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Sample records for radiometry saber kinetic

  1. Errors in Sounding of the Atmosphere Using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) Kinetic Temperature Caused by Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Model Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Comas, Maya; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Bermejo-Pantaleon, D.; Marshall, Benjamin T.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Gordley, L. L.; Russell, James M.

    2008-01-01

    The vast set of near global and continuous atmospheric measurements made by the SABER instrument since 2002, including daytime and nighttime kinetic temperature (T(sub k)) from 20 to 105 km, is available to the scientific community. The temperature is retrieved from SABER measurements of the atmospheric 15 micron CO2 limb emission. This emission separates from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) conditions in the rarefied mesosphere and thermosphere, making it necessary to consider the CO2 vibrational state non-LTE populations in the retrieval algorithm above 70 km. Those populations depend on kinetic parameters describing the rate at which energy exchange between atmospheric molecules take place, but some of these collisional rates are not well known. We consider current uncertainties in the rates of quenching of CO2 (v2 ) by N2 , O2 and O, and the CO2 (v2 ) vibrational-vibrational exchange to estimate their impact on SABER T(sub k) for different atmospheric conditions. The T(sub k) is more sensitive to the uncertainty in the latter two and their effects depend on altitude. The T(sub k) combined systematic error due to non-LTE kinetic parameters does not exceed +/- 1.5 K below 95 km and +/- 4-5 K at 100 km for most latitudes and seasons (except for polar summer) if the Tk profile does not have pronounced vertical structure. The error is +/- 3 K at 80 km, +/- 6 K at 84 km and +/- 18 K at 100 km under the less favourable polar summer conditions. For strong temperature inversion layers, the errors reach +/- 3 K at 82 km and +/- 8 K at 90 km. This particularly affects tide amplitude estimates, with errors of up to +/- 3 K.

  2. Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide from Broadband Infrared Limb Emission Measurements Taken from the TIMED/SABER Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell III, James M.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; She, Chiao-Yao; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Picard, Richard H.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Xu, Xiaojing

    2008-01-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment is one of four instruments on NASA's Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. SABER measures broadband infrared limb emission and derives vertical profiles of kinetic temperature (Tk) from the lower stratosphere to approximately 120 km, and vertical profiles of carbon dioxide (CO2) volume mixing ratio (vmr) from approximately 70 km to 120 km. In this paper we report on SABER Tk/CO2 data in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region from the version 1.06 dataset. The continuous SABER measurements provide an excellent dataset to understand the evolution and mechanisms responsible for the global two-level structure of the mesopause altitude. SABER MLT Tk comparisons with ground-based sodium lidar and rocket falling sphere Tk measurements are generally in good agreement. However, SABER CO2 data differs significantly from TIME-GCM model simulations. Indirect CO2 validation through SABER-lidar MLT Tk comparisons and SABER-radiation transfer comparisons of nighttime 4.3 micron limb emission suggest the SABER-derived CO2 data is a better representation of the true atmospheric MLT CO2 abundance compared to model simulations of CO2 vmr.

  3. Stray light design and analysis of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauder, John L.; Esplin, Roy W.

    1998-11-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument is a 10-channel earth limb- viewing sensor that is to measure atmospheric emissions in the spectral range of 1.27 micrometer to 16.9 micrometer. Presented in this paper is the stray light design and analysis of SABER. Unwanted radiation from the earth and atmosphere are suppressed by the use of stray light features that are critical to mission success. These include the use of an intermediate field stop, an inner and outer Lyot stop, and super-polished mirrors. The point source normalized irradiance transmission (PSNIT) curve, which characterizes the sensor's off-axis response, was computed using the stray light analysis program APART. An initial calculation of the non-rejected radiance (NRR) due to emissions and scatter from the earth and atmosphere was made using the PSNIT data. The results indicate that stray light will not impede the mission objectives.

  4. Retrieval of Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Abundance from Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Limb Emission Measurements made by the SABER Experiment on the TIMED Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Picard, Richard H.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Gordley, Larry L.; Russell, James M., III

    2002-01-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment was launched onboard the TIMED satellite in December, 2001. SABER is designed to provide measurements of the key radiative and chemical sources and sinks of energy in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). SABER measures Earth limb emission in 10 broadband radiometer channels ranging from 1.27 micrometers to 17 micrometers. Measurements are made both day and night over the latitude range from 54 deg. S to 87 deg. N with alternating hemisphere coverage every 60 days. In this paper we concentrate on retrieved profiles of kinetic temperature (T(sub k)) and CO2 volume mixing ratio (vmr), inferred from SABER-observed 15 micrometer and 4.3 micrometer limb emissions, respectively. SABER-measured limb radiances are in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) in the MLT region. The complexity of non-LTE radiation transfer combined with the large volume of data measured by SABER requires new retrieval approaches and radiative transfer techniques to accurately and efficiently retrieve the data products. In this paper we present the salient features of the coupled non-LTE T(sub k)/CO2 retrieval algorithm, along with preliminary results.

  5. Kinetics of the drying process of an anti-adherent coating using Photothermal Radiometry and Micro-Raman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado-Castañeda, D. M.; Fernández, J.; Velázquez, R.; Estévez, M.; Vargas, S.; Rodríguez, R.; Rodríguez, M. E.

    2005-06-01

    The kinetics of the drying process of a new anti-adherent (anti-graffiti) polymeric coating containing organic solvent was determined using Photothermal Radiometry (PTR) and Micro-Raman (μ-R) Spectroscopy. PTR Spectroscopy was used to study, in real time, the kinetics of the drying process in samples protected with coatings with and without anti-adherent molecules. These were applied on a metal and silicon substrates. The PTR spectrum for coating without anti-adherent, shows a single relaxation time, while for coating containing anti-adherent shows two relaxation times corresponding to two different mechanisms: the solvent evaporation and the molecular re-arrangements of the two different molecular species present in the coating; the kinetic of the solvent evaporation is strongly dependent, as expected, on the solvent concentration.

  6. Quantitative evaluation of simulated human enamel caries kinetics using photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellen, Adam; Mandelis, Andreas; Finer, Yoav; Amaechi, Bennett T.

    2011-03-01

    Photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence (PTR-LUM) is a non-destructive methodology applied toward the detection, monitoring and quantification of dental caries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PTRLUM to detect incipient caries lesions and quantify opto-thermophysical properties as a function of treatment time. Extracted human molars (n=15) were exposed to an acid demineralization gel (pH 4.5) for 10 or 40 days in order to simulate incipient caries lesions. PTR-LUM frequency scans (1 Hz - 1 kHz) were performed prior to and during demineralization. Transverse Micro-Radiography (TMR) analysis followed at treatment conclusion. A coupled diffusephoton- density-wave and thermal-wave theoretical model was applied to PTR experimental amplitude and phase data across the frequency range of 4 Hz - 354 Hz, to quantitatively evaluate changes in thermal and optical properties of sound and demineralized enamel. Excellent fits with small residuals were observed experimental and theoretical data illustrating the robustness of the computational algorithm. Increased scattering coefficients and poorer thermophysical properties were characteristic of demineralized lesion bodies. Enhanced optical scattering coefficients of demineralized lesions resulted in poorer luminescence yield due to scattering of both incident and converted luminescent photons. Differences in the rate of lesion progression for the 10-day and 40-day samples points to a continuum of surface and diffusion controlled mechanism of lesion formation. PTR-LUM sensitivity to changes in tooth mineralization coupled with opto-thermophysical property extraction illustrates the technique's potential for non-destructive quantification of enamel caries.

  7. Influence of Solar-Geomagnetic Disturbances on SABER Measurements of 4.3 Micrometer Emission and the Retrieval of Kinetic Temperature and Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Picard, Richard H.; Evans, David S.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Wintersteiner, Peter P.; Xu, Xiaojing; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    Thermospheric infrared radiance at 4.3 micrometers is susceptible to the influence of solar-geomagnetic disturbances. Ionization processes followed by ion-neutral chemical reactions lead to vibrationally excited NO(+) (i.e., NO(+)(v)) and subsequent 4.3 micrometer emission in the ionospheric E-region. Large enhancements of nighttime 4.3 m emission were observed by the TIMED/SABER instrument during the April 2002 and October-November 2003 solar storms. Global measurements of infrared 4.3 micrometer emission provide an excellent proxy to observe the nighttime E-region response to auroral dosing and to conduct a detailed study of E-region ion-neutral chemistry and energy transfer mechanisms. Furthermore, we find that photoionization processes followed by ion-neutral reactions during quiescent, daytime conditions increase the NO(+) concentration enough to introduce biases in the TIMED/SABER operational processing of kinetic temperature and CO2 data, with the largest effect at summer solstice. In this paper, we discuss solar storm enhancements of 4.3 micrometer emission observed from SABER and assess the impact of NO(+)(v) 4.3 micrometer emission on quiescent, daytime retrievals of Tk/CO2 from the SABER instrument.

  8. Trap State Effects in PbS Colloidal Quantum Dot Exciton Kinetics Using Photocarrier Radiometry Intensity and Temperature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Mandelis, Andreas; Melnikov, Alexander; Sun, Qiming

    2016-06-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) have attracted significant interest for applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices such as photodetectors, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. However, a poor understanding of charge transport in these nanocrystalline films hinders their practical applications. The photocarrier radiometry (PCR) technique, a frequency-domain photoluminescence method spectrally gated for monitoring radiative recombination photon emissions while excluding thermal infrared photons due to non-radiative recombination, has been applied to PbS CQD thin films for the analysis of charge transport properties. Linear excitation intensity responses of PCR signals were found in the reported experimental conditions. The type and influence of trap states in the coupled PbS CQD thin film were analyzed with PCR temperature- and time-dependent results.

  9. Validation of the global distribution of CO2 volume mixing ratio in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere from SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezac, L.; Jian, Y.; Yue, J.; Russell, J. M.; Kutepov, A.; Garcia, R.; Walker, K.; Bernath, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite has been measuring the limb radiance in 10 broadband infrared channels over the altitude range from ~ 400 km to the Earth's surface since 2002. The kinetic temperatures and CO2 volume mixing ratios (VMRs) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere have been simultaneously retrieved using SABER limb radiances at 15 and 4.3 µm under nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) conditions. This paper presents results of a validation study of the SABER CO2 VMRs obtained with a two-channel, self-consistent temperature/CO2 retrieval algorithm. Results are based on comparisons with coincident CO2 measurements made by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and simulations using the Specified Dynamics version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (SD-WACCM). The SABER CO2 VMRs are in agreement with ACE-FTS observations within reported systematic uncertainties from 65 to 110 km. The annual average SABER CO2 VMR falls off from a well-mixed value above ~80 km. Latitudinal and seasonal variations of CO2 VMRs are substantial. SABER observations and the SD-WACCM simulations are in overall agreement for CO2 seasonal variations, as well as global distributions in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Not surprisingly, the CO2 seasonal variation is shown to be driven by the general circulation, converging in the summer polar mesopause region and diverging in the winter polar mesopause region.

  10. On the weighting of SABER temperature profiles for comparison with ground based hydroxyl rotational temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, William; Mulligan, Frank

    2010-05-01

    Kinetic temperature profiles are retrieved from limb-emission radiance measurements of CO2 at 15 and 4.3 um by the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) instrument on the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) satellite. Profiles extend from about 20-120km and measurements are available since the spacecraft launch in Dec-2001. Hydroxyl (6-2) band rotational temperatures are measured using a ground-based scanning spectrometer at Davis station, Antarctica (68°S, 78°E). Measurements are available each year since 1995 on nights between early February and late October, when the sun is more than 6° below the horizon. In order to compare temperatures from these two instruments we must derive hydroxyl layer equivalent temperatures for the SABER profiles using a weighting function which represents the hydroxyl layer profile. In this study, we examine a number of different weighting profiles to determine the best equivalent to hydroxyl nightly average temperatures at Davis. These profiles include (1) the customary Gaussian peaked at 87km and width 8km [Baker and Stair, 1988 :Physica Scripta. 37 611-622], (2) the layer profile derived from WINDIIUARS hydroxyl height profiles [She and Lowe, 1998 :JASTP 60, 1573-1583], (3) layer profiles derived from the hydroxyl volume emission rate (VER) from the SABER OH-B channel at 1.6um, which contains the Meinel OH(4-2) and OH(5-3) bands and (4) a Gaussian fitted to the SABER hydroxyl VER peak. The comparison is made with approximately 2500 SABER retrievals from overpasses within 500km of Davis station, and with solar zenith angle >97°, which have coincident hydroxyl temperature measurements over the 8 winters between 2002 and 2009. Due to the satellite 60 day yaw cycle the sampling over Davis has occurred in approximately the same three time intervals each year; between days 75-140, 196-262 and 323-014, however the latter interval is entirely rejected on the solar zenith

  11. Fourteen Years of Atomic Hydrogen from SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, L. A.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    We present results for atomic hydrogen in the mesopause region (80-100 km) derived from measurements made by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the TIMED satellite. SABER has been measuring the vertical distribution of infrared radiation emitted by various atmospheric gases for nearly 14 years, providing important information about chemical species, including atomic oxygen, atomic hydrogen, ozone and hydroxyl; temperature; and the radiation budget in the upper atmosphere. The methodology for the derivation of daytime and nighttime concentrations and volume mixing ratios will be presented. Zonal mean and global average daytime and nighttime concentrations of H, which demonstrate excellent agreement between 87 and 95 km, have been calculated and the results are compared with observations from the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) satellite made nearly 30 years ago. Variability over the course of the SABER mission will be shown, including the apparent inverse dependence on the solar cycle, which stems from the temperature dependence of various reaction rate coefficients for H photochemistry. Results for H near solar max will be compared for Solar Cycles 23 and 24.

  12. "Saber" and "Conocer."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kathy

    1985-01-01

    Attempts to redefine the meaning of the two Spanish verbs "saber" and "conocer" and explores some possible extralinguistic factors affecting their usage. Shows that "conocer" represents knowledge which is firsthand and that this type of knowledge is a building block for the more thorough, systematic knowledge represented by "saber." (SED)

  13. An overview of the SABER experiment for the TIMED mission

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.M. III; Mlynczak, M.G.; Gordley, L.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere Using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment has been selected for flight on the Thermosphere-Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics, and Dynamics (TIMED) mission expected to fly in the latter part of this decade. The primary science goal of SABER is to achieve fundamental and important advances in understanding of the energetics, chemistry, and dynamics, in the atmospheric region extending from 60 km to 180 km altitude, which has not been comprehensively observed on a global basis. This will be accomplished using the space flight proven experiment approach of broad spectral band limb emission radiometry. SABER will scan the horizon in 12 selected bands ranging from 1.27{micro}m to 17{micro}m wavelength. The observed vertical horizon emission profiles will be mathematically inverted in ground data processing to provide vertical profiles with 2 km vertical resolution, of temperature, O{sub 3}, H{sub 2}0, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2}. SABER will also observe key emissions needed for energetics studies at 1.27 {micro}m [O{sub 2}({sup 1}{Delta})], 2{micro}m [OH({upsilon} = 7,8,9)], 1.6{micro}m [OH({upsilon} = 3,4,5)], 4.3{micro}m [CO{sub 2}({nu}{sub 3})], 5.3{micro}m (NO), 9.6 {micro}m (O{sub 3}), and 15{micro}m [CO{sub 2}({nu}{sub 2})]. These measurements will be used to infer atomic hydrogen and atomic oxygen, the latter inferred three different ways using only SABER observations. Measurements will be made both night and day over the latitude range from the southern to northern polar regions.

  14. Radiometry spot measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Harry H.; Lawn, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    The radiometry spot measurement system (RSMS) has been designed for use in the Diffusive And Radiative Transport in Fires (DARTFire) experiment, currently under development at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The RSMS can measure the radiation emitted from a spot of specific size located on the surface of a distant radiation source within a controlled wavelength range. If the spot is located on a blackbody source, its radiation and temperature can be measured directly or indirectly by the RSMS. This report presents computer simulation results used to verify RSMS performance.

  15. The Energy Budget of the Mesosphere Derived from SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, L. A.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Mertens, C. J.; Marshall, B. T.; Russell, J. M., III

    2014-12-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument measures the vertical distribution of infrared radiation emitted by various atmospheric gases (ozone, water vapor, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide), providing important information about the radiation budget in the upper atmosphere. From the SABER radiances, we determine the radiative cooling by CO2, solar heating by O3 and O2, and chemical heating from a suite of exothermic reactions over the vertical range of 65-100 km. In addition, we derive amounts of several constituents of those chemical reactions and are able to determine bounds on a key parameter in the energy calculation, atomic oxygen. In general we find the global annual mean heating and cooling to be in balance within the measurement uncertainties. This is because the atomic oxygen concentrations derived from SABER are at the maximum, radiatively allowed limit. The results will be discussed in terms of the absolute energy balance and its variation with the solar cycle. In general the changes in radiative cooling appear consistent with changes in solar and chemical heating over the solar cycle. SABER, launched in December 2001, will soon have collected 13 years of this unique, comprehensive dataset on middle atmosphere structure and energy balance.

  16. Landsat Radiometry Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This final report summarizes three years of work characterizing the radiometry of the Landsat 4, 5 and 7 Thematic Mappers. It is divided into six sections that are representative of the major areas of effort: 1) Internal Calibrator Lamp Monitoring; 2) Vicarious Calibration; 3) Relative Gain Analysis; 4) Outgassing; 5) Landsat 4 Absolute Calibration; and 6) Landsat 5 Scene Invariant Analysis. Each section provides a summary overview of the work that has been performed at SDSU. Major results are highlighted. In several cases, references are given to publications that have developed from this work, Several team members contributed to this report: Tim Ruggles, Dave Aaron, Shriharsha Madhavan, Esad Micijevic, Cory Mettler, and Jim Dewald. At the end of the report is a summary section.

  17. Multibaseline gravitational wave radiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Talukder, Dipongkar; Bose, Sukanta; Mitra, Sanjit

    2011-03-15

    We present a statistic for the detection of stochastic gravitational wave backgrounds (SGWBs) using radiometry with a network of multiple baselines. We also quantitatively compare the sensitivities of existing baselines and their network to SGWBs. We assess how the measurement accuracy of signal parameters, e.g., the sky position of a localized source, can improve when using a network of baselines, as compared to any of the single participating baselines. The search statistic itself is derived from the likelihood ratio of the cross correlation of the data across all possible baselines in a detector network and is optimal in Gaussian noise. Specifically, it is the likelihood ratio maximized over the strength of the SGWB and is called the maximized-likelihood ratio (MLR). One of the main advantages of using the MLR over past search strategies for inferring the presence or absence of a signal is that the former does not require the deconvolution of the cross correlation statistic. Therefore, it does not suffer from errors inherent to the deconvolution procedure and is especially useful for detecting weak sources. In the limit of a single baseline, it reduces to the detection statistic studied by Ballmer [Classical Quantum Gravity 23, S179 (2006).] and Mitra et al.[Phys. Rev. D 77, 042002 (2008).]. Unlike past studies, here the MLR statistic enables us to compare quantitatively the performances of a variety of baselines searching for a SGWB signal in (simulated) data. Although we use simulated noise and SGWB signals for making these comparisons, our method can be straightforwardly applied on real data.

  18. Radiometry in medicine and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahm, Kie-Bong; Choi, Eui Y.

    2012-10-01

    Diagnostics in medicine plays a critical role in helping medical professionals deliver proper diagnostic decisions. Most samples in this trade are of the human origin and a great portion of methodologies practiced in biology labs is shared in clinical diagnostic laboratories as well. Most clinical tests are quantitative in nature and recent increase in interests in preventive medicine requires the determination of minimal concentration of target analyte: they exist in small quantities at the early stage of various diseases. Radiometry or the use of optical radiation is the most trusted and reliable means of converting biologic concentrations into quantitative physical quantities. Since optical energy is readily available in varying energies (or wavelengths), the appropriate combination of light and the sample absorption properties provides reliable information about the sample concentration through Beer-Lambert law to a decent precision. In this article, the commonly practiced techniques in clinical and biology labs are reviewed from the standpoint of radiometry.

  19. Energetics of the Thermosphere in Polar Regions Observed by SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, L. A.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on NASA's TIMED satellite has been measuring the vertical distribution of infrared radiation emitted by various atmospheric gases for nearly 14 years, providing important information about chemical species, including atomic oxygen, hydrogen, ozone and hydroxyl; temperature; and the radiation budget in the upper atmosphere. From these measurements, the infrared power and energy radiated by nitric oxide (NO) at 5.3 µm and carbon dioxide (CO2) at 15 µm have been computed. These infrared emissions have been shown to be a mechanism for the dissipation of the atmospheric heating that results from geoeffective solar storm energy, serving as a natural thermostat to cool the atmosphere to pre-storm conditions. We present the response in the polar region to several storm events that have occurred during the SABER mission, including the location of maximum response and a comparison of the relative NO and CO2 cooling that occurred, since they are each driven by different factors.

  20. Simultaneous retrieval of T(p) and CO2 VMR from two-channel non-LTE limb radiances and application to daytime SABER/TIMED measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezac, L.; Kutepov, A.; Russell, J. M.; Feofilov, A. G.; Yue, J.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2015-08-01

    The kinetic temperature, Tk, and carbon dioxide, CO2 density, are key parameters that characterize the energetics and dynamics of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region. The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on-board the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite has been providing global, simultaneous measurements of limb radiance in 10 spectral channels continuously since late January 2002. In this paper we (1) present a methodology for a self-consistent simultaneous retrieval of temperature/pressure, Tk(p), and CO2 volume mixing ratio (VMR) from the broadband infrared limb measurements in the 15 and 4.3 μm channels, and (2) qualitatively describe the first results on the CO2 VMR and Tk obtained from application of this technique to the SABER 15 and 4.3 μm channels, including issues, which demand additional constraints to be applied. The self-consistent two-channel retrieval architecture updates parameters at all altitudes simultaneously, and it is built upon iterative switching between two retrieval modules, one for CO2 and one for Tk. A detailed study of sensitivity, stability and convergence was carried out to validate the algorithm. The Tk/CO2 VMR distribution can be reliably retrieved without biases connected with this non-linear inverse problem starting with an initial guess as far as ±20% of CO2 VMR and ±15 K from the solution (as global shift, or somewhat larger if only local deviations are considered). In polar summer toward high latitudes the retrieved CO2 VMR profile shows a local peak around 90 km. We discuss details of this feature and show that: (a) it is not an algorithm artifact or instability, (b) additional a priori constraints are needed in order to obtain a physical profile and to remove this peak, and (c) several possibilities are explored as to uncover the real cause of this feature, but no firm conclusion can be reached at this time. This

  1. Altitude profiles of lower thermospheric temperature from RAIDS/NIRS and TIMED/SABER remote sensing experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, A. B.; Bishop, R. L.; Budzien, S. A.; Hecht, J. H.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Russell, J. M.; Stephan, A. W.; Walterscheid, R. W.

    2013-06-01

    Thermospheric temperatures derived from limb observations of the O2 A-Band (0,0) emission spectrum obtained from January-July 2010, with the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS) aboard the International Space Station, are compared to temperature results from the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment. To account for a lack of simultaneous common volume observations, the observed temperatures were scaled by the NRLMSIS-00 model temperatures for comparison. It was found that on average SABER, temperatures are warmer than NIRS at all altitudes between 90 and 140 km. In the altitude range 90-100 km, the SABER temperatures were warmer than NIRS by ~10 K consistent with previous validation experiments and in agreement with Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS) O2 A-band comparisons in the polar mesopause region. At higher altitudes, the differences between SABER and NIRS exceed 30 K on average. Thus, the NIRS observations reinforce the idea that the SABER temperatures are too warm below ~110 km; and above that altitude, they are increasingly in error consistent with expectations based on estimated inaccuracies in the retrieval algorithm. Large standard deviations of the SABER and NIRS ratios are reflective of substantial variability of the thermospheric temperatures throughout the region.

  2. SABER Observations of Geomagnetic Storm Response in the Thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, L. A.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Marshall, B. T.; Russell, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Geoeffective solar storms in 2012 have produced the most significant radiative and chemical changes in the lower thermosphere in eight years as solar cycle 24 ramps up toward solar maximum. Observations of radiative cooling by NO (at 5.3 μm) and CO2 (at 15 μm) made by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite show dramatic increases during storm periods. It has been demonstrated that NO, in particular, acts as a natural thermostat, providing a mechanism for solar storm energy to be lost from the atmosphere via infrared emission. We show recent results of the influence of coronal mass ejections and solar high-speed streams from coronal holes on the observed infrared radiative cooling in the thermosphere. In particular, during events this year the NO emission has shown enhancements of more than a factor of 5 from pre-storm conditions and increases in CO2 have been as much as approximately 40%. The emissions from these recent storms rivals those from the strongest storms seen in the last 11 years; the July 2012 event is the sixth strongest emission in that time period. These increases in radiative cooling are due to increases in temperature (which affect CO2 and NO non-linearly) and to increases in the NO concentration. The SABER instrument has a nearly 11-year record of the influence of the Sun on thermosphere. Since January 2002, SABER has been making continuous measurements of the vertical distribution of infrared radiation emitted by various atmospheric gases (ozone, water vapor, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide) that provide important information about the radiation budget in the upper atmosphere.

  3. Scientific results from the SABER Experiment on the TIMED Satellite: 2002 - 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. M.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    The primary science goal of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment on the TIMED satellite is to achieve major advances in understanding the structure, energetics, chemistry, and dynamics in the atmospheric region extending from 60 to 180 km altitude. The SABER instrument has been observing the atmosphere nearly continuously since data collection began in January of 2002 using the technique of spectral broadband limb emission radiometry applied in 10 infrared spectral bands ranging from 1.27 to 17μm. Four bands - three in the 15μm band and one in the 4.3μm band of CO2, are used to retrieve temperature and CO2 concentrations and to correct retrievals for spacecraft motion effects. The remaining bands are used to retrieve O3, H2O, [O], [H],and energetics parameters, and to measure atmospheric heating and cooling. The measured limb emission profiles are being processed on the ground to provide vertical temperature, constituent and other parameter profiles with 2 km altitude resolution. Measurements are made both night and day over the latitude range from 52 degrees to 83 degrees with alternating hemisphere coverage every 60 days. During the time SABER has been operating, many solar storms have occurred and data have been collected over the range from solar maximum in 2002 to the 2009 solar minimum and up to the present day. The temporal and geographic coverage provided by SABER has provided path finding observations on the atmospheric effects of these events. In addition, the battery of measurements made by SABER has yielded new information on atmospheric energetics effects over the solar cycle including radiative cooling due to the 15μm CO2 and 5.3μm NO bands. Numerous synergistic science studies have been conducted with data from the AIM satellite that is dedicated to the study of noctilucent clouds (NLCs) including the driving parameters that control the start and end of the NLC season, the relationship between

  4. Increasing carbon dioxide concentration in the upper atmosphere observed by SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, J.; Russell, J. M., III; Jian, Y.; Rezac, L.; Garcia, R. R.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide measurements made by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument between 2002 and 2014 were analyzed to reveal the rate of increase of CO2 in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The CO2 data show a trend of ~5% per decade at ~80 km and below, in good agreement with the tropospheric trend observed at Mauna Loa. Above 80 km, the SABER CO2 trend is larger than in the lower atmosphere, reaching ~12% per decade above 110 km. The large relative trend in the upper atmosphere is consistent with results from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). On the other hand, the CO2 trend deduced from the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) remains close to 5% everywhere. The spatial coverage of the SABER instrument allows us to analyze the CO2 trend as a function of latitude for the first time. The trend is larger in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere mesopause above 80 km. The agreement between SABER and ACE-FTS suggests that the rate of increase of CO2 in the upper atmosphere over the past 13 years is considerably larger than can be explained by chemistry-climate models.

  5. Increasing carbon dioxide concentration in the upper atmosphere observed by SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Jia; Russell, James; Jian, Yongxiao; Rezac, Ladislav; Garcia, Rolando; López-Puertas, Manuel; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2015-09-01

    Carbon dioxide measurements made by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument between 2002 and 2014 were analyzed to reveal the rate of increase of CO2 in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The CO2 data show a trend of ~5% per decade at ~80 km and below, in good agreement with the tropospheric trend observed at Mauna Loa. Above 80 km, the SABER CO2 trend is larger than in the lower atmosphere, reaching ~12% per decade at 110 km. The large relative trend in the upper atmosphere is consistent with results from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). On the other hand, the CO2 trend deduced from the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model remains close to 5% everywhere. The spatial coverage of the SABER instrument allows us to analyze the CO2 trend as a function of latitude for the first time. The trend is larger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere mesopause above 80 km. The agreement between SABER and ACE-FTS suggests that the rate of increase of CO2 in the upper atmosphere over the past 13 years is considerably larger than can be explained by chemistry-climate models.

  6. Atomic hydrogen in the mesopause region derived from SABER: Algorithm theoretical basis, measurement uncertainty, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hunt, Linda A.; Marshall, B. Thomas; Mertens, Christopher J.; Marsh, Daniel R.; Smith, Anne K.; Russell, James M.; Siskind, David E.; Gordley, Larry L.

    2014-03-01

    Atomic hydrogen (H) is a fundamental component in the photochemistry and energy balance of the terrestrial mesopause region (80-100 km). H is generated primarily by photolysis of water vapor and participates in a highly exothermic reaction with ozone. This reaction is a significant source of heat in the mesopause region and also creates highly vibrationally excited hydroxyl (OH) from which the Meinel band radiative emission features originate. Concentrations (cm-3) and volume mixing ratios of H are derived from observations of infrared emission from the OH (υ = 9 + 8, Δυ = 2) vibration-rotation bands near 2.0 µm made by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the NASA Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite. The algorithms for deriving day and night H are described herein. Day and night concentrations exhibit excellent agreement between 87 and 95 km. SABER H results also exhibit good agreement with observations from the Solar Mesosphere Explorer made nearly 30 years ago. An apparent inverse dependence on the solar cycle is observed in the SABER H concentrations, with the H increasing as solar activity decreases. This increase is shown to be primarily due to the temperature dependence of various reaction rate coefficients for H photochemistry. The SABER H data, coupled with SABER atomic oxygen, ozone, and temperature, enable tests of mesospheric photochemistry and energetics in atmospheric models, studies of formation of polar mesospheric clouds, and studies of atmospheric evolution via escape of hydrogen. These data and studies are made possible by the wide range of parameters measured simultaneously by the SABER instrument.

  7. Gravity wave variations during elevated stratopause events using SABER observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Chihoko; England, Scott L.; Immel, Thomas J.; Chang, Loren C.

    2013-06-01

    stratopauses formed at ~80-90 km altitude during the recovery phase of stratospheric sudden warmings in February 2006 and 2009. These likely occurred in response to changes in the downward circulation due to gravity waves (GWs) and/or planetary waves in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere (MLT). However, the physical mechanisms are not fully understood, due in part to the lack of global GW observations in the MLT. This study presents global-scale GW observations in the MLT during elevated stratopause events using Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics (TIMED)-Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) temperature observation, which provide a better insight into the formation of an elevated stratopause. During the downward movement of elevated stratopause events in 2006 and 2009, GWs were suppressed below ~60 km and enhanced above ~60 km at high latitudes compared to non-elevated stratopause years (2005 and 2007). Global SABER GW observations indicate that the regions of GW enhancement propagate from low-mid latitudes to high latitudes in association with the equatorward shift of the polar night jet during elevated stratopause events. Ray-tracing simulations show enhancements of the poleward propagation of GWs during elevated stratopause events as well as continuous propagation of non-orographic GWs within high latitudes. Therefore, our results suggest that meridional propagation of GWs from lower to higher latitudes, which is typically not included in global-scale models, plays an important role in determining GW variations and thus the downward movement of an elevated stratopause, in addition to non-orographic GWs originating at high latitudes.

  8. Broadband radiometry for photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folgosi-Correa, M. S.; Caly, J. P.; Nogueira, G. E. C.

    2010-04-01

    The effective irradiance is a useful measure to compare performances of different broadband light sources and to more precisely predict the outcome of a topical photodynamic therapy. The effective irradiance (or effective fluence rate) and the exposition time of the optical radiation usually determine the light dose. The effective irradiance (Eeff) takes into account the spectral irradiance of the source as well as the action spectrum, where the wavelength dependence of both optical diffusion through tissue and photosensitizer are considered. In practice there are no standard action spectra for the currently used photosensitizers. As a consequence, measured values of effective irradiance using different action spectra can not be compared. In order to solve this problem, the basis of the calibration theory developed for the broadband ultraviolet radiometry can be applied, where an experimental radiometer is compared with a standard radiometer. Here is presented a simple set of linear relations in the form Eeff = k . E, where E is the source irradiance and k a real positive value, here denoted as a characteristic of the radiometer, as valuable tools for correction of effective irradiances measured according to different action spectra. As a result, for two effective radiometers with different characteristics k1 and k2, measured values are Eeff and Qeff respectively, and it is easily shown that the value Eeff = Qeff • k1/k2 .

  9. Thermodynamic temperature by primary radiometry.

    PubMed

    Anhalt, Klaus; Machin, Graham

    2016-03-28

    Above the freezing temperature of silver (1234.93 K), the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) gives a temperature, T90, in terms of a defining fixed-point blackbody and Planck's law of thermal radiation in ratio form. Alternatively, by using Planck's law directly, thermodynamic temperature can be determined by applying radiation detectors calibrated in absolute terms for their spectral responsivity. With the advent of high-quality semiconductor photodiodes and the development of high-accuracy cryogenic radiometers during the last two decades radiometric detector standards with very small uncertainties in the range of 0.01-0.02% have been developed for direct, absolute radiation thermometry with uncertainties comparable to those for the realization of the ITS-90. This article gives an overview of a number of design variants of different types of radiometer used for primary radiometry and describes their calibration. Furthermore, details and requirements regarding the experimental procedure for obtaining low uncertainty thermodynamic temperatures with these radiometers are presented, noting that such radiometers can also be used at temperatures well below the silver point. Finally, typical results obtained by these methods are reviewed. PMID:26903102

  10. Nonmigrating tidal variability in the SABER/TIMED mesospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancheva, D.; Mukhtarov, P.; Smith, A. K.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents for the first time evidence showing nonmigrating tidal variations in the mesospheric ozone (O3) derived from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry/Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Energetics and Dynamics (SABER/TIMED) for a full 11 year period, 2002-2012. The O3 tidal fields are extracted from the data by the same method as the temperature tides have been derived. The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of the three strongest nonmigrating O3 tidal variabilities, i.e., SW3, DW2, and DE3, are shown. They demonstrate repeatable presence each year. These O3 tidal variations have large amplitudes at the seasons and latitudes for which the respective temperature (T) tides amplify, i.e., near the equator and during the equinoxes. The phases of the T and O3 tidal signatures are out of phase above 95 km. This phase relationship no longer holds for tidal perturbations below about 90 km. The O3 SW3 and DW2 tidal variations have similar interannual variabilities that appear to follow El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability. The O3 DE3 tidal field, however, has a clear biyearly interannual variability as the biyearly maxima correlate with the westerly phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation in tropical stratospheric winds but only up to 2008.

  11. Climatology of the diurnal tides from eCMAM30 (1979 to 2010) and its comparison with SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Quan; Du, Jian; Ward, William E.; Beagley, Stephen R.; Fomichev, Victor I.; Zhang, Shaodong

    2014-12-01

    The extended Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (eCMAM) was recently run in a nudged mode using reanalysis data from the ground to 1 hPa for the period of January 1979 to June 2010 (hence the name eCMAM30). In this paper, eCMAM30 temperature is used to examine the background mean temperature, the spectrum of the diurnal tides, and the climatology of the migrating diurnal tide Dw1 and three nonmigrating diurnal tides De3, Dw2, and Ds0 in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere. The model results are then compared to the diurnal tidal climatology derived from Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) observations between 40 to 110 km and 50° S to 50° N from January 2002 to December 2013. The model reproduces the latitudinal background mean temperature gradients well except that the cold mesopause temperature in eCMAM30 is 10 to 20 K colder than SABER. The diurnal tidal spectra and their relative strengths compare very well between eCMAM30 and SABER. The altitude-latitude structures for the four diurnal tidal components (Dw1, De3, Dw2, and Ds0) from the two datasets are also in very good agreement even for structures in the stratosphere with a weaker amplitude. The largest discrepancy between the model and SABER is associated with the seasonal variation of De3. In addition to the Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer maximum, a secondary maximum occurs during NH winter (December-February) in the model but is absent in SABER. The seasonal variations of the other three diurnal tidal components are in good agreement. Interannual time series of Dw1 and De3 from both eCMAM30 and SABER reveal variability with a period of 25 to 26 months, which indicates the modulation of the diurnal tides by the stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO).

  12. SABER-School Finance: Data Collection Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elizabeth; Patrinos, Harry; Rogers, Halsey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the SABER-school finance initiative is to collect, analyze and disseminate comparable data about education finance systems across countries. SABER-school finance assesses education finance systems along six policy goals: (i) ensuring basic conditions for learning; (ii) monitoring learning conditions and outcomes; (iii) overseeing…

  13. Revised Correlation between Odin/OSIRIS PMC Properties and Coincident TIMED/SABER Mesospheric Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Petelina, S V.; Kutepov, A. A.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Russell, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS) instrument on board the Odin satellite detects Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) through the enhancement in the limb scattered solar radiance. The Sounding of the Atmosphere using the Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the TIMED satellite is a limb scanning infrared radiometer that measures temperature and vertical profiles and energetic parameters for minor constituents in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The combination of OSIRIS and SABER data has been previously used to statistically derive thermal conditions for PMC existence [Petelina et al., 2005]. In this work, we employ the simultaneous common volume measurements of PMCs by OSIRIS and temperature profiles measured by SABER for the Northern Hemisphere summers of 2002-2005 and corrected in the polar region by accounting for the vibrational-vibrational energy exchange among the CO2 isotopes [Kutepov et al., 2006]. For each of 20 coincidences identified within plus or minus 1 degree latitude, plus or minus 2 degrees longitude and less than 1 hour time the frost point temperatures were calculated using the corresponding SABER temperature profile and water vapor densities of 1,3, and 10 ppmv. We found that the PMC presence and brightness correlated only with the temperature threshold that corresponds to the frost point. The absolute value of the temperature below the frost point, however, didn't play a significant role in the intensity of PMC signal for the majority of selected coincidences. The presence of several bright clouds at temperatures above the frost point is obviously related to the limitation of the limb geometry when some near- or far-field PMCs located at higher (and warmer) altitudes appear to be at lower altitudes.

  14. Revised Correlation between Odin/OSIRIS PMC Properties and Coincident TIMED/SABER Mesospheric Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Petelina, S. V.; Kutepov, A. A.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Russell, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    The Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS) instrument on board the Odin satellite detects Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) through the enhancement in the limb-scattered solar radiance. The Sounding of the Atmosphere using the Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the TIMED satellite is a limb scanning infrared radiometer that measures temperature and vertical profiles and energetic parameters for minor constituents in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The combination of OSIRIS and SABER data has been previously used to statistically derive thermal conditions for PMC existence [Petelina et al., 2005]. a, A.A. Kutepov, W.D. Pesnell, In this work, we employ the simultaneous common volume measurements of PMCs by OSIRIS and temperature profiles measured by SABER for the Northern Hemisphere summers of 2002-2005 and corrected in the polar region by accounting for the vibrational-vibrational energy exchange among the CO2 isotopes [Kutepov et al., 2006]. For each of 20 coincidences identified within plus or minus 1 degree latitude, plus or minus 2 degrees longitude and less than 1 hour time the frost point temperatures were calculated using the corresponding SABER temperature profile and water vapor densities of 1,3, and 10 ppmv. We found that the PMC presence and brightness correlated only with the temperature threshold that corresponds to the frost point. The absolute value of the temperature below the frost point, however, didn't play a significant role in the intensity of PMC signal for the majority of selected coincidences. The presence of several bright clouds at temperatures above the frost point is obviously related to the limitation of the limb geometry when some near- or far-field PMCs located at higher (and warmer) altitudes appear to be at lower altitudes.

  15. Intercomparisons of HIRDLS, COSMIC and SABER for the detection of stratospheric gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C. J.; Rivas, M. B.; Gille, J. C.

    2011-08-01

    Colocated temperature profiles from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC), High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) and the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) mission are compared over the years 2006-2007 to assess their relative performances for the detection of stratospheric gravity waves. Two methods are used, one based on a simple comparison of the standard deviations and correlation coefficients of high-pass filtered profiles from each instrument, and the other based on Stockwell transform analyses of the profiles for vertical wavelength and temperature perturbation scales. It is concluded, when allowing for their different vertical resolution capabilites, that the three instruments reproduce each other's results for magnitude and vertical scale of perturbations to within their resolution limits in approximately 50 % of cases, but with a positive frequency and temperature bias in the case of COSMIC. This is possibly indicative of a slightly higher vertical resolution being available to the constellation than estimated.

  16. Modes of zonal mean temperature variability 20-100 km from the TIMED/SABER observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Sheng, Z.; Shi, H. Q.

    2014-03-01

    In this study we investigate the spatial variabilities of the zonal mean temperature (20-100 km) from the TIMED (Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics)/SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) satellite using the empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). After removing the climatological annual mean, the first three EOFs are able to explain 87.0% of temperature variabilities. The primary EOF represents 74.1% of total anomalies and is dominated by the north-south contrast. Patterns in the second and third EOFs are related to the semiannual oscillations (SAO) and mesospheric temperature inversions (MTI), respectively. The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) component is also decomposed into the seventh EOF with contributions of 1.2%. Last, we use the first three modes and annual mean temperature to reconstruct the data. The result shows small differences are in low latitude, which increase with latitude in the middle stratosphere and upper mesosphere.

  17. SABER observations of mesospheric ozone during NH late winter 2002-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. K.; López-Puertas, M.; García-Comas, M.; Tukiainen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Observations from the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) instrument on the TIMED (Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics) satellite show interannual variations of mesospheric ozone in the NH late winter. Ozone in the mid-January to mid-March period is significantly different in 2004, 2006, and 2009 than in other years (2002, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2008). The altitudes of the ozone secondary maximum (˜90-95 km), the minimum (˜80 km) and the tertiary maximum (˜72 km) are all lower by 3-5 km during the three anomalous winters. The ozone anomalies indicate enhanced downward motion and are consistent with other observations of unusual profiles of trace species. The ozone perturbations extend to at least 100 km while temperatures above 90 km are within the range found in the other years.

  18. Revised correlation between Odin/OSIRIS PMC properties and coincident TIMED/SABER mesospheric temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofilov, A.; Petelina, S. V.; Kutepov, A. A.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Russell, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    The Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS) instrument on board the Odin satellite detects Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) through the enhancement in the limb-scattered solar radiance. The Sounding of the Atmosphere using the Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the TIMED satellite is a limb scanning infrared radiometer that measures temperature and vertical profiles and energetic parameters for minor constituents in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The combination of OSIRIS and SABER data has been previously used to statistically derive thermal conditions for PMC existence [Petelina et al., 2005]. In this work, we employ the simultaneous common volume measurements of PMCs by OSIRIS and temperature profiles measured by SABER for the Northern Hemisphere summers of 2002--2005 and corrected in the polar region by accounting for the vibrational-vibrational energy exchange among the CO2 isotopes [Kutepov et al., 2006]. For each coincidence identified within ±1 degree latitude, ±2 degrees longitude and ≤1 hour time the frost point temperatures were calculated using the corresponding SABER temperature profile and water vapor densities of 1, 3, and 10 ppmv. We found that the PMC presence and brightness correlated only with the temperature threshold that corresponds to the frost point. The absolute value of the temperature below the frost point, however, didn't play a significant role in the intensity of PMC signal for the majority of selected coincidences. The presence of several bright clouds at temperatures above the frost point is obviously related to the limitation of the limb geometry when some near- or far-field PMCs, actually located at higher (and colder) altitudes are detected at lower altitudes. S.V. Petelina, D.A. Degenstein, E.J. Llewellyn, N.D. Lloyd, C.J. Mertens, M.G. Mlynczak, and J.M. Russell III, "Thermal conditions for PMC existence derived from Odin/OSIRIS and TIMED/SABER data", Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L

  19. Cokriging with ground-based radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, P. M.; Webster, R.; Curran, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The formulas for cokriging and a coherent coregionalization model are presented. The model is applied to design sampling strategies for surveys using a ground-based radiometer. Results indicate that cokriging based on measured radiation is nine times as efficient as kriging the cover alone. It is concluded that cokriging in conjunction with ground-based radiometry provides an economical and operational technique for using reflectance to estimate the earth surface properties.

  20. Profiling atmospheric water vapor by microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Wilheit, T. T.; Szejwach, G.; Gesell, L. H.; Nieman, R. A.; Niver, D. S.; Krupp, B. M.; Gagliano, J. A.; King, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    High-altitude microwave radiometric observations at frequencies near 92 and 183.3 GHz were used to study the potential of retrieving atmospheric water vapor profiles over both land and water. An algorithm based on an extended kalman-Bucy filter was implemented and applied for the water vapor retrieval. The results show great promise in atmospheric water vapor profiling by microwave radiometry heretofore not attainable at lower frequencies.

  1. Photothermal radiometry monitoring of light curing in resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambrano-Arjona, M. A.; Medina-Esquivel, R.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2007-10-01

    Real time measurement of thermal diffusivity during the evolution of the light curing process in dental resins is reported using photothermal radiometry. The curing is induced by a non-modulated blue light beam, and at the same time, a modulated red laser beam is sent onto the sample, generating a train of thermal waves that produce modulated infrared radiation. The monitoring of this radiation permits to follow the time evolution of the process. The methodology is applied to two different commercially available light curing resin-based composites. In all cases thermal diffusivity follows a first order kinetics with similar stabilization characteristic times. Analysis of this kinetics permits to exhibit the close relationship of increase in thermal diffusivity with the decrease in monomer concentration and extension of the polymerization in the resin, induced by the curing light. It is also shown that the configuration in which the resin is illuminated by the modulated laser can be the basis for the development of an in situ technique for the determination of the degree of curing.

  2. A Comparison of a Photochemical Model with SHIMMER hydroxyl and SABER ozone data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siskind, D. E.; Stevens, M. H.; Englert, C. R.; Marsh, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Mesospheric ozone photochemistry is primarily dominated by a catalytic loss cycle involving odd hydrogen (HOx). In principal, this comparatively simple chemistry could be tested with simultaneous comparison of a model with ozone and odd hydrogen data. Until recently, such comparisons could not be made because such simultaneous data did not exist. However, with the recent conclusion of the successful 30 month mission of The Spatial Heterodyne Image for Mesospheric Radicals (SHIMMER) on a Space Test Program satellite (STPSat-1) , we now have the data with which to perform these studies. SHIMMER made high quality, high vertical resolution measurements measurements of hydroxyl (OH) from 60-80 km for a wide range of local times. The ozone data comes from measurements made by the Sounding of the Atmosphere with Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) on the NASA TIMED satellite. Since TIMED and STPSat observed the atmosphere simultaneously but at different local times, these OH and ozone data are studied using a diurnal photochemical model as a "transfer standard" that was sampled for lighting conditions appropriate to each experiment. We have used the eddy diffusion coefficient as a free parameter to be constrained by the model-data comparison. The results suggest very good general agreement with SHIMMER OH, except for a puzzling overestimate by the model of the data in the late afternoon at the highest altitudes. By contrast, the comparison with SABER ozone shows persistent large discrepancies whereby the model falls below the data; reasons for this will be offered.

  3. SABER Observations of the OH Meinel Airglow Variability Near the Mesopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Daniel R.; Smith, Anne K.; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2005-01-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument, one of four on board the TIMED satellite, observes the OH Meinel emission at 2.0 m that peaks near the mesopause. The emission results from reactions between members of the oxygen and hydrogen chemical families that can be significantly affected by mesopause dynamics. In this study we compare SABER measurements of OH Meinel emission rates and temperatures with predictions from a 3-dimensional chemical dynamical model. In general, the model is capable of reproducing both the observed diurnal and seasonal OH Meinel emission variability. The results indicate that the diurnal tide has a large effect on the overall magnitude and temporal variation of the emission in low latitudes. This tidal variability is so dominant that the seasonal cycle in the nighttime emission depends very strongly on the local time of the analysis. At higher latitudes, the emission has an annual cycle that is due mainly to transport of oxygen by the seasonally reversing mean circulation.

  4. Atomic oxygen in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere derived from SABER: Algorithm theoretical basis and measurement uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hunt, Linda A.; Mast, Jeffrey C.; Thomas Marshall, B.; Russell, James M.; Smith, Anne K.; Siskind, David E.; Yee, Jeng-Hwa; Mertens, Christopher J.; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; Thompson, R. Earl; Drob, Douglas P.; Gordley, Larry L.

    2013-06-01

    Atomic oxygen (O) is a fundamental component in chemical aeronomy of Earth's mesosphere and lower thermosphere region extending from approximately 50 km to over 100 km in altitude. Atomic oxygen is notoriously difficult to measure, especially with remote sensing techniques from orbiting satellite sensors. It is typically inferred from measurements of the ozone concentration in the day or from measurements of the Meinel band emission of the hydroxyl radical (OH) at night. The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the NASA Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite measures OH emission and ozone for the purpose of determining the O-atom concentration. In this paper, we present the algorithms used in the derivation of day and night atomic oxygen from these measurements. We find excellent consistency between the day and night O-atom concentrations from daily to annual time scales. We also examine in detail the collisional relaxation of the highly vibrationally excited OH molecule at night measured by SABER. Large rate coefficients for collisional removal of vibrationally excited OH molecules by atomic oxygen are consistent with the SABER observations if the deactivation of OH(9) proceeds solely by collisional quenching. An uncertainty analysis of the derived atomic oxygen is also given. Uncertainty in the rate coefficient for recombination of O and molecular oxygen is shown to be the largest source of uncertainty in the derivation of atomic oxygen day or night.

  5. Global responses of gravity waves to planetary waves during stratospheric sudden warming observed by SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullens, Chihoko Y.; England, Scott L.; Immel, Thomas J.

    2015-12-01

    This study describes the global responses of observed gravity waves (GWs) to winter planetary wave (PW) variations during stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) using TIMED-SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) temperature measurements. Previous studies have shown responses of atmospheric temperature and parameterized GW drag to SSWs; however, the responses of global GW observations to SSWs have not been presented before. The responses are shown by calculating correlations between vertical components of Eliassen-Palm (EP) fluxes in the winter polar stratosphere and global GW temperature amplitudes derived from SABER observations. Consistent with previous ground-based and satellite observations, winter EP fluxes show positive correlations with GWs in the winter hemisphere. More interestingly, winter stratospheric EP fluxes are positively correlated with GWs in the tropics and in the summer mesosphere, indicating global variations of GWs in response to PW variations in the winter hemisphere. To study the mechanism of GW response to SSWs, global wind simulations from Specified Dynamics Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model are used. Zonal wind anomalies (differences in the wind before and during SSWs) extend from the winter stratosphere to the summer mesosphere. By comparing anomalies in background winds to the observed patterns in the correlations between GWs and winter EP fluxes, we find that regions of positive correlation follow changes in background winds and zero-wind lines. The results indicate that responses of SABER GWs in the summer hemisphere to winter PW variations during SSWs are likely caused by changes in GW propagation due to the changes in winds and atmospheric circulation.

  6. Water vapor radiometry research and development phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. M.; Chavez, M. C.; Yamane, N. L.; Barbier, K. M.; Chandlee, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the research and development phase for eight dual-channel water vapor radiometers constructed for the Crustal Dynamics Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, and for the NASA Deep Space Network. These instruments were developed to demonstrate that the variable path delay imposed on microwave radio transmissions by atmospheric water vapor can be calibrated, particularly as this phenomenon affects very long baseline interferometry measurement systems. Water vapor radiometry technology can also be used in systems that involve moist air meteorology and propagation studies.

  7. Submillimeter-Wave Cloud Ice Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    Submillimeter-wave cloud ice radiometry is a new and innovative technique for characterizing cirrus ice clouds. Cirrus clouds affect Earth's climate and hydrological cycle by reflecting incoming solar energy, trapping outgoing IR radiation, sublimating into vapor, and influencing atmospheric circulation. Since uncertainties in the global distribution of cloud ice restrict the accuracy of both climate and weather models, successful development of this technique could provide a valuable tool for investigating how clouds affect climate and weather. Cloud ice radiometry could fill an important gap in the observational capabilities of existing and planned Earth-observing systems. Using submillimeter-wave radiometry to retrieve properties of ice clouds can be understood with a simple model. There are a number of submillimeter-wavelength spectral regions where the upper troposphere is transparent. At lower tropospheric altitudes water vapor emits a relatively uniform flux of thermal radiation. When cirrus clouds are present, they scatter a portion of the upwelling flux of submillimeter-wavelength radiation back towards the Earth as shown in the diagram, thus reducing the upward flux o f energy. Hence, the power received by a down-looking radiometer decreases when a cirrus cloud passes through the field of view causing the cirrus cloud to appear radiatively cool against the warm lower atmospheric thermal emissions. The reduction in upwelling thermal flux is a function of both the total cloud ice content and mean crystal size. Radiometric measurements made at multiple widely spaced frequencies permit flux variations caused by changes in crystal size to be distinguished from changes in ice content, and polarized measurements can be used to constrain mean crystal shape. The goal of the cloud ice radiometry program is to further develop and validate this technique of characterizing cirrus. A multi-frequency radiometer is being designed to support airborne science and

  8. Analysis of dental materials by photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde-Contreras, M.; Tiessler, V.; Cucina, A.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, Juan J.

    2005-02-01

    The analysis of teeth is an interesting field, given the importance of these pieces for the individual or for humanity in the case of remains recovered from an archeologically site; therefore, the development of non-destructive techniques is important to study these materials. Photothermal techniques are ones of the most interesting possibilities; they are based in the generation of a train of thermal waves inside of a material due to the illumination with modulated light. Among these techniques photothermal radiometry has an outstanding role, since it is a non-contact technique, based in the detection of infrared emission of the samples heated with the laser. The experimental configuration consists of an Ar laser beam that impinges on the surface of the teeth and the infrared radiation generated is measured using a HgCdTe IR detector. Results for the analysis of cracks on teeth and the low frequency profiles are presented. A strong influence of the signal due to the microstructure of teeth is observed. Furthermore, surface effects are analyzed changing the color of teeth when whitening products are applied. The process of whitening is monitored in real time by optical spectroscopy in the visible and by photothermal radiometry.

  9. Advances in radiometry for ocean color

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, S.W.; Clark, D.K.; Johnson, B.C.; Yoon, H.; Lykke, K.R.; Flora, S.J.; Feinholz, M.E.; Souaidia, N.; Pietras, C.; Stone, T.C.; Yarbrough, M.A.; Kim, Y.S.; Barnes, R.A.; Mueller, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    We have presented a number of recent developments in radiometry that directly impact the uncertainties achievable in ocean-color research. Specifically, a new (2000) U. S. national irradiance scale, a new LASER-based facility for irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations, and applications of the LASER facility for the calibration of sun photometers and characterization of spectrographs were discussed. For meaningful long-time-series global chlorophyll-a measurements, all instruments involved in radiometric measurements, including satellite sensors, vicarious calibration sensors, sensors used in the development of bio-optical algorithms and atmospheric characterization need to be fully characterized and corrected for systematic errors, including, but not limited to, stray light. A unique, solid-state calibration source is under development to reduce the radiometric uncertainties in ocean color instruments, in particular below 400 nm. Lunar measurements for trending of on-orbit sensor channel degradation were described. Unprecedented assessments, within 0.1 %, of temporal stability and drift in a satellite sensor's radiance responsivity are achievable with this approach. These developments advance the field of ocean color closer to the desired goal of reducing the uncertainty in the fundamental radiometry to a small component of the overall uncertainty in the derivation of remotely sensed ocean-color data products such as chlorophyll a.

  10. 100 years of photometry and radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardis, Jonathan E.

    2001-06-01

    Measurement of light is an old subject, though the past 100 years have seen significant advances. 100 years ago, photometry - the art and science of measuring light as it is perceived by people - had the greater technological importance. Even today SI (the metric system) retains a base unit for photometry, the candela. However, early work at NBS included pivotal projects in the field of radiometry - the measurement of the physical characteristics of light. These included the validation of Planck's newly-minted theory of blackbody radiation, determining the radiation constants with good accuracy, and the definitive analysis of the spectral responsivity of human vision, so as to relate photometry to radiometry. This latter work has only increased in importance over the past 75 years as the definition of the candela has changed and improved. Today, NIST makes radiometric, and hence photometric measurements, with unprecedented precision. Cryogenic radiometers based on the principle of electrical substitution measure optical flux with uncertainties of 0.02%. Additional facilities enable measurement of spectral responsivity, spectral radiance, and spectral irradiance. Novel detectors, such as light-traps, allow the best accuracy to be transferred from the primary standards to routinely-used instruments and to calibration customers. Filtered detectors are used to realize photometric scales, radiation temperature scales, and other specialized measurements. Indeed, the story of the metrology of light is the story of continuous improvement, both driven by and enabled by advances in technology. We touch upon some of these as a prelude to the other talks in this Conference.

  11. Mesospheric Water Vapor Retrieved from SABER/TIMED Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, Arte, G.; Yankovsky, Valentine A.; Marshall, Benjamin T.; Russell, J. M., III; Pesnell, W. D.; Kutepov, Alexander A.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Gordley, Larry L.; Petelina, Svetlama; Mauilova, Rada O.; Garaci-A-Comas, M.

    2007-01-01

    The SABER instrument on board the TIMED satellite is a limb scanning infrared radiometer designed to measure temperature and minor constituent vertical profiles and energetics parameters in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) The H2O concentrations are retrieved from 6.3 micron band radiances. The interpretation of this radiance requires developing a non-LTE H2O model that includes energy exchange processes with the system of O3 and O2 vibrational levels populated at the daytime through a number of photoabsorption and photodissociation processes. We developed a research model base on an extended H2O non-LTE model of Manuilova coupled with the novel model of the electronic kinetics of the O2 and O3 photolysis products suggested by Yankosvky and Manuilova. The performed study of this model helped u to develop and test an optimized operational model for interpretation of SABER 6.3 micron band radiances. The sensitivity of retrievals to the parameters of the model is discussed. The H2O retrievals are compared to other measurements for different seasons and locations.

