unsupervised Classification Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishola, K. S.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Abdullah, K.

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the use of k-means clustering, an unsupervised image classification technique, to help interpret subsurface targets. The k-means algorithm is employed to combine and classify the two-dimensional (2D) inverse resistivity models obtained from three different electrode arrays. The algorithm is initialized through the selection of the number of clusters, number of iterations and other parameters such as stopping criteria. Automatically, it seeks to find groups of closely related resistivity values that belong to the same cluster and are more similar to each other than resistivity values belonging to other clusters. The approach is applied to both synthetic and field data. The 2D postinversions of the resistivity data were preprocessed by resampling and interpolating to the same coordinate. Following the preprocessing, the three images are combined into a single classified image. All the image preprocessing, manipulation and analysis are performed using the PCI Geomatics software package. The results of the clustering and classification are presented as classified images. An assessment of the performance of the individual and combined images for the synthetic models is carried out using an error matrix, mean absolute error and mean absolute percent error. The estimated errors show that images obtained from maximum values of the reconstructed resistivity for the different models give the best representation of the true models. Additionally, the overall accuracy and kappa values show good agreement between the combined classified images and true models. Depending on the model, the overall accuracy ranges from 86 to 99 %, while the kappa coefficient is in the range of 54-98 %. Classified images with kappa coefficients greater than 0.8 show strong agreement, while images with kappa coefficients greater than 0.5 but less than 0.8 give moderate agreement. For the field data, the k-mean classifier produces images that incorporate structural features of

  2. Factors Affecting Outcomes in Cochlear Implant Recipients Implanted With a Perimodiolar Electrode Array Located in Scala Tympani.

    PubMed

    Holden, Laura K; Firszt, Jill B; Reeder, Ruth M; Uchanski, Rosalie M; Dwyer, Noël Y; Holden, Timothy A

    2016-12-01

    To identify primary biographic and audiologic factors contributing to cochlear implant (CI) performance variability in quiet and noise by controlling electrode array type and electrode position within the cochlea. Although CI outcomes have improved over time, considerable outcome variability still exists. Biographic, audiologic, and device-related factors have been shown to influence performance. Examining CI recipients with consistent array type and electrode position may allow focused investigation into outcome variability resulting from biographic and audiologic factors. Thirty-nine adults (40 ears) implanted for at least 6 months with a perimodiolar electrode array known (via computed tomography [CT] imaging) to be in scala tympani participated. Test materials, administered CI only, included monosyllabic words, sentences in quiet and noise, and spectral ripple discrimination. In quiet, scores were high with mean word and sentence scores of 76 and 87%, respectively; however, sentence scores decreased by an average of 35 percentage points when noise was added. A principal components (PC) analysis of biographic and audiologic factors found three distinct factors, PC1 Age, PC2 Duration, and PC3 Pre-op Hearing. PC1 Age was the only factor that correlated, albeit modestly, with speech recognition in quiet and noise. Spectral ripple discrimination strongly correlated with speech measures. For these recipients with consistent electrode position, PC1 Age was related to speech recognition performance. Consistent electrode position may have contributed to high speech understanding in quiet. Inter-subject variability in noise may have been influenced by auditory/cognitive processing, known to decline with age, and mechanisms that underlie spectral resolution ability.

  3. Electrical and optical characterization of thrombin-induced permeability of cultured endothelial cell monolayers on semiconductor electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillebrandt, H.; Abdelghani, A.; Abdelghani-Jacquin, C.; Aepfelbacher, M.; Sackmann, E.

    Impedance spectroscopy and phase-contrast microscopy are combined to monitor the electrical and morphological properties of human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers. The cells were cultured on optically transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) semiconductor electrode arrays coated with collagen IV, and the effect of the inflammatory mediator thrombin on monolayer permeability was monitored in real time. ITO electrodes provide several advantages for these kinds of experiments, because they are optically transparent, polarizable and highly sensitive due to the absence of insulating oxide layers. A qualitative correlation between the thrombin-induced gap formation and the electrical parameters of the cell layer is established.

  4. Evaluation of micro Electroretinograms Recorded with Multiple Electrode Array to Assess Focal Retinal Function.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Momo; Sunagawa, Genshiro A; Kondo, Mineo; Takahashi, Masayo; Mandai, Michiko

    2016-08-02

    Full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) are used to objectively assess the mass function of the retina, whereas focal ERGs are used to evaluate the focal retinal function. The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a multiple electrode array (MEA) system for recording ex vivo micro ERGs (mERGs) together with multiunit spike responses of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to assess focal retinal function in isolated mouse retinas. The a- and b-waves of the full-field ERGs were present in the mERG. The b-wave was blocked by L-AP4, an inhibitor of the mGluR6 receptor, and the OFF-component was blocked by exposure to PDA, an antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors, with a corresponding RGC responses. mERGs were also recorded from mice with progressive retinal degeneration, the C57BL/6J-Pde6b(rd1-2J)/J (rd1) mice, from which conventional full-field ERGs are non-recordable. A blockade of the glutamate receptors indicated that the negative wave of rd1 mice do not originate from the photoreceptors but from the second or third order neurons. This technique of recording mERGs will be useful in assessing the focal properties of the retinas obtained from eyes with pathology and also to follow the recovery of the physiology of the retina in regenerative studies.

  5. An integrated multi-electrode-optrode array for in vitro optogenetics.

    PubMed

    Welkenhuysen, Marleen; Hoffman, Luis; Luo, Zhengxiang; De Proft, Anabel; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle; Debyser, Zeger; Gielen, Georges; Puers, Robert; Braeken, Dries

    2016-02-02

    Modulation of a group of cells or tissue needs to be very precise in order to exercise effective control over the cell population under investigation. Optogenetic tools have already demonstrated to be of great value in the study of neuronal circuits and in neuromodulation. Ideally, they should permit very accurate resolution, preferably down to the single cell level. Further, to address a spatially distributed sample, independently addressable multiple optical outputs should be present. In current techniques, at least one of these requirements is not fulfilled. In addition to this, it is interesting to directly monitor feedback of the modulation by electrical registration of the activity of the stimulated cells. Here, we present the fabrication and characterization of a fully integrated silicon-based multi-electrode-optrode array (MEOA) for in vitro optogenetics. We demonstrate that this device allows for artifact-free electrical recording. Moreover, the MEOA was used to reliably elicit spiking activity from ChR2-transduced neurons. Thanks to the single cell resolution stimulation capability, we could determine spatial and temporal activation patterns and spike latencies of the neuronal network. This integrated approach to multi-site combined optical stimulation and electrical recording significantly advances today's tool set for neuroscientists in their search to unravel neuronal network dynamics.

  6. Evaluation of micro Electroretinograms Recorded with Multiple Electrode Array to Assess Focal Retinal Function

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Momo; Sunagawa, Genshiro A.; Kondo, Mineo; Takahashi, Masayo; Mandai, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) are used to objectively assess the mass function of the retina, whereas focal ERGs are used to evaluate the focal retinal function. The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of a multiple electrode array (MEA) system for recording ex vivo micro ERGs (mERGs) together with multiunit spike responses of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to assess focal retinal function in isolated mouse retinas. The a- and b-waves of the full-field ERGs were present in the mERG. The b-wave was blocked by L-AP4, an inhibitor of the mGluR6 receptor, and the OFF-component was blocked by exposure to PDA, an antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors, with a corresponding RGC responses. mERGs were also recorded from mice with progressive retinal degeneration, the C57BL/6J-Pde6brd1-2J/J (rd1) mice, from which conventional full-field ERGs are non-recordable. A blockade of the glutamate receptors indicated that the negative wave of rd1 mice do not originate from the photoreceptors but from the second or third order neurons. This technique of recording mERGs will be useful in assessing the focal properties of the retinas obtained from eyes with pathology and also to follow the recovery of the physiology of the retina in regenerative studies. PMID:27480484

  7. Design and fabrication of an implantable cortical semiconductor integrated circuit electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, Pierre K.

    1990-12-01

    This research furthered the processing steps of the AFIT 16 by 16 implantable cortical semiconductor integrated circuit electrode array, or brain chip. The areas of interest include the brain chip electronics, metallization, ionic permeation, and implantation. The electronics and metallization are heavily covered. A high speed, single clock divide-by-two circuit was modified with a reset transistor and cascaded to form a ripple counter. This device had stable operation at specific source voltage and clock voltage and frequency. A 7-stage inverter with 10 unmodified divide-by-two circuits cascaded operated between 1.7 and 8 volts, and between 39 KHz and 1 MHz, respectively. The metallization process refers to coating Au/Ni or Pt onto exposed aluminum areas (pads) of a CMOS integrated circuit. Sputtering was used to coat the chip. And an Au/Ni etchant or Pt peel-off technique was used. The Au/Ni etchant used was iodine, potassium iodide, and deionized water solution.

  8. An integrated multi-electrode-optrode array for in vitro optogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Welkenhuysen, Marleen; Hoffman, Luis; Luo, Zhengxiang; De Proft, Anabel; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle; Debyser, Zeger; Gielen, Georges; Puers, Robert; Braeken, Dries

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of a group of cells or tissue needs to be very precise in order to exercise effective control over the cell population under investigation. Optogenetic tools have already demonstrated to be of great value in the study of neuronal circuits and in neuromodulation. Ideally, they should permit very accurate resolution, preferably down to the single cell level. Further, to address a spatially distributed sample, independently addressable multiple optical outputs should be present. In current techniques, at least one of these requirements is not fulfilled. In addition to this, it is interesting to directly monitor feedback of the modulation by electrical registration of the activity of the stimulated cells. Here, we present the fabrication and characterization of a fully integrated silicon-based multi-electrode-optrode array (MEOA) for in vitro optogenetics. We demonstrate that this device allows for artifact-free electrical recording. Moreover, the MEOA was used to reliably elicit spiking activity from ChR2-transduced neurons. Thanks to the single cell resolution stimulation capability, we could determine spatial and temporal activation patterns and spike latencies of the neuronal network. This integrated approach to multi-site combined optical stimulation and electrical recording significantly advances today’s tool set for neuroscientists in their search to unravel neuronal network dynamics. PMID:26832455

  9. Redox cycling effect on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal of crystal violet molecules at nanostructured interdigitated array electrodes.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Monirul; Ueno, Kosei; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    Nanostructured interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes with different inter-electrode spacing were demonstrated to improve the detection sensitivity of short-lived electroactive species and to follow interfacial dynamics by their surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) functionality. Nanostructured IDA electrodes fabricated using electron beam lithography were used for an electrochemical SERS study of irreversible electroactive species, crystal violet (CV), in an aqueous KCl solution in single and generation-collection (GC) mode experiments. The GC mode enabled us to amplify the SERS intensity. An inter-electrode spacing dependent study found the maximum number of redox cycling, collection efficiency and amplification of the SERS intensity. Its SERS function disclosed the potential-dependent dynamics of CV molecules at the electrode surface, which was not observed in the redox current. Miniaturized nanostructured IDA electrodes are of great importance for developing lab on chip devices, and are useful for analyzing dynamical features within small space/volume domains, which require small amounts and/or concentration of analytes.

  10. All-carbon multi-electrode array for real-time in vitro measurements of oxidizable neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Bernardi, Ettore; Plaitano, Marilena; Franchino, Claudio; Gosso, Sara; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Olivero, Paolo; Carabelli, Valentina

    2016-02-01

    We report on the ion beam fabrication of all-carbon multi electrode arrays (MEAs) based on 16 graphitic micro-channels embedded in single-crystal diamond (SCD) substrates. The fabricated SCD-MEAs are systematically employed for the in vitro simultaneous amperometric detection of the secretory activity from populations of chromaffin cells, demonstrating a new sensing approach with respect to standard techniques. The biochemical stability and biocompatibility of the SCD-based device combined with the parallel recording of multi-electrodes array allow: i) a significant time saving in data collection during drug screening and/or pharmacological tests over a large number of cells, ii) the possibility of comparing altered cell functionality among cell populations, and iii) the repeatition of acquisition runs over many cycles with a fully non-toxic and chemically robust bio-sensitive substrate.

  11. All-carbon multi-electrode array for real-time in vitro measurements of oxidizable neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Bernardi, Ettore; Plaitano, Marilena; Franchino, Claudio; Gosso, Sara; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carbone, Emilio; Olivero, Paolo; Carabelli, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    We report on the ion beam fabrication of all-carbon multi electrode arrays (MEAs) based on 16 graphitic micro-channels embedded in single-crystal diamond (SCD) substrates. The fabricated SCD-MEAs are systematically employed for the in vitro simultaneous amperometric detection of the secretory activity from populations of chromaffin cells, demonstrating a new sensing approach with respect to standard techniques. The biochemical stability and biocompatibility of the SCD-based device combined with the parallel recording of multi-electrodes array allow: i) a significant time saving in data collection during drug screening and/or pharmacological tests over a large number of cells, ii) the possibility of comparing altered cell functionality among cell populations, and iii) the repeatition of acquisition runs over many cycles with a fully non-toxic and chemically robust bio-sensitive substrate. PMID:26857940

  12. Numerically controlled atmospheric-pressure plasma sacrificial oxidation using electrode arrays for improving silicon-on-insulator layer uniformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, Hiroyasu; Yoshinaga, Keinosuke; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Sano, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers are important semiconductor substrates in high-performance devices. In accordance with device miniaturization requirements, ultrathin and highly uniform top silicon layers (SOI layers) are required. A novel method involving numerically controlled (NC) atmospheric-pressure plasma sacrificial oxidation using an electrode array system was developed for the effective fabrication of an ultrathin SOI layer with extremely high uniformity. Spatial resolution and oxidation properties are the key factors controlling ultraprecision machining. The controllability of plasma oxidation and the oxidation properties of the resulting experimental electrode array system were examined. The results demonstrated that the method improved the thickness uniformity of the SOI layer over one-sixth of the area of an 8-in. wafer area.

  13. High-Throughput Selective Capture of Single Circulating Tumor Cells by Dielectrophoresis at a Wireless Electrode Array.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Anand, Robbyn K

    2017-07-05

    We demonstrate continuous high-throughput selective capture of circulating tumor cells by dielectrophoresis at arrays of wireless electrodes (bipolar electrodes, BPEs). The use of BPEs removes the requirement of ohmic contact to individual array elements, thus enabling otherwise unattainable device formats. Capacitive charging of the electrical double layer at opposing ends of each BPE allows an AC electric field to be transmitted across the entire device. Here, two such designs are described and evaluated. In the first design, BPEs interconnect parallel microchannels. Pockets extruding from either side of the microchannels volumetrically control the number of cells captured at each BPE tip and enhance trapping. High-fidelity single-cell capture was achieved when the pocket dimensions were matched to those of the cells. A second, open design allows many non-targeted cells to pass through. These devices enable high-throughput capture of rare cells and single-cell analysis.

  14. Detection of an Epstein-Barr genome analog at physiological concentrations via the biometallization of interdigitated array electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zaccheo, Brian A; Crooks, Richard M

    2009-07-15

    This paper reports a simple DNA sensor having a detection limit of about 24 oligonucleotides and that operates without the need for PCR amplification. The sensor platform is based on an interdigitated array (IDA) of electrodes. The electrodes are modified with DNA capture probes, which are complementary to an analog for the Epstein-Barr genome, and then exposed to an alkaline phosphatase-labeled target. The enzyme catalyzes the formation of L-ascorbic acid, which reduces Ag(+) in solution to yield conductive Ag filaments that span the gap between the electrodes of the IDA. Resistance measurements, made with an inexpensive, hand-held multimeter, signal the presence of the target. The sensor response is insensitive to the presence of a large excess of non-complementary DNA sequences.

  15. High Spatiotemporal Resolution ECoG Recording of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials with Flexible Micro-Electrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kaiju, Taro; Doi, Keiichi; Yokota, Masashi; Watanabe, Kei; Inoue, Masato; Ando, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kazutaka; Yoshida, Fumiaki; Hirata, Masayuki; Suzuki, Takafumi

    2017-01-01

    Electrocorticogram (ECoG) has great potential as a source signal, especially for clinical BMI. Until recently, ECoG electrodes were commonly used for identifying epileptogenic foci in clinical situations, and such electrodes were low-density and large. Increasing the number and density of recording channels could enable the collection of richer motor/sensory information, and may enhance the precision of decoding and increase opportunities for controlling external devices. Several reports have aimed to increase the number and density of channels. However, few studies have discussed the actual validity of high-density ECoG arrays. In this study, we developed novel high-density flexible ECoG arrays and conducted decoding analyses with monkey somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). Using MEMS technology, we made 96-channel Parylene electrode arrays with an inter-electrode distance of 700 μm and recording site area of 350 μm2. The arrays were mainly placed onto the finger representation area in the somatosensory cortex of the macaque, and partially inserted into the central sulcus. With electrical finger stimulation, we successfully recorded and visualized finger SEPs with a high spatiotemporal resolution. We conducted offline analyses in which the stimulated fingers and intensity were predicted from recorded SEPs using a support vector machine. We obtained the following results: (1) Very high accuracy (~98%) was achieved with just a short segment of data (~15 ms from stimulus onset). (2) High accuracy (~96%) was achieved even when only a single channel was used. This result indicated placement optimality for decoding. (3) Higher channel counts generally improved prediction accuracy, but the efficacy was small for predictions with feature vectors that included time-series information. These results suggest that ECoG signals with high spatiotemporal resolution could enable greater decoding precision or external device control. PMID:28442997

  16. Optoacoustic multispectral imaging of radiolucent foreign bodies in tissue.

    PubMed

    Page, Leland; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph D

    2013-01-01

    Optoacoustic imaging is an emerging medical technology that uniquely combines the absorption contrast of optical imaging and the penetration depth of ultrasound. While it is not currently employed as a clinical imaging modality, the results of current research strongly support the use of optoacoustic-based methods in medical imaging. One such application is the diagnosis of the presence of soft tissue foreign bodies. Because many radiolucent foreign bodies have sufficient contrast for imaging in the optical domain, laser-induced optoacoustic imaging could be advantageous for the detection of such objects. Common foreign bodies have been scanned over a range of visible and near infrared wavelengths by using an optoacoustic method to obtain the spectroscopic properties of the materials commonly associated with these foreign bodies. The derived optical absorption spectra compared quite closely to the absorption spectra generated when using a conventional spectrophotometer. By using the probe-beam deflection technique, a novel, pressure-wave detection method, we successfully generated optoacoustic spectroscopic plots of a wooden foreign body embedded in a tissue phantom, which closely resembled the spectrum of the same object obtained in isolation. A practical application of such spectra is to assemble a library of spectroscopic data for radiolucent materials, from which specific characteristic wavelengths can be selected for use in optimizing imaging instrumentation and provide a basis for the identification of the material properties of particular foreign bodies.

  17. Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence of BODIPY, Ru(bpy)32+, and 9,10-Diphenylanthracene Using Interdigitated Array Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nepomnyashchii, Alexander B.; Kolesov, Grigory; Parkinson, Bruce A.

    2013-07-10

    Interdigitated array electrodes (IDAs) were used to produce steady-state electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) by annihilation of oxidized and reduced forms of a substituted boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye, 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA), and ruthenium(II) tris(bypiridine) (Ru-(bpy)32+). Digital simulations were in good agreement with the experimentally obtained currents and light outputs. Coreactant experiments, using tri-n-propylamine and benzoyl peroxide as a sacrificial homogeneous reductant or oxidant, show currents corresponding to electrode reactions of the dyes and not the oxidation or reduction of the coreactants. The results show that interdigitated arrays can produce stable ECL where the light intensity is magnified due to the larger currents as a consequence of feedback between generator and collector electrodes in the IDA. The light output for ECL is around 100 times higher than that obtained with regular planar electrodes with similar area. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center of Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  18. Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Clere, T.M.

    1983-08-30

    A 3-dimensional electrode is disclosed having substantially coplanar and substantially flat portions and ribbon-like curved portions, said curved portions being symmetrical and alternating in rows above and below said substantially coplanar, substantially flat portions, respectively, and a geometric configuration presenting in one sectional aspect the appearance of a series of ribbon-like oblate spheroids interrupted by said flat portions and in another sectional aspect, 90/sup 0/ from said one aspect, the appearance of a square wave pattern.

  19. Biocompatibility of silicon-based arrays of electrodes coupled to organotypic hippocampal brain slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, B W; Noraberg, J; Thiébaud, P; Koudelka-Hep, M; Zimmer, J

    2001-03-30

    In this study we examined the passive biocompatibility of a three-dimensional microelectrode array (MEA), designed to be coupled to organotypic brain slice cultures for multisite recording of electrophysiological signals. Hippocampal (and corticostriatal) brain slices from 1-week-old (and newborn) rats were grown for 4-8 weeks on the perforated silicon chips with silicon nitride surfaces and 40 microm sized holes and compared with corresponding tissue slices grown on conventional semiporous membranes. In terms of preservation of the basic cellular and connective organization, as visualized by Nissl staining, Timm sulphide silver-staining, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining, the slice cultures grown on chips did not differ from conventionally grown slice cultures. Neither were there any signs of astrogliosis or neurodegeneration around the upper recording part of the 47-microm-high platinum-tip electrodes. Slice cultures grown on a separate set of chips with platinum instead of silicon nitride surfaces also displayed normal MAP2 and GFAP immunostaining. The width of the GFAP-rich zone (glia limitans) at the bottom surface of the slice cultures was the same ( approximately 20 microm) in cultures grown on chips with silicon nitride and platinum surfaces and on conventional insert membranes. The slice cultures grown on chips maintained a normal, subfield differentiated susceptibility to the glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and the neurotoxin trimethyltin (TMT), as demonstrated by the cellular uptake of propidium iodide (PI), which was used as a reproducible and quantifiable marker for neuronal degeneration. We conclude that organotypic brain slice cultures can grow on silicon-based three-dimensional microelectrode arrays and develop normally with display of normal subfield differentiated susceptibilities to known excito- and neurotoxins. From this it is anticipated that the set

  20. Minimum neuron density for synchronized bursts in a rat cortical culture on multi-electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Ito, D; Tamate, H; Nagayama, M; Uchida, T; Kudoh, S N; Gohara, K

    2010-11-24

    To investigate the minimum neuron and neurite densities required for synchronized bursts, we cultured rat cortical neurons on planar multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) at five plating densities (2500, 1000, 500, 250, and 100 cells/mm(2)) using two culture media: Neuron Culture Medium and Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium supplemented with serum (DMEM/serum). Long-term recording of spontaneous electrical activity clarified that the cultures exhibiting synchronized bursts required an initial plating density of at least 250 cells/mm(2) for Neuron Culture Medium and 500 cells/mm(2) for DMEM/serum. Immediately after electrical recording, immunocytochemistry of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and Neurofilament 200 kD (NF200) was performed directly on MEAs to investigate the actual densities of neurons and neurites forming the networks. Immunofluorescence observation revealed that the construction of complicated neuronal networks required the same initial plating density as for synchronized bursts, and that overly sparse cultures showed significant decreases of neurons and neurites. We also found that the final densities of surviving neurons at 1 month decreased greatly compared with the initial plating densities and became saturated in denser cultures. In addition, the area of neurites and the number of nuclei were saturated in denser cultures. By comparing both the results of electrophysiological recording and immunocytochemical observation, we revealed that there is a minimum threshold of neuron densities that must be met for the exhibition of synchronized bursts. Interestingly, these minimum densities of MAP2-positive final neurons did not differ between the two culture media; the density was approximately 50 neurons/mm(2). This value was obtained in the cultures with the initial plating densities of 250 cells/mm(2) for Neuron Culture Medium and 500 cells/mm(2) for DMEM/serum.

  1. Boronate-Modified Interdigitated Electrode Array for Selective Impedance-Based Sensing of Glycated Hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Boonyasit, Yuwadee; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida; Chailapakul, Orawon; Emnéus, Jenny; Heiskanen, Arto R

    2016-10-04

    An impedance-based label-free affinity sensor was developed for the recognition of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Interdigitated gold microelectrode arrays (IDAs) were first modified with a self-assembled monolayer of cysteamine followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and subsequent binding of 3-aminophenylboronic acid (APBA), which selectively binds HbA1c via cis-diol interactions. Impedance sensing was demonstrated to be highly responsive to the clinically relevant HbA1c levels (0.1%-8.36%) with a detection and quantitation limit of 0.024% (3σ/slope) and 0.08% (10σ/slope), respectively. The specificity of the assay was evaluated with nonglycated hemoglobin (HbAo), showing that the impedance response remained unchanged over the concentration range of 10 to 20 g dL(-1) HbAo. This demonstrated that the sensor system could be used to specifically distinguish HbA1c from HbAo. Moreover, the binding of HbA1c to the APBA-modified electrodes was reversible, providing a reusable sensing interface as well as showing a stable response after 4 weeks (96% of the initial response). When assaying normal (4.10%) and diabetic (8.36%) HbA1c levels (10 assays per day during a three-day period including a regeneration step after each assay), the overall assay reproducibility, expressed as relative standard error of the mean (n = 30), was 1.1%. The performance of the sensor system was also compared with a commercial method (n = 15) using patient-derived blood samples. A good agreement (Bland-Altman bias plot) and correlation (Passing-Bablok regression analysis) was demonstrated between the boronate-based affinity sensor and the standard method.

  2. Stretchable, Transparent, and Stretch-Unresponsive Capacitive Touch Sensor Array with Selectively Patterned Silver Nanowires/Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae Young; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Trung, Tran Quang; Nam, Yun Hyoung; Kim, Do-Nyun; Eom, Kilho; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2017-05-31

    Stretchable and transparent touch sensors are essential input devices for future stretchable transparent electronics. Capacitive touch sensors with a simple structure of only two electrodes and one dielectric are an established technology in current rigid electronics. However, the development of stretchable and transparent capacitive touch sensors has been limited due to changes in capacitance resulting from dimensional changes in elastomeric dielectrics and difficulty in obtaining stretchable transparent electrodes that are stable under large strains. Herein, a stretch-unresponsive stretchable and transparent capacitive touch sensor array was demonstrated by employing stretchable and transparent electrodes with a simple selective-patterning process and by carefully selecting dielectric and substrate materials with low strain responsivity. A selective-patterning process was used to embed a stretchable and transparent silver nanowires/reduced graphene oxide (AgNWs/rGO) electrode line into a polyurethane (PU) dielectric layer on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate using oxygen plasma treatment. This method provides the ability to directly fabricate thin film electrode lines on elastomeric substrates and can be used in conventional processes employed in stretchable electronics. We used a dielectric (PU) with a Poisson's ratio smaller than that of the substrate (PDMS), which prevented changes in the capacitance resulting from stretching of the sensor. The stretch-unresponsive touch sensing capability of our transparent and stretchable capacitive touch sensor has great potential in wearable electronics and human-machine interfaces.

  3. Electropolymerization of Uniform Polyaniline Nanorod Arrays on Conducting Oxides as Counter Electrodes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Khoo, Si Yun; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-01-01

    Conventional techniques for the synthesis of oriented polyaniline (PANI) nanostructures are often complex or time consuming. Through an innovative reduced graphene oxide (rGO) modified FTO and a low-potential electropolymerization strategy, the rapid and template-free growth of a highly ordered PANI nanorod array on the FTO substrate is realized. The highly ordered nanostructure of the PANI array leads to a high electrocatalytic activity and chemical stability. The importance of the polymerization potential and rGO surface modification to achieve this nanostructure is revealed. Compared to platinum, the PANI nanorod array exhibits an enhanced performance and stability as counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells, with a 17.6 % enhancement in power conversion efficiency.

  4. Fabrication of ordered NiO coated Si nanowire array films as electrodes for a high performance lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Qiu, M C; Yang, L W; Qi, X; Li, Jun; Zhong, J X

    2010-12-01

    Highly ordered NiO coated Si nanowire array films are fabricated as electrodes for a high performance lithium ion battery via depositing Ni on electroless-etched Si nanowires and subsequently annealing. The structures and morphologies of as-prepared films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. When the potential window versus lithium was controlled, the coated NiO can be selected to be electrochemically active to store and release Li+ ions, while highly conductive crystalline Si cores function as nothing more than a stable mechanical support and an efficient electrical conducting pathway. The hybrid nanowire array films exhibit superior cyclic stability and reversible capacity compared to that of NiO nanostructured films. Owing to the ease of large-scale fabrication and superior electrochemical performance, these hybrid nanowire array films will be promising anode materials for high performance lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Photoelectrochemical activity of as-grown, α-Fe2O3 nanowire array electrodes for water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernomordik, Boris D.; Russell, Harry B.; Cvelbar, Uros; Jasinski, Jacek B.; Kumar, Vivekanand; Deutsch, Todd; Sunkara, Mahendra K.