  12. Viking lander camera radiometry calibration report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, M. R.; Atwood, D. L.; Morrill, M. E.

    1977-01-01

    The test methods and data reduction techniques used to determine and remove instrumental signatures from Viking Lander camera radiometry data are described. Gain, offset, and calibration constants are presented in tables.

  13. Radiometry and the Friis transmission equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    To more effectively tailor courses involving antennas, wireless communications, optics, and applied electromagnetics to a mixed audience of engineering and physics students, the Friis transmission equation—which quantifies the power received in a free-space communication link—is developed from principles of optical radiometry and scalar diffraction. This approach places more emphasis on the physics and conceptual understanding of the Friis equation than is provided by the traditional derivation based on antenna impedance. Specifically, it shows that the wavelength-squared dependence can be attributed to diffraction at the antenna aperture and illustrates the important difference between the throughput (product of area and solid angle) of a single antenna or telescope and the throughput of a transmitter-receiver pair.

  14. Applications of fiberoptic pulsed photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharf, Vered; Eyal, Ophir; Katzir, Abraham

    1998-10-01

    Pulsed photothermal radiometry is a nondestructive technique for measurements of surface and subsurface thermal parameters of a wide variety of materials. A fiber optic pulsed photothermal radiometric system is constructed and its feasibility is demonstrated. The radiometric system includes a pulsed CO2 laser, an IR detector, and two IR transmitting silver halide optical fibers for delivering IR radiation to and from the sample. A weak laser pulse, absorbed by the sample, initially heats the sample surface. The time evolution of the transient emitted IR radiation is measured and analyzed. The results establish the feasibility of using the fiber optic pulsed photothermal radiometric system to measure coating thickness, to detect flaws, and to diagnose thermal damage in tissue. This fiber optic method would be useful for industrial and medical applications.

  15. Advances in Solar Radiometry and Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.; Andreas, A.; Reda, I.; Gotseff, P.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Anderberg, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Radiometry and Metrology task at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides traceable optical radiometric calibrations and measurements to photovoltaic (PV) researchers and the PV industry. Traceability of NREL solar radiometer calibrations to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) was accomplished during the NREL Pyrheliometer Comparison in October 2003. The task has calibrated 10 spectral and more than 180 broadband radiometers for solar measurements. Other accomplishments include characterization of pyranometer thermal offset errors with laboratory and spectral modeling tools; developing a simple scheme to correct pyranometer data for known responsivity variations; and measuring detailed spectral distributions of the NREL High Intensity Pulsed Solar Simulator (HIPSS) as a function of lamp voltage and time. The optical metrology functions support the NREL Measurement and Characterization Task effort for ISO 17025 accreditation of NREL Solar Reference Cell Calibrations. Optical metrology functions have been integrated into the NREL quality system and audited for ISO17025 compliance.

  16. Using TIMED/SABER nightglow observations to investigate hydroxyl emission mechanisms in the mesopause region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiyao; Gao, Hong; Smith, Anne K.; Zhu, Yajun

    2012-01-01

    Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics, and Dynamics (TIMED)/Sounding of the Atmosphere Using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) observations of vertical profiles of the OH nightglow emission rates, temperature, and ozone are used along with a theoretical model of the OH nightglow to distinguish the dominant mechanism for the nightglow. From the comparison between the model fit and the observations we conclude that the chemical reaction O3 + H→OH(v ≤ 9) + O2 leads to population distributions of vibrationally excited states that are consistent with the measurements. The contribution of the reaction HO2 + O→OH(v ≤ 6) + O2 to the nightglow is not needed to reproduce the measurements above 80 km, at least for the emissions originating from vibrational transitions with v ≥ 4. The analysis also determines the best fits for quenching of OH(v) by O2 and O. The results show that the quenching rate of OH(v) by O2 is smaller and that the removal by O is larger than currently used for the analysis of SABER data. The rate constant for OH(v) quenching by O2 decreases with temperature in the mesopause region. The vertical profiles of atomic oxygen and hydrogen retrieved using both 2.0 and 1.6 μm channels of Meinel band emission of the OH nightglow and the new quenching rates are slightly smaller than the profiles retrieved using only the 2.0 μm channel and the quenching rate coefficients currently used for the analysis of SABER data. The fits of the model to the observations were also used to evaluate two other assumptions. The assumption of sudden death quenching of OH by O2 and N2 (i.e., quenching to the ground state rather than to intermediate vibrational levels) leads to poorer agreement with the SABER observations. The question of whether the reaction with or quenching by atomic oxygen depends on the OH vibrational level could not be resolved; assumptions of vibrational level dependence and independence both gave good fits to the observed emissions.

  17. Zonal-mean global teleconnection from 15 to 110 km derived from SABER and WACCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bo; Chu, Xinzhao; Liu, Han-Li; Yamashita, Chihoko; Russell, James M., III

    2012-05-01

    We derive the correlation patterns over the global latitudes and from the stratosphere to lower thermosphere (broadly referred to as teleconnection) using temperature data measured by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) from 2002 to 2010, and using 54 years of simulations of temperatures and winds by the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). We also analyze the possible mechanisms of teleconnection by investigating the correlations between the temperature and residual circulation. The correlation patterns show that teleconnection exists globally over the equatorial, mid- and high-latitudes, and temperature anomalies correspond well to the anomalies of the residual circulations through adiabatic heating/cooling. A main new finding of this study is that the teleconnection extends well into the lower thermosphere, the thermospheric anomalies are consistent with the corresponding changes of the winter-to-summer lower-thermospheric branch of the residual circulation, and the winter stratosphere perturbations influence the thermosphere globally. Using a reference point chosen in the northern winter stratosphere, we find that the teleconnection structures for time periods with and without Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) display similar patterns in SABER, and teleconnection patterns in WACCM are nearly identical for days with major SSWs, minor SSWs and without SSWs. WACCM results show strong inter-annual and intra-annual altitude variations of the teleconnection patterns in the southern polar region but stable altitudes of correlation regions in the equatorial and northern latitudes. The altitude variations are likely responsible for the weak correlations poleward of 60°S when multiyear or multimonth data are used.

  18. Water Vapor, Temperature, and Ice Particles in Polar Mesosphere as Measured by SABER/TIMED and OSIRIS/Odin Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Petelina, S. V.; Kutepov, A. A.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Although many new details on the properties of mesospheric ice particles that farm Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) and also cause polar mesospheric summer echoes have been recently revealed, certain aspects of mesospheric ice microphysics and dynamics still remain open. The detailed relation between PMC parameters and properties of their environment, as well as interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in PMC properties that are possibly related to global change, are among those open questions. In this work, mesospheric temperature and water vapor concentration measured by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite are used to study the properties of PMCs with respect to the surrounding atmosphere. The cloud parameters, namely location, brightness, and altitude, are obtained from the observations made by the Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) on the Odin satellite. About a thousand of simultaneous common volume measurements made by SABER and OSIRIS in both hemispheres from 2002 until 2008 are used. The correlation between PMC brightness (and occurrence rate) and temperatures at PMC altitudes and at the mesopause is analysed. The relation between PMC parameters, frost point temperature, and gaseous water vapor content in and below the cloud is also discussed. Interseasonal and interhemispheric differences and trends in the above parameters, as well as in PMC peak altitudes and mesopause altitudes are evaluated.

  19. Solar Cycle Dependence Of Temperature, Odd-Oxygen, Odd-Hydrogen, And Airglow In The Mesopause Region Observed By SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Mertens, C. J.; Marshall, T.; Russell, J. M.; Thompson, R. E.; Gordley, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first consistent, global set of temperature, pressure, odd-oxygen, odd-hydrogen and airglow measurements in the mesopause region spanning a complete solar cycle. The measurements are derived from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite. These data clearly indicate the influence of solar variability on the atmosphere structure and composition. In general, the values of most parameters decrease with decreasing solar activity. However, odd-hydrogen is observed to increase with decreasing solar activity. While the data indicate a direct relation between solar activity and atmospheric response, the role of dynamical variability in modulating the direct solar response has not yet been investigated, particularly on regional scales (e.g.,tropical, mid-latitude, or polar). We describe the SABER observations in detail and discuss how they can be used with general circulation models to assess the coupled role of dynamics and solar variability in determining the overall atmospheric response.

  20. Comparison of rotational temperature derived from ground-based OH airglow observations with TIMED/SABER to evaluate the Einstein coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Weijun; Xu, Jiyao; Smith, A. K.; Yuan, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Ground-based observations of the OH(9-4, 8-3, 6-2, 5-1, and 3-0) band airglows over Xinglong, China (40°24'N, 117°35'E) from December 2011 to 2014 are used to calculate rotational temperatures. The temperatures are calculated using five commonly used Einstein coefficient data sets. The kinetic temperature from Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding the Atmosphere by Broadband Emission of Radiation (SABER) is completely independent of the OH rotational temperature. SABER temperatures are weighted vertically by weighting functions calculated for each emitting vibrational state from two SABER OH volume emission rate profiles. By comparing the ground-based OH rotational temperature with SABER's, five Einstein coefficient data sets are evaluated. The results show that temporal variations of the rotational temperatures are well correlated with SABER's; the linear correlation coefficients are higher than 0.72, but the slopes of the fit between the SABER and rotational temperatures are not equal to 1. The rotational temperatures calculated using each set of Einstein coefficients produce a different bias with respect to SABER; these are evaluated over each of the vibrational levels to assess the best match. It is concluded that rotational temperatures determined using any of the available Einstein coefficient data sets have systematic errors. However, of the five sets of coefficients, the rotational temperature derived with Langhoff et al.'s (1986) set is most consistent with SABER. In order to get a set of optimal Einstein coefficients for rotational temperature derivation, we derive their ratios from ground-based OH spectra and SABER temperatures statistically using 3 years of data. The use of a standard set of Einstein coefficients will be beneficial for comparing rotational temperatures observed at different sites.

  1. Temporal evolution of nightglow emission responses to SSW events observed by TIMED/SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hong; Xu, Jiyao; Ward, William; Smith, Anne K.

    2011-10-01

    Using the SSW (Stratospheric Sudden Warming) event in 2009 as a representative case, the temporal evolution of the responses of OH and O2 infrared atmospheric (0-0) nightglow emissions to SSW events is analyzed using the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics)/SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) data. The results show that during the mesospheric cooling that occurs during the stratospheric warming stage of SSW events, the brightness of OH and O2 nightglow emissions and the thicknesses of OH and O2 emission layers decrease noticeably and the peak heights of the emissions ascend. During the recovery stage in the mesosphere, the brightness of both nightglow emissions and the thicknesses of the emission layers increase dramatically and the peak heights of the emissions descend. These emission variations are mainly caused by perturbations in temperature and the transport of O in the MLT (Mesosphere Lower Thermosphere) region. For the SSW event that started in January 2009, the onset times of the cooling stage and recovery stage in the mesosphere are ˜2 days ahead of the onset times of the warming stage and recovery stage of the SSW event, respectively. For this event, the influence of the SSW on the OH and O2 nightglow emissions increases with latitude between 50°N and 80°N.

  2. The Mesospheric Polar Vortices in GEOS, WACCM, SABER, and EOS-MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, V.; Randall, C. E.; Pawson, S.; Garcia, R.; Lieberman, R.; Manney, G. L.

    2007-12-01

    Satellite data analysis is combined with global modeling to characterize the 3-D structure and day-to-day variability of the polar vortex in the mesosphere. We use satellite temperature and geopotential height data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument and temperature, carbon monoxide, and methane data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument to characterize the structure of the upper stratospheric and mesospheric polar vortex in each hemisphere on a daily basis. The mesospheric vortex, as seen by these satellite instruments, is then compared to the representation of the mesospheric vortex in the GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 data assimilation systems as well as in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). We will show the 3-D structure of the mesospheric vortex at times when the stratospheric vortex is strong as well as how this structure is modified during stratospheric warming events. This work will conduct model/observation intercomparisons of the mesospheric vortex to further understanding of its role in the descent of EPP-NOx.

  3. Refinement of Phobos Ephemeris Using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, G. A.; Bills, B. G.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    Radiometric observations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) can be used to improve the ephemeris of Phobos, with particular interest in refining estimates of the secular acceleration due to tidal dissipation within Mars. We have searched the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) radiometry data for shadows cast by the moon Phobos, finding 7 such profiles during the Mapping and Extended Mission phases, and 5 during the last two years of radiometry operations. Preliminary data suggest that the motion of Phobos has advanced by one or more seconds beyond that predicted by the current ephemerides, and the advance has increased over the 5 years of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) operations.

  4. Atmospheric Compensation for Uplink Arrays via Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James A.; Acosta, Roberto J.

    2010-01-01

    Uplink arrays for communications applications are gaining increased visibility within the NASA and military community due to the enhanced flexibility and reliability they provide. When compared with the conventional large, single aperture antennas currently comprising the Deep Space Network (DSN), for example, smaller aperture antenna arrays have the benefits of providing fault tolerance (reduced single-point failure), reduced maintenance cost, and enhanced capabilities such as electronic beam-steering and multi-beam operation. However, signal combining of antenna array elements spaced many wavelengths apart becomes problematic due to the inherent instability of earth's turbulent atmosphere, particularly at the frequencies of interest to the DSN (i.e., Ka-band). Degradation in the power combining of the individual elements comprising the array arises due to uncorrelated phase errors introduced as the signals propagate through the troposphere. It is well known that the fundamental source of this error is due to the inhomogeneous distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere [1]. Several techniques have been proposed to circumvent this issue, including the use of phase calibration towers and a moon bounce to generate a feedback loop which would provide a means of intermittent calibration of the system phase errors (thermal drifts, atmosphere) [2,3]. However, these techniques require repositioning of the antenna elements to perform this operation which ultimately results in reduced system availability. And, though they are sufficient for compensating for slow varying phase drifts, they are insufficient to compensate for faster varying phase errors, such as those introduced by the atmosphere. In this paper, preliminary radiometry and interferometry measurements collected by the NASA Glenn Research Center are analyzed and indicate that the use of optimized water vapor radiometers as a feedback system in a communications platform could provide the necessary atmospheric

  5. Climatology of the migrating terdiurnal tide (TW3) in SABER/TIMED temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancheva, D.; Mukhtarov, P.; Smith, A. K.

    2013-04-01

    The present paper is focused on the global spatial (altitude and latitude) structure and seasonal and interannual temporal variability of the migrating terdiurnal tide (TW3) seen in 8 years (2002-2009) of observations of the kinetic temperature measured by the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite. The tides (migrating and nonmigrating) and the planetary waves (zonally traveling and stationary) are simultaneously extracted from the satellite data. It is found that the SABER TW3 tide is dominated by different Hough modes below and above ~80 to 90 km height; in the mesosphere, it reflects mainly the evanescent feature of the first symmetric mode, and in the lower thermosphere, propagating modes with shorter vertical wavelengths dominate its structure. The seasonal behavior of the terdiurnal tide at low latitudes is dominated by an annual variation with local summer amplification, while that at midlatitudes is a combination of semiannual variation with maxima in equinoxes and an annual variability with winter enhancement. The Hough modes of the solar heating from WACCM heating to a large extent determine the predominantly antisymmetric features of the SABER TW3 tide during the solstice but are not able to explain well the predominant symmetric features in the equinoxes. The TW3 tide reveals some interannual variability with a period of quasi-2 years which indicates an enhancement during the eastward phase of the stratospheric QBO.

  6. Mesospheric H2O Concentrations Retrieved from SABER/TIMED Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Marshall, B. T.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Kutepov, A. A.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Manuilova, R. O.; Yankovsky, V.A.; Goldberg, R. A.; Gordley, L. L.; Petelin, S.; Russell, J. M., III

    2008-01-01

    The SABER instrument on board the TIMED Satellite is a limb scanning infrared radiometer designed to measure temperature and minor constituent vertical profiles and energetics parameters in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The H2O concentrations are retrieved from 6.3 micron band radiances. The populations of H2O(v2) vibrational levels are in non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (non-LTE) above approximately 55 km altitude and the interpretation of 6.3 micron radiance requires utilizing non-LTE H2O model that includes various energy exchange processes in the system of H2O vibrational levels coupled with O2, N2, and CO2 vibrational levels. We incorporated these processes including kinetics of O2/O3 photolysis products to our research non-LTE H2O model and applied it for the development and optimization of SABER operational model. The latter has been validated using simultaneous SCISAT1/ACE occultation measurements. This helped us to estimate CO2(020)-O2(X,v=I), O2(X,v=I)- H2O(010), and O2(X,v=1) O rates at mesopause temperatures that is critical for an adequate interpretation of non-LTE H2O radiances in the MLT. The first distributions of seasonal and meridional H2O concentrations retrieved from SABER 6.3 micron radiances applying an updated non-LTE H2O model are demonstrated and discussed.

  7. Diurnal tides from the troposphere to the lower mesosphere as deduced from TIMED/SABER satellite data and six global reanalysis data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakazaki, T.; Fujiwara, M.; Zhang, X.; Hagan, M. E.; Forbes, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    We compare and examine diurnal temperature tides including their migrating component (DW1) from the troposphere to the lower mesosphere, using data from Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (TIMED/SABER) and from six different reanalysis data sets: (1) the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), (2) the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA-Interim) (3) the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), (4) the Japanese 25-year reanalysis by Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) (JRA25), (5) the NCEP/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis (NCEP1), and (6) the NCEP and Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP-II) reanalysis data (NCEP2). The horizontal and vertical structures of the diurnal tides in SABER and reanalyses reasonably agree, although the amplitudes are up to 30-50% smaller in the reanalyses than in the SABER in the upper stratosphere to lower mesosphere. Of all tidal components, the DW1 is dominant while a clear eastward propagating zonal wave number 3 component (DE3) is observed at midlatitudes of the Southern Hemisphere in winter. Among the six reanalyses, MERRA, ERA-Interim and CFSR are better at reproducing realistic diurnal tides. It is found that the diurnal tides extracted from SABER data in the winter-hemisphere stratosphere suffer from sampling issues that are caused by short-term variations of the background temperature. In addition, the GSWM underestimates the amplitude in the midlatitude upper stratosphere by about 50%.

  8. Multiple Peaks in SABER Mesospheric OH Emission Altitude Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozum, J. C.; Ware, G. A.; Baker, D. J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Russell, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Since January 2002, the SABER instrument aboard the TIMED satellite has been performing limb-scan measurements of the altitude distribution of the hydroxyl airglow. The majority of the SABER 1.6 μm and 2.0 μm OH volume emission rate (VER) profiles manifest a single peak at around 90 km, and are roughly gaussian in shape. However, a significant number (approximately 10% in nighttime) of these VER profiles have an irregular characteristic of multiple peaks that are comparable in brightness to the absolute maximum. The origin of these multiple peaks in SABER profiles is currently being studied. Single peak and irregular SABER OH VER profiles are compared with OH VER altitude curves obtained via theoretical vertical distribution models. In addition, we compare SABER profiles with OH VER altitude profiles obtained from rocket-borne radiometric experiments. The techniques of Liu and Shepherd's analysis of double-peaked emission profiles obtained by the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) using similar scan geometry are applied. The geographical distribution of the SABER nighttime multiple-peak VER profiles in the 1.6 μm and 2.0 μm channels is presented, as are the distributions of these profiles with respect to instrument-scan geometry parameters. It is noted that during the night, multiple peak profiles are more common at equatorial latitudes. A relationship has been found between the geographical distribution of two-peaked profiles and spatial orientation of the SABER instrument's viewing field.

  9. A young region on Enceladus revealed by 2 cm radiometry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, P.; Janssen, M.

    2014-04-01

    On 5 November 2011, the Cassini spacecraft had a flyby of Enceladus dedicated to its synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instrument. In the course of that flyby, approximately 80% of Enceladus' surface was also observed serendipitously with the microwave radiometer operating concurrently at 2.2 cm. The radiometry data is analyzed and shown to drop sharply in the leading hemisphere's smooth terrain. This drop is also demonstrated in a series of unresolved distant radiometry measurements spread out over the ten years of the Cassini mission. However, the anomaly is absent from distant unresolved RADAR measurements and not visible in SAR imaging. The anomaly is most likely caused by a young surface (<100MYr in age) which has not yet been processed by micrometeoroid impacts below the electromagnetic skin depth (3 m).

  10. Quasistationary field of thermal emission and near-field radiometry.

    PubMed

    Reznik, A N; Vaks, V L; Yurasova, N V

    2004-11-01

    We provide a theory of radiometry measurements of the quasistationary (near) field of thermal emission from a heated conducting medium. It explains why the Rytov effect, which essentially is a drastic growth of the thermal field energy near the medium surface, cannot be detected experimentally. However, we discovered a measurable near-field effect: the effective depth of formation of the received emission proves to be less than the skin-layer depth, depending on the size of the receiving antenna and its height above the surface. For such measurements highly effective antennas of a small aperture size are necessary. We developed and investigated a variety of microwave antennas whose parameters were fairly suitable for near-field radiometry. The measurements conducted with these antennas yielded experimental evidence of the fact that the quasistationary thermal field really exists. Near-field radiometry opens further opportunities for investigating media. In particular, we demonstrate here a technique for retrieval of the subsurface temperature profile in water with the help of near-field measurements.

  11. Implications of odd oxygen observations by the TIMED/SABER instrument for lower D region ionospheric modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siskind, David E.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Marshall, Tom; Friedrich, Martin; Gumbel, Jörg

    2015-03-01

    We document the variability in atomic oxygen inferred by the Sounding of the Atmosphere with Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the NASA/TIMED satellite in the lower mesosphere (50-80 km altitude) according to its diurnal, latitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle components. The dominant variation is diurnal and latitudinal. Below 75 km, seasonal and solar cycle effects are less than 5%. Accordingly, we have developed a simple climatology that depends upon local time and latitude and applied it to a model of the D region of the ionosphere. Between 60 and 70 km, atomic oxygen is important in governing the ratio of negative ions to electrons. Using the SABER O climatology along with a previously published climatology of nitric oxide based upon UARS/HALOE data, we compare our model results both to previous calculations and to a profile of electron density [e-] acquired by a rocket launched from Kwajalein Atoll. The model results are shown to be consistent with previously published calculations, but the comparison with the data reveals a dramatic discrepancy whereby the calculated [e-] is over an order of magnitude less than the observations below 65 km. The most plausible explanation involves changing the partition of negative charge between molecules such as O2 which rapidly dissociate in sunlight versus heavier, more stable negative ions. Although observations of [e-] below 70 km are difficult and infrequent, more research should be invested to evaluate the pervasiveness and the seasonal, latitudinal and diurnal morphology of this model [e-] deficit. This may have practical implications as empirical models of the ionosphere predict a secondary maximum in HF radio absorption in the 70 km altitude region.

  12. The emission of oxygen green line and density of O atom determined by using ISUAL and SABER measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, H.; Nee, J.-B.; Xu, J.

    2012-04-01

    Emissions of the 557.7 nm green line airglow observed by the ISUAL (Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning) instrument on board the FORMOSAT-2 satellite in May and November 2008 are studied here to derive the density distributions of the atomic oxygen by using atmospheric parameters from MSISE-00 model and TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics)/SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) measurements. The May observations were made in 10 days from a fixed orbit of longitude (100° E) with the results showing emission rate and O atom density both peaked at heights of about 90 km over 10° to 20° latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). In the Southern Hemisphere (SH), the emission rate and density of O atom are both low compared with those in NH. In November, the observations were made as the satellite traveled over all 14 orbits around the earth, covering all longitudes and latitudes of 25° S-45° N. Strong peaks of emission rates and O atoms are found at heights of about 95 km in the mid-latitudes in both hemispheres. In the equator, the airglow layer has a weaker emission rate but with higher altitude compared with those of mid-latitudes. In the lower and upper mesosphere at heights below 85 km and above 105 km, there are more O atoms in the equatorial regions than in the mid-latitudes. And there is a good correlation between the O atom and the temperature structure. A comparison with O atom distribution derived from OH airglow observed by TIMED/SABER at about the same time shows similar results.

  13. TIMED/SABER observations of lower mesospheric inversion layers at low and middle latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Quan; Zhang, Shao Dong; Yi, Fan

    2012-04-01

    We present the global distribution, seasonal, and interannual variations of the lower mesospheric inversion layers (MILs) using SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) temperature data. We show that both the characteristics and the formation mechanisms of large spatiotemporal-scale lower MILs are latitude dependent. At low latitudes, the monthly zonal mean amplitude of the lower MILs exhibits a semi-annual cycle and reaches a maximum of ˜40 K in spring and a secondary maximum of ˜30 K in autumn. On the equator, the semi-annual oscillations in the background and diurnal-migrating-tide temperatures could contribute more than 12 and 25 K, respectively, suggesting they are the key causes of large spatiotemporal-scale lower MILs at low latitudes. At middle latitudes, the monthly zonal mean amplitude of the lower MILs exhibits an annual cycle with its maximum in the range 24-33 K in winter. In addition, their longitudinal distribution and daily variation in winter are closely correlated with the transient structure of a composite wave composed of stationary and westward-propagating quasi-16-day planetary waves with zonal wave number 1. The correlation coefficient between the lower MILs and the composite wave can sometimes reach unity. The composite planetary wave could contribute temperature enhancements of at least 15-20 K to the lower MILs. Thus, we believe that the transient structure of planetary waves is also an important cause of the large spatiotemporal-scale lower MILs in winter at middle latitudes, in addition to previously proposed mechanisms.

  14. Observations of Quasi-Two-Day wave by TIMED/SABER and TIMED/TIDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sheng-Yang; Li, Tao; Dou, Xiankang; Wu, Qian; Mlynczak, M. G.; Russell, J. M.

    2013-02-01

    Seasonal and interannual variations of the Quasi-Two-Day wave s = -3 (W3) and s = -4 (W4) modes were studied with global temperature and wind data sets during 2002-2012, observed respectively by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) and TIMED Doppler Imager (TIDI) instruments onboard the Thermosphere Ionosphere and Mesosphere Electric Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. The amplitudes of W3 and W4 are significantly enhanced during austral and boreal summer respectively. Strong W3 amplitudes are observed during January 2006 in all three components of temperature, meridional wind, and zonal wind. This is most likely related to the intensive winter planetary wave activity that led to a strong sudden stratosphere warming (SSW) event. The maximum amplitudes of W4 during the 10 years are ~8-9 K, ~40 m/s, and ~20 m/s for temperature, meridional, and zonal components respectively, nearly half as large as those of W3, with ~15 K, ~65 m/s, and ~35 m/s. In January 2008 and 2009, unusually weak W3 but strong W4 oscillations were observed, corresponding to the much weaker summer easterly jets (westward wind) than those in other years. This suggests that relatively weak summer easterly may not be able to provide sufficiently strong barotropic/baroclinic instability to amplify W3 but is favorable for the amplification of W4. The weaker magnitude values, lower peak heights, and longer life intervals of W4 than those of W3 suggest that the W4 may suffer a greater damping rate than the W3. The observations of W4 show good agreement with Rossby-gravity (4, 0) mode, which is more easily trapped in both latitude and altitude because of its lower group velocity than that of Rossby-gravity (3, 0) mode.

  15. Climatology of terdiurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere from TIMED SABER/TIDI, ground-based sodium lidar and NCAR TIME-GCM model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, J.; Wu, Q.; Xu, J.; Liu, H.; Hagan, M. E.; Maute, A. I.; Yuan, T.; She, C.; Russell, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the nature of the terdiurnal tide (8 hour period) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), using the Colorado State University (CSU) temperature/wind sodium lidar data set (41N, 105W) (5 years, 2002 to 2006), Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) temperature and Doppler interferometer (TIDI) wind measurement for 7 years (2003 to 2009) both onboard of Thermosphere-ionosphere-Mesosphere-Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite, and the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model runs (TIME-GCM). The seasonal variability and global structure of the terdiurnal tide will be provided. The amplitude of the terdiurnal tide depends heavily on season, latitude and altitude. For example, at northern mid-latitude, the maximum amplitudes in horizontal wind (20 m/s) and temperature (8 K) appear at 100 km in late winter from the lidar measurement, while it is the weakest in summer. SABER measurement reveals that the maximum of the terdiurnal tide temperature above 100 km occurs near equinox at mid-latitude. TIDI wind finds that the maximum amplitude in meridional wind at mid-latitude is before and after the solstice. The vertical wavelength of the terdiurnal tide will be estimated. The comparison between the TIME-GCM and the observations will enhance our understandings of the excitation, propagation and dissipation of the terdiurnal tide in the atmosphere. This will benefit our future study of the terdiurnal tidal impact in the thermosphere/ionosphere coupling.

  16. Morphology of OH Meinel Band Emissions Observed by SABER/TIMED: Implication for Comparison and Interpretation of groundbased OH Airglow Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The OH Meinel band emissions of various vibrational manifolds have been observed for many decades by groundbased optical instruments to study the changes of atmospheric properties near the mesopause region. These include the temporal and spatial variablities of atmospheric temperature and composition at the emission region near 87 km and processes responsible for the observed changes. Much of our previous and current knowledge of dynamical processes (i.e. tides and waves), thermal properties (i.e. inter-annual cycles), and decadal-scale changes (i.e. solar cycle and human-induced) in the mesosphere have been gained from these important observations. Groundbased measurements, however, are constrained to limited locations, cloud-free and dark nights (local time) with very poor vertical resolution. The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard the TIMED satellite has provided nearly 14 years of continuous observations of OH (5-3, 4-2) 1.6 μm and OH (9-7, 8-6) 2.0 μm Meinel band emissions. Most importantly, it has provided over one solar cycle long of well temporally and spatially sampled OH emissions with excellent vertical resolution. In this paper, we will present the morphological properties of the OH emissions at 1.6 μm and 2.0 μm observed by SABER and discuss the implication for satellite/ground measurement comparisons and the interpretation of past and future groundbased OH observations.