    2012-05-01

    Undoped hematite nanowire arrays grown using plasma oxidation of iron foils show significant photoactivity (˜0.38 mA cm-2 at 1.5 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode in 1 M KOH). In contrast, thermally oxidized nanowire arrays grown on iron exhibit no photoactivity due to the formation of a thick (>7 μm Fe1-xO) interfacial layer. An atmospheric plasma oxidation process required only a few minutes to synthesize hematite nanowire arrays with a 1-5 μm interfacial layer of magnetite between the nanowire arrays and the iron substrate. An amorphous oxide surface layer on hematite nanowires, if present, is shown to decrease the resulting photoactivity of as-synthesized, plasma grown nanowire arrays. The photocurrent onset potential is improved after removing the amorphous surface on the nanowires using an acid etch. A two-step method involving high temperature nucleation followed by growth at low temperature is shown to produce a highly dense and uniform coverage of nanowire arrays.

  6. Photoelectrochemical activity of as-grown, α-Fe2O3 nanowire array electrodes for water splitting.

    PubMed

    Chernomordik, Boris D; Russell, Harry B; Cvelbar, Uros; Jasinski, Jacek B; Kumar, Vivekanand; Deutsch, Todd; Sunkara, Mahendra K

    2012-05-17

    Undoped hematite nanowire arrays grown using plasma oxidation of iron foils show significant photoactivity (~0.38 mA cm(-2) at 1.5 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode in 1 M KOH). In contrast, thermally oxidized nanowire arrays grown on iron exhibit no photoactivity due to the formation of a thick (>7 μm Fe(1-x)O) interfacial layer. An atmospheric plasma oxidation process required only a few minutes to synthesize hematite nanowire arrays with a 1–5 μm interfacial layer of magnetite between the nanowire arrays and the iron substrate. An amorphous oxide surface layer on hematite nanowires, if present, is shown to decrease the resulting photoactivity of as-synthesized, plasma grown nanowire arrays. The photocurrent onset potential is improved after removing the amorphous surface on the nanowires using an acid etch. A two-step method involving high temperature nucleation followed by growth at low temperature is shown to produce a highly dense and uniform coverage of nanowire arrays.

  7. Photoelectrochemical Activity of As-Grown, a-Fe2O3 Nanowire Array Electrodes for Water Splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Chernomordik, B. D.; Russell, H. B.; Cvelbar, U.; Jasinski, J. B.; Kumar, V.; Deutsch, T.; Sunkara, M. K.

    2012-05-17

    Undoped hematite nanowire arrays grown using plasma oxidation of iron foils show significant photoactivity ({approx}0.38 mA cm{sup -2} at 1.5 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode in 1 M KOH). In contrast, thermally oxidized nanowire arrays grown on iron exhibit no photoactivity due to the formation of a thick (>7 {micro}m Fe{sub 1-x}O) interfacial layer. An atmospheric plasma oxidation process required only a few minutes to synthesize hematite nanowire arrays with a 1-5 {micro}m interfacial layer of magnetite between the nanowire arrays and the iron substrate. An amorphous oxide surface layer on hematite nanowires, if present, is shown to decrease the resulting photoactivity of as-synthesized, plasma grown nanowire arrays. The photocurrent onset potential is improved after removing the amorphous surface on the nanowires using an acid etch. A two-step method involving high temperature nucleation followed by growth at low temperature is shown to produce a highly dense and uniform coverage of nanowire arrays.

  8. Metal-organic framework derived hybrid Co3O4-carbon porous nanowire arrays as reversible oxygen evolution electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian Yi; Dai, Sheng; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Hybrid porous nanowire arrays composed of strongly interacting Co3O4 and carbon were prepared by a facile carbonization of the metal-organic framework grown on Cu foil. The resulting material, possessing a high surface area of 251 m(2) g(-1) and a large carbon content of 52.1 wt %, can be directly used as the working electrode for oxygen evolution reaction without employing extra substrates or binders. This novel oxygen evolution electrode can smoothly operate in alkaline solutions (e.g., 0.1 and 1.0 M KOH), affording a low onset potential of 1.47 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode) and a stable current density of 10.0 mA cm(-2) at 1.52 V in 0.1 M KOH solution for at least 30 h, associated with a high Faradaic efficiency of 99.3%. The achieved ultrahigh oxygen evolution activity and strong durability, with superior performance in comparison to the state-of-the-art noble-metal/transition-metal and nonmetal catalysts, originate from the unique nanowire array electrode configuration and in situ carbon incorporation, which lead to the large active surface area, enhanced mass/charge transport capability, easy release of oxygen gas bubbles, and strong structural stability. Furthermore, the hybrid Co3O4-carbon porous nanowire arrays can also efficiently catalyze oxygen reduction reaction, featuring a desirable four-electron pathway for reversible oxygen evolution and reduction, which is potentially useful for rechargeable metal-air batteries, regenerative fuel cells, and other important clean energy devices.

  9. Supported noble metals on hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube arrays as highly ordered electrodes for fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changkun; Yu, Hongmei; Li, Yongkun; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yun; Song, Wei; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogen-treated TiO2 nanotube (H-TNT) arrays serve as highly ordered nanostructured electrode supports, which are able to significantly improve the electrochemical performance and durability of fuel cells. The electrical conductivity of H-TNTs increases by approximately one order of magnitude in comparison to air-treated TNTs. The increase in the number of oxygen vacancies and hydroxyl groups on the H-TNTs help to anchor a greater number of Pt atoms during Pt electrodeposition. The H-TNTs are pretreated by using a successive ion adsorption and reaction (SIAR) method that enhances the loading and dispersion of Pt catalysts when electrodeposited. In the SIAR method a Pd activator can be used to provide uniform nucleation sites for Pt and leads to increased Pt loading on the H-TNTs. Furthermore, fabricated Pt nanoparticles with a diameter of 3.4 nm are located uniformly around the pretreated H-TNT support. The as-prepared and highly ordered electrodes exhibit excellent stability during accelerated durability tests, particularly for the H-TNT-loaded Pt catalysts that have been annealed in ultrahigh purity H2 for a second time. There is minimal decrease in the electrochemical surface area of the as-prepared electrode after 1000 cycles compared to a 68 % decrease for the commercial JM 20 % Pt/C electrode after 800 cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that after the H-TNT-loaded Pt catalysts are annealed in H2 for the second time, the strong metal-support interaction between the H-TNTs and the Pt catalysts enhances the electrochemical stability of the electrodes. Fuel-cell testing shows that the power density reaches a maximum of 500 mWcm(-2) when this highly ordered electrode is used as the anode. When used as the cathode in a fuel cell with extra-low Pt loading, the new electrode generates a specific power density of 2.68 kWg(Pt) (-1) . It is indicated that H-TNT arrays, which have highly ordered nanostructures, could be used as ordered electrode supports

  10. Analytical and numerical solutions of the potential and electric field generated by different electrode arrays in a tumor tissue under electrotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bergues Pupo, Ana E; Reyes, Juan Bory; Bergues Cabrales, Luis E; Bergues Cabrales, Jesús M

    2011-09-24

    Electrotherapy is a relatively well established and efficient method of tumor treatment. In this paper we focus on analytical and numerical calculations of the potential and electric field distributions inside a tumor tissue in a two-dimensional model (2D-model) generated by means of electrode arrays with shapes of different conic sections (ellipse, parabola and hyperbola). Analytical calculations of the potential and electric field distributions based on 2D-models for different electrode arrays are performed by solving the Laplace equation, meanwhile the numerical solution is solved by means of finite element method in two dimensions. Both analytical and numerical solutions reveal significant differences between the electric field distributions generated by electrode arrays with shapes of circle and different conic sections (elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic). Electrode arrays with circular, elliptical and hyperbolic shapes have the advantage of concentrating the electric field lines in the tumor. The mathematical approach presented in this study provides a useful tool for the design of electrode arrays with different shapes of conic sections by means of the use of the unifying principle. At the same time, we verify the good correspondence between the analytical and numerical solutions for the potential and electric field distributions generated by the electrode array with different conic sections.

  11. Analytical and numerical solutions of the potential and electric field generated by different electrode arrays in a tumor tissue under electrotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Electrotherapy is a relatively well established and efficient method of tumor treatment. In this paper we focus on analytical and numerical calculations of the potential and electric field distributions inside a tumor tissue in a two-dimensional model (2D-model) generated by means of electrode arrays with shapes of different conic sections (ellipse, parabola and hyperbola). Methods Analytical calculations of the potential and electric field distributions based on 2D-models for different electrode arrays are performed by solving the Laplace equation, meanwhile the numerical solution is solved by means of finite element method in two dimensions. Results Both analytical and numerical solutions reveal significant differences between the electric field distributions generated by electrode arrays with shapes of circle and different conic sections (elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic). Electrode arrays with circular, elliptical and hyperbolic shapes have the advantage of concentrating the electric field lines in the tumor. Conclusion The mathematical approach presented in this study provides a useful tool for the design of electrode arrays with different shapes of conic sections by means of the use of the unifying principle. At the same time, we verify the good correspondence between the analytical and numerical solutions for the potential and electric field distributions generated by the electrode array with different conic sections. PMID:21943385

  12. Human interface design using Button-type PEDOT electrode array in EIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, Hun; In Oh, Tong; Yoon, Sun; Kim, Kap Jin; Woo, Eung Je

    2010-04-01

    Animal and human experiments using a multi-channel EIT system requires a cumbersome procedure to attach multiple electrodes. We have to ensure good contact of all electrodes and manage many lead wires during experiments. The problem becomes more severe as we increase the number of electrodes. These may limit the applicability of the imaging method in practice. Noting this technical difficulty, there have been a few trials to design human interface means such as electrode belts, helmets or rings. In this study, we developed an electrode belt for long-term monitoring of human lung ventilation. The belt includes 16 embossed electrodes which make good contact with the skin. The electrode is made by conductive polymer and metallic thread. Soft cushion and wide contact area minimize uncomfortable sensation and reduce contact impedances. The electrodes are attached to an elastic fabric belt at equal spacing. We describe details of its design and fabrication. Using the electrode belt and recently developed multi-frequency EIT system KHU Mark2, we show time-difference chest images of three human subjects during normal breathing cycles.

  13. A semi-automated measurement technique for the assessment of radiolucency.

    PubMed

    Pegg, E C; Kendrick, B J L; Pandit, H G; Gill, H S; Murray, D W

    2014-07-06

    The assessment of radiolucency around an implant is qualitative, poorly defined and has low agreement between clinicians. Accurate and repeatable assessment of radiolucency is essential to prevent misdiagnosis, minimize cases of unnecessary revision, and to correctly monitor and treat patients at risk of loosening and implant failure. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a semi-automated imaging algorithm could improve repeatability and enable quantitative assessment of radiolucency. Six surgeons assessed 38 radiographs of knees after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty for radiolucency, and results were compared with assessments made by the semi-automated program. Large variation was found between the surgeon results, with total agreement in only 9.4% of zones and a kappa value of 0.602; whereas the automated program had total agreement in 81.6% of zones and a kappa value of 0.802. The software had a 'fair to excellent' prediction of the presence or the absence of radiolucency, where the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curves was 0.82 on average. The software predicted radiolucency equally well for cemented and cementless implants (p = 0.996). The identification of radiolucency using an automated method is feasible and these results indicate that it could aid the definition and quantification of radiolucency.

  14. Serum and bile lipids in young women with radiolucent gallstones.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, A; Messa, C; Mangini, V; Argese, V; Misciagna, G; Giorgio, I

    1987-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between blood and bile lipids, serum cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were correlated with cholesterol saturation index of bile in 21 women-10 with radiolucent gallstones and 11 without stones. All of the women had regular menstrual cycles, were normolipidemic, and on a hospital diet. On the same morning, blood and the darkest duodenal bile were taken after cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulation. Standard laboratory procedures were used to analyze serum and bile lipids. We found: 1) statistically significant (t test, p less than 0.05) but only slight hypercholesterolemia (+ 12%) in patients with gallstones; 2) a negative correlation of serum cholesterol with cholesterol saturation index of bile, both in the control group (r = -0.654, p less than 0.05) and in gallstone patients (r = -0.665, p less than 0.05); 3) a correlation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol with cholesterol saturation index only in normal women (r = -0.619, p less than 0.05); 4) conversely, a correlation of triglycerides with the same index in only gallstone patients (r = 0.641, p less than 0.05). With the stepwise multiple regression analysis (independent variables: diagnosis of gallstones, serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides; dependent variable: biliary cholesterol saturation index), only gallstone diagnosis and serum cholesterol influenced significantly (F test, p less than 0.05) the biliary cholesterol saturation index. These findings suggest that young women with radiolucent gallstones are slightly hypercholesterolemic, that in women both with and without gallstones there is a negative correlation between serum cholesterol and biliary cholesterol saturation, but women with gallstones have a higher cholesterol saturation index of the bile than women without gallstones with the same level of cholesterol in the blood.

  15. An array of highly flexible electrodes with a tailored configuration locked by gelatin during implantation—initial evaluation in cortex cerebri of awake rats

    PubMed Central

    Agorelius, Johan; Tsanakalis, Fotios; Friberg, Annika; Thorbergsson, Palmi T.; Pettersson, Lina M. E.; Schouenborg, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Background: A major challenge in the field of neural interfaces is to overcome the problem of poor stability of neuronal recordings, which impedes long-term studies of individual neurons in the brain. Conceivably, unstable recordings reflect relative movements between electrode and tissue. To address this challenge, we have developed a new ultra-flexible electrode array and evaluated its performance in awake non-restrained animals. Methods:An array of eight separated gold leads (4 × 10 μm), individually flexible in 3D, were cut from a gold sheet using laser milling and insulated with Parylene C. To provide structural support during implantation into rat cortex, the electrode array was embedded in a hard gelatin based material, which dissolves after implantation. Recordings were made during 3 weeks. At termination, the animals were perfused with fixative and frozen to prevent dislocation of the implanted electrodes. A thick slice of brain tissue, with the electrode array still in situ, was made transparent using methyl salicylate to evaluate the conformation of the implanted electrode array. Results: Median noise levels and signal/noise remained relatively stable during the 3 week observation period; 4.3–5.9 μV and 2.8–4.2, respectively. The spike amplitudes were often quite stable within recording sessions and for 15% of recordings where single-units were identified, the highest-SNR unit had an amplitude higher than 150 μV. In addition, high correlations (>0.96) between unit waveforms recorded at different time points were obtained for 58% of the electrode sites. The structure of the electrode array was well preserved 3 weeks after implantation. Conclusions: A new implantable multichannel neural interface, comprising electrodes individually flexible in 3D that retain its architecture and functionality after implantation has been developed. Since the new neural interface design is adaptable, it offers a versatile tool to explore the function of various brain

  16. Re-evaluation of EMG-torque relation in chronic stroke using linear electrode array EMG recordings.

    PubMed

    Bhadane, Minal; Liu, Jie; Rymer, W Zev; Zhou, Ping; Li, Sheng

    2016-06-28

    The objective was to re-evaluate the controversial reports of EMG-torque relation between impaired and non-impaired sides using linear electrode array EMG recordings. Ten subjects with chronic stroke performed a series of submaximal isometric elbow flexion tasks. A 20-channel linear array was used to record surface EMG of the biceps brachii muscles from both impaired and non-impaired sides. M-wave recordings for bilateral biceps brachii muscles were also made. Distribution of the slope of the EMG-torque relations for the individual channels showed a quasi-symmetrical "M" shaped pattern. The lowest value corresponded to the innervation zone (IZ) location. The highest value from the slope curve for each side was selected for comparison to minimize the effect of electrode placement and IZ asymmetry. The slope was greater on the impaired side in 4 of 10 subjects. There were a weak correlation between slope ratio and strength ratio and a moderate to high correlation between slope ratio and M-wave ratio between two sides. These findings suggest that the EMG-torque relations are likely mediated and influenced by multiple factors. Our findings emphasize the importance of electrode placement and suggest the primary role of peripheral adaptive changes in the EMG-torque relations in chronic stroke.

  17. A microsystem of low-voltage-driven electrophoresis on microchip with array electrode pairs for the separation of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Hu, Xiaoguo; Liang, Jing; Sun, Jianxin; Gu, Wenwen; Zhao, Tianming; Wen, Zhiyu

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, a new approach for the separation of amino acids on the electrophoresis chip-based low-voltage-driven electrophoresis was reported in detail. This low-voltage-driven electrophoresis process could be realized by powering directly the arrayed electrode pairs with low direct current (DC) voltage to generate a moving electric field along the separation microchannel, which could maintain enough electric field strength for electrophoresis. The proposed microfluidic electrophoresis chip was bonded directly with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) cover plate at room temperature. The microfluidic channels and the arrayed electrodes were etched on SOI wafer by silicon microelectromechanical system technology. A specially integrated circuit was proposed to power a 30-60-V DC voltage to particular sets of these electrode pairs in a controlled sequence such that the moving electric field could be formed, and the low-voltage-driven electrophoresis could be realized in the microchannel. In the experiments, with 10(-4) mol/L phenylalanine and lysine as analytes, the separation of amino acids on the low-voltage-driven electrophoresis microchip was conducted by homemade integrated control circuit; a method for separating amino acids was well established. It was also shown that the phenylalanine and lysine mixture was effectively separated in less than 7 min and with a resolution of 2.0. To the best of our knowledge, the low-voltage-driven microchip electrophoresis device could be of potential prospective in the fields of integrated and miniaturized biochemical analysis system.

  18. Re-evaluation of EMG-torque relation in chronic stroke using linear electrode array EMG recordings

    PubMed Central

    Bhadane, Minal; Liu, Jie; Rymer, W. Zev; Zhou, Ping; Li, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to re-evaluate the controversial reports of EMG-torque relation between impaired and non-impaired sides using linear electrode array EMG recordings. Ten subjects with chronic stroke performed a series of submaximal isometric elbow flexion tasks. A 20-channel linear array was used to record surface EMG of the biceps brachii muscles from both impaired and non-impaired sides. M-wave recordings for bilateral biceps brachii muscles were also made. Distribution of the slope of the EMG-torque relations for the individual channels showed a quasi-symmetrical “M” shaped pattern. The lowest value corresponded to the innervation zone (IZ) location. The highest value from the slope curve for each side was selected for comparison to minimize the effect of electrode placement and IZ asymmetry. The slope was greater on the impaired side in 4 of 10 subjects. There were a weak correlation between slope ratio and strength ratio and a moderate to high correlation between slope ratio and M-wave ratio between two sides. These findings suggest that the EMG-torque relations are likely mediated and influenced by multiple factors. Our findings emphasize the importance of electrode placement and suggest the primary role of peripheral adaptive changes in the EMG-torque relations in chronic stroke. PMID:27349938

  19. Hierarchical NiCo2O4@MnO2 core-shell heterostructured nanowire arrays on Ni foam as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Le; Zhang, Genqiang; Yuan, Changzhou; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2013-01-07

    An advanced integrated electrode for high-performance supercapacitors has been designed by growing hierarchical NiCo(2)O(4)@MnO(2) core-shell heterostructured nanowire arrays on nickel foam. Such unique array nanoarchitectures exhibit remarkable electrochemical performance with high capacitance and desirable cycle life at high rates.

  20. Impedance biosensor based on interdigitated electrode array for detection of E.coli O157:H7 in food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh Dastider, Shibajyoti; Barizuddin, Syed; Dweik, Majed; Almasri, Mahmoud F.

    2012-05-01

    An impedance biosensor was designed, fabricated and tested for detection of viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 in food samples. This device consists of interdigitated microelectrode array (IDEA) fabricated using thin layer of sputtered gold, embedded under a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel. The array of electrodes is designed to detect viable EColi in different food products. The active surface area of the detection array was modified using goat anti-E.coli polyclonal IgG antibody. Contaminated food samples were tested by infusing the supernatant containing bacteria over the IDEA's, through the microchannel. Antibody-antigen binding on the electrodes results in impedance change. Four serial concentrations of E.coli contaminated food samples (3x102 CFUmL-1 to 3x105 CFUmL-1) were tested. The biosensor successfully detected the E.coli samples, with the lower detection limit being 3x103 CFUmL-1 (up to 3cells/μl). Comparing the test results with an IDEA impedance biosensor without microchannel (published elsewhere) indicates that this biosensor have two order of magnitude times higher sensitivity. The proposed biosensor provides qualitative and quantitative detection, and potentially could be used for detection of other type of bacteria by immobilizing the specific type of antibody.

  1. Fabrication of Carbon-Platinum Interdigitated Array Electrodes and Their Application for Investigating Homogeneous Hydrogen Evolution Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.; Divan, R.; Parkinson, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    Interdigitated array electrodes (IDAEs) with one carbon electrode and the other platinum electrode were constructed by electrodepositing platinum on one set of the carbon electrodes. Platinum deposition was confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The width of the carbon and platinum digits is less than 2 μm and the gap between two adjacent digits is around 3 μm. The carbon-platinum IDAEs benefit from the characteristics of both carbon and platinum in that carbon can provide a wide nonreactive potential window while platinum is a good catalyst for hydrogen reactions making it useful to characterize the catalytic hydrogen production cycle of the molecular electrocatalyst [Ni(PPh2NPh2)2(CH3CN)](BF4)2 (where PPh2NPh2 is 1,3,5,7-tetraphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane). With properly set potentials, the molecular electrocatalyst was reduced at the carbon digits to initiate a homogeneous H2 production reaction while the platinum digits detect the H2 by oxidation, providing direct evidence of its production rate from the catalytic cycles.

  2. Matrix-addressable, active electrode arrays for neural stimulation using organic semiconductors-cytotoxicity and pilot experiments in vivo.

    PubMed

    Feili, Dara; Schuettler, Martin; Stieglitz, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Organic field effect transistors can be integrated into micromachined polyimide-based neural stimulation electrode arrays in order to build active switching matrices. With this approach, a matrix of N x M electrode contacts requires only N + M interconnects to a stimulator when active switching elements are used instead of N x M interconnects. In this paper, we demonstrated that pentacene-based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) can be used to drive stimulation currents through neural electrodes in a physiological-like environment. In order to prove the general applicability as an implant material, the cytotoxicity of pentacene was evaluated with respect to potential effects on cell viability. The results of these tests indicate that extracts from pentacene inhibit neither proliferation nor metabolism of the tested mouse fibroblasts. However, some effect on cell spreading was observed when cells were in direct contact to pentacene for 48 h. In pilot experiments it was demonstrated for the very first time that pentacene transistors can be used as switching elements, acting as voltage-controlled current sources, capable of driving currents suitable for electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve via a tripolar cuff electrode.

  3. Parallel Recording of Neurotransmitters Release from Chromaffin Cells Using a 10 × 10 CMOS IC Potentiostat Array with On-Chip Working Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Brian Namghi; Herbst, Adam D.; Kim, Sung June; Minch, Bradley A.; Lindau, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release is modulated by many drugs and molecular manipulations. We present an active CMOS-based electrochemical biosensor array with high throughput capability (100 electrodes) for on-chip amperometric measurement of neurotransmitter release. The high-throughput of the biosensor array will accelerate the data collection needed to determine statistical significance of changes produced under varying conditions, from several weeks to a few hours. The biosensor is designed and fabricated using a combination of CMOS integrated circuit (IC) technology and a photolithography process to incorporate platinum working electrodes on-chip. We demonstrate the operation of an electrode array with integrated high-gain potentiostats and output time-division multiplexing with minimum dead time for readout. The on-chip working electrodes are patterned by conformal deposition of Pt and lift-off photolithography. The conformal deposition method protects the underlying electronic circuits from contact with the electrolyte that covers the electrode array during measurement. The biosensor was validated by simultaneous measurement of amperometric currents from 100 electrodes in response to dopamine injection, which revealed the time course of dopamine diffusion along the surface of the biosensor array. The biosensor simultaneously recorded neurotransmitter release successfully from multiple individual living chromaffin cells. The biosensor was capable of resolving small and fast amperometric spikes reporting release from individual vesicle secretions. We anticipate that this device will accelerate the characterization of the modulation of neurotransmitter secretion from neuronal and endocrine cells by pharmacological and molecular manipulations of the cells. PMID:23084756

  4. Electrochemical impedance measurement of prostate cancer cells using carbon nanotube array electrodes in a microfluidic channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heung Yun, Yeo; Dong, Zhongyun; Shanov, Vesselin N.; Schulz, Mark J.

    2007-11-01

    Highly aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes were synthesized in the shape of towers and embedded into fluidic channels as electrodes for impedance measurement of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Tower electrodes up to 8 mm high were grown and easily peeled off a silicon substrate. The nanotube electrodes were then successfully soldered onto patterned printed circuit boards and cast into epoxy under pressure. After polishing the top of the tower electrodes, RF plasma was used to enhance the electrocatalytic effect by removing excess epoxy and activating the open end of the nanotubes. Electrodeposition of Au particles on the plasma-treated tower electrodes was done at a controlled density. Finally, the nanotube electrodes were embedded into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was carried out with different conditions. Preliminary electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results using deionized water, buffer solution, and LNCaP prostate cancer cells showed that nanotube electrodes can distinguish the different solutions and could be used in future cell-based biosensor development.

  5. Humidity sensing using vertically oriented arrays of ReS2 nanosheets deposited on an interdigitated gold electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Aijun; Gao, Jian; Li, Baichang; Tan, Jiawei; Xiang, Yu; Gupta, Tushar; Li, Lu; Suresh, Shravan; Idrobo, Juan Carlos; Lu, Toh-Ming; Rong, Mingzhe; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2016-12-01

    We report a novel humidity sensor featuring vertically oriented arrays of ReS2 nanosheets grown on an interdigitated gold electrode by chemical vapor deposition. The vertical orientation of the nanosheets is important since it maximizes the exposed surface area for water adsorption/desorption. We find that the resistance of the ReS2 film decreases sensitively with increasing relative humidity, which we attribute to charge transfer from the absorbed H2O molecules to the n-doped ReS2 nanosheets. In addition to high sensitivity, the ReS2 sensors exhibit fast response/recovery time and excellent reversibility with minimal hysteresis. Moreover, our fabrication approach involving the direct (1-step) growth of the ReS2 films on an interdigitated electrode (without any transfer using wet chemistry or lithography) greatly simplifies the device architecture and has important practical benefits for the low-cost and scalable deployment of such sensor devices.

  6. Non-invasive long-term and real-time analysis of endocrine cells on micro-electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Raoux, Matthieu; Bornat, Yannick; Quotb, Adam; Catargi, Bogdan; Renaud, Sylvie; Lang, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive high-throughput and long-term monitoring of endocrine cells is important for drug research, phenotyping, tissue engineering and pre-transplantation quality control. Here we report a novel approach to obtain simultaneous long-term electrical recordings of different islet cell types using multi-electrode arrays. We implemented wavelet transforms to resolve the low signal/noise ratio inherent to these measurements and extracted on-line a signature specific of cell activity. The architecture employed allows multiplexing a large number of electrodes for high-throughput screening. This method should be of considerable advantage in endocrine research and may be extended to other excitable cells previously not accessible to the technique. PMID:22199167

  7. Conformable actively multiplexed high-density surface electrode array for brain interfacing

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, John; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Litt, Brian; Viventi, Jonathan

    2015-01-13

    Provided are methods and devices for interfacing with brain tissue, specifically for monitoring and/or actuation of spatio-temporal electrical waveforms. The device is conformable having a high electrode density and high spatial and temporal resolution. A conformable substrate supports a conformable electronic circuit and a barrier layer. Electrodes are positioned to provide electrical contact with a brain tissue. A controller monitors or actuates the electrodes, thereby interfacing with the brain tissue. In an aspect, methods are provided to monitor or actuate spatio-temporal electrical waveform over large brain surface areas by any of the devices disclosed herein.

  8. Wearable Sweatband Sensor Platform Based on Gold Nanodendrite Array as Efficient Solid Contact of Ion-Selective Electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuqi; Wu, Yongjin; Gu, Yang; Li, Tie; Luo, Hui; Li, Lian-Hui; Bai, Yuanyuan; Li, Lili; Liu, Lin; Cao, Yudong; Ding, Haiyan; Zhang, Ting

    2017-10-03

    As chemical sensors are in great demand for portable and wearable analytical applications, it is highly desirable to develop an all-solid-state ion-selective electrode (ISE) and reference electrode (RE) platform with simplicity and stability. Here we propose a wearable sensor platform with a new type of all-solid-state ISE based on a gold nanodendrite (AuND) array electrode as the solid contact and a poly(vinyl acetate)/inorganic salt (PVA/KCl) membrane-coated all-solid-state RE. A simple and controllable method was developed to fabricate the AuNDs on a microwell array patterned chip by one-step electrodeposition without additional processing. For the first time, the AuND electrodes with different real surface area and double layer capacitance were developed as solid contact of the Na(+)-ISE to investigate the relationship between performance of the ISE and surface area. As-prepared AuND-ISE with larger surface area (∼7.23 cm(2)) exhibited enhanced potential stability compared to those with smaller surface area (∼1.85 cm(2)) and to bare Au ISE. Important as the ISE, the PVA/KCl membrane-coated Ag/AgCl RE exhibited highly stable potential even after 3 months' storage. Finally, a wearable sweatband sensor platform was developed for efficient sweat collection and real-time analysis of sweat sodium during indoor exercise. This all-solid-state ISE and RE integrated sensor platform provided a very simple and reliable way to construct diverse portable and wearable devices for healthcare, sports, clinical diagnosis, and environmental analysis applications.