  17. Absolute concentrations of highly vibrationally excited OH(υ = 9 + 8) in the mesopause region derived from the TIMED/SABER instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, Jeffrey; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hunt, Linda A.; Marshall, B. Thomas; Mertens, Christoper J.; Russell, James M.; Thompson, R. Earl; Gordley, Larry L.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Absolute concentrations (cm-3) of highly vibrationally excited hydroxyl (OH) are derived from measurements of the volume emission rate of the υ = 9 + 8 states of the OH radical made by the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument on the TIMED satellite. <span class="hlt">SABER</span> has exceptionally sensitive measurement precision that corresponds to an ability to detect changes in volume emission rate on the order of ~5 excited OH molecules per cm3. Peak zonal annual mean concentrations observed by <span class="hlt">SABER</span> exceed 1000 cm-3 at night and 225 cm-3 during the day. Measurements since 2002 show an apparent altitude-dependent variation of the night OH(υ = 9 + 8) concentrations with the 11 year solar cycle, with concentrations decreasing below ~ 95 km from 2002 to 2008. These observations provide a global database for evaluating photochemical model computations of OH abundance, reaction <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, and rates and mechanisms responsible for maintaining vibrationally excited OH in the mesopause region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP.105...39N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP.105...39N"><span id="translatedtitle">Technique to produce daily estimates of the migrating diurnal tide using TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> and EOS Aura/MLS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Vu; Palo, S. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A technique to explicitly compute the day-to-day variability of the migrating diurnal tide (DW1) between 20 km and 80 km on a global scale is presented and analyzed. Our method employs temperature data from two satellite instruments: the MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) instrument on the EOS (Earth Observing System) Aura spacecraft and the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span>) instrument on the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) spacecraft. By taking advantage of the four daily solar local time measurements from the two instruments, a least squares fit representing the DW1 is constructed. Consequently, the daily zonal mean, DW1 amplitude and phase are all estimated on a daily basis. Before the implementation of our technique, a comparative analysis between the instrument data sets is conducted. The analysis reveals temperature biases of up to 10 K, which are removed to improve our estimates. To evaluate performance, our method is applied to a model atmosphere constructed from tidal fields obtained from the Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM). Performance results indicate that the DW1 is most effectively extracted from the background atmosphere and other tidal components when each latitude circle is well sampled and the local time sampling is evenly spaced. A comparison of our results to the GSWM and past observations support the conclusion that our method produces daily estimates of the DW1 that can be utilized for scientifically useful investigations of short term tidal variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11420103D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRD..11420103D"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal oscillations of middle atmosphere temperature observed by Rayleigh lidars and their comparisons with TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dou, Xiankang; Li, Tao; Xu, Jiyao; Liu, Han-Li; Xue, Xianghui; Wang, Shui; Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. Stuart; Hauchecorne, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Bencherif, Hassan; Heinselman, Craig; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Mlynczak, M. G.; Russell, J. M.</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>The long-term temperature data sets obtained by Rayleigh lidars at six different locations from low to high latitudes within the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) were used to derive the annual oscillations (AO) and semiannual oscillations (SAO) of middle atmosphere temperature: Reunion Island (21.8°S); Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii (19.5°N); Table Mountain Facility, California (34.4°N); Observatoire de Haute Provence, France (43.9°N); Hohenpeissenberg, Germany (47.8°N); Sondre Stromfjord, Greenland (67.0°N). The results were compared with those derived from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (<span class="hlt">SABER</span>) instrument onboard the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. The zonal mean temperatures at similar latitudes show good agreement. The observations also reveal that the AO dominates the seasonal oscillations in both the stratosphere and the mesosphere at middle and high latitudes, with the amplitudes increasing poleward. The SAO oscillations are weaker at all six sites. The oscillations in the upper mesosphere are usually stronger than those in the upper stratosphere with a local minimum near 50-65 km. The upper mesospheric signals are clearly out of phase with upper stratospheric signals. Some differences between lidar and <span class="hlt">SABER</span> results were found in both the stratosphere and mesosphere. These could be due to: the difference in data sampling between ground-based and space-based instruments, the length of data set, the tidal aliasing owing to the temperature AO and SAO since lidar data are nighttime only, and lidar temperature analysis algorithms. The seasonal oscillations of tidal amplitudes derived from <span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations suggests that the tidal aliasing of the lidar temperature AO and SAO in the upper mesosphere may over- or under-estimate the real temperature oscillations, depending on the tidal phases. In addition, the possibly unrealistic seasonal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.109c3103H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.109c3103H"><span id="translatedtitle">Kapitza thermal resistance studied by high-frequency photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horny, Nicolas; Chirtoc, Mihai; Fleming, Austin; Hamaoui, Georges; Ban, Heng</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Kapitza thermal resistance is determined using high-frequency photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PTR) extended for modulation up to 10 MHz. Interfaces between 50 nm thick titanium coatings and silicon or stainless steel substrates are studied. In the used configuration, the PTR signal is not sensitive to the thermal conductivity of the film nor to its optical absorption coefficient, thus the Kapitza resistance is directly determined from single thermal parameter fits. Results of thermal resistances show the significant influence of the nature of the substrate, as well as of the presence of free electrons at the interface.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metro..30..205G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metro..30..205G"><span id="translatedtitle">FOREWORD: New Developments and Applications in Optical <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> IV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guenther, B.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The Proceedings published in this special issue of Metrologia are from New Developments and Applications in Optical <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> IV, also known as the NEWRAD '92 Conference. The conference was held from 5 7 October 1992 in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, and was organized through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The 1992 Conference was the fourth in a series of occasional international meetings held to integrate the activities of the space <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> community with those of the laboratory metrology community. The location of Maryland was chosen to bring the meeting back to the hemisphere of the Americas where the first of the series was held. NASA/Goddard was chosen as the sponsoring organization for this meeting because of the number and diversity of space measurement programmes which are managed there, and because of its proximity to the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology. The general organization of the meeting included sessions on the Earth Observing System (which I chaired), the Shuttle Atlas I Mission and UV Calibrations (chaired by E Hilsenrath, NASA/Goddard), Cryogenic <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (N Fox, NPL), Detector <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (T Quinn, BIPM), Space-based Applications (J Metzdorf, PTB) and Ground-based Applications (C Cromer, NIST). Thirty-eight papers were presented orally, and poster sessions were also provided. Most of the presentations are represented in these Proceedings. The fifth meeting in this occasional series is scheduled for 19 21 September 1994 in Berlin. The Conference institutional host is the PTB, and the convener is Dr Joachim Fischer, Secretary. The success of the meeting derived principally from the individual contributions of the presenters and the interest and attention of all the participants. The success of these Proceedings is attributable to the individual authors, the guest editors and the referees of the papers. Each paper was subjected to a critical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012SPIE.8361E..1AP&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012SPIE.8361E..1AP&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Microwave noise field: active <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> principles and applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Polivka, Jiri</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Principles of Active <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> are presented. Noise radiators are used to generate the low-coherence microwave noise field, and radiometers to evaluate its intensity, polarization and coherence. Several types of noise radiators are described as well as radiometers and antennas. The following applications are introduced: Material evaluation where insertion loss and reflectivity of grainy, irregular and moving objects are preferable. Microwave Coherence Tomography allowing the depth irregularity to be detected in low-loss objects. Near-Field antenna testing, field coherence evaluation, and spatial combining of noise radiators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000NW.....87...41M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000NW.....87...41M"><span id="translatedtitle">Three Ways To Be a <span class="hlt">Saber</span>-Toothed Cat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, L. D.; Babiarz, J. P.; Naples, V. L.; Hearst, J.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Saber</span>-toothed carnivores, until now, have been divided into two groups: scimitar-toothed cats with shorter, coarsely serrated canines coupled with long legs for fast running, and dirk-toothed cats with more elongate, finely serrated canines coupled to short legs built for power rather than speed. In the Pleistocene of North America, as in Europe, the scimitar-cat was Homotherium; the North American dirk-tooth was Smilodon. We now describe a new sabercat from the Early Pleistocene of Florida, combining the scimitar-tooth canine with the short, massive limbs of a dirk-tooth predator. This presents a third way to construct a <span class="hlt">saber</span>-toothed carnivore.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18026562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18026562"><span id="translatedtitle">Absolute Temperature Monitoring Using RF <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> in the MRI Scanner.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem M; Sotiriadis, Paul P; Bottomley, Paul A; Atalar, Ergin</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>Temperature detection using microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> has proven value for noninvasively measuring the absolute temperature of tissues inside the body. However, current clinical radiometers operate in the gigahertz range, which limits their depth of penetration. We have designed and built a noninvasive radiometer which operates at radio frequencies (64 MHz) with ∼100-kHz bandwidth, using an external RF loop coil as a thermal detector. The core of the radiometer is an accurate impedance measurement and automatic matching circuit of 0.05 Ω accuracy to compensate for any load variations. The radiometer permits temperature measurements with accuracy of ±0.1°K, over a tested physiological range of 28° C-40° C in saline phantoms whose electric properties match those of tissue. Because 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners also operate at 64 MHz, we demonstrate the feasibility of integrating our radiometer with an MRI scanner to monitor RF power deposition and temperature dosimetry, obtaining coarse, spatially resolved, absolute thermal maps in the physiological range. We conclude that RF <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> offers promise as a direct, noninvasive method of monitoring tissue heating during MRI studies and thereby providing an independent means of verifying patient-safe operation. Other potential applications include titration of hyper- and hypo-therapies. PMID:18026562</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1601437','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1601437"><span id="translatedtitle">Microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> in living tissue: what does it measure?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheever, E A; Foster, K R</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>The sensitivity of microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for detecting subcutaneous targets was studied both experimentally and theoretically. The radiometer used a dielectric loaded rectangular waveguide antenna in contact with a lossy dielectric medium. A cylindrical target with dielectric properties and/or temperature different from that of the surrounding medium was located beneath this surface. For most of the studies, the target and the surrounding medium were maintained at constant, but unequal, temperatures (i.e., heat conduction effects were insignificant). The received radiometric signal was calculated as the location and dielectric properties of the target were varied. Finally, the radiometer signal was calculated for the situation with the target maintained at constant temperature but with the surrounding medium modeled by the bioheat equation. Experimental studies were performed using a radiometer operating at 4.7 GHz. The target was a thin walled tube through which a temperature controlled liquid was circulated, located in a temperature controlled fluid tank. The results indicate that microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (as used in this study) responds to the temperature averaged over the field pattern of the antenna with very strong weighting of regions near the surface. A simple quasi-static analysis provides a good indication of the sensitivity of the technique for detecting cylindrical targets whose dielectric properties are different from those of the surrounding medium. A simple estimate of thermal conduction around the target suggest that thermal effects greatly increase the apparent size of the target.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194248','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10194248"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil pore-gas sampling by photoacoustic <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sollid, J.E.</p> <p>1994-11-01</p> <p>Concentrations of volatile organics in a soil pore-gas plume were measured using a commercially available multigas monitor. The monitor is a photoacoustic radiometer (PAR) controlled by an on-board, programmable microprocessor. The measurements determine the extent and location of the vapor plume in the subsurface. At least twelve wells surrounding the sources are measured quarterly. The sources are located in former liquid chemical waste disposal pits and shafts at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The primary constituents of the plume are 1,1,1 trichloroethane (TCA), trichloroethene (TCE), and tetrachloroethene or perchloroethene or perchloroethene (PCE). Four quarters of data are presented for TCA. All were used primarily as solvents and degreasers. Previously the composition of the vapor plume was determined by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer GCMS methods. Photoacoustic <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and gas chromatography are discussed giving the advantages and disadvantages of each method, although in this program they are basically complementary. Gas chromatography is a more qualitative method to determine which analytes are present and the approximate concentration. Photoacoustic <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, to function well, requires foreknowledge of constituents and serves best to determine how much is present. Measurements are quicker and more direct with photoacoustic methods. Once the constituents to be measured are known, the cost to monitor is much less using photoacoustics, and the results are available more quickly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810019958','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810019958"><span id="translatedtitle">Hand-held <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>: A set of notes developed for use at the Workshop of Hand-held <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jackson, R. D.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A set of notes was developed to aid the beginner in hand-held <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>. The electromagnetic spectrum is reviewed, and pertinent terms are defined. View areas of multiband radiometers are developed to show the areas of coincidence of adjacent bands. The amounts of plant cover seen by radiometers having different fields of view are described. Vegetation indices are derived and discussed. Response functions of several radiometers are shown and applied to spectrometer data taken over 12 wheat plots, to provide a comparison of instruments and bands within and among instruments. The calculation of solar time is reviewed and applied to the calculation of the local time of LANDSAT satellite overpasses for any particular location in the Northern Hemisphere. The use and misuse of hand-held infrared thermometers are discussed, and a procedure for photographic determination of plant cover is described. Some suggestions are offered concerning procedures to be followed when collecting hand-held spectral and thermal data. A list of references pertinent to hand-held <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> is included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMSA54A..04W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMSA54A..04W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Low Latitude Gravity Wave Variances in the MLT Derived from <span class="hlt">Saber</span> Temperature Observation and Compared with Model Simulations of Waves Generated By Deep Tropical Convection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walterscheid, R. L.; Christensen, A. B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Equatorial regions are the scene of prolific generation of gravity waves by deep tropical convection. Waves generated by deep convection have appreciable energy at frequencies and spatial scales that are able to reach altitudes in the Middle Atmosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) and above where they may attain significant amplitudes. A portion of these waves have scales and amplitudes large enough to be detected by space borne instruments. We have analyzed temperature data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (<span class="hlt">SABER</span>) instrument on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics (TIMED) satellite for sub-tidal scale fluctuations. Filtering was applied both vertically and horizontally to extract wave variances. We have examined the variances at equatorial latitudes for the altitude region between 70 and 120 km and have have characterized them as a function of season, local time intervals, geographical location and altitude. We find large variances in locations of where convection is particularly prolific (e.g., western South Pacific) and at altitudes where wave trapping is known to be favored (e.g., the lower thermospheric duct). The locations of significant variances persist from year to year. Variances of on the order of a few tens of degrees are found. We have also performed simulations of the response to deep tropical convection with the The Aerospace Corporation Dynamical Model (ADM). This model is a time dependent, high-resolution fully compressible dynamical model that has been used to examine the MLT wave response to intense cellular convection in northern Australia. The background thermal structure for the present simulations was obtained from TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> data averaged over low latitudes by season and local time. Our simulations give wave amplitudes that agree reasonably well with the observed amplitudes and show layering that is consistent with the observations. We will show the results of our analysis of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012672','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012672"><span id="translatedtitle">Directional <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> and Radiative Transfer: the Convoluted Path From Centuries-old Phenomenology to Physical Optics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mishchenko, Michael I.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This Essay traces the centuries-long history of the phenomenological disciplines of directional <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and radiative transfer in turbid media, discusses their fundamental weaknesses, and outlines the convoluted process of their conversion into legitimate branches of physical optics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720002890','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720002890"><span id="translatedtitle">Target contrast considerations in millimeter wave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for airborne navigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mayer, A.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Target signal requirements for aircraft navigation systems that use radiometric receivers which map thermally emitted power radiated by terrain or power radiated by ground-based beacons are discussed. For selected millimeter wavelength bands, microwaves suffer relatively little degradation by absorption or scattering on passage through the atmosphere, despite extreme weather variations. Interest centers on 8-millimeter waves because of component availability, portability (small size), high image resolution, and all-weather capability at this wavelength. The idea of radiometric airborne navigation is introduced. Elements of <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, terrain radiation, and atmospheric transmission characteristics are reviewed. Data pertaining to these elements at 8 mm wavelength are collected. Calculation of radiometric contrasts is discussed for some simple models of terrain targets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003RScI...74..839R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003RScI...74..839R"><span id="translatedtitle">Infrared photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> of deep subsurface defects in semiconductor materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodríguez, M. E.; Garcia, J. A.; Mandelis, A.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PTR) signals obtained with a highly focused laser beam, were used to obtain amplitude and phase PTR two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of a high-resistivity Si wafer with a mechanical damage on the backsurface, probed from the front (intact) surface. The frequency chosen was 5 kHz, corresponding to an optimal phase resolution of the defect. It is shown that the position of the underlying damage is well resolved in both images, with the phase image showing the expected higher sensitivity in terms of a greater extent of the damage region compared to the amplitude image. The results indicate that the change in carrier lifetime is the major contrast mechanism which can thus be calibrated and labeled as a free-carrier recombination lifetime image (under the same surface recombination conditions).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/882610','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/882610"><span id="translatedtitle">Fiscal Year 2005 Solar <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> and Metrology Task Accomplishments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Myers, D.; Andreas, A.; Reda, I.; Gotseff, P.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Anderberg, M.; Kay, B.; Bowen, A.</p> <p>2005-11-01</p> <p>The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> and Metrology task provides traceable optical radiometric calibrations and measurements to photovoltaic (PV) researchers and the PV industry. Traceability of NREL solar radiometer calibrations to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) was accomplished during Pyrheliometer Comparison at NREL in October 2004. Ten spectral and more than 200 broadband radiometers for solar measurements were calibrated this year. We measured detailed spectral distributions of the NREL and PV industry Pulsed Solar Simulators and are analyzing the influence of environmental variables on radiometer uncertainty. New systems for indoor and outdoor solar radiometer calibrations and ultraviolet (UV) spectral measurements and UV radiometer calibrations were purchased and tested. Optical metrology functions support the NREL Measurement and Characterization Task effort for ISO 17025 accreditation of NREL Solar Reference Cell Calibrations and have been integrated into the NREL quality system and audited for ISO17025 compliance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010072442','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010072442"><span id="translatedtitle">Feasibility Study of <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> for Airborne Detection of Aviation Hazards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gimmestad, Gary G.; Papanicolopoulos, Chris D.; Richards, Mark A.; Sherman, Donald L.; West, Leanne L.; Johnson, James W. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Radiometric sensors for aviation hazards have the potential for widespread and inexpensive deployment on aircraft. This report contains discussions of three aviation hazards - icing, turbulence, and volcanic ash - as well as candidate radiometric detection techniques for each hazard. Dual-polarization microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> is the only viable radiometric technique for detection of icing conditions, but more research will be required to assess its usefulness to the aviation community. Passive infrared techniques are being developed for detection of turbulence and volcanic ash by researchers in this country and also in Australia. Further investigation of the infrared airborne radiometric hazard detection approaches will also be required in order to develop reliable detection/discrimination techniques. This report includes a description of a commercial hyperspectral imager for investigating the infrared detection techniques for turbulence and volcanic ash.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7012989','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7012989"><span id="translatedtitle">Microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> in living tissue: What does it measure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cheever, E.A. ); Foster, K.R. )</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>The sensitivity of microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for detecting subcutaneous targets was studied both experimentally and theoretically. The radiometer used a dielectric loaded rectangular waveguide antenna in contact with lossy dielectric medium. A cylindrical target with dielectric properties and/or temperature different from that of the surrounding medium were maintained at constant, but unequal, temperatures. The received radiometric signal was calculated as the location and dielectric properties of the target were varied. Finally, the radiometer signal was calculated for the situation with the target maintained at constant temperature but with the surrounding medium modeled by the bioheat equation. Experimental studies were performed using a radiometer operating at 4.7 GHz. The target was a thin walled tube through which a temperature controlled liquid was circulated, located in a temperature controlled fluid tank.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27505649','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27505649"><span id="translatedtitle">Refined treatment of single-edge diffraction effects in <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shirley, Eric L</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This work treats diffraction corrections in <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for cases of point and extended sources in cylindrically symmetrical three-element systems. It considers diffraction effects for spectral power and total power in cases of Planck sources. It improves upon an earlier work by the author by giving a simpler rendering of leading terms in asymptotic expansions for diffraction effects and reliable estimates for the remainders. This work also demonstrates a framework for accelerating the treatment of extended sources and simplifying the calculation of diffraction effects over a range of wavelengths. This is especially important in the short-wavelength region, where dense sampling of wavelength values is in principle necessitated by the rapidly oscillatory behavior of diffraction effects as a function of wavelength. We demonstrate the methodology's efficacy in two radiometric applications. PMID:27505649</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFMSA31A1973S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFMSA31A1973S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of Global Storm Time Energy Transport in the Lower Thermosphere using <span class="hlt">SABER</span> Temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suresh, P.; Swenson, C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">SABER</span> (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Radiation) observations represent one of the few long duration data sets of thermospheric properties between the altitude ranges of 100 to 130 km. These altitudes correspond to the region of geomagnetic storm energy deposition. The ensuing global redistribution of the geomagnetic storm energy is yet to be understood. The <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument onboard the TIMED (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics) satellite, provides <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> temperatures in this region of the thermosphere. We have used this temperature dataset to study the response of the lower thermosphere to geomagnetic storms. A quiet time empirical model has been formulated to isolate only the storm time response from these temperature measurements. This isolated storm time temperature response has been used as an index to study the global redistribution of the storm energy. An important result of this investigation is indications of the relative importance of gravity wave circulation vs. the meridional circulation in redistribution of the geomagnetic storm energy from the high auroral latitudes to the lower latitudes. This study encompasses various storm periods between the periods of 2002-2010. Hence this interval comprises of both the solar maximum and minimum, and also of storm periods having different intensity. As a result of having different storm intensities, we can investigate the relative effect of joule heating dominant storms vs. particle precipitation dominant storms, in this global energy redistribution. Also, the availability of data spread across a solar cycle has helped us to investigate the influence of the phase of the solar cycle in the energy redistribution and circulation following a storm period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030112415','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030112415"><span id="translatedtitle">Tower-Perturbation Measurements in Above-Water <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francois; DAlimonte, Davide; vanderLinde, Dirk; Brown, James W.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This report documents the scientific activities which took place during June 2001 and June 2002 on the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea. The primary objective of these field campaigns was to quantify the effect of platform perturbations (principally reflections of sunlight onto the sea surface) on above-water measurements of water-leaving radiances. The deployment goals documented in this report were to: a) collect an extensive and simultaneous set of above- and in-water optical measurements under predominantly clear-sky conditions; b) establish the vertical properties of the water column using a variety of ancillary measurements, many of which were taken coincidently with the optical measurements; and c) determine the bulk properties of the environment using a diversity of atmospheric, biogeochemical, and meteorological techniques. A preliminary assessment of the data collected during the two field campaigns shows the perturbation in above-water <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> caused by a large offshore structure is very similar to that caused by a large research vessel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9639E..1CG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9639E..1CG"><span id="translatedtitle">The Traceable <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> Underpinning Terrestrial and Helio Studies (TRUTHS) mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Green, Paul D.; Fox, Nigel P.; Lobb, Daniel; Friend, Jonathan</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>TRUTHS (Traceable <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio-Studies) is a proposed small satellite mission to enable a space-based climate observing system capable of delivering data of the quality needed to provide the information needed by policy makers to make robust mitigation and adaptation decisions. This is achieved by embedding trust and confidence in the data and derived information (tied to international standards) from both its own measurements and by upgrading the performance and interoperability of other EO platforms, such as the Sentinels by in-flight reference calibration. TRUTHS would provide measurements of incoming (total and spectrally resolved) and global reflected spectrally and spatially (50 m) solar radiation at the 0.3% uncertainty level. These fundamental climate data products can be convolved into the building blocks for many ECVs and EO applications as envisaged by the 2015 ESA science strategy; in a cost effective manner. We describe the scientific drivers for the TRUTHS mission and how the requirements for the climate benchmarking and cross-calibration reference sensor are both complementary and simply implemented, with a small additional complexity on top of heritage calibration schemes. The calibration scheme components and the route to SI-traceable Earth-reflected solar spectral radiance and solar spectral irradiance are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..270...30L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..270...30L"><span id="translatedtitle">Detecting volcanism on Titan and Venus with microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lorenz, Ralph D.; Le Gall, Alice; Janssen, Michael A.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The detection by spaceborne instrumentation of infrared thermal emission from volcanic eruptions is well-established on Earth, but is challenged on Venus and Titan by their optically-thick atmospheres. Microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> in principle offers the ability to detect emission from surface thermal anomalies on these worlds due to greater atmospheric transparency: microwaves also offer the prospect of sensing the shallow subsurface and thus may detect warmth from lava flows for longer than surface infrared emission. However, satellite microwave instruments typically have low spatial resolution (10s of km) so volcanic heat is diluted in the wide instrument footprint. We examine the prospects for the detection of volcanic deposits by microwave, given likely planetary eruption rates and lava flow deposit geometries, using Mt Etna as a template. Nondetection of prominent hotspots in Cassini data may imply that the resurfacing rate is lower than ∼2 km3/yr, five times smaller than the expression of an Earth-like fraction of geothermal heat flow as latent heat in extrusive volcanism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740003776','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740003776"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of blood flow sensing with microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Porter, R. A.; Wentz, F. J., III</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>A study and experimental investigation has been performed to determine the feasibility of measuring regional blood flow and volume in man by means of microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>. An indication was expected of regional blood flow from measurement of surface and subsurface temperatures with a sensitive radiometer. Following theoretical modeling of biological tissue, to determine the optimum operating frequency for adequate sensing depth, a sensitive microwave radiometer was designed for operation at 793 MHz. A temperature sensitivity of of 0.06 K rms was realized in this equipment. Measurements performed on phantom tissue models, consisting of beef fat and lean beefsteak showed that the radiometer was capable of sensing temperatures from a depth between 3.8 and 5.1 cm. Radiometric and thermodynamic temperature measurements were also performed on the hind thighs of large dogs. These showed that the radiometer could sense subsurface temperatures from a depth of, at least, 1.3 cm. Delays caused by externally-generated RF interference, coupled with the lack of reliable blood flow measurement equipment, prevented correlation of radiometer readings with reginal blood flow. For the same reasons, it was not possible to extend the radiometric observations to human subjects.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Metro..28..111F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991Metro..28..111F"><span id="translatedtitle">History of Solar <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> and the World Radiometric Reference</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fröhlich, C.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The history of solar <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> since the first pyrheliometer of Pouillet is presented. After the invention of the Ångström and the Smithsonian pyrheliometers around the turn of this century two different "scales" were in use. Comparisons with absolute cavity radiometers developed in America and Europe have been performed since about 1910 which show remarkably accurate measurements in terms of the SI units. However, these results have never been accepted and several rules have been established to reference radiation measurements in the meteorological community and to remedy the unsatisfactory fact of having different "scales". Unfortunately none of these rules led to a reference close to the SI units of irradiance, confusing the issue even more. With the advent of modern absolute radiometers in the late 1960s the situation improved and led to the definition of the World Radiometric Reference in use by the meteorological community since 1981. This reference has an estimated accuracy of 0,3% and guarantees the worldwide homogeneity of radiation measurements within 0,1% precision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/137294','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/137294"><span id="translatedtitle">Volatile organic compound monitoring by photo acoustic <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sollid, J.E.; Trujillo, V.L.; Limback, S.P.; Woloshun, K.A.</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>Two methods for sampling and analyzing volatile organics in subsurface pore gas were developed for use at the Hazardous Waste Disposal Site at Los Alamos National Laboratory. One is Thermal Desorption Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (TDGCMS), the other is Photoacoustic <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (PAR). Presented here are two years worth of experience and lessons learned as both techniques matured. The sampling technique is equally as important as the analysis method. PAR is a nondispersive infrared technique utilizing band pass filters in the region from 1 to 15 {mu}m. A commercial instrument, the Model 1302 Multigas Analyzer, made by Bruel and Kjaer, was adapted for field use. To use the PAR there must be some a priori knowledge of the constellation of analytes to be measured. The TDGCMS method is sensitive to 50 analytes. Hence TDGCMS is used in an initial survey of the site to determine what compounds are present and at what concentration. Once the major constituents of the soil-gas vapor plume are known the PAR can be configured to monitor for the five analytes of most interest. The PAR can analyse a sample in minutes, while in the field. The PAR is also quite precise in controlled situations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..MAR.B3002S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..MAR.B3002S"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum Tunneling Sb-Heterostructures for Millimeter Wave <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schulman, Joel N.</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>Imaging in the millimeter wavelength range has been making rapid progress as high speed electronics increase in frequency. Applications include viewing through adverse visibility conditions (fog, smoke, dust, precipitation) and also the relative transparency of clothing (concealed-weapons-detection) and some building materials (through-the-wall-detection). Atmospheric <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (climate assessment and weather prediction) already depend heavily on this wavelength range. Astronomical applications include incorporation in instruments for cosmic microwave background detection. An important ingredient is a diode that "rectifies" in a special way. It must convert input power, i.e., voltage squared, into a DC voltage output -- a "square-law" detector. We have recently found that quantum tunneling through an InAs/AlSb/GaAlSb heterostructure system provides the ideal physical mechanism for this purpose.1,2 We will present our results to date, demonstrating how a close coupling of semiconductor quantum tunneling theory with electrical engineering know-how have brought an "exotic" quantum phenomon to practical and economic application. 1. "Sb-heterostructure interband backward diodes" J.N. Schulman and D.H. Chow. IEEE Electron Device Letters 21, 353-355 (2000). 2. "High-Performance Antimonide-Based Heterostructure Backward Diodes for Millimeter-wave Detection" P. Fay, J. N. Schulman, S. Thomas III, D. H. Chow, Y. K. Boegeman, and K. S. Holabird, IEEE Electron Device Letters 23, 585-587 (2002).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110016355&hterms=effects+change+climate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Deffects%2Bchange%2Bclimate','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110016355&hterms=effects+change+climate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Deffects%2Bchange%2Bclimate"><span id="translatedtitle">Accurate <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> from Space: An Essential Tool for Climate Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fox, Nigel; Kaiser-Weiss, Andrea; Schmutz, Werner; Thome, Kurtis; Young, Dave; Wielicki, Bruce; Winkler, Rainer; Woolliams, Emma</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Earth s climate is undoubtedly changing; however, the time scale, consequences and causal attribution remain the subject of significant debate and uncertainty. Detection of subtle indicators from a background of natural variability requires measurements over a time base of decades. This places severe demands on the instrumentation used, requiring measurements of sufficient accuracy and sensitivity that can allow reliable judgements to be made decades apart. The International System of Units (SI) and the network of National Metrology Institutes were developed to address such requirements. However, ensuring and maintaining SI traceability of sufficient accuracy in instruments orbiting the Earth presents a significant new challenge to the metrology community. This paper highlights some key measurands and applications driving the uncertainty demand of the climate community in the solar reflective domain, e.g. solar irradiances and reflectances/radiances of the Earth. It discusses how meeting these uncertainties facilitate significant improvement in the forecasting abilities of climate models. After discussing the current state of the art, it describes a new satellite mission, called TRUTHS, which enables, for the first time, high-accuracy SI traceability to be established in orbit. The direct use of a primary standard and replication of the terrestrial traceability chain extends the SI into space, in effect realizing a metrology laboratory in space . Keywords: climate change; Earth observation; satellites; <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>; solar irradiance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015411','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015411"><span id="translatedtitle">RFI Risk Reduction Activities Using New Goddard Digital <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> Capabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bradley, Damon; Kim, Ed; Young, Peter; Miles, Lynn; Wong, Mark; Morris, Joel</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Goddard Radio-Frequency Explorer (GREX) is the latest fast-sampling radiometer digital back-end processor that will be used for <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and radio-frequency interference (RFI) surveying at Goddard Space Flight Center. The system is compact and deployable, with a mass of about 40 kilograms. It is intended to be flown on aircraft. GREX is compatible with almost any aircraft, including P-3, twin otter, C-23, C-130, G3, and G5 types. At a minimum, the system can function as a clone of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) ground-based development unit [1], or can be a completely independent system that is interfaced to any radiometer, provided that frequency shifting to GREX's intermediate frequency is performed prior to sampling. If the radiometer RF is less than 200MHz, then the band can be sampled and acquired directly by the system. A key feature of GREX is its ability to simultaneously sample two polarization channels simultaneously at up to 400MSPS, 14-bit resolution each. The sampled signals can be recorded continuously to a 23 TB solid-state RAID storage array. Data captures can be analyzed offline using the supercomputing facilities at Goddard Space Flight Center. In addition, various Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) - amenable radiometer signal processing and RFI detection algorithms can be implemented directly on the GREX system because it includes a high-capacity Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA prototyping system that is user customizable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016038','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890016038"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of combustion gas temperatures by infrared <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> in sooting and nonsooting flames</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lyons, Valerie J.; Gracia-Salcedo, Carmen M.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Flame temperatures in nonsooting and sooting environments were successfully measured by <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for pre-mixed propane-oxygen laminar flames stabilized on a water-cooled, porous sintered-bronze burner. The measured temperatures in the nonsooting flames were compared with fine-wire thermocouple measurements. The results show excellent agreement below 1700 K, and when the thermocouple measurements were corrected for radiation effects, the agreement was good for even higher temperatures. The benefits of <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> are: (1) the flow is not disturbed by an intruding probe, (2) calibration is easily done using a blackbody source, and (3) measurements can be made even with soot present. The theory involved in the <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> measurements and the energy balance calculations used to correct the thermocouple temperature measurements are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22318051','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22318051"><span id="translatedtitle">Modulated IR <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for determining thermal properties and basic characteristics of titanium thin films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Apreutesei, Mihai; Lopes, Claudia; Vaz, Filipe; Macedo, Francisco; Borges, Joel</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Titanium thin films of different thicknesses were prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering to study modulated infrared (IR) <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> as a tool for analyzing film thickness. Thickness was varied by regularly increasing the deposition time, keeping all the other deposition parameters constant. The influence of film thickness on morphological, structural, and electrical properties of the titanium coatings also was investigated. The experimental results revealed a systematic grain growth with increasing film thickness, along with enhanced film crystallinity, which led to increased electrical conductivity. Using the results obtained by modulated IR <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, the thickness of each thin film was calculated. These thickness values were then compared with the coating thickness measurements obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The values confirmed the reliability of modulated IR <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> as an analysis tool for thin films and coatings, and for determining thicknesses in the micrometer range, in particular.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ApPhL..85.1713B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ApPhL..85.1713B"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep subsurface electronic defect image contrast and resolution amplification in Si wafers using infrared photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Batista, Jerias; Mandelis, Andreas; Shaughnessy, Derrick; Li, Bincheng</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>A photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> technique using a secondary subband-gap dc light source is introduced, along with the applications to deep subsurface electronic defect analysis in Si wafers. It is shown that the use of a dc light source, in addition to the modulated laser beam, drastically enhances the potential of the technique in resolving low-level damage otherwise virtually indistinguishable by conventional photothermal techniques. Using this methodology, the overall contrast enhancement was about 386% for amplitude and 5586% in phase over conventional photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4247...19S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4247...19S"><span id="translatedtitle">Microwave array applicator for <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>-controlled superficial hyperthermia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stauffer, Paul R.; Jacobsen, Svein; Neuman, Daniel</p> <p>2001-06-01</p> <p>Hyperthermia therapy has been shown clinically effective for a variety of skin diseases but current heating equipment is inadequate for most patients. This effort describes the design and performance of a flexible microstrip array applicator intended for heating large regions of tissue over contoured anatomy while at the same time monitoring temperature of the underlying tissue by non-invasive radiometric sensing of blackbody radiation from the heated volume. For this dual purpose applicator, an array of broadband Archimedean spiral receive antennas is integrated into an array of Dual Concentric Conductor heating apertures. Applicator heating uniformity is assessed with electric field scans in homogenous muscle phantoms and with measured temperature distributions in clinical treatments of chestwall recurrence of breast carcinoma. The data demonstrate precisely controlled heating out to the perimeter of large (40 x 13 cm2) multiaperture conformal array applicators. Capabilities of the <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> system are assessed by correlation of brightness temperatures measured in phantom loads of known temperature distribution as seen through an intervening 5 mm thick water bolus at constant 40°C. The radiometer demonstrates excellent sensitivity and an accuracy of +0.1-0.45°C for temperature measurements up to 5 cm deep in phantom when using a one dimensional weighting function analysis and up to 6 independent 500 MHz bandwidths within the 1-4 GHz range. The data clearly indicate that both heating and radiometric thermometry are possible using the same thin and flexible printed circuit board microstrip array applicator. Once development is complete, this dual mode conformal array applicator with multiplexed radiometric display system should provide significantly improved uniformity and ease of heating large area superficial tissue disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023889','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023889"><span id="translatedtitle">Traceable <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fox, N.; Aiken, J.; Barnett, J.J.; Briottet, X.; Carvell, R.; Frohlich, C.; Groom, S.B.; Hagolle, O.; Haigh, J.D.; Kieffer, H.H.; Lean, J.; Pollock, D.B.; Quinn, T.; Sandford, M.C.W.; Schaepman, M.; Shine, K.P.; Schmutz, W.K.; Teillet, P.M.; Thome, K.J.; Verstraete, M.M.; Zalewski, E.; ,</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The Traceable <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS) mission offers a novel approach to the provision of key scientific data with unprecedented radiometric accuracy for Earth Observation (EO) and solar studies, which will also establish well-calibrated reference targets/standards to support other EO missions. This paper will present the TRUTHS mission and its objectives. TRUTHS will be the first satellite mission to calibrate its instrumentation directly to SI in orbit, overcoming the usual uncertainties associated with drifts of sensor gain and spectral shape by using an electrical rather than an optical standard as the basis of its calibration. The range of instruments flown as part of the payload will also provide accurate input data to improve atmospheric radiative transfer codes by anchoring boundary conditions, through simultaneous measurements of aerosols, particulates and radiances at various heights. Therefore, TRUTHS will significantly improve the performance and accuracy of Earth observation missions with broad global or operational aims, as well as more dedicated missions. The provision of reference standards will also improve synergy between missions by reducing errors due to different calibration biases and offer cost reductions for future missions by reducing the demands for on-board calibration systems. Such improvements are important for the future success of strategies such as Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the implementation and monitoring of international treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol. TRUTHS will achieve these aims by measuring the geophysical variables of solar and lunar irradiance, together with both polarised and un-polarised spectral radiance of the Moon, and the Earth and its atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024711','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024711"><span id="translatedtitle">Traceable <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> Underpinning Terrestrial - and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fox, N.; Aiken, J.; Barnett, J.J.; Briottet, X.; Carvell, R.; Frohlich, C.; Groom, S.B.; Hagolle, O.; Haigh, J.D.; Kieffer, H.H.; Lean, J.; Pollock, D.B.; Quinn, T.; Sandford, M.C.W.; Schaepman, M.; Shine, K.P.; Schmutz, W.K.; Teillet, P.M.; Thome, K.J.; Verstraete, M.M.; Zalewski, E.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The Traceable <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS) mission offers a novel approach to the provision of key scientific data with unprecedented radiometric accuracy for Earth Observation (EO) and solar studies, which will also establish well-calibrated reference targets/standards to support other EO missions. This paper presents the TRUTHS mission and its objectives. TRUTHS will be the first satellite mission to calibrate its EO instrumentation directly to SI in orbit, overcoming the usual uncertainties associated with drifts of sensor gain and spectral shape by using an electrical rather than an optical standard as the basis of its calibration. The range of instruments flown as part of the payload will also provide accurate input data to improve atmospheric radiative transfer codes by anchoring boundary conditions, through simultaneous measurements of aerosols, particulates and radiances at various heights. Therefore, TRUTHS will significantly improve the performance and accuracy of EO missions with broad global or operational aims, as well as more dedicated missions. The provision of reference standards will also improve synergy between missions by reducing errors due to different calibration biases and offer cost reductions for future missions by reducing the demands for on-board calibration systems. Such improvements are important for the future success of strategies such as Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the implementation and monitoring of international treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol. TRUTHS will achieve these aims by measuring the geophysical variables of solar and lunar irradiance, together with both polarised and unpolarised spectral radiance of the Moon, Earth and its atmosphere. Published by Elsevier Ltd of behalf of COSPAR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AdSpR..32.2253F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AdSpR..32.2253F"><span id="translatedtitle">Traceable <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> underpinning terrestrial- and helio-studies (TRUTHS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fox, N.; Aiken, J.; Barnett, J. J.; Briottet, X.; Carvell, R.; Frohlich, C.; Groom, S. B.; Hagolle, O.; Haigh, J. D.; Kieffer, H. H.; Lean, J.; Pollock, D. B.; Quinn, T.; Sandford, M. C. W.; Schaepman, M.; Shine, K. P.; Schmutz, W. K.; Teillet, P. M.; Thome, K. J.; Verstraete, M. M.; Zalewski, E.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The Traceable <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> Underpinning Terrestrial- and Helio- Studies (TRUTHS) mission offers a novel approach to the provision of key scientific data with unprecedented radiometric accuracy for Earth Observation (EO) and solar studies, which will also establish well-calibrated reference targets/standards to support other EO missions. This paper presents the TRUTHS mission and its objectives. TRUTHS will be the first satellite mission to calibrate its EO instrumentation directly to Sl in orbit, overcoming the usual uncertainties associated with drifts of sensor gain and spectral shape by using an electrical rather than an optical standard as the basis of its calibration. The range of instruments flown as part of the payload will also provide accurate input data to improve atmospheric radiative transfer codes by anchoring boundary conditions, through simultaneous measurements of aerosols, particulates and radiances at various heights. Therefore, TRUTHS will significantly improve the performance and accuracy of EO missions with broad global or operational aims, as well as more dedicated missions. The provision of reference standards will also improve synergy between missions by reducing errors due to different calibration biases and offer cost reductions for future missions by reducing the demands for on-board calibration systems. Such improvements are important for the future success of strategies such as Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) and the implementation and monitoring of international treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol. TRUTHS will achieve these aims by measuring the geophysical variables of solar and lunar irradiance, together with both polarised and unpolarised spectral radiance of the Moon, Earth and its atmosphere. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/922958','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/922958"><span id="translatedtitle">Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator Experiments at the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> Facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kanareykin, A.; Thompson, M.C.; Berry, M.K.; Blumenfeld, I.; Decker, F.J.; Hogan, M.J.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R.H.; Kirby, N.A.; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, D.R.; Badakov, H.; Cook, A.M.; Rosenzweig, J.B.; Tikhoplav, R.; Travish, G.; Muggli, P.; /Southern California U.</p> <p>2008-01-28</p> <p>Electron bunches with the unparalleled combination of high charge, low emittances, and short time duration, as first produced at the SLAC Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB), are foreseen to be produced at the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> facility. These types of bunches have enabled wakefield driven accelerating schemes of multi-GV/m in plasmas. In the context of the Dielectric Wakefield Accelerators (DWA) such beams, having rms bunch length as short as 20 um, have been used to drive 100 um and 200 um ID hollow tubes above 20 GV/m surface fields. These FFTB tests enabled the measurement of a breakdown threshold in fused silica (with full data analysis still ongoing) [1]. With the construction and commissioning of the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> facility at SLAC, new experiments would be made possible to test further aspects of DWAs including materials, tube geometrical variations, direct measurements of the Cerenkov fields, and proof of acceleration in tubes >10 cm in length. This collaboration will investigate breakdown thresholds and accelerating fields in new materials including CVD diamond. Here we describe the experimental plans, beam parameters, simulations, and progress to date as well as future prospects for machines based of DWA structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=familia&id=EJ1025189','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=familia&id=EJ1025189"><span id="translatedtitle">Familia and Comunidad-Based <span class="hlt">Saberes</span>: Learning in an Indigenous Heritage Community</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Urrieta, Luis, Jr.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article explores how children and youth learned indigenous heritage "<span class="hlt">saberes</span>" (knowings) through intent community participation in Nocutzepo, Mexico. The "familia" (family) and "comunidad" (community)-based <span class="hlt">saberes</span> were valuable for skills acquisition, but most important for learning indigenous forms of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033298','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033298"><span id="translatedtitle">Titan's surface from the Cassini RADAR <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> data during SAR mode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Paganelli, F.; Janssen, M.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Stofan, E.; Wall, S.D.; Lorenz, R.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Kirk, R.L.; Roth, L.; Elachi, C.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We present initial results on the calibration and interpretation of the high-resolution <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> data acquired during the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mode (SAR-<span class="hlt">radiometry</span>) of the Cassini Radar Mapper during its first five flybys of Saturn's moon Titan. We construct maps of the brightness temperature at the 2-cm wavelength coincident with SAR swath imaging. A preliminary <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> calibration shows that brightness temperature in these maps varies from 64 to 89 K. Surface features and physical properties derived from the SAR-<span class="hlt">radiometry</span> maps and SAR imaging are strongly correlated; in general, we find that surface features with high radar reflectivity are associated with radiometrically cold regions, while surface features with low radar reflectivity correlate with radiometrically warm regions. We examined scatterplots of the normalized radar cross-section ??0 versus brightness temperature, outlining signatures that characterize various terrains and surface features. The results indicate that volume scattering is important in many areas of Titan's surface, particularly Xanadu, while other areas exhibit complex brightness temperature variations consistent with variable slopes or surface material and compositional properties. ?? 2007.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21257366','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21257366"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of vesicoureteral reflux using microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>-system characterization with tissue phantoms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; De Luca, Valeria; Tognolatti, Piero; Bardati, Fernando; Snow, Brent; Stauffer, Paul</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Microwave (MW) <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> is proposed for passive monitoring of kidney temperature to detect vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) of urine that is externally heated by a MW hyperthermia device and thereafter reflows from the bladder to kidneys during reflux. Here, we characterize in tissue-mimicking phantoms the performance of a 1.375 GHz <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> system connected to an electromagnetically (EM) shielded microstrip log spiral antenna optimized for VUR detection. Phantom EM properties are characterized using a coaxial dielectric probe and network analyzer (NA). Power reflection and receive patterns of the antenna are measured in layered tissue phantom. Receiver spectral measurements are used to assess EM shielding provided by a metal cup surrounding the antenna. Radiometer and fiberoptic temperature data are recorded for varying volumes (10-30 mL) and temperaturesg (40-46°C) of the urine phantom at 35 mm depth surrounded by 36.5°C muscle phantom. Directional receive pattern with about 5% power spectral density at 35 mm target depth and better than -10 dB return loss from tissue load are measured for the antenna. Antenna measurements demonstrate no deterioration in power reception and effective EM shielding in the presence of the metal cup. <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> power measurements are in excellent agreement with the temperature of the kidney phantom. Laboratory testing of the <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> system in temperature-controlled phantoms supports the feasibility of passive kidney thermometry for VUR detection. PMID:21257366</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PMB....55.5417A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PMB....55.5417A"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the detectability of vesicoureteral reflux using microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo F.; De Luca, Valeria; Bardati, Fernando; Snow, Brent W.; Stauffer, Paul R.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>We present the modeling efforts on antenna design, frequency selection and receiver sensitivity estimation to detect vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) using microwave (MW) <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> as warm urine from the bladder maintained at fever range temperature using a MW hyperthermia device reflows into the kidneys. The radiometer center frequency (fc), frequency band (Δf) and aperture radius (ra) of the physical antenna for kidney temperature monitoring are determined using a simplified universal antenna model with a circular aperture. Anatomical information extracted from the computed tomography (CT) images of children aged 4-6 years is used to construct a layered 3D tissue model. Radiometric antenna efficiency is evaluated in terms of the ratio of the power collected from the target at depth to the total power received by the antenna (η). The power ratio of the theoretical antenna is used to design a microstrip log spiral antenna with directional radiation pattern over fc ± Δf/2. Power received by the log spiral from the deep target is enhanced using a thin low-loss dielectric matching layer. A cylindrical metal cup is proposed to shield the antenna from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Transient thermal simulations are carried out to determine the minimum detectable change in the antenna brightness temperature (δTB) for 15-25 mL urine refluxes at 40-42 °C located 35 mm from the skin surface. Theoretical antenna simulations indicate maximum η over 1.1-1.6 GHz for ra = 30-40 mm. Simulations of the 35 mm radius tapered log spiral yielded a higher power ratio over fc ± Δf/2 for the 35-40 mm deep targets in the presence of an optimal matching layer. Radiometric temperature calculations indicate δTB >= 0.1 K for the 15 mL urine at 40 °C and 35 mm depth. Higher η and δTB were observed for the antenna and matching layer inside the metal cup. Reflection measurements of the log spiral in a saline phantom are in agreement with the simulation data. The numerical study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2972589','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2972589"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the Detectability of Vesicoureteral Reflux using Microwave <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo F.; De Luca, Valeria; Bardati, Fernando; Snow, Brent W.; Stauffer, Paul R</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We present the modeling efforts on antenna design, frequency selection and receiver sensitivity estimation to detect vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) using microwave (MW) <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> as the warm urine from the bladder maintained at fever range temperature using a MW hyperthermia device reflows into the kidneys. Radiometer center frequency (fc), frequency band (Δf), and aperture radius (ra) of the physical antenna for kidney temperature monitoring are determined using a simplified universal antenna model with circular aperture. Anatomical information extracted from computed tomography (CT) images of children age 4–6 years is used to construct a layered 3D tissue model. Radiometric antenna efficiency is evaluated in terms of the ratio between the power collected from the target at depth and the total power received by the antenna (η). Power ratio of the theoretical antenna is used to design a microstrip log spiral antenna with directional radiation pattern over fc ± Δf/2. Power received by the log spiral from the deep target is enhanced using a thin low-loss dielectric matching layer. A cylindrical metal cup is proposed to shield the antenna from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Transient thermal simulations are carried out to determine the minimum detectable change in antenna brightness temperature (δTB) for 15–25 mL urine refluxes at 40–42°C located 35 mm from the skin surface. Theoretical antenna simulations indicate maximum η over 1.1–1.6 GHz for ra = 30–40 mm. Simulations of the 35 mm radius tapered log spiral yielded higher power ratio over fc ± Δf/2 for the 35–40 mm deep targets in the presence of an optimal matching layer. Radiometric temperature calculations indicate δTB ≥ 0.1 K for the 15 mL urine at 40°C and 35 mm depth. Higher η and δTB were observed for the antenna and matching layer inside the metal cup. Reflection measurements of the log spiral in saline phantom are in agreement with the simulation data. Numerical study suggests</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20736499','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20736499"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the detectability of vesicoureteral reflux using microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo F; De Luca, Valeria; Bardati, Fernando; Snow, Brent W; Stauffer, Paul R</p> <p>2010-09-21</p> <p>We present the modeling efforts on antenna design, frequency selection and receiver sensitivity estimation to detect vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) using microwave (MW) <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> as warm urine from the bladder maintained at fever range temperature using a MW hyperthermia device reflows into the kidneys. The radiometer center frequency (f(c)), frequency band (Deltaf) and aperture radius (r(a)) of the physical antenna for kidney temperature monitoring are determined using a simplified universal antenna model with a circular aperture. Anatomical information extracted from the computed tomography (CT) images of children aged 4-6 years is used to construct a layered 3D tissue model. Radiometric antenna efficiency is evaluated in terms of the ratio of the power collected from the target at depth to the total power received by the antenna (eta). The power ratio of the theoretical antenna is used to design a microstrip log spiral antenna with directional radiation pattern over f(c) +/- Deltaf/2. Power received by the log spiral from the deep target is enhanced using a thin low-loss dielectric matching layer. A cylindrical metal cup is proposed to shield the antenna from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Transient thermal simulations are carried out to determine the minimum detectable change in the antenna brightness temperature (deltaT(B)) for 15-25 mL urine refluxes at 40-42 degrees C located 35 mm from the skin surface. Theoretical antenna simulations indicate maximum eta over 1.1-1.6 GHz for r(a) = 30-40 mm. Simulations of the 35 mm radius tapered log spiral yielded a higher power ratio over f(c) +/- Deltaf/2 for the 35-40 mm deep targets in the presence of an optimal matching layer. Radiometric temperature calculations indicate deltaT(B) 0.1 K for the 15 mL urine at 40 degrees C and 35 mm depth. Higher eta and deltaT(B) were observed for the antenna and matching layer inside the metal cup. Reflection measurements of the log spiral in a saline phantom are in agreement</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AnGeo..32..935H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AnGeo..32..935H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ozone and temperature decadal trends in the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere, based on measurements from <span class="hlt">SABER</span> on TIMED</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, F. T.; Mayr, H. G.; Russell, J. M., III; Mlynczak, M. G.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>We have derived ozone and temperature trends from years 2002 through 2012, from 20 to 100 km altitude, and 48° S to 48° N latitude, based on measurements from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (<span class="hlt">SABER</span>) instrument on the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. For the first time, trends of ozone and temperature measured at the same times and locations are obtained, and their correlations should provide useful information about the relative importance of photochemistry versus dynamics over the longer term. We are not aware of comparable results covering this time period and spatial extent. For stratospheric ozone, until the late 1990s, previous studies found negative trends (decreasing amounts). In recent years, some empirical and modeling studies have shown the occurrence of a turnaround in the decreasing ozone, possibly beginning in the late 1990s, suggesting that the stratospheric ozone trend is leveling off or even turning positive. Our global results add more definitive evidence, expand the coverage, and show that at mid-latitudes (north and south) in the stratosphere, the ozone trends are indeed positive, with ozone having increased by a few percent from 2002 through 2012. However, in the tropics, we find negative ozone trends between 25 and 50 km. For stratospheric temperatures, the trends are mostly negatively correlated to the ozone trends. The temperature trends are positive in the tropics between 30 and 40 km, and between 20 and 25 km, at approximately 24° N and at 24° S latitude. The stratospheric temperature trends are otherwise mostly negative. In the mesosphere, the ozone trends are mostly flat, with suggestions of small positive trends at lower latitudes. The temperature trends in this region are mostly negative, showing decreases of up to ~ -3 K decade-1. In the lower thermosphere (between ~ 85 and 100 km), ozone and temperature trends are both negative. The ozone trend can</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JGRA..120...12V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JGRA..120...12V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of two large solar energetic particle events on middle atmosphere nighttime odd hydrogen and ozone content: Aura/MLS and TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Wang, S.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Zank, G. P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>is well established that large solar energetic particle (SEP) events affect ozone in the middle atmosphere through chemical reactions involving odd hydrogen (HOx) species. We analyze global middle atmospheric effects at local nighttime for two large SEP events during the intervals of 7-17 November 2004 and 20-30 August 2005. Properties of the SEP events and concomitant geomagnetic storms are discussed using in situ measurements. Temporal dynamics and latitudinal distribution of HOx and ozone densities inferred from measurements by the Aura/MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder) instrument are analyzed. We show statistically significant increases of nighttime hydroxyl (OH) density in the middle atmosphere up to 5°106 cm-3 in the latitude range from 70° down to 50° latitude in northern and to -40° latitude in southern hemispheres in connection with peaks in proton fluxes of >10 MeV energy range measured by GOES spacecraft. During the storm main phases, the nighttime OH density increases were observed around ±50° in southern and northern hemispheres in the altitude range of 65-80 km. There is a correspondence between averaged nighttime OH partial column density (in 0.005 to 0.1 hPa pressure range) in the polar latitudes and energetic proton (>10 MeV) fluxes. Corresponding statistically significant nighttime ozone destructions up to 45% are observed from 70° down to 60° latitude in the northern and southern hemispheres. The SEP impulsive phases correspond to onsets of ozone density depletions. Larger relative ozone destructions are observed in the northern hemisphere in November and in the southern hemisphere in August. Simultaneous measurements of ozone density by the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span>) instrument independently confirm the MLS results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvE..84d1917M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvE..84d1917M"><span id="translatedtitle">Wavelength-modulated differential photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>: Theory and experimental applications to glucose detection in water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>A differential photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> method, wavelength-modulated differential photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (WM-DPTR), has been developed theoretically and experimentally for noninvasive, noncontact biological analyte detection, such as blood glucose monitoring. WM-DPTR features analyte specificity and sensitivity by combining laser excitation by two out-of-phase modulated beams at wavelengths near the peak and the base line of a prominent and isolated mid-IR analyte absorption band (here the carbon-oxygen-carbon bond in the pyran ring of the glucose molecule). A theoretical photothermal model of WM-DPTR signal generation and detection has been developed. Simulation results on water-glucose phantoms with the human blood range (0-300 mg/dl) glucose concentration demonstrated high sensitivity and resolution to meet wide clinical detection requirements. The model has also been validated by experimental data of the glucose-water system obtained using WM-DPTR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21335771','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21335771"><span id="translatedtitle">EBE/ECE <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> on COMPASS Tokamak - Design and First Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zajac, J.; Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Sestak, D.; Nanobashvili, S.</p> <p>2009-11-26</p> <p>COMPASS tokamak has started its operation in IPP Prague recently. A new 16-channel <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> system has been designed and manufactured for the electron Bernstein/cyclotron wave emission (EBE/ECE) experiments. For EBE studies, based on EBW-X-O mode conversion, <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> in Ka-band (26.5-40 GHz will be used which corresponds to the fundamental EC harmonics for the low-B{sub t}(B{sub o}{approx}1.2 T) tokamak operation. Alternatively, an E-band antenna and front-end (60-73.5/76.5-90 GHz) will be used with the same 16-channel receiver for the conventional second harmonics ECE diagnostics. In the contribution the design of the system is described as well as the initial testing measurements on tokamak COMPASS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16673833','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16673833"><span id="translatedtitle">Microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for continuous non-contact temperature measurements during microwave heating.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stephan, Karl D; Pearce, John A</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Temperature measurement during microwave heating in industrial and commercial processes can improve quality, throughput, and energy conservation. Conventional ways of measuring temperature inside a microwave oven cavity are costly, inconvenient, or unsuitable for high-volume industrial applications. In this paper, we describe the theory of microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> as applied to the measurement of temperature during microwave heating. By extending the theory of radiative transfer to the case of thermal microwave radiation inside a cavity, we show that the same characteristics which make a microwave cavity suitable for heating materials also assist in obtaining meaningful temperature data with microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>. We present experimental data from the heating of liquid and solid materials which confirm the essential features of the theory, and show agreement between this method and more conventional methods of +/-4 degrees C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JOSAA..12.1479M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995JOSAA..12.1479M"><span id="translatedtitle">Depth profiling of laser-heated chromophores in biological tissues by pulsed photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Milner, Thomas E.; Goodman, Dennis M.; Tanenbaum, B. Samuel; Nelson, J. Stuart</p> <p>1995-07-01</p> <p>A solution method is proposed to the inverse problem of determining the unknown initial temperature distribution in a laser-exposed test material from measurements provided by infrared <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>. A Fredholm integral equation of the first kind is derived that relates the temporal evolution of the infrared signal amplitude to the unknown initial temperature distribution in the exposed test material. The singular-value decomposition is used to demonstrate the severely ill-posed nature of the derived inverse problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870038666&hterms=water+filter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwater%2Bfilter','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870038666&hterms=water+filter&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dwater%2Bfilter"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing of the atmosphere of Mars using infrared pressure modulation and filter <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mccleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.; Zurek, R. W.; Martonchik, J. V.; Haskins, R. D.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The study of the atmosphere and climate of Mars will soon be advanced considerably by the Mars Observer mission. This paper describes the atmospheric sounder for this mission and how it will measure key Martian atmospheric parameters using IR gas correlation and filter <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>. The instrument now under development will provide high-resolution vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature, pressure, water vapor, dust, and clouds using limb sounding techniques as well as nadir observations of surface thermal properties and polar radiative balance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhCS.214a2094C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhCS.214a2094C"><span id="translatedtitle">Approach of the measurement of thermal diffusivity of mural paintings by front face photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Candoré, Jean Charles; Bodnar, J. L.; Detalle, Vincent; Remy, B.; Grossel, Philippe</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>In this paper we present, in an experimental way, the possibilities of front face photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> to measure, in situ, the longitudinal thermal diffusivity of mural paintings. First, we present the principle of the method of measurement. Then, we present the experimental device implemented for the study. Finally, we show, using the experimental study of a plaster sample, the photothermal method allows in a particular case, a good approximation of the parameter longitudinal thermal diffusivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031603','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031603"><span id="translatedtitle">Titan's surface from Cassini RADAR SAR and high resolution <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> data of the first five flybys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Paganelli, F.; Janssen, M.A.; Stiles, B.; West, R.; Lorenz, R.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Wall, S.D.; Callahan, P.; Lopes, R.M.; Stofan, E.; Kirk, R.L.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Roth, L.; Elachi, C.; ,</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The first five Titan flybys with Cassini's Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) and radiometer are examined with emphasis on the calibration and interpretation of the high-resolution <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> data acquired during the SAR mode (SAR-<span class="hlt">radiometry</span>). Maps of the 2-cm wavelength brightness temperature are obtained coincident with the SAR swath imaging, with spatial resolution approaching 6 km. A preliminary calibration shows that brightness temperature in these maps varies from 64 to 89 K. Surface features and physical properties derived from the SAR-<span class="hlt">radiometry</span> maps and SAR imaging are strongly correlated; in general, we find that surface features with high radar reflectivity are associated with radiometrically cold regions, while surface features with low radar reflectivity correlate with radiometrically warm regions. We examined scatterplots of the normalized radar cross-section ??0 versus brightness temperature, finding differing signatures that characterize various terrains and surface features. Implications for the physical and compositional properties of these features are discussed. The results indicate that volume scattering is important in many areas of Titan's surface, particularly Xanadu, while other areas exhibit complex brightness temperature variations consistent with variable slopes or surface material and compositional properties. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080047106&hterms=lorenz&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dlorenz','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080047106&hterms=lorenz&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dlorenz"><span id="translatedtitle">Titan's Surface from Cassini RADAR SAR and High Resolution <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> Data of the First Five Flybys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Paganelli, F.; Janssen, M. A.; Stiles, B.; West, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Wall, S. D.; Callahan, P.; Lopes, R. M.; Stofan, E.; Kirk, R. L.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Roth, L.; Elachi, C.