  9. Enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting from Si quantum dots/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays composite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhong; Cui, Xiaoli; Hao, Hongchen; Lu, Ming; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Si quantum dots were firstly applied to modify TiO{sub 2} nanotubes and enhanced visible light response was demonstrated for the resulted Si QDs/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. Si QDs are promising in photoelectrochemical water splitting and photocatalysis since their low cost, abundance and environmentally-friendliness. - Highlights: • A novel nanocomposite Si QDs/TiO{sub 2} nanotubes was fabricated and characterized. • Enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting was firstly demonstrated for Si QDs/TiO{sub 2}. • The visible light response of TiO{sub 2} increased with the presence of Si QDs. - Abstract: This work firstly introduced Si quantum dots (QDs) to modify TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays for photoelectrochemical water splitting. A systematic study using surface and optical characterization tools reveals the nature of the combination of Si QDs and TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that Si QDs were assembled on the surface of vertically aligned TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays. The UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicate the improved visible light absorbance. The enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting was demonstrated under visible light illumination and the photocurrent density was 1.6 times larger than that of pristine TiO{sub 2} electrodes. Electrochemical impedance behavior was measured for the electrodes and the impedance is slightly reduced for the nanocomposite electrode with the presence of Si QDs. This work demonstrated that Si QDs would be a novel and effective choice for improving the utilization of visible light for TiO{sub 2} nanotubes.

  10. Insertion characteristics and placement of the Mid-Scala electrode array in human temporal bones using detailed cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Aarno; Gazibegovic, Dzemal; Tervaniemi, Jyrki; Vartiainen, Veli-Matti; Löppönen, Heikki

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the insertion results and placement of the new Advanced Bionics HiFocus Mid-Scala (HFms) electrode array, inserted through the round window membrane, in eight fresh human temporal bones using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Pre- and post-insertion CBCT scans were registered to create a 3D reconstruction of the cochlea with the array inserted. With an image fusion technique both the bony edges of the cochlea and the electrode array in situ could accurately be determined, thus enabling to identify the exact position of the electrode array within the scala tympani. Vertical and horizontal scalar location was measured at four points along the cochlea base at an angular insertion depth of 90°, 180° and 270° and at electrode 16, the most basal electrode. Smooth insertion through the round window membrane was possible in all temporal bones. The imaging results showed that there were no dislocations from the scala tympani into the scala vestibule. The HFms electrode was positioned in the middle of the scala along the whole electrode array in three out of the eight bones and in 62 % of the individual locations measured along the base of the cochlea. In only one cochlea a close proximity of the electrode with the basilar membrane was observed, indicating possible contact with the basilar membrane. The results and assessments presented in this study appear to be highly accurate. Although a further validation including histopathology is needed, the image fusion technique described in this study represents currently the most accurate method for intracochlear electrode assessment obtainable with CBCT.

  11. Array-antenna-electrode electro-optic modulators for millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Hiroshi; Inoue, Toshiyuki; Matsukawa, Yuuki; Aya, Hironori; Ikeda, Takashi; Okamura, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    We have proposed and developed array-antenna-electrode electro-optic (EO) LiNbO3 modulators to convert wireless millimeter-wave signals to optical signals. In particular, by introducing polarization-reversed structures in the LiNbO3 crystal/film of the device substrate, the advanced functions of discrimination between space-division-multiplexed (SDM) wireless signals and generation of optical single-sideband (SSB) modulation signals are obtainable. In this paper, newly developed EO modulators operating in the 60 GHz band are presented. Applications to up-links in fifth generation (5G) mobile communication systems are also discussed.

  12. Redox cycling with facing interdigitated array electrodes as a method for selective detection of redox species.

    PubMed

    Dam, V A T; Olthuis, W; van den Berg, A

    2007-04-01

    A pair of interdigitated ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs) is used to electrochemically detect a weak reductor (dopamine) in the presence of a stronger one (K(4)[Fe(CN)(6)]). In the mixture of both reductors, one of the two interdigitated electrodes (the generator electrode) is used to oxidize both species at 700 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, followed by subsequent (selective) reduction of the oxidized dopamine at 400 mV. A regenerated dopamine molecule can thus be oxidized several times (redox cycling) and enable selective detection even in the presence of the stronger reductor. In order to obtain high redox cycling efficiency, we designed and realized platinum electrodes with widths of 2 and 4 microm and spacing of 2 microm, which gave redox cycling efficiencies of 9 and 4 respectively. Using this electrode design, a dopamine/K(4)[Fe(CN)(6)] selectivity of 2 could be obtained.

  13. Planar multi-electrode array sensor for localized electrochemical corrosion detection

    DOEpatents

    Tormoen, Garth William; Brossia, Christopher Sean

    2014-01-07

    A planarized type of coupled multi-electrode corrosion sensing device. Electrode pads are fabricated on a thin backing, such as a thin film. Each pad has an associated electrical lead for connection to auxiliary electronic circuitry, which may include a resistor associated with each electrical pad. The design permits the device to be easily placed in small crevices or under coatings such as paint.

  14. Binary cobalt ferrite nanomesh arrays as the advanced binder-free electrode for applications in oxygen evolution reaction and supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; Zhang, Huijuan; Mu, Yanping; Bai, Yuanjuan; Wang, Yu

    2016-09-01

    The porous CoFe2O4nanomesh arrays are successfully synthesized on nickel foam substrate through a high temperature and pressure hydrothermal method, following by the thermal post-treatment in air. The CoFe2O4 nanomesh arrays own numerous pores and large specific surface area, which is in favor of exposing more active sites. In consideration of the structural preponderances and versatility of the materials, the CoFe2O4 nanomesh arrays have been researched as the binder-free electrode materials for electrocatalysis and supercapacitors. When the CoFe2O4nanomesh arrays on nickel foam (CoFe2O4 NM-As/Ni) directly act as the free-binder catalyst toward catalyzing the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of electrochemical water splitting, CoFe2O4 NM-As/Ni exhibits an admirable OER property with a low onset potential of 1.47 V(corresponding to the onset overpotential of 240 mV), a minimal overpotential (η10 = 253 mV), a small Tafel slope (44 mV dec-1), large anodic currents and long-term durability for 35 h in alkaline media. In addition, as an electrode of supercapacitors, CoFe2O4 NM-As/Ni obtains a desired specific capacitance (1426 F/g at the current density of 1 A/g), remarkable rate capability (1024 F/g at the current density of 20 A/g) and eminent capacitance retention (92.6% after 3000 cycles). The above results demonstrate the CoFe2O4 NM-As/Ni possesses great potential application in electrocatalysis and supercapacitors.

  15. Presence and consequence of tooth periapical radiolucency in patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Grønkjær, Lea Ladegaard; Holmstrup, Palle; Schou, Søren; Schwartz, Kristoffer; Kongstad, Johanne; Jepsen, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Background Periapical radiolucency is the radiographic sign of inflammatory bone lesions around the apex of the tooth. We determined the prevalence and predictors of periapical radiolucency in patients with cirrhosis and the association with systemic inflammation status and cirrhosis-related complications. Methods A total of 110 cirrhosis patients were consecutively enrolled. Periapical radiolucency was defined as the presence of radiolucency or widening of the periapical periodontal ligament space to more than twice the normal width. Predictors of periapical radiolucency and the association with systemic inflammation markers and cirrhosis-related complications were explored by univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results Periapical radiolucency was present in one or more teeth in 46% of the patients. Strong predictors were gross caries (odds ratio [OR] 3.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43–6.79) and severe periodontitis (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.04–15.20). Also old age (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01–1.19) and smoking (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.02–17.62) were predictors. However, cirrhosis etiology (alcoholic vs nonalcoholic) or severity (Model of End-Stage Liver Disease score) were not predictors. The patients with periapical radiolucency had higher C-reactive protein (15.8 mg/L vs 8.1 mg/L, P=0.02) and lower albumin contents (25 g/L vs 28 g/L, P=0.04) than those without. Furthermore, the patients with periapical radiolucency had a higher prevalence of cirrhosis-related complications such as ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, and/or variceal bleeding (46% vs 27%, P=0.05). Conclusion Periapical radiolucency is often present as an element of poor oral health status and likely has an adverse clinical significance, which should motivate diagnostic and clinical attention to the findings. PMID:27695370

  16. Histopathologic Changes of the Inner ear in Rhesus Monkeys After Intratympanic Gentamicin Injection and Vestibular Prosthesis Electrode Array Implantation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Daniel Q; Lehar, Mohamed; Dai, Chenkai; Swarthout, Lani; Lauer, Amanda M; Carey, John P; Mitchell, Diana E; Cullen, Kathleen E; Della Santina, Charles C

    2015-06-01

    Bilateral vestibular deficiency (BVD) due to gentamicin ototoxicity can significantly impact quality of life and result in large socioeconomic burdens. Restoring sensation of head rotation using an implantable multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) is a promising treatment approach that has been tested in animals and humans. However, uncertainty remains regarding the histopathologic effects of gentamicin ototoxicity alone or in combination with electrode implantation. Understanding these histological changes is important because selective MVP-driven stimulation of semicircular canals (SCCs) depends on persistence of primary afferent innervation in each SCC crista despite both the primary cause of BVD (e.g., ototoxic injury) and surgical trauma associated with MVP implantation. Retraction of primary afferents out of the cristae and back toward Scarpa's ganglion would render spatially selective stimulation difficult to achieve and could limit utility of an MVP that relies on electrodes implanted in the lumen of each ampulla. We investigated histopathologic changes of the inner ear associated with intratympanic gentamicin (ITG) injection and/or MVP electrode array implantation in 11 temporal bones from six rhesus macaque monkeys. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained 10-μm temporal bone sections were examined under light microscopy for four treatment groups: normal (three ears), ITG-only (two ears), MVP-only (two ears), and ITG + MVP (four ears). We estimated vestibular hair cell (HC) surface densities for each sensory neuroepithelium and compared findings across end organs and treatment groups. In ITG-only, MVP-only, and ITG + MVP ears, we observed decreased but persistent ampullary nerve fibers of SCC cristae despite ITG treatment and/or MVP electrode implantation. ITG-only and ITG + MVP ears exhibited neuroepithelial thinning and loss of type I HCs in the cristae but little effect on the maculae. MVP-only and ITG + MVP ears exhibited no signs of trauma to the cochlea or

  17. Insertion forces and intracochlear trauma in temporal bone specimens implanted with a straight atraumatic electrode array.

    PubMed

    Mirsalehi, Marjan; Rau, Thomas S; Harbach, Lenka; Hügl, Silke; Mohebbi, Saleh; Lenarz, Thomas; Majdani, Omid

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate insertion forces during manual insertion of a straight atraumatic electrode in human temporal bones, and post-implantation histologic evaluation of the samples to determine whether violation of intracochlear structures is related to insertion forces. In order to minimize intracochlear trauma and preserve residual hearing during cochlear implantation, knowledge of the insertion forces is necessary. Ten fresh frozen human temporal bones were prepared with canal wall down mastoidectomy. All samples were mounted on a one-axis force sensor. Insertion of a 16-mm straight atraumatic electrode was performed from different angles to induce "traumatic" insertion. Histologic evaluation was performed in order to evaluate intracochlear trauma. In 4 of 10 samples, dislocation of the electrode into scala vestibuli was observed. The mean insertion force for all 10 procedures was 0.003 ± 0.005 N. Insertion forces measured around the site of dislocation to scala vestibuli in 3 of 4 samples were significantly higher than insertion forces at the same location of the cochleae measured in samples without trauma (p < 0.04). Mean force during the whole insertion process of the straight atraumatic electrode is lower than reported by other studies using longer electrodes. Based on our study, insertion forces leading to basilar membrane trauma may be lower than the previously reported direct rupture forces.

  18. Generation of large-scale, barrier-free diffuse plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure using array wire electrodes and nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee; Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Lun; Liu, Minghai

    2014-10-01

    This paper introduces a method to generate large-scale diffuse plasmas by using a repetition nanosecond pulse generator and a parallel array wire-electrode configuration. We investigated barrier-free diffuse plasmas produced in the open air in parallel and cross-parallel array line-line electrode configurations. We found that, when the distance between the wire-electrode pair is small, the discharges were almost extinguished. Also, glow-like diffuse plasmas with little discharge weakening were obtained in an appropriate range of line-line distances and with a cathode-grounding cross-electrode configuration. As an example, we produced a large-scale, stable diffuse plasma with volumes as large as 18 × 15 × 15 cm3, and this discharge region can be further expanded. Additionally, using optical and electrical measurements, we showed that the electron temperature was higher than the gas temperature, which was almost the same as room temperature. Also, an array of electrode configuration with more wire electrodes had helped to prevent the transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge. Comparing the current waveforms of configurations with 1 cell and 9 cells, we found that adding cells significantly increased the conduction current and the electrical energy delivered in the electrode gaps.

  19. Generation of large-scale, barrier-free diffuse plasmas in air at atmospheric pressure using array wire electrodes and nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, Yun; Li, Lee Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Lun; Liu, Minghai

    2014-10-15

    This paper introduces a method to generate large-scale diffuse plasmas by using a repetition nanosecond pulse generator and a parallel array wire-electrode configuration. We investigated barrier-free diffuse plasmas produced in the open air in parallel and cross-parallel array line-line electrode configurations. We found that, when the distance between the wire-electrode pair is small, the discharges were almost extinguished. Also, glow-like diffuse plasmas with little discharge weakening were obtained in an appropriate range of line-line distances and with a cathode-grounding cross-electrode configuration. As an example, we produced a large-scale, stable diffuse plasma with volumes as large as 18 × 15 × 15 cm{sup 3}, and this discharge region can be further expanded. Additionally, using optical and electrical measurements, we showed that the electron temperature was higher than the gas temperature, which was almost the same as room temperature. Also, an array of electrode configuration with more wire electrodes had helped to prevent the transition from diffuse discharge to arc discharge. Comparing the current waveforms of configurations with 1 cell and 9 cells, we found that adding cells significantly increased the conduction current and the electrical energy delivered in the electrode gaps.

  20. Ultrasound in differential diagnosis of periapical radiolucencies: A radiohistopathological study

    PubMed Central

    Khambete, Neha; Kumar, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound in differential diagnosis of periapical radiolucencies. Materials and Methods: Ten patients aged between 19 years and 40 years with periapical lesions associated with anterior maxillary or mandibular teeth were selected and consented for the study. Pre-operative periapical radiographs were obtained. Measurements and provisional diagnoses of the apical areas were made by two specialist observers on two separate occasions. Preoperative ultrasound examinations with Doppler flowmetry were then performed and the images assessed by two specialist observers for the size, contents, vascular supply and a provisional diagnosis made as to whether the lesion was a cyst or granuloma. Endodontic surgery was performed including curettage of the apical tissues to enable histopathological investigation, which provided the gold standard diagnosis. All measurements and findings were compared and statistically analyzed. Results: Total 10 lesions were identified in 10 patients. On periapical radiographs, lesions were readily identified but observers were unable to differentiate granuloma from cyst using either modality. Where sufficient buccal cortical bone had been resorbed, ultrasound imaging was simple but underestimated the size of the lesions compared with periapical radiographs. In all cases, the ultrasound diagnosis agreed with the histopathological gold standard. Conclusion: Ultrasonography (USG) can provide accurate information about the nature of intraosseous lesions of the jaws before any surgical procedure. It is proposed that USG with Doppler flowmetry can provide an additional diagnostic tool without invasive surgery, where treatment option is nonsurgical. PMID:25657525

  1. PARAMETERS IN PANORAMIC RADIOGRAPHY FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF RADIOLUCENT LESIONS

    PubMed Central

    Raitz, Ricardo; Assunção, José Narciso Rosa; Correa, Luciana; Fenyo-Pereira, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aims of this study were to establish parameters in panoramic radiography for interpretation of unilocular radiolucent lesions, and to compare the accuracy of diagnoses given by examiners before and after using these parameters. Material and Methods: In Part I, 12 specialists analyzed 24 images and the diagnostic criteria used by each examiner to make correct diagnoses were used to build a list of basic radiographic parameters for each pathology (ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, dentigerous cyst, and idiopathic bone cavity). In Part II, this list was used by 6 undergraduate students (Un), 8 recently graduated dentists (D), 3 oral pathologists, 3 stomatologists, 3 oral radiologists, and 3 oral surgeons to diagnose the corresponding pathologies in the other set of 24 panoramic radiographs (T2). The same analysis occurred without using this list (T1). The method of generalized estimating equations (GEE) was used in order to estimate the probability of making a correct diagnosis depending on the specialty of the examiner, type of lesion, and moment of the evaluation, T1 or T2 (before or after they had access to the list of parameters, respectively). Results: Higher values were obtained for the probability (GEE) of making a correct diagnosis on T2; the group Un presented the highest improvement (14.6 %); no differences between the probabilities were observed either between Un and D, or among the different groups of specialists. Conclusions: The use of panoramic radiographic parameters did allow improving the diagnostic accuracy for all groups of examiners. PMID:19936512

  2. Branched zinc oxide nanorods arrays modified paper electrode for electrochemical immunosensing by combining biocatalytic precipitation reaction and competitive immunoassay mode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoqiang; Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Jinghua; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2015-12-15

    Branched zinc oxide nanorods (BZR) arrays, an array with high charge carries collection efficiency and specific surface area, are grown on the reduced graphene oxide-paper working electrode for the first time to construct a paper-based electrochemical (EC) immunosensor. Typically, the BZR are fabricated via a simple hydrothermal process, which can provide abundant sites for antibodies loading. By combining the large surface area of porous zinc oxide (PZS) and good biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), PZS-AuNPs (PZS@Au) nanocomposites are designed to label horseradish peroxide (HRP) and antigens. After a competitive reaction between antigens and PZS@Au nanocomposites labeled antigens, the signal labels are introduced into the immunosensor, in which, HRP participate in biocatalytic precipitation process. The produced precipitate reduces the electrode surface area and hinders the electron transfer. With the increase of concentration of antigens, the signal labels introduced into the sensor decrease, thus, a signal-on immunoassay for α-fetoprotein detection is constructed. The proposed paper-based EC immunosensor combines enzymatic biocatalytic precipitation reaction and competitive immunoassay mode for the first time, and possesses a wide linear range from 0.2 pg mL(-1) to 500 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.08 pg mL(-1). In addition, the proposed method is simple, sensitive and specific and can be a promising platform for other protein detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Virus enabled 3d nano-array electrodes for integrated Lithium/Sodium-ion microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yihang

    Multilayers of functional materials (carbon/electrode/nickel) were hierarchically architectured over tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) templates that were genetically modified to self-assemble in a vertical manner on current-collectors for battery applications. The spaces formed between individual rods effectively accommodated the volume expansion and contraction of electrodes during charge/discharge, while surface carbon coating engineered over these nanorods further enhance the electronic conductivity. The microbattery based on self aligned nanoforests with precise arrangement of various auxiliary material layers including a central nanometric metal core as direct electronic pathway to current collector, can deliver high energy density and stable cycling stability. C/LiFePO4/Ni/TMV nanoforest cathodes for Li-ion batteries and C/Sn/Ni/TMV nanoforest anodes for Na-ion batteries were assembled using physical sputtering deposition. Both 3D nanoforest electrodes show exceptional cycling stability and rate capability.

  4. Detection of hormone active chemicals using genetically engineered yeast cells and microfluidic devices with interdigitated array electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ino, Kosuke; Kitagawa, Yusuke; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Shiku, Hitoshi; Koide, Masahiro; Itayama, Tomoaki; Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2009-10-01

    Endocrine disruptors that act like hormones in the endocrine system might have toxic effects. Therefore, it is important to develop a portable device that can detect hormone active chemicals in samples rapidly and easily. In this study, a microfluidic device was developed for the detection of hormone active chemicals using genetically engineered yeast cells. The yeast cells were used as biosensors since they were genetically engineered to respond to the presence of hormone active chemicals by synthesizing beta-galactosidase (beta-gal). For achieving further sensitivity, we incorporated interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes (width, 1.2 microm; gap, 0.8 microm) with 40 electrode fingers into the analytical chamber of the microfluidic device. The yeast cells precultured with a hormone active chemical, 17beta-estradiol (E2), were trapped from the main channel of the device to the analytical camber by electrophoresis. After trapping in the analytical chamber, we performed electrochemical detection of beta-gal induced in the yeast cells with the IDA electrodes. Actually, electrochemical detection was performed on p-aminophenol that was converted from p-aminophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside with beta-gal. The electrochemical signals from the yeast cells precultured with 17beta-estradiol were successfully detected with the device. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of antagonists such as tamoxifen were also detected electrochemically by using the device. Thus, the present microfluidic device can be used for highly sensitive detection of hormone active chemicals.

  5. Development of advanced catalytic layer based on vertically aligned conductive polymer arrays for thin-film fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shangfeng; Yi, Baolian; Cao, Longsheng; Song, Wei; Zhao, Qing; Yu, Hongmei; Shao, Zhigang

    2016-10-01

    The degradation of carbon supports significantly influences the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), particularly in the cathode, which must be overcome for the wide application of fuel cells. In this study, advanced catalytic layer with electronic conductive polymer-polypyrrole (PPy) nanowire as ordered catalyst supports for PEMFCs is prepared. A platinum-palladium (PtPd) catalyst thin layer with whiskerette shapes forms along the long axis of the PPy nanowires. The resulting arrays are hot-pressed on both sides of a Nafion® membrane to construct a membrane electrode assembly (without additional ionomer). The ordered thin catalyst layer (approximately 1.1 μm) is applied in a single cell as the anode and the cathode without additional Nafion® ionomer. The single cell yields a maximum performance of 762.1 mW cm-2 with a low Pt loading (0.241 mg Pt cm-2, anode + cathode). The advanced catalyst layer indicates better mass transfer in high current density than that of commercial Pt/C-based electrode. The mass activity is 1.08-fold greater than that of DOE 2017 target. Thus, the as-prepared electrodes have the potential for application in fuel cells.

  6. Lift-Off Free Fabrication Approach for Periodic Structures with Tunable Nano Gaps for Interdigitated Electrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Partel, Stefan; Dincer, Can; Kasemann, Stephan; Kieninger, Jochen; Edlinger, Johannes; Urban, Gerald

    2016-01-26

    We report a simple, low-cost and lift-off free fabrication approach for periodic structures with adjustable nanometer gaps for interdigitated electrode arrays (IDAs). It combines an initial structure and two deposition process steps; first a dielectric layer is deposited, followed by a metal evaporation. The initial structure can be realized by lithography or any other structuring technique (e.g., nano imprint, hot embossing or injection molding). This method allows the fabrication of nanometer sized gaps and completely eliminates the need for a lift-off process. Different substrate materials like silicon, Pyrex or polymers can be used. The electrode gap is controlled primarily by sputter deposition of the initial structure, and thus, adjustable gaps in the nanometer range can be realized independently of the mask or stamp pattern. Electrochemical characterizations using redox cycling in ferrocenemethanol (FcMeOH) demonstrate signal amplification factors of more than 110 together with collection factors higher than 99%. Furthermore, the correlation between the gap width and the amplification factor was studied to obtain an electrochemical performance assessment of the nano gap electrodes. The results demonstrate an exponential relationship between amplification factor and gap width.

  7. Force measurement of insertion of cochlear implant electrode arrays in-vitro: Comparison of surgeon to automated insertion tool

    PubMed Central

    Majdani, O; Hussong, A; Rau, TS; Wittkopf, J; Lenarz, T; Labadie, RF

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions We have demonstrated that an automated insertion tool (a.k.a. robot) can be used to duplicate a complex surgical motion in inserting cochlear implant electrode arrays via the “advance-off-stylet” technique (AOS). As compared to human operators, the forces generated by the robot were slightly larger but the robot was more reliable (i.e. less force maxima). Objectives We present force data collected during cochlear implant electrode insertion by human operators and by an automated insertion tool (a.k.a. robot). Methods Using a three-dimensional, anatomically-correct, translucent model of the scala tympani chamber of the cochlea, cochlear implant electrodes were inserted either by one of three surgeons (26 insertions) or by the robotic insertion tool (8 insertions). Force was recorded using a load beam cell calibrated for expected forces of less than 0.1 Newtons. The insertions were also videotaped to allow correlation of force with depth of penetration into the cochlea and speed of insertion. Results Average insertion force by the surgeons was 0.004±0.001N and for the insertion tool 0.005±0.014N (p < 0.00001, Student’s t-test). While the average insertion force of the automated tool was larger than that of the surgeons, the surgeons did have intermittent peaks during the AOS component of the insertion (between 120° and 200°). PMID:19484593

  8. Highly catalytic and stabilized titanium nitride nanowire array-decorated graphite felt electrodes for all vanadium redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, L.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Jiang, H. R.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we prepare a highly catalytic and stabilized titanium nitride (TiN) nanowire array-decorated graphite felt electrode for all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). Free-standing TiN nanowires are synthesized by a two-step process, in which TiO2 nanowires are first grown onto the surface of graphite felt via a seed-assisted hydrothermal method and then converted to TiN through nitridation reaction. When applied to VRFBs, the prepared electrode enables the electrolyte utilization and energy efficiency to be 73.9% and 77.4% at a high current density of 300 mA cm-2, which are correspondingly 43.3% and 15.4% higher than that of battery assembled with a pristine electrode. More impressively, the present battery exhibits good stability and high capacity retention during the cycle test. The superior performance is ascribed to the significant improvement in the electrochemical kinetics and enlarged active sites toward V3+/V2+ redox reaction.

  9. Fabrication of Carbon-Platinum Interdigitated Array Electrodes and Their Application for Investigating Homogeneous Hydrogen Evolution Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fei; Divan, Ralu; Parkinson, Bruce A.

    2015-06-29

    Carbon interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes have been applied to study the homogeneous hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst [Ni(PPh2NBn2)2]2+ (where PPh2NBn2 is 1,5-dibenzyl-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane). The existence of reaction intermediates in the catalytic cycle is inferred from the electrochemical behavior of a glassy carbon disk electrodes and carbon IDA electrodes. The currents on IDA electrodes for an EC’ (electron transfer reaction followed by a catalytic reaction) mechanism are derived from the number of redox cycles and the contribution of non-catalytic currents. The catalytic reaction rate constant was then extracted from the IDA current equations. Applying the IDA current and kinetic equations to the electrochemical response of the [Ni(PPh2NBn2)2]2+ catalyst yielded a rate constant of 0.10 s-1 for the hydrogen evolution reaction that agrees with the literature value. The quantitative analysis of IDA cyclic voltammetry can be used as a simple and straightforward method for determining rate constants in other catalytic systems. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE. Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Potentially Radiolucent Projectile Components by Radiographs and Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Miller, Catherine R; Haag, Michael; Gerrard, Chandra; Hatch, Gary M; Elifritz, Jamie; Simmons, Michael C; Lathrop, Sarah; Nolte, Kurt B

    2016-11-01

    Projectile components that are traditionally radiolucent can be of considerable importance in determination of weapon type and caliber, but they are often missed on evaluation of postmortem radiographs. We hypothesized that these components would be significantly better visualized by evaluation of computed tomography (CT) scans compared to the practice standard of radiography alone. In this project, potentially radiolucent projectile components were both pulled apart and fired, and the radiolucent components were recovered. These components were embedded in blocks of ballistics gelatin and were imaged using both radiography and CT. The scans were evaluated by three blinded, board-certified radiologists for the presence/absence of projectile components and true-negative regions in each block. If a radiologist indicated visualization of a projectile component, they were further requested to describe their observation. It was found that traditionally radiolucent projectile components are not significantly more often identified on CT scans than radiography (p < 0.05).

  11. New approaches to eliminating common-noise artifacts in recordings from intracortical microelectrode arrays: inter-electrode correlation and virtual referencing

    PubMed Central

    Paralikar, Kunal J; Rao, Chinmay R; Clement, Ryan S

    2009-01-01

    Intracortical microelectrode arrays record multi-unit extracellular activity for neurophysiology studies and for brain-machine interface applications. The common first step is neural spike detection; a process complicated by common-noise signals from motion artifacts, electromyographic activity, and electric field pickup, especially in awake/behaving subjects. Often common-noise spikes are very similar to neural spikes in their magnitude, spectral, and temporal features. Provided sufficient spacing exists between electrodes of the array, a local neural spike is rarely recorded on multiple electrodes simultaneously. This is not true for distant common-noise sources. Two new techniques compatible with standard spike detection schemes are introduced and evaluated. The first method, virtual referencing (VR), takes the average recording from all functional electrodes in the array (represents the signal from a virtual electrode at the array's center) and subtracts it from the test electrode signal. The second method, inter-electrode correlation (IEC), computes a correlation coefficient between threshold exceeding candidate spike segments on the test electrode and concurrent segments from remaining electrodes. When sufficient correlation is detected, the candidate spike is rejected as originating from a distant common-noise source. The performance of these algorithms was compared with standard thresholding and differential referencing approaches using neural recordings from unanaesthetized rats. By evaluating characteristics of mean-spike waveforms generated by each method under different levels of common-noise, it was found that IEC consistently offered the most robust means of neural spike-detection. Furthermore, IEC's rejection of supra-threshold events not likely originating from local neurons significantly reduces data handling for downstream spike sorting and processing operations. PMID:19394363

  12. New approaches to eliminating common-noise artifacts in recordings from intracortical microelectrode arrays: inter-electrode correlation and virtual referencing.

    PubMed

    Paralikar, Kunal J; Rao, Chinmay R; Clement, Ryan S

    2009-06-30

    Intracortical microelectrode arrays record multi-unit extracellular activity for neurophysiology studies and for brain-machine interface applications. The common first step is neural spike-detection; a process complicated by common-noise signals from motion artifacts, electromyographic activity, and electric field pickup, especially in awake/behaving subjects. Often common-noise spikes are very similar to neural spikes in their magnitude, spectral, and temporal features. Provided sufficient spacing exists between electrodes of the array, a local neural spike is rarely recorded on multiple electrodes simultaneously. This is not true for distant common-noise sources. Two new techniques compatible with standard spike-detection schemes are introduced and evaluated. The first method, virtual referencing (VR), takes the average recording from all functional electrodes in the array (represents the signal from a virtual-electrode at the array's center) and subtracts it from the test electrode signal. The second method, inter-electrode correlation (IEC), computes a correlation coefficient between threshold exceeding candidate spike segments on the test electrode and concurrent segments from remaining electrodes. When sufficient correlation is detected, the candidate spike is rejected as originating from a distant common-noise source. The performance of these algorithms was compared with standard thresholding and differential referencing approaches using neural recordings from un-anaesthetized rats. By evaluating characteristics of mean-spike waveforms generated by each method under different levels of common-noise, it was found that IEC consistently offered the most robust means of neural spike-detection. Furthermore, IEC's rejection of supra-threshold events not likely originating from local neurons significantly reduces data handling for downstream spike sorting and processing operations.

  13. Application of neural networks with novel independent component analysis methodologies to a Prussian blue modified glassy carbon electrode array.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Yang, Die; Fang, Cheng; Chen, Zuliang; Lesniewski, Peter J; Mallavarapu, Megharaj; Naidu, Ravendra

    2015-01-01

    Sodium potassium absorption ratio (SPAR) is an important measure of agricultural water quality, wherein four exchangeable cations (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) should be simultaneously determined. An ISE-array is suitable for this application because its simplicity, rapid response characteristics and lower cost. However, cross-interferences caused by the poor selectivity of ISEs need to be overcome using multivariate chemometric methods. In this paper, a solid contact ISE array, based on a Prussian blue modified glassy carbon electrode (PB-GCE), was applied with a novel chemometric strategy. One of the most popular independent component analysis (ICA) methods, the fast fixed-point algorithm for ICA (fastICA), was implemented by the genetic algorithm (geneticICA) to avoid the local maxima problem commonly observed with fastICA. This geneticICA can be implemented as a data preprocessing method to improve the prediction accuracy of the Back-propagation neural network (BPNN). The ISE array system was validated using 20 real irrigation water samples from South Australia, and acceptable prediction accuracies were obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Single-cell recording and stimulation with a 16k micro-nail electrode array integrated on a 0.18 μm CMOS chip.

    PubMed

    Huys, Roeland; Braeken, Dries; Jans, Danny; Stassen, Andim; Collaert, Nadine; Wouters, Jan; Loo, Josine; Severi, Simone; Vleugels, Frank; Callewaert, Geert; Verstreken, Kris; Bartic, Carmen; Eberle, Wolfgang

    2012-04-07

    To cope with the growing needs in research towards the understanding of cellular function and network dynamics, advanced micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) based on integrated complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits have been increasingly reported. Although such arrays contain a large number of sensors for recording and/or stimulation, the size of the electrodes on these chips are often larger than a typical mammalian cell. Therefore, true single-cell recording and stimulation remains challenging. Single-cell resolution can be obtained by decreasing the size of the electrodes, which inherently increases the characteristic impedance and noise. Here, we present an array of 16,384 active sensors monolithically integrated on chip, realized in 0.18 μm CMOS technology for recording and stimulation of individual cells. Successful recording of electrical activity of cardiac cells with the chip, validated with intracellular whole-cell patch clamp recordings are presented, illustrating single-cell readout capability. Further, by applying a single-electrode stimulation protocol, we could pace individual cardiac cells, demonstrating single-cell addressability. This novel electrode array could help pave the way towards solving complex interactions of mammalian cellular networks. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  15. Preparation and photoelectrocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods embedded in highly ordered TiO(2) nanotube arrays electrode for azo dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonghai; Yuan, Yuan; Liang, Linhong; Cheng, Yuxiao; Shi, Guoyue; Jin, Litong

    2008-10-30

    In this article, the ZnO nanorods embedded in highly ordered TiO(2) nanotube arrays (ZnO/TiO(2) NR/Ts) electrodes were fabricated through two steps: (1) electrosynthesis of TiO(2) nanotube arrays (TiO(2) NTs) in HF solution by anodization method; (2) followed by cathodic electrodeposition of ZnO embedded in the TiO(2) nanotube arrays. The morphological characteristics and structures of ZnO/TiO(2) NR/Ts electrodes were examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and UV-vis spectra. The linear-sweep photovoltammetry response on the ZnO/TiO(2) NR/Ts electrode was presented and the photocurrent was dramatically enhanced on the ZnO/TiO(2) NR/Ts electrode, comparing with that on bare TiO(2) NTs electrode. The photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic activity of ZnO/TiO(2) NR/Ts electrode was evaluated in degradation of methyl orange (MO) in aqueous solution.

  16. Multiple periradicular radiolucencies mimicking endodontic lesions in renal osteodystrophy of the mandible: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jalali, P; Kim, S G

    2016-07-01

    To report a finding of multiple periapical radiolucencies mimicking endodontic lesions in a patient with renal osteodystrophy of the mandible. A 47-year-old woman was referred by her general dentist to the postgraduate endodontic clinic for assessment and root canal treatment of multiple teeth with associated periapical radiolucencies. The patient's medical history included chronic renal failure. All mandibular teeth with periapical radiolucencies except tooth 37 had positive responses to pulp sensibility testing. A diagnosis of pulpal necrosis and associated periapical periodontitis was made on tooth 37, and root canal treatment was carried out. To determine the possible relationship between the patient's renal disease and the multiple periapical radiolucencies, an additional physician consultation and laboratory tests were requested. Secondary hyperparathyroidism was confirmed with the laboratory report showing an elevated level of parathyroid hormone and a normal serum calcium level. Renal osteodystrophy of the mandible caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism was the probable aetiology of the multiple mandibular periapical radiolucencies, and no root canal treatment was required. Key learning points Renal osteodystrophy of the mandible caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism can present as multiple periapical radiolucencies but is a rare finding. Diverse orofacial manifestations such as loss of lamina dura, widening of periodontal ligament and demineralization of bone can be observed in renal osteodystrophy. Thorough clinical and radiographic assessment along with the review of patient's medical history and haematological analysis is essential for the diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Metal-Organic Coaxial Nanowire Array Electrodes Combining Large Energy Capacity and High Rate Capability.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hideyuki; Kikuta, Ikuo; Segawa, Hiroyo; Kawabata, Yuto; Kishida, Reiko; Norisuye, Tomohisa; Tran-Cong-Miyata, Qui

    2017-02-22

    Pseudocapacitors have been widely studied in the context of their potential applications in portable electronics and energy regeneration. However, the internal resistance within these devices hampers charge transport and limits their performance. As a result, maximum charge/discharge rates are typically limited to a few hundred mV s(-1) for pseudocapacitors. Beyond this limit, capacitance rapidly decreases and devices become incapable of storing energy. Here, we design electrodes in which coaxial nanowires made of highly conductive metal cores and pseudocapacitive organic shells are fabricated into a seamless, monolithic, and vertically aligned structure. The design of this structure reduces its internal resistance, and devices fabricated using these electrodes exhibit excellent energy capacity even when charged/discharged at high rates of more than a few hundred mV s(-1) . The energy density obtained in these devices corresponds to the maximum energy density predicted by the Trasatti method, and the coaxial-nanowire structure of the electrodes enhances the charge storage capacity and rate capability simultaneously.

  18. Carbon nanotube array based sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Christopher L.; Noy, Aleksandr; Swierkowski, Stephan P.; Fisher, Karl A.; Woods, Bruce W.

    2005-09-20

    A sensor system comprising a first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and a second electrode. The first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode are positioned to produce an air gap between the first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode. A measuring device is provided for sensing changes in electrical capacitance between the first electrode with an array of carbon nanotubes and the second electrode.

  19. Insertion of linear 8.4 μm diameter 16 channel carbon fiber electrode arrays for single unit recordings.

    PubMed

    Patel, Paras R; Na, Kyounghwan; Zhang, Huanan; Kozai, Takashi D Y; Kotov, Nicholas A; Yoon, Euisik; Chestek, Cynthia A

    2015-08-01

    Single carbon fiber electrodes (d = 8.4 μm) insulated with parylene-c and functionalized with pTS have been shown to record single unit activity but manual implantation of these devices with forceps can be difficult. Without an improvement in the insertion method any increase in the channel count by fabricating carbon fiber arrays would be impractical. In this study, we utilize a water soluble coating and structural backbones that allow us to create, implant, and record from fully functionalized arrays of carbon fibers with ∼150 μm pitch. Two approaches were tested for the insertion of carbon fiber arrays. The first method used a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coating that temporarily stiffened the fibers while leaving a small portion at the tip exposed. The small exposed portion (500 μm-1 mm) readily penetrated the brain allowing for an insertion that did not require the handling of each fiber by forceps. The second method involved the fabrication of silicon support structures with individual shanks spaced 150 μm apart. Each shank consisted of a small groove that held an individual carbon fiber. Our results showed that the PEG coating allowed for the chronic implantation of carbon fiber arrays in five rats with unit activity detected at 31 days post-implant. The silicon support structures recorded single unit activity in three acute rat surgeries. In one of those surgeries a stacked device with three layers of silicon support structures and carbon fibers was built and shown to readily insert into the brain with unit activity on select sites. From these studies we have found that carbon fibers spaced at ∼150 μm readily insert into the brain. This greatly increases the recording density of chronic neural probes and paves the way for even higher density devices that have a minimal scarring response.

  20. Insertion of linear 8.4 μm diameter 16 channel carbon fiber electrode arrays for single unit recordings

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Paras R.; Na, Kyounghwan; Zhang, Huanan; Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Yoon, Euisik; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Single carbon fiber electrodes (d=8.4 μm) insulated with parylene-c and functionalized with PEDOT:pTS have been shown to record single unit activity but manual implantation of these devices with forceps can be difficult. Without an improvement in the insertion method any increase in the channel count by fabricating carbon fiber arrays would be impractical. In this study, we utilize a water soluble coating and structural backbones that allow us to create, implant, and record from fully functionalized arrays of carbon fibers with ~150 μm pitch. Approach Two approaches were tested for the insertion of carbon fiber arrays. The first method used a PEG coating that temporarily stiffened the fibers while leaving a small portion at the tip exposed. The small exposed portion (500 μm – 1 mm) readily penetrated the brain allowing for an insertion that did not require the handling of each fiber by forceps. The second method involved the fabrication of silicon support structures with individual shanks spaced 150 μm apart. Each shank consisted of a small groove that held an individual carbon fiber. Main results Our results showed that the PEG coating allowed for the chronic implantation of carbon fiber arrays in 5 rats with unit activity detected at 31 days post-implant. The silicon support structures recorded single unit activity in 3 acute rat surgeries. In one of those surgeries a stacked device with 3 layers of silicon support structures and carbon fibers was built and shown to readily insert into the brain with unit activity on select sites. Significance From these studies we have found that carbon fibers spaced at ~150 μm readily insert into the brain. This greatly increases the recording density of chronic neural probes and paves the way for even higher density devices that have a minimal scarring response. PMID:26035638

  1. Insertion of linear 8.4 μm diameter 16 channel carbon fiber electrode arrays for single unit recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Paras R.; Na, Kyounghwan; Zhang, Huanan; Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Yoon, Euisik; Chestek, Cynthia A.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Single carbon fiber electrodes (d = 8.4 μm) insulated with parylene-c and functionalized with PEDOT:pTS have been shown to record single unit activity but manual implantation of these devices with forceps can be difficult. Without an improvement in the insertion method any increase in the channel count by fabricating carbon fiber arrays would be impractical. In this study, we utilize a water soluble coating and structural backbones that allow us to create, implant, and record from fully functionalized arrays of carbon fibers with ˜150 μm pitch. Approach. Two approaches were tested for the insertion of carbon fiber arrays. The first method used a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coating that temporarily stiffened the fibers while leaving a small portion at the tip exposed. The small exposed portion (500 μm-1 mm) readily penetrated the brain allowing for an insertion that did not require the handling of each fiber by forceps. The second method involved the fabrication of silicon support structures with individual shanks spaced 150 μm apart. Each shank consisted of a small groove that held an individual carbon fiber. Main results. Our results showed that the PEG coating allowed for the chronic implantation of carbon fiber arrays in five rats with unit activity detected at 31 days post-implant. The silicon support structures recorded single unit activity in three acute rat surgeries. In one of those surgeries a stacked device with three layers of silicon support structures and carbon fibers was built and shown to readily insert into the brain with unit activity on select sites. Significance. From these studies we have found that carbon fibers spaced at ˜150 μm readily insert into the brain. This greatly increases the recording density of chronic neural probes and paves the way for even higher density devices that have a minimal scarring response.

  2. Automated lettuce nutrient solution management using an array of ion-selective electrodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Automated sensing and control of macronutrients in hydroponic solutions would allow more efficient management of nutrients for crop growth in closed systems. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a computer-controlled nutrient management system with an array of ion-selective electro...

  3. A large area nano-gap interdigitated electrode array on a polymer substrate as a disposable nano-biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Joon S.; Rust, Michael J.; Ahn, Chong H.

    2013-03-01

    A low-cost nano-gap interdigitated electrode array (IDA) on a polymer substrate has been developed to realize a disposable nano-biosensor for biochemical clinical analysis. Utilizing the common instruments for optical lithography, nano-scale features were fabricated on a thermoplastic polymer to produce an electrochemical nano-biosensor in a disposable format. The IDA was realized on a 3-inch cyclo-olefin copolymer wafer, which illustrates the utility of our fabrication technique as a large-area nanofabrication process for a polymer using low temperature processes. In order to demonstrate the use of the sensor for lab-on-a-chip applications, the developed IDA was integrated with a microfluidic channel and applied for the electrochemical detection of poly-aminophenol with 10-8 M detection limit. The results indicate the developed fabrication technique is suitable for the inexpensive mass fabrication of highly sensitive nano-biosensors for disposable applications.

  4. Development and characterization of a diamond-insulated graphitic multi electrode array realized with ion beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Carbone, Emilio; Croin, Luca; Enrico, Emanuele; Forneris, Jacopo; Gosso, Sara; Olivero, Paolo; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carabelli, Valentina

    2014-12-30

    The detection of quantal exocytic events from neurons and neuroendocrine cells is a challenging task in neuroscience. One of the most promising platforms for the development of a new generation of biosensors is diamond, due to its biocompatibility, transparency and chemical inertness. Moreover, the electrical properties of diamond can be turned from a perfect insulator into a conductive material (resistivity ~mΩ·cm) by exploiting the metastable nature of this allotropic form of carbon. A 16‑channels MEA (Multi Electrode Array) suitable for cell culture growing has been fabricated by means of ion implantation. A focused 1.2 MeV He+ beam was scanned on a IIa single-crystal diamond sample (4.5 × 4.5 × 0.5 mm3) to cause highly damaged sub-superficial structures that were defined with micrometric spatial resolution. After implantation, the sample was annealed. This process provides the conversion of the sub-superficial highly damaged regions to a graphitic phase embedded in a highly insulating diamond matrix. Thanks to a three-dimensional masking technique, the endpoints of the sub-superficial channels emerge in contact with the sample surface, therefore being available as sensing electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements of solutions with increasing concentrations of adrenaline were performed to characterize the biosensor sensitivity. The reported results demonstrate that this new type of biosensor is suitable for in vitro detection of catecholamine release.

  5. Commercialisation of CMOS Integrated Circuit Technology in Multi-Electrode Arrays for Neuroscience and Cell-Based Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Anthony H. D.; Robbins, Jon; Bowen, Chris R.; Taylor, John

    2011-01-01

    The adaptation of standard integrated circuit (IC) technology as a transducer in cell-based biosensors in drug discovery pharmacology, neural interface systems and electrophysiology requires electrodes that are electrochemically stable, biocompatible and affordable. Unfortunately, the ubiquitous Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) IC technology does not meet the first of these requirements. For devices intended only for research, modification of CMOS by post-processing using cleanroom facilities has been achieved. However, to enable adoption of CMOS as a basis for commercial biosensors, the economies of scale of CMOS fabrication must be maintained by using only low-cost post-processing techniques. This review highlights the methodologies employed in cell-based biosensor design where CMOS-based integrated circuits (ICs) form an integral part of the transducer system. Particular emphasis will be placed on the application of multi-electrode arrays for in vitro neuroscience applications. Identifying suitable IC packaging methods presents further significant challenges when considering specific applications. The various challenges and difficulties are reviewed and some potential solutions are presented. PMID:22163884

  6. Development and Characterization of a Diamond-Insulated Graphitic Multi Electrode Array Realized with Ion Beam Lithography

    PubMed Central

    Picollo, Federico; Battiato, Alfio; Carbone, Emilio; Croin, Luca; Enrico, Emanuele; Forneris, Jacopo; Gosso, Sara; Olivero, Paolo; Pasquarelli, Alberto; Carabelli, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The detection of quantal exocytic events from neurons and neuroendocrine cells is a challenging task in neuroscience. One of the most promising platforms for the development of a new generation of biosensors is diamond, due to its biocompatibility, transparency and chemical inertness. Moreover, the electrical properties of diamond can be turned from a perfect insulator into a conductive material (resistivity ∼mΩ·cm) by exploiting the metastable nature of this allotropic form of carbon. A 16-channels MEA (Multi Electrode Array) suitable for cell culture growing has been fabricated by means of ion implantation. A focused 1.2 MeV He+ beam was scanned on a IIa single-crystal diamond sample (4.5 × 4.5 × 0.5 mm3) to cause highly damaged sub-superficial structures that were defined with micrometric spatial resolution. After implantation, the sample was annealed. This process provides the conversion of the sub-superficial highly damaged regions to a graphitic phase embedded in a highly insulating diamond matrix. Thanks to a three-dimensional masking technique, the endpoints of the sub-superficial channels emerge in contact with the sample surface, therefore being available as sensing electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry and amperometry measurements of solutions with increasing concentrations of adrenaline were performed to characterize the biosensor sensitivity. The reported results demonstrate that this new type of biosensor is suitable for in vitro detection of catecholamine release. PMID:25558992

  7. CoS acicular nanorod arrays for the counter electrode of an efficient dye-sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Kung, Chung-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Wei; Lin, Chia-Yu; Huang, Kuan-Chieh; Vittal, R; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2012-08-28

    One-dimensional cobalt sulfide (CoS) acicular nanorod arrays (ANRAs) were obtained on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate by a two-step approach. First, Co(3)O(4) ANRAs were synthesized, and then they were converted to CoS ANRAs for various periods. The compositions of the films obtained after various conversion periods were verified by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectrophotometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; their morphologies were examined at different periods by scanning electron microscopic and transmission electron microscopic images. Electrocatalytic abilities of the films toward I(-)/I(3)(-) were verified through cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Tafel polarization curves. Long-term stability of the films in I(-)/I(3)(-) electrolyte was studied by CV. The FTO substrates with CoS ANRAs were used as the counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells; a maximum power conversion efficiency of 7.67% was achieved for a cell with CoS ANRAs, under 100 mW/cm(2), which is nearly the same as that of a cell with a sputtered Pt counter electrode (7.70%). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to substantiate the photovoltaic parameters.

  8. Commercialisation of CMOS integrated circuit technology in multi-electrode arrays for neuroscience and cell-based biosensors.

    PubMed

    Graham, Anthony H D; Robbins, Jon; Bowen, Chris R; Taylor, John

    2011-01-01

    The adaptation of standard integrated circuit (IC) technology as a transducer in cell-based biosensors in drug discovery pharmacology, neural interface systems and electrophysiology requires electrodes that are electrochemically stable, biocompatible and affordable. Unfortunately, the ubiquitous Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) IC technology does not meet the first of these requirements. For devices intended only for research, modification of CMOS by post-processing using cleanroom facilities has been achieved. However, to enable adoption of CMOS as a basis for commercial biosensors, the economies of scale of CMOS fabrication must be maintained by using only low-cost post-processing techniques. This review highlights the methodologies employed in cell-based biosensor design where CMOS-based integrated circuits (ICs) form an integral part of the transducer system. Particular emphasis will be placed on the application of multi-electrode arrays for in vitro neuroscience applications. Identifying suitable IC packaging methods presents further significant challenges when considering specific applications. The various challenges and difficulties are reviewed and some potential solutions are presented.

  9. Carbon nanotube multi-electrode array chips for noninvasive real-time measurement of dopamine, action potentials, and postsynaptic potentials.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ikuro; Fukuda, Mao; Shirakawa, Keiichi; Jiko, Hideyasu; Gotoh, Masao

    2013-11-15

    Multi-electrode arrays (MEAs) can be used for noninvasive, real-time, and long-term recording of electrophysiological activity and changes in the extracellular chemical microenvironment. Neural network organization, neuronal excitability, synaptic and phenotypic plasticity, and drug responses may be monitored by MEAs, but it is still difficult to measure presynaptic activity, such as neurotransmitter release, from the presynaptic bouton. In this study, we describe the development of planar carbon nanotube (CNT)-MEA chips that can measure both the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine as well as electrophysiological responses such as field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) and action potentials (APs). These CNT-MEA chips were fabricated by electroplating the indium-tin oxide (ITO) microelectrode surfaces. The CNT-plated ITO electrode exhibited electrochemical response, having much higher current density compared with the bare ITO electrode. Chronoamperometric measurements using these CNT-MEA chips detected dopamine at nanomolar concentrations. By placing mouse striatal brain slices on the CNT-MEA chip, we successfully measured synaptic dopamine release from spontaneous firings with a high S/N ratio of 62. Furthermore, APs and fPSPs were measured from cultured hippocampal neurons and slices with high temporal resolution and a 100-fold greater S/N ratio. Our CNT-MEA chips made it possible to measure neurotransmitter dopamine (presynaptic activities), postsynaptic potentials, and action potentials, which have a central role in information processing in the neuronal network. CNT-MEA chips could prove useful for in vitro studies of stem cell differentiation, drug screening and toxicity, synaptic plasticity, and pathogenic processes involved in epilepsy, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. The First Cortical Implant of a Semiconductor Multielectrode Array: Electrode Development and Data Collection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    00- 965-2511) is packed into the window around the electrode wires. The bone around the window is roughed using a dental burr, and a short anchoring...screw is screwed into the skull on either side of the window. A dental acrylic ( Dental Acrylic Resin V-1000.3 & Orthocryl Liquid from Pronto IIxL...thereby preventing the probe from moving. After the skull was roughed with a dental burr, dental acrylic was spread over the roughed area, the bone wax

  11. Carbon nanotube-based multi electrode arrays for neuronal interfacing: progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Bareket-Keren, Lilach; Hanein, Yael

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) coatings have been demonstrated over the past several years as a promising material for neuronal interfacing applications. In particular, in the realm of neuronal implants, CNTs have major advantages owing to their unique mechanical and electrical properties. Here we review recent investigations utilizing CNTs in neuro-interfacing applications. Cell adhesion, neuronal engineering and multi electrode recordings with CNTs are described. We also highlight prospective advances in this field, in particular, progress toward flexible, bio-compatible CNT-based technology. PMID:23316141

  12. Periodically Porous Top Electrodes on Vertical Nanowire Arrays for Highly Sensitive Gas Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    highly sensitive detection to both nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ammonia (NH3) in humidified air. NO2 detection down to 10 parts per billion (ppb) is... humidified air. NO2 detection down to 10 parts per billion (ppb) is demonstrated and an order-of-magnitude improvement in sensor response time is shown in...controllable size and distribution. Fast and highly sensitive detection of ammonia and nitrogen dioxide in humidified air using the PTE nanowire array sensor

  13. Performance and Durability of Thin Film Thermocouple Array on a Porous Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Guk, Erdogan; Ranaweera, Manoj; Venkatesan, Vijay; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Management of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermal gradients is vital to limit thermal expansion mismatch and thermal stress. However, owing to harsh operation conditions of SOFCs and limited available space in stack configuration, the number of techniques available to obtain temperature distribution from the cell surface is limited. The authors previously developed and studied a thermocouple array pattern to detect surface temperature distribution on an SOFC in open circuit conditions. In this study, the performance in terms of mechanical durability and oxidation state of the thin film thermoelements of the thermocouple array on the porous SOFC cathode is investigated. A thin-film multi-junction thermocouple array was sputter deposited using a magnetron sputter coater. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterisation techniques were carried out to understand characteristics of the thin film before and after temperature (20 °C–800 °C) measurement. Temperature readings from the sensor agreed well with the closely placed commercial thermocouple during heating segments. However, a sensor failure occurred at around 350 °C during the cooling segment. The SEM and XPS tests revealed cracks on the thin film thermoelements and oxidation to the film thickness direction. PMID:27563893

  14. Performance and Durability of Thin Film Thermocouple Array on a Porous Electrode.

    PubMed

    Guk, Erdogan; Ranaweera, Manoj; Venkatesan, Vijay; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2016-08-23

    Management of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermal gradients is vital to limit thermal expansion mismatch and thermal stress. However, owing to harsh operation conditions of SOFCs and limited available space in stack configuration, the number of techniques available to obtain temperature distribution from the cell surface is limited. The authors previously developed and studied a thermocouple array pattern to detect surface temperature distribution on an SOFC in open circuit conditions. In this study, the performance in terms of mechanical durability and oxidation state of the thin film thermoelements of the thermocouple array on the porous SOFC cathode is investigated. A thin-film multi-junction thermocouple array was sputter deposited using a magnetron sputter coater. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterisation techniques were carried out to understand characteristics of the thin film before and after temperature (20 °C-800 °C) measurement. Temperature readings from the sensor agreed well with the closely placed commercial thermocouple during heating segments. However, a sensor failure occurred at around 350 °C during the cooling segment. The SEM and XPS tests revealed cracks on the thin film thermoelements and oxidation to the film thickness direction.

  15. Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiyang; Leung, Calvin; Gao, Fan; Gu, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA) with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM−1·cm−2) among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water) was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors. PMID:26404303

  16. Preparation of CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube heterojunction arrays electrode and investigation of its photoelectrochemical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tingting; Li, Xinyong; Zhao, Qidong; Teng, Wei

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the synthesis steps of CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction arrays electrode. - Highlights: • CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube heterojunction arrays electrode was successfully fabricated via a modified SILAR method. • Morphology, chemical compositions and the photoelectrochemical properties were studied. • The formed heterojunction structure is demonstrated as n–n type heterojunction. - Abstract: CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube heterojunction arrays electrode was synthesized via a modified successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The morphology, crystalline structure and chemical composition of the composite electrode were characterized with field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), respectively. The optical properties were investigated by UV–vis diffusion reflection spectra (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra as well as the photoelectrochemical measurements. Significantly enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of CuInS{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} NTs electrode were observed under visible light irradiation, which could be attributed to the high absorption coefficient of CuInS{sub 2} in visible region and the heterostructure formed between CuInS{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}.