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The first five Titan flybys with Cassini's Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) and radiometer are examined with emphasis on the calibration and interpretation of the high-resolution <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> data acquired during the SAR mode (SAR-<span class="hlt">radiometry</span>). Maps of the 2-cm wavelength brightness temperature are obtained coincident with the SAR swath imaging, with spatial resolution approaching 6 km. A preliminary calibration shows that brightness temperature in these maps varies from 64 to 89 K. Surface features and physical properties derived from the SAR-<span class="hlt">radiometry</span> maps and SAR imaging are strongly correlated; in general, we find that surface features with high radar reflectivity are associated with radiometrically cold regions, while surface features with low radar reflectivity correlate with radiometrically warm regions. We examined scatterplots of the normalized radar cross-section sigma(exp o) versus brightness temperature, finding differing signatures that characterize various terrains and surface features. Implications for the physical and compositional properties of these features are discussed. The results indicate that volume scattering is important in many areas of Titan's surface, particularly Xanadu, while other areas exhibit complex brightness temperature variations consistent with variable slopes or surface material and compositional properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3403467','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3403467"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SABER</span>: A computational method for identifying active sites for new reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nosrati, Geoffrey R; Houk, K N</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A software suite, <span class="hlt">SABER</span> (Selection of Active/Binding sites for Enzyme Redesign), has been developed for the analysis of atomic geometries in protein structures, using a geometric hashing algorithm (Barker and Thornton, Bioinformatics 2003;19:1644–1649). <span class="hlt">SABER</span> is used to explore the Protein Data Bank (PDB) to locate proteins with a specific 3D arrangement of catalytic groups to identify active sites that might be redesigned to catalyze new reactions. As a proof-of-principle test, <span class="hlt">SABER</span> was used to identify enzymes that have the same catalytic group arrangement present in o-succinyl benzoate synthase (OSBS). Among the highest-scoring scaffolds identified by the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> search for enzymes with the same catalytic group arrangement as OSBS were l-Ala d/l-Glu epimerase (AEE) and muconate lactonizing enzyme II (MLE), both of which have been redesigned to become effective OSBS catalysts, demonstrated by experiments. Next, we used <span class="hlt">SABER</span> to search for naturally existing active sites in the PDB with catalytic groups similar to those present in the designed Kemp elimination enzyme KE07. From over 2000 geometric matches to the KE07 active site, <span class="hlt">SABER</span> identified 23 matches that corresponded to residues from known active sites. The best of these matches, with a 0.28 Å catalytic atom RMSD to KE07, was then redesigned to be compatible with the Kemp elimination using RosettaDesign. We also used <span class="hlt">SABER</span> to search for potential Kemp eliminases using a theozyme predicted to provide a greater rate acceleration than the active site of KE07, and used Rosetta to create a design based on the proteins identified. PMID:22492397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22492397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22492397"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SABER</span>: a computational method for identifying active sites for new reactions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nosrati, Geoffrey R; Houk, K N</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>A software suite, <span class="hlt">SABER</span> (Selection of Active/Binding sites for Enzyme Redesign), has been developed for the analysis of atomic geometries in protein structures, using a geometric hashing algorithm (Barker and Thornton, Bioinformatics 2003;19:1644-1649). <span class="hlt">SABER</span> is used to explore the Protein Data Bank (PDB) to locate proteins with a specific 3D arrangement of catalytic groups to identify active sites that might be redesigned to catalyze new reactions. As a proof-of-principle test, <span class="hlt">SABER</span> was used to identify enzymes that have the same catalytic group arrangement present in o-succinyl benzoate synthase (OSBS). Among the highest-scoring scaffolds identified by the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> search for enzymes with the same catalytic group arrangement as OSBS were L-Ala D/L-Glu epimerase (AEE) and muconate lactonizing enzyme II (MLE), both of which have been redesigned to become effective OSBS catalysts, demonstrated by experiments. Next, we used <span class="hlt">SABER</span> to search for naturally existing active sites in the PDB with catalytic groups similar to those present in the designed Kemp elimination enzyme KE07. From over 2000 geometric matches to the KE07 active site, <span class="hlt">SABER</span> identified 23 matches that corresponded to residues from known active sites. The best of these matches, with a 0.28 Å catalytic atom RMSD to KE07, was then redesigned to be compatible with the Kemp elimination using RosettaDesign. We also used <span class="hlt">SABER</span> to search for potential Kemp eliminases using a theozyme predicted to provide a greater rate acceleration than the active site of KE07, and used Rosetta to create a design based on the proteins identified. PMID:22492397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..15.1965F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..15.1965F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A decade climatology of terdiurnal tides using TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Forbes, Jeff; Moudden, Youssef</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Atmospheric tides are important for coupling the lower and middle atmosphere with the thermosphere and ionosphere, and for driving neutral and plasma density variability in the latter. Terdiurnal tides are recognized as an important contributor to this variability, but their study from a global perspective has not been as comprehensive as their diurnal and semidiurnal counterparts. In this study we globally characterize the solar terdiurnal tide in the 80-110 km region of Earth's atmosphere through analysis of 10 years of temperature measurements made by the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument on the TIMED spacecraft. The Sun-synchronous (``migrating'') component (TW3), which is longitude independent, achieves maximum amplitudes of order 5K (10K) at 90 km (110 km), not too different than the 7-15 K amplitudes that are typical of the migrating diurnal and semidiurnal tides in this region. Significant longitude variability (~20-25%) in terdiurnal temperature amplitudes also exists, which is decomposed into zonal wavenumber components. The largest of these (TE1, TW4, TW5) reveal distinct seasonal-latitudinal and height versus latitude patterns, and inter-annual consistency. In addition, it is demonstrated that these particular components vary in ways that suggest that they originate from nonlinear interactions between diurnal and semidiurnal tides, specifically between DE3 and SW2 for TE1, between DW2 and SW2 for TW4, and between DW1 and SW4 for TW5. We also demonstrate that the terdiurnal tides derived here are not influenced to any significant degree by aliasing due to the presence of other waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070016581&hterms=scanning+lidar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dscanning%2Blidar','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070016581&hterms=scanning+lidar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dscanning%2Blidar"><span id="translatedtitle">Studying the MLT by a Combined Analysis of <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED and Lidar Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.; Zecha, M.; Gerding, M.; Luebken, F. J.; Fiedler, J.; vonZhan, U.; Russell, J. M., III</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument on board the TIMED Satellite is a limb scanning infrared radiometer designed to measure temperature and minor constituent vertical profiles and energetics parameters in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The measurements have been performed continuously since January 25, 2002 to provide excellent coverage for both hemispheres. The Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics (LAP) at Kuehlungsborn, Germany (54N, 12E) operates two lidar instruments, using three different temperature measurement methods, optimized for three altitude ranges. The total altitude range of the lidar installation lies from 1 to 105 km. Another instrument used for intercomparison is the ALOMAR RMR lidar, located at Andoya, Norway (69N, 16E). We have searched the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> and lidar datasets for coincidental common volume measurements within plus or minus 1 degree in latitude, plus or minus 2 degrees in longitude and approx. 1 hour in time for the sake of (a) comparison of measured temperatures; (b) validation of the models used in <span class="hlt">SABER</span> data analysis; and (c) extracting new information about MLT parameters. In this work we applied the non-LTE ALI-ARMS code designed to calculate the nonequilibrium radiance in different viewing geometries to the analysis of measurements which satisfied these search criteria. The results of this analysis (a) support the application of higher value of CO2-O quenching rate (6e-12 cubic centimeters per second) by the non-LTE temperature retrievals from the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> 15 micrometer limb radiance data, and (b) demonstrate the importance of accounting for the vibrational-vibrational energy exchange among the CO2 isotopes for accurate temperature retrievals. Using temperature profiles obtained in lidar measurements as inputs for the retrieval algorithm we also retrieved the nighttime CO2 densities from the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> 15 micrometer limb radiances and compared them with the model and climatology CO2 data used in the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> nighttime temperature retrievals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EPJST.153..287G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008EPJST.153..287G"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of nano-depth junctions in silicon by using Photo-Carrier <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (PCR)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Garcia, J. A.; Guo, X.; Mandelis, A.; Shaughnessy, D.; Nicolaides, L.; Salnik, A.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Non-contact, non-intrusive Photo-Carrier <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (PCR) was used for monitoring nano-depth junctions in industrial-grade silicon wafers. The silicon wafers were implanted with arsenic to the dose of 5E1014 cm-2. The junction depth was in the 30 nm to 100 nm range. Quantitative results for PCR sensitivity to the junction depth and implantation energies are presented. This laser-based carrier-wave technique monitors harmonically photo-excited and recombining carriers and shows great potential advantages for the characterization of multiple semiconductor processes such as ion implantation, ultra shallow junction (USJ) depth determination and other Si wafer process steps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984STIN...8435101T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984STIN...8435101T"><span id="translatedtitle">Pulsed photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for noncontact spectroscopy, material testing and inspection measurement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tam, A. C.</p> <p>1984-08-01</p> <p>Photothermal <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (PTR) is a sensitive technique for noncontact spectroscopy and inspection. Its principle is the following: a modulated beam of photons (or other particles) produces temperature transients in a sample; the corresponding transients in the infrared thermal radiation emitted from the sample are analyzed. This can provide absolute absorption coefficients, as well as information on thermal diffusivity, layered structure, and dimensions. Variations of PTR are possible with continuously-modulated or pulsed excitation, and with transmission or back-scattering detection. These variations are reviewed. The recent technique of pulsed PTR with backscattering detection is described in more detail, and some important single-ended remote sensing applications are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/233336','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/233336"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of photoacoustic <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods for monitoring chlorinated hydrocarbons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sollid, J.E.; Trujillo, V.L.; Limback, S.P.; Woloshun, K.A.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>A comparison of two methods of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and a nondispersive infrared technique, photoacoustic <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PAR), is presented in the context of field monitoring a disposal site. First is presented an historical account describing the site and early monitoring to provide an overview. The intent and nature of the monitoring program changed when it was proposed to expand the Radiological Waste Site close to the Hazardous Waste Site. Both the sampling methods and analysis techniques were refined in the course of this exercise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6680E..0HK','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6680E..0HK"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of oceanic chlorophyll by LIDAR, MODIS, fluorometry and above-water <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kampel, Milton; Lorenzzetti, João A.; Bentz, Cristina M.; Nunes, Raul A.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rudorff, Frederico M.; Politano, Alexandre T.</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>Comparisons between in situ measurements of surface chlorophyll concentration (CHL) and ocean color remote sensing estimates were conducted during an oceanographic cruise in the Brazilian Southeastern continental shelf and slope in November 2004. In situ estimates were based on fluorometry, above-water <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and lidar fluorosensor. Three empirical algorithms were used to estimate chlorophyll a concentration from radiometric measurements: Ocean Chlorophyll 3 bands (OC3M), Ocean Chlorophyll 4 bands (OC4v4), and Ocean Chlorophyll 2 bands (OC2v4). The satellite estimates of chlorophyll a were derived from data collected by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with a nominal 1.1 km resolution at nadir. Three algorithms were used to estimate chlorophyll concentrations from MODIS data: one empirical - OC3M, and two semi-analytical - Garver, Siegel, Maritorena version 01 (GSM01), and Carder. In this paper, LIDAR, MODIS and in situ above-water <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and fluorometry are briefly described and the estimated values of chlorophyll retrieved by these techniques are compared. Chlorophyll concentrations were fairly well estimated by all the methods. In general, the empirical algorithms applied to the satellite and in situ radiometric data showed a tendency for overestimating CHL. The semi-analytical GSM01 algorithm applied to MODIS data performed better than the Carder and the empirical OC3M algorithms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1643..287N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992SPIE.1643..287N"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of thermal and physical properties of port-wine stain lesions using pulsed photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nelson, J. Stuart; Jacques, Steven L.; Wright, William H.</p> <p>1992-06-01</p> <p>A method for quantitative characterization of port wine stain (PWS) is presented. Pulsed photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PPTR) uses a non-invasive infrared <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> system to measure changes in surface temperature induced by pulsed radiation. When a pulsed laser is used to irradiate a PWS, an initial temperature jump (T-jump) is seen due to the heating of the epidermis as a result of melanin absorption. Subsequently, heat generated in the subsurface blood vessels due to hemoglobin absorption is detected by PPTR as a delayed thermal wave as the heat diffuses toward the skin surface. The time delay and magnitude of the delayed PPTR signal indicate the depth and thickness of the PWS. In this report, we present an initial clinical study of PPTR measurements on PWS patients. Computer simulations of various classes of PWS illustrate how the PPTR signal depends on the concentration of epidermal melanin, and depth and thickness of the PWS. The goal of this research is to provide a means of characterizing PWS before initiating therapy, guiding laser dosimetry, and advising the patient as to the time course and efficacy of the planned protocol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9289E..1FP','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9289E..1FP"><span id="translatedtitle">A laboratory module on <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, photometry and colorimetry for an undergraduate optics course</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Polak, Robert D.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The bachelor's degree in Physics at Loyola University Chicago requires both an upper-division course in Optics as well as a companion Optics Laboratory course. Recently, the laboratory course has undergone dramatic changes. Traditional weekly laboratories have been replaced with three laboratory modules, where students focus on a single topic over several weeks after which the students submit a laboratory report written in the style of a journal article following American Institute of Physics style manual. With this method, students are able to gain a deeper understanding of the specific topic areas of <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, photometry and colorimetry, lens design and aberrations, and polarization and interference while using industry-standard equipment and simulation software. In particular, this work will provide the details of the laboratory module on <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, photometry and colorimetry where students use a photoradiometer and integrating sphere to characterize the optical properties of an LCD monitor, light bulb and a fiber optic light source calculating properties such as luminous flux, luminous intensity, luminance, CIE color coordinates, NTSC ratio, color temperature and luminous efficacy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...113r3517I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...113r3517I"><span id="translatedtitle">Size effect of out-of-plane thermal conductivity of epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films at room temperature measured by photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ikeda, Tatsuya; Ando, Tetsu; Taguchi, Yoshihiro; Nagasaka, Yuji</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The out-of-plane (c-axis) thermal conductivities of high-temperature superconducting thin films (YBa2Cu3O7-δ: YBCO) have been measured by photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PTR) at room temperature. The YBCO samples are in c-axis-aligned epitaxially grown thin films with thicknesses of 250, 500, and 1000 nm. PTR is a noncontact measurement technique for the thermal conductivity and is based on the detection of infrared radiation emitted from a sample heated by a frequency-modulated laser beam. By changing the modulation frequency up to about 1 MHz, the thermal conductivity of thin film can be determined by a curve-fitting analysis of phase-lag data in the frequency domain. The uncertainty of measured thermal conductivity is estimated to be better than ±7%. The experimental results for thermal conductivity exhibit apparently positive film thickness dependence, and their absolute values are less than half of those for single crystal at the smallest thickness. The results indicate a size effect that cannot be explained by the very short phonon mean free path that the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> theory predicts. By employing a simple model taking into account phonon boundary scattering, the possible mean free path to interpret the present results is substantially larger than the prediction. The conclusion supports the validity of quite broad spectral distribution of phonons responsible for the thermal conductivity of YBCO.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JASTP.120....1N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JASTP.120....1N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term variabilities and tendencies in zonal mean TIMED-<span class="hlt">SABER</span> ozone and temperature in the middle atmosphere at 10-15°N</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nath, Oindrila; Sridharan, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Long-term variabilities and trends of middle atmospheric (20-100 km) ozone volume mixing ratio (OVMR) and temperature and their responses towards quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), solar cycle (SC) and El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO) have been investigated using monthly averaged zonal mean Sounding of Atmosphere by Broadband Emission <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (<span class="hlt">SABER</span>) observations at 10-15°N for the years 2002-2012. Composite monthly mean of OVMR shows semi-annual oscillation (SAO) predominantly in the lower stratosphere (20-30 km) and in the upper mesosphere (above 90 km), whereas that of temperature shows SAO in the upper stratosphere (45-55 km) and lower mesosphere (60-75 km). Amplitudes of SAO and annual oscillation (AO) in OVMR show enhancement above 80 km and 90 km respectively in the mesosphere and both show maximum around 30 km in the stratosphere. The amplitudes of SAO and AO in temperature show maxima just below and above 80 km in the mesosphere, whereas in the stratosphere, they show maxima around 40 km and 20 km respectively. The phase profiles of SAO and AO in temperature show downward progressions below 80 km, whereas the phase profile of SAO in OVMR shows downward progression only below 40 km and the phase remains constant above 80 km. Regression analysis of OVMR shows increasing trend at 23 km, and small decreasing trend at 30 km, 34 km and above 80 km. Above 92 km, the trend sharply decreases. OVMR response to QBO winds at 30 hPa shows negative maxima at 30 km and 91 km, positive maximum at 26 km and is insignificant at other heights. The OVMR response to SC is positive in the middle stratosphere peaking at 31 km and in the upper mesosphere peaking at 95 km. The OVMR response to ENSO shows mixed behavior in stratosphere and positive in the upper mesosphere. It is positive in the lower height region 20-27 km with maximum at 25 km. The response to ENSO is insignificant up to 70 km and it is positive above 80 km with two maxima at 87 km and 97 km. Regression</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AnGeo..34...29H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016AnGeo..34...29H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ozone and temperature decadal responses to solar variability in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, based on measurements from <span class="hlt">SABER</span> on TIMED</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, F. T.; Mayr, H. G.; Russell, J. M., III; Mlynczak, M. G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We have derived ozone and temperature responses to solar variability over a solar cycle, from June 2002 through June 2014, 50 to 100 km, 48° S to 48° N, based on data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (<span class="hlt">SABER</span>) instrument on the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. Results with this extent of coverage in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere have not been available previously. A multiple regression is applied to obtain responses as a function of the solar 10.7 cm flux (solar flux units, sfu). Positive responses mean that they are larger at solar maximum than at solar minimum of the solar cycle. From ˜ 80 to 100 km, both ozone and temperature responses are positive for all latitudes and are larger than those at lower altitudes. From ˜ 80 to 100 km, ozone responses can exceed 10 % (100 sfu)-1, and temperature responses can approach 4 °K. From 50 to ˜ 80 km, the ozone responses at low latitudes ( ˜ ±35°) are mostly negative and can approach ˜ negative 3 % (100 sfu)-1. However, they are mostly positive at midlatitudes in this region and can approach ˜ 2 % (100 sfu)-1. In contrast to ozone, from ˜ 50 to 80 km, the temperature responses at low latitudes remain positive, with values up to ˜ 2.5 K (100 sfu)-1, but are weakly negative at midlatitudes. Consequently, there is a systematic and robust relation between the phases of the ozone and temperature responses. They are positively correlated (in phase) from ˜ 80 to 100 km for all latitudes and negatively correlated (out of phase) from ˜ 50 to 80 km, also for all latitudes. The negative correlation from 50 to 80 km is maintained even though the ozone and temperature responses can change signs as a function of altitude and latitude, because the corresponding temperature responses change signs in step with ozone. This is consistent with the idea that dynamics have the larger influence between ˜ 80 and 100 km, while photochemistry is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnGeo..34..801H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AnGeo..34..801H"><span id="translatedtitle">Ozone and temperature decadal responses to solar variability in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere, based on measurements from <span class="hlt">SABER</span> on TIMED</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans G.; Russell, James M., III; Mlynczak, Martin G.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We have derived ozone and temperature responses to solar variability over a solar cycle, from 2002 to 2014 at 20-60 km and 48° S-48° N, based on data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (<span class="hlt">SABER</span>) instrument on the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. Simultaneous results for ozone and temperature with this kind of spatial coverage have not been previously available, and they provide the opportunity to study correlations between ozone and temperature responses. In previous studies, there has not been general agreement on the details or, at times, even the broad behavior of the responses to decadal solar variability. New results from a different dataset should supply new information on this important and interesting subject. A multiple regression is applied to obtain responses as a function of the solar 10.7 cm flux. Positive responses mean that they are larger at solar maximum than at solar minimum of the solar cycle. Both ozone and temperature responses are found be positive or negative, depending on location. Generally, from ˜ 25 to 60 km, the ozone and temperature responses are mostly out of phase (negatively correlated) with each other as a function of solar variability, with some exceptions in the lower altitudes. These negative correlations are maintained even though the individual ozone (temperature) responses can change signs as a function of altitude and latitude, because the corresponding temperature (ozone) responses change signs in step with each other. From ˜ 50 to 60 km, ozone responses are relatively small, varying from ˜ -1 to ˜ 2 % 100 sfu-1 (solar flux units), while temperature responses can approach ˜ 2 °K 100 sfu-1. From ˜ 25 to ˜ 40 km, the ozone responses have become mostly positive at all latitudes and approach a maximum of ˜ 5 % 100 sfu-1 near the Equator and ˜ 30-35 km. In contrast, at low latitudes, the temperature responses have become negative but also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Icar..213..608L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Icar..213..608L"><span id="translatedtitle">Cassini SAR, <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, scatterometry and altimetry observations of Titan's dune fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Gall, A.; Janssen, M. A.; Wye, L. C.; Hayes, A. G.; Radebaugh, J.; Savage, C.; Zebker, H.; Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. I.; Kirk, R. L.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Wall, S.; Callahan, P.; Stofan, E. R.; Farr, T.; the Cassini Radar Team</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Large expanses of linear dunes cover Titan's equatorial regions. As the Cassini mission continues, more dune fields are becoming unveiled and examined by the microwave radar in all its modes of operation (SAR, <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, scatterometry, altimetry) and with an increasing variety of observational geometries. In this paper, we report on Cassini's radar instrument observations of the dune fields mapped through May 2009 and present our key findings in terms of Titan's geology and climate. We estimate that dune fields cover ˜12.5% of Titan's surface, which corresponds to an area of ˜10 million km 2, roughly the area of the United States. If dune sand-sized particles are mainly composed of solid organics as suggested by VIMS observations (Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) and atmospheric modeling and supported by <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> data, dune fields are the largest known organic reservoir on Titan. Dune regions are, with the exception of the polar lakes and seas, the least reflective and most emissive features on this moon. Interestingly, we also find a latitudinal dependence in the dune field microwave properties: up to a latitude of ˜11°, dune fields tend to become less emissive and brighter as one moves northward. Above ˜11° this trend is reversed. The microwave signatures of the dune regions are thought to be primarily controlled by the interdune proportion (relative to that of the dune), roughness and degree of sand cover. In agreement with <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and scatterometry observations, SAR images suggest that the fraction of interdunes increases northward up to a latitude of ˜14°. In general, scattering from the subsurface (volume scattering and surface scattering from buried interfaces) makes interdunal regions brighter than the dunes. The observed latitudinal trend may therefore also be partially caused by a gradual thinning of the interdunal sand cover or surrounding sand sheets to the north, thus allowing wave penetration in the underlying substrate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22413481','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22413481"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring local heating around an interventional MRI antenna with RF <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ertürk, M. Arcan; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.</p> <p>2015-03-15</p> <p>Purpose: Radiofrequency (RF) <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> uses thermal noise detected by an antenna to measure the temperature of objects independent of medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, an active interventional MRI antenna can be deployed as a RF radiometer to measure local heating, as a possible new method of monitoring device safety and thermal therapy. Methods: A 128 MHz radiometer receiver was fabricated to measure the RF noise voltage from an interventional 3 T MRI loopless antenna and calibrated for temperature in a uniformly heated bioanalogous gel phantom. Local heating (ΔT) was induced using the antenna for RF transmission and measured by RF <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, fiber-optic thermal sensors, and MRI thermometry. The spatial thermal sensitivity of the antenna radiometer was numerically computed using a method-of-moment electric field analyses. The gel’s thermal conductivity was measured by MRI thermometry, and the localized time-dependent ΔT distribution computed from the bioheat transfer equation and compared with <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> measurements. A “H-factor” relating the 1 g-averaged ΔT to the radiometric temperature was introduced to estimate peak temperature rise in the antenna’s sensitive region. Results: The loopless antenna radiometer linearly tracked temperature inside a thermally equilibrated phantom up to 73 °C to within ±0.3 °C at a 2 Hz sample rate. Computed and MRI thermometric measures of peak ΔT agreed within 13%. The peak 1 g-average temperature was H = 1.36 ± 0.02 times higher than the radiometric temperature for any media with a thermal conductivity of 0.15–0.50 (W/m)/K, indicating that the radiometer can measure peak 1 g-averaged ΔT in physiologically relevant tissue within ±0.4 °C. Conclusions: Active internal MRI detectors can serve as RF radiometers at the MRI frequency to provide accurate independent measures of local and peak temperature without the artifacts that can accompany MRI thermometry or</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4344468','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4344468"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring local heating around an interventional MRI antenna with RF <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ertürk, M. Arcan; El-Sharkawy, AbdEl-Monem M.; Bottomley, Paul A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: Radiofrequency (RF) <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> uses thermal noise detected by an antenna to measure the temperature of objects independent of medical imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, an active interventional MRI antenna can be deployed as a RF radiometer to measure local heating, as a possible new method of monitoring device safety and thermal therapy. Methods: A 128 MHz radiometer receiver was fabricated to measure the RF noise voltage from an interventional 3 T MRI loopless antenna and calibrated for temperature in a uniformly heated bioanalogous gel phantom. Local heating (ΔT) was induced using the antenna for RF transmission and measured by RF <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, fiber-optic thermal sensors, and MRI thermometry. The spatial thermal sensitivity of the antenna radiometer was numerically computed using a method-of-moment electric field analyses. The gel’s thermal conductivity was measured by MRI thermometry, and the localized time-dependent ΔT distribution computed from the bioheat transfer equation and compared with <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> measurements. A “H-factor” relating the 1 g-averaged ΔT to the radiometric temperature was introduced to estimate peak temperature rise in the antenna’s sensitive region. Results: The loopless antenna radiometer linearly tracked temperature inside a thermally equilibrated phantom up to 73 °C to within ±0.3 °C at a 2 Hz sample rate. Computed and MRI thermometric measures of peak ΔT agreed within 13%. The peak 1 g-average temperature was H = 1.36 ± 0.02 times higher than the radiometric temperature for any media with a thermal conductivity of 0.15–0.50 (W/m)/K, indicating that the radiometer can measure peak 1 g-averaged ΔT in physiologically relevant tissue within ±0.4 °C. Conclusions: Active internal MRI detectors can serve as RF radiometers at the MRI frequency to provide accurate independent measures of local and peak temperature without the artifacts that can accompany MRI thermometry or</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Metro..47R..15Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Metro..47R..15Z"><span id="translatedtitle">REVIEW ARTICLE: Photometry, <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and 'the candela': evolution in the classical and quantum world</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zwinkels, Joanne C.; Ikonen, Erkki; Fox, Nigel P.; Ulm, Gerhard; Rastello, Maria Luisa</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>The metrological fields of photometry and <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and their associated units are closely linked through the current definition of the base unit of luminous intensity—the candela. These fields are important to a wide range of applications requiring precise and accurate measurements of electromagnetic radiation and, in particular, the amount of radiant energy (light) that is perceived by the human eye. The candela has been one of the base units since the inception of the International System of Units (SI) and is the only base unit that quantifies a fundamental biological process—human vision. This photobiological process spans an enormous dynamic range of light levels from a few-photon interaction involved in triggering the vision mechanism to a level of more than 1015 photons per second that is accommodated by the visual response under bright daylight conditions. This position paper, prepared by members of the Task Group on the SI of the Consultative Committee for Photometry and <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> Strategic Planning Working Group (CCPR WG-SP), reviews the evolution of these fields of optical radiation measurements and their consequent impact on definitions and realization of the candela. Over the past several decades, there have been significant developments in sources, detectors, measuring instruments and techniques, that have improved the measurement of photometric and radiometric quantities for classical applications in lighting design, manufacturing and quality control processes involving optical sources, detectors and materials. These improved realizations largely underpin the present (1979) definition of the candela. There is no consensus on whether this radiant-based definition fully satisfies the current and projected needs of the optical radiation community. There is also no consensus on whether a reformulation of the definition of the candela in terms of photon flux will be applicable to the lighting community. However, there have been significant recent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036210','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70036210"><span id="translatedtitle">Cassini SAR, <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, scatterometry and altimetry observations of Titan's dune fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Le, Gall A.; Janssen, M.A.; Wye, L.C.; Hayes, A.G.; Radebaugh, J.; Savage, C.; Zebker, H.; Lorenz, R.D.; Lunine, J.I.; Kirk, R.L.; Lopes, R.M.C.; Wall, S.; Callahan, P.; Stofan, E.R.; Farr, Tom</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Large expanses of linear dunes cover Titan's equatorial regions. As the Cassini mission continues, more dune fields are becoming unveiled and examined by the microwave radar in all its modes of operation (SAR, <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, scatterometry, altimetry) and with an increasing variety of observational geometries. In this paper, we report on Cassini's radar instrument observations of the dune fields mapped through May 2009 and present our key findings in terms of Titan's geology and climate. We estimate that dune fields cover ???12.5% of Titan's surface, which corresponds to an area of ???10millionkm2, roughly the area of the United States. If dune sand-sized particles are mainly composed of solid organics as suggested by VIMS observations (Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) and atmospheric modeling and supported by <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> data, dune fields are the largest known organic reservoir on Titan. Dune regions are, with the exception of the polar lakes and seas, the least reflective and most emissive features on this moon. Interestingly, we also find a latitudinal dependence in the dune field microwave properties: up to a latitude of ???11??, dune fields tend to become less emissive and brighter as one moves northward. Above ???11?? this trend is reversed. The microwave signatures of the dune regions are thought to be primarily controlled by the interdune proportion (relative to that of the dune), roughness and degree of sand cover. In agreement with <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and scatterometry observations, SAR images suggest that the fraction of interdunes increases northward up to a latitude of ???14??. In general, scattering from the subsurface (volume scattering and surface scattering from buried interfaces) makes interdunal regions brighter than the dunes. The observed latitudinal trend may therefore also be partially caused by a gradual thinning of the interdunal sand cover or surrounding sand sheets to the north, thus allowing wave penetration in the underlying</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16..786B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16..786B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Kelvin waves: a comparison study between <span class="hlt">SABER</span> and normal mode analysis of ECMWF data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blaauw, Marten; Garcia, Rolando; Zagar, Nedjeljka; Tribbia, Joe</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Equatorial Kelvin waves spectra are sensitive to the multi-scale variability of their source of tropical convective forcing. Moreover, Kelvin wave spectra are modified upward by changes in the background winds and stability. Recent high resolution data from observations as well as analyses are capable of resolving the slower Kelvin waves with shorter vertical wavelength near the tropical tropopause. In this presentation, results from a quantitive comparison study of stratospheric Kelvin waves in satellite data (<span class="hlt">SABER</span>) and analysis data from the ECMWF operational archive will be shown. Temperature data from <span class="hlt">SABER</span> is extracted over a six year period (2007-2012) with an effective vertical resolution of 2 km. Spectral power of stratospheric Kelvin waves in <span class="hlt">SABER</span> data is isolated by selecting symmetric and eastward spectral components in the 8-20 days range. Global data from ECMWF operational analysis is extracted for the same six years on 91 model levels (top level at 0.01 hPa) and 25 km horizontal resolution. Using three-dimensional orthogonal normal-mode expansions, the input mass and wind data from ECMWF is projected onto balanced rotational modes and unbalanced inertia-gravity modes, including spectral data for pure Kelvin waves. The results show good agreement between Kelvin waves in <span class="hlt">SABER</span> and ECMWF analyses data for: (i) the frequency shift of Kelvin wave variance with height and (ii) vertical wavelengths. Variability with respect to QBO will also be discussed. In a previous study, discrepancies in the upper stratosphere were found to be 60% and are found here to be 10% (8-20 day averaged value), which can be explained by the better stratosphere representation in the 91 model level version of the ECMWF operational model. New discrepancies in Kelvin wave variance are found in the lower stratosphere at 20 km. Averaged spectral power over the 8-20 day range is found to be 35% higher in ECMWF compared to <span class="hlt">SABER</span> data. We compared results at 20 km with additional</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21251961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21251961"><span id="translatedtitle">Opto-Thermal Transient Emission <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (OTTER) to image diffusion in nails in vivo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiao, P; Zheng, X; Imhof, R E; Hirata, K; McAuley, W J; Mateus, R; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E</p> <p>2011-03-15</p> <p>This work describes the first application of Opto-Thermal Transient Emission <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (OTTER), an infrared remote sensing technique, to probe the extent to which solvents permeate the human nail in vivo. Decanol, glycerol and butyl acetate were selected as model solvents. After application of the solvents, individually, to human volunteers, OTTER was used to depth profile the solvents. The permeation rate of the solvents was ranked as glycerol>decanol>butyl acetate. It is possible that some of the butyl acetate may have evaporated during the experiment. The ability of decanol to extract lipids from biological tissue is also considered. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of OTTER as a tool to identify optimal excipients with which to target drugs to the nail. PMID:21251961</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJT....33.1814G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJT....33.1814G"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-invasive Glucose Measurements Using Wavelength Modulated Differential Photothermal <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (WM-DPTR)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, X.; Mandelis, A.; Zinman, B.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Wavelength-modulated differential laser photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (WM-DPTR) is introduced for potential development of clinically viable non-invasive glucose biosensors. WM-DPTR features unprecedented glucose-specificity and sensitivity by combining laser excitation by two out-of-phase modulated beams at wavelengths near the peak and the baseline of a prominent and isolated mid-IR glucose absorption band. Measurements on water-glucose phantoms (0 to 300 mg/dl glucose concentration) demonstrate high sensitivity to meet wide clinical detection requirements ranging from hypoglycemia to hyperglycemia. The measurement results have been validated by simulations based on fully developed WM-DPTR theory. For sensitive and accurate glucose measurements, the key is the selection and tight control of the intensity ratio and the phase shift of the two laser beams.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9303E..07V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9303E..07V"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative characterization of traumatic bruises by combined pulsed photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vidovič, Luka; Milanič, Matija; Randeberg, Lise L.; Majaron, Boris</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>We apply diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and pulsed photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PPTR) for characterization of the bruise evolution process. While DRS provides information in a wide range of visible wavelengths, the PPTR enables extraction of detailed depth distribution and concentration profiles of selected absorbers (e.g. melanin, hemoglobin). In this study, we simulate experimental DRS spectra and PPTR signals using the Monte Carlo technique and focus on characterization of a suitable fitting approach for their analysis. We find inverse Monte Carlo to be superior to the diffusion approximation approach for the inverse analysis of DRS spectra. The analysis is then augmented with information obtainable by the fitting of the PPTR signal. We show that both techniques can be coupled in a combined fitting approach. The combining of two complementary techniques improves the robustness and accuracy of the inverse analysis, enabling a comprehensive quantitative characterization of the bruise evolution dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810010994&hterms=microwave+properties&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmicrowave%2Bproperties','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810010994&hterms=microwave+properties&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmicrowave%2Bproperties"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing of snow properties by passive microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>: GSFC truck experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chang, A. T. C.; Rango, A.; Shiue, J.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Recent results indicate that microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> has the potential for inferring the snow depth and water equivalent information from snowpacks. In order to assess this potential for determining the water equivalent of a snowpack, it is necessary to understand the microwave emission and scattering behavior of the snow at various wavelengths under carefully controlled conditions. Truck-mounted microwave instrumentation was used to study the microwave characteristics of the snowpack in the Colorado Rocky Mountain region during the winters of 1977 to 78 and 7978 to 79. The spectral signatures of C, X, K sub u, and K sub a band radiometers with dual polarization were used, together with measurements of snowpack density, temperature an ram profiles, liquid water content, and rough characterization of the crystal sizes. These data compared favorably with calculated results based on recent microscopic scattering models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3839164','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3839164"><span id="translatedtitle">Microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>: a new non-invasive method for the detection of vulnerable plaque</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Synetos, Andreas; Nikolaou, Charalampia; Stathogiannis, Konstantinos; Tsiamis, Eleftherios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Atherosclerosis and its consequences are the most rapidly growing vascular pathology, with myocardial infarction and ischemic cerebrovascular accident to remain a major cause of premature morbidity and death. In order to detect the morphological and functional characteristics of the vulnerable plaques, new imaging modalities have been developed. Intravascular thermography (IVT) is an invasive method, which provides information on the identification of the high-risk atheromatic plaques in coronary arteries. However, the invasive character of IVT excludes the method from primary prevention. Microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (MR) is a new non-invasive method, which detects with high accuracy relative changes of temperature in human tissues whereas this thermal heterogeneity is indicative of inflammatory atherosclerotic plaque. Both experimental and clinical studies have proved the effectiveness of MR in detecting vulnerable plaque whereas recent studies have also revealed its association with plaque neoangiogenesis as assessed by contrast enhanced carotid ultrasound (CEUS). PMID:24282729</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060043999&hterms=image+processing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dimage%2Bprocessing','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060043999&hterms=image+processing&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dimage%2Bprocessing"><span id="translatedtitle">Capturing a failure of an ASIC in-situ, using infrared <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and image processing software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ruiz, Ronald P.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Failures in electronic devices can sometimes be tricky to locate-especially if they are buried inside radiation-shielded containers designed to work in outer space. Such was the case with a malfunctioning ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) that was drawing excessive power at a specific temperature during temperature cycle testing. To analyze the failure, infrared <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (thermography) was used in combination with image processing software to locate precisely where the power was being dissipated at the moment the failure took place. The IR imaging software was used to make the image of the target and background, appear as unity. As testing proceeded and the failure mode was reached, temperature changes revealed the precise location of the fault. The results gave the design engineers the information they needed to fix the problem. This paper describes the techniques and equipment used to accomplish this failure analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21251961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21251961"><span id="translatedtitle">Opto-Thermal Transient Emission <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (OTTER) to image diffusion in nails in vivo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiao, P; Zheng, X; Imhof, R E; Hirata, K; McAuley, W J; Mateus, R; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E</p> <p>2011-03-15</p> <p>This work describes the first application of Opto-Thermal Transient Emission <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (OTTER), an infrared remote sensing technique, to probe the extent to which solvents permeate the human nail in vivo. Decanol, glycerol and butyl acetate were selected as model solvents. After application of the solvents, individually, to human volunteers, OTTER was used to depth profile the solvents. The permeation rate of the solvents was ranked as glycerol>decanol>butyl acetate. It is possible that some of the butyl acetate may have evaporated during the experiment. The ability of decanol to extract lipids from biological tissue is also considered. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of OTTER as a tool to identify optimal excipients with which to target drugs to the nail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985InfPh..25..305T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985InfPh..25..305T"><span id="translatedtitle">Pulsed photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for noncontact spectroscopy, material testing and inspection measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tam, A. C.</p> <p>1985-02-01</p> <p>Photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PTR) is a sensitive technique for noncontact spectroscopy and inspection. Its principle is the following: a modulated beam of photons (or other particles) produces temperature transients in a sample; the corresponding transients in the IR thermal radiation emitted from the sample are analyzed. This can provide absolute absorption coefficients, as well as information on thermal diffusivity, layered structure and dimensions. Variations of PTR are possible with continuously-modulated or pulsed excitation, and with transmission or back-scattering detection. These variations are reviewed. The recent technique of pulsed PTR with back-scattering detection is described in more detail, and some important single-ended remote-sensing applications are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6078...94J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6078...94J"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization and evaluation of a handheld AC-coupled pulsed photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Byungjo; Kim, Chang-Seok; Choi, Bernard; Nelson, J. Stuart</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>In laser therapy of port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks, measurement of maximum temperature rise is important to determine the maximum permissible light dose for PWS laser therapy. To measure maximum temperature rise on arbitrary PWS skin site, we developed a handheld pulsed photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PPTR) system, which overcomes in vivo measurement limitations of bench-top PPTR systems. The developed PPTR system consists of an IR lens, an AC-coupled thermoelectrically cooled IR detector, a laser handpiece holder, and a fixed distance measurement port. With system characterization, experimental results were in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Preliminary results for maximum temperature rise demonstrate the feasibility of the PPTR system for PWS skin characterization in the clinic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAP...110c3516S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAP...110c3516S"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous measurement of thermal diffusivity and optical absorption coefficient using photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>. II Multilayered solids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salazar, Agustín; Fuente, Raquel; Apiñaniz, Estibaliz; Mendioroz, Arantza; Celorrio, R.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The aim of this work is to analyze the ability of modulated photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> to retrieve the thermal diffusivity and the optical absorption coefficient of layered materials simultaneously. First, we extend the thermal quadrupole method to calculate the surface temperature of semitransparent multilayered materials. Then, this matrix method is used to evaluate the influence of heat losses by convection and radiation, the influence of the use of thin paint layers on the accuracy of thermal diffusivity measurements, and the effect of lateral heat diffusion due to the use of Gaussian laser beams. Finally, we apply the quadrupole method to retrieve (a) the thermal contact resistance in glass stacks and (b) the thermal diffusivity and optical absorption coefficient depth profiles in heterogeneous materials with continuously varying physical properties, as is the case of functionally graded materials and partially cured dental resins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010022251&hterms=definition+right+view&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddefinition%2Bright%2Bview','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010022251&hterms=definition+right+view&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Ddefinition%2Bright%2Bview"><span id="translatedtitle">Proposed Definitions of Some Technical Terms Frequently Used in Microwave <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> for Remote Sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shiue, James C.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The use of microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for remote sensing is a relatively young field. As a result, there are no standard definitions of many frequently used technical terms; a lot of which are conventional usages carried-over from optical remote sensing, and a lot more are shared with electrical or microwave engineering. Sometimes the divergent notions and assumptions originating from a different field may cause ambiguity or confusions. It is proposed that we establish a list of frequently used terms, together with their 'standard' definitions and hope that they will gradually gain general acceptance by the remote sensing community. It would be even more useful if the IEEE community can set up a standard committee of sort to develop and maintain the standards. To minimize the effort, the existing terms should be kept or reinterpreted as much as possible. For example, the term 'Instantaneous Field of View' (IFOV), originally coming from the optical remote sensing field, is now appearing in microwave remote sensing literature frequently. The IFOV refers to the 'beam width' or the 'diameter' of the beam's geometrical projection on earth surface. Since the definition of 'beam width' is different for an optical system versus a microwave antenna, the use of IFOV in microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> needed to be clarified. Also, the meaning of the IFOV will be different depending upon whether the beam is scanning or not, and how the scanning takes place, e.g. 'continuous scanning' vs 'stare-and-step scan.' From this one term alone, it is clear that more subtle meanings must be spell out in detail and a 'standard' definition would help in understanding and comparing systems and data in the literature. A selected list of terms with their suggested definitions will be discussed in this presentation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=50214','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=50214"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular phylogenetic inference from <span class="hlt">saber</span>-toothed cat fossils of Rancho La Brea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Janczewski, D N; Yuhki, N; Gilbert, D A; Jefferson, G T; O'Brien, S J</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A method for the successful extraction of sequestered cellular DNA from 14,000-year-old fossil bones was developed and applied to asphalt-preserved specimens of the extinct <span class="hlt">saber</span>-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis. Two distinct gene segments, the mitochondrial gene for 12S rRNA and nuclear FLA-I (the feline class I major histocompatibility complex gene), from three different individual fossil specimens were cloned and sequenced after PCR amplification. Comparison of fossil-derived DNA sequences to homologous regions in 15 living carnivorous species, including 9 species of Felidae and 6 nonfelids, affirmed the phylogenetic placement of Smilodon within the modern radiation of Felidae distinct from the Miocene paleofelid (Nimravidae) <span class="hlt">saber</span>-toothed "cat" species. These results raise the prospect of obtaining genetically informative DNA from preserved bones of extinct fossil species, particularly among the 2 million specimens excavated from the asphaltic sediments at Rancho La Brea in metropolitan Los Angeles. PMID:1409696</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080044890&hterms=equinox&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dequinox','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080044890&hterms=equinox&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dequinox"><span id="translatedtitle">Intra-seasonal Oscillations Inferred from <span class="hlt">SABER</span> (TIMED) and MLS (UARS) Temperature Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huang, F. T.; Mayr, H. G.; Russell, J.; Mlynczak, M.; Reber, C. A.; Mengel, J. G.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In the zonal mean meridional winds of the upper mesosphere, intra-seasonal oscillations with periods between 1 and 4 months have been inferred from UARS measurements and independently predicted with the Numerical Spectral Model WSM). The wind oscillations tend to be confined to low latitudes and appear to be driven, at least in part, by small-scale gravity waves propagating in the meridional direction. Winds across the equator should generate, due to dynamical heating and cooling, temperature oscillations with opposite phase in the two hemispheres. Investigating this phenomenon, we have analyzed <span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperatures from TIMED in the altitude range between 55 and 95 km to delineate with an empirical model, the year-long variability of the migrating tides and zonal mean components. The inferred seasonal variations of the diurnal tide, characterized by amplitude maxima near equinox, are in substantial agreement with UARS observations and results from the NSM. For the zonal mean, the dominant seasonal variations in the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperatures, with annual (12 months) and semiannual (6 months) periodicities, agree well with those derived from UARS measurements. The intra-seasonal variations with periods between 2 and 4 months have amplitudes close to 2 K, almost half as large as those for the dominant seasonal variations. Their amplitudes are in qualitative agreement with the corresponding values inferred from UARS during different years. The <span class="hlt">SABER</span> and UARS temperature variations reveal pronounced hemispherical asymmetries, consistent with meridional wind oscillations across the equator. The phase of the semi-annual temperature oscillations from the NSM agrees with the observations from UARS and <span class="hlt">SABER</span>. But the amplitudes are systematically smaller, which may indicate that planetary waves are more important than is allowed for in the model. For the shorter-period intra-seasonal variations, which can be generated by gravity wave drag, the model results are generally in better</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3499..323C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3499..323C"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote detection and ecological monitoring of the industrial and natural nuclei activity of radioactive elements based on passive microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chistyakova, Liliya K.; Chistyakov, Vyacheslav Y.; Losev, Dmitry V.; Penin, Sergei T.; Tarabrin, Yurij K.; Yakubov, Vladimir P.; Yurjev, Igor A.</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>The passive remote method of microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and its instrumental realization for express diagnostics of radioactive elements in the atmosphere have been discussed. Analysis of the microwave radiation due to ionization and dissociation of atmospheric components interacting with radioactive elements is carried out. The photochemical processes resulting in background microwave radiation power have been discussed. As an example, the results of natural experiment of detecting the atomic hydrogen radiation in the plume of emissions of nuclear cycle processing plants have been presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Development+AND+atomic+AND+theory&pg=4&id=EJ242968','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Development+AND+atomic+AND+theory&pg=4&id=EJ242968"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Atom.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wilson, David B.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Surveys the research of scientists like Joule, Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann as it comments on the basic conceptual issues involved in the development of a more precise <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> theory and the idea of a <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> atom. (Author/SK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzyme+AND+inhibition&pg=2&id=EJ371028','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzyme+AND+inhibition&pg=2&id=EJ371028"><span id="translatedtitle">Enzyme <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moe, Owen; Cornelius, Richard</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Conveys an appreciation of enzyme <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> analysis by using a practical and intuitive approach. Discusses enzyme assays, <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> models and rate laws, the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> constants (V, velocity, and Km, Michaels constant), evaluation of V and Km from experimental data, and enzyme inhibition. (CW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8287B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8287B"><span id="translatedtitle">IAP RAS microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> complex: sounding atmospheric thermal structure from the ground up to 55km.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belikovich, Mikhail; Shvetsov, Alexander; Ryskin, Vitaly; Mukhin, Dmitry; Kulikov, Mikhail; Feigin, Alexander</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Thermal structure is the key characteristic of the atmosphere. Depending on the altitude, it is measured by different methods. In troposphere a plethora of in-situ techniques exists while in middle atmosphere remote sensing is primary type of measurement. The remote sensing is conducted in different wavelengths: optical, infrared and microwave. Satellite based measurements are the most popular kind of remote sensing measurements as it provides global coverage. Ground based passive microwave remote sensing technique has its place when one need permanent monitoring with high time resolution in order to study short-term local events like gravity waves. Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS) develops multi-purpose <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> complex for constant atmospheric monitoring. For now, it measures temperature profiles from ground to 55km, tropospheric water vapor and ozone. It consists of several radiometers with spectral bands ranging from 20 to 112 GHz. In 2015 two radiometers were added in order to measure thermal structure at surface level and troposphere: scanning device operating in 55-59GHz, and device at 50-55GHz. The change led to modifying the retrieval software. The work presents the description of the <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> complex and corresponding retrieval software. The main part is devoted to new radiometers and enhancements in retrieval procedure. The retrieval algorithms are described: for each device separately and for the whole temperature retrieval part of the complex. The use of the single procedure for the group of radiometers helps to merge the profile with each other correctly. The main issue of the single procedure (numerical complexity aside) is dealing with the possible difference in calibration of the devices. Error analysis of the procedures is conducted. The characteristics of the complex and the retrieval algorithms are presented. The capabilities of the algorithms are shown on simulated and real data; the last one was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..273...96B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..273...96B"><span id="translatedtitle">Lunar phase function at 1064 nm from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter passive and active <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barker, M. K.; Sun, X.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We present initial calibration and results of passive <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> collected by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter over the course of 12 months. After correcting for time- and temperature-dependent dark noise and detector responsivity variations, the LOLA passive <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> measurements are brought onto the absolute radiance scale of the SELENE Spectral Profiler. The resulting photometric precision is estimated to be ∼5%. We leverage the unique ability of LOLA to measure normal albedo to explore the 1064 nm phase function's dependence on various geologic parameters. On a global scale, we find that iron abundance and optical maturity (quantified by FeO and OMAT) are the dominant controlling parameters. Titanium abundance (TiO2), surface roughness on decimeter to decameter scales, and soil thermophysical properties have a smaller effect, but the latter two are correlated with OMAT, indicating that exposure age is the driving force behind their effects in a globally-averaged sense. The phase function also exhibits a dependence on surface slope at ∼300 m baselines, possibly the result of mass wasting exposing immature material and/or less space weathering due to reduced sky visibility. Modeling the photometric function in the Hapke framework, we find that, relative to the highlands, the maria exhibit decreased backscattering, a smaller opposition effect (OE) width, and a smaller OE amplitude. Immature highlands regolith has a higher backscattering fraction and a larger OE width compared to mature highlands regolith. Within the maria, the backscattering fraction and OE width show little dependence on TiO2 and OMAT. Variations in the phase function shape at large phase angles are observed in and around the Copernican-aged Jackson crater, including its dark halo, a putative impact melt deposit. Finally, the phase function of the Reiner Gamma Formation behaves more optically immature than is typical for its composition and OMAT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003585','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160003585"><span id="translatedtitle">Lunar Phase Function at 1064 Nm from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter Passive and Active <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barker, M. K.; Sun, X.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We present initial calibration and results of passive <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> collected by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter over the course of 12 months. After correcting for time- and temperature-dependent dark noise and detector responsivity variations, the LOLA passive <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> measurements are brought onto the absolute radiance scale of the SELENE Spectral Profiler. The resulting photometric precision is estimated to be 5%. We leverage the unique ability of LOLA to measure normal albedo to explore the 1064 nm phase function's dependence on various geologic parameters. On a global scale, we find that iron abundance and optical maturity (quantified by FeO and OMAT) are the dominant controlling parameters. Titanium abundance (TiO2), surface roughness on decimeter to decameter scales, and soil thermo- physical properties have a smaller effect, but the latter two are correlated with OMAT, indicating that exposure age is the driving force behind their effects in a globally-averaged sense. The phase function also exhibits a dependence on surface slope at approximately 300 m baselines, possibly the result of mass wasting exposing immature material and/or less space weathering due to reduced sky visibility. Modeling the photometric function in the Hapke framework, we find that, relative to the highlands, the maria exhibit decreased backscattering, a smaller opposition effect (OE) width, and a smaller OE amplitude. Immature highlands regolith has a higher backscattering fraction and a larger OE width compared to mature highlands regolith. Within the maria, the backscattering fraction and OE width show little dependence on TiO2 and OMAT. Variations in the phase function shape at large phase angles are observed in and around the Copernican-aged Jackson crater, including its dark halo, a putative impact melt deposit. Finally, the phase function of the Reiner Gamma Formation behaves more optically immature than is typical for its composition</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMSA41B2346C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMSA41B2346C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Responses of Gravity Waves to Planetary Wave Variations during Stratospheric Sudden Warming Observed by <span class="hlt">SABER</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cullens, C. Y.; England, S.; Immel, T. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This study describes the global responses of observed gravity waves (GWs) to winter planetary wave (PW) variations during stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) using TIMED-<span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperature measurements. GWs affect the ionosphere and thermosphere, and it is important to understand global variations of GWs from the lower atmosphere to the thermosphere during SSWs in order to advance our understanding of vertical coupling. The responses of GWs to SSWs are shown by calculating correlations between vertical components of Eliassen-Palm (EP) fluxes in the winter polar stratosphere and global GW temperature amplitudes derived from <span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations. Consistent with previous ground-based and satellite observations, winter EP fluxes show positive correlations with GWs in the winter hemisphere. More interestingly, winter stratospheric EP fluxes are positively correlated with GWs in the tropics and in the summer mesosphere, indicating global variations of GWs in response to PW variations in the winter hemisphere. To study the mechanism of GW response to SSWs, global wind simulations from SD-WACCM are used. Zonal wind anomalies (differences in the wind before and during SSWs) extend from the winter stratosphere to the summer mesosphere. By comparing anomalies in background winds to the observed patterns in the correlations between GWs and winter EP fluxes, we find that regions of positive correlation follow change in background winds and zero-wind lines. The results indicate that responses of <span class="hlt">SABER</span> GWs in the summer hemisphere to winter PW variations during SSWs are likely caused by changes in GW propagation due to the changes in atmospheric circulation. These observed changes in global GWs during SSWs can affect the ionosphere and thermosphere, and studying global GW variation during SSWs is important for understanding mechanisms of vertical coupling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993OptEn..32..216S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993OptEn..32..216S"><span id="translatedtitle">Silver halide fiber optic <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for temperature monitoring and control of tissues heated by microwave</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shenfeld, Ofer; Belotserkovsky, Edward; Goldwasser, Benad; Zur, Albert; Katzir, Abraham</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>The heating of tissue by microwave radiation has attained a place of importance in various medical fields, such as the treatment of malignancies, urinary retention, and hypothermia. Accurate temperature measurements in these treated tissues is important for treatment planning and for the control of the heating process. It is also important to be able to measure spacial temperature distribution in the tissues because they are heated in a nonuniform way by the microwave radiation. Conventional temperature sensors used today are inaccurate in the presence of microwave radiation and require contact with the heated tissue. Fiber optic <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> makes it possible to measure temperatures accurately in the presence of microwave radiation and does not require contact with the tissue. Accurate temperature measurements of tissues heated by microwave was obtained using a silver halide optic radiometer, enabling control of the heating process in other regions of the tissue samples. Temperature mappings of the heated tissues were performed and the nonuniform temperature distributions in these tissues was demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C33C0820M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C33C0820M"><span id="translatedtitle">Snow Pack and Lake Ice Pack Remote Sensing using Wideband Autocorrelation <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mousavi, S.; De Roo, R. D.; Sarabandi, K.; England, A. W.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A novel microwave radiometric technique, wideband autocorrelation <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (WiBAR), offers a deterministic method of remotely sensing the propagation time τdelay of microwaves through low loss layers at the bottom of the atmosphere. Terrestrial examples are the snow and lake ice packs. This technique is based on the Planck radiation from the surface beneath the pack which travels upwards through the pack towards the radiometer; such a signal we call a direct signal. On the other hand, part of this radiation reflects back from the pack's upper interface then from its lower interface, before traveling towards the radiometer's antenna. Thus, there are two signals received by the radiometer, the direct signal and a delayed copy of it. The microwave propagation time τdelay through the pack yields a measure of its vertical extent. We report a time series of measurements of the ice pack on Lake Superior from February to April 2014 to demonstrate this technique. The observations are done at frequencies from 7 to 10 GHz. At these frequencies, the volume and surface scattering are small in the ice pack. This technique is inherently low-power since there is no transmitter as opposed to active remote sensing techniques. The results of this paper is to present the WiBAR technique and show that the microwave travel time within a dry snow pack and lake ice pack can be deterministically measured for different thicknesses using this technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880010471','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880010471"><span id="translatedtitle">Mesoscale monitoring of the soil freeze/thaw boundary from orbital microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Dobson, M. Craig; Kuhn, William R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The fundamental objectives are to test the feasibility of delineating the lateral boundary between frozen and thawed condition in the surface layer of soil from orbital microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and secondly to examine the sensitivity of general circulation models to an explicit parameterization of the boundary condition. Physical models were developed to relate emissivity to scene properties and a simulation package was developed to predict brightness temperature as a function of emissivity and physical temperature in order to address issues of heterogeneity, scaling, and scene dynamics. Radiative transfer models were develped for both bare soil surfaces and those obscured by an intervening layer of vegetation or snow. These models relate the emissivity to the physical properties of the soil and to those of the snow or vegetation cover. A SMMR simulation package was developed to evaluate the adequacy of the emission models and the limiting effects of scaling for realistic scenarios incorporating spatially heterogeneous scenes with dynamic moisture and temperature gradients at the pixel scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJT....36.1037M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJT....36.1037M"><span id="translatedtitle">UV Laser Photocarrier <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> of c-Silicon with Surface Thin Hydrogenated Amorphous Si Film</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melnikov, A.; Mandelis, A.; Halliop, B.; Kherani, N. P.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PCR) with 355 nm laser excitation was used for the study of c-Si covered with intrinsic thin hydrogenated amorphous Si (i-a-Si:H) on one, or both, sides, with thicknesses ranging from 10 nm to 90 nm. Short wavelength excitation allows one to resolve the contribution of the upper i-a-S layer to the PCR signal due to the very small absorption depth (tens of nm) of the excitation beam. As a result, fundamental transport parameters of the composite structure can be evaluated from the PCR frequency dependence. A theoretical model has been developed to describe the diffuse carrier density wave (CDW) in this two-layer system. The model of the one-dimensional CDW fields for composite electronic solids involves front, interface, and back surface recombination velocities, the diffusion coefficient, recombination lifetimes in the upper and lower layers, and the unoccupied trap density at the interface. Simulations of the transport parameter influence on the PCR signal were performed, and the theoretical model was able to describe the experimental data accurately, therefore, making it possible to evaluate the transport parameters of i-a-Si:H and c-Si as well as to elucidate the role of interface electronic traps in the PCR frequency dependence under short wavelength excitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhCS.214a2023J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhCS.214a2023J"><span id="translatedtitle">Dental diagnostic clinical instrument ("Canary") development using photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and modulated luminescence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jeon, R. J.; Sivagurunathan, K.; Garcia, J.; Matvienko, A.; Mandelis, A.; Abrams, S.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Since 1999, our group at the CADIFT, University of Toronto, has developed the application of Frequency Domain Photothermal <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (PTR) and Luminescence (LUM) to dental caries detection. Various cases including artificial caries detection have been studied and some of the inherent advantages of the adaptation of this technique to dental diagnostics in conjunction with modulated luminescence as a dual-probe technique have been reported. Based on these studies, a portable, compact diagnostic instrument for dental clinic use has been designed, assembled and tested. A semiconductor laser, optical fibers, a thermoelectric cooled mid-IR detector, and a USB connected data acquisition card were used. Software lock-in amplifier techniques were developed to compute amplitude and phase of PTR and LUM signals. In order to achieve fast measurement and acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for clinical application, swept sine waveforms were used. As a result sampling and stabilization time for each measurement point was reduced to a few seconds. A sophisticated software interface was designed to simultaneously record intra-oral camera images with PTR and LUM responses. Preliminary results using this instrument during clinical trials in a dental clinic showed this instrument could detect early caries both from PTR and LUM signals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003RScI...74..529S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003RScI...74..529S"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectroscopic photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> as a deep subsurface depth profilometric technique in semiconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shaughnessy, D.; Mandelis, A.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The theoretical and experimental aspects of spectroscopic photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PTR) of semiconductors are presented and the potential of the technique for depth profilometry is established. A three-dimensional model of the PTR signal from a semiconductor excited by light of arbitrary optical penetration depth is presented. Numerical simulations of the PTR response to the electronic transport parameters and the optical penetration depth of the excitation source are presented. Intensity-modulated frequency scans and two-dimensional surface scans at fixed frequencies have been performed at several different absorption depths on a Si wafer with various degrees of mechanical damage introduced to either the front or the back surface. The electronic transport parameters obtained from fitting the frequency scans to the theoretical model and analysis of the experimental curves show that while the surface recombination velocities extracted from the fits do not vary significantly with excitation wavelength, the carrier recombination lifetime and the overall sensitivity of the photothermal radiometric signal to spatially localized damage is strongly influenced by the proximity of the injected excess carrier density centroid to the defect location. This correlation between the sensitivity of the PTR signal to a localized defect and the proximity of the injected carriers to the defect demonstrates the potential for spectroscopic PTR as a depth profilometric technique for semiconductors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JAP....95.7832L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JAP....95.7832L"><span id="translatedtitle">Three-layer photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> model of ion-implanted silicon wafers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Bincheng; Shaughnessy, Derrick; Mandelis, Andreas; Batista, Jerias; Garcia, Jose</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>A three-dimensional three-layer model is presented for the quantitative understanding of the infrared photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PCR) response of ion-implanted semiconductors, specifically Si. In addition to the implanted layer and intact substrate normally assumed in all existing two-layer theoretical models to describe the photothermal response of ion-implanted semiconductors, a surface layer is considered in this three-layer model to represent a thin, less severally damaged region close to the surface. The effects on the PCR signal of several structural, transport, and optical properties of ion-implanted silicon wafers affected significantly by the ion implantation process (minority carrier lifetime, diffusion coefficient, optical absorption coefficient, thickness of the implanted layer, and front surface recombination velocity) are discussed. The dependence of the PCR signal on the ion implantation dose is theoretically calculated and compared to experimental results. Good agreement between experimental data and theoretical calculations is obtained. Both theoretical and experimental results show the PCR dependence on dose can be separated into four regions with the transition across each region defined by the implantation-induced electrical and optical degrees of damage, respectively, as the electrical and optical damage occurs at different dose ranges. It is also shown that the PCR amplitude decreases monotonically with increasing implantation dose. This monotonic dependence provides the potential of the PCR technique for industrial applications in semiconductor metrology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910048688&hterms=geodesy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dgeodesy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910048688&hterms=geodesy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dgeodesy"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodesy by radio interferometry - Water vapor <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for estimation of the wet delay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Elgered, G.; Davis, J. L.; Herring, T. A.; Shapiro, I. I.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>An important source of error in VLBI estimates of baseline length is unmodeled variations of the refractivity of the neutral atmosphere along the propagation path of the radio signals. This paper presents and discusses the method of using data from a water vapor radiomete (WVR) to correct for the propagation delay caused by atmospheric water vapor, the major cause of these variations. Data from different WVRs are compared with estimated propagation delays obtained by Kalman filtering of the VLBI data themselves. The consequences of using either WVR data or Kalman filtering to correct for atmospheric propagation delay at the Onsala VLBI site are investigated by studying the repeatability of estimated baseline lengths from Onsala to several other sites. The repeatability obtained for baseline length estimates shows that the methods of water vapor <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and Kalman filtering offer comparable accuracies when applied to VLBI observations obtained in the climate of the Swedish west coast. For the most frequently measured baseline in this study, the use of WVR data yielded a 13 percent smaller weighted-root-mean-square (WRMS) scatter of the baseline length estimates compared to the use of a Kalman filter. It is also clear that the 'best' minimum elevationi angle for VLBI observations depends on the accuracy of the determinations of the total propagation delay to be used, since the error in this delay increases with increasing air mass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MeScT..21a5403K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MeScT..21a5403K"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring the thermal conductivity of liquids using photo-thermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kusiak, A.; Pradere, Ch; Battaglia, J. L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A method for the estimation of thermal conductivity of liquids is proposed. The measurement is based on the front face-modulated photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> usually used for studies of solid deposit (thin film) on substrate systems. The system considered here is in the three-layer form, the intermediate layer being the investigated liquid. An experimental setup has been developed in order to avoid the drawbacks of the classical methods such as flash or hot wire measurement. The measurement is carried out with low-temperature oscillations, and the studied liquid is confined in a specific (low thickness) container. This configuration leads to very low Rayleigh number and permits us to eliminate the convection phenomenon during the experiment and to characterize a very small (~1 µl) volume of liquid. This is an important feature for metrology of expensive or hazardous samples. According to the knowledge of the thermophysical properties of two solid layers external to a liquid, the phase lag between the thermal perturbation and the response of the sample is used as the experimental data. The measurement was validated using two well-known liquids: water and sunflower oil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040013188','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040013188"><span id="translatedtitle">Tower-Perturbation Measurements in Above-Water <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span>. Volume 23</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francois; D'Alimonte, Davide; vanderLinde, Dirk; Brown, James W.