  17. Effects of Nanowire Length and Surface Roughness on the Electrochemical Sensor Properties of Nafion-Free, Vertically Aligned Pt Nanowire Array Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyang; Leung, Calvin; Gao, Fan; Gu, Zhiyong

    2015-09-04

    In this paper, vertically aligned Pt nanowire arrays (PtNWA) with different lengths and surface roughnesses were fabricated and their electrochemical performance toward hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) detection was studied. The nanowire arrays were synthesized by electroplating Pt in nanopores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different parameters, such as current density and deposition time, were precisely controlled to synthesize nanowires with different surface roughnesses and various lengths from 3 μm to 12 μm. The PtNWA electrodes showed better performance than the conventional electrodes modified by Pt nanowires randomly dispersed on the electrode surface. The results indicate that both the length and surface roughness can affect the sensing performance of vertically aligned Pt nanowire array electrodes. Generally, longer nanowires with rougher surfaces showed better electrochemical sensing performance. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA presented the largest sensitivity (654 μA·mM⁻¹·cm⁻²) among all the nanowires studied, and showed a limit of detection of 2.4 μM. The 12 μm rough surface PtNWA electrode also showed good anti-interference property from chemicals that are typically present in the biological samples such as ascorbic, uric acid, citric acid, and glucose. The sensing performance in real samples (river water) was tested and good recovery was observed. These Nafion-free, vertically aligned Pt nanowires with surface roughness control show great promise as versatile electrochemical sensors and biosensors.

  18. Hierarchical CuCo2S4 hollow nanoneedle arrays as novel binder-free electrodes for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Moosavifard, Seyyed Ebrahim; Fani, Saeed; Rahmanian, Mehdi

    2016-03-25

    Hierarchical CuCo2S4 hollow nanoneedle arrays have been firstly synthesized on a Ni foam using a facile template-free hydrothermal method and applied as novel binder-free electrodes for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors with ultrahigh specific capacitance, high energy density, excellent rate capability and outstanding long-term cycling stability.

  19. Algorithm for real-time detection of signal patterns using phase synchrony: an application to an electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Saman; MacKay, William A.; van Dam, R. Michael; Thompson, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Real-time analysis of multi-channel spatio-temporal sensor data presents a considerable technical challenge for a number of applications. For example, in brain-computer interfaces, signal patterns originating on a time-dependent basis from an array of electrodes on the scalp (i.e. electroencephalography) must be analyzed in real time to recognize mental states and translate these to commands which control operations in a machine. In this paper we describe a new technique for recognition of spatio-temporal patterns based on performing online discrimination of time-resolved events through the use of correlation of phase dynamics between various channels in a multi-channel system. The algorithm extracts unique sensor signature patterns associated with each event during a training period and ranks importance of sensor pairs in order to distinguish between time-resolved stimuli to which the system may be exposed during real-time operation. We apply the algorithm to electroencephalographic signals obtained from subjects tested in the neurophysiology laboratories at the University of Toronto. The extension of this algorithm for rapid detection of patterns in other sensing applications, including chemical identification via chemical or bio-chemical sensor arrays, is also discussed.

  20. Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Due-Hansen, J.; Midtbø, K.; Poppe, E.; Summanwar, A.; Jensen, G. U.; Breivik, L.; Wang, D. T.; Schjølberg-Henriksen, K.

    2012-07-01

    Capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUTs) can be used to realize miniature ultrasound probes. Through-silicon vias (TSVs) allow for close integration of the CMUT and read-out electronics. A fabrication process enabling the realization of a CMUT array with TSVs is being developed. The integrated process requires the formation of highly doped polysilicon electrodes with low surface roughness. A process for polysilicon film deposition, doping, CMP, RIE and thermal annealing that resulted in a film with sheet resistance of 4.0 Ω/□ and a surface roughness of 1 nm rms has been developed. The surface roughness of the polysilicon film was found to increase with higher phosphorus concentrations. The surface roughness also increased when oxygen was present in the thermal annealing ambient. The RIE process for etching CMUT cavities in the doped polysilicon gave a mean etch depth of 59.2 ± 3.9 nm and a uniformity across the wafer ranging from 1.0 to 4.7%. The two presented processes are key processes that enable the fabrication of CMUT arrays suitable for applications in for instance intravascular cardiology and gastrointestinal imaging.

  1. Electrochemiluminescence bipolar electrode array for the multiplexed detection of glucose, lactate and choline based on a versatile enzymatic approach.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yi; Xu, Linru; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2017-04-01

    A simple, efficient and versatile biosensing platform capable of the multiplexed detection for glucose, lactate and choline was developed by the integration of bipolar electrochemistry and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) imaging. The sensing bipolar electrodes (BPEs) were simply modified via a one-step method adaptable to different enzymes. The biorecognition event happening between the substrate and the corresponding enzyme could be directly reported by the ECL emitted on the same pole from luminol and in situ generated H2O2. Under optimized conditions, the BPEs array was successfully applied for the determination of glucose, lactate and choline in the ranges of 0.01-1mM, 0.01-1mM and 0.02-5mM, with the LOD of 7.57μM, 8.25μM and 43.19μM, respectively. Owing to the improved stability of in situ generated H2O2, a whole series of analytes testing could be completed in the same BPE biochip. Subsequently, an array chip consisting of nine BPEs enabled the concomitant detection of glucose, lactate and choline, demonstrating the capability for multifunctional detection of biomolecules. This versatile analytical system could be easily extended to sensitive screening in a miniaturized device and point of care testing.

  2. High carrier concentration ZnO nanowire arrays for binder-free conductive support of supercapacitors electrodes by Al doping.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xin; Sun, Yihui; Yan, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xu; Zhang, Guangjie; Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Yaru; Gao, Wenchao; Zhang, Yue

    2016-12-15

    Doping semiconductor nanowires (NWs) for altering their electrical and optical properties is a critical strategy for tailoring the performance of nanodevices. Here, we prepared in situ Al-doped ZnO nanowire arrays by using continuous flow injection (CFI) hydrothermal method to promote the conductivity. This reasonable method offers highly stable precursor concentration for doping that effectively avoid the appearance of the low conductivity ZnO nanosheets. Benefit from this, three orders of magnitude rise of the carrier concentration from 10(16)cm(-3) to 10(19)cm(-3) can be achieved compared with the common hydrothermal (CH) mothed in Mott-Schottky measurement. Possible effect of Al-doping was discussed by first-principle theory. On this basis, Al-doped ZnO nanowire arrays was developed as a binder-free conductive support for supercapacitor electrodes and high capacitance was triggered. It is owing to the dramatically decreased transfer resistance induced by the growing free-moving electrons and holes. Our results have a profound significance not merely in the controlled synthesis of other doping nanomaterials by co-precipitation method but also in the application of binder-free energy materials or other materials.

  3. Effect of matrix on the electrochemical characteristics of TiO₂ nanotube array-based PbO₂ electrode for pollutant degradation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhongxin; Zhou, Minghua; Zhou, Lei; Li, Yunlin; Zhang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    A series of lead dioxide electrodes developed on titania nanotube arrays with different matrix were fabricated by electrodeposition. Before the deposition of PbO₂, the matrix of this anode was electrochemically reduced in (NH₄)₂SO₄ solution and/or pre-deposited with certain amounts of copper. To gain insight into these pretreatments, the PbO₂ electrodes were characterized by SEM, LSV, and XRD, and their electrocatalytic activities for pollutant degradation were compared using p-nitrophenol (p-NP) as a model. It was confirmed that the electrochemical reduction with (NH4)₂SO₄ resulted in the partial conversion of TiO₂ into Ti₄O₇ and Ti₅O₉, which increased the conductivity of PbO₂ anode, but decreased its electrochemical activity, while the Ti/TNTs*-Cu/PbO₂ electrode with both pretreatments possessed the highest oxygen evolution overpotential of 2.5 V (vs. SCE) and low substrate resistance. After a 180-min treatment on this electrode, the removal efficiency of p-NP reached 82.5% and the COD removal achieved 42.5% with the energy consumption of 9.45 kWh m(-3), demonstrating the best performance among these electrodes with different matrices. Therefore, this titania nanotube array-based PbO₂ electrode has a promising application in the industrial wastewater treatment.

  4. Study on the distortion of apparent resistivity curves caused by the 'infinite' electrode space of a Pole-Pole array and its correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Le-Le; Wei, Jiu-Chuan; Niu, Chao; Shi, Long-Qing; Zhai, Pei-He; Yin, Hui-Yong; Xie, Dao-Lei

    2015-07-01

    The Pole-Pole (PP) array is widely used for measurements that incorporate two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) multi-electrode electrical resistivity surveys, although an effective equilibrium has not yet been achieved between two factors, the location of 'infinite' electrodes and the data utilisation of the effective resistivity, which affects the detection accuracy; thus, the data collected under the conditions of 'infinite' electrodes that are as finite as possible are maximally effective. Studies have shown that the optimum 'infinite' electrode distance must be greater than 20 times the current-potential electrode distance AM; this value is much greater than the currently used value of 5 to 10 times AM. However, limitations imposed by landforms and topographic conditions, such as mountainous areas and coal mine roadways, often prevent the 'infinite' condition from being satisfied. In this study, a field test was designed and performed by adopting a particular PP array to collect sounding data under different 'infinite' electrode distances, and the differences were analysed in the apparent resistivity curves calculated with different geometric coefficients. The results reveal that when the 'infinite' electrode space is finite relative to AM, significant distortion may occur, and a minimum inflection point may appear in the sounding curve of apparent resistivity that is calculated with the geometric coefficient Kpp. Although the data past the minimum inflection point of ρs-mpp curve lose their value for the sounding application, a portion of the first segment of the distorted curve can be used, therefore, a correction formula under the condition of non-infinite electrode (Bing and Greenhalgh, 1998) space in a PP array is derived based on traditional electric field theories and formulas of apparent resistivity under different electrode arrays. The error analysis after correction indicates that the data utilisation ratio in the corrected effective

  5. Three-dimensional electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells: synthesis of indium-tin-oxide nanowire arrays and ITO/TiO2 core-shell nanowire arrays by electrophoretic deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Wen; Ting, Chi-Feng; Hung, Miao-Ken; Chiou, Chwei-Huann; Liu, Ying-Ling; Liu, Zongwen; Ratinac, Kyle R; Ringer, Simon P

    2009-02-04

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) show promise as a cheaper alternative to silicon-based photovoltaics for specialized applications, provided conversion efficiency can be maximized and production costs minimized. This study demonstrates that arrays of nanowires can be formed by wet-chemical methods for use as three-dimensional (3D) electrodes in DSSCs, thereby improving photoelectric conversion efficiency. Two approaches were employed to create the arrays of ITO (indium-tin-oxide) nanowires or arrays of ITO/TiO(2) core-shell nanowires; both methods were based on electrophoretic deposition (EPD) within a polycarbonate template. The 3D electrodes for solar cells were constructed by using a doctor-blade for coating TiO(2) layers onto the ITO or ITO/TiO(2) nanowire arrays. A photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 4.3% was achieved in the DSSCs made from ITO nanowires; this performance was better than that of ITO/TiO(2) core-shell nanowires or pristine TiO(2) films. Cyclic voltammetry confirmed that the reaction current was significantly enhanced when a 3D ITO-nanowire electrode was used. Better separation of charge carriers and improved charge transport, due to the enlarged interfacial area, are thought to be the major advantages of using 3D nanowire electrodes for the optimization of DSSCs.

  6. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Self-patterned aluminium interconnects and ring electrodes for arrays of microcavity plasma devices encapsulated in Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. S.; Park, S.-J.; Eden, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Automatic formation of Al interconnects and ring electrodes, fully encapsulated by alumina, in planar arrays of Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 microcavity plasma devices has been accomplished by electrochemical processing of Al foil. Following the fabrication of cylindrical microcavities (50-350 µm in diameter) in 127 µm thick Al foil, virtually complete anodization of the foil yields azimuthally symmetric Al electrodes surrounding each cavity and interconnects between adjacent microcavities that are produced and simultaneously buried within a transparent Al2O3 film without the need for conventional patterning techniques. The diameter and pitch of the microcavities prior to anodization, as well as the anodization process parameters, determine which of the microcavity plasma devices in a one- or two-dimensional array are connected electrically. Data presented for 200 µm diameter cavities with a pitch of 150-225 µm illustrate the patterning of the interconnects and electrode connectivity after 4-10 h of anodization in oxalic acid. Self-patterned, linear arrays comprising 25 dielectric barrier devices have been excited by a sinusoidal or bipolar pulse voltage waveform and operated in 400-700 Torr of rare gas. Owing to the electrochemical conversion of most of the Al foil into Al2O3, the self-formed arrays exhibit an areal capacitance ~82% lower than that characteristic of previous Al/Al2O3 device arrays (Park et al 2006 J. Appl. Phys. 99 026107).

  7. A flexible electrode array for muscle impedance measurements in the mouse hind limb: A tool to speed research in neuromuscular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Rutkove, S. B.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a bioelectrical impedance technique focused on the assessment of neuromuscular diseases using tetrapolar surface arrays. Recently, we have shown that reproducible and sensitive EIM measurements can be made on the gastrocnemius muscle of the mouse hind limb and that these are sensitive to disease alterations. A dedicated array would help speed data acquisition and provide additional sensitivity to disease-induced alterations. A flexible electrode array was developed with electrode sizes of 1mm × 1mm by Parlex, Inc. Tetrapolar electrode sets were arranged both parallel to (longitudinal) and orthogonally to (transverse) the major muscle fiber direction of the gastrocnemius muscle. Measurements were made with a dedicated EIM system. A total of 11 healthy animals and 7 animals with spinal muscular atrophy (a form of motor neuron disease) were evaluated after the fur was completely removed with a depilatory agent from the hind limb. Standard electrophysiologic testing (compound motor action potential amplitude and motor unit number estimation) was also performed. The flexible electrode array demonstrated high repeatability in both the longitudinal and transverse directions in the healthy and diseased animals (with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.89, respectively, for phase angle measured transversely). In addition, differences between healthy and diseased animals were identifiable. For example, the 50 kHz transverse phase angle was higher in the healthy as compared to the SMA animals (16.8° ± 0.5 vs. 14.3° ± 0.7, respectively) at 21 weeks of age (p = 0.01). Differences in anisotropy were also identifiable. Correlations to several standard neurophysiologic parameters also appeared promising. This novel flexible tetrapolar electrode array can be used on the mouse hind limb and provides multidirectional data that can be used to assess muscle health. This technique has the potential of finding widespread use in

  8. Radiolucent rim as a possible diagnostic aid for differentiating jaw lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Rahmani, Somayeh; Jafari, Soudeh; Parvaei, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we formulate a new proposal that complements previous classifications in order to assist dental practitioners in performing a differential diagnosis based on patients' radiographs. We used general search engines and specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, MedLine Plus, Science Direct, Scopus, and well-recognized textbooks to find relevant studies by using keywords such as "jaw disease," "jaw lesions," "radiolucent rim," "radiolucent border," and "radiolucent halo." More than 200 articles were found, of which 70 were broadly relevant to the topic. We ultimately included 50 articles that were closely related to the topic of interest. When the relevant data were compiled, the following eight lesions were identified as having a radiolucent rim: periapical cemento-osseous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia, florid cemento-osseous dysplasia, cemento-ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, odontoma, and cementoblastoma. We propose a novel subcategory, jaw lesions with a radiolucent rim, which includes eight entities. The implementation of this new category can help improve the diagnoses that dental practitioners make based on patients' radiographs. PMID:26730374

  9. Acute inflammation in horizontal incompletely impacted third molar with radiolucency in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Minoru; Ono, Yusuke; Takahashi, Masahiro; Ishizuka, Masahide; Uchihashi, Takayuki; Yasuda, Kouichi; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-01

    Although radiolucency has been shown as a risk of infection, the poorly understood effects of aging on radiolucency correlate with acute pericoronitis, which has a high risk of infection extending any complications. We reviewed the records of 346 consecutive patients aged more than 41 years to evaluate whether pericoronal radiolucency below the crown in mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars is related to acute inflammation. The frequency of acute inflammation in teeth with pericoronal radiolucency below the crown was similar to that in teeth without; however, the odds ratio of acute inflammation exhibited in women aged more than 61 years compared to women aged 41–50 years was 9.77 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.67–57.29; P < <0.05), and in women aged more than 61 years compared to women aged 51–60 years was 26.25 (95% CI: 2.94–234.38; P < 0.01). The odds ratio of severe acute inflammation exhibited in men aged more than 61 years compared to men aged 41–50 years was 16.67 (95% CI: 1.76–158.27; P < 0.01). These odds ratios indicate an association of acute pericoronitis, including the severe forms of acute inflammation that result from pericoronitis, with pericoronal radiolucency below the crown in the elderly. PMID:19696898

  10. Decoding continuous limb movements from high-density epidural electrode arrays using custom spatial filters

    PubMed Central

    Marathe, A R.; Taylor, D M

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to identify spatial filtering methods that would improve decoding of continuous arm movements from epidural field potentials as well as demonstrate the use of the epidural signals in a closed-loop brain-machine interface (BMI) system in monkeys. Approach Eleven spatial filtering options were compared offline using field potentials collected from 64-channel high-density epidural arrays in monkeys. Arrays were placed over arm/hand motor cortex in which intracortical microelectrodes had previously been implanted and removed leaving focal cortical damage but no lasting motor deficits. Spatial filters tested included: no filtering, common average referencing (CAR), principle component analysis (PCA), and eight novel modifications of the common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm. The spatial filtering method and decoder combination that performed the best offline was then used online where monkeys controlled cursor velocity using continuous wrist position decoded from epidural field potentials in real time. Main results Optimized CSP methods improved continuous wrist position decoding accuracy by 69% over CAR and by 80% compared to no filtering. Kalman decoders performed better than linear regression decoders and benefitted from including more spatially-filtered signals but not from pre-smoothing the calculated power spectra. Conversely, linear regression decoders required fewer spatially-filtered signals and were improved by pre-smoothing the power values. The ‘position-to-velocity’ transformation used during online control enabled the animals to generate smooth closed-loop movement trajectories using the somewhat limited position information available in the epidural signals. The monkeys’ online performance significantly improved across days of closed-loop training. Significance Most published BMI studies that use electrocortographic signals to decode continuous limb movements either use no spatial filtering or CAR. This study suggests a

  11. Decoding continuous limb movements from high-density epidural electrode arrays using custom spatial filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marathe, A. R.; Taylor, D. M.

    2013-06-01

    Objective. Our goal was to identify spatial filtering methods that would improve decoding of continuous arm movements from epidural field potentials as well as demonstrate the use of the epidural signals in a closed-loop brain-machine interface (BMI) system in monkeys. Approach. Eleven spatial filtering options were compared offline using field potentials collected from 64-channel high-density epidural arrays in monkeys. Arrays were placed over arm/hand motor cortex in which intracortical microelectrodes had previously been implanted and removed leaving focal cortical damage but no lasting motor deficits. Spatial filters tested included: no filtering, common average referencing (CAR), principle component analysis, and eight novel modifications of the common spatial pattern (CSP) algorithm. The spatial filtering method and decoder combination that performed the best offline was then used online where monkeys controlled cursor velocity using continuous wrist position decoded from epidural field potentials in real time. Main results. Optimized CSP methods improved continuous wrist position decoding accuracy by 69% over CAR and by 80% compared to no filtering. Kalman decoders performed better than linear regression decoders and benefitted from including more spatially-filtered signals but not from pre-smoothing the calculated power spectra. Conversely, linear regression decoders required fewer spatially-filtered signals and were improved by pre-smoothing the power values. The ‘position-to-velocity’ transformation used during online control enabled the animals to generate smooth closed-loop movement trajectories using the somewhat limited position information available in the epidural signals. The monkeys’ online performance significantly improved across days of closed-loop training. Significance. Most published BMI studies that use electrocorticographic signals to decode continuous limb movements either use no spatial filtering or CAR. This study suggests a

  12. Simulated and experimental studies on the array dielectric barrier discharge of water electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lele, WANG; Xiutao, HUANG; Junfeng, CHEN; Shengming, WANG; Zhaoyang, HU; Minghai, LIU

    2017-03-01

    A kind of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) device composed of water electrodes with 3 × 3 forms can produce large-area low-temperature plasmas at atmospheric pressure. To reflect the discharge characteristics of DBD better, a dynamic simulation model, which is based on the voltage controlled current source (CCS), is established, then the established model in Matlab/Simulink is used to simulate the DBD in air. The voltage–current waves and Lissajous at a voltage of 10 kV, 11 kV and 12 kV peak value with a frequency of 15 kHz are studied. The change of the discharge power of DBD with a different amplitude and frequency of applied voltage is also analyzed. The result shows the voltage–current waves, Lissajous and discharge power of DBD under different conditions from the simulation agree well with those of the experiment. In addition, we propose a method to calculate the dielectric barrier capacitance {{C}}{{d}} and the gap capacitance {{C}}{{g}}, which is valid through analyzing the variation of capacitance at different voltage amplitudes.

  13. Tunable liquid microlens arrays in electrode-less configuration and their accurate characterization by interference microscopy.

    PubMed

    Miccio, L; Finizio, A; Grilli, S; Vespini, V; Paturzo, M; De Nicola, S; Ferraro, Pietro

    2009-02-16

    A special class of tunable liquid microlenses is presented here. The microlenses are generated by an electrowetting effect under an electrode-less configuration and they exhibit two different regimes that are named here as separated lens regime (SLR) and wave-like lens regime (WLR). The lens effect is induced by the pyroelectricity of polar dielectric crystals, as was proved in principle in a previous work by the same authors (S. Grilli et al., Opt. Express 16, 8084, 2008). Compared to that work, the improvements to the experimental set-up and procedure allow to reveal the two lens regimes which exhibit different optical properties. A digital holography technique is used to reconstruct the transmitted wavefront during focusing and a focal length variation in the millimetre range is observed. The tunability of such microlenses could be of great interest to the field of micro-optics thanks to the possibility to achieve focus tuning without moving parts and thus favouring the miniaturization of the optical systems.

  14. Simulated and experimental studies on the array dielectric barrier discharge of water electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lele; Huang, Xiutao; Chen, Junfeng; Wang, Shengming; Hu, Zhaoyang; Liu, Minghai

    2017-03-01

    A kind of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) device composed of water electrodes with 3 × 3 forms can produce large-area low-temperature plasmas at atmospheric pressure. To reflect the discharge characteristics of DBD better, a dynamic simulation model, which is based on the voltage controlled current source (CCS), is established, then the established model in Matlab/Simulink is used to simulate the DBD in air. The voltage-current waves and Lissajous at a voltage of 10 kV, 11 kV and 12 kV peak value with a frequency of 15 kHz are studied. The change of the discharge power of DBD with a different amplitude and frequency of applied voltage is also analyzed. The result shows the voltage-current waves, Lissajous and discharge power of DBD under different conditions from the simulation agree well with those of the experiment. In addition, we propose a method to calculate the dielectric barrier capacitance {{C}}{{d}} and the gap capacitance {{C}}{{g}}, which is valid through analyzing the variation of capacitance at different voltage amplitudes.

  15. Scalable electrophysiology in intact small animals with nanoscale suspended electrode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, Daniel L.; Badhiwala, Krishna N.; Vercosa, Daniel G.; Avants, Benjamin W.; Liu, Zheng; Zhong, Weiwei; Robinson, Jacob T.

    2017-07-01

    Electrical measurements from large populations of animals would help reveal fundamental properties of the nervous system and neurological diseases. Small invertebrates are ideal for these large-scale studies; however, patch-clamp electrophysiology in microscopic animals typically requires invasive dissections and is low-throughput. To overcome these limitations, we present nano-SPEARs: suspended electrodes integrated into a scalable microfluidic device. Using this technology, we have made the first extracellular recordings of body-wall muscle electrophysiology inside an intact roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans. We can also use nano-SPEARs to record from multiple animals in parallel and even from other species, such as Hydra littoralis. Furthermore, we use nano-SPEARs to establish the first electrophysiological phenotypes for C. elegans models for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, and show a partial rescue of the Parkinson's phenotype through drug treatment. These results demonstrate that nano-SPEARs provide the core technology for microchips that enable scalable, in vivo studies of neurobiology and neurological diseases.

  16. EMG-torque Relation in Chronic Stroke: A Novel EMG Complexity Representation with A Linear Electrode Array.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Dongqing; Yu, Zaiyang; Chen, Xiang; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Ping

    2016-11-08

    This study examines the electromyogram (EMG) - torque relation for chronic stroke survivors using a novel EMG complexity representation. Ten stroke subjects performed a series of submaximal isometric elbow flexion tasks using their affected and contralateral arms, respectively, while a 20-channel linear electrode array was used to record surface EMG from the biceps brachii muscles. The sample entropy (SampEn) of surface EMG signals was calculated with both global and local tolerance schemes. A regression analysis was performed between SampEn of each channel's surface EMG and elbow flexion torque. It was found that a linear regression can be used to well describe the relation between surface EMG SampEn and the torque. Each channel's root mean square (RMS) amplitude of surface EMG signal in the different torque level was computed to determine the channel with the highest EMG amplitude. The slope of the regression (observed from the channel with the highest EMG amplitude) was smaller on the impaired side than on the non-impaired side in 8 of the 10 subjects, regardless of the tolerance scheme (global or local) and the range of torques (full or matched range) used for comparison. The surface EMG signals from the channels above the estimated muscle innervation zones demonstrated significantly lower levels of complexity compared with other channels between innervation zones and muscle tendons. The study provides a novel point of view of the EMG-torque relation in the complexity domain, and reveals its alterations post stroke, which are associated with complex neural and muscular changes post stroke. The slope difference between channels with regard to innervation zones also confirms the relevance of electrode position in surface EMG analysis.

  17. A 1024-Channel CMOS Microelectrode Array With 26,400 Electrodes for Recording and Stimulation of Electrogenic Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ballini, Marco; Müller, Jan; Livi, Paolo; Chen, Yihui; Frey, Urs; Stettler, Alexander; Shadmani, Amir; Viswam, Vijay; Jones, Ian Lloyd; Jäckel, David; Radivojevic, Milos; Lewandowska, Marta K; Gong, Wei; Fiscella, Michele; Bakkum, Douglas J; Heer, Flavio; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    To advance our understanding of the functioning of neuronal ensembles, systems are needed to enable simultaneous recording from a large number of individual neurons at high spatiotemporal resolution and good signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, stimulation capability is highly desirable for investigating, for example, plasticity and learning processes. Here, we present a microelectrode array (MEA) system on a single CMOS die for in vitro recording and stimulation. The system incorporates 26,400 platinum electrodes, fabricated by in-house post-processing, over a large sensing area (3.85 × 2.10 mm(2)) with sub-cellular spatial resolution (pitch of 17.5 μm). Owing to an area and power efficient implementation, we were able to integrate 1024 readout channels on chip to record extracellular signals from a user-specified selection of electrodes. These channels feature noise values of 2.4 μVrms in the action-potential band (300 Hz-10 kHz) and 5.4 μVrms in the local-field-potential band (1 Hz-300 Hz), and provide programmable gain (up to 78 dB) to accommodate various biological preparations. Amplified and filtered signals are digitized by 10 bit parallel single-slope ADCs at 20 kSamples/s. The system also includes 32 stimulation units, which can elicit neural spikes through either current or voltage pulses. The chip consumes only 75 mW in total, which obviates the need of active cooling even for sensitive cell cultures.

  18. Inkjet printing of nanoporous gold electrode arrays on cellulose membranes for high-sensitive paper-like electrochemical oxygen sensors using ionic liquid electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chengguo; Bai, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yingkai; Jin, Wei; Zhang, Xuan; Hu, Shengshui

    2012-04-17

    A simple approach to the mass production of nanoporous gold electrode arrays on cellulose membranes for electrochemical sensing of oxygen using ionic liquid (IL) electrolytes was established. The approach, combining the inkjet printing of gold nanoparticle (GNP) patterns with the self-catalytic growth of these patterns into conducting layers, can fabricate hundreds of self-designed gold arrays on cellulose membranes within several hours using an inexpensive inkjet printer. The resulting paper-based gold electrode arrays (PGEAs) had several unique properties as thin-film sensor platforms, including good conductivity, excellent flexibility, high integration, and low cost. The porous nature of PGEAs also allowed the addition of electrolytes from the back cellulose membrane side and controllably produced large three-phase electrolyte/electrode/gas interfaces at the front electrode side. A novel paper-based solid-state electrochemical oxygen (O(2)) sensor was therefore developed using an IL electrolyte, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF(6)). The sensor looked like a piece of paper but possessed high sensitivity for O(2) in a linear range from 0.054 to 0.177 v/v %, along with a low detection limit of 0.0075% and a short response time of less than 10 s, foreseeing its promising applications in developing cost-effective and environment-friendly paper-based electrochemical gas sensors.