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>This report documents the scientific activities which took place during June 2001 and June 2002 on the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea. The primary objective of these field campaigns was to quantify the effect of platform perturbations (principally reflections of sunlight onto the sea surface) on above-water measurements of water-leaving radiances. The deployment goals documented in this report were to: a) collect an extensive and simultaneous set of above- and in-water optical measurements under predominantly clear-sky conditions; b) establish the vertical properties of the water column using a variety of ancillary measurements, many of which were taken coincidently with the optical measurements; and c) determine the bulk properties of the environment using a diversity of atmospheric, biogeochemical, and meteorological techniques. A preliminary assessment of the data collected during the two field campaigns shows the perturbation in above-water <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> caused by a large offshore structure is very similar to that caused by a large research vessel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150007344&hterms=solar+energy+growth&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Benergy%2Bgrowth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150007344&hterms=solar+energy+growth&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Benergy%2Bgrowth"><span id="translatedtitle">A Bottom-Up Engineered Broadband Optical Nanoabsorber for <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> and Energy Harnessing Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kaul, Anupama B.; Coles, James B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Optical absorbers based on vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), synthesized using electric-field assisted growth, are described here that show an ultra-low reflectance, 100X lower compared to Au-black from wavelength lamba approximately 350 nm - 2.5 micron. A bi-metallic Co/Ti layer was shown to catalyze a high site density of MWCNTs on metallic substrates and the optical properties of the absorbers were engineered by controlling the bottom-up synthesis conditions using dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Reflectance measurements on the MWCNT absorbers after heating them in air to 400deg showed negligible changes in reflectance which was still low, approximately 0.022 % at lamba approximately 2 micron. In contrast, the percolated structure of the reference Au-black samples collapsed completely after heating, causing the optical response to degrade at temperatures as low as 200deg. The high optical absorption efficiency of the MWCNT absorbers, synthesized on metallic substrates, over a broad spectral range, coupled with their thermal ruggedness, suggests they have promise in solar energy harnessing applications, as well as thermal detectors for <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24880399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24880399"><span id="translatedtitle">New contactless method for thermal diffusivity measurements using modulated photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pham Tu Quoc, S; Cheymol, G; Semerok, A</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Modulated photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> is a non-destructive and contactless technique for the characterization of materials. It has two major advantages: a good signal-to-noise ratio through a synchronous detection and a low dependence on the heating power and the optical properties of the sample surface. This paper presents a new method for characterizing the thermal diffusivity of a material when the phase shift between a modulated laser power signal and the thermal signal of a plate sample is known at different frequencies. The method is based on a three-dimensional analytical model which is used to determine the temperature amplitude and the phase in the laser heating of the plate. A new simple formula was developed through multi-parametric analysis to determine the thermal diffusivity of the plate with knowledge of the frequency at the minimum phase shift, the laser beam radius r0 and the sample thickness L. This method was developed to control the variation of the thermal diffusivity of nuclear components and it was first applied to determine the thermal diffusivity of different metals: 304 L stainless steel, nickel, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, zinc, and iron. The experimental results were obtained with 5%-10% accuracy and corresponded well with the reference values. The present paper also demonstrates the limit of application of this method for plate with thickness r0/100 ≤ L ≤ r0/2. The technique is deemed interesting for the characterization of barely accessible components that require a contactless measurement. PMID:24880399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392328','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392328"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical layer development for thin films thermal conductivity measurement by pulsed photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martan, J.</p> <p>2015-01-15</p> <p>Measurement of thermal conductivity and volumetric specific heat of optically transparent thin films presents a challenge for optical-based measurement methods like pulsed photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>. We present two approaches: (i) addition of an opaque optical layer to the surface and (ii) approximate correction of the mathematical model to incorporate semitransparency of the film. Different single layer and multilayer additive optical layers were tested. The materials of the optical layers were chosen according to analysis and measurement of their optical properties: emissivity and absorption coefficient. Presented are thermal properties’ measurement results for 6 different thin films with wide range of thermal conductivity in three configurations of surface: as deposited, added Ti layer, and added Ti/TiAlSiN layer. Measurements were done in dependence on temperature from room temperature to 500 °C. The obtained thermal effusivity evolution in time after the laser pulse shows different effects of the surface layers: apparent effusivity change and time delay. Suitability of different measurement configurations is discussed and results of high temperature testing of different optical layers are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17676117','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17676117"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Franz, Bryan A; Bailey, Sean W; Werdell, P Jeremy; McClain, Charles R</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>The retrieval of ocean color <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> from space-based sensors requires on-orbit vicarious calibration to achieve the level of accuracy desired for quantitative oceanographic applications. The approach developed by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) adjusts the integrated instrument and atmospheric correction system to retrieve normalized water-leaving radiances that are in agreement with ground truth measurements. The method is independent of the satellite sensor or the source of the ground truth data, but it is specific to the atmospheric correction algorithm. The OBPG vicarious calibration approach is described in detail, and results are presented for the operational calibration of SeaWiFS using data from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) and observations of clear-water sites in the South Pacific and southern Indian Ocean. It is shown that the vicarious calibration allows SeaWiFS to reproduce the MOBY radiances and achieve good agreement with radiometric and chlorophyll a measurements from independent in situ sources. We also find that the derived vicarious gains show no significant temporal or geometric dependencies, and that the mission-average calibration reaches stability after approximately 20-40 high-quality calibration samples. Finally, we demonstrate that the performance of the vicariously calibrated retrieval system is relatively insensitive to the assumptions inherent in our approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880004375','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880004375"><span id="translatedtitle">AIS-2 <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and a comparison of methods for the recovery of ground reflectance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Conel, James E.; Green, Robert O.; Vane, Gregg; Bruegge, Carol J.; Alley, Ronald E.; Curtiss, Brian J.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A field experiment and its results involving Airborne Imaging Spectrometer-2 data are described. The <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and spectral calibration of the instrument are critically examined in light of laboratory and field measurements. Three methods of compensating for the atmosphere in the search for ground reflectance are compared. It was found that laboratory determined responsitivities are 30 to 50 percent less than expected for conditions of the flight for both short and long wavelength observations. The combined system atmosphere surface signal to noise ratio, as indexed by the mean response divided by the standard deviation for selected areas, lies between 40 and 110, depending upon how scene averages are taken, and is 30 percent less for flight conditions than for laboratory. Atmospheric and surface variations may contribute to this difference. It is not possible to isolate instrument performance from the present data. As for methods of data reduction, the so-called scene average or log-residual method fails to recover any feature present in the surface reflectance, probably because of the extreme homogeneity of the scene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...114x4506M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...114x4506M"><span id="translatedtitle">Effective interface state effects in hydrogenated amorphous-crystalline silicon heterostructures using ultraviolet laser photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Melnikov, A.; Mandelis, A.; Halliop, B.; Kherani, N. P.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Ultraviolet photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (UV-PCR) was used for the characterization of thin-film (nanolayer) intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-a-Si:H) on c-Si. The small absorption depth (approximately 10 nm at 355 nm laser excitation) leads to strong influence of the nanolayer parameters on the propagation and recombination of the photocarrier density wave (CDW) within the layer and the substrate. A theoretical PCR model including the presence of effective interface carrier traps was developed and used to evaluate the transport parameters of the substrate c-Si as well as those of the i-a-Si:H nanolayer. Unlike conventional optoelectronic characterization methods such as photoconductance, photovoltage, and photoluminescence, UV-PCR can be applied to more complete quantitative characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells, including transport properties and defect structures. The quantitative results elucidate the strong effect of a front-surface passivating nanolayer on the transport properties of the entire structure as the result of effective a-Si:H/c-Si interface trap neutralization through occupation. A further dramatic improvement of those properties with the addition of a back-surface passivating nanolayer is observed and interpreted as the result of the interaction of the increased excess bulk CDW with, and more complete occupation and neutralization of, effective front interface traps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6680E..0IY','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6680E..0IY"><span id="translatedtitle">Results in coastal waters with high resolution in situ spectral <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>: The Marine Optical System ROV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yarbrough, Mark; Feinholz, Michael; Flora, Stephanie; Houlihan, Terrance; Johnson, B. Carol; Kim, Yong S.; Murphy, Marilyn Y.; Ondrusek, Michael; Clark, Dennis</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>The water-leaving spectral radiance is a basic ocean color remote sensing parameters required for the vicarious calibration. Determination of water-leaving spectral radiance using in-water <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> requires measurements of the upwelling spectral radiance at several depths. The Marine Optical System (MOS) Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) is a portable, fiber-coupled, high-resolution spectroradiometer system with spectral coverage from 340 nm to 960 nm. MOS was developed at the same time as the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) spectrometer system and is optically identical except that it is configured as a profiling instrument. Concerns with instrument self-shadowing because of the large exterior dimensions of the MOS underwater housing led to adapting MOS and ROV technology. This system provides for measurement of the near-surface upwelled spectral radiance while minimizing the effects of shadowing. A major advantage of this configuration is that the ROV provides the capability to acquire measurements 5 cm to 10 cm below the water surface and is capable of very accurate depth control (1 cm) allowing for high vertical resolution observations within the very near-surface. We describe the integrated system and its characterization and calibration. Initial measurements and results from observations of coral reefs in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, extremely turbid waters in the Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, and in Case 1 waters off Southern Oahu, Hawaii are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22267770','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22267770"><span id="translatedtitle">Effective interface state effects in hydrogenated amorphous-crystalline silicon heterostructures using ultraviolet laser photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Melnikov, A.; Mandelis, A.; Halliop, B.; Kherani, N. P.</p> <p>2013-12-28</p> <p>Ultraviolet photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (UV-PCR) was used for the characterization of thin-film (nanolayer) intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-a-Si:H) on c-Si. The small absorption depth (approximately 10 nm at 355 nm laser excitation) leads to strong influence of the nanolayer parameters on the propagation and recombination of the photocarrier density wave (CDW) within the layer and the substrate. A theoretical PCR model including the presence of effective interface carrier traps was developed and used to evaluate the transport parameters of the substrate c-Si as well as those of the i-a-Si:H nanolayer. Unlike conventional optoelectronic characterization methods such as photoconductance, photovoltage, and photoluminescence, UV-PCR can be applied to more complete quantitative characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells, including transport properties and defect structures. The quantitative results elucidate the strong effect of a front-surface passivating nanolayer on the transport properties of the entire structure as the result of effective a-Si:H/c-Si interface trap neutralization through occupation. A further dramatic improvement of those properties with the addition of a back-surface passivating nanolayer is observed and interpreted as the result of the interaction of the increased excess bulk CDW with, and more complete occupation and neutralization of, effective front interface traps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6856E..25K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6856E..25K"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-invasive detection of osteoporotic bone loss using photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and modulated luminescence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kwan, Chi-Hang; Matvienko, Anna; Mandelis, Andreas</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by a compromised bone strength predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture. The early detection of osteoporosis is important to a successful treatment. Current prominent bone densitometry techniques include, among others, Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and Mechanical Response Tissue Analysis (MRTA). However, DEXA uses ionizing radiation and MRTA results are often unreliable. Simultaneous Photothermal <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (PTR) and Modulated Luminescence (LUM) measurements can be a non-ionizing, noninvasive and reliable alternative to the aforementioned diagnostics techniques. Controlled mineral loss was simulated with sequential etching of a human skull bone. During the experiments, a low-power modulated laser illuminated the sample surface. The absorbed incident optical energy was then re-emitted either non-radiatively, in the form of thermal waves (PTR), or radiatively as lumimescence light emission (LUM). The experimental setup consisted of a semiconductor laser (635 nm, 20 mW), two lock-in amplifiers, a mercury-cadmium-telluride IR detector for PTR, a photodiode for LUM and a computer. A one-dimensional, one-layer theoretical model for LUM and PTR was developed to analyze the experimental data and extract optical and thermal properties of the sample.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080045453&hterms=equinox&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dequinox','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080045453&hterms=equinox&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dequinox"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">SABER</span> (TIMED) and MLS (UARS) Temperature Observations of Mesospheric and Stratospheric QBO and Related Tidal Variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans G.; Reber, Carl A.; Russell, James; Mlynczak, Marty; Mengel, John</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>More than three years of temperature observations from the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> (TIMED) and MLS WARS) instruments are analyzed to study the annual and inter-annual variations extending from the stratosphere into the upper mesosphere. The <span class="hlt">SABER</span> measurements provide data from a wide altitude range (15 to 95 km) for the years 2002 to 2004, while the MLS data were taken in the 16 to 55 km altitude range a decade earlier. Because of the sampling properties of <span class="hlt">SABER</span> and MLS, the variations with local solar time must be accounted for when estimating the zonal mean variations. An algorithm is thus applied that delineates with Fourier analysis the year-long variations of the migrating tides and zonal mean component. The amplitude of the diurnal tide near the equator shows a strong semiannual periodicity with maxima near equinox, which vary from year to year to indicate the influence from the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO) in the zonal circulation. The zonal mean QBO temperature variations are analyzed over a range of latitudes and altitudes, and the results are presented for latitudes from 48"s to 48"N. New results are obtained for the QBO, especially in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, and at mid-latitudes. At Equatorial latitudes, the QBO amplitudes show local peaks, albeit small, that occur at different altitudes. From about 20 to 40 km, and within about 15" of the Equator, the amplitudes can approach 3S K for the stratospheric QBO or SQBO. For the mesospheric QBO or MQBO, we find peaks near 70 km, with temperature amplitudes reaching 3.5"K, and near 85 km, the amplitudes approach 2.5OK. Morphologically, the amplitude and phase variations derived from the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> and MLS measurements are in qualitative agreement. The QBO amplitudes tend to peak at the Equator but then increase again pole-ward of about 15" to 20'. The phase progression with altitude varies more gradually at the Equator than at mid-latitudes. A comparison of the observations with results from the Numerical Spectral</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Metro..46.....I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Metro..46.....I"><span id="translatedtitle">EDITORIAL: The 10th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (NEWRAD 2008) The 10th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (NEWRAD 2008)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ikonen, Erkki</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>This special issue of Metrologia contains selected papers from the NEWRAD 2008 Conference, held in Daejeon, Korea, on 12-16 October 2008. NEWRAD 2008 continues a series of conferences on <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> entitled 'New Developments and Applications in Optical <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span>', which have taken place as follows: Cambridge, MA, USA (1985) Teddington, UK (1988) Davos, Switzerland (1990) Baltimore, MD, USA (1992) Berlin, Germany (1994) Tucson, AZ, USA (1997) Madrid, Spain (1999) Gaithersburg, MD, USA (2002) Davos, Switzerland (2005) Daejeon, Korea (2008) As the first NEWRAD Conference arranged in Asia, NEWRAD 2008 opened a new era for this series of conferences. The conference was followed by a Workshop on High Temperature Fixed Points and meetings of the Working Groups of the Consultative Committee for Photometry and <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (CCPR). The organizer of all these events was Dr In Won Lee of the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). The NEWRAD Scientific Committee thanks him and his team for their tremendous efforts which maintained and developed the high standards of previous NEWRAD Conferences. The specific themes of NEWRAD 2008 included optical measurements related to displays, energy and terahertz applications. Furthermore, half a day of sessions was devoted to both remote sensing and to few-photon sources and detectors. A total of 140 papers were presented, including 11 invited and 30 contributed talks. The conference proceedings containing two-page extended abstracts were distributed to the participants as a paper volume and on a USB memory stick. The authors of selected contributions were invited to submit a full paper for this special issue. The submitted papers were handled by the normal reviewing procedures of Metrologia. On behalf of the Scientific Committee, I thank the reviewers and editorial staff of Metrologia for careful processing of the manuscripts. It is evident that this special issue, like its predecessors, will serve as an important</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Metro..49.....I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Metro..49.....I"><span id="translatedtitle">FOREWORD: The 11th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (NEWRAD 2011) The 11th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (NEWRAD 2011)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ikonen, Erkki</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The NEWRAD Conferences bring together people from the National Metrology Institutes and the principal user communities of advanced <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, including Earth observation and climate communities. The eleventh NEWRAD Conference was held in Hawaii, USA, between 18 and 23 September 2011. The Conference was organized by the Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Maui, at the Grand Wailea resort. The organization was a joint Pacific effort, where handling of the submitted abstracts and website administration were taken care of by KRISS (Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science) and NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology), respectively. As satellite activities, the working groups of CCPR (Consultative Committee for Photometry and <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span>) and the MOBY project arranged meetings at the Grand Wailea before and after the Conference. The Conference was attended by more than a hundred registered participants from five continents, which matches the number of foreign participants of NEWRAD 2008 at KRISS. A total of 153 papers were presented at NEWRAD 2011, of which 10 were invited talks and 100 posters. The poster sessions during the extended lunch breaks created a stimulating atmosphere for lively discussions and exchange of ideas. A technical visit was arranged to the astronomical observatory at the summit of Haleakala volcano, where some of the world's most advanced telescope systems are operated. The relaxed Hawaiian life, nearby ocean and excellent weather conditions gave an unprecedented flavour to this NEWRAD Conference. The abstract classification system was renewed for NEWRAD 2011, consisting of the following categories: EAO: Earth observation SSR: Solar/stellar <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> SBR: Source-based <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> OPM: Optical properties of materials/components DBR: Detector-based <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> SFR: Single/few-photon <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>. The new system worked well for refereeing and program purposes. Conference proceedings containing two-page extended abstracts were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080015495','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080015495"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison between the Temperature Measurements by TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> and Lidar in the Mid-Latitude</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Jiyao; She, C. Y.; Yuan, Wei; Mertens, Chris; Mlynczak, Marty; Russell, James</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Comparisons of monthly-mean nighttime temperature profiles observed by the Sodium Lidar at Colorado State University and TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> over passes are made. In the altitude range from 85 km to about 100 km, the two observations are in excellent agreement. Though within each other s error bars, important differences occur below 85 km in the entire year and above 100 km in the summer season. Possible reasons for these difference are high photon noise below 85 km in lidar observations, and less than accurate assumptions in the concentration of important chemical species like oxygen (and its quenching rate) in the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> retrieval above 100 km. However, the two techniques both show the two-level mesopause thermal structure, with the times of change from one level to the other in excellent agreement. Comparison indicates that the high-level (winter) mesopause altitudes are also in excellent agreement between the two observations, though some difference may exist in the low-level (summer) mesopause altitudes between ground-based and satellite-borne data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PMB....53.3883A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PMB....53.3883A"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of a digital microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> system for noninvasive thermometry using a temperature-controlled homogeneous test load</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arunachalam, K.; Stauffer, P. R.; Maccarini, P. F.; Jacobsen, S.; Sterzer, F.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>Microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> has been proposed as a viable noninvasive thermometry approach for monitoring subsurface tissue temperatures and potentially controlling power levels of multielement heat applicators during clinical hyperthermia treatments. With the evolution of technology, several analog microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> devices have been developed for biomedical applications. In this paper, we describe a digital microwave radiometer with built-in electronics for signal processing and automatic self-calibration. The performance of the radiometer with an Archimedean spiral receive antenna is evaluated over a bandwidth of 3.7-4.2 GHz in homogeneous and layered water test loads. Controlled laboratory experiments over the range of 30-50 °C characterize measurement accuracy, stability, repeatability and penetration depth sensitivity. The ability to sense load temperature through an intervening water coupling bolus of 6 mm thickness is also investigated. To assess the clinical utility and sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), experiments are conducted inside standard clinical hyperthermia treatment rooms with no EM shielding. The digital radiometer provided repeatable measurements with 0.075 °C resolution and standard deviation of 0.217 °C for homogeneous and layered tissue loads at temperatures between 32-45 °C. Within the 3.7-4.2 GHz band, EM noise rejection was good other than some interference from overhead fluorescent lights in the same room as the radiometer. The system response obtained for ideal water loads suggests that this digital radiometer should be useful for estimating subcutaneous tissue temperatures under a 6 mm waterbolus used during clinical hyperthermia treatments. The accuracy and stability data obtained in water test loads of several configurations support our expectation that single band <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> should be sufficient for sub-surface temperature monitoring and power control of large multielement array superficial hyperthermia applicators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18591733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18591733"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of a digital microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> system for noninvasive thermometry using a temperature-controlled homogeneous test load.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arunachalam, K; Stauffer, P R; Maccarini, P F; Jacobsen, S; Sterzer, F</p> <p>2008-07-21</p> <p>Microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> has been proposed as a viable noninvasive thermometry approach for monitoring subsurface tissue temperatures and potentially controlling power levels of multielement heat applicators during clinical hyperthermia treatments. With the evolution of technology, several analog microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> devices have been developed for biomedical applications. In this paper, we describe a digital microwave radiometer with built-in electronics for signal processing and automatic self-calibration. The performance of the radiometer with an Archimedean spiral receive antenna is evaluated over a bandwidth of 3.7-4.2 GHz in homogeneous and layered water test loads. Controlled laboratory experiments over the range of 30-50 degrees C characterize measurement accuracy, stability, repeatability and penetration depth sensitivity. The ability to sense load temperature through an intervening water coupling bolus of 6 mm thickness is also investigated. To assess the clinical utility and sensitivity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), experiments are conducted inside standard clinical hyperthermia treatment rooms with no EM shielding. The digital radiometer provided repeatable measurements with 0.075 degrees C resolution and standard deviation of 0.217 degrees C for homogeneous and layered tissue loads at temperatures between 32-45 degrees C. Within the 3.7-4.2 GHz band, EM noise rejection was good other than some interference from overhead fluorescent lights in the same room as the radiometer. The system response obtained for ideal water loads suggests that this digital radiometer should be useful for estimating subcutaneous tissue temperatures under a 6 mm waterbolus used during clinical hyperthermia treatments. The accuracy and stability data obtained in water test loads of several configurations support our expectation that single band <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> should be sufficient for sub-surface temperature monitoring and power control of large multielement array superficial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ApPhB..79..793G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004ApPhB..79..793G"><span id="translatedtitle">Optothermal transient emission <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for studying the changes in epidermal hydration induced during ripening of tomato fruit mutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, X.; Bicanic, D.; Imhof, R.; Xiao, P.; Harbinson, J.</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>Optothermal transient emission <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (OTTER) was used to determine the mean surface hydration and the hydration profile of three mutants (beefsteak, slicing and salad) of harvested tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) that were kept under ambient conditions for as long as 51 days. Maximal sensitivity of OTTER to water in the samples was achieved by using 2.94 μm and 13.1 μm as excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. The surface hydration increases rapidly and reaches a constant level during the remaining period. The hydrolysis of pectic substances that occur in tomatoes while ripening might be a possible cause for the observed change in hydration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040037766&hterms=utility&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dutility','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040037766&hterms=utility&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dutility"><span id="translatedtitle">CoSSIR: A New Instrument for Exploring the Utility of Submillimeter-wave <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> for Earth Observation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Racette, P. E.; Wang, J. R.; Evans, K. F.; Momosmith, B.; Zhang, Z.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Conical Scanning Submillimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSSIR) has been developed to study the application of submillimeter-wave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for remote sensing of cirrus clouds and humidity sounding. Measurements of the global distribution of ice cloud mass and particle size are important for understanding the Earth s energy budget and for evaluating global climate models. The spatial variability and the wide variety of cloud particle shapes and sizes make ice clouds particularly difficult to measure. Ice clouds are essentially undetectable at microwave frequencies due to the low dielectric of ice and small size of the particles relative to wavelength. However, submillimeter wavelengths demonstrate significant response to the presence of ice clouds thus this frequency regime is applicable to measuring ice clouds. Another potentially viable application for submillimeter-wave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> is humidity and temperature sounding. The principle of sounding at submillimeter wavelengths is similar to that at microwavelengths. Submillimeter-wave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> has the advantage of achieving finer spatial resolution using a smaller antenna aperture which is an important consideration for spaceborne observatories. Submillimeter-wave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> also offers the potential of sounding over land and as a surrogate measurement for precipitation. CoSSIR is a new instrument to explore these applications. The CoSSIR is designed to fly aboard the ER-2 aircraft and its modest size (approximately 100 kg) permits it to be configured for other aircraft. A dual-axes gimbals mechanism provides conical, across-track, and along-track scanning capability. In its present configuration CoSSIR has fifteen channels between 183 GHz and 640 GHz. Three channels are centered about the 183 GHz water vapor absorption line, four channels are centered about the 380 GHz water vapor absorption line, and three dual-polarized channels are centered about the 487 GHz oxygen absorption line. Two channels are located</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5316602','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5316602"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodesy by radio interferometry: Water vapor <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for estimation of the wet delay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Elgered, G.; Davis, J.L.; Herring, T.A.; Shapiro, I.I. )</p> <p>1991-04-10</p> <p>An important source of error in very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) estimates of baseline length is unmodeled variations of the refractivity of the neutral atmosphere along the propagation path of the radio signals. The authors present and discuss the method of using data from a water vapor readiometer (WVR) to correct for the propagation delay caused by atmospheric water vapor, the major cause of these variations. Data from different WVRs are compared with estimated propagation delays obtained by Kalman filtering of the VLBI data themselves. The consequences of using either WVR data of Kalman filtering to correct for atmospheric propagation delay at the Onsala VLBI site are investigated by studying the repeatability of estimated baseline lengths from Onsala to several other sites. The lengths of the baselines range from 919 to 7,941 km. The repeatability obtained for baseline length estimates shows that the methods of water vapor <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and Kalman filtering offer comparable accuracies when applied to VLBI observations obtained in the climate of the Swedish west coast. The use of WVR data yielded a 13% smaller weighted-root-mean-square (WRMS) scatter of the baseline length estimates compared to the use of a Kalman filter. It is also clear that the best minimum elevation angle for VLBI observations depends on the accuracy of the determinations of the total propagation delay to be used, since the error in this delay increases with increasing air mass. For use of WVR data along with accurate determinations of total surface pressure, the best minimum is about 20{degrees}; for use of a model for the wet delay based on the humidity and temperature at the ground, the best minimum is about 35{degrees}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22254358','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22254358"><span id="translatedtitle">Passive monitoring using a combination of focused and phased array <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>: a simulation study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farantatos, Panagiotis; Karanasiou, Irene S; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Aim of this simulation study is to use the focusing properties of a conductive ellipsoidal reflector in conjunction with directive phased microwave antenna configurations in order to achieve brain passive monitoring with microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>. One of the main modules of the proposed setup which ensures the necessary beamforming and focusing on the body and brain areas of interest is a symmetrical axis ellipsoidal conductive wall cavity. The proposed system operates in an entirely non-invasive contactless manner providing temperature and/or conductivity variations monitoring and is designed to also provide hyperthermia treatment. In the present paper, the effect of the use of patch antennas as receiving antennas on the system's focusing properties and specifically the use of phased array setups to achieve scanning of the areas under measurement is investigated. Extensive simulations to compute the electric field distributions inside the whole ellipsoidal reflector and inside two types of human head models were carried out using single and two element microstrip patch antennas. The results show that clear focusing (creation of "hot spots") inside the head models is achieved at 1.53GHz. In the case of the two element antennas, the "hot spot" performs a linear scan around the brain area of interest while the phase difference of the two microstrip patch antennas significantly affects the way the scanning inside the head model is achieved. In the near future, phased array antennas with multiband and more elements will be used in order to enhance the system scanning properties toward the acquisition of tomography images without the need of subject movement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22332869','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22332869"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> protocol for UVGI fixtures using a moving-mirror type gonioradiometer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, John; Levin, Robert; Angelo, Robert; Vincent, Richard; Brickner, Philip; Ngai, Peter; Nardell, Edward A</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), 254 nm UV-C, is increasingly used as an infection control strategy to reduce the spread of airborne pathogens such as tuberculosis (TB), influenza viruses, and measles. With the appearance of multidrug-resistant TB and emerging infectious disease such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and H1N1 influenza viruses, engineering controls using 254 nm UV-C lamps within specialized luminaires, herein designated UVGI fixtures, are being installed in high-risk settings such as homeless shelters, hospitals, jails and prisons, and schools. Studies have established that a relatively uniform spatial distribution of UV-C in the upper room can effectively cleanse the air of aerosolized pathogens. However, for planning purposes, the placement of multiple UVGI fixtures in a space, to achieve uniformity of UV-C energy distribution using currently available lighting software, is not yet practical because no industry-wide standard method exists for radiometric measurement of commercial UVGI fixtures. In this article, standard methods for photometry and reporting of general fluorescent lighting luminaire photometric data are adopted to provide UVGI fixture spatial emission distribution data in an electronic file format. The ultimate expectation of the authors is that the results will lead to a software program for fixture placement, comparable to and as easy to use as the corresponding software used for general interior lighting applications. To accomplish this goal, a <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> measurement system is developed to obtain the radiant intensity distributions of UVGI fixtures in a three-dimensional space. This system includes a moving-mirror Type C goniometer, a mirror, a radiometer, a desktop computer, the mechanical control hardware, and the data acquisition/presentation software. Repeated measurements were made on each of three exemplary UVGI fixtures, and measurement variation did not exceed ± 2.0%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.V11F2563D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFM.V11F2563D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential of thermal infrared <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for remote sensing of volcanic ash clouds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dubuisson, P.; Minvielle, F.; Hebin, H.; Thieuleux, F.; Parol, F.; Pelon, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>This study reports on the optical and microphysical characterization of particles contained in volcanic ash clouds using thermal infrared <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>. Several works have shown the potential of the split window technique for estimating the effective particle size and optical thickness of semi-transparent clouds from two channels in the infrared atmospheric window (8 - 12 μm). In the present study, this approach is applied to the characterization of volcanic particles. The inversion algorithm is based on LUTs built with an accurate radiative transfer code, including gaseous absorption as well as multiple scattering and absorption by particles. Realistic spectral variations for optical properties of several types of volcanic particle (Ash, H2SO4 ...) and water or ice clouds have been calculated from refractive indices and Mie theory. In addition, this inversion procedure needs to define the altitude, temperature and thickness of the ash cloud. Consequently, meteorological data relative to the atmosphere and the state of ash cloud have been calculated using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This model allows giving a 3D dynamical transport of the ash plume and its vertical distribution. Ash sources and scenes area have been studied in detail with higher resolution using nested grid system of the model. In a first step, a sensitivity study based on radiative transfer calculations is presented in order to illustrate the potential of this approach. This technique is then applied to volcanic plumes in April-May 2010. Brightness temperatures from the MODIS spectroradiometer, the Infrared Imaging Radiometer (IIR) and the SEVIRI radiometer are used for some scenes acquired simultaneously over North / West of Europe with similar spectral or spatial resolutions. Spatial distribution of the retrieved optical thickness and effective size of particles are presented and analyzed. Comparisons between retrievals from IIR, MODIS and SEVIRI are presented. Contributions</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254880','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254880"><span id="translatedtitle">New contactless method for thermal diffusivity measurements using modulated photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pham Tu Quoc, S. Cheymol, G.; Semerok, A.</p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>Modulated photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> is a non-destructive and contactless technique for the characterization of materials. It has two major advantages: a good signal-to-noise ratio through a synchronous detection and a low dependence on the heating power and the optical properties of the sample surface. This paper presents a new method for characterizing the thermal diffusivity of a material when the phase shift between a modulated laser power signal and the thermal signal of a plate sample is known at different frequencies. The method is based on a three-dimensional analytical model which is used to determine the temperature amplitude and the phase in the laser heating of the plate. A new simple formula was developed through multi-parametric analysis to determine the thermal diffusivity of the plate with knowledge of the frequency at the minimum phase shift, the laser beam radius r{sub 0} and the sample thickness L. This method was developed to control the variation of the thermal diffusivity of nuclear components and it was first applied to determine the thermal diffusivity of different metals: 304 L stainless steel, nickel, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, zinc, and iron. The experimental results were obtained with 5%–10% accuracy and corresponded well with the reference values. The present paper also demonstrates the limit of application of this method for plate with thickness r{sub 0}/100 ≤ L ≤ r{sub 0}/2. The technique is deemed interesting for the characterization of barely accessible components that require a contactless measurement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6631E..1BM','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6631E..1BM"><span id="translatedtitle">Determination of agar tissue phantoms depth profiles with pulsed photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Milanič, Matija; Majaron, Boris; Nelson, J. Stuart</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Pulsed photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PPTR) can be used for non-invasive depth profiling of skin vascular lesions (e.g., port wine stain birthmarks), aimed towards optimizing laser therapy on an individual patient basis. Optimal configuration of the experimental setup must be found and its performance characterized on samples with well defined structure, before introducing the technique into clinical practice. The aim of our study is to determine how sample structure and width of spectruml acquisition band affect the accuracy of measured depth profiles. We have constructed tissue phantoms composed of multiple layers of agar and of thin absorbing layers between the agar layers. Three phantoms had a single absorber layer at various depths between 100 and 500 μm, and one phantom had two absorber layers. In each sample we induced a non-homogeneous temperature profile with a 585 nm pulsed laser and acquired the resulting radiometric signal with a fast InSb infrared camera. We tested two configurations of the acquisition system, one using the customary 3-5 um spectruml band and one with a custom 4.5 μm cut-on filter. The laser-induced temperature depth profiles were reconstructed from measured PPTR signals using a custom algorithm and compared with sample structure as determined by histology and optical coherent tomography (OCT). PPTR determined temperature profiles correlate well with sample structure in all samples. Determination of the absorbing layer depth shows good repeatability with spatial resolution decreasing with depth. Spectruml filtering improved the accuracy of reconstructed profiles for shallow absorption layers (100-200 μm). PPTR technique enables reliable determination of structure in tissue phantoms with thin absorbing layers. Narrowing of the spectruml acquisition band (to 4.5 - 5.3 μm) improves reconstruction of objects near the surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003HyPr...17.3503B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003HyPr...17.3503B"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of snow water equivalent using microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> over Arctic first-year sea ice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barber, D. G.; Iacozza, J.; Walker, A. E.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>The magnitude and spatial distribution of snow on sea ice are both integral components of the ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere system. Although there exists a number of algorithms to estimate the snow water equivalent (SWE) on terrestrial surfaces, to date there is no precise method to estimate SWE on sea ice. Physical snow properties and in situ microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> at 19, 37 and 85 GHz, V and H polarization were collected for a 10-day period over 20 first-year sea ice sites.We present and compare the in situ physical, electrical and microwave emission properties of snow over smooth Arctic first-year sea ice for 19 of the 20 sites sampled. Physical processes creating the observed vertical patterns in the physical and electrical properties are discussed. An algorithm is then developed from the relationship between the SWE and the brightness temperature measured at 37 GHz (55°) H polarization and the air temperature. The multiple regression between these variables is able to account for over 90% of the variability in the measured SWE. This algorithm is validated with a small in situ data set collected during the 1999 field experiment. We then compare our data against the NASA snow thickness algorithm, designed as part of the NASA Earth Enterprise Program. The results indicated a lack of agreement between the NASA algorithm and the algorithm developed here. This lack of agreement is attributed to differences in scale between the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager and surface radiometers and to differences in the Antarctic versus Arctic snow physical and electrical properties. Copyright</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22254358','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22254358"><span id="translatedtitle">Passive monitoring using a combination of focused and phased array <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>: a simulation study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farantatos, Panagiotis; Karanasiou, Irene S; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Aim of this simulation study is to use the focusing properties of a conductive ellipsoidal reflector in conjunction with directive phased microwave antenna configurations in order to achieve brain passive monitoring with microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>. One of the main modules of the proposed setup which ensures the necessary beamforming and focusing on the body and brain areas of interest is a symmetrical axis ellipsoidal conductive wall cavity. The proposed system operates in an entirely non-invasive contactless manner providing temperature and/or conductivity variations monitoring and is designed to also provide hyperthermia treatment. In the present paper, the effect of the use of patch antennas as receiving antennas on the system's focusing properties and specifically the use of phased array setups to achieve scanning of the areas under measurement is investigated. Extensive simulations to compute the electric field distributions inside the whole ellipsoidal reflector and inside two types of human head models were carried out using single and two element microstrip patch antennas. The results show that clear focusing (creation of "hot spots") inside the head models is achieved at 1.53GHz. In the case of the two element antennas, the "hot spot" performs a linear scan around the brain area of interest while the phase difference of the two microstrip patch antennas significantly affects the way the scanning inside the head model is achieved. In the near future, phased array antennas with multiband and more elements will be used in order to enhance the system scanning properties toward the acquisition of tomography images without the need of subject movement. PMID:22254358</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSA23A2133S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSA23A2133S"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Thermospheric Energetics: Implications of Cooling Rate Measurements by TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Solomon, S. C.; Qian, L.; Mlynczak, M. G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Infrared radiation from the lower thermosphere has a significant effect on thermospheric temperature throughout its altitude range. Energy deposited in the upper thermosphere is conducted downward to altitudes where collisional processes with heterogeneous molecules are effective in exciting radiative transitions. Thus, exospheric temperature is strongly influenced by the infrared cooling rates. Measurements from the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument on the TIMED satellite have provided the global distribution and temporal variation of the two most important cooling rates, from the 15-micron band of carbon dioxide, and the 5.3-micron band of nitric oxide, both excited in the thermosphere primarily by collisions with atomic oxygen [e.g., Mlynczak et al., JGR, 2010]. Because these measurements are of the cooling rate itself, they are nearly independent of assumptions concerning carbon dioxide or nitric oxide density, atomic oxygen density, temperature, and rate coefficients, and so provide strong constraints on global models. Simulations using the NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM) have obtained reasonable agreement with global nitric oxide cooling rates, on daily and solar-cycle time scales alike [c.f., Qian et al., JGR, 2010; Solomon et al., JGR, 2012]. This may be somewhat surprising, or serendipitous, considering the complexity of the production and chemistry of thermospheric nitric oxide, but is a hopeful indication of the model's ability to describe thermospheric temperature structure and variability. However, initial model simulations of 15-micron carbon dioxide emission have been significantly lower than the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> measurements. This indicates that there may be issues with the carbon dioxide densities, with the atomic oxygen density, or with the rate coefficient for their interaction. Simply increasing any of these to bring the cooling rate into agreement with <span class="hlt">SABER</span> measurements will have the additional effect of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230622-inverse-kinetics','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230622-inverse-kinetics"><span id="translatedtitle">Inverse <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2000-03-20</p> <p>Given the space-independent, one energy group reactor <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> equations and the initial conditions, this prgram determines the time variation of reactivity required to produce the given input of flux-time data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=conocer&id=EJ521648','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=conocer&id=EJ521648"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Saber</span> y conocer: Un plan para su ensenaza (To know and to be acquainted with: A teaching plan).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lizardi-Rivera, Carmen M.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Focuses on how to teach English-speaking students of Spanish the practical distinction between the verbs, "<span class="hlt">saber</span>" (to be cognizant of) and "conocer" (to be acquainted with). This article describes a solution proposed by K. Taylor for explaining the limits of the two verbs and examines similar proposals delineated in three other Spanish textbooks.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016InPhT..78..190P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016InPhT..78..190P"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of the photoluminescence response in the frequency domain modulated infrared <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> signal of ZnTe:Cr bulk crystal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pawlak, M.; Strzałkowski, K.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In this work we investigated the photoluminescence response in the frequency domain modulated infrared <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> signal observed of ZnTe:Cr bulk crystal. In mid-infrared range, three characteristic phenomena are observed in ZnTe:Cr crystal: absorption and emission of IR photons (2-3 μm) and the free carrier absorption. This implies that the modulated infrared <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> signal yields information about the effective infrared absorption coefficient (photothermal response) as well about the recombination lifetime of carriers related with the infrared photoluminescence emission. In this paper, the frequency equivalence of the two-term independent exponential photoluminescence decay model in order to explain the measured frequency characteristics is proposed. The measured recombination lifetimes (2.3 μs for two exponential decay model and 1.5 μs for one exponential decay model) are in good agreement with the values given by other authors (about 2.5-3.0 μs). Moreover, we found that the photothermal response is uncorrelated with the photoluminescence one, in contrast, to the photocarrier response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21080455','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21080455"><span id="translatedtitle">A Dedicated Z-Stent for Acquired <span class="hlt">Saber</span>-Sheath Tracheobronchomalacia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kishi, Kazushi; Fujimoto, Hisashi Kobayashi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Uetani, Kosaku; Nishida, Norifumi; Ohata, Masahiro; Sato, Morio; Yamada, Ryusaku</p> <p>1997-11-15</p> <p>The tracheobronchial lumen has a continuous horseshoe arch morphology. We formed Z-stents accordingly to support the weakened cartilagenous portions. With this type of stent we treated a patient with acquired <span class="hlt">saber</span>-sheath type tracheobronchomalacia (TBM), Rayl's type II, Johnson's grade III, whose condition was aggravated even under positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) therapy. The patient improved gradually. No immediate complication was observed. Bronchofiberscopic examination revealed that the tracheobronchial arcade was closely strut-braced and showed no expiratory collapse. Six months later, when the patient was intubated due to asthmatic attacks, tissue ingrowth through the stent was found and removed. There was no recurrence of TBM. The patient died 2 years later of pneumoconiosis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFMSA33A..05M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFMSA33A..05M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere as revealed by <span class="hlt">SABER</span>, SEE, and SORCE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Mast, J. C.; Mertens, C. J.; Marshall, B. T.; Russell, J. M.; Thompson, R. E.; Gordley, L. L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We examine the annual energy budget of the mesosphere using measurements from the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> and SEE instruments on the TIMED satellite and from the SORCE satellite. Rates of heating due to absorption of solar radiation by ozone and molecular oxygen, rates of heating due to seven exothermic chemical reactions, and rates of cooling due to infrared emission by carbon dioxide and ozone are presented. A time series of radiative cooling by carbon dioxide in the mesosphere for the past decade is also included. While uncertainties, particularly in the rates of heating by exothermic chemical reactions, place limits on the exact knowledge of these parameters, we can show approximate balance in heating and cooling rates on annual timescales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMSA22B..02O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMSA22B..02O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Day-to-Day Tidal Variability in the MLT from <span class="hlt">SABER</span> Temperature Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oberheide, J.; Lieberman, R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Ground-based observations and model simulations clearly point to a considerable day-to-day variability of upper atmospheric tidal activity due to forcing variations, wave-wave and wave-mean flow interactions, and phase variations of individual migrating and nonmigrating tidal components. By applying standard spectral methods, this short-term variability cannot be resolved from a single satellite that precesses slowly in local time. As an alternative, this paper presents a tidal deconvolution method that allows one to separate individual tidal components on a daily basis, by making use of the vertical structure in the temperature difference between observations made on the ascending and descending orbit nodes. The method and its inherent assumptions are overviewed and results for 2002-2011 <span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperature tides for several diurnal nonmigrating tides are presented. A comparison of averaged daily tides with tides from the standard 60-day running mean Fourier analysis yields favorable agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027886','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027886"><span id="translatedtitle">Petroscirtes pylei, a new <span class="hlt">saber</span>-toothed blenny from the Fiji Islands (Teleostei: Blenniidae)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Smith-Vaniz, W.F.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Petroscirtes pylei is described from three specimens, 20.3-40.9 mm SL, obtained from a deep-water reef off Suva, Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. It is distinguished from all other congeners by its color pattern, including the presence of two dark body stripes, the lower one broadly extending onto the anal fin, and the dorsal fin with a broad, dark basal stripe, superimposed by a conspicuous white spot centered on the 4th spine. Among Petroscirtes, only the new species and P. springeri typically have 12 dorsal-fin spines but they are not closely related. The holotype was collected in 104-110 m, the second deepest depth record for a species of Petroscirtes. Discovery of this new species, and an apparently second new deep-water Petroscrites (uncollected), at a different Fijian reef indicates that our knowledge of the biodiversity of this habitat and of the <span class="hlt">saber</span>-toothed blennies is very incomplete. Copyright ?? 2005 Magnolia Press.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4965S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4965S"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for paleotsunami deposits at Kefret <span class="hlt">Saber</span> and El Alamein, Mediterranean coast of Egypt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salama, Asem; Meghraoui, Mustapha; El Gabry, Mohamed; Maouche, Said; Hussein, Hichem; Korrat, Ibrahim</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Tsunami deposits and dragged large boulders are investigated along the Mediterranean coast of Egypt in the framework of the EC-Funded ASTARTE project (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839) and the French-Egyptian IMHOTEP project. The targeted zones located west of Alexandria are selected according to historical earthquakes and related inundation events as recorded in archives. Field investigations include: 1) Coastal geomorphology along estuaries, wedge-protected and dune-protected lagunas, and terrace-platforms as potential sites for paleotsunami and boulder records and 2) Investigations of paleotsunamis deposits and their spatial distribution using trenching and coring. The two selected sites at Kefret <span class="hlt">Saber</span> (immediately west of Marsah Matrouh town) and near El Alamein village are inner lagunas protected by 2 to 40-m-high dunes parallel to the shoreline. Five trenches and six cores dug in Kefret <span class="hlt">Saber</span> and 1 trench in Alamein revealed an almost identical 5 to 10-cm-thick white sand unit with highly reworked fossil-rich and shells at about 20 to 40-cm-depth, intercalated in light brown laminated sandy and sandy-clay deposits. A total of 50 samples of organic deposits and charcoal fragments were collected from both sites, among which 20 samples have been dated. Dated charcoal in deposits above and below the white sand unit lead us to correlate with the 24 June 1870 major earthquake (M 7.5 - 8.0?) that generated a tsunami with the inundation of Alexandria harbor. Major seismic sources being along the Hellenic subduction zone and Cyprus arc, our progress study of paleotsunami deposits and their distribution along the Egyptian coast will help in a better constraint of the size and recurrence of tsunamis, and their propagation over the east Mediterranean regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120010321&hterms=environment+issues&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Denvironment%2Bissues','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120010321&hterms=environment+issues&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Denvironment%2Bissues"><span id="translatedtitle">Foreword to the Special Issue on the 11th Specialist Meeting on Microwave <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> and Remote Sensing Applications (MicroRad 2010)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Le Vine, David M; Jackson, Thomas J.; Kim, Edward J.; Lang, Roger H.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Specialist Meeting on Microwave <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> and Remote Sensing of the Environment (MicroRad 2010) was held in Washington, DC from March 1 to 4, 2010. The objective of MicroRad 2010 was to provide an open forum to report and discuss recent advances in the field of microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, particularly with application to remote sensing of the environment. The meeting was highly successful, with more than 200 registrations representing 48 countries. There were 80 oral presentations and more than 100 posters. MicroRad has become a venue for the microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> community to present new research results, instrument designs, and applications to an audience that is conversant in these issues. The meeting was divided into 16 sessions (listed in order of presentation): 1) SMOS Mission; 2) Future Passive Microwave Remote Sensing Missions; 3) Theory and Physical Principles of Electromagnetic Models; 4) Field Experiment Results; 5) Soil Moisture and Vegetation; 6) Snow and Cryosphere; 7) Passive/Active Microwave Remote Sensing Synergy; 8) Oceans; 9) Atmospheric Sounding and Assimilation; 10) Clouds and Precipitation; 11) Instruments and Advanced Techniques I; 12) Instruments and Advanced Techniques II; 13) Cross Calibration of Satellite Radiometers; 14) Calibration Theory and Methodology; 15) New Technologies for Microwave <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span>; 16) Radio Frequency Interference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JGRA..118.4534M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JGRA..118.4534M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A decade-long climatology of terdiurnal tides using TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moudden, Y.; Forbes, J. M.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, we globally characterize the solar terdiurnal tide in the 80-110 km region of Earth's atmosphere through analysis of 10 years of temperature measurements made by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> instrument on the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics spacecraft. The Sun-synchronous ("migrating") component (TW3), which is longitude-independent and achieves maximum amplitudes of order of 5 K (10 K) at 90 km (110 km), not too different than the 7-15 K amplitudes that are typical of the migrating diurnal and semidiurnal tides in this region. Significant longitude variability (˜ 20-25%) in terdiurnal temperature amplitudes also exists, which is decomposed into zonal wave number components. The largest of these (TE1, TW4, and TW5) reveal distinct seasonal-latitudinal and height versus latitude patterns and interannual consistency. In addition, it is demonstrated that these particular components vary in ways that suggest that they originate from nonlinear interactions between diurnal and semidiurnal tides, specifically between DE3 and SW2 for TE1, between DW2 and SW2 for TW4, and between DW1 and SW4 for TW5. We also demonstrate that the terdiurnal tides derived here are not influenced to any significant degree by aliasing due to the presence of other waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030105560','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030105560"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of Low Amounts of Precipitable Water Vapor Using Ground-Based Millimeterwave <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Racette, Paul E.; Westwater, Ed R.; Han, Yong; Gasiewski, Albin J.; Klein, Marian; Cimini, Domenico; Jones, David C.; Manning, WIll; Kim, Edward J.; Wang, James R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Extremely dry conditions characterized by amounts of precipitable water vapor (PWV) as as 1-2 mm commonly occur in high-latitude regions during the winter months. While such atmospheres carry only a few percent of the latent heat energy compared to tropical atmospheres, the effects of low vapor amounts on the polar radiation budget - both directly through modulation of longwave radiation and indirectly through the formation of clouds - are considerable. Accurate measurements of precipitable water vapor (PWV) during such dry conditions are needed to improve polar radiation models for use in understanding and predicting change in the climatically sensitive polar regions. To this end, the strong water vapor absorption at 183.310 GHz provides a unique means of measuring low amounts of PWV. Weighting function analysis, forward model calculations based upon a 7-year radiosonde dataset, and retrieval simulations consistently predict that radiometric measurements made using several millimeter-wavelength (MMW) channels near the 183 GHz line, together with established microwave (MW) measurements at the 22.235 GHz water vapor line and -3 1 GHz atmospheric absorption window can be used to determine within 5% uncertainty the full range of PWV expected in the Arctic. This unique collective capability stands in spite of accuracy limitations stemming from uncertainties due to the sensitivity of the vertical distribution of temperature and water vapor at MMW channels. In this study the potential of MMW <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> using the 183 GHz line for measuring low amounts of PWV is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. The study uses data obtained during March 1999 as part of an experiment conducted at the Department of Energy s Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) near Barrow, Alaska. Several radiometers from both NOAA and NASA were deployed during the experiment to provide the first combined MMW and MW ground-based data set during dry arctic conditions. Single-channel retrievals</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........16Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........16Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of greenbug infestation on wheat using ground-based <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Zhiming</p> <p></p> <p>Scope of methods of study. The purpose of this greenhouse study was to characterize stress in wheat caused by greenbugs using ground-based <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>. Experiments were conducted to (a) identify spectral bands and vegetation indices sensitive to greenbug infestation; (b) differentiate stress caused due to greenbugs from water stress; (c) examine the impacts of plant growth stage on detection of greenbug infestation; and (d) compare infestations due to greenbug and Russian wheat aphid. Wheat (variety-TAM 107) was planted (seed spacing 1 in. x 3 in.) in plastic flats with dimension 24 in. x 16 in. x 8.75 in. Fifteen days after sowing, wheat seedlings were infested with greenbugs (biotype-E). Nadir measurement of canopy reflectance started the day after infestation and lasted until most infested plants were dead. Using a 16-band Cropscan radiometer, spectral reflectance data were collected daily (between 13:00--14:00 hours) and 128 vegetation indices were derived in addition to greenbug counts per tiller. Using SAS PROC MIXED, sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was identified based on Threshold Day. Subsequent to Threshold Day there was a consistent significant spectral difference between control and infested plants. Sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was further examined using correlation and relative sensitivity analyses. Findings and conclusions. Results show that it is possible to detect greenbug-induced stress on wheat using hand-held radiometers, such as Cropscan. Band 694 nm and the ratio-based vegetation index (RVI) derived from the band 694 nm and 800 nm were identified as most sensitive to greenbug infestation. Landsat TM bands and their derived vegetation indices also show potential for detecting wheat stress caused by greenbug infestation. Also, RVIs particularly derived using spectral band 694 nm and 800 nm were found useful in differentiating greenbug infestation from water stress. Furthermore, vegetation indices such as Normalized total</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Metro..43.....G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006Metro..43.....G"><span id="translatedtitle">FOREWORD: The 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (NEWRAD 2005)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gröbner, Julian; Ikonen, Erkki</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>The ninth NEWRAD Conference was held in Davos, Switzerland, between 16 and 19 October 2005. The Conference was organized by the Physikalisch- Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, World Radiation Center (PMOD/WRC). The Conference was attended by 169 participants from five continents, which makes it the largest NEWRAD conference to date. The NEWRAD Conference followed the 10th international pyrheliometer comparison IPC-X, which is held every five years at PMOD/WRC. In addition, the 6th UVnet Workshop was held in connection with the NEWRAD Conference on 20 and 21 October. The NEWRAD Conference brings together people from the national metrology institutes and the principal user communities of advanced <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, including meteorological and remote-sensing communities. A total of 153 papers were presented, of which eight were keynote or invited talks, and there were 105 posters. Coffee breaks and extended lunch breaks created a stimulating atmosphere for lively discussions and exchange of ideas. Notwithstanding the excellent weather and the tantalizing surroundings of Davos, most participants managed to attend the poster sessions, which were organized during the noon lunch breaks. The conference proceedings can be downloaded from the NEWRAD 2005 website at www.pmodwrc.ch/newrad2005/pdfabstracts/Newrad_Proceedings_2005_A7.pdf. For this and future conferences, a new policy was adopted to publish a selected number of contributions in a special issue of Metrologia. The purpose of the change is to increase the overall impact of this journal. The NEWRAD Scientific Committee invited the contributions to this special issue on the basis of the quality of the extended abstracts, and later the submitted manuscripts were reviewed by the Committee members. On behalf of the Scientific Committee and all the participants, one of us (EI) wishes to thank Werner Schmutz and his colleagues from the Local Organizing Committee for arranging an excellent conference in the beautiful city of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..260..103S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..260..103S"><span id="translatedtitle">On the detectability of trace chemical species in the martian atmosphere using gas correlation filter <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sinclair, J. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Calcutt, S. B.; Wilson, E. L.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The martian atmosphere is host to many trace gases including water (H2O) and its isotopologues, methane (CH4) and potentially sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and further organic compounds, which would serve as indirect tracers of geological, chemical and biological processes on Mars. With exception of the recent detection of CH4 by Curiosity, previous detections of these species have been unsuccessful or considered tentative due to the low concentrations of these species in the atmosphere (∼10-9 partial pressures), limited spectral resolving power and/or signal-to-noise and the challenge of discriminating between telluric and martian features when observing from the Earth. In this study, we present radiative transfer simulations of an alternative method for detection of trace gas species - the gas correlation <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> method. Two potential observing scenarios were explored where a gas correlation filter radiometer (GCFR) instrument: (1) performs nadir and/or limb sounding of the martian atmosphere in the thermal infrared (200-2000 cm-1 from an orbiting spacecraft or (2) performs solar occultation measurements in the near-infrared (2000-5000 cm-1) from a lander on the martian surface. In both scenarios, simulations of a narrowband filter radiometer (without gas correlation) were also generated to serve as a comparison. From a spacecraft, we find that a gas correlation filter radiometer, in comparison to a filter radiometer (FR), offers a greater discrimination between temperature and dust, a greater discrimination between H2O and HDO, and would allow detection of N2O and CH3OH at concentrations of ∼10 ppbv and ∼2 ppbv, respectively, which are lower than previously-derived upper limits. However, the lowest retrievable concentration of SO2 (approximately 2 ppbv) is comparable with previous upper limits and CH4 is only detectable at concentrations of approximately 10 ppbv, which is an order of magnitude higher than the concentration recently measured</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8584E..0RS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8584E..0RS"><span id="translatedtitle">Stable microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> system for long term monitoring of deep tissue temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stauffer, Paul R.; Rodriques, Dario B.; Salahi, Sara; Topsakal, Erdem; Oliveira, Tiago R.; Prakash, Aniruddh; D'Isidoro, Fabio; Reudink, Douglas; Snow, Brent W.; Maccarini, Paolo F.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Background: There are numerous clinical applications for non-invasive monitoring of deep tissue temperature. We present the design and experimental performance of a miniature radiometric thermometry system for measuring volume average temperature of tissue regions located up to 5cm deep in the body. Methods: We constructed a miniature sensor consisting of EMI-shielded log spiral microstrip antenna with high gain onaxis and integrated high-sensitivity 1.35GHz total power radiometer with 500 MHz bandwidth. We tested performance of the <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> system in both simulated and experimental multilayer phantom models of several intended clinical measurement sites: i) brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots within 2cm of the skin surface, ii) 3-5cm deep kidney, and iii) human brain underlying intact scalp and skull. The physical models included layers of circulating tissue-mimicking liquids controlled at different temperatures to characterize our ability to quantify small changes in target temperature at depth under normothermic surface tissues. Results: We report SAR patterns that characterize the sense region of a 2.6cm diameter receive antenna, and radiometric power measurements as a function of deep tissue temperature that quantify radiometer sensitivity. The data demonstrate: i) our ability to accurately track temperature rise in realistic tissue targets such as urine refluxed from prewarmed bladder into kidney, and 10°C drop in brain temperature underlying normothermic scalp and skull, and ii) long term accuracy and stability of +0.4°C over 4.5 hours as needed for monitoring core body temperature over extended surgery or monitoring effects of brown fat metabolism over an extended sleep/wake cycle. Conclusions: A non-invasive sensor consisting of 2.6cm diameter receive antenna and integral 1.35GHz total power radiometer has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity to track clinically significant changes in temperature of deep tissue targets underlying normothermic surface</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120010130&hterms=book&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbook','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120010130&hterms=book&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dbook"><span id="translatedtitle">Terra and Aqua MODIS Design, <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span>, and Geometry in Support of Land Remote Sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wolfe, Robert; Barnes, William; Guenther, Bruce; Vermote, Eric; Saleous, Nazmi; Salomonson, Vincent</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) mission includes the construction and launch of two nearly identical Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments. The MODIS proto-flight model (PFM) is onboard the EOS Terra satellite (formerly EOS AM-1) launched on December 18, 1999 and hereafter referred to as Terra MODIS. Flight model-1 (FM1) is onboard the EOS Aqua satellite (formerly EOS PM-1) launched on May 04, 2002 and referred to as Aqua MODIS. MODIS was developed based on the science community s desire to collect multiyear continuous datasets for monitoring changes in the Earth s land, oceans and atmosphere, and the human contributions to these changes. It was designed to measure discrete spectral bands, which includes many used by a number of heritage sensors, and thus extends the heritage datasets to better understand both long- and short-term changes in the global environment (Barnes and Salomonson 1993; Salomonson et al. 2002; Barnes et al. 2002). The MODIS development, launch, and operation were managed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, Maryland. The sensors were designed, built, and tested by Raytheon/ Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS), Goleta, California. Each MODIS instrument offers 36 spectral bands, which span the spectral region from the visible (0.41 m) to long-wave infrared (14.4 m). MODIS collects data at three different nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25, 0.5, and 1 km. Key design specifications, such as spectral bandwidths, typical scene radiances, required signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) or noise equivalent temperature differences (NEDT), and primary applications of each MODIS spectral band are summarized in Table 7.1. These parameters were the basis for the MODIS design. More details on the evolution of the NASA EOS and development of the MODIS instruments are provided in Chap. 1. This chapter focuses on the MODIS sensor design, <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, and geometry as they apply to land remote sensing. With near</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930010227','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930010227"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of tropospheric fluctuations on the accuracy of water vapor <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wilcox, J. Z.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Line-of-sight path delay calibration accuracies of 1 mm are needed to improve both angular and Doppler tracking capabilities. Fluctuations in the refractivity of tropospheric water vapor limit the present accuracies to about 1 nrad for the angular position and to a delay rate of 3x10(exp -13) sec/sec over a 100-sec time interval for Doppler tracking. This article describes progress in evaluating the limitations of the technique of water vapor <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> at the 1-mm level. The two effects evaluated here are: (1) errors arising from tip-curve calibration of WVR's in the presence of tropospheric fluctuations and (2) errors due to the use of nonzero beamwidths for water vapor radiometer (WVR) horns. The error caused by tropospheric water vapor fluctuations during instrument calibration from a single tip curve is 0.26 percent in the estimated gain for a tip-curve duration of several minutes or less. This gain error causes a 3-mm bias and a 1-mm scale factor error in the estimated path delay at a 10-deg elevation per 1 g/cm(sup 2) of zenith water vapor column density present in the troposphere during the astrometric observation. The error caused by WVR beam averaging of tropospheric fluctuations is 3 mm at a 10-deg elevation per 1 g/cm(sup 2) of zenith water vapor (and is proportionally higher for higher water vapor content) for current WVR beamwidths (full width at half maximum of approximately 6 deg). This is a stochastic error (which cannot be calibrated) and which can be reduced to about half of its instantaneous value by time averaging the radio signal over several minutes. The results presented here suggest two improvements to WVR design: first, the gain of the instruments should be stabilized to 4 parts in 10(exp 4) over a calibration period lasting 5 hours, and second, the WVR antenna beamwidth should be reduced to about 0.2 deg. This will reduce the error induced by water vapor fluctuations in the estimated path delays to less than 1 mm for the elevation range</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P21A1642P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.P21A1642P"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote Sensing of Methane in the Martian Atmosphere using Infrared Laser Heterodyne <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Passmore, R. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Weidmann, D.; Smith, K.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>In the last few years, several research teams have reported the detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars, measuring 10 ppb on average [1][2][3]. The source of the methane is still unknown, but its identification is important as its presence could imply a biological origin. However, the detection limits of current instruments lie below the requirements for an unambiguous determination of concentration mapping and distribution. We investigate the viability of detecting methane in the Martian atmosphere via a high sensitivity remote sensing technique known as passive mid-infrared laser heterodyne <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>. Although heterodyne spectroscopy is not a new idea, recent advancements in local oscillator technology [4] offer the possibility of significant instrument miniaturisation relevant to space deployment. We present our current work on a laser heterodyne radiometer (LHR) which involves adapting an existing 10 μm laser breadboard design, which was used with much success to study stratospheric ozone [5], to operate at 7.7 μm in order to target the ν4 fundamental band of methane. The core of the LHR consists of a distributed-feedback quantum cascade laser (QCL) operating in continuous-wave mode, which acts as the local oscillator. QCLs are ideal local oscillators for this type of instrument as they emit with high spectral purity and the necessary optical power in the mid-infrared region where characteristic spectral lines of interest lie. Atmospheric modelling of the Martian atmosphere and instrument sensitivity studies enabled simulated methane spectral features to be studied in detail, which subsequently determined the focus for experimental efforts in the laboratory. Testing of the LHR was initially carried out on small gas cells containing pure methane gas, but in order to test the instrument more rigorously for atmospheric studies a larger gas cell was constructed that approximates the Martian atmosphere in the laboratory. Trace quantities of methane were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9..877W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9..877W"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-instrument gravity-wave measurements over Tierra del Fuego and the Drake Passage - Part 1: Potential energies and vertical wavelengths from AIRS, COSMIC, HIRDLS, MLS-Aura, SAAMER, <span class="hlt">SABER</span> and radiosondes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wright, Corwin J.; Hindley, Neil P.; Moss, Andrew C.