  19. Multi-electrode array recordings of neuronal avalanches in organotypic cultures.

    PubMed

    Plenz, Dietmar; Stewart, Craig V; Shew, Woodrow; Yang, Hongdian; Klaus, Andreas; Bellay, Tim

    2011-08-01

    The cortex is spontaneously active, even in the absence of any particular input or motor output. During development, this activity is important for the migration and differentiation of cortex cell types and the formation of neuronal connections. In the mature animal, ongoing activity reflects the past and the present state of an animal into which sensory stimuli are seamlessly integrated to compute future actions. Thus, a clear understanding of the organization of ongoing i.e. spontaneous activity is a prerequisite to understand cortex function. Numerous recording techniques revealed that ongoing activity in cortex is comprised of many neurons whose individual activities transiently sum to larger events that can be detected in the local field potential (LFP) with extracellular microelectrodes, or in the electroencephalogram (EEG), the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), and the BOLD signal from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The LFP is currently the method of choice when studying neuronal population activity with high temporal and spatial resolution at the mesoscopic scale (several thousands of neurons). At the extracellular microelectrode, locally synchronized activities of spatially neighbored neurons result in rapid deflections in the LFP up to several hundreds of microvolts. When using an array of microelectrodes, the organizations of such deflections can be conveniently monitored in space and time. Neuronal avalanches describe the scale-invariant spatiotemporal organization of ongoing neuronal activity in the brain. They are specific to the superficial layers of cortex as established in vitro, in vivo in the anesthetized rat, and in the awake monkey. Importantly, both theoretical and empirical studies suggest that neuronal avalanches indicate an exquisitely balanced critical state dynamics of cortex that optimizes information transfer and information processing. In order to study the mechanisms of neuronal avalanche development, maintenance, and

  20. Flexible textile electrode with high areal capacity from hierarchical V2O5 nanosheet arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kun; Liu, Xue; Cheng, Qilin; Saha, Petr; Jiang, Hao; Li, Chunzhong

    2017-07-01

    The search for an appropriate flexible cathode is pivotal to expediting the development of flexible and foldable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we demonstrate a simple and scalable synthesis of hierarchical V2O5 nanosheet arrays on polydopamine (PDA)-decorated carbon cloth with strong combination between them, which then directly applied as flexible cathode for LIBs. We found this flexible cathode with a loading mass of 2.1 mg cm-2 can deliver a high specific capacity of 120 mAh g-1 even at 15C (1C = 300 mA g-1) and maintain a long-term cycling stability, i.e. simply 0.30% capacity loss per cycle at 2C for 100 cycles without morphology change. More importantly, the corresponding areal capacity can reach as high as 560 μAh cm-2 at 210 μA cm-2, favorably comparing with the-state-of-art flexible cathode reported to date. Additionally, a flexible LIBs full cell has been assembled, exhibiting high mechanical strength and superior electrochemical performances.

  1. Development of MATLAB software to control data acquisition from a multichannel systems multi-electrode array.

    PubMed

    Messier, Erik

    2016-08-01

    A Multichannel Systems (MCS) microelectrode array data acquisition (DAQ) unit is used to collect multichannel electrograms (EGM) from a Langendorff perfused rabbit heart system to study sudden cardiac death (SCD). MCS provides software through which data being processed by the DAQ unit can be displayed and saved, but this software's combined utility with MATLAB is not very effective. MCSs software stores recorded EGM data in a MathCad (MCD) format, which is then converted to a text file format. These text files are very large, and it is therefore very time consuming to import the EGM data into MATLAB for real-time analysis. Therefore, customized MATLAB software was developed to control the acquisition of data from the MCS DAQ unit, and provide specific laboratory accommodations for this study of SCD. The developed DAQ unit control software will be able to accurately: provide real time display of EGM signals; record and save EGM signals in MATLAB in a desired format; and produce real time analysis of the EGM signals; all through an intuitive GUI.

  2. The effect of channel height and electrode aspect ratio on redox cycling at carbon interdigitated array nanoelectrodes confined in a microchannel.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jeong-Il; Lim, Yeongjin; Shin, Heungjoo

    2013-11-07

    Redox cycling is a commonly used electrochemical sensing scheme for enhancing faradaic current signals. This effect can be improved by either optimizing electrode geometries or restricting electrochemical reactions within a limited volume. Here, we demonstrate a simple batch fabrication of 1 : 1 aspect ratio carbon interdigitated array nanoelectrodes integrated in a polydimethylsiloxane microchannel that enables current amplification by up to 1116 times. We also examine the factors that influence the effect of redox cycling, including the electrode aspect ratio and channel height, by using experiments and simulations.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Human and Rodent Brain Primary Neuronal Culture Spontaneous Activity Using Micro-Electrode Array Technology.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Alessandro; Obeid, Iyad

    2016-03-01

    Electrical activity in embryonic brain tissue has typically been studied using Micro Electrode Array (MEA) technology to make dozens of simultaneous recordings from dissociated neuronal cultures, brain stem cell progenitors, or brain slices from fetal rodents. Although these rodent neuronal primary culture electrical properties are mostly investigated, it has not been yet established to what extent the electrical characteristics of rodent brain neuronal cultures can be generalized to those of humans. A direct comparison of spontaneous spiking activity between rodent and human primary neurons grown under the same in vitro conditions using MEA technology has never been carried out before and will be described in the present study. Human and rodent dissociated fetal brain neuronal cultures were established in-vitro by culturing on a glass grid of 60 planar microelectrodes neurons under identical conditions. Three different cultures of human neurons were produced from tissue sourced from a single aborted fetus (at 16-18 gestational weeks) and these were compared with seven different cultures of embryonic rat neurons (at 18 gestational days) originally isolated from a single rat. The results show that the human and rodent cultures behaved significantly differently. Whereas the rodent cultures demonstrated robust spontaneous activation and network activity after only 10 days, the human cultures required nearly 40 days to achieve a substantially weaker level of electrical function. These results suggest that rat neuron preparations may yield inferences that do not necessarily transfer to humans.

  4. Assessment of delivery parameters with the multi-electrode array for development of a DNA vaccine against Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Donate, Amy; Heller, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Gene electrotransfer (GET) enhances delivery of DNA vaccines by increasing both gene expression and immune responses. Our lab has developed the multi-electrode array (MEA) for DNA delivery to skin. The MEA was used at constant pulse duration (150 ms) and frequency (6.67 Hz). In this study, delivery parameters including applied voltage (5-45 V), amount of plasmid (100-300 μg), and number of treatments (2-3) were evaluated for delivery of a DNA vaccine. Mice were intradermally injected with plasmid expressing Bacillus anthracis protective antigen with or without GET and αPA serum titers measured. Within this experiment no significant differences were noted in antibody levels from varying dose or treatment number. However, significant differences were measured from applied voltages of 25 and 35 V. These voltages generated antibody levels between 20,000 and 25,000. Serum from animals vaccinated with these conditions also resulted in toxin neutralization in 40-60% of animals. Visual damage was noted at MEA conditions of 40 V. No damage was noted either visually or histologically from conditions of 35 V or below. These results reflect the importance of establishing appropriate electrical parameters and the potential for the MEA in non-invasive DNA vaccination against B. anthracis.

  5. Improvement of Electrical Stimulation Protocol for Simultaneous Measurement of Extracellular Potential with On-Chip Multi-Electrode Array System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Fumimasa; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    Cardiotoxicity testing with a multi-electrode array (MEA) system requires the stable beating of cardiomyocytes for the measurement of the field potential duration (FPD), because different spontaneous beating rates cause different responses of FPD prolongation induced by drugs, and the beating rate change effected by drugs complicates the FPD prolongation assessment. We have developed an on-chip MEA system with electrical stimulation for the measurement of the FPD during the stable beating of human embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters. Using a conventional bipolar stimulation protocol, we observed such large artifacts in electrical stimulation that we could not estimate the FPD quantitatively. Therefore, we improved the stimulation protocol by using sequential rectangular pulses in which the positive and negative stimulation voltages and number of pulses could be changed flexibly. The balanced voltages and number of pulses for sequential rectangular pulses enabled the recording of small negative artifacts only, which hardly affected the FPD measurement of human-ES-cell-derived cardiomyocyte clusters. These conditions of electrical stimulation are expected to find applications for the control of constant beating for cardiotoxicity testing.

  6. A large-area diffuse air discharge plasma excited by nanosecond pulse under a double hexagon needle-array electrode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Wen-Chun; Yang, De-Zheng; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Shuai; Tang, Kai; Jiang, Peng-Chao

    2014-01-01

    A large-area diffuse air discharge plasma excited by bipolar nanosecond pulse is generated under a double hexagon needle-array electrode at atmospheric pressure. The images of the diffuse discharge, electric characteristics, and the optical emission spectra emitted from the diffuse air discharge plasma are obtained. Based on the waveforms of pulse voltage and current, the power consumption, and the power density of the diffuse air discharge plasma are investigated under different pulse peak voltages. The electron density and the electron temperature of the diffuse plasma are estimated to be approximately 1.42×10(11) cm(-3) and 4.4 eV, respectively. The optical emission spectra are arranged to determine the rotational and vibrational temperatures by comparing experimental with simulated spectra. Meanwhile, the rotational and vibrational temperatures of the diffuse discharge plasma are also discussed under different pulse peak voltages and pulse repetition rates, respectively. In addition, the diffuse air discharge plasma can form an area of about 70×50 mm(2) on the surface of dielectric layer and can be scaled up to the required size.

  7. An Electrochemical Microsensor Based on a AuNPs-Modified Microband Array Electrode for Phosphate Determination in Fresh Water Samples †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fangfang; Tong, Jianhua; Li, Yang; Bian, Chao; Sun, Jizhou; Xia, Shanhong

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the fabrication, characterization, and application of a gold microband array electrode (MAE) for the determination of phosphate in fresh water samples. The working principle of this MAE is based on the reduction of a molybdophosphate complex using the linear sweep voltammetric (LSV) method. The calibration of this microsensor was performed with standard phosphate solutions prepared with KH2PO4 and pH adjusted to 1.0. The microsensor consists of a platinum counter electrode, a gold MAE as working electrode, and an Ag/AgCl electrode as reference electrode. The microelectrode chips were fabricated by the Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technique. To improve the sensitivity, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were electrodeposited on the working electrode. With a linear range from 0.02 to 0.50 mg P/L, the sensitivity of the unmodified microsensor is 2.40 μA per (mg P/L) (R2 = 0.99) and that of the AuNPs-modified microsensor is 7.66 μA per (mg P/L) (R2 = 0.99). The experimental results showed that AuNPs-modified microelectrode had better sensitivity and a larger current response than the unmodified microelectrode. PMID:25536001

  8. Model-Based Comparison of Deep Brain Stimulation Array Functionality with Varying Number of Radial Electrodes and Machine Learning Feature Sets

    PubMed Central

    Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Zitella, Laura M.; Xiao, YiZi; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    electrodes minimally improved in the ability to steer, shift, and sculpt axonal activation around a DBS lead and a simple feature set consisting of the RoA center of mass and orientation enabled robust machine learning classification. These results provide important design constraints for future development of high-density DBS arrays. PMID:27375470

  9. Model-Based Comparison of Deep Brain Stimulation Array Functionality with Varying Number of Radial Electrodes and Machine Learning Feature Sets.

    PubMed

    Teplitzky, Benjamin A; Zitella, Laura M; Xiao, YiZi; Johnson, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    electrodes minimally improved in the ability to steer, shift, and sculpt axonal activation around a DBS lead and a simple feature set consisting of the RoA center of mass and orientation enabled robust machine learning classification. These results provide important design constraints for future development of high-density DBS arrays.

  10. Three-Dimensional Array of TiN@Pt3Cu Nanowires as an Efficient Porous Electrode for the Lithium-Oxygen Battery.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen-Bin; Pham, Thien Viet; Guo, Hai-Peng; Liu, Hua-Kun; Dou, Shi-Xue

    2017-02-28

    The nonaqueous lithium-oxygen battery is a promising candidate as a next-generation energy storage system because of its potentially high energy density (up to 2-3 kW kg(-1)), exceeding that of any other existing energy storage system for storing sustainable and clean energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the consumption of nonrenewable fossil fuels. To achieve high round-trip efficiency and satisfactory cycling stability, the air electrode structure and the electrocatalysts play important roles. Here, a 3D array composed of one-dimensional TiN@Pt3Cu nanowires was synthesized and employed as a whole porous air electrode in a lithium-oxygen battery. The TiN nanowire was primarily used as an air electrode frame and catalyst support to provide a high electronic conductivity network because of the high-orientation one-dimensional crystalline structure. Meanwhile, deposited icosahedral Pt3Cu nanocrystals exhibit highly efficient catalytic activity owing to the abundant {111} active lattice facets and multiple twin boundaries. This porous air electrode comprises a one-dimensional TiN@Pt3Cu nanowire array that demonstrates excellent energy conversion efficiency and rate performance in full discharge and charge modes. The discharge capacity is up to 4600 mAh g(-1) along with an 84% conversion efficiency at a current density of 0.2 mA cm(-2), and when the current density increased to 0.8 mA cm(-2), the discharge capacity is still greater than 3500 mAh g(-1) together with a nearly 70% efficiency. This designed array is a promising bifunctional porous air electrode for lithium-oxygen batteries, forming a continuous conductive and high catalytic activity network to facilitate rapid gas and electrolyte diffusion and catalytic reaction throughout the whole energy conversion process.

  11. Role of a distal pocket in the catalytic O2 reduction by cytochrome c oxidase models immobilized on interdigitated array electrodes.

    PubMed

    Collman, James P; Decréau, Richard A; Lin, Hengwei; Hosseini, Ali; Yang, Ying; Dey, Abhishek; Eberspacher, Todd A

    2009-05-05

    Five iron porphyrins with different superstructures were immobilized on self-assembled-monolayer (SAM)-coated interdigitated-array (IDAs) gold-platinum electrodes. The selectivity of the catalysts i.e., limited formation of partially reduced oxygen species (PROS) in the electrocatalytic reduction of dioxygen, is a function of 2 rates: (i) the rate of electron transfer from the electrode to the catalyst, which is controlled by the length, and conjugation of the linker from the catalyst to the electrode and (ii) the rate of bound oxygen (superoxide) hydrolysis, which correlates with the presence of a water cluster in the gas-binding pocket influencing the rate of oxygen binding; these factors are controlled by the nature of the porphyrin superstructure. The structurally biomimetic Tris-imidazole model is the most selective.

  12. Development of a multi-electrode array for spinal cord epidural stimulation to facilitate stepping and standing after a complete spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Gad, Parag; Choe, Jaehoon; Nandra, Mandheerej Singh; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R; Tai, Yu-Chong; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2013-01-21

    Stimulation of the spinal cord has been shown to have great potential for improving function after motor deficits caused by injury or pathological conditions. Using a wide range of animal models, many studies have shown that stimulation applied to the neural networks intrinsic to the spinal cord can result in a dramatic improvement of motor ability, even allowing an animal to step and stand after a complete spinal cord transection. Clinical use of this technology, however, has been slow to develop due to the invasive nature of the implantation procedures, the lack of versatility in conventional stimulation technology, and the difficulty of ascertaining specific sites of stimulation that would provide optimal amelioration of the motor deficits. Moreover, the development of tools available to control precise stimulation chronically via biocompatible electrodes has been limited. In this paper, we outline the development of this technology and its use in the spinal rat model, demonstrating the ability to identify and stimulate specific sites of the spinal cord to produce discrete motor behaviors in spinal rats using this array. We have designed a chronically implantable, rapidly switchable, high-density platinum based multi-electrode array that can be used to stimulate at 1-100 Hz and 1-10 V in both monopolar and bipolar configurations to examine the electrophysiological and behavioral effects of spinal cord epidural stimulation in complete spinal cord transected rats. In this paper, we have demonstrated the effectiveness of using high-resolution stimulation parameters in the context of improving motor recovery after a spinal cord injury. We observed that rats whose hindlimbs were paralyzed can stand and step when specific sets of electrodes of the array are stimulated tonically (40 Hz). Distinct patterns of stepping and standing were produced by stimulation of different combinations of electrodes on the array located at specific spinal cord levels and by specific

  13. Applications of a copper microparticle-modified carbon fiber microdisk array electrode for the simultaneous determination of aminoglycoside antibiotics by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yang, W C; Yu, A M; Chen, H Y

    2001-01-05

    A copper microparticle-modified carbon fiber microdisk array electrode was fabricated and employed in capillary electrophoresis for the simultaneous determination of the five aminoglycoside antibiotics (AGs) including netilmicin, tobramycin, lincomycin, kanamycin and amikacin. The array electrode exhibited high catalytic activity for AGs, good reproducibility and stability. Under the optimum separation conditions (separation voltage of 6.2 kV, electrophoretic medium of 125 mM NaOH), the five AGs above were baseline separated within 20 min. At a working electrode potential of 0.7 V (versus saturated calomel electrode), the calibration curves were linear over two orders of magnitude of concentration, and the detection limits (SIN=3) were below 2 microM except for lincomycin (6.7 microM). The developed method was successfully employed for the simultaneous determination of the five AGs studied in pharmaceutical injections. The feasibility of this method for the simultaneous determination of lincomycin, kanamycin and amikacin in urine sample was also demonstrated.

  14. Construction of Hierarchical CuO/Cu₂O@NiCo₂S₄ Nanowire Arrays on Copper Foam for High Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Luoxiao; He, Ying; Jia, Congpu; Pavlinek, Vladimir; Saha, Petr; Cheng, Qilin

    2017-09-15

    Hierarchical copper oxide @ ternary nickel cobalt sulfide (CuO/Cu₂O@NiCo₂S₄) core-shell nanowire arrays on Cu foam have been successfully constructed by a facile two-step strategy. Vertically aligned CuO/Cu₂O nanowire arrays are firstly grown on Cu foam by one-step thermal oxidation of Cu foam, followed by electrodeposition of NiCo₂S₄ nanosheets on the surface of CuO/Cu₂O nanowires to form the CuO/Cu₂O@NiCo₂S₄ core-shell nanostructures. Structural and morphological characterizations indicate that the average thickness of the NiCo₂S₄ nanosheets is ~20 nm and the diameter of CuO/Cu₂O core is ~50 nm. Electrochemical properties of the hierarchical composites as integrated binder-free electrodes for supercapacitor were evaluated by various electrochemical methods. The hierarchical composite electrodes could achieve ultrahigh specific capacitance of 3.186 F cm(-2) at 10 mA cm(-2), good rate capability (82.06% capacitance retention at the current density from 2 to 50 mA cm(-2)) and excellent cycling stability, with capacitance retention of 96.73% after 2000 cycles at 10 mA cm(-2). These results demonstrate the significance of optimized design and fabrication of electrode materials with more sufficient electrolyte-electrode interface, robust structural integrity and fast ion/electron transfer.

  15. Design, simulation and characterization of a MEMS inertia switch with flexible CNTs/Cu composite array layer between electrodes for prolonging contact time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Yang, Zhuoqing; Xu, Qiu; Chen, Wenguo; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports an inertia switch with a flexible carbon nanotubes/copper (CNTs/Cu) composite array layer between movable and fixed electrodes, which achieves a longer contact time compared to the traditional design using rigid-to-rigid impact between electrodes. The CNTs/Cu layer is fabricated using the composite electroplating method, and the whole device is completed by multi-layer metal electroplating based on the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) process. The dynamic responses of the designed inertia switch and the contact impact between a single CNT and a fixed electrode/another CNT have both been simulated by the ANSYS finite-element-method (FEM). It is shown that the contact time of the designed inertia switch is about 100 µs under the applied 80 g half-sine-shaped acceleration in the sensing direction. Finally, the fabricated MEMS inertia switch with the flexible CNTs/Cu composite array layer between electrodes has been evaluated by a dropping hammer system. The test contact time is about112 µs, which has a good agreement with the simulation and is much longer than that of the traditional design.

  16. Construction of Hierarchical CuO/Cu2O@NiCo2S4 Nanowire Arrays on Copper Foam for High Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Luoxiao; He, Ying; Jia, Congpu; Pavlinek, Vladimir; Saha, Petr; Cheng, Qilin

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchical copper oxide @ ternary nickel cobalt sulfide (CuO/Cu2O@NiCo2S4) core-shell nanowire arrays on Cu foam have been successfully constructed by a facile two-step strategy. Vertically aligned CuO/Cu2O nanowire arrays are firstly grown on Cu foam by one-step thermal oxidation of Cu foam, followed by electrodeposition of NiCo2S4 nanosheets on the surface of CuO/Cu2O nanowires to form the CuO/Cu2O@NiCo2S4 core-shell nanostructures. Structural and morphological characterizations indicate that the average thickness of the NiCo2S4 nanosheets is ~20 nm and the diameter of CuO/Cu2O core is ~50 nm. Electrochemical properties of the hierarchical composites as integrated binder-free electrodes for supercapacitor were evaluated by various electrochemical methods. The hierarchical composite electrodes could achieve ultrahigh specific capacitance of 3.186 F cm−2 at 10 mA cm−2, good rate capability (82.06% capacitance retention at the current density from 2 to 50 mA cm−2) and excellent cycling stability, with capacitance retention of 96.73% after 2000 cycles at 10 mA cm−2. These results demonstrate the significance of optimized design and fabrication of electrode materials with more sufficient electrolyte-electrode interface, robust structural integrity and fast ion/electron transfer. PMID:28914819

  17. High-density multielectrode array with independently maneuverable electrodes and silicone oil fluid isolation system for chronic recording from macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Naohisa; Katsumata, Noriko; Blake, David T; Merzenich, Michael M; Tanifuji, Manabu

    2012-10-15

    Chronic multielectrode recording has become a widely used technique in the past twenty years, and there are multiple standardized methods. As for recording with high-density array, the most common method in macaque monkeys is to use a subdural array with fixed electrodes. In this study, we utilized the electrode array with independently maneuverable electrodes arranged in high-density, which was originally designed for use on small animals, and redesigned it for use on macaque monkeys while maintaining the virtues of maneuverability and high-density. We successfully recorded single and multiunit activities from up to 49 channels in the V1 and inferior temporal (IT) cortex of macaque monkeys. The main change in the surgical procedure was to remove a 5 mm diameter area of dura mater. The main changes in the design were (1) to have a constricted layer of heavy silicone oil at the interface with the animal to isolate the electrical circuit from the cerebrospinal fluid, and (2) to have a fluid draining system that can shunt any potential postsurgical subcranial exudate to the extracranial space. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. In situ synthesis of porous array films on a filament induced micro-gap electrode pair and their use as resistance-type gas sensors with enhanced performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zongke; Duan, Guotao; Zhang, Hongwen; Wang, Yingying; Xu, Lei; Cai, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    Resistance-type metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors with high sensitivity and low detection limit have been explored for practical applications. They require both sensing films with high sensitivity to target gases and an appropriate structure of the electrode-equipped substrate to support the sensing films, which is still challenging. In this paper, a new gas sensor of metal-oxide porous array films on a micro-gap electrode pair is designed and implemented by taking ZnO as a model material. First, a micro-gap electrode pair was constructed by sputtering deposition on a filament template, which was used as the sensor's supporting substrate. Then, the sensing film, made up of ZnO porous periodic arrays, was in situ synthesized onto the supporting substrate by a solution-dipping colloidal lithography strategy. The results demonstrated the validity of the strategy, and the as-designed sensor shows a small device-resistance, an enhanced sensing performance with high resolution and an ultralow detection limit. This work provides an alternative method to promote the practical application of resistance-type gas sensors.Resistance-type metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors with high sensitivity and low detection limit have been explored for practical applications. They require both sensing films with high sensitivity to target gases and an appropriate structure of the electrode-equipped substrate to support the sensing films, which is still challenging. In this paper, a new gas sensor of metal-oxide porous array films on a micro-gap electrode pair is designed and implemented by taking ZnO as a model material. First, a micro-gap electrode pair was constructed by sputtering deposition on a filament template, which was used as the sensor's supporting substrate. Then, the sensing film, made up of ZnO porous periodic arrays, was in situ synthesized onto the supporting substrate by a solution-dipping colloidal lithography strategy. The results demonstrated the validity of the

  19. Feasibility of anomaly detection and characterization using trans-admittance mammography with 60 × 60 electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingkang; Wi, Hun; Lee, Eun Jung; Woo, Eung Je; In Oh, Tong

    2014-10-01

    Electrical impedance imaging has the potential to detect an early stage of breast cancer due to higher admittivity values compared with those of normal breast tissues. The tumor size and extent of axillary lymph node involvement are important parameters to evaluate the breast cancer survival rate. Additionally, the anomaly characterization is required to distinguish a malignant tumor from a benign tumor. In order to overcome the limitation of breast cancer detection using impedance measurement probes, we developed the high density trans-admittance mammography (TAM) system with 60 × 60 electrode array and produced trans-admittance maps obtained at several frequency pairs. We applied the anomaly detection algorithm to the high density TAM system for estimating the volume and position of breast tumor. We tested four different sizes of anomaly with three different conductivity contrasts at four different depths. From multifrequency trans-admittance maps, we can readily observe the transversal position and estimate its volume and depth. Specially, the depth estimated values were obtained accurately, which were independent to the size and conductivity contrast when applying the new formula using Laplacian of trans-admittance map. The volume estimation was dependent on the conductivity contrast between anomaly and background in the breast phantom. We characterized two testing anomalies using frequency difference trans-admittance data to eliminate the dependency of anomaly position and size. We confirmed the anomaly detection and characterization algorithm with the high density TAM system on bovine breast tissue. Both results showed the feasibility of detecting the size and position of anomaly and tissue characterization for screening the breast cancer.

  20. Rapid Neuronal Differentiation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for Measuring Network Activity on Micro-electrode Arrays.

    PubMed

    Frega, Monica; van Gestel, Sebastianus H C; Linda, Katrin; van der Raadt, Jori; Keller, Jason; Van Rhijn, Jon-Ruben; Schubert, Dirk; Albers, Cornelis A; Nadif Kasri, Nael

    2017-01-08

    Neurons derived from human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (hiPSCs) provide a promising new tool for studying neurological disorders. In the past decade, many protocols for differentiating hiPSCs into neurons have been developed. However, these protocols are often slow with high variability, low reproducibility, and low efficiency. In addition, the neurons obtained with these protocols are often immature and lack adequate functional activity both at the single-cell and network levels unless the neurons are cultured for several months. Partially due to these limitations, the functional properties of hiPSC-derived neuronal networks are still not well characterized. Here, we adapt a recently published protocol that describes production of human neurons from hiPSCs by forced expression of the transcription factor neurogenin-2(12). This protocol is rapid (yielding mature neurons within 3 weeks) and efficient, with nearly 100% conversion efficiency of transduced cells (>95% of DAPI-positive cells are MAP2 positive). Furthermore, the protocol yields a homogeneous population of excitatory neurons that would allow the investigation of cell-type specific contributions to neurological disorders. We modified the original protocol by generating stably transduced hiPSC cells, giving us explicit control over the total number of neurons. These cells are then used to generate hiPSC-derived neuronal networks on micro-electrode arrays. In this way, the spontaneous electrophysiological activity of hiPSC-derived neuronal networks can be measured and characterized, while retaining interexperimental consistency in terms of cell density. The presented protocol is broadly applicable, especially for mechanistic and pharmacological studies on human neuronal networks.

  1. Interfacing 3D Engineered Neuronal Cultures to Micro-Electrode Arrays: An Innovative In Vitro Experimental Model.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Mariateresa; Frega, Monica; Martinoia, Sergio; Pesce, Mattia; Massobrio, Paolo

    2015-10-18

    Currently, large-scale networks derived from dissociated neurons growing and developing in vitro on extracellular micro-transducer devices are the gold-standard experimental model to study basic neurophysiological mechanisms involved in the formation and maintenance of neuronal cell assemblies. However, in vitro studies have been limited to the recording of the electrophysiological activity generated by bi-dimensional (2D) neural networks. Nonetheless, given the intricate relationship between structure and dynamics, a significant improvement is necessary to investigate the formation and the developing dynamics of three-dimensional (3D) networks. In this work, a novel experimental platform in which 3D hippocampal or cortical networks are coupled to planar Micro-Electrode Arrays (MEAs) is presented. 3D networks are realized by seeding neurons in a scaffold constituted of glass microbeads (30-40 µm in diameter) on which neurons are able to grow and form complex interconnected 3D assemblies. In this way, it is possible to design engineered 3D networks made up of 5-8 layers with an expected final cell density. The increasing complexity in the morphological organization of the 3D assembly induces an enhancement of the electrophysiological patterns displayed by this type of networks. Compared with the standard 2D networks, where highly stereotyped bursting activity emerges, the 3D structure alters the bursting activity in terms of duration and frequency, as well as it allows observation of more random spiking activity. In this sense, the developed 3D model more closely resembles in vivo neural networks.