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Gravity waves in the terrestrial atmosphere are a vital geophysical process, acting to transport energy and momentum on a wide range of scales and to couple the various atmospheric layers. Despite the importance of these waves, the many studies to date have often exhibited very dissimilar results, and it remains unclear whether these differences are primarily instrumental or methodological. Here, we address this problem by comparing observations made by a diverse range of the most widely used gravity-wave-resolving instruments in a common geographic region around the southern Andes and Drake Passage, an area known to exhibit strong wave activity. Specifically, we use data from three limb-sounding radiometers (Microwave Limb Sounder, MLS-Aura; HIgh Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder, HIRDLS; Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span>, <span class="hlt">SABER</span>), the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) GPS-RO constellation, a ground-based meteor radar, the Advanced Infrared Sounder (AIRS) infrared nadir sounder and radiosondes to examine the gravity wave potential energy (GWPE) and vertical wavelengths (λz) of individual gravity-wave packets from the lower troposphere to the edge of the lower thermosphere ( ˜ 100 km). Our results show important similarities and differences. Limb sounder measurements show high intercorrelation, typically > 0.80 between any instrument pair. Meteor radar observations agree in form with the limb sounders, despite vast technical differences. AIRS and radiosonde observations tend to be uncorrelated or anticorrelated with the other data sets, suggesting very different behaviour of the wave field in the different spectral regimes accessed by each instrument. Evidence of wave dissipation is seen, and varies strongly with season. Observed GWPE for individual wave packets exhibits a log-normal distribution, with short-timescale intermittency dominating over a well-repeated monthly-median seasonal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920019874','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19920019874"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-mechanical optical path switching and its application to dual beam spectroscopy including gas filter correlation <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor); Wang, Liang-Guo (Inventor)</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A non-mechanical optical switch is developed for alternately switching a monochromatic or quasi-monochromatic light beam along two optical paths. A polarizer polarizes light into a single, e.g., vertical component which is then rapidly modulated into vertical and horizontal components by a polarization modulator. A polarization beam splitter then reflects one of these components along one path and transmits the other along the second path. In the specific application of gas filter correlation <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, one path is directed through a vacuum cell and one path is directed through a gas correlation cell containing a desired gas. Reflecting mirrors cause these two paths to intersect at a second polarization beam splitter which reflects one component and transmits the other to recombine them into a polarization modulated beam which can be detected by an appropriate single sensor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26628164','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26628164"><span id="translatedtitle">An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJT....37...45S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJT....37...45S"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative Carrier Density Wave Imaging in Silicon Solar Cells Using Photocarrier <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> and Lock-in Carrierography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, Q. M.; Melnikov, A.; Mandelis, A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>InGaAs camera-based low-frequency homodyne and high-frequency heterodyne lock-in carrierographies (LIC) are introduced for spatially resolved imaging of optoelectronic properties of Si solar cells. Based on the full theory of solar cell photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PCR), several simplification steps were performed aiming at the open circuit case, and a concise expression of the base minority carrier density depth profile was obtained. The model shows that solar cell PCR/LIC signals are mainly sensitive to the base minority carrier lifetime. Both homodyne and heterodyne frequency response data at selected locations on a mc-Si solar cell were used to extract the local base minority carrier lifetimes by best fitting local experimental data to theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26628164','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26628164"><span id="translatedtitle">An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving. PMID:26628164</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16274529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16274529"><span id="translatedtitle">Passive standoff detection of SF6 at a distance of 5.7 km by differential Fourier transform infrared <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lavoie, Hugo; Puckrin, Eldon; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>Recent results are presented on the passive detection, identification, and quantification of a vapor cloud of SF6 measured at a horizontal standoff distance of 5.7 km using a dual-beam interferometer optimized for background signal suppression. The measurements were performed at Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC)-Valcartier during a number of recent open-air experiments. The measurement approach is based on the differential passive standoff detection method that has been developed by DRDC Valcartier during the past few years. This work represents the first such measurement reported in the open literature for a standoff distance as large as 5.7 km. These results clearly demonstrate the capability of the differential <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> approach to the detection, identification, and quantification of chemical vapor clouds located at long distances from the sensor. PMID:16274529</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16274529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16274529"><span id="translatedtitle">Passive standoff detection of SF6 at a distance of 5.7 km by differential Fourier transform infrared <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lavoie, Hugo; Puckrin, Eldon; Thériault, Jean-Marc; Bouffard, François</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>Recent results are presented on the passive detection, identification, and quantification of a vapor cloud of SF6 measured at a horizontal standoff distance of 5.7 km using a dual-beam interferometer optimized for background signal suppression. The measurements were performed at Defense Research and Development Canada (DRDC)-Valcartier during a number of recent open-air experiments. The measurement approach is based on the differential passive standoff detection method that has been developed by DRDC Valcartier during the past few years. This work represents the first such measurement reported in the open literature for a standoff distance as large as 5.7 km. These results clearly demonstrate the capability of the differential <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> approach to the detection, identification, and quantification of chemical vapor clouds located at long distances from the sensor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482613','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482613"><span id="translatedtitle">An absolute calibration method of an ethyl alcohol biosensor based on wavelength-modulated differential photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Yi Jun; Mandelis, Andreas; Guo, Xinxin</p> <p>2015-11-15</p> <p>In this work, laser-based wavelength-modulated differential photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (WM-DPTR) is applied to develop a non-invasive in-vehicle alcohol biosensor. WM-DPTR features unprecedented ethanol-specificity and sensitivity by suppressing baseline variations through a differential measurement near the peak and baseline of the mid-infrared ethanol absorption spectrum. Biosensor signal calibration curves are obtained from WM-DPTR theory and from measurements in human blood serum and ethanol solutions diffused from skin. The results demonstrate that the WM-DPTR-based calibrated alcohol biosensor can achieve high precision and accuracy for the ethanol concentration range of 0-100 mg/dl. The high-performance alcohol biosensor can be incorporated into ignition interlocks that could be fitted as a universal accessory in vehicles in an effort to reduce incidents of drinking and driving.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P32A..01L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P32A..01L"><span id="translatedtitle">Cassini microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> observations of Enceladus' South Pole: Detection of a warm subsurface?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Gall, A. A.; Leyrat, C.; Janssen, M. A.; Stolzenbach, A.; Wye, L. C.; West, R. D.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mitchell, K. L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>At the beginning of the Cassini mission, the ISS (Imaging Science Subsystem) and CIRS (Composite Infra-Red Spectrometer) instruments discovered a geologically active region at the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus (e.g. Porco et al., 2005). Plumes venting material emanate from this region. Six years later, on November 6, 2011, the first-ever Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image of Enceladus was acquired during the E16 flyby of the moon at the wavelength of 2-cm (Mitchell et al., AGU 2011). The SAR swath is located within the seemingly young South Pole Terrains, not far from the active sulci also known as the "tiger stripes" identified as the sources of the plumes. Concurrently to the SAR image, <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> data were collected in the passive mode of the instrument with a ground footprint of 25-40 km across the track and ~5 km along. The Cassini radiometer records the thermal emission from the surface in the microwave domain, at 2-cm. More specifically, it measures the brightness temperature of the surface that varies both with the emissivity and the vertical temperature profile below the surface down to a depth, which depends on the electrical properties of the subsurface. Typically, radio instruments sense 10 to 100 wavelengths into an icy crust and can thus provide unique insight into the compositional, thermal and physical (porosity, roughness) state of planetary regoliths at depths much greater than the ones sampled by thermal IR spectrometers. In particular, microwave radiometer can be used to detect possible endogenic activity beneath the surface. The measured calibrated brightness temperatures during E16 cover a range from 33 to 60 K. In order to analyze these dataset, we have modeled the expected thermal emission from Enceladus' surface. In absence of endogenic emission, the temperature structure of any airless satellite results from a balance between solar insolation, heat transport within the subsurface and reradiation outward. The developed thermal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS21A1601R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMOS21A1601R"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean Colour <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> across the Southern Atlantic and South-Eastern Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rudorff, N. D.; Kampel, M.; Frouin, R. J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p> reference deck sensor. Rrs was estimated at 12 ocean colour bands from 412-681 nm. The best overall fit was between the M02 and MP02 methods. The mean normalized bias (MNB) ranged from 1.91% at 443 nm, with a normalized root mean square error (RMSE) of 35.83% and determination coefficient (R2) of 0.41; to 81.11% (MNB) at 681 nm with a RMSE of 72.86% and R2 of 0.52. The stations with the highest differences were the ones with a combination of adverse conditions, with stronger winds (>7.5 m/s) and higher waves (>2 m), but especially, high illumination variability. Clear sky or overcast conditions, even with strong winds (≈11 m/s) and waves, in general, still showed a good match. However, especially at overcast days, high offsets were observed at all spectra. Even with a simple method for the RSC, the M02 was considered efficient, providing accurate Rrs estimates, for the <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> measurements sampled across the rough seas of the Southern Ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......127T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......127T"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite Altimetry And <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> for Inland Hydrology, Coastal Sea-Level And Environmental Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tseng, Kuo-Hsin</p> <p></p> <p>In this study, we demonstrate three environmental-related applications employing altimetry and remote sensing satellites, and exemplify the prospective usage underlying the current progressivity in mechanical and data analyzing technologies. Our discussion starts from the improved waveform retracking techniques in need for altimetry measurements over coastal and inland water regions. We developed two novel auxiliary procedures, namely the Subwaveform Filtering (SF) method and the Track Offset Correction (TOC), for waveform retracking algorithms to operationally detect altimetry waveform anomalies and further reduce possible errors in determination of the track offset. After that, we present two demonstrative studies related to the ionospheric and tropospheric compositions, respectively, as their variations are the important error sources for satellite electromagnetic signals. We firstly compare the total electron content (TEC) measured by multiple altimetry and GNSS sensors. We conclude that the ionosphere delay measured by Jason-2 is about 6-10 mm shorter than the GPS models. On the other hand, we use several atmospheric variables to study the climate change over high elevation areas. Five types of satellite data and reanalysis models were used to study climate change indicators. We conclude that the spatial distribution of temperature trend among data products is quite different, which is probably due to the choice of various time spans. Following discussions about the measuring techniques and relative bias between data products, we applied our improved altimetry techniques to three environmental science applications with helps of remote sensing imagery. We first manifest the detectability of hydrological events by satellite altimetry and <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>. The characterization of one-dimensional (along-track) water boundary using former Backscattering Coefficient (BC) method is assisted by the two-dimensional (horizontal) estimate of water extent using the Moderate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818255W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818255W"><span id="translatedtitle">A new application of hyperspectral <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>: the characterization of painted surfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Cong; Salvatici, Teresa; Camaiti, Mara; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Moretti, Sandro</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Hyperspectral sensors, working in the Visible-Near Infrared and Short Wave Infrared (VNIR-SWIR) regions, are widely employed for geological applications since they can discriminate many inorganic (e.g. mineral phases) and organic compounds (i.e. vegetations and soils) [1]. Their advantage is to work in the portion of the solar spectrum used for remote sensors. Some examples of application of the hyperspectral sensors to the conservation of cultural heritage are also known. These applications concern the detection of gypsum on historical buildings [2], and the monitoring of organic protective materials on stone surfaces [3]. On the contrary, hyperspectral <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> has not been employed on painted surfaces. Indeed, the characterization of these surfaces is mainly performed with sophisticated, micro-destractive and time-consuming laboratory analyses (i.e. SEM-EDS, FTIR and, GC-MS spectroscopy) or through portable and non-invasive instruments (mid FTIR, micro Raman, XRF, FORS) which work in different spectral ranges [4,5]. In this work the discrimination of many organic and inorganic components from paintings was investigated through a hyperspectral spectroradiometer ,which works in the 350-2500 nm region. The reflectance spectra were collected by the contact reflectance probe, equipped with an internal light source with fixed geometry of illumination and shot. Several standards samples, selected among the most common materials of paintings, were prepared and analysed in order to collect reference spectra. The standards were prepared with powders of 7 pure pigments, films of 5 varnishes (natural and synthetic), and films of 3 dried binding media. Monochromatic painted surfaces have also been prepared and investigated to verify the identification of different compounds on the surface. The results show that the discrimination of pure products is possible in the VNIR-SWIR region, except for compounds with similar composition (e.g. natural resins such as dammar and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMSA21A2094G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMSA21A2094G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Layer-like IR limb emission enhancement observed by <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goldberg, R. A.; Kutepov, A.; Janches, D.; Rezac, L.; Plane, J. M.; Gordley, L. L.; Marshall, T.; Russell, J. M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We report first results of our study of characteristics and variability of the layer-like IR limb 4.3 mm daytime emission enhancement observed by <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED utilizing nearly a decade of <span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations. The enhancement is observed in a localized region of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) at a tangent height between 85 and 95 km. Also, it has a distinct spatial and temporal variability, and is not predicted by current Non-Local Thermal Equilibrium (NLTE) models for generation of the IR molecular emissions in the MLT. We discuss the characteristics and variability of this layer, compare them with similar effects detected by other instruments, and consider possible physical processes which may influence formation of the IR radiation in the MLT to explain the observed emission enhancement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMSA53A4104Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMSA53A4104Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Decadal-Scale Variability of The Mesosphere And Lower Thermosphere As Observed by <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED From 2002 to 2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yee, J. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In this paper, we will analyze over a decade of <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED observations to quantify and interpret the decadal-scale variability of temperature, composition, and airglow intensity, including those associated with the 11-year solar cycle (SC) and long-term anthropogenic change (AC), of the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT). The MLT is an interface and buffer between the Sun, interplanetary space, and the magnetosphere above and the atmosphere below and plays a uniquely important role in the solar-terrestrial system. The MLT sensitivities to solar cycle activity and long-term changes will be extracted using the multiple regression technique from12+ years of <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED observations (2002 to 2014). Accuracies of the extracted SC and AC sensitivities will be assessed and discussed in terms of our analysis technique, the proxies we used, and the noise, drift and length of the data we used in the study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.8289G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.8289G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The response of the TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> O2 nightglow to solar radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Hong; Xu, Jiyao; William, Ward</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> O2 nightglow observations between January 2002 and June 2014 are used to study the response of O2 emission to the solar radiation. both the O2 nightglow emission rate and intensity are found to be positively correlated to the solar radiation. The O2 nightglow emission rate/intensity and F10.7 solar flux index can be expressed by a linear relation very well. The response of the O2 global mean nightglow emission rate to the solar radiation is enhanced with increasing altitude from about 80km, reaches its peak around 92 km and then decreases with increasing altitude. The response of the O2 nightglow intensity to F10.7 index changes with latitude with three peaks around 40S/N and the equator. The response of the O2 global mean nightglow intensity to the solar radiation is about 27 kR/100 sfu, corresponding to 24.1%/100 sfu.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMSA41B2327O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMSA41B2327O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Short-Term Tidal Variability in the Mesosphere/Lower Thermosphere from <span class="hlt">SABER</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oberheide, J.; Pedatella, N. M.; Du, J.; Lieberman, R. S.; Siskind, D. E.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The understanding of migrating and nonmigrating tidal propagation from the troposphere and stratosphere into the mesosphere/lower thermosphere and upper thermosphere has much improved over the past few years. Yet, space-borne diagnostics of tides from single satellites like TIMED are limited to > monthly mean averages because of the slow orbit precession and the resulting local solar time coverage. Ground-based observations and whole atmosphere models on the other hand strongly suggest a short-term tidal variability on the order of a factor of two within a few days. This paper attempts to address this challenge by presenting a different approach than the conventional wavenumber/frequency Fourier fits to the satellite data: tides are diagnosed from the vertical/longitudinal structure of ascending-descending orbit node differences. This so-called "tidal deconvolution" method is applied to <span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperature observations over one solar cycle. The resulting diurnal amplitudes and phases have an effective time resolution of approximately one week and are compared to short-term tidal diagnostics based on Fourier fits to multiple satellites and results from the NOGAPS-ALPHA, WACCM and eCMAM30 models for various tidal components. Preliminary results suggest that tidal components forced by tropical convection respond strongly to convective precipitation changes associated with the Madden-Julian-Oscillation while other nonmigrating tides show clear signatures of wave-wave interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..15.9604K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013EGUGA..15.9604K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of convectively forced gravity waves in comparison with <span class="hlt">SABER</span> satellite measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kalisch, Silvio; Trinh, Thai; Chun, Hye-Yeong; Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Kim, Young-Ha; Eckermann, Steven; Riese, Martin</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Gravity waves (GW) are a known coupling mechanism between lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. They are responsible for driving large scale circulations like Brewer-Dobson circulation and contribute almost 60% to the QBO of the inner tropics. Convection is the dominant source for tropical GWs, but deep convection is also one of the most difficult to understand sources of GWs. Especially, the development of atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM) suffers from improvements in the parameterization of convectively forced GWs (cGWs). In this study we present the results of GW ray-tracing calculations of cGWs. For this, we used the Gravity Wave Regional Or Global RAy-tracer (GROGRAT) and the convective source scheme from Yonsei University (South Korea). Furthermore, we used MERRA heating rates, cloud data, and background data for both the calculation of the convective forcing by deep convection and for the atmospheric background of the ray-tracing calculations afterwards. Also, we compare our results with satellite measurements of squared temperature amplitudes as well as momentum flux by the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument in order to validate our findings over a 10 years period. For the comparison the observational filter of the instrument is taken into account, the influence discussed. The modulation of GW momentum flux by the background winds and in particular the influence of the QBO is investigated. GW drag at various altitudes is calculated and compared to the drag required for the forcing of the QBO.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3694156','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3694156"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Biomechanical Modeling of Metatherian and Placental <span class="hlt">Saber</span>-Tooths: A Different Kind of Bite for an Extreme Pouched Predator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wroe, Stephen; Chamoli, Uphar; Parr, William C. H.; Clausen, Philip; Ridgely, Ryan; Witmer, Lawrence</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Questions surrounding the dramatic morphology of <span class="hlt">saber</span>-tooths, and the presumably deadly purpose to which it was put, have long excited scholarly and popular attention. Among <span class="hlt">saber</span>-toothed species, the iconic North American placental, Smilodon fatalis, and the bizarre South American sparassodont, Thylacosmilus atrox, represent extreme forms commonly forwarded as examples of convergent evolution. For S. fatalis, some consensus has been reached on the question of killing behaviour, with most researchers accepting the canine-shear bite hypothesis, wherein both head-depressing and jaw closing musculatures played a role in delivery of the fatal bite. However, whether, or to what degree, T. atrox may have applied a similar approach remains an open question. Here we apply a three-dimensional computational approach to examine convergence in mechanical performance between the two species. We find that, in many respects, the placental S. fatalis (a true felid) was more similar to the metatherian T. atrox than to a conical-toothed cat. In modeling of both <span class="hlt">saber</span>-tooths we found that jaw-adductor-driven bite forces were low, but that simulations invoking neck musculature revealed less cranio-mandibular stress than in a conical-toothed cat. However, our study also revealed differences between the two <span class="hlt">saber</span>-tooths likely reflected in the modus operandi of the kill. Jaw-adductor-driven bite forces were extremely weak in T. atrox, and its skull was even better-adapted to resist stress induced by head-depressors. Considered together with the fact that the center of the arc described by the canines was closer to the jaw-joint in Smilodon, our results are consistent with both jaw-closing and neck musculature playing a role in prey dispatch for the placental, as has been previously suggested. However, for T. atrox, we conclude that the jaw-adductors probably played no major part in the killing bite. We propose that the metatherian presents a more complete commitment to the already</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRA..121.1627G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRA..121.1627G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The responses of the nightglow emissions observed by the TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> satellite to solar radiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Hong; Xu, Jiyao; Chen, Guang-Ming</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The responses of four nightglow emissions, NO emission at 5.3 µm, O2 infrared atmospheric band at 1.27 µm, and OH emissions at 2.0 µm and 1.6 µm (referred to as OH2 and OH1 in this study), to solar radiation are studied and compared based on the data observed by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> instrument over 13 years. The quantitative relationships between the nightglow emissions and solar radiation are obtained by a linear regression fit using the F10.7 index. The intensities and the peak heights of the 13 year average global mean NO, O2, OH2, and OH1 nightglows are 270.0 ± 42.8 kR, 106.9 ± 2.2 kR, 133.2 ± 1.6 kR, 217.5 ± 2.4 kR, 123.6 ± 0.2 km, 89.8 ± 0.05 km, 88.1 ± 0.02 km, and 86.6 ± 0.02 km, respectively. Among the four nightglow emissions, the influence of solar radiation on the ones at lower heights is weaker than the ones higher above. The responses of the global mean NO, O2, OH2, and OH1 nightglow intensities to solar radiation are 176.3 ± 4.8%/100 solar flux units (sfu), 22.2 ± 1.4%/100 sfu, 12.9 ± 1.1%/100 sfu, and 11.4 ± 1.3%/100 sfu, respectively. The intensities and peak emission rates of the four global mean nightglow emissions are highly correlated to solar radiation. The response of the height of the global mean O2 nightglow peak emission rate to solar radiation is 0.51 ± 0.08 km/100 sfu. The responses of NO, OH2, and OH1 nightglow peak heights to solar radiation are not obvious. In addition, the responses of nightglow emissions to solar radiation change with latitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..12010793L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..12010793L"><span id="translatedtitle">The variability of nonmigrating tides detected from TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Xing; Wan, Weixing; Ren, Zhipeng; Liu, Libo; Ning, Baiqi</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>This paper deals with the variability of the nonmigrating tides detected from the observation of the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument on board the TIMED satellite during the 11 year solar period from 2002 to 2012. The longitudinal wave number spectra with 1 day resolution were first estimated from the temperature data measured at the MLT altitudes (70-110 km) and at the lower midlatitudes and low latitudes (between ±45°). Then we used the wave number 4 component to obtain the nonmigrating tides in which the dominant component DE3 was further analyzed in detail. We found that the properties of the spatial distribution and large time scale variation of the DE3 component are similar to those of the previous works, which used the interpolated data with 2 month resolution. These properties are that the DE3 component occurs mainly at the low latitudes within ±30° and at the altitudes from 90 to 110 km; the tidal amplitude is larger during boreal summer and early autumn, smaller in spring and almost tends to disappear in winter; the component is slightly stronger during the eastward wind QBO phase than the westward phase. Practically, the higher-resolution data were used to reveal the day-to-day variability of the DE3 component. It is found that (1) the variability occurs mainly at the altitudes from 100 to 110 km with a peak at 106 km; (2) it is strong at the low latitudes and peaks around the equator, as well, slightly stronger in the Southern Hemisphere than in northern one; (3) it is considerably larger around solstitial months than equinoctial months; and (4) it would not experience an obvious interannual variation. The day-to-day variability of the DE3 component may be explained by the variance of the absolute amplitudes and the contribution of the wave phases, and the later seems to play more important role.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23300674','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23300674"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of diet for the extinction of <span class="hlt">saber</span>-toothed cats and American lions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Desantis, Larisa R G; Schubert, Blaine W; Scott, Jessica R; Ungar, Peter S</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">saber</span>-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, and American lion, Panthera atrox, were among the largest terrestrial carnivores that lived during the Pleistocene, going extinct along with other megafauna ∼12,000 years ago. Previous work suggests that times were difficult at La Brea (California) during the late Pleistocene, as nearly all carnivores have greater incidences of tooth breakage (used to infer greater carcass utilization) compared to today. As Dental Microwear Texture Analysis (DMTA) can differentiate between levels of bone consumption in extant carnivores, we use DMTA to clarify the dietary niches of extinct carnivorans from La Brea. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that times were tough at La Brea with carnivorous taxa utilizing more of the carcasses. Our results show no evidence of bone crushing by P. atrox, with DMTA attributes most similar to the extant cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, which actively avoids bone. In contrast, S. fatalis has DMTA attributes most similar to the African lion Panthera leo, implying that S. fatalis did not avoid bone to the extent previously suggested by SEM microwear data. DMTA characters most indicative of bone consumption (i.e., complexity and textural fill volume) suggest that carcass utilization by the extinct carnivorans was not necessarily more complete during the Pleistocene at La Brea; thus, times may not have been "tougher" than the present. Additionally, minor to no significant differences in DMTA attributes from older (∼30-35 Ka) to younger (∼11.5 Ka) deposits offer little evidence that declining prey resources were a primary cause of extinction for these large cats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3530457','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3530457"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications of Diet for the Extinction of <span class="hlt">Saber</span>-Toothed Cats and American Lions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>DeSantis, Larisa R. G.; Schubert, Blaine W.; Scott, Jessica R.; Ungar, Peter S.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">saber</span>-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, and American lion, Panthera atrox, were among the largest terrestrial carnivores that lived during the Pleistocene, going extinct along with other megafauna ∼12,000 years ago. Previous work suggests that times were difficult at La Brea (California) during the late Pleistocene, as nearly all carnivores have greater incidences of tooth breakage (used to infer greater carcass utilization) compared to today. As Dental Microwear Texture Analysis (DMTA) can differentiate between levels of bone consumption in extant carnivores, we use DMTA to clarify the dietary niches of extinct carnivorans from La Brea. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that times were tough at La Brea with carnivorous taxa utilizing more of the carcasses. Our results show no evidence of bone crushing by P. atrox, with DMTA attributes most similar to the extant cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, which actively avoids bone. In contrast, S. fatalis has DMTA attributes most similar to the African lion Panthera leo, implying that S. fatalis did not avoid bone to the extent previously suggested by SEM microwear data. DMTA characters most indicative of bone consumption (i.e., complexity and textural fill volume) suggest that carcass utilization by the extinct carnivorans was not necessarily more complete during the Pleistocene at La Brea; thus, times may not have been “tougher” than the present. Additionally, minor to no significant differences in DMTA attributes from older (∼30–35 Ka) to younger (∼11.5 Ka) deposits offer little evidence that declining prey resources were a primary cause of extinction for these large cats. PMID:23300674</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E1368K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E1368K"><span id="translatedtitle">Ray-tracing simulation and <span class="hlt">SABER</span> satellite observations of convective gravity waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kalisch, Silvio; Eckermann, Stephen; Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin; Trinh, Quang Thai; Kim, Young-Ha; Chun, Hye-Yeong</p> <p></p> <p>Gravity waves (GWs) are known as a coupling mechanism between different atmospheric layers. They contribute to the wave-driving of the QBO and are also responsible for driving large scale circulations like the Brewer-Dobson circulation. One major and highly variable source of GWs is convection. Deep convection in the tropics excites GWs with prominent amplitudes and horizontal phase speeds of up to 90 m/s. These GWs propagate upward and, when breaking, release the wave's momentum, thus accelerate the background flow. Direction and magnitude of the acceleration strongly depends on wind filtering between the convective GW source and the considered altitude. Both, the generation mechanism of GWs close to the top of deep convective towers and the wind filtering process during GW propagation largely influence the GW spectrum found in the tropical middle atmosphere and therefore magnitude and direction of the acceleration. We present the results of GW ray-tracing calculations from tropospheric (convective) sources up to the mesosphere. The Gravity wave Regional Or Global RAy-Tracer (GROGRAT) was used to perform the GW trajectory calculations. The convective GW source scheme from Yonsei University (South Korea) served as the lower boundary condition to quantify the GW excitation from convection. Heating rates, cloud top data, and atmospheric background data were provided by the MERRA dataset for the calculation of convective forcing from deep convection and for the atmospheric background of the ray-tracing calculations afterwards. In order to validate our ray-tracing simulation results, we compare them to satellite measurements of temperature amplitudes and momentum fluxes from the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument. Therefore, observational constrains from limb-sounding instruments have been quantified. Influences of orbit geometry, the instrument's observational filter, and the wavelength shift in the observed GW spectrum are discussed. Geographic structures in the observed global</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011JGRA..116.6314J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011JGRA..116.6314J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations of global cold point mesopause variability at diurnal and planetary wave scales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>John, Sherine Rachel; Kumar, Karanam Kishore</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Cold point mesopause is characterized by the coldest point in the temperature profile of the Earth's atmosphere. TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations of cold point mesopause and its variability at diurnal and planetary wave scales are discussed in this study. For the first time, the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal modulations of mesopause are quantified on a global scale during all the four seasons, namely, winter, vernal equinox, summer, and autumnal equinox. The composite of diurnal variations of mesopause height and temperature are discussed during each season and using least squares fit, diurnal and semidiurnal tidal amplitudes and phases are obtained. Most of the features exhibited by the diurnal variation of mesopause height are consistent with the present understanding of the migrating tides. The diurnal tidal modulations of mesopause show its peak over equatorial latitude and change its phase around 20° latitude. The phase of the diurnal tidal modulation is consistent during all seasons expect for a phase shift of 4-6 h observed during boreal summer. The similarities/discrepancies between the latitudinal structure of migrating tides and the diurnal variation of mesopause height are discussed. The results reveal that the diurnal tidal modulations of mesopause height show hemispherical asymmetry, which is not reflected in mesopause temperature. The diurnal and semidiurnal amplitudes in mesopause height across the globe are comparable in magnitude and it is found that over equatorial and low latitudes, the variability of mesopause is maximum at these scales as compared to seasonal scales. Quantification of mesopause height at diurnal scales is very important as it also changes the chemistry of that region. In the present study, an attempt is also made to demonstrate the modulation of the mesopause by propagating planetary waves. The results emphatically show that propagating planetary waves do modulate the mesopause height.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AnGeo..31.1061H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AnGeo..31.1061H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Global climatological variability of quasi-two-day waves revealed by TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Y. Y.; Zhang, S. D.; Yi, F.; Huang, C. M.; Huang, K. M.; Gan, Q.; Gong, Y.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>This paper presents characteristics of quasi-two-day waves (QTDWs) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) between 52° S and 52° N from 2002 to 2011 using TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperature data. Spectral analysis suggests that dominant QTDW components at mid-high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and the Northern Hemisphere (NH) are (2.13, W3) and (2.04, W4), respectively. The most remarkable QTDW is (2.13, W3), which happened in the southern summer of 2002-2003 at 32° S from 60 to 90 km in altitude. Its downward phase propagation indicates upward propagation of the wave energy and a potential source region below 60 km. Analysis of horizontal wind fields in the same period shows the westward and southward propagation of (2.13, W3) and a possible reflection region above 90 km. Fundamental parameters of QTDWs present significant interhemispheric differences and interannual variations in statistical analysis. Amplitudes in the SH are twice larger than that in the NH, and vertical wavelengths are a little longer in the SH. QTDWs may endure stronger dissipation in southern summer because of shorter durations of their attenuation stages. Impact of the equatorial quasi-biennial-oscillation (QBO) on QTDWs can extend to mid-high latitudes of both hemispheres. It seems easier for QTDWs to propagate upward in the equatorial QBO's westerly phase in the lower stratosphere and easterly phase in the middle stratosphere. Interannual variations of QTDW strength may be influenced by solar activity as well. Strengths of QTDWs appear to be stronger (weaker) in the solar maximum (minimum).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1157L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1157L"><span id="translatedtitle">The variability of nonmigrating tides detected from TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Xing; Liu, Libo; Ning, Baiqi; Ren, Zhipeng; Wan, Weixing</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>This work deals with the variability of the nonmigrating tides detected from the observation of the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument on board the TIMED satellite during the 11 year solar period from 2002 to 2012. The longitudinal wave number spectra with 1 day resolution were first estimated from the temperature data measured at the MLT altitudes (70-110 km) and at the lower midlatitudes and low latitudes (between ±±45°°). Then we used the wave number 4 component to obtain the nonmigrating tides in which the dominant component DE3 was further analyzed in detail. We found that the properties of the spatial distribution and large time scale variation of the DE3 component are similar to those of the previous works, which used the interpolated data with 2 month resolution. These properties are that the DE3 component occurs mainly at the low latitudes within ±30° and at the altitudes from 90 to 110 km; the tidal amplitude is larger during boreal summer and early autumn, smaller in spring and almost tends to disappear in winter; the component is slightly stronger during the eastward wind QBO phase than the westward phase. Practically, the higher-resolution data were used to reveal the day-to-day variability of the DE3 component. It is found that (1) the variability occurs mainly at the altitudes from 100 to 110 km with a peak at 106 km; (2) it is strong at the low latitudes and peaks around the equator, as well, slightly stronger in the Southern Hemisphere than in northern one; (3) it is considerably larger around solstitial months than equinoctial months; and (4) it would not experience an obvious interannual variation. The day-to-day variability of the DE3 component may be explained by the variance of the absolute amplitudes and the contribution of the wave phases, and the later seems to play more important role.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25387452','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25387452"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> buffers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Puglisi, Antonio</p> <p>2015-01-12</p> <p>This paper proposes a new type of molecular device that is able to act as an inverse proton sponge to slowly decrease the pH inside a reaction vessel. This makes the automatic monitoring of the concentration of pH-sensitive systems possible. The device is a composite formed of an alkyl chloride, which <span class="hlt">kinetically</span> produces acidity, and a buffer that thermodynamically modulates the variation in pH value. Profiles of pH versus time (pH-t plots) have been generated under various experimental conditions by computer simulation, and the device has been tested by carrying out automatic spectrophotometric titrations, without using an autoburette. To underline the wide variety of possible applications, this new system has been used to realize and monitor HCl uptake by a di-copper(II) bistren complex in a single run, in a completely automatic experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJT....37...39W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJT....37...39W"><span id="translatedtitle">Photocarrier <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> Investigation of Light-Induced Degradation of Boron-Doped Czochralski-Grown Silicon Without Surface Passivation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Qian; Li, Bincheng</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Light-induced degradation (LID) effects of boron-doped Cz silicon wafers without surface passivation are investigated in details by photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PCR). The resistivity of all samples is in the range of 0.006 Ω {\\cdot } {cm} to 38 Ω {\\cdot } {cm}. It is found that light-induced changes in surface state occupation have a great effect on LID under illumination. With the increasing contribution of light-induced changes in surface state occupation, the generation rate of the defect decreases. The light-induced changes in surface state occupation and light-induced degradation dominate the temporal behaviors of the excess carrier density of high- and low-resistivity Si wafers, respectively. Moreover, the temporal behaviors of PCR signals of these samples under laser illumination with different powers, energy of photons, and multiple illuminations were also analyzed to understand the light-induced change of material properties. Based on the nonlinear dependence of PCR signal on the excitation power, a theoretical model taking into account both light-induced changes in surface state occupation and LID processes was proposed to explain those temporal behaviors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1015260','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1015260"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous measurement of temperature and emissivity of lunar regolith simulant using dual-channel millimeter-wave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McCloy, J. S.; Sundaram, S. K.; Matyas, J.; Woskov, P. P.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Millimeter wave (MMW) <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> can be used for simultaneous measurement of emissivity and temperature of materials under extreme environments (high temperature, pressure, and corrosive environments). The state-of-the-art dual channel MMW passive radiometer with active interferometric capabilities at 137 GHz described here allows for radiometric measurements of sample temperature and emissivity up to at least 1600 °C with simultaneous measurement of sample surface dynamics. These capabilities have been used to demonstrate dynamic measurement of melting of powders of simulated lunar regolith and static measurement of emissivity of solid samples. The paper presents the theoretical background and basis for the dual-receiver system, describes the hardware in detail, and demonstrates the data analysis. Post-experiment analysis of emissivity versus temperature allows further extraction from the radiometric data of millimeter wave viewing beam coupling factors, which provide corroboratory evidence to the interferometric data of the process dynamics observed. Finally, these results show the promise of the MMW system for extracting quantitative and qualitative process parameters for industrial processes and access to real-time dynamics of materials behavior in extreme environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21639528','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21639528"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous measurement of temperature and emissivity of lunar regolith simulant using dual-channel millimeter-wave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McCloy, J S; Sundaram, S K; Matyas, J; Woskov, P P</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Millimeter wave (MMW) <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> can be used for simultaneous measurement of emissivity and temperature of materials under extreme environments (high temperature, pressure, and corrosive environments). The state-of-the-art dual channel MMW passive radiometer with active interferometric capabilities at 137 GHz described here allows for radiometric measurements of sample temperature and emissivity up to at least 1600 °C with simultaneous measurement of sample surface dynamics. These capabilities have been used to demonstrate dynamic measurement of melting of powders of simulated lunar regolith and static measurement of emissivity of solid samples. The paper presents the theoretical background and basis for the dual-receiver system, describes the hardware in detail, and demonstrates the data analysis. Post-experiment analysis of emissivity versus temperature allows further extraction from the radiometric data of millimeter wave viewing beam coupling factors, which provide corroboratory evidence to the interferometric data of the process dynamics observed. These results show the promise of the MMW system for extracting quantitative and qualitative process parameters for industrial processes and access to real-time dynamics of materials behavior in extreme environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020064934','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020064934"><span id="translatedtitle">Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager Flight Performance Assessment: Absolute <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> and Stability During the First Year</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mendenhall, J. A.; Lencioni, D. E.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The absolute <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> of the Advanced Land Imager during the first year on orbit (November 21,2000 - November 21, 2001) is presented. Results derived from solar, lunar, ground truth, and internal reference lamp measurements are presented. An 18% drop in the radiometric response of the Band 1p data since preflight calibration at Lincoln Laboratory is observed using all techniques. This decrease cannot be accounted for by preflight calibration errors, stray light, or contamination of the focal plane. A slight drooping of the VNIR response toward the blue and a 5-12% increase in the Band 5 response is also apparent in all the data. Radiometric response correction factors have been calculated and preflight calibration coefficients have been updated in order to provide +/- 5% agreement between the measured solar, lunar, and ground truth data and the expected values. The radiometric stability of the ALI during the first year of operation is also presented for each spectral band. Internal reference lamp data indicate the focal plane has been stable to within 1% for bands 1p, 1, 2, 5p, 5, 7, pan and 3% for Bands 3,4, 4p since launch. Solar, lunar, and ground truth measurements indicate the optical train and solar diffuser of the instrument has been stable to within 1% since initial measurements on orbit in late December 2000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4249...79N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4249...79N"><span id="translatedtitle">Dental depth profilometry using simultaneous frequency-domain infrared photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and laser luminescence for the diagnosis of dental caries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nicolaides, Lena; Garcia, Jose A.; Mandelis, Andreas; Abrams, Stephen H.</p> <p>2001-04-01</p> <p>Frequency-domain IR photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> is introduced as a dynamic dental diagnostic tool and its main features are compared with modulated laser luminescence for quantifying sound and carious enamel or dentin. Dental caries found in the fissures or grooves of teeth is very difficult to diagnose or quantify with the present clinical techniques. Visual examination and dental radiographs do not detect the presence of decay until there has been significant carious destruction of the tooth. A high-spatial-resolution dynamic experimental imaging set-up, which can provide simultaneous measurements of laser-induced frequency-domain IR photothermal radiometric and luminescence signals form defects in teeth, was developed. Following optical absorption of laser photons, the new set-up can monitor simultaneously and independently the non-radiative conversion, and the radiative de-excitation in turbid media such as hard dental tissue. This work is intended to show the complementarity between modulated luminescence and photothermal frequency scans in detecting carious lesions in teeth. A sound extracted molar with a dentin-enamel interface was introduced to examine the depth profilometric abilities of the method. Occlusal surfaces of teeth with potential areas of demineralization or carious destruction in the fissures were examined and compared to the signals produced by the sound enamel establishing the depth profilometric abilities of the method. The significance to clinical dentistry lies in the potential of this technique to detect and monitor early carious lesions in the pits and fissures of teeth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4710..373M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4710..373M"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress in theoretical, experimental, and computational investigations in turbid tissue phantoms and human teeth using laser infrared photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mandelis, Andreas</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>This paper reviews and describes the state-of-the-art in the development of frequency-domain infrared photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (FD-PTR) for biomedical and dental applications. The emphasis is placed on the measurement of the optical and thermal properties of tissue-like materials using FD-PTR. A rigorous three-dimensional thermal-wave formulation with three-dimensional diffuse and coherent photon-density-wave sources is presented, and is applied to data from model tissue phantoms and dental enamel samples. The combined theoretical, experimental and computational methodology shows good promise with regard to its analytical ability to measure optical properties of turbid media uniquely, as compared to PPTR, which exhibits uniqueness problems. From data sets obtained with calibrated test phantoms, the reduced optical scattering and absorption coefficients were found to be within 20% and 10%, respectively, from the independently derived values using Mie scattering theory and spectrophotometric measurements. Furthermore, the state-of-the-art and recent developments in applications of laser infrared FD-PTR to dental caries research is described, with examples and histological studies from carious dental tissue. The correlation of PTR signals with modulated dental luminescence is discussed as a very promising potential quantitative methodology for the clinical diagnosis of sub-surface incipient dental caries. The application of the turbid-medium thermal-wave model to the measurement of the optical absorption and scattering coefficients of enamel is also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15065708','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15065708"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiband fiber optic <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for measuring the temperature and emissivity of gray bodies of low or high emissivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sade, Sharon; Katzir, Abraham</p> <p>2004-03-20</p> <p>Infrared fiber optic <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> was used for noncontact thermometry of gray bodies whose temperature was close to room temperature (40-70 degrees C). We selected three gray bodies, one with high emissivity (epsilon = 0.97), one with medium emissivity (epsilon = 0.71), and one with low emissivity (epsilon = 0.025). We carried out optimization calculations and measurements for a multiband fiber optic radiometer that consisted of a silver halide (AgClBr) infrared-transmitting fiber, a dual-band cooled infrared detector, and a set of 18 narrowband infrared filters that covered the 2-14-microm spectral range. We determined the optimal spectral range, the optimal number of filters to be used, and the optimal chopping scheme. Using these optimal conditions, we performed measurements of the three gray bodies and obtained an accuracy of better than 1 degrees C for body temperature and for room temperature. An accuracy of 0.03 was obtained for body emissivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003EAEJA.....5550K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2003EAEJA.....5550K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Stratospheric ozone isotopes observed by air-borne and space-borne submillimeter-wave heterodyne <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>: A sensitivity study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kasai, Y.; Urban, J.; Takahashi, C.; Smiles Mission Team</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The variation of the isotopic composition of a species in the Earth atmosphere provides us the information on the history of the air masses, because the isotope enrichment or depletion reflects the chemical and physical processes. Since the discovery of the heavy isotope enrichment of ozone in the stratosphere in 1981 considerable progress has been made in understanding the processes that control the isotope enrichment based on atmospheric observations, laboratory experiments, and so on. However, the exact mechanism for the effect remains uncertain and accurate sequentially observations of ozone isotopomer at global scale are still very sparse. Further improvements of measurement precision can be obtained by making use of the new technological development of high-precision submillimeter-wave heterodyne <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> based on sensitive SIS detector technology. The airborne ASUR instrument (Airborne SUb-millimeter SIS Radiometer) observed lines of asymmetric-18 ozone in the frequency region of 645 GHz with this technology since ~1994. The JEM/SMILES instrument (Japaneses Experiment Module / Superconducting sub-MIllimeter Limb Emission Sounder), to be installed on the International Space Station in 2007, will measure several ozone isotopomer in the stratosphere at global scale from space using very similar frequency bands. An error analysis including the most typical systematic errors is performed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100035238','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100035238"><span id="translatedtitle">Storm/Quiet Ratio Comparisons Between TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> NO (sup +)(v) Volume Emission Rates and Incoherent Scatter Radar Electron Densities at E-Region Altitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fernandez, J. R.; Mertens, C. J.; Bilitza, D.; Xu, X.; Russell, J. M., III; Mlynczak, M. G.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Broadband infrared limb emission at 4.3 microns is measured by the TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument. At night, these emission observations at E-region altitudes are used to derive the so called NO+(v) Volume Emission Rate (VER). NO+(v) VER can be derived by removing the background CO2(v3) 4.3 microns radiance contribution using <span class="hlt">SABER</span>-based non-LTE radiation transfer models, and by performing a standard Abel inversion on the residual radiance. <span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations show that NO+(v) VER is significantly enhanced during magnetic storms in accordance with increased ionization of the neutral atmosphere by auroral electron precipitation, followed by vibrational excitation of NO+ (i.e., NO+(v)) from fast exothermic ion-neutral reactions, and prompt infrared emission at 4.3 m. Due to charge neutrality, the NO+(v) VER enhancements are highly correlated with electron density enhancements, as observed for example by Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR). In order to characterize the response of the storm-time E-region from both <span class="hlt">SABER</span> and ISR measurements, a Storm/Quiet ratio (SQR) quantity is defined as a function of altitude. For <span class="hlt">SABER</span>, the SQR is the ratio of the storm-to-quiet NO+(v) VER. SQR is the storm-to-quiet ratio of electron densities for ISR. In this work, we compare <span class="hlt">SABER</span> and ISR SQR values between 100 to 120 km. Results indicate good agreement between these measurements. SQR values are intended to be used as a correction factor to be included in an empirical storm-time correction to the International Reference Ionosphere model at E-region altitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009864','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009864"><span id="translatedtitle">Inter-Hemispheric Coupling During Northern Polar Summer Periods of 2002-2010 using TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldberg, Richard A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Pesnell, W. D.; Kutepov, A. A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>It has been found that for more than one polar summer season between 2002-2010, the northern polar mesospheric region near and above about 80 km was warmer than normal. The strongest warming effect of this type was observed to occur during northern summer 2002. Theoretical studies have implied that these "anomalies" were preceded by unusual dynamical processes in the southern hemisphere. We have analyzed temperature distributions measured by the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> limb scanning infrared radiometer aboard the NASA TIMED satellite between 2002-2010 at altitudes from 15 to 110 km and for latitudes between 83 S to 83 N. We describe the approach to trace the inter-hemispheric temperature correlations demonstrating the global features that were unique for the "anomalous" northern polar summers. From our analysis of <span class="hlt">SABER</span> data from 2002-2010, the anomalous heating for the northern mesopause region during northern summer was accompanied by stratospheric heating in the equatorial region. In the winter hemisphere it is accompanied by heating in the lower stratosphere and mesopause region, and cooling in the stratopause region. Also, all the elements of the temperature anomaly structure appear to develop and fade away nearly simultaneously, thereby suggesting either a global influence or a rapid exchange.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012ClDy...39.1489J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012ClDy...39.1489J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations of global gravity wave climatology and their interannual variability from stratosphere to mesosphere lower thermosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>John, Sherine Rachel; Kumar, Karanam Kishore</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The present study for the first time reports the global gravity wave activity in terms of their potential energy derived from TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations right from the stratosphere to the mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT) region. The potential energy profiles obtained from <span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperature are validated by comparing them with ground based LIDAR observations over a low latitude site, Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E). The stratospheric and mesospheric global maps of gravity wave energy showed pronounced maxima over high and polar latitudes of the winter hemisphere. The interannual variability of the stratospheric gravity wave activity exhibited prominent annual oscillation over mid-latitudes. The equatorial gravity wave activity exhibited quasi-biennial oscillation in the lower stratosphere and semi-annual oscillation in the upper stratosphere. The MLT region maps revealed summer hemispheric maxima over polar latitudes and secondary maxima over the equatorial region. The results are discussed in the light of present understanding of global gravity wave observations. The significance of the present study lies in emphasizing the importance of satellite measurements in elucidating gravity waves, which is envisaged to have profound impact on parameterizing these waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011JGRA..11610324C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011JGRA..11610324C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Propagating planetary wave coupling in <span class="hlt">SABER</span> MLT temperatures and GPS TEC during the 2005/2006 austral summer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Loren C.; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Palo, Scott E.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>It has long been suggested that the existence of ionospheric oscillations at multiday periodicities can be explained in part, by the penetration of propagating planetary waves into the E region ionospheric dynamo. In this study, global-scale observations of mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) temperatures from TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> and total electron content (TEC) results from GPS derived global ionosphere maps are examined for signs of potential upward planetary wave coupling, around the time of an intense quasi 2 day wave (QTDW) event in the MLT region during 1 December 2005 to 28 February 2006. The periodicity and zonal wave number of westward 3 (W3) and westward 2 (W2) QTDWs are resolved continuously in equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) latitude TEC values at the same times as corresponding QTDW events in <span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperatures. Additionally, signatures of an E1 ultrafast Kelvin (UFK) or inertia-gravity wave with period around 60 h (2.5 d) are also resolved. While the TECs also show signs of geomagnetic activity, the coherence and consistency of the aforementioned disturbances between the MLT and the ionosphere suggest that they cannot be attributed to geomagnetic forcing. We find that such propagating planetary waves can produce transient variability of the EIAs, though the effectiveness and hemispheric symmetry of such coupling also depends on factors other than the maximum planetary wave amplitude in the MLT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012cosp...39..827J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012cosp...39..827J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Tidal variability during stratospheric sudden warming in 2009: Comparison between GAIA model and COSMIC and TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jin, Hidekatsu; Miyoshi, Yasunobu; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Pancheva, Dora; Mukhtarov, Plamen</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>We compare results from a whole atmosphere-ionosphere coupled model, GAIA, and from the COSMIC and TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations during 2008/2009 northern winter season. The GAIA model has assimilated meteorological reanalysis data by a nudging method. The comparison shows excellent agreements in the major features from the stratosphere to the ionosphere including the growth and decay of the major stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) event in 2009. During the major SSW period, a pronounced semidiurnal variation in the F-region electron density and its local-time phase shift similar to the previous observations are reproduced by the model and COSMIC observation. The model suggests that the TEC variation is caused by an enhanced semidiurnal variation in the EXB drift, which is probably related to an amplified semidiurnal migrating tide (SW2) in the lower thermosphere. The model and TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> observation show that the SW2 tide amplifies at low latitudes from the stratosphere to the thermosphere as well as the phase variation. Possible mechanisms will be discussed in the presentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JASTP.104..277G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JASTP.104..277G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Inter-hemispheric coupling during northern polar summer periods of 2002-2010 using TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goldberg, R. A.; Feofilov, A. G.; Pesnell, W. D.; Kutepov, A. A.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>It has been found that for more than one polar summer season between 2002 and 2010, the northern polar mesospheric region near and above about 80 km was warmer than normal. The strongest warming effect of this type was observed to occur during northern summer 2002. Observational and theoretical studies imply that these “anomalies” were preceded by unusual dynamical processes in the southern hemisphere. We have analyzed temperature distributions measured by the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> limb scanning infrared radiometer aboard the NASA TIMED satellite between 2002 and 2010 at altitudes from 15 to 110 km and for latitudes between 83°S and 83°N. We describe the approach to trace the spatial extent of inter-hemispheric temperature correlations demonstrating the global features that were unique for the “anomalous” northern polar summers. From our analysis of <span class="hlt">SABER</span> data from 2002 to 2010, the anomalous heating for the northern mesopause region during northern summer was accompanied by stratospheric heating in the equatorial region. In the winter hemisphere it is accompanied by heating in the lower stratosphere and mesopause region, and cooling in the stratopause region. Also, all the elements of the temperature anomaly structure appear to develop and fade away nearly simultaneously, thereby suggesting either a global influence or a short lagging period (less than 7 days).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110009953','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110009953"><span id="translatedtitle">C02(nu2)-0 Quenching Rate Coefficient Derived from Coincidental Fort Collins Lidar and <span class="hlt">SABER</span> Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; She, C. Y.; Smith, A. K.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), the quenching of CO2(V2) vibrational levels in collisions with oxygen atoms plays an important role. However, neither the rate coefficient of this process (k(CO2O)) nor the atomic oxygen concentrations ([O]) in the MLT are well known. The discrepancy between k(CO2O) measured in the lab and retrieved from atmospheric measurements is of about factor of 2.5. At the same time, the discrepancy between [O] in the MLT measured by different instruments is of the same order of magnitude. In this work we used a synergy of a ground based lidar and satellite infrared radiometer to make a further step in understanding of the physics of the region. In this study we apply the night- and daytime temperatures between 80 and 110 km measured by the Colorado State University narrow-band sodium (Na) lidar located at Fort Collins, Colorado for retrieving the product of k(CO2-O) x [O] from the limb radiances in the 15 micron channel measured by the <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED instrument for nearly simultaneous common volume measurements of both instruments within +/-1 degree in latitude, +/-2 degrees in longitude and +/-10 minutes in time. We derive k(CO2-O) and its possible variation range from the retrieved product by utilizing the [O] values measured by the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> and other instruments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110023475&hterms=Forest&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DForest','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110023475&hterms=Forest&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DForest"><span id="translatedtitle">A First-Order Radiative Transfer Model for Microwave <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> of Forest Canopies at L-Band</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kurum, Mehmet; Lang, Roger H.; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Joseph, Alicia T.; Jackson, Thomas J.; Cosh, Michael H.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In this study, a first-order radiative transfer (RT) model is developed to more accurately account for vegetation canopy scattering by modifying the basic Tau-Omega model (the zero-order RT solution). In order to optimally utilize microwave radiometric data in soil moisture (SM) retrievals over vegetated landscapes, a quantitative understanding of the relationship between scattering mechanisms within vegetation canopies and the microwave brightness temperature is desirable. The first-order RT model is used to investigate this relationship and to perform a physical analysis of the scattered and emitted radiation from vegetated terrain. This model is based on an iterative solution (successive orders of scattering) of the RT equations up to the first order. This formulation adds a new scattering term to the . model. The additional term represents emission by particles (vegetation components) in the vegetation layer and emission by the ground that is scattered once by particles in the layer. The model is tested against 1.4-GHz brightness temperature measurements acquired over deciduous trees by a truck-mounted microwave instrument system called ComRAD in 2007. The model predictions are in good agreement with the data, and they give quantitative understanding for the influence of first-order scattering within the canopy on the brightness temperature. The model results show that the scattering term is significant for trees and modifications are necessary to the . model when applied to dense vegetation. Numerical simulations also indicate that the scattering term has a negligible dependence on SM and is mainly a function of the incidence angle and polarization of the microwave observation. Index Terms Emission,microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, scattering, soil, vegetation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3824263','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3824263"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> monitoring of brown fat metabolism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>. Methods A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSS™ with 1.5 mm skin, 3–10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2–6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSS™ were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results The optimized frequency band was 1.5–2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2–9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4–15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2–6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism. PMID:24244831</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4040H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.4040H"><span id="translatedtitle">First results from ground-based CO2 remote sounding using high-resolution thermal IR laser heterodyne <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoffmann, Alex; Huebner, Marko; Macleod, Neil; Weidmann, Damien</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Over the course of the last decade, the Laser Spectroscopy Group at RAL Space has considerably furthered the passive remote sensing technique of thermal IR Laser Heterodyne <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> (LHR), and applied it successfully to the ground-based sounding of atmospheric profiles of a variety of trace gases, including methane. LHR is underpinned by coherent detection technology and ideally shot noise-limited, which can significantly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of acquired atmospheric spectra over conventional direct detection spectrometers when high spectral (>500,000 resolving power) and high spatial resolutions are needed. These benefits allow probing optimized narrow spectral windows (1 cm-1) with full absorption lineshape information, useful for trace gas vertical profiling. Furthermore, LHR has a high potential for miniaturization into a rugged, unprecedentedly compact package, through hollow waveguide optical integration, facilitating its deployment in ground-based observation networks, as well as on a variety of airborne and spaceborne platforms, whilst retaining its high specifications. This makes LHR well-suited to the remote sounding of key greenhouse gases, in particular carbon dioxide, as observations with high precision and accuracy are crucial to discriminate trends and small variations over a substantial background concentration, and in order to contribute to flux estimations in top-down carbon cycle inversion approaches and anthropogenic emission monitoring. Here, we present a new optical bench-based LHR prototype that has been specifically built to demonstrate CO2 sounding in the thermal IR. The instrument has been coupled to a new permanently installed solar tracker to take a long-term measurement series in solar occultation mode, and to assess the performance of the instrument. We discuss its theoretical performance modelled using an Observation System Simulator, and showcase first results from a 6 months' archive, with observations undergoing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......310B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......310B"><span id="translatedtitle">Analyse du potentiel de la <span class="hlt">radiometrie</span> infrarouge thermique pour la caracterisation des nuages de glace en Arctique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blanchard, Yann</p> <p></p> <p>An important goal, within the context of improving climate change modelling, is to enhance our understanding of aerosols and their radiative effects (notably their indirect impact as cloud condensation nuclei). The cloud optical depth (COD) and average ice particle size of thin ice clouds (TICs) are two key parameters whose variations could strongly influence radiative effects and climate in the Arctic environment. Our objective was to assess the potential of using multi-band thermal radiance measurements of zenith sky radiance for retrieving COD and effective particle diameter (Deff) of TICs in the Arctic. We analyzed and quantified the sensitivity of thermal radiance on many parameters, such as COD, Deff, water vapor content, cloud bottom altitude and thickness, size distribution and shape. Using the sensitivity of IRT to COD and Deff, the developed retrieval technique is validated in comparison with retrievals from LIDAR and RADAR. Retrievals were applied to ground-based thermal infrared data acquired for 100 TICs at the high-Arctic PEARL observatory in Eureka, Nunavut, Canada and were validated using AHSRL LIDAR and MMCR RADAR data. The results of the retrieval method were used to successfully extract COD up to values of 3 and to separate TICs into two types : TIC1 characterized by small crystals (Deff < 30 mum) and TIC2 by large ice crystals (Deff > 30 mum, up to 300 mum). Inversions were performed across two polar winters. At the end of this research, we proposed different alternatives to apply our methodology in the Arctic. Keywords : Remote sensing ; ice clouds ; thermal infrared multi-band <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> ; Arctic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMIN24A..06J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMIN24A..06J"><span id="translatedtitle">Uncertainty Analysis of in situ Ocean Color <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> for the Vicarious Calibration of Ocean Color Satellite Sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, B.; Clark, D.; Feinholz, M.; Flora, S.; Franz, B.; Houlihan, T.; Mueller, J. A.; Parr, A. C.; Voss, K. J.; Yarbrough, M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Substantial effort has been invested by NASA to create and maintain a long-term, consistent, and calibrated time series of ocean color <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> over multiple missions and satellite sensors. This is a very difficult measurement problem because the water-leaving radiance is a small fraction of the total radiance measured by the satellite sensor. As a result, the SI traceability of ocean color radiometric values relies completely on a vicarious calibration approach utilizing reference oceanic sites. A robust and rigorous uncertainty analysis of this data set is outstanding. Broadly speaking, there are three aspects to the uncertainty budget for the long-term time series of the global ocean color radiometric data set: the in situ radiometric time series, the in situ to satellite match-up time series for determination of the vicarious calibration gain coefficients, and the global, satellite derived values for water-leaving radiances (or remote sensing reflectances). The uncertainty budget has elements attributed to sensor characterization functions (which change in time), natural variability, and the veracity and efficacy of the measurement equations (including models and algorithms) that describe the complete methodology. We have recently undertaken a rigorous analysis of uncertainty of the global ocean color radiometric time series data set, emphasizing the in situ uncertainties and their impact on the ocean color time series. Our technical approach is to formulate and analyze measurement equations that model the relationships between the values of the measured quantities and the resulting uncertainties, thus establishing traceability of the values of the MOBY results to stated reference values. Uncertainty estimates are quantitative data products in and of themselves - documentation of discrepancies between results and associating these values with uncertainties is not a valid or sufficient approach. We will review the MOBY data set, explain our uncertainty model</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493015','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493015"><span id="translatedtitle">Accurate determination of electronic transport properties of silicon wafers by nonlinear photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> with multiple pump beam sizes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Qian; Li, Bincheng</p> <p>2015-12-07</p> <p>In this paper, photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PCR) technique with multiple pump beam sizes is employed to determine simultaneously the electronic transport parameters (the carrier lifetime, the carrier diffusion coefficient, and the front surface recombination velocity) of silicon wafers. By employing the multiple pump beam sizes, the influence of instrumental frequency response on the multi-parameter estimation is totally eliminated. A nonlinear PCR model is developed to interpret the PCR signal. Theoretical simulations are performed to investigate the uncertainties of the estimated parameter values by investigating the dependence of a mean square variance on the corresponding transport parameters and compared to that obtained by the conventional frequency-scan method, in which only the frequency dependences of the PCR amplitude and phase are recorded at single pump beam size. Simulation results show that the proposed multiple-pump-beam-size method can improve significantly the accuracy of the determination of the electronic transport parameters. Comparative experiments with a p-type silicon wafer with resistivity 0.1–0.2 Ω·cm are performed, and the electronic transport properties are determined simultaneously. The estimated uncertainties of the carrier lifetime, diffusion coefficient, and front surface recombination velocity are approximately ±10.7%, ±8.6%, and ±35.4% by the proposed multiple-pump-beam-size method, which is much improved than ±15.9%, ±29.1%, and >±50% by the conventional frequency-scan method. The transport parameters determined by the proposed multiple-pump-beam-size PCR method are in good agreement with that obtained by a steady-state PCR imaging technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8584E..0SR','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8584E..0SR"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical 3D modeling of heat transfer in human tissues for microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> monitoring of brown fat metabolism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodrigues, Dario B.; Maccarini, Paolo F.; Salahi, Sara; Colebeck, Erin; Topsakal, Erdem; Pereira, Pedro J. S.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Stauffer, Paul R.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and could potentially mediate weight gain and insulin sensitivity. Although some imaging techniques allow BAT detection, there are currently no viable methods for continuous acquisition of BAT energy expenditure. We present a non-invasive technique for long term monitoring of BAT metabolism using microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>. Methods: A multilayer 3D computational model was created in HFSSTM with 1.5 mm skin, 3-10 mm subcutaneous fat, 200 mm muscle and a BAT region (2-6 cm3) located between fat and muscle. Based on this model, a log-spiral antenna was designed and optimized to maximize reception of thermal emissions from the target (BAT). The power absorption patterns calculated in HFSSTM were combined with simulated thermal distributions computed in COMSOL® to predict radiometric signal measured from an ultra-low-noise microwave radiometer. The power received by the antenna was characterized as a function of different levels of BAT metabolism under cold and noradrenergic stimulation. Results: The optimized frequency band was 1.5-2.2 GHz, with averaged antenna efficiency of 19%. The simulated power received by the radiometric antenna increased 2-9 mdBm (noradrenergic stimulus) and 4-15 mdBm (cold stimulus) corresponding to increased 15-fold BAT metabolism. Conclusions: Results demonstrated the ability to detect thermal radiation from small volumes (2-6 cm3) of BAT located up to 12 mm deep and to monitor small changes (0.5 °C) in BAT metabolism. As such, the developed miniature radiometric antenna sensor appears suitable for non-invasive long term monitoring of BAT metabolism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=violence&pg=6&id=EJ1052897','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=violence&pg=6&id=EJ1052897"><span id="translatedtitle">The Relationship of Safe and Participatory School Environments and Supportive Attitudes toward Violence: Evidence from the Colombian <span class="hlt">Saber</span> Test of Citizenship Competencies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Diazgranados, Silvia; Noonan, James</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In Colombia, reducing levels of interpersonal and community violence is a key component of the country's approach to citizenship education. In this study, we use data collected during the 2005 <span class="hlt">Saber</span> test of Citizenship Competencies to examine the relationship of school environments and individual students' supportive attitudes toward…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014cosp...40E.516C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014cosp...40E.516C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Momentum flux of the migrating diurnal tide in 2002-2012 as seen in the <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIDI wind measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Zeyu; Wu, Qian</p> <p></p> <p>The migrating diurnal tide (DW1) is one of the most prominent solar tides in the middle atmosphere. And it is anticipated that it plays a significant role of providing zonal acceleration to the zonal mean zonal winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), i.e., the altitude range 80-120km, at the Equator. The <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIDI experiment has been collecting measurements of the horizontal winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere since 2002. The tidal signals are delineated by using the 10-year measurements for both zonal and meridional winds. Then Hough mode decomposition is applied with the tidal signal. The leading propagating mode prevails through the dataset. It is also observed that the trapped (1, -2) mode is also important. Then, the principles of tidal theory are applied to the mode estimations to derive the zonal momentum flux of the tide. The details will be talked in the presentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100011897','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100011897"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of Infrared Radiative Cooling in the Thermosphere on Daily to Multiyear Timescales from the TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> Instrument</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mlynczak, Martin G.; Hunt, Linda A.; Marshall, B. Thomas; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; Mertens, Christopher J.; Russell, James M., III; Remsberg, Ellis E.; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Picard, Richard; Winick, Jeremy; Wintersteiner, Peter; Thompson, R. Earl; Gordley, Larry L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We present observations of the infrared radiative cooling by carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) in Earth s thermosphere. These data have been taken over a period of 7 years by the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite and are the dominant radiative cooling mechanisms for the thermosphere. From the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations we derive vertical profiles of radiative cooling rates (W/cu m), radiative fluxes (W/sq m), and radiated power (W). In the period from January 2002 through January 2009 we observe a large decrease in the cooling rates, fluxes, and power consistent with the declining phase of solar cycle. The power radiated by NO during 2008 when the Sun exhibited few sunspots was nearly one order of magnitude smaller than the peak power observed shortly after the mission began. Substantial short-term variability in the infrared emissions is also observed throughout the entire mission duration. Radiative cooling rates and radiative fluxes from NO exhibit fundamentally different latitude dependence than do those from CO2, with the NO fluxes and cooling rates being largest at high latitudes and polar regions. The cooling rates are shown to be derived relatively independent of the collisional and radiative processes that drive the departure from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in the CO2 15 m and the NO 5.3 m vibration-rotation bands. The observed NO and CO2 cooling rates have been compiled into a separate dataset and represent a climate data record that is available for use in assessments of radiative cooling in upper atmosphere general circulation models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.3160T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008cosp...37.3160T"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Variability in OH Mesospheric Temperatures at Low-Latitudes and Comparison with Timed-<span class="hlt">Saber</span> Temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, Michael J.; Zhao, Yucheng; Russell, J. M., III</p> <p></p> <p>The Utah State University Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (MTM) is a high performance, solid state imaging system capable of determining variations in the rotational temperatures of two upper mesospheric near infrared nightglow emissions: the OH (6,2) Meinel band (peak altitude 87 km) and the O2(0,1) Atmospheric band emission (peak altitude 94 km), with a precision of typically 1-2K in 3 min. For the past 5 years (November 201-December 2006), the MTM was operated near-continuously from the Air Force AMOS Facility, near the summit of Haleakala Crater, Maui, HI (24.8 N, 204 E), 2970 m). Autonomous observations were made as part of the Maui-MALT program which is a joint initiative between the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the US Air Force Office of Scientific research (AFOSR) to investigate the dynamics of the upper atmosphere in unprecedented detail. Over 1000 nights of high-quality data have been obtained, providing novel information on the nocturnal behavior of mesospheric temperature and its variability enabling a detailed comparative study with TIMED-<span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperature measurements at low-latitudes. Here we focus on a seasonal comparison with MTM OH temperatures. The variability of the MTM and <span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperatures track well on day-to-day and seasonal time scales giving high confidence in the compatibility of the two data sets. However, there appears to be a 5 K systematic offset between these data with the MTM temperatures warmer. A similar offset has been observed at mid-latitudes and this new study extends this comparison to lower latitudes where non-LTE effects are not significant. The origin and variability in this offset will be investigated as a function of season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981RuCRv..50..901E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981RuCRv..50..901E"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical and Biological <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Emanuel', N. M.