  2. Microchip device with 64-site electrode array for multiplexed immunoassay of cell surface antigens based on electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mei-Sheng; Shi, Hai-Wei; He, Li-Jing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a novel on-chip microarray platform based on an electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) strategy for rapid assay of cancer cell surface biomarkers. This platform consists of 64 antigen-decorated CdS nanorod spots with the diameter of 1.0 cm uniformly distributed on 16 indium tin oxide (ITO) strips, which is coated with a multichannel decorated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slice to realize multiplexed determination of antigens. To shorten the immune reaction time in the microchannels and simplify the device, magnetic stirring and four-channel universal serial bus (USB) ports for plug-and-play were used. When Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) labeled antibodies were selectively captured by the corresponding antigens on the CdS nanorod spot array, ECL-RET from the CdS nanorod (donor) by cathodic emission in the presence of K(2)S(2)O(8) to Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) (acceptor) occurred. With signal amplification of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) and competitive immunoassay, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), α-fetoprotein (AFP), and prostate specific antigen (PSA) as models were detected on this microfluidic device via recording the increased ECL-RET signals on electrode surfaces. Furthermore, this multiplexed competitive immunoassay was successfully used for detecting cancer cell surface antigens via the specific antibody-cell interactions and cell counting via cell surface receptors and antigens on the CdS nanorod surface. This platform provides a rapid and simple but sensitive approach with microliter-level sample volume and holds great promise for multiplexed detection of antigens and antigen-specific cells.

  3. Decline of Low-Frequency Hearing in People With Ski-Slope Hearing Loss; Implications for Electrode Array Insertion.

    PubMed

    Schuurbiers, Jasper; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Metselaar, Mick

    2017-10-04

    The decline of low-frequency hearing in people with ski-slope hearing loss varies and might depend on etiology. People with ski-sloping hearing loss might benefit from cochlear implantation with preservation of residual hearing. To reduce the risk of losing low-frequency hearing after implantation, the electrode-array can be inserted partially up to the desired frequency. That, however, obstructs electrical stimulation of lower frequencies. To decide between complete or partial insertion, knowledge regarding the natural decline of low-frequency hearing is helpful. Patients with at least two ski-slope audiograms over time were selected. We calculated progression at lower frequencies for 320 patients. Etiologies for hearing loss were retrieved from medical records. Progression of hearing loss was analyzed separately for patients with uni- and bilateral hearing losses. Relative progression of hearing loss was obtained by comparing progression to a reference group. Average progression of PTA was 1.73 dB/yr and was not significantly different in the bilateral and unilateral group. Etiologies that did not show significantly more progression compared with the reference group could be identified as single or short-lasting pathologic events, whereas long-lasting conditions had significant more progression of PTA. Patients with a ski-slope hearing loss that was caused by a single or short-lasting event have low progression rate and are viable for partial insertion to minimize the risk of damaging residual low-frequency hearing. In the absence of such an event, complete insertion should be considered because faster than normal deterioration of low-frequency hearing over time will probably limit the advantage of preservation of residual hearing.

  4. Firing properties and functional connectivity of substantia nigra pars compacta neurones recorded with a multi-electrode array in vitro.

    PubMed

    Berretta, Nicola; Bernardi, Giorgio; Mercuri, Nicola B

    2010-05-15

    Dopamine (DA) neurones of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are involved in a wide variety of functions, including motor control and reward-based learning. In order to gain new insights into the firing properties of neuronal ensembles in the SNc, we recorded extracellular single units from spontaneously active neurones, using a multi-electrode array (MEA) device in midbrain slices. The majority of neurones (50.21%) had a low firing frequency (1-3 Hz) and a stable pacemaker-like pattern, while others (44.84%) were irregular, but still firing at a low rate. The remaining population (4.95%) comprised neurones with a regular higher firing rate (5-10 Hz). High rate neurones, on the whole, were insensitive to DA (30 mum), while low rate neurones were mostly inhibited by DA, although responding either with a prominent or a weak inhibition. However, we recorded low rate regular neurones that were insensitive to DA, or irregular low rate neurones excited by DA. Interestingly, we found pairs of active neurones (12.10 +/- 3.14%) with a significant proportion of spikes occurring synchronously. Moreover, the crosscorrelation probability in each pair tended to increase in response to DA. In conclusion, MEA recordings in midbrain slices reveal a much more complex picture than previously reported with regard to the firing pattern and DA sensitivity of spontaneously active SNc neurones. Moreover, the study opens new prospectives for the in vitro investigation of functional connectivity in the midbrain dopaminergic system, thus proposing new targets for the pharmacological treatment of DA-dependent neurological disorders.

  5. Firing properties and functional connectivity of substantia nigra pars compacta neurones recorded with a multi-electrode array in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Nicola; Bernardi, Giorgio; Mercuri, Nicola B

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurones of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are involved in a wide variety of functions, including motor control and reward-based learning. In order to gain new insights into the firing properties of neuronal ensembles in the SNc, we recorded extracellular single units from spontaneously active neurones, using a multi-electrode array (MEA) device in midbrain slices. The majority of neurones (50.21%) had a low firing frequency (1–3 Hz) and a stable pacemaker-like pattern, while others (44.84%) were irregular, but still firing at a low rate. The remaining population (4.95%) comprised neurones with a regular higher firing rate (5–10 Hz). High rate neurones, on the whole, were insensitive to DA (30 μm), while low rate neurones were mostly inhibited by DA, although responding either with a prominent or a weak inhibition. However, we recorded low rate regular neurones that were insensitive to DA, or irregular low rate neurones excited by DA. Interestingly, we found pairs of active neurones (12.10 ± 3.14%) with a significant proportion of spikes occurring synchronously. Moreover, the crosscorrelation probability in each pair tended to increase in response to DA. In conclusion, MEA recordings in midbrain slices reveal a much more complex picture than previously reported with regard to the firing pattern and DA sensitivity of spontaneously active SNc neurones. Moreover, the study opens new prospectives for the in vitro investigation of functional connectivity in the midbrain dopaminergic system, thus proposing new targets for the pharmacological treatment of DA-dependent neurological disorders. PMID:20351050

  6. Novel modulatory effects of neurosteroids and benzodiazepines on excitatory and inhibitory neurons excitability: a multi-electrode array recording study

    PubMed Central

    Puia, Giulia; Gullo, Francesca; Dossi, Elena; Lecchi, Marzia; Wanke, Enzo

    2012-01-01

    The balance between glutamate- and GABA-mediated neurotransmission in the brain is fundamental in the nervous system, but it is regulated by the “tonic” release of a variety of endogenous factors. One such important group of molecules are the neurosteroids (NSs) which, similarly to benzodiazepines (BDZs), enhance GABAergic neurotransmission. The purpose of our work was to investigate, at in vivo physiologically relevant concentrations, the effects of NSs and BDZs as GABA modulators on dissociated neocortical neuron networks grown in long-term culture. We used a multi-electrode array (MEA) recording technique and a novel analysis that was able to both identify the action potentials of engaged excitatory and inhibitory neurons and to detect drug-induced network up-states (burst). We found that the NSs tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) and allopregnanolone (ALLO) applied at low nanomolar concentrations, produced different modulatory effects on the two neuronal clusters. Conversely, at high concentrations (1 μM), both NSs, decreased excitatory and inhibitory neuron cluster excitability; however, even several hours after wash-out, the excitability of inhibitory neurons continued to be depressed, leading to a network long-term depression (LTD). The BDZs clonazepam (CLZ) and midazolam (MDZ) also decreased the network excitability, but only MDZ caused LTD of inhibitory neuron cluster. To investigate the origin of the LTD after MDZ application, we tested finasteride (FIN), an inhibitor of endogenous NSs synthesis. FIN did not prevent the LTD induced by MDZ, but surprisingly induced it after application of CLZ. The significance and possible mechanisms underlying these LTD effects of NSs and BDZs are discussed. Taken together, our results not only demonstrate that ex vivo networks show a sensitivity to NSs and BDZs comparable to that expressed in vivo, but also provide a new global in vitro description that can help in understanding their activity in more complex

  7. Temporal relation between neural activity and neurite pruning on a numerical model and a microchannel device with micro electrode array.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yohei; Yada, Yuichiro; Haga, Tatsuya; Takayama, Yuzo; Isomura, Takuya; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Fukayama, Osamu; Hoshino, Takayuki; Mabuchi, Kunihiko

    2017-04-29

    Synapse elimination and neurite pruning are essential processes for the formation of neuronal circuits. These regressive events depend on neural activity and occur in the early postnatal days known as the critical period, but what makes this temporal specificity is not well understood. One possibility is that the neural activities during the developmentally regulated shift of action of GABA inhibitory transmission lead to the critical period. Moreover, it has been reported that the shifting action of the inhibitory transmission on immature neurons overlaps with synapse elimination and neurite pruning and that increased inhibitory transmission by drug treatment could induce temporal shift of the critical period. However, the relationship among these phenomena remains unclear because it is difficult to experimentally show how the developmental shift of inhibitory transmission influences neural activities and whether the activities promote synapse elimination and neurite pruning. In this study, we modeled synapse elimination in neuronal circuits using the modified Izhikevich's model with functional shifting of GABAergic transmission. The simulation results show that synaptic pruning within a specified period like the critical period is spontaneously generated as a function of the developmentally shifting inhibitory transmission and that the specific firing rate and increasing synchronization of neural circuits are seen at the initial stage of the critical period. This temporal relationship was experimentally supported by an in vitro primary culture of rat cortical neurons in a microchannel on a multi-electrode array (MEA). The firing rate decreased remarkably between the 18-25 days in vitro (DIV), and following these changes in the firing rate, the neurite density was slightly reduced. Our simulation and experimental results suggest that decreasing neural activity due to developing inhibitory synaptic transmission could induce synapse elimination and neurite pruning

  8. Feasibility of anomaly detection and characterization using trans-admittance mammography with 60 × 60 electrode array.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingkang; Wi, Hun; Lee, Eun Jung; Woo, Eung Je; Oh, Tong In

    2014-10-07

    Electrical impedance imaging has the potential to detect an early stage of breast cancer due to higher admittivity values compared with those of normal breast tissues. The tumor size and extent of axillary lymph node involvement are important parameters to evaluate the breast cancer survival rate. Additionally, the anomaly characterization is required to distinguish a malignant tumor from a benign tumor. In order to overcome the limitation of breast cancer detection using impedance measurement probes, we developed the high density trans-admittance mammography (TAM) system with 60 × 60 electrode array and produced trans-admittance maps obtained at several frequency pairs. We applied the anomaly detection algorithm to the high density TAM system for estimating the volume and position of breast tumor. We tested four different sizes of anomaly with three different conductivity contrasts at four different depths. From multifrequency trans-admittance maps, we can readily observe the transversal position and estimate its volume and depth. Specially, the depth estimated values were obtained accurately, which were independent to the size and conductivity contrast when applying the new formula using Laplacian of trans-admittance map. The volume estimation was dependent on the conductivity contrast between anomaly and background in the breast phantom. We characterized two testing anomalies using frequency difference trans-admittance data to eliminate the dependency of anomaly position and size. We confirmed the anomaly detection and characterization algorithm with the high density TAM system on bovine breast tissue. Both results showed the feasibility of detecting the size and position of anomaly and tissue characterization for screening the breast cancer.

  9. Effect of synthetic cannabinoids on spontaneous neuronal activity: Evaluation using Ca(2+) spiking and multi-electrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Tauskela, Joseph S; Comas, Tanya; Hewitt, Melissa; Aylsworth, Amy; Zhao, Xigeng; Martina, Marzia; Costain, Willard J

    2016-09-05

    Activation of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) inhibits synaptic transmission in hippocampal neurons. The goal of this study was to evaluate the ability of benchmark and emerging synthetic cannabinoids to suppress neuronal activity in vitro using two complementary techniques, Ca(2+) spiking and multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). Neuron culture and fluorescence imaging conditions were extensively optimized to provide maximum sensitivity for detection of suppression of neural activity by cannabinoids. The neuronal Ca(2+) spiking frequency was significantly suppressed within 10min by the prototypic aminoalkylindole cannabinoid, WIN 55,212-2 (10µM). Suppression by WIN 55,212-2 was not improved by pharmacological intervention with signaling pathways known to interfere with CB1 signaling. The naphthoylindole CB1 agonist, JWH-018 suppressed Ca(2+) spiking at a lower concentration (2.5µM), and the CB1 antagonist rimonabant (5µM), reversed this suppression. In the MEA assay, the ability of synthetic CB1 agonists to suppress spontaneous electrical activity of hippocampal neurons was evaluated over 80min sessions. All benchmark (WIN 55,212-2, HU-210, CP 55,940 and JWH-018) and emerging synthetic cannabinoids (XLR-11, JWH-250, 5F-PB-22, AB-PINACA and MAM-2201) suppressed neural activity at a concentration of 10µM; furthermore, several of these compounds also significantly suppressed activity at 1µM concentrations. Rimonabant partially reversed spiking suppression of 5F-PB-22 and, to a lesser extent, of MAM-2201, supporting CB1-mediated involvement, although the inactive WIN 55,212-3 also partially suppressed activity. Taken together, synthetic cannabinoid CB1-mediated suppression of neuronal activity was detected using Ca(2+) spiking and MEAs. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Robust electrodes based on coaxial TiC/C-MnO2 core/shell nanofiber arrays with excellent cycling stability for high-performance supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuming; Peng, Xiang; Li, Wan; Li, Limin; Gao, Biao; Wu, Guosong; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2015-04-17

    A coaxial electrode structure composed of manganese oxide-decorated TiC/C core/shell nanofiber arrays is produced hydrothermally in a KMnO4 solution. The pristine TiC/C core/shell structure prepared on the Ti alloy substrate provides the self-sacrificing carbon shell and highly conductive TiC core, thus greatly simplifying the fabrication process without requiring an additional reduction source and conductive additive. The as-prepared electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance of 645 F g(-1) at a discharging current density of 1 A g(-1) attributable to the highly conductive TiC/C and amorphous MnO2 shell with fast ion diffusion. In the charging/discharging cycling test, the as-prepared electrode shows high stability and 99% capacity retention after 5000 cycles. Although the thermal treatment conducted on the as-prepared electrode decreases the initial capacitance, the electrode undergoes capacitance recovery through structural transformation from the crystalline cluster to layered birnessite type MnO2 nanosheets as a result of dissolution and further electrodeposition in the cycling. 96.5% of the initial capacitance is retained after 1000 cycles at high charging/discharging current density of 25 A g(-1). This study demonstrates a novel scaffold to construct MnO2 based SCs with high specific capacitance as well as excellent mechanical and cycling stability boding well for future design of high-performance MnO2-based SCs.

  11. Free-standing Pt@RuO2·xH2O nanorod arrays on Si wafers as electrodes for methanol electro-oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guangyu; Zhang, Li; Sun, Kening; Li, Hulin

    2014-01-01

    RuO2·xH2O nanorod arrays free-standing on Si wafers are prepared by an anodic aluminum oxide template assistant method. Pt nanograins in the size of 3-5 nm are deposited on the RuO2·xH2O nanorod arrays uniformly by a cool sputtering approach. Electrochemical measurements indicate that, the Pt@RuO2·xH2O nanorod arrays have larger electrochemical active areas (EAAs) and better poisoning resistant ability for methanol electro-oxidation, compared with Pt nanograins that deposited on Ti wafers directly (named Pt/Ti). The EAAs of Pt@RuO2·xH2O and Pt/Ti electrodes are 40.6 and 31.1 m2 g-1, respectively. The poisoning rate of Pt@RuO2·xH2O arrays is 8.9 × 10-4% per second, much smaller than that of Pt/Ti electrodes (3.4 × 10-3% per second).

  12. Highly ordered MnO{sub 2} nanowire array thin films on Ti/Si substrate as an electrode for electrochemical capacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Cailing . E-mail: xucl01@163.com; Bao Shujuan; Kong Lingbin; Li Hua; Li Hulin . E-mail: lihl@lzu.edu.cn

    2006-05-15

    AAO/Ti/Si substrate was successfully synthesized by a two-step electrochemical anodization of the aluminum film on the Ti/Si substrate and then used as template to grow nanowire arrays. The ordered MnO{sub 2} nanowire arrays with about 40 nm diameters had been directly fabricated on AAO/Ti/Si substrate by direct current (DC) electrodeposition. The microstructure of the nanowire arrays was investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Their electrochemical characterization was performed using cyclic voltammetry in 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous solution. The synthesized MnO{sub 2} nanowires had amorphous nature until 400 deg. C. The deal capacitive behavior was obtained when the as-prepared sample was heat-treated at 200 deg. C. The specific capacitance of the electrode was about 254 F/g.

  13. Hierarchical 3-dimensional nickel-iron nanosheet arrays on carbon fiber paper as a novel electrode for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Palanisamy; Maiyalagan, Thandavarayan; Marsili, Enrico; Ghosh, Srabanti; Niedziolka-Jönsson, Joanna; Jönsson-Niedziolka, Martin

    2016-01-14

    Three-dimensional nickel-iron (3-D/Ni-Fe) nanostructures are exciting candidates for various applications because they produce more reaction-active sites than 1-D and 2-D nanostructured materials and exhibit attractive optical, electrical and catalytic properties. In this work, freestanding 3-D/Ni-Fe interconnected hierarchical nanosheets, hierarchical nanospheres, and porous nanospheres are directly grown on a flexible carbon fiber paper (CFP) substrate by a single-step hydrothermal process. Among the nanostructures, 3-D/Ni-Fe interconnected hierarchical nanosheets show excellent electrochemical properties because of its high conductivity, large specific active surface area, and mesopores on its walls (vide infra). The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet array modified CFP substrate is further explored as a novel electrode for electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensor application. The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays exhibit significant catalytic activity towards the electrochemical oxidation of glucose, as compared to the 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanospheres, and porous nanospheres. The 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays can access a large amount of glucose molecules on their surface (mesopore walls) for an efficient electrocatalytic oxidation process. Moreover, 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays showed higher sensitivity (7.90 μA μM(-1) cm(-2)) with wide linear glucose concentration ranging from 0.05 μM to 0.2 mM, and the low detection limit (LOD) of 0.031 μM (S/N = 3) is achieved by the amperometry method. Further, the 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet array modified CFP electrode can be demonstrated to have excellent selectivity towards the detection of glucose in the presence of 500-fold excess of major important interferents. All these results indicate that 3-D/Ni-Fe hierarchical nanosheet arrays are promising candidates for non-enzymatic glucose sensing.

  14. Enhanced Sensitivity for Electrochemical Detection Using Screen-Printed Diamond Electrodes via the Random Microelectrode Array Effect.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takeshi; Udagawa, Ikuto; Aikawa, Tatsuo; Sakamoto, Hironori; Shitanda, Isao; Hoshi, Yoshinao; Itagaki, Masayuki; Yuasa, Makoto

    2016-02-02

    The electrochemical properties of screen-printed diamond electrodes with various insulating polyester (PES) resin binder/boron-doped diamond powder (BDDP) ratios were investigated for high sensitivity electrochemical detection. For PES/BDDP weight ratios in the range of 0.3-0.5, the BDDP-printed electrodes exhibited cyclic voltammetry (CV) characteristics for Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) that are typical of a planar electrode, whereas microelectrode-like characteristics with sigmoidal CV curves were observed for PES/BDDP ratios of 1.0-2.0. Cu elemental mapping images of copper-electrodeposited BDDP-printed electrodes indicated the formation of island structures with conductive BDDP domains surrounded by an insulating PES matrix for large PES/BDDP ratios. The electrochemical detection of ascorbic acid (AA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was also investigated using polycrystalline BDD thin-film and BDDP-printed electrodes (PES/BDDP ratio = 0.3 and 1.0). As a result, the signal-to-background (S/B) ratios for the voltammetric detection of AA and 8-OHdG were in the order BDDP-printed electrode (PES/BDDP = 1.0) > BDDP-printed electrode (PES/BDDP = 0.3) > polycrystalline BDD thin film electrode, based on the large faradaic current with respect to the background current. Therefore, the BDDP-printed electrode with a large insulating binder/BDDP ratio has the potential for use as a disposable electrode for electrochemical detection. The electrode is cheaper, lighter and more sensitive than conventional BDD electrodes.

  15. Novel molecularly imprinted stir bar sorptive extraction based on an 8-electrode array for preconcentration of trace exogenous estrogens in meat.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Li; Gan, Ning; Wang, Jiayu; Gao, Huiju; Hu, Futao; Wang, Hongfei; Li, Tianhua

    2015-01-01

    A novel 8-electrode array as stir bar was designed for selective extraction of trace level exogenous estrogens from food samples, followed by liquid desorption and HPLC-photodiode array detection. The array consisted of 8 screen-printed electrodes and each electrode was modified with Fe3O4@meso-/macroporous TiO2 microspheres and molecularly imprinted film (m-TiMIF). The fabrication of the imprinted film coating was very simple without organic solvents and chemical grafting. Both bisphenol A (BPA) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) were employed as templates in m-TiMIF fabrication in order to enrich both targets simultaneously. Interestingly, the imprinted stir bar array showed higher extraction capacity and selectivity for BPA and DES than the non-imprinted counterpart. Meanwhile, it exhibited fast adsorption and desorption kinetics due to increased mass transport in the ultra-thin film. Importantly, the m-TiMIF coating was robust enough for at least 20 uses without obvious alteration in extraction performance. The main parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, including stir speeding, sample pH, ionic strength, extraction time, desorption solvent and time, were optimized. Under optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (S/N=3) of the developed method were 0.28 and 0.47 μg L(-1) for BPA and DES respectively, with enrichment factors of 32.6 and 52.8-fold. The linear ranges were 3.0-1500 μg L(-1) and 4.0-1500 μg L(-1) for BPA and DES, respectively. The m-TiMIF-coating conferred better recovery and selectivity, compared with the commercial stir bar coating. The new method was successfully applied to assess BPA and DES in pork and chicken samples with satisfactory recovery.

  16. Reconstruction of TiO2/MnO2-C nanotube/nanoflake core/shell arrays as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Qinqin; Zheng, Cun; Chi, Hongzhong; Zhang, Jun; Ji, Zhenguo

    2017-02-01

    Construction of electrodes with fast reaction kinetics is of great importance for achieving advanced supercapacitors. Herein we report a facile combined synthetic strategy with atomic layer deposition (ALD) and electrodeposition to rationally fabricate nanotube/nanoflake core/shell arrays. ALD-TiO2 nanotubes are used as the skeleton core for assembly of electrodeposited MnO2-C nanoflake shells forming a core/shell structure. Highly porous architecture and good electrical conductivity are combined in this unique core/shell structure, resulting in fast ion/electron transfer. In tests of electrochemical performance, the TiO2/MnO2-C core/shell arrays are characterized as cathode for asymmetric supecapacitors and exhibit high specific capacitance (880 F g-1 at 2.5 A g-1), excellent rate properties (735 F g-1 at 30 A g-1) and good long-term cycling stability (94.3% capacitance retention after 20 000 cycles). The proposed electrode construction strategy is favorable for fabrication of other advanced supercapacitor electrodes.

  17. Reconstruction of TiO2/MnO2-C nanotube/nanoflake core/shell arrays as high-performance supercapacitor electrodes.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qinqin; Zheng, Cun; Chi, Hongzhong; Zhang, Jun; Ji, Zhenguo

    2017-02-03

    Construction of electrodes with fast reaction kinetics is of great importance for achieving advanced supercapacitors. Herein we report a facile combined synthetic strategy with atomic layer deposition (ALD) and electrodeposition to rationally fabricate nanotube/nanoflake core/shell arrays. ALD-TiO2 nanotubes are used as the skeleton core for assembly of electrodeposited MnO2-C nanoflake shells forming a core/shell structure. Highly porous architecture and good electrical conductivity are combined in this unique core/shell structure, resulting in fast ion/electron transfer. In tests of electrochemical performance, the TiO2/MnO2-C core/shell arrays are characterized as cathode for asymmetric supecapacitors and exhibit high specific capacitance (880 F g(-1) at 2.5 A g(-1)), excellent rate properties (735 F g(-1) at 30 A g(-1)) and good long-term cycling stability (94.3% capacitance retention after 20 000 cycles). The proposed electrode construction strategy is favorable for fabrication of other advanced supercapacitor electrodes.

  18. Imaging of cochlear implant electrode array with flat-detector CT and conventional multislice CT: comparison of image quality and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Struffert, Tobias; Hertel, Victoria; Kyriakou, Yannis; Krause, Jens; Engelhorn, Tobias; Schick, Bernhard; Iro, Heinrich; Hornung, Joachim; Doerfler, Arnd

    2010-04-01

    Cochlear implantation assessment is possible using commercially available standard flat-detector computed tomography (FD-CT) protocols. Image quality is superior to multislice CT (MSCT). The radiation dose of FD-CT is lower in comparison with MSCT standard protocols and may therefore overcome the limitations of MSCT in the evaluation of cochlear implants. FD-CT offers higher spatial resolution than MSCT. Our objective was to compare the image quality of FD-CT to conventional MSCT in the visualization of a cochlear implant electrode array with respect to radiation exposure. An isolated temporal bone specimen was scanned using a commercially available FD-CT system and a 4 and 64 row MSCT scanner. Different scanning protocols were used. Image quality was assessed by four independent readers using a scoring system with different criteria describing delineation of the cochlea and the electrode array, image noise and spatial resolution. Radiation dose was measured using the CT dose index (CTDI) and a 16 cm acrylic phantom. Image quality was rated superior for FD-CT for all criteria by all readers. Single electrode contacts were only visible in FD-CT and assessment of implant position was improved by FD-CT. The radiation dose of FD-CT was half that of MSCT standard protocols.

  19. In situ synthesis of porous array films on a filament induced micro-gap electrode pair and their use as resistance-type gas sensors with enhanced performances.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zongke; Duan, Guotao; Zhang, Hongwen; Wang, Yingying; Xu, Lei; Cai, Weiping

    2015-09-14

    Resistance-type metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors with high sensitivity and low detection limit have been explored for practical applications. They require both sensing films with high sensitivity to target gases and an appropriate structure of the electrode-equipped substrate to support the sensing films, which is still challenging. In this paper, a new gas sensor of metal-oxide porous array films on a micro-gap electrode pair is designed and implemented by taking ZnO as a model material. First, a micro-gap electrode pair was constructed by sputtering deposition on a filament template, which was used as the sensor's supporting substrate. Then, the sensing film, made up of ZnO porous periodic arrays, was in situ synthesized onto the supporting substrate by a solution-dipping colloidal lithography strategy. The results demonstrated the validity of the strategy, and the as-designed sensor shows a small device-resistance, an enhanced sensing performance with high resolution and an ultralow detection limit. This work provides an alternative method to promote the practical application of resistance-type gas sensors.

  20. Noninvasive estimation of the location of the end plate in the human masseter muscle using surface electromyograms with an electrode array.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, S; Tokunaga, T; Baba, S; Tanaka, M; Kawazoe, T

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the location of the end plate in the masseter muscle, and to decide the appropriate position of surface electrodes for recording electromyograms (EMG) in humans. The subjects were 16 males who had no signs or symptoms of muscular disease. Identical electrode arrays were placed on the masseter muscles on each side. Each subject was asked to clench in the intercuspal position at various levels of maximum EMG amplitude. Eleven amplified EMGs were monitored simultaneously using a linear electrode array consisting of 12 stainless steel contacts. Various values were observed in different regions of the masseter muscle for the root mean square rectified EMG during brief isometric contraction. The superior region of the muscle had lower values than the inferior. The end-plate zone, which is in the center of the lower half of the masseter muscle, showed a lower amplitude than other regions. The propagation of motor unit action potentials was also observed. It was concluded that, aside from the end-plate zone, a position within the lower half of the muscle was most suitable for recording the surface EMG of the masseter muscle.

  1. Review of machine learning and signal processing techniques for automated electrode selection in high-density microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Van Dijck, Gert; Van Hulle, Marc M

    2014-08-01

    Recently developed CMOS-based microprobes contain hundreds of electrodes on a single shaft with interelectrode distances as small as 30 µm. So far, neuroscientists manually select a subset of those electrodes depending on their appraisal of the "usefulness" of the recorded signals, which makes the process subjective but more importantly too time consuming to be useable in practice. The ever-increasing number of recording electrodes on microelectrode probes calls for an automated selection of electrodes containing "good quality signals" or "signals of interest." This article reviews the different criteria for electrode selection as well as the basic signal processing steps to prepare the data to compute those criteria. We discuss three of them. The first two select the electrodes based on "signal quality." The first criterion computes the penalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); the second criterion models the neuroscientist's appraisal of signal quality. Last, our most recent work allows the selection of electrodes that capture particular anatomical cell types. The discussed algorithms perform what is called in the literature "electronic depth control" in contrast to the mechanical repositioning of the electrode shafts in search of "good quality signals" or "signals of interest."