</p> <p>1981-10-01</p> <p>Examples of the application of the methods and ideas of chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> in various branches of chemistry and biology are considered and the results of studies on the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and mechanisms of autoxidation and inhibited and catalysed oxidation of organic substances in the liquid phase are surveyed. Problems of the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of the ageing of polymers and the principles of their stabilisation are discussed and certain trends in biological <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> (<span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of tumour growth, <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> criteria of the effectiveness of chemotherapy, problems of gerontology, etc.) are considered. The bibliography includes 281 references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/750111','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/750111"><span id="translatedtitle">Cesium removal and <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> equilibrium: Precipitation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnes, M.J.</p> <p>1999-12-17</p> <p>This task consisted of both non-radioactive and radioactive (tracer) tests examining the influence of potentially significant variables on cesium tetraphenylborate precipitation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. The work investigated the time required to reach cesium decontamination and the conditions that affect the cesium precipitation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010295','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010295"><span id="translatedtitle">Uncertainty of Passive Imager Cloud Optical Property Retrievals to Instrument <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> and Model Assumptions: Examples from MODIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Platnick, Steven; Wind, Galina; Meyer, Kerry; Amarasinghe, Nandana; Arnold, G. Thomas; Zhang, Zhibo; King, Michael D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The optical and microphysical structure of clouds is of fundamental importance for understanding a variety of cloud radiation and precipitation processes. With the advent of MODIS on the NASA EOS Terra and Aqua platforms, simultaneous global-daily 1 km retrievals of cloud optical thickness (COT) and effective particle radius (CER) are provided, as well as the derived water path (WP). The cloud product (MOD06/MYD06 for MODIS Terra and Aqua, respectively) provides separate retrieval datasets for various two-channel retrievals, typically a VISNIR channel paired with a 1.6, 2.1, and 3.7 m spectral channel. The MOD06 forward model is derived from on a homogeneous plane-parallel cloud. In Collection 5 processing (completed in 2007 with a modified Collection 5.1 completed in 2010), pixel-level retrieval uncertainties were calculated for the following non-3-D error sources: <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>, surface spectral albedo, and atmospheric corrections associated with model analysis uncertainties (water vapor only). The latter error source includes error correlation across the retrieval spectral channels. Estimates of uncertainty in 1 aggregated (Level-3) means were also provided assuming unity correlation between error sources for all pixels in a grid for a single day, and zero correlation of error sources from one day to the next. I n Collection 6 (expected to begin in late summer 2013) we expanded the uncertainty analysis to include: (a) scene-dependent calibration uncertainty that depends on new band and detector-specific Level 1B uncertainties, (b) new model error sources derived from the look-up tables which includes sensitivities associated with wind direction over the ocean and uncertainties in liquid water and ice effective variance, (c) thermal emission uncertainties in the 3.7 m band associated with cloud and surface temperatures that are needed to extract reflected solar radiation from the total radiance signal, (d) uncertainty in the solar spectral irradiance at 3.7 m, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1615377R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1615377R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-consistent retrieval of pressure/temperature and CO2 densities in the MLT from the <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED limb radiances in the 15 and 4.3 μm channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rezac, Ladislav; Yue, Jia; Russell, James; Feofilov, Artem; Kutepov, Alexander; Goldberg, Richard</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED broadband infrared limb observations of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) are providing important information about the composition and energy budget of this atmospheric region. However, until now the <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED pressure and temperature were retrieved using radiances measured in the 15 µm CO2 band in combination with the WACCM model CO2 distribution. The <span class="hlt">SABER</span> v2.0 operational processing uses a rigorous non-LTE, self-consistent, two-channel, simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and CO2 density from <span class="hlt">SABER</span> daytime broadband limb 15 and 4.3 µm radiances. Three years of simultaneous temperature/CO2 profiles have been produced thus far in a post processing mode. Results from these retrievals for various latitudes and seasons as well as their comparisons with other observations and model results are discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSA43C..02R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSA43C..02R"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Distribution of CO2 Volume Mixing Ratio in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere and Long-Term Changes Observed By <span class="hlt">Saber</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Russell, J. M., III; Rezac, L.; Yue, J.; Jian, Y.; Kutepov, A. A.; Garcia, R. R.; Walker, K. A.; Bernath, P. F.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">SABER</span> 10-channel limb scanning radiometer has been operating onboard the TIMED satellite nearly continuously since launch on December 7, 2001. Beginning in late January, 2002 and continuing to the present day, <span class="hlt">SABER</span> has been measuring limb radiance profiles used to retrieve vertical profiles of temperature, volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of O3, CO2, H2O, [O], and [H], and volume emission rates of NO, OH(2.1μm), OH(1.6μm) and O2(singlet delta). The measurements extend from the tropopause to the lower thermosphere, and span from 54S to 84N or 54N to 84S daily with alternating latitude coverage every ~ 60 days. Currently more than six million profiles of each parameter have been retrieved. The CO2 VMR is a new <span class="hlt">SABER</span> data product that just became available this year. The temperature and CO2 VMRs are simultaneously retrieved in the ~65 km to 110 km range using limb radiances measured at 4.3 and 15 micrometers. Results will be presented of CO2 validation studies done using comparisons with coincident ACE-FTS CO2 data and SD-WACCM model simulations. The CO2 VMRs agree with ACE-FTS observations to within reported measurement uncertainties and they are in good agreement with SD-WACCM seasonal and global distributions. The <span class="hlt">SABER</span> observed CO2 VMR departure from uniform mixing tends to start above ~80 km which is generally higher than what the model calculates. Variations of CO2 VMR with latitude and season are substantial. Seasonal zonal mean cross sections and CO2 time series for selected latitudes and altitudes over the 12.5-year time period, will also be shown. The CO2 VMR increase rate at 100 km is in close agreement with in situ results measured at the Mauna Loa Observatory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SeScT..19.1240M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004SeScT..19.1240M"><span id="translatedtitle">Carrier-density-wave transport and local internal electric field measurements in biased metal-oxide-semiconductor n-Si devices using contactless laser photo-carrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mandelis, Andreas; Pawlak, Micha; Shaughnessy, Derrick</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>Laser infrared photo-carrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> was used with an n-type Si metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) diode and with a Si-SiO2 structure with a transparent electrode and under external bias. Application of three-dimensional PCR theory yielded values of the minority carrier (hole) transport properties in the presence of the thus created local internal electric field at fixed frequencies. Furthermore, the internal electric field at fixed applied voltage was calculated. Under the combination of increased temperature and voltage, the sub-interface position of the carrier-density-wave centroid was found to depend on a trade-off between increased recombination lifetime and decreased ambipolar (conductivity) mobility. The ability of PCR to measure local internal electric fields by combining applied bias sweeps and frequency scans appears to pave the way towards the contactless reconstruction of depth profiles of these fields in active devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008280','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008280"><span id="translatedtitle">Inter-Hemispheric Coupling During Recent North Polar Summer Periods as Predicted by MaCWAVE/MIDAS Rocket Data and Traced by TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldberg, Richard A.; Feofilov, Artem G.; Kutepov, Alexander A.; Pesnell, W. Dean; Schmidlin, Francis J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In July, 2002, the MaCWAVE-MIDAS Rocket Program was launched from And0ya Rocket Range (ARR) in Norway. Data from these flights demonstrated that the polar summer mesosphere during this period was unusual, at least above ARR. Theoretical studies have since been published that imply that the abnormal characteristics of this polar summer were generated by dynamical processes occurring in the southern polar winter hemisphere. We have used data from the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument aboard the NASA TIMED Satellite to study these characteristics and compare them with the features observed in the ensuing eight years. For background, the TIMED Satellite was launched on December 7, 2001 to study the dynamics and energy of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument is a limb scanning infrared radiometer designed to measure temperature of the region as well as a large number of minor constituents. In this study, we review the MaCWAVE rocket results. Next, we investigate the temperature characteristics of the polar mesosphere as a function of spatial and temporal considerations. We have used the most recent <span class="hlt">SABER</span> dataset (1.07). Weekly averages are used to make comparisons between the winter and summer hemispheres. Furthermore, the data analysis agrees with recent theoretical studies showing that this behavior is a result of anomalous dynamical events in the southern hemisphere. The findings discussed here clearly show the value of scientific rocket flights used in a discovery mode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015206','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015206"><span id="translatedtitle">Inter-Hemispheric Coupling During Recent North Polar Summer Periods as Predicted by MaCWAVE/MIDAS Rocket Data and Traced by TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldberg, Richard A.; Feofilov, Artem G.; Kutepov, Alexander A.; Pesnell W. Dean; Schmidlin, Francis J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>In July, 2002, the MaCWAVE-MIDAS Rocket Program was launched from Andoya Rocket Range (ARR) in Norway. Data from these flights demonstrated that the polar summer mesosphere during this period was unusual, at least above ARR. Theoretical studies have since been published that imply that the abnormal characteristics of this polar summer were generated by dynamical processes occurring in the southern polar winter hemisphere. We have used data from the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument aboard the NASA Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) Satellite to study these characteristics and compare them with the features observed in the ensuing eight years. For background, the TIMED Satellite was launched on December 7,2001 to study the dynamics and energy of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument is a limb scanning infrared radiometer designed to measure temperature of the region as well as a large number of minor constituents. In this study, we review the MaCWAVE rocket results. Next, we investigate the temperature characteristics of the polar mesosphere as a function of spatial and temporal considerations. We have used the most recent <span class="hlt">SABER</span> dataset (1.07). Weekly averages are used to make comparisons between the winter and summer hemispheres. Furthermore, the data analysis agrees with recent theoretical studies showing that this behavior is a result of anomalous dynamical events in the southern hemisphere. The findings discussed here clearly show the value of scientific rocket flights used in a discovery mode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880032071&hterms=Deimos&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DDeimos','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880032071&hterms=Deimos&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DDeimos"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> of Deimos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Veeder, Glenn J.; Matson, Dennis L.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Lebofsky, Larry A.; Gradie, Jonathan C.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Ground-based infrared photometry of Deimos at 4.8, 10, and 20 microns is reported. The observed fluxes are significantly brighter than predicted by the 'standard' thermal model. Recent recalibrations that modify the model beam pattern of the infrared emission are marginally consistent with the observations at 10 and 20, but not at 4.8 microns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4517....1C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4517....1C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> in military applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chrzanowski, Krzysztof</p> <p>2001-08-01</p> <p>Missiles guided using optoelectronic methods, optoelectronic imaging systems (thermal imaging systems, night vision devices, LLLTV cameras, TV cameras), and optoelectronic countermeasures (smoke screens, camouflage paints and nets, IR flares, decoys, jamming systems, warning systems) are one of the most important components of modern military armament. There are numerous military standards, some of them secret, that precise radiometric parameters to be measured and the testing methods to be used. There is also much literature on the subject of testing of the systems mentioned above, although mostly on subject of testing of the thermal imaging systems. In spite of this apparently numerous literature, there still significant confusion in this area due to secrecy of some parameters and testing methods, differences in recommendations of different military standards, fast progress in military optoelectronics, and also due to enormous number of different types of optoelectronics systems used in the military armament. A review of testing methods of the three basic groups of optoelectronics systems used in modern military armament: the missiles guided using optoelectronics methods, the optoelectronic imaging systems, and the optoelectronic countermeasures is presented in this paper. Trends in the measuring sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810015458','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810015458"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar extinction <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goldman, A.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Work on the spectral line parameters of hydroxyl radical band was completed. The UV-visible data obtained during 1977 balloon flights were used for zone quantification. The region between from 3100 A to 3500 A appears to be the best region to use for determining ozone columns with the three wavelength method. Ozone volume mixing ratios determined for the 1977 data were compared with standard middle latitude ozone profiles. Numerous high and low Sun scans were obtained during ascent and from float altitude (1981 balloon flight) at 0.003 A resolution in the 3068 A to 3089 A region. The spectra are being studied for OH identification and quantification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JASTP.120...80Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014JASTP.120...80Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Lidar observations of the middle atmospheric thermal structure over north China and comparisons with TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yue, Chuan; Yang, Guotao; Wang, Jihong; Guan, Sai; Du, Lifang; Cheng, Xuewu; Yang, Yong</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>According to the observational data for over 120 nights of the Rayleigh lidar located in Beijing, China (40.5°N, 116.2°E), the middle atmospheric thermal structure (35-85 km) over North China was obtained. Lidar observation results show good agreements with <span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperature data sets, which justify that both the two instruments are reliable. Lidar results show significant difference with the NRLMSISE-00 empirical model and lidar temperatures are usually colder than the model data during the observational time, which may be due to the associations of high level of solar activity, greenhouse gases and the frequent haze weather in North China. To characterize the seasonal variations of the atmospheric temperature structure over Beijing, the amplitude and phase profiles of the annual, semi-annual and 3-month sinusoidal oscillations were extracted by multi-parameter sinusoidal regression. A stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE) event and a long-term mesospheric temperature inversion layer (MIL) are observed in the early winter of 2012/2013. The observed STE event could be due to the enhancement of planetary wave (k=1) activity while the long-term MIL could be due to gravity wave-planetary wave interactions in the masopause region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011JGRD..11721101Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011JGRD..11721101Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A global morphology of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere revealed by the 8-year <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.; Xiong, J.; Liu, L.; Wan, W.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>From 8 years' <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED temperature profiles between January 2002 and December 2009, we studied the activity of gravity waves in the stratosphere globally. Global distribution of stratospheric gravity wave potential energy was calculated from the temperature perturbations. Seasonal comparison of gravity wave potential energy Ep shows an annual variation in middle and high latitudes and a semiannual variation in the tropics. Around the equator, gravity wave interannual enhancements are identified just below the zonal wind zero (u = 0) contours corresponding to descending eastward shear phase of the QBO. Furthermore, we provide observation evidence to support the conclusion that the deep convection is a major source for the observed tropical gravity wave activity. The considerable longitude variations of largest potential energy around the equator are related not only to the specific topography and tropical convections but also to many other factors. We can infer that topography and tropical deep convection are the important sources of the gravity waves in the stratosphere, but the observed gravity waves in the tropical/subtropical stratosphere are strongly affected by winds with different QBO phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012JGRD..11721101Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012JGRD..11721101Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A global morphology of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere revealed by the 8-year <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.; Xiong, J.; Liu, L.; Wan, W.</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>From 8 years' <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED temperature profiles between January 2002 and December 2009, we studied the activity of gravity waves in the stratosphere globally. Global distribution of stratospheric gravity wave potential energy was calculated from the temperature perturbations. Seasonal comparison of gravity wave potential energy Ep shows an annual variation in middle and high latitudes and a semiannual variation in the tropics. Around the equator, gravity wave interannual enhancements are identified just below the zonal wind zero (u = 0) contours corresponding to descending eastward shear phase of the QBO. Furthermore, we provide observation evidence to support the conclusion that the deep convection is a major source for the observed tropical gravity wave activity. The considerable longitude variations of largest potential energy around the equator are related not only to the specific topography and tropical convections but also to many other factors. We can infer that topography and tropical deep convection are the important sources of the gravity waves in the stratosphere, but the observed gravity waves in the tropical/subtropical stratosphere are strongly affected by winds with different QBO phases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014cosp...40E3580W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014cosp...40E3580W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Lidar observations of the middle atmospheric thermal structure over North China and comparisons with TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Jihong; Yang, Guotao; Du, Lifang; Yue, Chuan; Wang, Zelong; Jiao, MS. Jing</p> <p></p> <p>According to the observational data for over 120 nights of the Rayleigh/Na lidar located in Beijing, China (40.5N, 116.2E), the middle atmospheric thermal structure over North China was obtained. Lidar observation results show good agreements with <span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperature data sets, which justify that both the two instruments are reliable. Lidar results show significant difference with the NRLMSISE-00 empirical model and negative deviations (lidar minus model) hold most of the observational time. which may be due to the associations of high level of solar activity, greenhouse gases and the haze weather in North China. To characterize the seasonal variations of the temperature structure over Beijing, the amplitude and phase profiles of the annual, semi-annual and 3-month sinusoidal oscillations were extracted by multi-parameter sinusoidal regression. A stratospheric warming event and a long-term mesospheric temperature inversion are observed in the early winter of 2012/2013. These temperature anomalies may be mainly due to anomalous propagations of planetary waves and gravity waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.7245T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRA..121.7245T"><span id="translatedtitle">The response of the temperature of cold-point mesopause to solar activity based on <span class="hlt">SABER</span> data set</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, Chaoli; Liu, Dong; Wei, Heli; Wang, Yingjian; Dai, Congming; Wu, Pengfei; Zhu, Wenyue; Rao, Ruizhong</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The thermal structure and energy balance of upper atmosphere are dominated by solar activity. The response of cold-point mesopause (CPM) to solar activity is an important form. This article presents the response of the temperature of CPM (T-CPM) to solar activity using 14 year Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> data series over 80°S-80°N regions. These regions are divided into 16 latitude zones with 10° interval, and the spatial areas of 80°S-80°N, 180°W-180°E are divided into 96 lattices with 10°(latitude) × 60°(longitude) grid. The annual-mean values of T-CPM and F10.7 are calculated. The least squares regression method and correlation analysis are applied to these annual-mean series. First, the results show that the global T-CPM is significantly correlated to solar activity at the 0.05 level of significance with correlation coefficient of 0.90. The global solar response of T-CPM is 4.89 ± 0.67 K/100 solar flux unit. Then, for each latitude zone, the solar response of T-CPM and its fluctuation are obtained. The solar response of T-CPM becomes stronger with increasing latitude. The fluctuation ranges of solar response at middle-latitude regions are smaller than those of the equator and high-latitude regions, and the global distribution takes on W shape. The corelationship analysis shows that the T-CPM is significantly correlated to solar activity at the 0.05 level of significance for each latitude zone. The correlation coefficients at middle-latitude regions are higher than those of the equator and high-latitude regions, and the global distribution takes on M shape. At last, for each grid cell, the response of T-CPM to solar activity and their correlation coefficient are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CMT....22..485T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CMT....22..485T"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> relations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Truskinovsky, Lev; Vainchtein, Anna</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>We introduce the concept of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> or rate equations for moving defects representing a natural extension of the more conventional notion of a <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> relation. Algebraic <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> relations, widely used to model dynamics of dislocations, cracks and phase boundaries, link the instantaneous value of the velocity of a defect with an instantaneous value of the driving force. The new approach generalizes <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> relations by implying a relation between the velocity and the driving force which is nonlocal in time. To make this relation explicit one may need to integrate a system of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> equations. We illustrate the difference between <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> relation and <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> equations by working out in full detail a prototypical model of an overdamped defect in a one-dimensional discrete lattice. We show that the minimal nonlocal <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> description, containing now an internal time scale, is furnished by a system of two ordinary differential equations coupling the spatial location of defect with another internal parameter that describes configuration of the core region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080015733','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080015733"><span id="translatedtitle">Troposphere-Thermosphere Tidal Coupling as Measured by the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> Instrument on TIMED during July-September, 2002</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Forbes, J. M.; Russell, J.; Miyahara, S.; Zhang, X.; Palo, S.; Mlynczak, M.; Mertens, C. J.; Hagan, M. E.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Coupling between the troposphere and lower thermosphere due to upward-propagating tides is investigated using temperatures measured from the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument on the TIMED satellite. The data analyzed here are confined to 20-120 km altitude and +/-40 deg latitude during 20 July 20 September, 2002. Apart from the migrating (sun-synchronous) tidal components, the predominant feature seen (from the satellite frame) during this period is a wave-4 structure in longitude with extrema of up to +/-40-50 K at 110 km. Amplitudes and longitudes of maxima of this structure evolve as the satellite precesses in local time, and as the wave(s) responsible for this structure vary with time. The primary wave responsible for the wave-4 pattern is the eastward-propagating diurnal tide with zonal wavenumber s=3 (DE3). Its average amplitude distribution over the interval is quasi-symmetric about the equator, similar to that of a Kelvin wave, with maximum of about 20 K at 5 deg S and 110 km. DE3 is primarily excited by latent heating due to deep tropical convection in the troposphere. It is demonstrated that existence of DE3 is intimately connected with the predominant wave-4 longitude distribution of topography and land-sea difference at low latitudes, and an analogy is drawn with the strong presence of DE1 in Mars atmosphere, the predominant wave-2 topography on Mars, and the wave-2 patterns that dominate density measurements from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft near 130 km. Additional diurnal, semidiurnal and terdiurnal nonmigrating tides are also revealed in the present study. These tidal components are most likely excited by nonlinear interactions between their migrating counterparts and the stationary planetary wave with s=1 known to exist in the Southern Hemisphere during this period just prior to the austral mid-winter stratospheric warming of 2002.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.A23F0381K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.A23F0381K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ray-tracing simulation of gravity waves forced by tropical convection in comparison with <span class="hlt">SABER</span> satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kalisch, S.; Trinh, T.; Chun, H.; Ern, M.; Preusse, P.; Kim, Y.; Eckermann, S. D.; Riese, M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Gravity waves (GW) are responsible for driving large scale circulations like Brewer-Dobson circulation, contribute to the wave driving of the QBO in the tropics, and are also known as a coupling mechanism between tropospheric sources and the upper stratosphere to mesosphere region. Convection is a dominant source for tropical GWs, but also one of the most difficult and dynamic GW sources to understand. Therefore, we present the results of GW ray-tracing calculations from tropospheric (convective) sources up to the mesosphere. We used the Gravity wave Regional Or Global RAy-Tracer (GROGRAT) to perform the GW trajectory calculations and the convective GW source scheme from Yonsei University (South Korea) to quantify the excitation by convection. Heating rates, cloud data, and atmospheric background data were provided by the MERRA dataset for the calculation of convective forcing by deep convection and for the atmospheric background of the ray-tracing calculations afterwards. In order to validate our findings we compare our simulation results with satellite measurements of temperature amplitudes and momentum flux from the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument over a 10 years period. Simulation and measurements are in good agreement for the tropics throughout the whole simulated period and show similar seasonal behavior. Additionally, the observational filter of the instrument was taken into account and its influences are discussed. The modulation of GW momentum flux by the background winds and in particular the influence of the QBO is investigated. GW drag at various altitudes is calculated and compared to the drag required for the forcing of the QBO. Further, we show the results of a non-orographic background parameterization used as start conditions for the ray-tracer to emphasize the improvements of our coupled convective GW source model over non-orographic GW parameterizations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16.7387K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16.7387K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ray-tracing simulation of gravity waves excited by tropical convection in comparison with <span class="hlt">SABER</span> satellite observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kalisch, Silvio; Trinh, Thai; Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Chun, Hye-Yeong; Kim, Young-Ha; Eckermann, Steven D.; Riese, Martin</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Gravity waves (GWs) are known as a coupling mechanism between different atmospheric layers. They contribute to the wave-driving of the QBO and are also responsible for driving large scale circulations like the Brewer-Dobson circulation. One major and highly variable source of GWs is convection. Deep convection in the tropics excites GWs with prominent amplitudes and horizontal phase speeds of up to 90 m/s. These GWs propagate upward and, when breaking, release the wave's momentum, thus, accelerate the background flow. The direction and magnitude of the acceleration strongly depends on wind filtering between the convective GW source and the considered altitude. Both, the generation mechanism of GWs close to the top of deep convective towers and the wind filtering process during GW propagation largely influence the GW spectrum found in the tropical middle atmosphere and therefore magnitude and direction of the acceleration. We present the results of GW ray-tracing calculations from tropospheric (convective) sources up to the mesosphere. The Gravity wave Regional Or Global RAy-Tracer (GROGRAT) was used to perform the GW trajectory calculations. The convective GW source scheme from Yonsei University (South Korea) served as the lower boundary condition to quantify the GW excitation from convection. Heating rates, cloud top data, and atmospheric background data were provided by the MERRA dataset for the calculation of convective forcing from deep convection and for the atmospheric background for the ray-tracing calculations afterwards. In order to validate our ray-tracing simulation results, we compare them to satellite measurements of temperature amplitudes and momentum fluxes from the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument. Therefore, observational constrains from limb-sounding instruments have been quantified. Influences of orbit geometry, the instrument's observational filter, and the wavelength shift in the observed GW spectrum are discussed. Only by including convective GW sources</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22389615','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22389615"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous Measurements of Chlorophyll Concentration by Lidar, Fluorometry, above-Water <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span>, and Ocean Color MODIS Images in the Southwestern Atlantic.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kampel, Milton; Lorenzzetti, João A; Bentz, Cristina M; Nunes, Raul A; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rudorff, Frederico M; Politano, Alexandre T</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Comparisons between in situ measurements of surface chlorophyll-a concentration (CHL) and ocean color remote sensing estimates were conducted during an oceanographic cruise on the Brazilian Southeastern continental shelf and slope, Southwestern South Atlantic. In situ values were based on fluorometry, above-water <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and lidar fluorosensor. Three empirical algorithms were used to estimate CHL from radiometric measurements: Ocean Chlorophyll 3 bands (OC3M(RAD)), Ocean Chlorophyll 4 bands (OC4v4(RAD)), and Ocean Chlorophyll 2 bands (OC2v4(RAD)). The satellite estimates of CHL were derived from data collected by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with a nominal 1.1 km resolution at nadir. Three algorithms were used to estimate chlorophyll concentrations from MODIS data: one empirical - OC3M(SAT), and two semi-analytical - Garver, Siegel, Maritorena version 01 (GSM01(SAT)), and Carder(SAT). In the present work, MODIS, lidar and in situ above-water <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and fluorometry are briefly described and the estimated values of chlorophyll retrieved by these techniques are compared. The chlorophyll concentration in the study area was in the range 0.01 to 0.2 mg/m(3). In general, the empirical algorithms applied to the in situ radiometric and satellite data showed a tendency to overestimate CHL with a mean difference between estimated and measured values of as much as 0.17 mg/m(3) (OC2v4(RAD)). The semi-analytical GSM01 algorithm applied to MODIS data performed better (rmse 0.28, rmse-L 0.08, mean diff. -0.01 mg/m(3)) than the Carder and the empirical OC3M algorithms (rmse 1.14 and 0.36, rmse-L 0.34 and 0.11, mean diff. 0.17 and 0.02 mg/m(3), respectively). We find that rmsd values between MODIS relative to the in situ radiometric measurements are < 26%, i.e., there is a trend towards overestimation of R(RS) by MODIS for the stations considered in this work. Other authors have already reported over and under estimation of MODIS remotely sensed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3280761','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3280761"><span id="translatedtitle">Simultaneous Measurements of Chlorophyll Concentration by Lidar, Fluorometry, above-Water <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span>, and Ocean Color MODIS Images in the Southwestern Atlantic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kampel, Milton; Lorenzzetti, João A.; Bentz, Cristina M.; Nunes, Raul A.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rudorff, Frederico M.; Politano, Alexandre T.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Comparisons between in situ measurements of surface chlorophyll-a concentration (CHL) and ocean color remote sensing estimates were conducted during an oceanographic cruise on the Brazilian Southeastern continental shelf and slope, Southwestern South Atlantic. In situ values were based on fluorometry, above-water <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and lidar fluorosensor. Three empirical algorithms were used to estimate CHL from radiometric measurements: Ocean Chlorophyll 3 bands (OC3MRAD), Ocean Chlorophyll 4 bands (OC4v4RAD), and Ocean Chlorophyll 2 bands (OC2v4RAD). The satellite estimates of CHL were derived from data collected by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with a nominal 1.1 km resolution at nadir. Three algorithms were used to estimate chlorophyll concentrations from MODIS data: one empirical - OC3MSAT, and two semi-analytical - Garver, Siegel, Maritorena version 01 (GSM01SAT), and CarderSAT. In the present work, MODIS, lidar and in situ above-water <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and fluorometry are briefly described and the estimated values of chlorophyll retrieved by these techniques are compared. The chlorophyll concentration in the study area was in the range 0.01 to 0.2 mg/m3. In general, the empirical algorithms applied to the in situ radiometric and satellite data showed a tendency to overestimate CHL with a mean difference between estimated and measured values of as much as 0.17 mg/m3 (OC2v4RAD). The semi-analytical GSM01 algorithm applied to MODIS data performed better (rmse 0.28, rmse-L 0.08, mean diff. -0.01 mg/m3) than the Carder and the empirical OC3M algorithms (rmse 1.14 and 0.36, rmse-L 0.34 and 0.11, mean diff. 0.17 and 0.02 mg/m3, respectively). We find that rmsd values between MODIS relative to the in situ radiometric measurements are < 26%, i.e., there is a trend towards overestimation of RRS by MODIS for the stations considered in this work. Other authors have already reported over and under estimation of MODIS remotely sensed reflectance due to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://kinetics.nist.gov/kinetics/','NISTDBS'); return false;" href="http://kinetics.nist.gov/kinetics/"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> Database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://srdata.nist.gov/gateway/gateway?search=keyword">National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>SRD 17 NIST Chemical <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> Database includes essentially all reported <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Potassium&pg=5&id=EJ371029','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Potassium&pg=5&id=EJ371029"><span id="translatedtitle">A "Stationery" <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> Experiment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hall, L.; Goberdhansingh, A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Describes a simple redox reaction that occurs between potassium permanganate and oxalic acid that can be used to prepare an interesting disappearing ink for demonstrating <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> for introductory chemistry. Discusses laboratory procedures and factors that influence disappearance times. (CW)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E..73A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E..73A"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of high-latitude mesopause OH(6,2) temperature over Yakutia with the measurements from TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> v1.07 and v2.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ammosova, Anastasiia; Gavrilyeva, Galina; Ammosov, Petr; Koltovskoi, Igor</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The rotational temperature of OH (6-2) measured with a digital infrared spectrograph installed at Maimaga station (63 °N, 129.5 °E) with the temperature at an altitude of 87 km measured with v1.07 and v2.0 <span class="hlt">SABER</span> radiometer are compared. The data of the observations measurements coincident in time and space from 2002 to 2014 have been analyzed. An analysis of 997 cases indicated the difference between the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperature and the temperature measured with the ground-based device has a seasonal character and varies from 4-5 K in spring months to almost zero in autumn-winter seasons. <span class="hlt">SABER</span> new and improved version 2.0 data from 2013 to 2014 in good agreement with the temperature measured with a spectrograph.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308474','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308474"><span id="translatedtitle">Depth profile reconstructions of electronic transport properties in H{sup +} MeV-energy ion-implanted n-Si wafers using photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tai, Rui; Wang, Chinhua Hu, Jingpei; Mandelis, Andreas</p> <p>2014-07-21</p> <p>A depth profiling technique using photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PCR) is demonstrated and used for the reconstruction of continuously varying electronic transport properties (carrier lifetime and electronic diffusivity) in the interim region between the ion residence layer and the bulk crystalline layer in H{sup +} implanted semiconductor wafers with high implantation energies (∼MeV). This defect-rich region, which is normally assumed to be part of the homogeneous “substrate” in all existing two- and three-layer models, was sliced into many virtual thin layers along the depth direction so that the continuously and monotonically variable electronic properties across its thickness can be considered uniform within each virtual layer. The depth profile reconstruction of both carrier life time and diffusivity in H{sup +} implanted wafers with several implantation doses (3 × 10{sup 14}, 3 × 10{sup 15}, and 3 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}) and different implantation energies (from 0.75 to 2.0 MeV) is presented. This all-optical PCR method provides a fast non-destructive way of characterizing sub-surface process-induced electronic defect profiles in devices under fabrication at any intermediate stage before final metallization and possibly lead to process correction and optimization well before electrical testing and defect diagnosis becomes possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJT....37...87S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJT....37...87S"><span id="translatedtitle">Photocarrier <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> for Noncontact Evaluation of Monocrystalline Silicon (c-Si) Solar Cell Irradiated by 1 MeV Electron Beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, P.; Liu, J. Y.; Yuan, H. M.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>In this paper, the monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell irradiated by 1 MeV electron beams was investigated using noncontact photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PCR). A theoretical 1D two-layer PCR model including the impedance effect of the p-n junction was used to characterize the transport properties (carrier lifetime, diffusion coefficient, and surface recombination velocities) of c-Si solar cells irradiated by 1 MeV electron beams with different fluences. The carrier transport parameters were derived by the best fit through PCR measurements. Furthermore, an Ev+0.56 eV trap was introduced into the band gap based on the minority carrier lifetime reduction. An I-V characteristic was obtained by both AFORS-HET simulation and experimental study, and the simulation results shows in good agreement with the experimental results. Moreover, the simulation and experiment results also indicate that the increase of fluences of electron beams results in the reduction of short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392416','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22392416"><span id="translatedtitle">Optoelectronic transport properties in amorphous/crystalline silicon solar cell heterojunctions measured by frequency-domain photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>: Multi-parameter measurement reliability and precision studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.; Melnikov, A.; Mandelis, A.; Halliop, B.; Kherani, N. P.; Zhu, R.</p> <p>2015-03-15</p> <p>A theoretical one-dimensional two-layer linear photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PCR) model including the presence of effective interface carrier traps was used to evaluate the transport parameters of p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) passivated by an intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-layer) nanolayer. Several crystalline Si heterojunction structures were examined to investigate the influence of the i-layer thickness and the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer. The experimental data of a series of heterojunction structures with intrinsic thin layers were fitted to PCR theory to gain insight into the transport properties of these devices. The quantitative multi-parameter results were studied with regard to measurement reliability (uniqueness) and precision using two independent computational best-fit programs. The considerable influence on the transport properties of the entire structure of two key parameters that can limit the performance of amorphous thin film solar cells, namely, the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer and the i-layer thickness was demonstrated. It was shown that PCR can be applied to the non-destructive characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells yielding reliable measurements of the key parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPB.383..171S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPB.383..171S"><span id="translatedtitle">Photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for predicting the degradation of electrical parameters of monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell irradiated by 100 KeV proton beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, P.; Liu, J. Y.; Yuan, H. M.; Oliullah, Md.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In this study, the monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell irradiated by 100 KeV proton beams at various fluences is investigated. A one-dimensional two-layer carrier density wave model has been developed to estimate the minority carrier lifetime of n-region and p-region of the non-irradiated c-Si solar cell by best fitting with the experimental photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PCR) signal (the amplitude and the phase). Furthermore, the lifetime is used to determine the initial defect density of the quasi-neutral region (QNR) of the solar cell to predict its I-V characteristics. The theoretically predicted short-circuit current density (Jsc), and open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the non-irradiated samples are in good agreement with experiment. Then a three-region defect distribution model for the c-Si solar cell irradiated by proton beams is carried out to describe the defect density distribution according to Monte Carlo simulation results and the initial defect density of the non-irradiated sample. Finally, we find that the electrical measurements of Jsc and Voc of the solar cells irradiated at different fluences using 100 KeV proton beams are consistent with the PCR predicting results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...119l5108P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...119l5108P"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectrally resolved modulated infrared <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> of photothermal, photocarrier, and photoluminescence response of CdSe crystals: Determination of optical, thermal, and electronic transport parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pawlak, M.; Chirtoc, M.; Horny, N.; Pelzl, J.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Spectrally resolved modulated infrared <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (SR-MIRR) with super-band gap photoexcitation is introduced as a self-consistent method for semiconductor characterization (CdSe crystals grown under different conditions). Starting from a theoretical model combining the contributions of the photothermal (PT) and photocarrier (PC) signal components, an expression is derived for the thermal-to-plasma wave transition frequency ftc which is found to be wavelength-independent. The deviation of the PC component from the model at high frequency is quantitatively explained by a quasi-continuous distribution of carrier recombination lifetimes. The integral, broad frequency band (0.1 Hz-1 MHz) MIRR measurements simultaneously yielded the thermal diffusivity a, the effective IR optical absorption coefficient βeff, and the bulk carrier lifetime τc. Spectrally resolved frequency scans were conducted with interchangeable IR bandpass filters (2.2-11.3 μm) in front of the detector. The perfect spectral match of the PT and PC components is the direct experimental evidence of the key assumption in MIRR that de-exciting carriers are equivalent to blackbody (Planck) radiators. The exploitation of the β spectrum measured by MIRR allowed determining the background (equilibrium) free carrier concentration n0. At the shortest wavelength (3.3 μm), the photoluminescence (PL) component supersedes the PC one and has distinct features. The average sample temperature influences the PC component but not the PT one.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJT....34.1549V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJT....34.1549V"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the Sampling Rate and Noise Characteristics on Prediction of the Maximal Safe Laser Exposure in Human Skin Using Pulsed Photothermal <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vidovič, L.; Milanič, M.; Majaron, B.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Pulsed photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PPTR) allows for noninvasive determination of the laser-induced temperature depth profile in strongly scattering samples, including human skin. In a recent experimental study, we have demonstrated that such information can be used to derive rather accurate predictions of the maximal safe radiant exposure on an individual patient basis. This has important implications for efficacy and safety of several laser applications in dermatology and aesthetic surgery, which are often compromised by risk of adverse side effects (e.g., scarring, and dyspigmentation) resulting from nonselective absorption of strong laser light in epidermal melanin. In this study, the differences between the individual maximal safe radiant exposure values as predicted from PPTR temperature depth profiling performed using a commercial mid-IR thermal camera (as used to acquire the original patient data) and our customized PPTR setup are analyzed. To this end, the latter has been used to acquire 17 PPTR records from three healthy volunteers, using 1 ms laser irradiation at 532 nm and a signal sampling rate of 20 000 . The laser-induced temperature profiles are reconstructed first from the intact PPTR signals, and then by binning the data to imitate the lower sampling rate of the IR camera (1000 fps). Using either the initial temperature profile in a dedicated numerical model of heat transfer or protein denaturation dynamics, the predicted levels of epidermal thermal damage and the corresponding are compared. A similar analysis is performed also with regard to the differences between noise characteristics of the two PPTR setups.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25832239','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25832239"><span id="translatedtitle">Optoelectronic transport properties in amorphous/crystalline silicon solar cell heterojunctions measured by frequency-domain photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>: multi-parameter measurement reliability and precision studies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y; Melnikov, A; Mandelis, A; Halliop, B; Kherani, N P; Zhu, R</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>A theoretical one-dimensional two-layer linear photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PCR) model including the presence of effective interface carrier traps was used to evaluate the transport parameters of p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) passivated by an intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-layer) nanolayer. Several crystalline Si heterojunction structures were examined to investigate the influence of the i-layer thickness and the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer. The experimental data of a series of heterojunction structures with intrinsic thin layers were fitted to PCR theory to gain insight into the transport properties of these devices. The quantitative multi-parameter results were studied with regard to measurement reliability (uniqueness) and precision using two independent computational best-fit programs. The considerable influence on the transport properties of the entire structure of two key parameters that can limit the performance of amorphous thin film solar cells, namely, the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer and the i-layer thickness was demonstrated. It was shown that PCR can be applied to the non-destructive characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells yielding reliable measurements of the key parameters. PMID:25832239</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100024498','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100024498"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a Geomagnetic Storm Correction to the International Reference Ionosphere E-Region Electron Densities Using TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mertens, C. J.; Xu, X.; Fernandez, J. R.; Bilitza, D.; Russell, J. M., III; Mlynczak, M. G.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Auroral infrared emission observed from the TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> broadband 4.3 micron channel is used to develop an empirical geomagnetic storm correction to the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) E-region electron densities. The observation-based proxy used to develop the storm model is <span class="hlt">SABER</span>-derived NO+(v) 4.3 micron volume emission rates (VER). A correction factor is defined as the ratio of storm-time NO+(v) 4.3 micron VER to a quiet-time climatological averaged NO+(v) 4.3 micron VER, which is linearly fit to available geomagnetic activity indices. The initial version of the E-region storm model, called STORM-E, is most applicable within the auroral oval region. The STORM-E predictions of E-region electron densities are compared to incoherent scatter radar electron density measurements during the Halloween 2003 storm events. Future STORM-E updates will extend the model outside the auroral oval.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMSA31B4094W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMSA31B4094W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the Observation Geometry on the Estimation of Gravity Wave Amplitudes using TIMED-<span class="hlt">SABER</span>, NDMC and Radiosonde Measurements and Conclusions concerning Wave Characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wüst, S.; Wendt, V.; Schmidt, C.; Yee, J. H.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Russell, J. M., III; Bittner, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Gravity wave parameters can be derived by means of different instrumental techniques. Due to instrumental-specific limitations, information about the waves' amplitudes is averaged individually in time and space; this leads to an underestimation of amplitudes depending on wavelengths and periods, respectively. Global TIMED-<span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperature data from 2002 to 2013 are analysed with respect to gravity wave activity in the strato- and mesosphere as well as in the mesopause region. Depending on geographical position significant differences for the ascending and descending part of the orbit can be observed when gravity wave activity is averaged over one yaw cycle. Due to the specific orientation of the fields-of-view at polar latitudes the result might be explained by a preferred horizontal wave orientation. Analyses of radiosondes released at ALOMAR, Northern Norway in late winter / early spring 2012 confirm a preferred orientation of wave fronts which is parallel to the mountain ridge. The analysis is repeated for Oberpfaffenhofen, Southern Germany in the vicinity of the Alps. The underestimation of amplitudes by <span class="hlt">SABER</span> is quantified for both locations on a statistical base. Finally, gravity wave activity in the mesopause is derived from NDMC (Network for the Detection of Mesospheric Change) data including amongst others the stations at ALOMAR and Oberpfaffenhofen. The effects of the size and orientation of the different fields-of-view are discussed. Conclusions how to make use of the different instrumental averaging effects in terms of gravity wave characterization - especially for polar latitudes - are drawn.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..1714428W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..1714428W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the Observation Geometry on the Estimation of Gravity Wave Amplitudes using TIMED-<span class="hlt">SABER</span>, NDMC and Radiosonde Measurements and Conclusions concerning Wave Characteristics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wüst, Sabine; Wendt, Verena; Schmidt, Carsten; Yee, Sam; Mlynczak, Martin; Russell, James M., III; Bittner, Michael</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Gravity wave parameters can be derived by means of different instrumental techniques. Due to instrumentalspecific limitations, information about the waves' amplitudes is averaged individually in time and space; this leads to an underestimation of amplitudes depending on wavelengths and periods, respectively. Global TIMED-<span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperature data from 2002 to 2013 are analysed with respect to gravity wave activity in the strato- and mesosphere as well as in the mesopause region. Depending on geographical position significant differences for the ascending and descending part of the orbit can be observed when gravity wave activity is averaged over one Yaw-cycle. Due to the specific orientation of the fields-of-view at polar latitudes the result might be explained by a preferred horizontal wave orientation. Analyses of radiosondes released at ALOMAR, Northern Norway in late winter / early spring 2012 confirm a preferred orientation of wave fronts which is parallel to the mountain ridge. The analysis is repeated for Oberpfaffenhofen, Southern Germany in the vicinity of the Alps. The underestimation of amplitudes by <span class="hlt">SABER</span> is quantified for both locations on a statistical base. Finally, gravity wave activity in the mesopause is derived from NDMC data including amongst others the stations at ALOMAR and Oberpfaffenhofen. The effects of the size and orientation of the different fields-of-view are discussed. Conclusions how to make use of the different instrumental averaging effects in terms of gravity wave characterization are drawn.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFMSA41A1834M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011AGUFMSA41A1834M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Absolute Populations of Highly Vibrationally Excited OH(υ=8 + υ=9) in the Night Mesopause Region Derived from the TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> Instrument from 2002 to 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Marshall, B. T.; Thompson, R. E.; Mertens, C. J.; Hunt, L. A.; Russell, J. M.; Gordley, L. L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We present global distributions of v = 9 + v = 8 nighttime vibrationally excited hydroxyl concentrations as measured by the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument on board the TIMED spacecraft. These states are formed directly by the reaction of atomic hydrogen and ozone in the terrestrial mesopause region. <span class="hlt">SABER</span> measures the limb radiance from the delta-v = 2 transitions in a channel centered near 2.0 um, specifically the sum of the 9 -> 7 and 8 -> 6 transitions. The limb radiances are inverted to yield the volume emission rates from the sum of the v = 8 and 9 states of the hydroxyl molecule. The Einstein coefficients for spontaneous emission for these two transitions are essentially identical. Thus dividing the derived volume emission rate by the Einstein coefficient yields the absolute populations of these states (molecules per cubic cm). Nine full years of data are presented in this paper. Over this time the globally averaged OH(v = 8 + v = 9) populations have varied relative to the nine year mean by only a few percent. We conclude that despite substantial solar variability over this time period, the apparently small variation of the highly vibrationally excited hydroxyl populations implies that atomic hydrogen, atomic oxygen, temperature, and density adjust in such a way so as to keep the product of the atomic hydrogen concentration, the ozone concentration, and the rate coefficient for their reaction essentially constant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26051088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26051088"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple alternative substrate <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, Vernon E</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The specificity of enzymes for their respective substrates has been a focal point of enzyme <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> since the initial characterization of metabolic chemistry. Various processes to quantify an enzyme's specificity using <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> have been utilized over the decades. Fersht's definition of the ratio kcat/Km for two different substrates as the "specificity constant" (ref [7]), based on the premise that the important specificity existed when the substrates were competing in the same reaction, has become a consensus standard for enzymes obeying Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. The expansion of the theory for the determination of the relative specificity constants for a very large number of competing substrates, e.g. those present in a combinatorial library, in a single reaction mixture has been developed in this contribution. The ratio of kcat/Km for isotopologs has also become a standard in mechanistic enzymology where <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> isotope effects have been measured by the development of internal competition experiments with extreme precision. This contribution extends the theory of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> isotope effects to internal competition between three isotopologs present at non-tracer concentrations in the same reaction mix. This article is part of a special issue titled: Enzyme Transition States from Theory and Experiment. PMID:26051088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26051088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26051088"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiple alternative substrate <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, Vernon E</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The specificity of enzymes for their respective substrates has been a focal point of enzyme <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> since the initial characterization of metabolic chemistry. Various processes to quantify an enzyme's specificity using <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> have been utilized over the decades. Fersht's definition of the ratio kcat/Km for two different substrates as the "specificity constant" (ref [7]), based on the premise that the important specificity existed when the substrates were competing in the same reaction, has become a consensus standard for enzymes obeying Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. The expansion of the theory for the determination of the relative specificity constants for a very large number of competing substrates, e.g. those present in a combinatorial library, in a single reaction mixture has been developed in this contribution. The ratio of kcat/Km for isotopologs has also become a standard in mechanistic enzymology where <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> isotope effects have been measured by the development of internal competition experiments with extreme precision. This contribution extends the theory of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> isotope effects to internal competition between three isotopologs present at non-tracer concentrations in the same reaction mix. This article is part of a special issue titled: Enzyme Transition States from Theory and Experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17820893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17820893"><span id="translatedtitle">Fractal reaction <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kopelman, R</p> <p>1988-09-23</p> <p>Classical reaction <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> has been found to be unsatisfactory when the reactants are spatially constrained on the microscopic level by either walls, phase boundaries, or force fields. Recently discovered theories of heterogeneous reaction <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> have dramatic consequences, such as fractal orders for elementary reactions, self-ordering and self-unmixing of reactants, and rate coefficients with temporal "memories." The new theories were needed to explain the results of experiments and supercomputer simulations of reactions that were confined to low dimensions or fractal dimensions or both. Among the practical examples of "fractal-like <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>" are chemical reactions in pores of membranes, excitation trapping in molecular aggregates, exciton fusion in composite materials, and charge recombination in colloids and clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/897616','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/897616"><span id="translatedtitle">Erbium hydride decomposition <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ferrizz, Robert Matthew</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> information is included as an appendix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004MNRAS.351.1187C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004MNRAS.351.1187C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> theory viscosity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clarke, C. J.; Pringle, J. E.</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>We show how the viscous evolution of Keplerian accretion discs can be understood in terms of simple <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> theory. Although standard physics texts give a simple derivation of momentum transfer in a linear shear flow using <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> theory, many authors, as detailed by Hayashi & Matsuda, have had difficulties applying the same considerations to a circular shear flow. We show here how this may be done, and note that the essential ingredients are to take proper account of, first, isotropy locally in the frame of the fluid and, secondly, the geometry of the mean flow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1262160','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1262160"><span id="translatedtitle">Long tail <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> in biophysics?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nagle, J F</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Long tail <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> describe a variety of data from complex, disordered materials that cannot be described by conventional <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. It is suggested that the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of diffusive motion in complex biological media, such as cytoplasm or biomembranes, might also have long tails. The effects of long tail <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> are investigated for two standard biophysical measurements, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). It is shown that long tail <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> data would yield significantly distorted and misleading results when analyzed assuming conventional <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. PMID:1420883</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hydrogen+AND+peroxide&pg=4&id=EJ303433','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hydrogen+AND+peroxide&pg=4&id=EJ303433"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> and Catalysis Demonstrations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Falconer, John L.; Britten, Jerald A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Eleven videotaped <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and catalysis demonstrations are described. Demonstrations include the clock reaction, oscillating reaction, hydrogen oxidation in air, hydrogen-oxygen explosion, acid-base properties of solids, high- and low-temperature zeolite reactivity, copper catalysis of ammonia oxidation and sodium peroxide decomposition, ammonia…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18541367','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18541367"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxidative desulfurization: <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> modelling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dhir, S; Uppaluri, R; Purkait, M K</p> <p>2009-01-30</p> <p>Increasing environmental legislations coupled with enhanced production of petroleum products demand, the deployment of novel technologies to remove organic sulfur efficiently. This work represents the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> modeling of ODS using H(2)O(2) over tungsten-containing layered double hydroxide (LDH) using the experimental data provided by Hulea et al. [V. Hulea, A.L. Maciuca, F. Fajula, E. Dumitriu, Catalytic oxidation of thiophenes and thioethers with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of W-containing layered double hydroxides, Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 313 (2) (2006) 200-207]. The <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> modeling approach in this work initially targets the scope of the generation of a superstructure of micro-<span class="hlt">kinetic</span> reaction schemes and models assuming Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanisms. Subsequently, the screening and selection of above models is initially based on profile-based elimination of incompetent schemes followed by non-linear regression search performed using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) for the chosen models. The above analysis inferred that Eley-Rideal mechanism describes the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> behavior of ODS process using tungsten-containing LDH, with adsorption of reactant and intermediate product only taking place on the catalyst surface. Finally, an economic index is presented that scopes the economic aspects of the novel catalytic technology with the parameters obtained during regression analysis to conclude that the cost factor for the catalyst is 0.0062-0.04759 US $ per barrel. PMID:18541367</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930007860','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930007860"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> tetrazolium microtiter assay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pierson, Duane L. (Inventor); Stowe, Raymond P. (Inventor); Koeing, David W. (Inventor)</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>A method for conducting an in vitro cell assay using a tetrazolium indicator is disclosed. The indicator includes a nonionic detergent which solubilizes a tetrazolium reduction product in vitro and has low toxicity for the cells. The incubation of test cells in the presence of zolium bromide and octoxynol (TRITON X-100) permits <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of the cell metabolism to be determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1530793N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1530793N"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of VLT/X-shooter OH and O2 rotational temperatures with consideration of TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> emission and temperature profiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noll, S.; Kausch, W.; Kimeswenger, S.; Unterguggenberger, S.; Jones, A. M.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Rotational temperatures Trot derived from lines of the same OH band are an important method to study the dynamics and long-term trends in the mesopause region near 87 km. To measure realistic temperatures, a corresponding Boltzmann distribution of the rotational level populations has to be achieved. However, this might not be fulfilled, especially at high emission altitudes. In order to quantify possible non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) contributions to the OH Trot as a function of the upper vibrational level v', we studied a sample of 343 echelle spectra taken with the X-shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in Chile. These data allowed us to analyse 25 OH bands in each spectrum. Moreover, we could measure lines of O2b(0-1), which peaks at about 94 to 95 km, and O2a(0-0) with an emission peak at about 90 km. The latter altitude is reached in the second half of the night after a rise of several km because of the decay of a daytime population of excited O2. Since the radiative lifetimes for the upper levels of the two O2 bands are relatively long, the derived Trot are not significantly affected by non-LTE contributions. These bands are well suited for a comparison with OH if the differences in the emission profiles are corrected. For different sample averages, we made these corrections by using OH emission, O2a(0-0) emission, and CO2-based temperature profile data from the multi-channel radiometer <span class="hlt">SABER</span> on the TIMED satellite. The procedure relies on differences of profile-weighted <span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperatures. For an O2a(0-0)-based reference profile at 90 km, we found a good agreement of the O2 with the <span class="hlt">SABER</span>-related temperatures, whereas the OH temperatures, especially for the high and even v', showed significant excesses with a maximum of more than 10 K for v' = 8. The exact value depends on the selected lines and molecular parameters. We could also find a nocturnal trend towards higher non-LTE effects, particularly for high v'. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.5021N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.5021N"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of VLT/X-shooter OH and O2 rotational temperatures with consideration of TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> emission and temperature profiles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noll, Stefan; Kausch, Wolfgang; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Jones, Amy M.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Rotational temperatures Trot derived from lines of the same OH band are an important method to study the dynamics and long-term trends in the mesopause region near 87 km. To measure realistic temperatures, the rotational level populations have to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). However, this might not be fulfilled, especially at high emission altitudes. In order to quantify possible non-LTE contributions to the OH Trot as a function of the upper vibrational level v', we studied a sample of 343 echelle spectra taken with the X-shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in Chile. These data allowed us to analyse 25 OH bands in each spectrum. Moreover, we could measure lines of O2b(0-1), which peaks at about 94 to 95 km, and O2a(0-0) with an emission peak at about 90 km. The latter altitude is reached in the second half of the night after a rise of several km because of the decay of a daytime population of excited O2. Since the radiative lifetimes for the upper levels of the two O2 bands are relatively long, the derived Trot are not significantly affected by non-LTE contributions. These bands are well suited for a comparison with OH if the differences in the emission profiles are corrected. For different sample averages, we made these corrections by using OH emission, O2a(0-0) emission, and CO2-based temperature profile data from the multi-channel radiometer <span class="hlt">SABER</span> on the TIMED satellite. The procedure relies on differences of profile-weighted <span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperatures. For an O2a(0-0)-based reference profile at 90 km, we found a good agreement of the O2 with the <span class="hlt">SABER</span>-related temperatures, whereas the OH temperatures, especially for the high and even v', showed significant excesses with a maximum of more than 10 K for v' = 8. The exact value depends on the selected lines and molecular parameters. We could also find a nocturnal trend towards higher non-LTE effects, particularly for high v'. The amplitude of these variations can be about 2 K</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010092160&hterms=Ramirez&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DRamirez','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010092160&hterms=Ramirez&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DRamirez"><span id="translatedtitle">Shortwave Radiative Fluxes, Solar-Beam Transmissions, and Aerosol Properties: TARFOX and ACE-2 Find More Absorption from Flux <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> than from Other Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Russell, Philip B.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) and the Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) made simultaneous measurements of shortwave radiative fluxes, solar-beam transmissions, and the aerosols affecting those fluxes and transmissions. Besides the measured fluxes and transmissions, other obtained properties include aerosol scattering and absorption measured in situ at the surface and aloft; aerosol single scattering albedo retrieved from skylight radiances; and aerosol complex refractive index derived by combining profiles of backscatter, extinction, and size distribution. These measurements of North Atlantic boundary layer aerosols impacted by anthropogenic pollution revealed the following characteristic results: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements of aerosols (e.g., optical depth, extinction, and backscattering from sunphotometers, satellites, and lidars) than between remote and in situ measurements; 2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements; (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> than from other measurements. When the measured relationships between downwelling flux and optical depth (or beam transmission) are used to derive best-fit single scattering albedos for the polluted boundary layer aerosol, both TARFOX and ACE-2 yield midvisible values of 0.90 +/- 0.04. The other techniques give larger single scattering albedos (i.e. less absorption) for the polluted boundary layer, with a typical result of 0.95 +/- 0.04. Although the flux-based results have the virtue of describing the column aerosol unperturbed by sampling, they are subject to questions about representativeness and other uncertainties (e.g., unknown gas absorption). Current uncertainties in aerosol single scattering albedo are large in terms of climate effects. They also have an important influence on aerosol optical depths retrieved from satellite radiances</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJAEO..17...23C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJAEO..17...23C"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimation of snow depth and snow water equivalent distribution using airborne microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> in the Binggou Watershed, the upper reaches of the Heihe River basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Che, Tao; Dai, Liyun; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Qiang</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>We estimated the spatial distribution of snow depth/snow water equivalent (SD/SWE) in a mountainous watershed (Binggou, which is in the upper reaches of the Heihe River basin) by an airborne microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> observational experiment. Two microwave radiometers measuring at K band (18.7 GHz) and Ka band (36 GHz) were used to estimate the volume scatter from snowpacks and infer SD and SWE. Simultaneously, the snow physical properties (such as snow depth, density, grain size and temperature) over four sites were measured, and a simple multi-layer sample scheme was adopted to obtain the stratigraphic information. The microwave emission model of layered snowpacks (MEMLS) was used to simulate the brightness temperatures of snow cover for each measurement point. By comparing TB data that were simulated by MEMLS and observed by radiometers on the aircraft over the four sites, we obtained the retrieval algorithms of SD and SWE based on brightness temperature differences (TBD) at the K- and Ka-bands that are suitable to the local snow properties. The validation shows that the mean absolute and relative errors of SD estimates are approximately 3.5 cm and 14.8%, respectively. SWE from airborne microwave radiometers show that blowing snow and sun radiation are two main factors that determine the spatial distribution of SWE in Binggou Watershed. The local angle of incidence of the microwave radiometer observation can be influenced by mountainous topography, and a sensitivity analysis suggests that changes in the local angle of incidence (e.g., the nominal angle of incidence) will not significantly influence the estimation of SD/SWE. The snow's stratigraphic condition is not an important factor for estimating SD/SWE in this study because the snow was not very deep in the Binggou Watershed. However, the field sampling scheme should be given more attention to obtain the spatial variations of snow properties and to support pixel-by-pixel validation in next field campaign.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945744','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945744"><span id="translatedtitle">LLNL Chemical <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> Modeling Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J</p> <p>2008-09-24</p> <p>The LLNL chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hydrolysis&pg=6&id=EJ220058','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hydrolysis&pg=6&id=EJ220058"><span id="translatedtitle">An Introductory Level <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> Investigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McGarvey, J. E. B.; Knipe, A. C.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Provides a list of the reactions commonly used for introductory <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> studies. These reactions illustrate the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> concepts of rate law, rate constant, and reaction order. Describes a <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> study of the hydrolysis of 3-bromo-3-phenylpropanoic acid which offers many educational advantages. (CS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080013389','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080013389"><span id="translatedtitle">Empirical Storm-Time Correction to the International Reference Ionosphere Model E-Region Electron and Ion Density Parameterizations Using Observations from TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mertens, Christoper J.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Russell, James M., III; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Evans, David S.; Bilitza, Dieter; Xu, Xiaojing</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The response of the ionospheric E-region to solar-geomagnetic storms can be characterized using observations of infrared 4.3 micrometers emission. In particular, we utilize nighttime TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> measurements of broadband 4.3 micrometers limb emission and derive a new data product, the NO+(v) volume emission rate, which is our primary observation-based quantity for developing an empirical storm-time correction the IRI E-region electron density. In this paper we describe our E-region proxy and outline our strategy for developing the empirical storm model. In our initial studies, we analyzed a six day storm period during the Halloween 2003 event. The results of this analysis are promising and suggest that the ap-index is a viable candidate to use as a magnetic driver for our model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080007187','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080007187"><span id="translatedtitle">Ionospheric E-Region Response to Solar-Geomagnetic Storms Observed by TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> and Application to IRI Storm-Model Development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mertens, Christopher J.; Mast, Jeffrey C.; Winick, Jeremy R.; Russell, James M., III; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Evans, David S.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The large thermospheric infrared radiance enhancements observed from the TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> experiment during recent solar storms provide an exciting opportunity to study the influence of solar-geomagnetic disturbances on the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. In particular, nighttime enhancements of 4.3 um emission, due to vibrational excitation and radiative emission by NO+, provide an excellent proxy to study and analyze the response of the ionospheric E-region to auroral electron dosing and storm-time enhancements to the E-region electron density. In this paper we give a status report of on-going work on model and data analysis methodologies of deriving NO+ 4.3 um volume emission rates, a proxy for the storm-time E-region response, and the approach for deriving an empirical storm-time correction to International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) E-region NO+ and electron densities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMSA53B4115L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMSA53B4115L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comprehensive Study of Planetary-Scale Atmospheric Waves in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere As Observed By Timed/<span class="hlt">Saber</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, G.; England, S.; Immel, T. J.; Frey, H. U.