  2. Advanced LSI-based amperometric sensor array with light-shielding structure for effective removal of photocurrent and mode selectable function for individual operation of 400 electrodes.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kumi Y; Matsudaira, Masahki; Nakano, Masanori; Ino, Kosuke; Sakamoto, Chika; Kanno, Yusuke; Kubo, Reyushi; Kunikata, Ryota; Kira, Atsushi; Suda, Atsushi; Tsurumi, Ryota; Shioya, Toshihito; Yoshida, Shinya; Muroyama, Masanori; Ishikawa, Tomohiro; Shiku, Hitoshi; Satoh, Shiro; Esashi, Masayoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2015-02-07

    We have developed a large-scale integrated (LSI) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based amperometric sensor array system called "Bio-LSI" as a platform for electrochemical bio-imaging and multi-point biosensing with 400 measurement points. In this study, we newly developed a Bio-LSI chip with a light-shield structure and a mode-selectable function with the aim of extending the application range of Bio-LSI. The light shield created by the top metal layer of the LSI chip significantly reduces the noise generated by the photocurrent, whose value is less than 1% of the previous Bio-LSI without the light shield. The mode-selectable function enables the individual operation of 400 electrodes in off, electrometer, V1, and V2 mode. The off-mode cuts the electrode from the electric circuit. The electrometer-mode reads out the electrode potential. The V1-mode and the V2-mode set the selected sensor electrode at two different independent voltages and read out the current. We demonstrated the usefulness of the mode-selectable function. First, we displayed a dot picture based on the redox reactions of 2.0 mM ferrocenemethanol at 400 electrodes by applying two different independent voltages using the V1 and V2 modes. Second, we carried out a simultaneous detection of O2 and H2O2 using the V1 and V2 modes. Third, we used the off and V1 modes for the modification of the osmium-polyvinylpyridine gel polymer containing horseradish peroxidase (Os-HRP) at the selected electrodes, which act as sensors for H2O2. These results confirm that the advanced version of Bio-LSI is a promising tool that can be applied to a wide range of analytical fields.

  3. Percutaneous Retrieval of a Radiolucent Foreign Body from an EVAR Device by Combining Different Image Modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Barbiero, Giulio; Cognolato, Diego; Polverosi, Roberta; Guarise, Alessandro

    2009-07-15

    Percutaneous extraction techniques are an established method for removing endovascular foreign bodies. Generally, the foreign body to be removed is radiopaque (i.e., catheter and guidewire fragments, vena cava filters, embolization coils, endovascular stents). We propose an application of these techniques to remove a radiolucent foreign body (i.e., pigtail cover) by means of a combination of different imaging techniques (fluoroscopy, digital subtraction angiography, ultrasound, and computed axial tomography).

  4. Focal intratendinous radiolucency: A new radiographic method for diagnosing patellar tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jonathan P; Cawley, Derek T; Beecher, Suzanne M; Lee, Matthew J; Bergin, Diane; Shannon, Fintan J

    2016-06-01

    Diagnosis of patellar tendon rupture is usually based on clinical history and examination. In equivocal cases, imaging may be required. Lateral radiograph is a simple and cost-effective method for prompt diagnosis. However, no specific radiological sign has been described. Rather than utilising patella alta as an indirect measure of patellar tendon rupture, we hypothesise that a focal intratendinous radiolucency is another reliable and accurate radiological sign for diagnosis. Sensitivity and specificity analysis was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic value of this radiographic sign. Lateral radiographs of mid-substance patellar tendon ruptures from 19 patients were analysed. These were then randomised with another 19 normal knee radiographs from age-matched patients to create a pool of 38 radiographs for interpretation. Six independent interpreters who were blinded to the diagnosis were requested to indicate whether rupture was present or absent based on the visualisation of a focal intratendinous radiolucency in the patellar tendon. The Insall-Salvati (IS), Caton-Deschamps (CD) and Blackburne-Peel (BP) ratios were measured in the same radiographs. Sensitivity and specificity for each of the radiographic measurements were calculated. Inter- and intraobserver correlations were reported in kappa statistics. The average sensitivity and specificity for focal radiolucency in the patellar tendon substance were 82.5% and 95.2%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for the IS ratio were 84.2% and 78.9%, for CD was 68.4% and 84.2% and for BP was 68.4% and 89.4% respectively. The presence of a focal intratendinous radiolucency in the patellar tendon is both accurate and reliable in diagnosing patellar tendon ruptures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Observation of initial postoperative radiolucent lines using a modern pegged-glenoid design

    PubMed Central

    Everding, Nathan G.; Levy, Jonathan C.; Formaini, Nathan T.; Blum, Sara; Gil, Carlos C.; Verde, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Glenoid component loosening remains a common mode of failure for total shoulder arthroplasty and has inspired improvements in implant design, instrumentation, and surgical technique. The purpose of this manuscript was to evaluate the incidence of radiolucent lines and glenoid seating on initial postoperative radiographs using a modern pegged-glenoid design, instrumentation, and surgical technique. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 100 pegged-glenoid total shoulder replacements. In cases of excessive glenoid version, the glenoid was asymmetrically reamed to recreate more normal version. Initial postoperative radiographs were evaluated for the presence of radiolucent lines and completeness of glenoid seating. The preoperative glenoid version measured on axial computed tomography (CT) scans was used to compare differences in version among those with complete and incompletely seated glenoids. Results: The rate of radiolucent lines observed on postoperative radiographs was 0%. Complete glenoid seating (Grade A) was observed in 81 patients (observer 1) and 82 patients (observer 2). Measurements of preoperative CT scans found a higher percentage of abnormal glenoid version for incompletely seated glenoids (47%) than completely seated glenoids (34%) but no significant difference (P = 0.327). The mean preoperative glenoid retroversion for incompletely seated glenoids was 12.1° and 9.1° for completely seated glenoids (P = 0.263). Conclusions: Modern surgical techniques, surgical instrumentation, and peg glenoid design have facilitated the ability to eliminate radiolucent lines on initial postoperative radiographs with high rates of complete seating of glenoid components. Incomplete seating may be related to incomplete correction of glenoid version. PMID:27186058

  6. Local bisphosphonate reduces migration and formation of radiolucent lines adjacent to cemented acetabular components.

    PubMed

    Schilcher, J; Palm, L; Ivarsson, I; Aspenberg, P

    2017-03-01

    Post-operative migration of cemented acetabular components as measured by radiostereometric analysis (RSA) has a strong predictive power for late, aseptic loosening. Also, radiolucent lines predict late loosening. Migration has been reduced by systemic bisphosphonate treatment in randomised trials of hip and knee arthroplasty. Used as a local treatment, a higher local dose of bisphosphonate can be achieved without systemic exposure. We wished to see if this principle could be applied usefully in total hip arthroplasty (THA). In this randomised placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial with 60 participants, we compressed gauze soaked in bisphosphonate solution (ibandronate) or saline against the acetabular bone bed immediately before cementing the acetabular component. RSA, classification of radiolucent lines, the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the Western Ontario McMasters Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were carried out at three-, six-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up. Migration of the cemented acetabular component relative to the pelvis was reduced by movement almost half in the ibandronate group, when measured as maximum total point or as movement of the femoral head (p = 0.001 and 0.004, respectively). Radiolucent lines after one year were classified as absent, partial or complete, and correlated with treatment (rho 0.37; p = 0.004). Only three of 30 patients in the ibandronate group had complete lines, compared with 13 of 28 in the placebo group (p = 0.002). There were no significant effects on HHS or WOMAC score. Considering the power of RSA to predict loosening of cemented acetabular components, and the likelihood that radiolucent lines indicate risk of loosening, these data suggest that local treatment with a bisphosphonate can reduce the risk of late aseptic loosening. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:317-24. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  7. Enhancement of electrochemical properties of micro/nano electrodes based on TiO2 nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudhair, D.; Gaburro, J.; Shafei, S.; Barlow, A.; Nahavandi, S.; Bhatti, A.

    2017-04-01

    Titanium oxide nanotube (TiO2 nanotube) arrays were produced by anodizing titanium foils in two different electrolytes. The first electrolyte consisted of ethylene glycol containing 0.5 wt% NH4F and 4 vol% of distilled water to produce pure TiO2 nanotube arrays and the second consisted of HF aqueous solution (0.5 wt%) containing 0.5% polyvinylalcohol to produce carbon doped TiO2 nanotube arrays. The fabricated TiO2 nanotube arrays were subsequently annealed in the atmosphere of nitrogen. The morphology and crystal structure of fabricated arrays were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity and capacitance of TiO2 nanotube arrays were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Water contact angle and biocompatibility of fabricated nanotube arrays were investigated. The results showed that carbon doped TiO2 nanotube arrays annealed in the atmosphere of nitrogen have higher conductivity and capacitance than those of pure arrays annealed in the same atmosphere. Doping with carbon enhances the biocompatibility and wettability of TiO2 nanotube arrays. It has also noted that electrical conductivity and capacitance of TiO2 nanotube arrays were directly proportional to the tube wall thickness.

  8. SnO2@PANI Core-Shell Nanorod Arrays on 3D Graphite Foam: A High-Performance Integrated Electrode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Yang, Chengkai; Gao, Xin; Chen, Shuai; Hu, Yiran; Guan, Huanqin; Ma, Yurong; Zhang, Jin; Zhou, Henghui; Qi, Limin

    2017-03-22

    The rational design and controllable fabrication of electrode materials with tailored structures and superior performance is highly desirable for the next-generation lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this work, a novel three-dimensional (3D) graphite foam (GF)@SnO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs)@polyaniline (PANI) hybrid architecture was constructed via solvothermal growth followed by electrochemical deposition. Aligned SnO2 NRAs were uniformly grown on the surface of GF, and a PANI shell with a thickness of ∼40 nm was coated on individual SnO2 nanorods, forming a SnO2@PANI core-shell structure. Benefiting from the synergetic effect of 3D GF with large surface area and high conductivity, SnO2 NRAs offering direct pathways for electrons and lithium ions, and the conductive PANI shell that accommodates the large volume variation of SnO2, the binder-free, integrated GF@SnO2 NRAs@PANI electrode for LIBs exhibited high capacity, excellent rate capability, and good electrochemical stability. A high discharge capacity of 540 mAh g(-1) (calculated by the total mass of the electrode) was achieved after 50 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g(-1). Moreover, the electrode demonstrated superior rate performance with a discharge capacity of 414 mAh g(-1) at a high rate of 3 A g(-1).

  9. Carbon- and Binder-Free NiCo2O4 Nanoneedle Array Electrode for Sodium-Ion Batteries: Electrochemical Performance and Insight into Sodium Storage Reaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Won; Shin, Hyun-Sup; Lee, Chan-Woo; Jung, Kyu-Nam

    2016-12-01

    Sodium (Na)-ion batteries (NIBs) have attracted significant interest as an alternative chemistry to lithium (Li)-ion batteries for large-scale stationary energy storage systems. Discovering high-performance anode materials is a great challenge for the commercial success of NIB technology. Transition metal oxides with tailored nanoarchitectures have been considered as promising anodes for NIBs due to their high capacity. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of a nanostructured oxide-only electrode, i.e., carbon- and binder-free NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array (NCO-NNA), and its feasibility as an anode for NIBs. Furthermore, we provide an in-depth experimental study of the Na storage reaction (sodiation and desodiation) in NCO-NNA. The NCO-NNA electrode is fabricated on a conducting substrate by a hydrothermal method with subsequent heat treatment. When tested in an electrochemical Na half-cell, the NCO-NNA electrode exhibits excellent Na storage capability: a charge capacity as high as 400 mAh g(-1) is achieved at a current density of 50 mA g(-1). It also shows a greatly improved cycle life (~215 mAh g(-1) after 50 cycles) in comparison to a conventional powder-type electrode (~30 mAh g(-1)). However, the Na storage performance is still inferior to that of Li, which is mainly due to sluggish kinetics of sodiation-desodiation accompanied by severe volume change.

  10. Carbon- and Binder-Free NiCo2O4 Nanoneedle Array Electrode for Sodium-Ion Batteries: Electrochemical Performance and Insight into Sodium Storage Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Shin, Hyun-Sup; Lee, Chan-Woo; Jung, Kyu-Nam

    2016-02-01

    Sodium (Na)-ion batteries (NIBs) have attracted significant interest as an alternative chemistry to lithium (Li)-ion batteries for large-scale stationary energy storage systems. Discovering high-performance anode materials is a great challenge for the commercial success of NIB technology. Transition metal oxides with tailored nanoarchitectures have been considered as promising anodes for NIBs due to their high capacity. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of a nanostructured oxide-only electrode, i.e., carbon- and binder-free NiCo2O4 nanoneedle array (NCO-NNA), and its feasibility as an anode for NIBs. Furthermore, we provide an in-depth experimental study of the Na storage reaction (sodiation and desodiation) in NCO-NNA. The NCO-NNA electrode is fabricated on a conducting substrate by a hydrothermal method with subsequent heat treatment. When tested in an electrochemical Na half-cell, the NCO-NNA electrode exhibits excellent Na storage capability: a charge capacity as high as 400 mAh g-1 is achieved at a current density of 50 mA g-1. It also shows a greatly improved cycle life (~215 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles) in comparison to a conventional powder-type electrode (~30 mAh g-1). However, the Na storage performance is still inferior to that of Li, which is mainly due to sluggish kinetics of sodiation-desodiation accompanied by severe volume change.

  11. Dissolution therapy versus shock wave lithotripsy for radiolucent renal stones in children: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Elderwy, Ahmad A; Kurkar, Adel; Hussein, AlMontaser; Abozeid, Hazem; Hammodda, Hisham M; Ibraheim, Abdel-Fatah

    2014-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated the efficacy of dissolution therapy and standard shock wave lithotripsy as a noninvasive modality for radiolucent renal stones in children. A total of 87 children with radiolucent renal calculi were included in study. Median age was 2.5 years (range 0.5 to 13). Computerized tomography was done to confirm a stone density of less than 500 HU. Median stone length was 12 mm (range 7 to 24). Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups. The medical group of 48 patients received potassium sodium hydrogen citrate at a dose of 1 mEq/kg per day for 1 to 3 months. The shock wave lithotripsy group of 39 patients were treated with a Lithotripter S (Dornier Medtech, Kennesaw, Georgia) while under general anesthesia. Complications in each group were recorded. Patients were considered stone free when imaging within 3 months showed no evidence of stones. The stone-free rate was 72.9% for dissolution therapy vs 82.1% after a single session of shock wave lithotripsy (p = 0.314). One patient per group experienced a pyelonephritis episode during followup (p = 0.698). Three of the 13 patients in whom medical regimens failed were noncompliant and 5 ingested the medication sporadically. Medical dissolution therapy is a well tolerated, effective treatment for radiolucent renal stones in children. It eliminates the need for shock wave lithotripsy in up to 73% of cases. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Design and geometry optimization of a conductivity probe with a vertical multiple electrode array for measuring volume fraction and axial velocity of two-phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, N. D.; Xin, Z.; Wang, J.; Wang, Z. Y.; Jia, X. H.; Chen, W. P.

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents the design and geometry optimization of a conductivity probe with a vertical multiple electrode array (VMEA), which can be used to measure the volume fraction and axial velocity of two-phase flow. The designed VMEA electrodes are axially flush mounted on the inside wall of an insulating duct. On the basis of a finite element analysis method, some new sensor optimization concepts of the electric field such as uniform degree, spatial sensitivity and effective information content are proposed. The designed VMEA measurement system has been tested through the multiphase flow loop and shows that the optimized VMEA can be used to measure cross-correlation velocity and predict volume fraction in vertical upward gas-water two-phase flow with satisfactory accuracy. The proposed optimization method of VMEA can also be useful in investigating other types of conductivity probes.

  13. Long term in-vitro functional stability and recording longevity of fully integrated wireless neural interfaces based on Utah Slant Electrode Array (USEA)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Asha; Rieth, Loren; Tathireddy, Prashant; Harrison, Reid; Oppermann, Hermann; Klein, Matthias; Töpper, Michael; Jung, Erik; Normann, Richard; Clark, Gregory; Solzbacher, Florian

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the encapsulation and packaging reliability of fully integrated wireless neural interface based on Utah Slant Electrode Array/integrated neural interface-recording version 5 (USEA/INI-R5) system by monitoring the long term in-vitro functional stability and recording longevity. The integrated neural interface (INI) encapsulated with 6 μm Parylene-C was immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for a period of over 276 days (with the monitoring of the functional device still ongoing). The full functionality (wireless radio-frequency power, command and signal transmission) and the ability of the electrodes to record artificial neural signals even after 276 days of PBS soaking with little change (within 14%) in signal/noise amplitude constitutes a major milestone in long term stability, and allows to study and evaluate the encapsulation reliability, functional stability, and its potential usefulness for wireless neural interface for future chronic implants. PMID:21775785

  14. Conservative management of dens evaginatus and attached supernumerary tooth/odontome in mandibular premolar with dual radiolucencies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naseem; Jadhav, Ganesh Ranganath; Mittal, Priya; Logani, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Recently, an innovative, nonsurgical regenerative endodontic treatment protocol “SealBio” was introduced to manage mature nonvital permanent teeth with periapical lesions. This paper explains the management of an unusual case of dens evaginatus and an attached supernumerary tooth/an odontome associated with two distinct radiolucencies in a mandibular premolar with “SealBio” technique and discusses the various hypotheses on the pathogenesis of unusual malformation and associated pericervical cyst-like radiolucency in the involved tooth. PMID:26604586

  15. Radiolucent lines in low-contact-stress mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty: a blinded and matched case control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low-contact-stress (LCS) mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ; previously: DePuy, Warsawa, USA) provides excellent functional results and wear rates in long-term follow-up analyses. Radiological analysis shows radiolucent lines (RLL) appearing immediately or two years after primary implantation, indicative of poor seat. Investigations proved RLL to be more frequent in uncemented TKA, resulting in a consensus to cement the tibial plateau, but their association with clinical findings and patients discomfort and knee pain is still unknown. Methods 553 patients with 566 low-contact-stress (LCS) total knee prostheses were screened for continuous moderate knee pain. We compared tibial stress shielding classified by Ewald in patients suffering from pain with a matched, pain-free control group on blinded X-rays. We hypothesized a positive correlation between pain and radiolucency and higher frequency of such radiolucent lines in the most medial and most lateral zones of the tibial plateau. Results Twenty-eight patients suffered from knee pain in total. Radiolucencies were detected in 27 of these cases and in six out of 28 matched controls without knee pain. We could demonstrate a significant correlation of knee pain and radiolucencies, which appeared significantly more frequently in the outermost zones of the tibial plateau. Conclusion Our findings suggest that radiolucent lines, representing poor implant seat, about the tibial plateau are associated with knee pain in LCS patients. Radiolucencies are observed more often in noncemented LCS, and cementing the tibial plateau might improve implant seat and reduce both radiolucent lines and associated knee pain. PMID:21714916

  16. Single-pulse driven, large-aperture 2×1 array plasma-electrodes optical switch for SG-II upgrading facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Wu, Dengsheng; Zheng, Jiangang; Zheng, Kuixing; Zhu, Qihua; Zhang, Xiongjun

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate the design and performance of an optical switch that has been constructed for the SG-II upgrading facility. The device is a longitudinal, potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP), 360 mm×360 mm aperture, and 2×1 array electro-optical switch driven by a 20 kV output switching-voltage pulse generator through two plasma electrodes produced at the rise edge of the switching-voltage pulse. The results show that the temporal responses and the spatial performance of the optical switch fulfill the operation requirements of the SG-II upgrading facility.

  17. Radiolucency below the crown of mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and acute inflammation in men with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Minoru; Ono, Yusuke; Ishizuka, Masahide; Yasuda, Kouichi; Uematsu, Takashi; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2009-01-01

    Although mandibular third molar has a high risk of infection extending any complications, the influence of diabetes on radiolucency and acute inflammation in pericoronitis remains unclear. The present study was to evaluate whether radiolucency below the crown is related to acute inflammation in mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and to review the records of 140 men more than 45 years with and without diabetes. The odds ratio of exhibiting acute inflammation was 3.38 (95% CI: 1.13–10.16, p < 0.05) and that of exhibiting severe acute inflammation was 15.38 (95% CI: 3.56–66.49, p < 0.0001), indicating an association of acute pericoronitis in diabetes. The frequency of radiolucency below the crown and below the root in diabetics was similar to that in nondiabetics. However, the odds ratio of exhibiting both radiolucency below the crown and acute inflammation under the diabetic condition was 4.85 (95% CI: 1.60–14.73, p < 0.01), whereas that of diabetics showing both radiolucency below the root and acute inflammation was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.06–3.74, p = 0.74). Radiolucency below the crown and acute inflammation were associated with diabetes, but that below root and acute inflammation were not associated with diabetes, indicating that the region below the crown carries susceptibility to acute pericoronitis, whereas the periodontium shows a protective effect against acute pericoronitis. PMID:23674902

  18. Deactivation/reactivation of a Pd/C catalyst in a direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC): Use of array membrane electrode assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xingwen; Pickup, Peter G.

    Palladium-based catalysts exhibit high activity for formic acid oxidation, but their catalytic activity decreases quite rapidly under direct formic acid fuel cell (DFAFC) operating conditions. This paper presents a systematic study of the deactivation and electrochemical reactivation of a carbon supported palladium catalyst (Pd/C) employing anode arrays in a DFAFC. Deactivation of Pd/C is caused by the electro-oxidation of the formic acid, and does not occur significantly at open circuit. Its rate increases sharply with increasing formic acid concentration but is only dependent on potential at high cell voltages. Reactivation can be achieved by driving the cell voltage to a reverse polarity of -0.2 V or higher. The use of array membrane electrode assemblies allows the rapid generation of statistically significant information on differences between catalysts, and the effects of operational parameters on the deactivation and reactivation processes.

  19. Comprehensive Chronic Laminar Single-Unit, Multi-Unit, and Local Field Potential Recording Performance With Planar Single Shank Electrode Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Du, Zhanhong; Gugel, Zhannetta V.; Smith, Matthew A.; Chase, Steven M.; Bodily, Lance M; Caparosa, Ellen M.; Friedlander, Robert M.; Cui, X. Tracy

    2015-01-01

    Background Intracortical electrode arrays that can record extracellular action potentials from small, targeted groups of neurons are critical for basic neuroscience research and emerging clinical applications. In general, these electrode devices suffer from reliability and variability issues, which have led to comparative studies of existing and emerging electrode designs to optimize performance. Comparisons of different chronic recording devices have been limited to single-unit (SU) activity and employed a bulk averaging approach treating brain architecture as homogeneous with respect to electrode distribution. New Method In this study, we optimize the methods and parameters to quantify evoked multi-unit (MU) and local field potential (LFP) recordings in 8 mice visual cortices. Results These findings quantify the large recording differences stemming from anatomical differences in depth and the layer dependent relative changes to SU and MU recording performance over 6-months. For example, performance metrics in Layer V and stratum pyramidale were initially higher than Layer II/III, but decrease more rapidly. On the other hand, Layer II/III maintained recording metrics longer. In addition, chronic changes at the level of layer IV are evaluated using visually evoked current source density. Comparison with Existing Method(s) The use of MU and LFP activity for evaluation and tracking biological depth provides a more comprehensive characterization of the electrophysiological performance landscape of microelectrodes. Conclusions A more extensive spatial and temporal insight into the chronic electrophysiological performance over time will help uncover the biological and mechanical failure mechanisms of the neural electrodes and direct future research toward the elucidation of design optimization for specific applications. PMID:25542351

  20. Toward highly stable solid-state unconventional thin-film battery-supercapacitor hybrid devices: Interfacing vertical core-shell array electrodes with a gel polymer electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Gaind P.; Klankowski, Steven A.; Liu, Tao; Wu, Judy; Li, Jun

    2017-02-01

    A novel solid-state battery-supercapacitor hybrid device is fabricated for high-performance electrical energy storage using a Si anode and a TiO2 cathode in conjunction with a flexible, solid-like gel polymer electrolyte film as the electrolyte and separator. The electrodes were fabricated as three-dimensional nanostructured vertical arrays by sputtering active materials as conformal shells on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) which serve as the current collector and structural template. Such nanostructured vertical core-shell array-electrodes enable short Li-ion diffusion path and large pseudocapacitive contribution by fast surface reactions, leading to the hybrid features of batteries and supercapacitors that can provide high specific energy over a wide range of power rates. Due to the improved mechanical stability of the infiltrated composite structure, the hybrid cell shows excellent cycling stability and is able to retain more than 95% of the original capacity after 3500 cycles. More importantly, this solid-state device can stably operate in a temperature range from -20 to 60 °C with a very low self-discharge rate and an excellent shelf life. This solid-state architecture is promising for the development of highly stable thin-film hybrid energy storage devices for unconventional applications requiring largely varied power, wider operation temperature, long shelf-life and higher safety standards.

  1. Ultramicroband array electrode. 1. Analysis of mercury in contaminated soils and flue gas exposed samples using a gold-plated iridium portable system by anodic stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Li; Dietze, William; Nyasulu, Frazier; Mibeck, Blaise A F

    2006-07-15

    The applicability of a gold-plated iridium Nano-Band array ultramicroelectrode (6 microm by 0.2 microm, 64-microm interspacing, 100 electrode bands) in the analysis of mercury using a portable system is demonstrated by anodic stripping voltammetry in real-life samples. Optimized measurement parameters, 0.1 M HCl electrolyte, plating potential of 0 mV, and staircase scan mode were identified. The dynamic linear range is 10-180 ppb at 5-s deposition time with 1.5 microC of gold plated. The experimental detection limit for Hg2+ in 0.1 M HCl was 0.5 ppb at a deposition time of 4 min and a scan rate of 10 V/s. Real-life samples, such as flue gas exposed samples from flue gas simulators could be analyzed within 5 min using the method of standard additions. We identified a field-portable extraction procedure for soil samples using 1:1 concentrated HNO3/30% H2O2 mixture, compatible with ASV and the iridium electrode. The detection limit for soils is 1 ppm. The results obtained using ASV are in good agreement with reference values using cold vapor atomic absorption for the sample matrixes studied here. To our knowledge, this is the first mercury application using a reusable iridium array ultramicroelectrode. The portable potentiostat is less than 500 g, and together with the portable digestion method, makes the Nano-Band Explorer system field applicable.

  2. Study of Interdigitated Electrode Arrays Using Experiments and Finite Element Models for the Evaluation of Sterilization Processes

    PubMed Central

    Oberländer, Jan; Jildeh, Zaid B.; Kirchner, Patrick; Wendeler, Luisa; Bromm, Alexander; Iken, Heiko; Wagner, Patrick; Keusgen, Michael; Schöning, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a sensor to evaluate sterilization processes with hydrogen peroxide vapor has been characterized. Experimental, analytical and numerical methods were applied to evaluate and study the sensor behavior. The sensor set-up is based on planar interdigitated electrodes. The interdigitated electrode structure consists of 614 electrode fingers spanning over a total sensing area of 20 mm2. Sensor measurements were conducted with and without microbiological spores as well as after an industrial sterilization protocol. The measurements were verified using an analytical expression based on a first-order elliptical integral. A model based on the finite element method with periodic boundary conditions in two dimensions was developed and utilized to validate the experimental findings. PMID:26473883

  3. Using eye movement to control a computer: a design for a lightweight electro-oculogram electrode array and computer interface.

    PubMed

    Iáñez, Eduardo; Azorin, Jose M; Perez-Vidal, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a human-computer interface based on electro-oculography (EOG) that allows interaction with a computer using eye movement. The EOG registers the movement of the eye by measuring, through electrodes, the difference of potential between the cornea and the retina. A new pair of EOG glasses have been designed to improve the user's comfort and to remove the manual procedure of placing the EOG electrodes around the user's eye. The interface, which includes the EOG electrodes, uses a new processing algorithm that is able to detect the gaze direction and the blink of the eyes from the EOG signals. The system reliably enabled subjects to control the movement of a dot on a video screen.

  4. Study of interdigitated electrode arrays using experiments and finite element models for the evaluation of sterilization processes.

    PubMed

    Oberländer, Jan; Jildeh, Zaid B; Kirchner, Patrick; Wendeler, Luisa; Bromm, Alexander; Iken, Heiko; Wagner, Patrick; Keusgen, Michael; Schöning, Michael J

    2015-10-14

    In this work, a sensor to evaluate sterilization processes with hydrogen peroxide vapor has been characterized. Experimental, analytical and numerical methods were applied to evaluate and study the sensor behavior. The sensor set-up is based on planar interdigitated electrodes. The interdigitated electrode structure consists of 614 electrode fingers spanning over a total sensing area of 20 mm². Sensor measurements were conducted with and without microbiological spores as well as after an industrial sterilization protocol. The measurements were verified using an analytical expression based on a first-order elliptical integral. A model based on the finite element method with periodic boundary conditions in two dimensions was developed and utilized to validate the experimental findings.