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A comprehensive study of planetary-scale atmospheric waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) is conducted by analyzing the multiple years of temperature observations from TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> covering 2002-2011. Occurrences and properties of these waves are studied for various cases, with 62% of them are the zonal wavenumber-1 component, 20 % are the wavenumber-2 and 18% are the wavenumber-3. The mean wave amplitudes and vertical wavelengths are calculated to be 8 K and 30 km for the wavenumber-1, 5.5 K and 25 km for the wavenumber-2, and 5 K and 20 km for the wavenumber-3. These exhibit the signatures of planetary-scale atmospheric waves, which are believed to be important in the vertical coupling of the lower atmosphere with the ionosphere/thermosphere/mesosphere (ITM) system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26132165','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26132165"><span id="translatedtitle">Using a Novel Absolute Ontogenetic Age Determination Technique to Calculate the Timing of Tooth Eruption in the <span class="hlt">Saber</span>-Toothed Cat, Smilodon fatalis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wysocki, M Aleksander; Feranec, Robert S; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Bjornsson, Christopher S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Despite the superb fossil record of the <span class="hlt">saber</span>-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, ontogenetic age determination for this and other ancient species remains a challenge. The present study utilizes a new technique, a combination of data from stable oxygen isotope analyses and micro-computed tomography, to establish the eruption rate for the permanent upper canines in Smilodon fatalis. The results imply an eruption rate of 6.0 millimeters per month, which is similar to a previously published average enamel growth rate of the S. fatalis upper canines (5.8 millimeters per month). Utilizing the upper canine growth rate, the upper canine eruption rate, and a previously published tooth replacement sequence, this study calculates absolute ontogenetic age ranges of tooth development and eruption in S. fatalis. The timing of tooth eruption is compared between S. fatalis and several extant conical-toothed felids, such as the African lion (Panthera leo). Results suggest that the permanent dentition of S. fatalis, except for the upper canines, was fully erupted by 14 to 22 months, and that the upper canines finished erupting at about 34 to 41 months. Based on these developmental age calculations, S. fatalis individuals less than 4 to 7 months of age were not typically preserved at Rancho La Brea. On the whole, S. fatalis appears to have had delayed dental development compared to dental development in similar-sized extant felids. This technique for absolute ontogenetic age determination can be replicated in other ancient species, including non-<span class="hlt">saber</span>-toothed taxa, as long as the timing of growth initiation and growth rate can be determined for a specific feature, such as a tooth, and that growth period overlaps with the development of the other features under investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4489498','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4489498"><span id="translatedtitle">Using a Novel Absolute Ontogenetic Age Determination Technique to Calculate the Timing of Tooth Eruption in the <span class="hlt">Saber</span>-Toothed Cat, Smilodon fatalis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wysocki, M. Aleksander; Feranec, Robert S.; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Bjornsson, Christopher S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Despite the superb fossil record of the <span class="hlt">saber</span>-toothed cat, Smilodon fatalis, ontogenetic age determination for this and other ancient species remains a challenge. The present study utilizes a new technique, a combination of data from stable oxygen isotope analyses and micro-computed tomography, to establish the eruption rate for the permanent upper canines in Smilodon fatalis. The results imply an eruption rate of 6.0 millimeters per month, which is similar to a previously published average enamel growth rate of the S. fatalis upper canines (5.8 millimeters per month). Utilizing the upper canine growth rate, the upper canine eruption rate, and a previously published tooth replacement sequence, this study calculates absolute ontogenetic age ranges of tooth development and eruption in S. fatalis. The timing of tooth eruption is compared between S. fatalis and several extant conical-toothed felids, such as the African lion (Panthera leo). Results suggest that the permanent dentition of S. fatalis, except for the upper canines, was fully erupted by 14 to 22 months, and that the upper canines finished erupting at about 34 to 41 months. Based on these developmental age calculations, S. fatalis individuals less than 4 to 7 months of age were not typically preserved at Rancho La Brea. On the whole, S. fatalis appears to have had delayed dental development compared to dental development in similar-sized extant felids. This technique for absolute ontogenetic age determination can be replicated in other ancient species, including non-<span class="hlt">saber</span>-toothed taxa, as long as the timing of growth initiation and growth rate can be determined for a specific feature, such as a tooth, and that growth period overlaps with the development of the other features under investigation. PMID:26132165</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA31A2341N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSA31A2341N"><span id="translatedtitle">Photochemical modeling of nonmigrating tides in the 15 μm infrared cooling of the lower thermosphere over one solar cycle and comparison with <span class="hlt">SABER</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nischal, N.; Oberheide, J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Maute, A. I.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Tidal diagnostics of <span class="hlt">SABER</span> CO2 15 μm data shows a substantial modulation of the energy budget of the lower thermosphere due to nonmigrating tides: relative amplitudes of the CO2 cooling rates for the DE2 and DE3 components are on the order of 15-50% with respect to the monthly mean emissions. Supporting photochemical tidal modeling using TIME-GCM and the empirical CTMT model reproduces the general amplitude structures and phases. Furthermore, it indicates that the main tidal coupling mechanism is the temperature dependence of the collisional excitation of the CO2 (01101) fundamental band transition (ν2). The response to neutral density variations is as important as temperature above 115 km as such explaining an unexpected tidal phase behavior in the observation. The contribution of vertical advection is comparatively small. In order to test the sensitivity of the modeled DE2 and DE3 CO2 VER tides to the solar cycle and to the specific choice of mean temperature, atomic oxygen, and CO2 density, we extend the modeling by using background from MSIS, <span class="hlt">SABER</span>, and SCIAMACHY. The results indicate that the current uncertainties in the background temperature and atomic oxygen used for the photochemical modeling do not impact our conclusion about the relative importance of the tidal coupling mechanisms. Our results quantify the response of the CO2 15 μm infrared cooling of the lower thermosphere to tropospheric tides and delineate the coupling mechanisms that lead to the observed strong longitudinal and local time variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000424&hterms=pharmaceutical+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dpharmaceutical%2Bwater','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930000424&hterms=pharmaceutical+water&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dpharmaceutical%2Bwater"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000eaa..bookE4609.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000eaa..bookE4609."><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Theory of Gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murdin, P.</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>The theory, developed in the nineteenth century, notably by Rudolf Clausius (1822-88) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79), that the properties of a gas (temperature, pressure, etc) could be described in terms of the motions (and <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy) of the molecules comprising the gases. The theory has wide implications in astrophysics. In particular, the perfect gas law, which relates the pressure, vol...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/12670','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/12670"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of Reactive Wetting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>YOST, FREDERICK G.</p> <p>1999-09-09</p> <p>The importance of interfacial processes in materials joining has a long history. A significant amount of work has suggested that processes collateral to wetting can affect the extent of wetting and moderate or retard wetting rate. Even very small additions of a constituent, known to react with the substrate, cause pronounced improvement in wetting and are exploited in braze alloys, especially those used for joining to ceramics. The wide diversity of processes, such as diffusion, chemical reaction, and fluxing, and their possible combinations suggest that various rate laws should be expected for wetting <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> depending on the controlling processes. These rate laws are expected to differ crucially from the standard fluid controlled wetting models found in the literature. Voitovitch et al. and Mortensen et al. have shown data that suggests diffusion control for some systems and reaction control for others. They also presented a model of wetting <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> controlled by the diffusion of a constituent contained by the wetting fluid. In the following a model will be constructed for the wetting <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of a small droplet of metal containing a constituent that diffuses to the wetting line and chemically reacts with a flat, smooth substrate. The model is similar to that of Voitovitch et al. and Mortensen et al. but incorporates chemical reaction <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> such that the result contains both diffusion and reaction <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. The model is constructed in the circular cylinder coordinate system, satisfies the diffusion equation under conditions of slow flow, and considers diffusion and reaction at the wetting line to be processes in series. This is done by solving the diffusion equation with proper initial and boundary conditions, computing the diffusive flux at the wetting line and equating this to both the convective flux and reaction flux. This procedure is similar to equating the current flowing in components of a series circuit. The wetting rate will be computed versus time</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20050509','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20050509"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of reactive wetting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yost, F.G.</p> <p>2000-04-14</p> <p>The importance of interfacial processes in materials joining has a long history. A significant amount of work has suggested that processes collateral to wetting can affect the extent of wetting and moderate or retard wetting rate. Even very small additions of a constituent, known to react with the substrate, cause pronounced improvement in wetting and are exploited in braze alloys, especially those used for joining to ceramics. In the following a model will be constructed for the wetting <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of a small droplet of metal containing a constituent that diffuses to the wetting line and chemically reacts with a flat, smooth substrate. The model is similar to that of Voitovitch et al. and Mortensen et al. but incorporates chemical reaction <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> such that the result contains both diffusion and reaction <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. The model is constructed in the circular cylinder coordinate system, satisfies the diffusion equation under conditions of slow flow, and considers diffusion and reaction at the wetting line to be processes in series. This is done by solving the diffusion equation with proper initial and boundary conditions, computing the diffusive flux at the wetting line, and equating this to both the convective flux and reaction flux. This procedure is similar to equating the current flowing in components of a series circuit. The wetting rate will be computed versus time for a variety of diffusion and reaction conditions. A transition is observed from nonlinear (diffusive) to linear (reactive) behavior as the control parameters (such as the diffusion coefficient) are modified. This is in agreement with experimental observations. The adequacy of the slow flow condition, used in this type of analysis, is discussed and an amended procedure is suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25091596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25091596"><span id="translatedtitle">Potassium <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> during hemodialysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Agar, Baris U; Culleton, Bruce F; Fluck, Richard; Leypoldt, John K</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Hyperkalemia in hemodialysis patients is associated with high mortality, but prescription of low dialysate potassium concentrations to decrease serum potassium levels is associated with a high incidence of sudden cardiac arrest or sudden death. Improved clinical outcomes for these patients may be possible if rapid and substantial intradialysis decreases in serum potassium concentration can be avoided while maintaining adequate potassium removal. Data from <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> modeling sessions during the HEMO Study of the dependence of serum potassium concentration on time during hemodialysis treatments and 30 minutes postdialysis were evaluated using a pseudo one-compartment model. <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> estimates of potassium mobilization clearance (K(M)) and predialysis central distribution volume (V(pre)) were determined in 551 hemodialysis patients. The studied patients were 58.8 ± 14.4 years of age with predialysis body weight of 72.1 ± 15.1 kg; 306 (55.4%) of the patients were female and 337 (61.2%) were black. K(M) and V(pre) for all patients were non-normally distributed with values of 158 (111, 235) (median [interquartile range]) mL/min and 15.6 (11.4, 22.8) L, respectively. K(M) was independent of dialysate potassium concentration (P > 0.2), but V(pre) was lower at higher dialysate potassium concentration (R = -0.188, P < 0.001). For patients with dialysate potassium concentration between 1.6 and 2.5 mEq/L (N = 437), multiple linear regression of K(M) and V(pre) demonstrated positive association with predialysis body weight and negative association with predialysis serum potassium concentration. Potassium <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> during hemodialysis can be described using a pseudo one-compartment model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...H31B07H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUSM...H31B07H"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring the Exchange of Heat and Moisture Between the Land Surface and the Atmosphere in a Field of Corn with Microwave <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hornbuckle, B. K.; Hornbuckle, B. K.; England, A. W.; England, A. W.</p> <p>2001-05-01</p> <p>Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) models can be used to produce estimates of plant-available water as well as the fluxes of energy and moisture across the land-atmosphere interface. These estimates could be greatly improved by using independent measurements of key state variables to force the model back to its true state. This process is called data assimilation. Microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> is sensitive to one of these key state variables, the water content of the top few centimeters of the soil. Although several different SVAT models have been developed in the past, they are not suitable for use with current models of microwave emission. We are integrating high-fidelity biophysically-based SVAT and microwave emission models together into comprehensive point-scale Land Surface Process / Radiobrightness (LSP/R) models. LSP/R models will provide the climate modeling community with the physical insight needed to create accurate yet operational land surface parameterizations which can assimilate radiobrightness observations made by current and future microwave remote sensing satellites. We present an overview of data collected during the Seventh Radiobrightness and Energy Balance EXperiment (REBEX-7) held during the summer of 2000. This data will be used to test the SVAT portion of a LSP/R model for field corn. The experiment site in southeastern Michigan was unusually ideal in terms of crop and soil homogeneity and flat terrain with fetches of more than 400 m in the direction of prevailing winds. Detailed measurements of global short- and long-wave radiation, upwelling short-wave radiation, net radiation, precipitation, wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity, air temperature and water vapor pressure gradients, soil temperature, soil moisture, soil heat flux, vegetation biomass and plant-area index, infrared vegetation and soil temperatures, and soil surface roughness were recorded for mature corn. Estimates of sensible and latent heat flux made using the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1434N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1434N"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability of OH rotational temperatures on time scales from hours to 15 years by <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> temperature variations, emission layer changes, and non-LTE effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noll, Stefan</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Rotational temperatures derived from hydroxyl (OH) line emission are frequently used to study atmospheric temperatures at altitudes of about 87 km. While the measurement only requires intensities of a few bright lines of an OH band, the interpretation can be complicated. Ground-based temperatures are averages for the entire, typically 8 km wide emission layer. Variations in the rotational temperature are then caused by changes of the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> temperature and the OH emission profile. The latter can also be accompanied by differences in the layer-averaged efficiency of the thermalisation of the OH rotational level populations. Since this especially depends on the frequency of collisions with O_2, which is low at high altitudes, the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) contribution to the measured temperatures can be significant and variable. In order to understand the impact of the different sources of OH rotational temperature variations from time scales of hours to a solar cycle, we have studied spectra from the astronomical echelle spectrographs X-shooter and UVES located at Cerro Paranal in Chile. While the X-shooter data spanning 3.5 years allowed us to measure temperatures for 25 OH and two O_2 bands, the UVES spectra cover no more than 10 OH bands simultaneously but a period of about 15 years. These data have been complemented by <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> temperature and OH and O_2 emission profiles from the multi-channel radiometer <span class="hlt">SABER</span> on the TIMED satellite. Taking the O_2 and <span class="hlt">SABER</span> <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> temperatures as reference and considering the different band-dependent emission profiles, we could evaluate the contribution of non-LTE effects to the measured OH rotational temperatures depending on line set, band, and time. Non-LTE contributions are significant for most bands and can exceed 10 K. The amplitudes of their average nocturnal and seasonal variation are of the order of 1 to 2 K.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/139939','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/139939"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J.</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>This project emphasizes numerical modeling of chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of combustion, including applications in both practical combustion systems and in controlled laboratory experiments. Elementary reaction rate parameters are combined into mechanisms which then describe the overall reaction of the fuels being studied. Detailed sensitivity analyses are used to identify those reaction rates and product species distributions to which the results are most sensitive and therefore warrant the greatest attention from other experimental and theoretical research programs. Experimental data from a variety of environments are combined together to validate the reaction mechanisms, including results from laminar flames, shock tubes, flow systems, detonations, and even internal combustion engines.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.P1346K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.P1346K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of protein aggregation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knowles, Tuomas</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Aggregation into linear nanostructures, notably amyloid and amyloid-like fibrils, is a common form of behaviour exhibited by a range of peptides and proteins. This process was initially discovered in the context of the aetiology of a range of neurodegenerative diseases, but has recently been recognised to of general significance and has been found at the origin of a number of beneficial functional roles in nature, including as catalytic scaffolds and functional components in biofilms. This talk discusses our ongoing efforts to study the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of linear protein self-assembly by using master equation approaches combined with global analysis of experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980020898','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980020898"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of Crystallization <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kelton, Kenneth F.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>A realistic computer model for polymorphic crystallization (i.e., initial and final phases with identical compositions), which includes time-dependent nucleation and cluster-size-dependent growth rates, is developed and tested by fits to experimental data. Model calculations are used to assess the validity of two of the more common approaches for the analysis of crystallization data. The effects of particle size on transformation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, important for the crystallization of many systems of limited dimension including thin films, fine powders, and nanoparticles, are examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6307052','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6307052"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of coal pyrolysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. ); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. ); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. ); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. )</p> <p>1989-07-01</p> <p>This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24664912','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24664912"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> on extrasolar planets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moses, Julianne I</p> <p>2014-04-28</p> <p>Chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> plays an important role in controlling the atmospheric composition of all planetary atmospheres, including those of extrasolar planets. For the hottest exoplanets, the composition can closely follow thermochemical-equilibrium predictions, at least in the visible and infrared photosphere at dayside (eclipse) conditions. However, for atmospheric temperatures approximately <2000K, and in the uppermost atmosphere at any temperature, chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> matters. The two key mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> processes drive an exoplanet atmosphere out of equilibrium are photochemistry and transport-induced quenching. I review these disequilibrium processes in detail, discuss observational consequences and examine some of the current evidence for <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> processes on extrasolar planets. PMID:24664912</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24664912','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24664912"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> on extrasolar planets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moses, Julianne I</p> <p>2014-04-28</p> <p>Chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> plays an important role in controlling the atmospheric composition of all planetary atmospheres, including those of extrasolar planets. For the hottest exoplanets, the composition can closely follow thermochemical-equilibrium predictions, at least in the visible and infrared photosphere at dayside (eclipse) conditions. However, for atmospheric temperatures approximately <2000K, and in the uppermost atmosphere at any temperature, chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> matters. The two key mechanisms by which <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> processes drive an exoplanet atmosphere out of equilibrium are photochemistry and transport-induced quenching. I review these disequilibrium processes in detail, discuss observational consequences and examine some of the current evidence for <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> processes on extrasolar planets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AMTD....7.6651G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AMTD....7.6651G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">MIPAS temperature from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere: comparison of version vM21 with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, <span class="hlt">SABER</span>, SOFIE and lidar measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>García-Comas, M.; Funke, B.; Gardini, A.; López-Puertas, M.; Jurado-Navarro, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Kiefer, M.; Boone, C. D.; Leblanc, T.; Marshall, B. T.; Schwartz, M. J.; Sheese, P. E.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>We present vM21 MIPAS temperatures from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere, which cover all optimized resolution measurements performed by MIPAS in the Middle Atmosphere, Upper Atmosphere and NoctiLucent Cloud modes during its lifetime. i.e., from January 2005 to March 2012. The main upgrades with respect to the previous version of MIPAS temperatures (vM11) are the update of the spectroscopic database, the use of a different climatology of atomic oxygen and carbon dioxide, and the improvement of important technical aspects of the retrieval setup (temperature gradient along the line of sight and offset regularizations, apodization accuracy). Additionally, an updated version of ESA calibrated L1b spectra (5.02/5.06) is used. The vM21 temperatures correct the main systematic errors of the previous version because they on average provide a 1-2 K warmer stratopause and middle mesosphere, and a 6-10 K colder mesopause (except in high latitude summers) and lower thermosphere. These lead to a remarkable improvement of MIPAS comparisons with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, <span class="hlt">SABER</span>, SOFIE and the two Rayleigh lidars at Mauna Loa and Table Mountain, that, with few specific exceptions, typically exhibit differences smaller than 1 K below 50 km and than 2 K at 50-80 km in spring, autumn, winter at all latitudes, and summer at low to mid-latitudes. Differences in the high latitude summers are typically smaller than 1 K below 50 km, smaller than 2 K at 50-65 km and 5 K at 65-80 km. Differences with the other instruments in the mid-mesosphere are generally negative. MIPAS mesopause is within 4 K of the other instruments measurements, except in the high latitude summers, where it is within 5-10 K of the other instruments, being warmer than <span class="hlt">SABER</span>, MLS and OSIRIS and colder than ACE-FTS and SOFIE. The agreement in the lower thermosphere is typically better than 5 K, except for high latitudes during spring and summer, where MIPAS usually exhibits larger vertical gradients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AMT.....7.3633G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AMT.....7.3633G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">MIPAS temperature from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere: Comparison of vM21 with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, <span class="hlt">SABER</span>, SOFIE and lidar measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>García-Comas, M.; Funke, B.; Gardini, A.; López-Puertas, M.; Jurado-Navarro, A.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Kiefer, M.; Boone, C. D.; Leblanc, T.; Marshall, B. T.; Schwartz, M. J.; Sheese, P. E.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>We present vM21 MIPAS temperatures from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere, which cover all optimized resolution measurements performed by MIPAS in the middle-atmosphere, upper-atmosphere and noctilucent-cloud modes during its lifetime, i.e., from January 2005 to April 2012. The main upgrades with respect to the previous version of MIPAS temperatures (vM11) are the update of the spectroscopic database, the use of a different climatology of atomic oxygen and carbon dioxide, and the improvement in important technical aspects of the retrieval setup (temperature gradient along the line of sight and offset regularizations, apodization accuracy). Additionally, an updated version of ESA-calibrated L1b spectra (5.02/5.06) is used. The vM21 temperatures correct the main systematic errors of the previous version because they provide on average a 1-2 K warmer stratopause and middle mesosphere, and a 6-10 K colder mesopause (except in high-latitude summers) and lower thermosphere. These lead to a remarkable improvement in MIPAS comparisons with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, <span class="hlt">SABER</span>, SOFIE and the two Rayleigh lidars at Mauna Loa and Table Mountain, which, with a few specific exceptions, typically exhibit differences smaller than 1 K below 50 km and than 2 K at 50-80 km in spring, autumn and winter at all latitudes, and summer at low to midlatitudes. Differences in the high-latitude summers are typically smaller than 1 K below 50 km, smaller than 2 K at 50-65 km and 5 K at 65-80 km. Differences between MIPAS and the other instruments in the mid-mesosphere are generally negative. MIPAS mesopause is within 4 K of the other instruments measurements, except in the high-latitude summers, when it is within 5-10 K, being warmer there than <span class="hlt">SABER</span>, MLS and OSIRIS and colder than ACE-FTS and SOFIE. The agreement in the lower thermosphere is typically better than 5 K, except for high latitudes during spring and summer, when MIPAS usually exhibits larger vertical gradients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ACP....1410193K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ACP....1410193K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">On the impact of the temporal variability of the collisional quenching process on the mesospheric OH emission layer: a study based on SD-WACCM4 and <span class="hlt">SABER</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kowalewski, S.; von Savigny, C.; Palm, M.; McDade, I. C.; Notholt, J.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The mesospheric OH Meinel emissions are subject of many theoretical and observational studies devoted to this part of the atmosphere. Depending on the initial vibrational level of excitation the altitude of the considered OH Meinel emission is systematically shifted, which has important implications for the intercomparison of different studies considering different transition bands. Previous model studies suggest that these vertical shifts are essentially caused by the process of collisional quenching with atomic oxygen. Following this hypothesis, a recent study found experimental evidence of a coherent seasonality at tropical latitudes between vertical shifts of different OH Meinel bands and changes in atomic oxygen concentrations. Despite the consistent finding of the above mentioned hypothesis, it cannot be excluded that the actual temporal variability of the vertical shifts between different OH Meinel bands may in addition be controlled or even dominated by other processes. It remains an open question whether the observed temporal evolution is indeed mainly controlled by the modulation of the collisional quenching process with atomic oxygen. By means of a sensitivity study which employs a quenching model to simulations made with the SD-WACCM4 chemistry climate model, we aim at assessing this question. From this study we find that the observed seasonality of vertical OH Meinel shifts is only partially controlled by temporal changes in atomic oxygen concentrations, while molecular oxygen has another noticeable impact on the vertical OH Meinel shifts. This in particular becomes evident for the diurnal variability of vertical OH Meinel shifts, which reveal only a poor correlation with the atomic oxygen species. Furthermore, changes in the H + O3 source gases provide another mechanism that can potentially affect the diurnal variability in addition. By comparison with limb radiance observations from the <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED satellite this provides an explanation for the less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvL.115u8702R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvL.115u8702R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of Social Contagion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruan, Zhongyuan; Iñiguez, Gerardo; Karsai, Márton; Kertész, János</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Diffusion of information, behavioral patterns or innovations follows diverse pathways depending on a number of conditions, including the structure of the underlying social network, the sensitivity to peer pressure and the influence of media. Here we study analytically and by simulations a general model that incorporates threshold mechanism capturing sensitivity to peer pressure, the effect of "immune" nodes who never adopt, and a perpetual flow of external information. While any constant, nonzero rate of dynamically introduced spontaneous adopters leads to global spreading, the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> by which the asymptotic state is approached shows rich behavior. In particular, we find that, as a function of the immune node density, there is a transition from fast to slow spreading governed by entirely different mechanisms. This transition happens below the percolation threshold of network fragmentation, and has its origin in the competition between cascading behavior induced by adopters and blocking due to immune nodes. This change is accompanied by a percolation transition of the induced clusters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1303654','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1303654"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of Prion Growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pöschel, Thorsten; Brilliantov, Nikolai V.; Frömmel, Cornelius</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>We study the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of prion fibril growth, described by the nucleated polymerization model analytically and by means of numerical experiments. The elementary processes of prion fibril formation lead us to a set of differential equations for the number of fibrils, their total mass, and the number of prion monomers. In difference to previous studies we analyze this set by explicitly taking into account the time-dependence of the prion monomer concentration. The theoretical results agree with experimental data, whereas the generally accepted hypothesis of constant monomer concentration leads to a fibril growth behavior which is not in agreement with experiments. The obtained size distribution of the prion fibril aggregates is shifted significantly toward shorter lengths as compared to earlier results, which leads to a enhanced infectivity of the prion material. Finally, we study the effect of filtering of the inoculated material on the incubation time of the disease. PMID:14645042</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25204869','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25204869"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> inductance magnetometer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luomahaara, Juho; Vesterinen, Visa; Grönberg, Leif; Hassel, Juha</p> <p>2014-09-10</p> <p>Sensing ultra-low magnetic fields has various applications in the fields of science, medicine and industry. There is a growing need for a sensor that can be operated in ambient environments where magnetic shielding is limited or magnetic field manipulation is involved. To this end, here we demonstrate a new magnetometer with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The device is based on the current nonlinearity of superconducting material stemming from <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> inductance. A further benefit of our approach is of extreme simplicity: the device is fabricated from a single layer of niobium nitride. Moreover, radio frequency multiplexing techniques can be applied, enabling the simultaneous readout of multiple sensors, for example, in biomagnetic measurements requiring data from large sensor arrays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011honc.book..333N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011honc.book..333N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of Radioactive Decay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nagy, S.</p> <p></p> <p>At present there are over 3,000 known nuclides (see the Appendix in Vol. 2 on the “Table of the Nuclides”), 265 of which are stable, while the rest, i.e., more than 90% of them, are radioactive. The chemical applications of the specific isotopes of chemical elements are mostly connected with the latter group, including quite a number of metastable nuclear isomers, making the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of radioactive decay an important chapter of nuclear chemistry. After giving a phenomenological and then a statistical interpretation of the exponential law, the various combinations of individual decay processes as well as the cases of equilibrium and nonequilibrium will be discussed. Half-life systematics of the different decay modes detailed in Chaps. 2 and 4 of this volume are also summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA51A2072K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSA51A2072K"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-consistent retrieval of MLT pressure/temperature and CO2 densities from <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED limb radiances in the 15 and 4.3 μm channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kutepov, A. A.; Rezac, L.; Feofilov, A.; Goldberg, R. A.; Russell, J. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED broadband infrared limb observations of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) are providing important information about the temperature, composition and energy budget of this atmospheric region. Prior to the current processing using the v2.0 algorithm, pressure and temperature were retrieved using radiances measured in the 15 μm CO2 band in combination with the WACCM model CO2 distribution. The v2.0 operational processing uses a rigorous non-LTE, self consistent, two-channel, simultaneous retrieval of pressure, temperature and CO2 density from <span class="hlt">SABER</span> daytime broadband limb 15 and 4.3 μm radiances. Three years of simultaneous temperature/CO2 profiles have been produced thus far in a post processing mode where the two-channel methodology is applied to radiances that have been registered in altitude space. Results from these retrievals for various latitudes and seasons as well as their comparisons with model results are discussed. The line-by-line radiative transfer calculations and iterations that must be performed for the retrieval are very time consuming. An optimized version of the algorithm, that greatly increases the processing speed needed for large data volumes, has been developed that uses a look-up-table (LUT) technique. This general approach has been successfully applied for many years to process lower atmosphere observations based on the LTE assumption. We have adapted this method for <span class="hlt">SABER</span> simultaneous temperature/CO2 processing by applying an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) technique to generate a database of independent atmospheric profiles on which the LUT retrieval technique operates. The technique also has been configured for application in the non-LTE MLT environment. This report presents an overview of the work to provide an efficient multi-channel, non-LTE MLT limb retrieval technique suitable for processing the large volume of data collected by <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED over its nearly 12-year highly successful mission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A53B0266M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A53B0266M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of Deliquescence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McGraw, R. L.; Lewis, E.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We examine deliquescence phase transformation for inorganic salt particles ranging from bulk down to several nanometers in size. Thermodynamic properties of the particles, coated with aqueous solution layers of varying thickness and surrounded by vapor, are analyzed. A thin layer criterion is introduced to define a limiting deliquescence relative humidity (DRH). Nano-size particles are predicted to deliquesce at relative humidity just below the DRH on crossing a nucleation barrier, located at a critical solution layer thickness. This barrier vanishes precisely at the DRH defined by the criterion. For a population of particles, the inherent random nature of the nucleation process is predicted to result in a distribution of RH values over which deliquescence will be seen to occur. Measurement of this (apparent) non-abrupt deliquescence of the population should provide both a validation of the nucleation mechanism and a quantitative determination of nucleation rate. This paper presents calculations of crossing (i.e. deliquescence) rate using the theory of mean first passage times (MFPT). MFPT theory is shown to provide a generalization of Becker-Döring nucleation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> especially useful for barrier heights much lower than those typically encountered in vapor-liquid nucleation. Barrier heights for deliquescence depend on the concentration of pre-deliquesced particles and observation time, but are typically in the 5-15kT range. Calculations use the tandem nano-differential mobility analyzer setup of Biskos et al. [1] as a model framework. In their experiment, a concentration of dry salt particles is subject to a higher RH for some observation time, after which is measured the (well-separated) populations of un-deliquesced particles and those that have deliquesced. Theoretical estimates for the conversion <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> are presented as a function of dry particle size, DRH, and salt properties. [1] G. Biskos, A. Malinowski, L. M. Russell, P. R. Buseck, and S. T. Martin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25987355','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25987355"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of Enzyme <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Mechanisms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ulusu, Nuriye Nuray</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This review paper discusses the reciprocal <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> behaviours of enzymes and the evolution of structure-function dichotomy. <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> mechanisms have evolved in response to alterations in ecological and metabolic conditions. The <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> mechanisms of single-substrate mono-substrate enzyme reactions are easier to understand and much simpler than those of bi-bi substrate enzyme reactions. The increasing complexities of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> mechanisms, as well as the increasing number of enzyme subunits, can be used to shed light on the evolution of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> mechanisms. Enzymes with heterogeneous <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> mechanisms attempt to achieve specific products to subsist. In many organisms, <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> mechanisms have evolved to aid survival in response to changing environmental factors. Enzyme promiscuity is defined as adaptation to changing environmental conditions, such as the introduction of a toxin or a new carbon source. Enzyme promiscuity is defined as adaptation to changing environmental conditions, such as the introduction of a toxin or a new carbon source. Enzymes with broad substrate specificity and promiscuous properties are believed to be more evolved than single-substrate enzymes. This group of enzymes can adapt to changing environmental substrate conditions and adjust catalysing mechanisms according to the substrate's properties, and their <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> mechanisms have evolved in response to substrate variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SurSc.643...52S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SurSc.643...52S"><span id="translatedtitle">Local reaction <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> by imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suchorski, Yuri; Rupprechter, Günther</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the present contribution we present an overview of our recent studies using the "<span class="hlt">kinetics</span> by imaging" approach for CO oxidation on heterogeneous model systems. The method is based on the correlation of the PEEM image intensity with catalytic activity: scaled down to the μm-sized surface regions, such correlation allows simultaneous local <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> measurements on differently oriented individual domains of a polycrystalline metal-foil, including the construction of local <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> phase diagrams. This allows spatially- and component-resolved <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> studies and, e.g., a direct comparison of inherent catalytic properties of Pt(hkl)- and Pd(hkl)-domains or supported μm-sized Pd-powder agglomerates, studies of the local catalytic ignition and the role of defects and grain boundaries in the local reaction <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011ACPD...1132583F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011ACPD...1132583F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">CO2(ν2)-O quenching rate coefficient derived from coincidental <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED and Fort Collins lidar observations of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; She, C.-Y.; Smith, A. K.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), the quenching of CO2(ν2)-O vibrational levels by collisions with O atoms plays an important role. However, there is a factor of 3-4 discrepancy between various measurements of the CO2-O quenching rate coefficient, kVT. We retrieve kVT in the altitude region 80-110 km from coincident <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED and Fort Collins sodium lidar observations by minimizing the difference between measured and simulated broadband limb 15 μm radiances. The retrieved kVT varies from about 5 × 10-12 cm3 s-1 at 87 km to about 7 × 10-12 cm3 s-1 at 104 km. A detailed consideration of retrieval errors and uncertainties indicates deficiency in current understanding the non-LTE formation mechanism of atmospheric 15 μm radiances. An updated mechanism of CO2-O collisional interactions is suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1248Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1248Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating variability in the mesospheric OH layer peak altitudes over Maui, Hawaii using coordinated ground-based imager and <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED satellite measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Yucheng; Taylor, Michael J.; Mulligan, Frank; Russell, J. M., III</p> <p></p> <p>As part of the Maui-MALT program, high quality Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (MTM) OH (6, 2) and O2 (0, 1) band intensity and rotational temperature data were obtained over a five year period from 2002-2006 at Maui (20.8N, 156W), Hawaii. Coincident nighttime mea-surements of OH emissions by the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument onboard the TIMED satellite together with MTM band intensity observations have been used to infer the OH layer height and its variability at low-latitudes using a method developed by Liu and Shepherd (2006) and recently improved by Mulligan et al., (2009). Our analysis reveals significant height variability, typically 1-2 km during the course of a night but up to several km ( 84-90 km) within a season. In this presentation, we utilize these extended data to study the contributions of tides, gravity waves, and the annual/semi-annual oscillations to the derived nocturnal, seasonal, and intra-seasonal OH layer peak height variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005981','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005981"><span id="translatedtitle">Co2(nu2)-o Quenching Rate Coefficient Derived from Coincidental <span class="hlt">SABER</span>-TIMED and Fort Collins Lidar Observations of the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; She, C.-Y.; Smith, A. K.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), the quenching of CO2(nu2) vibrational levels by collisions with O atoms plays an important role. However, there is a factor of 3-4 discrepancy between the laboratory measurements of the CO2-O quenching rate coefficient, k(sub VT),and its value estimated from the atmospheric observations. In this study, we retrieve k(sub VT) in the altitude region85-105 km from the coincident <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED and Fort Collins sodium lidar observations by minimizing the difference between measured and simulated broadband limb 15 micron radiation. The averaged k(sub VT) value obtained in this work is 6.5 +/- 1.5 X 10(exp -12) cubic cm/s that is close to other estimates of this coefficient from the atmospheric observations.However, the retrieved k(sub VT) also shows altitude dependence and varies from 5.5 1 +/-1 10(exp -12) cubic cm/s at 90 km to 7.9 +/- 1.2 10(exp -12) cubic cm/s at 105 km. Obtained results demonstrate the deficiency in current non-LTE modeling of the atmospheric 15 micron radiation, based on the application of the CO2-O quenching and excitation rates, which are linked by the detailed balance relation. We discuss the possible model improvements, among them accounting for the interaction of the non-thermal oxygen atoms with CO2 molecules.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26574285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26574285"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> distance and <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> maps from molecular dynamics simulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Noé, Frank; Clementi, Cecilia</p> <p>2015-10-13</p> <p>Characterizing macromolecular <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations requires a distance metric that can distinguish slowly interconverting states. Here, we build upon diffusion map theory and define a <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> distance metric for irreducible Markov processes that quantifies how slowly molecular conformations interconvert. The <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> distance can be computed given a model that approximates the eigenvalues and eigenvectors (reaction coordinates) of the MD Markov operator. Here, we employ the time-lagged independent component analysis (TICA). The TICA components can be scaled to provide a <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> map in which the Euclidean distance corresponds to the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> distance. As a result, the question of how many TICA dimensions should be kept in a dimensionality reduction approach becomes obsolete, and one parameter less needs to be specified in the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> model construction. We demonstrate the approach using TICA and Markov state model (MSM) analyses for illustrative models, protein conformation dynamics in bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and protein-inhibitor association in trypsin and benzamidine. We find that the total <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> variance (TKV) is an excellent indicator of model quality and can be used to rank different input feature sets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21470965','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21470965"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum Cloning for Absolute <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sanguinetti, Bruno; Pomarico, Enrico; Sekatski, Pavel; Zbinden, Hugo; Gisin, Nicolas</p> <p>2010-08-20</p> <p>In the quantum regime information can be copied with only a finite fidelity. This fidelity gradually increases to 1 as the system becomes classical. In this Letter we show how this fact can be used to directly measure the amount of radiated power. We demonstrate how these principles can be used to build a practical primary standard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740014935','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740014935"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> of water turbidity measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mccluney, W. R.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>An examination of a number of measurements of turbidity reported in the literature reveals considerable variability in the definitions, units, and measurement techniques used. Many of these measurements differ radically in the optical quantity measured. The radiometric basis of each of the most common definitions of turbidity is examined. Several commercially available turbidimeters are described and their principles of operation are evaluated radiometrically. It is recommended that the term turbidity be restricted to measurements based upon the light scattered by the sample with that scattered by standard suspensions of known turbidity. It is also recommended that the measurement procedure be standardized by requiring the use of Formazin as the turbidity standardizing material and that the Formazin Turbidity Unit (FTU) be adopted as the standard unit of turbidity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7062E..1BG','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7062E..1BG"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> of flashing LED sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gregory, Don A.; Medley, Stephanie; Roberts, Adam</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>A laboratory based technique has been devised for measuring the illumination characteristics of flashing light emitting diode (LED) sources. The difference between the photopic measurement of a continuous source and a flashing source is that some analytic method must be incorporated into the measurement to account for the response of the eye. Ohno et al have devised an analytic expression for the impulse response of the eye, which closely matches existing forms used for finding effective intensity1. These other forms are the Blondel-Rey equation, the Form Factor method, and the Allard method.4,5,6 Ohno's research suggests a modified Allard method, but offers no procedure for actually making the measurement. In this research, the modified Allard1 method approach has been updated using standard laboratory equipment such as a silicon detector in conjunction with a digital multi-meter and Labview® software to make this measurement. Labview® allows exact computation of the modified Allard method. However, an approximation scheme for the conversion from radiometric units to photopic units must be adopted. The LED spectral form is approximately a Gaussian line shape with full width at half maximum of about 15 to 30nm. The Gaussian curve makes converting from radiometric to photopic units difficult. To simplify, the technique presented here estimates the spectral form of the LEDs to be a Dirac delta function situated at the peak wavelength. This allows the conversion from watts to lumens to be a simple application of the luminous efficiency curve.2 For LEDs with a full width half maximum of 20nm, this scheme is found to be accurate to +/- 5%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARF42008Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARF42008Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Inclusion <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of Polyrotaxanes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yokoyama, Hideaki; Takahashi, Shoko; Ito, Kohzo; Yamada, Norifumi</p> <p></p> <p>Inclusion complex (IC) formation of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brush in water was investigated by Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy(SPR), neutron reflectometry(NR) and grazing incident wide angle X-ray scattering(GISANS). Spontaneous IC formation of α-CD with PEG (polyrotaxanes) is believed to be due to hydrophobic interaction between the hydrophobic interior of α-CD and PEG; however, the detail of the IC formation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> has not been observed because IC formation results in aggregation and precipitation of the complex. SPR revealed that IC formation occurs after induction period, which often appears in crystallization. When concentration of α-CD solution is 10%, IC consisting randomly oriented α-CD polycrystal appeared. In contrast, when the concentration of α-CD solution is 5%, a uniform 10-nm-thick IC layer with α-CD stacked perpendicular to the substrate appeared. 10-nm-thick IC was also found in the diluted PEG brush in contact with a 10% α-CD solution. The characteristic 10-nm-thick layer is related to the folded crystalline structure of α-CD on PEG brush. Such crystallization was proved to be the main driving force for IC formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010maph.conf..162M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010maph.conf..162M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Transport in Crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marklof, Jens</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>One of the central challenges in <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> theory is the derivation of macroscopic evolution equations--describing, for example, the dynamics of an electron gas--from the underlying fundamental microscopic laws of classical or quantum mechanics. An iconic mathematical model in this research area is the Lorentz gas, which describes an ensemble of non-interacting point particles in an infinite array of spherical scatterers. In the case of a disordered scatterer configuration, the classical results by Gallavotti, Spohn and Boldrighini-Bunimovich-Sinai show that the time evolution of a macroscopic particle cloud is governed, in the limit of small scatterer density (Boltzmann-Grad limit), by the linear Boltzmann equation. In this lecture I will discuss the recent discovery that for a periodic configuration of scatterers the linear Boltzmann equation fails, and the random flight process that emerges in the Boltzmann-Grad limit is substantially more complicated. The key ingredient in the description of the limiting stochastic process is the renormalization dynamics on the space of lattices, a powerful technique that has recently been successfully applied also to other open problems in mathematical physics, including KAM theory and quantum chaos. This lecture is based on joint work with Andreas Strömbergsson, Uppsala.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/973555','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/973555"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical Looping Combustion <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Edward Eyring; Gabor Konya</p> <p>2009-03-31</p> <p>One of the most promising methods of capturing CO{sub 2} emitted by coal-fired power plants for subsequent sequestration is chemical looping combustion (CLC). A powdered metal oxide such as NiO transfers oxygen directly to a fuel in a fuel reactor at high temperatures with no air present. Heat, water, and CO{sub 2} are released, and after H{sub 2}O condensation the CO{sub 2} (undiluted by N{sub 2}) is ready for sequestration, whereas the nickel metal is ready for reoxidation in the air reactor. In principle, these processes can be repeated endlessly with the original nickel metal/nickel oxide participating in a loop that admits fuel and rejects ash, heat, and water. Our project accumulated <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> rate data at high temperatures and elevated pressures for the metal oxide reduction step and for the metal reoxidation step. These data will be used in computational modeling of CLC on the laboratory scale and presumably later on the plant scale. The oxygen carrier on which the research at Utah is focused is CuO/Cu{sub 2}O rather than nickel oxide because the copper system lends itself to use with solid fuels in an alternative to CLC called 'chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling' (CLOU).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3518792','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3518792"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> properties of cyanase.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, P M; Little, R M</p> <p>1986-04-01</p> <p>Cyanase is an inducible enzyme in Escherichia coli that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyanate. Bicarbonate is required for activity, perhaps as a substrate, and the initial product of the reaction is carbamate, which spontaneously breaks down to ammonia and bicarbonate [Anderson, P. M. (1980) Biochemistry 19, 2882]. The purpose of this study was to characterize the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> properties of cyanase. Initial velocity studies showed that both cyanate and bicarbonate act as competitive substrate inhibitors. A number of monovalent anions act as inhibitors. Azide and acetate appear to act as competitive inhibitors with respect to cyanate and bicarbonate, respectively. Chloride, bromide, nitrate, nitrite, and formate also inhibit, apparently as the result of binding at either substrate site. Malonate and several other dicarboxylic dianions at very low concentrations display "slow-binding", reversible inhibition which can be prevented by saturating concentrations of either substrate. The results are consistent with a rapid equilibrium random mechanism in which bicarbonate acts as a substrate, bicarbonate and cyanate bind at adjacent anion-binding sites, and both substrates can bind at the other substrate anion binding site to give a dead-end complex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1274149','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1274149"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear Reactor <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> and Control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>JEFFERY,; LEWINS, D.</p> <p>2009-07-27</p> <p>Version 00 Dr. J.D. Lewins has now released the following legacy book for free distribution: Nuclear Reactor <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> and Control, Pergamon Press, London, 275 pages, 1978. 1. Introductory Review 2. Neutron and Precursor Equations 3. Elementary Solutions of the <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> Equations at Low Power 4. Linear Reactor Process Dynamics with Feedback 5. Power Reactor Control Systems 6. Fluctuations and Reactor Noise 7. Safety and Reliability 8. Non Linear Systems; Stability and Control 9. Analogue Computing Addendum: Jay Basken and Jeffery D. Lewins: Power Series Solution of the Reactor <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> Equations, Nuclear Science and Engineering: 122, 407-436 (1996) (authorized for distribution with the book: courtesy of the American Nuclear Society)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015GMDD....8.7663T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015GMDD....8.7663T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">On the relationships between Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, reverse Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, Equilibrium Chemistry Approximation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and quadratic <span class="hlt">kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, J. Y.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and the reverse Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> are two popular mathematical formulations used in many land biogeochemical models to describe how microbes and plants would respond to changes in substrate abundance. However, the criteria of when to use which of the two are often ambiguous. Here I show that these two <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> are special approximations to the Equilibrium Chemistry Approximation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, which is the first order approximation to the quadratic <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> that solves the equation of enzyme-substrate complex exactly for a single enzyme single substrate biogeochemical reaction with the law of mass action and the assumption of quasi-steady-state for the enzyme-substrate complex and that the product genesis from enzyme-substrate complex is much slower than the equilibration between enzyme-substrate complexes, substrates and enzymes. In particular, I showed that the derivation of the Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> does not consider the mass balance constraint of the substrate, and the reverse Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> does not consider the mass balance constraint of the enzyme, whereas both of these constraints are taken into account in the Equilibrium Chemistry Approximation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. By benchmarking against predictions from the quadratic <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> for a wide range of substrate and enzyme concentrations, the Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> was found to persistently under-predict the normalized sensitivity ∂ ln v / ∂ ln k2+ of the reaction velocity v with respect to the maximum product genesis rate k2+, persistently over-predict the normalized sensitivity ∂ ln v / ∂ ln k1+ of v with respect to the intrinsic substrate affinity k1+, persistently over-predict the normalized sensitivity ∂ ln v / ∂ ln [ E ]T of v with respect the total enzyme concentration [ E ]T and persistently under-predict the normalized sensitivity ∂ ln v / ∂ ln [ S ]T of v with respect to the total substrate concentration [ S ]T. Meanwhile</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1213953-relationships-between-michaelismenten-kinetics-reverse-michaelismenten-kinetics-equilibrium-chemistry-approximation-kinetics-quadratic-kinetics','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1213953-relationships-between-michaelismenten-kinetics-reverse-michaelismenten-kinetics-equilibrium-chemistry-approximation-kinetics-quadratic-kinetics"><span id="translatedtitle">On the relationships between Michaelis–Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, reverse Michaelis–Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, Equilibrium Chemistry Approximation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and quadratic <span class="hlt">kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Tang, J. Y.</p> <p>2015-09-03</p> <p>The Michaelis–Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and the reverse Michaelis–Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> are two popular mathematical formulations used in many land biogeochemical models to describe how microbes and plants would respond to changes in substrate abundance. However, the criteria of when to use which of the two are often ambiguous. Here I show that these two <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> are special approximations to the Equilibrium Chemistry Approximation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, which is the first order approximation to the quadratic <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> that solves the equation of enzyme-substrate complex exactly for a single enzyme single substrate biogeochemical reaction with the law of mass action and the assumption of quasi-steady-state formore » the enzyme-substrate complex and that the product genesis from enzyme-substrate complex is much slower than the equilibration between enzyme-substrate complexes, substrates and enzymes. In particular, I showed that the derivation of the Michaelis–Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> does not consider the mass balance constraint of the substrate, and the reverse Michaelis–Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> does not consider the mass balance constraint of the enzyme, whereas both of these constraints are taken into account in the Equilibrium Chemistry Approximation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. By benchmarking against predictions from the quadratic <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> for a wide range of substrate and enzyme concentrations, the Michaelis–Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> was found to persistently under-predict the normalized sensitivity ∂ ln v / ∂ ln k2+ of the reaction velocity v with respect to the maximum product genesis rate k2+, persistently over-predict the normalized sensitivity ∂ ln v / ∂ ln k1+ of v with respect to the intrinsic substrate affinity k1+, persistently over-predict the normalized sensitivity ∂ ln v / ∂ ln [ E ]T of v with respect the total enzyme concentration [ E ]T and persistently under-predict the normalized sensitivity ∂ ln v / ∂ ln [ S ]T of v with respect to the total substrate concentration [ S ]T. Meanwhile, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25876164','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25876164"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling heart rate <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zakynthinaki, Maria S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual's cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4395265','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4395265"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling Heart Rate <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zakynthinaki, Maria S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual’s cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1004707','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1004707"><span id="translatedtitle">Degradation <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of VX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gary S. Groenewold</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl)phosphonothiolate (VX) is the most toxic of the conventional chemical warfare agents. It is a persistent compound, an attribute derived from its relative involatility and slow rates of hydrolysis. These properties suggest that VX can linger in an exposed environment for extended periods of time long after the air has cleared. Concern over prolonged risk from VX exposure is exacerbated by the fact that it poses a dermal contact hazard. Hence a detailed understanding of volatilization rates, and degradation pathways and rates occurring in various environments is needed. Historically, volatilization has not been considered to be an important mechanism for VX depletion, but recent studies have shown that a significant fraction of VX may volatilize, depending on the matrix. A significant body of research has been conducted over the years to unravel VX degradation reaction pathways and to quantify the rates at which they proceed. Rigorous measurement of degradation rates is frequently difficult, and thus in many cases the degradation of VX has been described in terms of half lives, while in fewer instances rate constants have been measured. This variable approach to describing degradation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> reflects uncertainty regarding the exact nature of the degradation mechanisms. In this review, rates of VX degradation are compared on the basis of pseudo-first order rate constants, in order to provide a basis for assessing likelihood of VX persistence in a given environment. An issue of specific concern is that one VX degradation pathway produces S-2-(diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioic acid (known as EA2192), which is a degradation product that retains much of the original toxicity of VX. Consequently degradation pathways and rates for EA2192 are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010wscm.conf...28B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010wscm.conf...28B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Equations for Economic Sciences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bisi, M.; Brugna, C.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>We discuss, both from the analytical and the numerical point of view, a <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> model for wealth distribution in a simple market economy which models, besides binary trade interactions, also taxation and redistribution of collected wealth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Jay+Martin&pg=4&id=EJ147146','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Jay+Martin&pg=4&id=EJ147146"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer Simulation in Chemical <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anderson, Jay Martin</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the use of the System Dynamics technique in simulating a chemical reaction for <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> analysis. Also discusses the use of simulation modelling in biology, ecology, and the social sciences, where experimentation may be impractical or impossible. (MLH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6083372','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6083372"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of geminal recombination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Levin, P.P.; Khudyakov, I.V.; Brin, E.F.; Kuz'min, V.A.</p> <p>1988-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of geminal recombination of triplet radical pairs formed in photoreduction of benzophenone by p-cresol in glycerin solution was studied by pulsed laser photolysis. The experiments were conducted at several temperatures and in a constant magnetic field of H = 0.34 T. The parameters in six <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> equations describing geminal recombination were determined with a computer. The values of the sums of the squares of the residual deviations of the approximation were obtained. It was found that the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> are best described by the functions proposed by Noyes and Shushin. It was shown that it is necessary to use the mutual diffusion coefficient of the radicals, which is significantly smaller than the sum of the estimations of the experimental values of the radical diffusion coefficients, for describing the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> due to the correlations of the molecular motions of the radicals in the cage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMSA43B2085F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFMSA43B2085F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">CO2(v2)-O Quenching Rate Coefficient Derived From Coincidental <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED And Ground-Based Lidar Observations Of The Mesosphere And Lower Thermosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feofilov, A.; Kutepov, A.; Chu, X.; Smith, A. K.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Infrared emission in 15 μm CO2 band (I15 μm) is the dominant cooling mechanism in the Earth's mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). On Earth, the magnitude of the MLT cooling affects both the mesopause temperature and height; the stronger the cooling, the colder and higher is the mesopause. This process is also important for the energy budgets of Martian and, especially, Venusian atmospheres, where CO2 cooling compensates for the EUV heating of the dayside upper atmosphere. The I15 μm radiation is used to retrieve vertical temperature distributions T(z) in Earth's atmosphere by a number of satellite instruments. Both the cooling efficiency and I15 μm strongly depend on the rate coefficient of the quenching of the CO2(ν2) vibrational levels by collisions with oxygen atoms. However, there is a factor of 3-4 discrepancy between the laboratory measurements of this rate coefficient, kVT, and its value estimated from the atmospheric observations. In this study, we retrieve kVT in the altitude region 85-105 km from the coincident <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED and ground-based lidar observations in different locations by minimizing the difference between measured and simulated broadband limb 15 μm radiation. Obtained results demonstrate the deficiency in current non-LTE modeling of the atmospheric 15 μm radiation, based on the application of the CO2-O quenching and excitation rates, which are linked by the detailed balance relation. We discuss the possible model improvements, among them accounting for the interaction of the "non-thermal" oxygen atoms with CO2 molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012ACP....12.9013F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012ACP....12.9013F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">CO2(ν2)-O quenching rate coefficient derived from coincidental <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED and Fort Collins lidar observations of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; She, C.-Y.; Smith, A. K.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), the quenching of CO2(ν2) vibrational levels by collisions with O atoms plays an important role. However, there is a factor of 3-4 discrepancy between the laboratory measurements of the CO2-O quenching rate coefficient, kVT, and its value estimated from the atmospheric observations. In this study, we retrieve kVT in the altitude region 85-105 km from the coincident <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED and Fort Collins sodium lidar observations by minimizing the difference between measured and simulated broadband limb 15 μm radiation. The averaged kVT value obtained in this work is 6.5 ± 1.5 × 10-12 cm3 s-1 that is close to other estimates of this coefficient from the atmospheric observations. However, the retrieved kVT also shows altitude dependence and varies from 5.5 ± 1.1 × 10-12 cm3 s-1 at 90 km to 7.9 ± 1.2 × 10-12 cm3 s-1 at 105 km. Obtained results demonstrate the deficiency in current non-LTE modeling of the atmospheric 15 μm radiation, based on the application of the CO2-O quenching and excitation rates, which are linked by the detailed balance relation. We discuss the possible model improvements, among them accounting for the interaction of the "non-thermal" oxygen atoms with CO2 molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/16722','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/16722"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span>-fluid Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>First Author = C.Z. Cheng; Jay R. Johnson</p> <p>1998-07-10</p> <p>A nonlinear <span class="hlt">kinetic</span>-fluid model for high-beta plasmas with multiple ion species which can be applied to multiscale phenomena is presented. The model embeds important <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> effects due to finite ion Larmor radius (FLR), wave-particle resonances, magnetic particle trapping, etc. in the framework of simple fluid descriptions. When further restricting to low frequency phenomena with frequencies less than the ion cyclotron frequency the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span>-fluid model takes a simpler form in which the fluid equations of multiple ion species collapse into single-fluid density and momentum equations and a low frequency generalized Ohm's law. The <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> effects are introduced via plasma pressure tensors for ions and electrons which are computed from particle distribution functions that are governed by the Vlasov equation or simplified plasma dynamics equations such as the gyrokinetic equation. The ion FLR effects provide a finite parallel electric field, a perpendicular velocity that modifies the ExB drift, and a gyroviscosity tensor, all of which are neglected in the usual one-fluid MHD description. Eigenmode equations are derived which include magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling effects for low frequency waves (e.g., <span class="hlt">kinetic</span>/inertial Alfven waves and ballooning-mirror instabilities).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7023357','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7023357"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> study on biomass gasification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bingyan, X.; Chuangzhi, W.; Zhengfen, L.; Guang, Z.X. )</p> <p>1992-09-01</p> <p>An experimental apparatus, with the features of fast heating rate and continuous record of reaction parameters, was developed to study <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of fast pyrolysis. The temperature effects, at a range of 400 C to 900 C, on pyrolysis rate, products profile, gas quality and quantity, and so on, were studied and the results are listed and analyzed. The effect of secondary reaction of gas phase at 700 C was tested and the regression result is expressed in an experimental formula. Based on the experimental results, the three-stage-reaction mechanism module is suggested. The <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> expression to calculate gas formation rate is concluded as: d{alpha}/dt = A exp({minus}E/RT)(1 {minus} {alpha}){sup n}. The <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> parameters of A, E, and n at different temperatures are given in the paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231103-stochastic-parallel-particle-kinetic-simulator','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231103-stochastic-parallel-particle-kinetic-simulator"><span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic Parallel PARticle <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Simulator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>SPPARKS is a <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> Monte Carlo simulator which implements <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> and Metropolis Monte Carlo solvers in a general way so that they can be hooked to applications of various kinds. Specific applications are implemented in SPPARKS as physical models which generate events (e.g. a diffusive hop or chemical reaction) and execute them one-by-one. Applications can run in paralle so long as the simulation domain can be partitoned spatially so that multiple events can be invokedmore » simultaneously. SPPARKS is used to model various kinds of mesoscale materials science scenarios such as grain growth, surface deposition and growth, and reaction <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. It can also be used to develop new Monte Carlo models that hook to the existing solver and paralle infrastructure provided by the code.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1274149-nuclear-reactor-kinetics-control','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1274149-nuclear-reactor-kinetics-control"><span id="translatedtitle">Nuclear Reactor <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> and Control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-07-27</p> <p>Version 00 Dr. J.D. Lewins has now released the following legacy book for free distribution: Nuclear Reactor <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> and Control, Pergamon Press, London, 275 pages, 1978. 1. Introductory Review 2. Neutron and Precursor Equations 3. Elementary Solutions of the <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> Equations at Low Power 4. Linear Reactor Process Dynamics with Feedback 5. Power Reactor Control Systems 6. Fluctuations and Reactor Noise 7. Safety and Reliability 8. Non Linear Systems; Stability and Control 9. Analogue Computingmore » Addendum: Jay Basken and Jeffery D. Lewins: Power Series Solution of the Reactor <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> Equations, Nuclear Science and Engineering: 122, 407-436 (1996) (authorized for distribution with the book: courtesy of the American Nuclear Society)« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoPhC.204...31E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoPhC.204...31E"><span id="translatedtitle">Stochastic <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> mean field model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erdélyi, Zoltán; Pasichnyy, Mykola; Bezpalchuk, Volodymyr; Tomán, János J.; Gajdics, Bence; Gusak, Andriy M.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>This paper introduces a new model for calculating the change in time of three-dimensional atomic configurations. The model is based on the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> mean field (KMF) approach, however we have transformed that model into a stochastic approach by introducing dynamic Langevin noise. The result is a stochastic <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> mean field model (SKMF) which produces results similar to the lattice <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> Monte Carlo (KMC). SKMF is, however, far more cost-effective and easier to implement the algorithm (open source program code is provided on http://skmf.eu website). We will show that the result of one SKMF run may correspond to the average of several KMC runs. The number of KMC runs is inversely proportional to the amplitude square of the noise in SKMF. This makes SKMF an ideal tool also for statistical purposes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27492236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27492236"><span id="translatedtitle">Binding <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> in Drug Discovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferruz, Noelia; De Fabritiis, Gianni</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Over the last years, researchers have increasingly become interested in measuring and understanding drugs' binding <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, namely the time in which drug and its target associate and dissociate. Historically, drug discovery programs focused on the optimization of target affinity as a proxy of in-vivo efficacy. However, often the efficacy of a ligand is not appropriately described by the in-vitro measured drug-receptor affinity, but rather depends on the lifetime of the in-vivo drug-receptor interaction. In this review we review recent works that highlight the importance of binding <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, molecular determinants for rational optimization and the recent emergence of computational methods as powerful tools in measuring and understanding binding <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. PMID:27492236</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24092948','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24092948"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> Laboratory Discussion Worksheet.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Demoin, Dustin Wayne; Jurisson, Silvia S</p> <p>2013-09-10</p> <p>A laboratory discussion worksheet and its answer key provide instructors and students a discussion model to further the students' understanding of chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. This discussion worksheet includes a section for students to augment their previous knowledge about chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> measurements, an initial check on students' understanding of basic concepts, a group participation model where students work on solving complex-conceptual problems, and a conclusion to help students connect this discussion to their laboratory or lecture class. Additionally, the worksheet has a detailed solution to a more advanced problem to help students understand how the concepts they have put together relate to problems they will encounter during later formal assessments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/139910','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/139910"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and combustion modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miller, J.A.</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> modeling, theory, and <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=430394','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=430394"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> theory and ergodic properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Prigogine, I.; Grecos, A. P.; George, Cl.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>It is often assumed that the justification of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> theory lies in ergodic theory. From the properties of the collision operator, which plays a basic role in our <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> description of dynamical systems, we show that this is not the case. We deduce that the asymptotic behavior of a class of states and observables is determined by the collisional invariants, independently of the ergodicity of the system. The relation between our conclusion and the stability concepts for classical Hamiltonian systems, introduced by Moser and others, is briefly indicated. PMID:16592325</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009867','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120009867"><span id="translatedtitle">Ozone-Temperature Diurnal and Longer Term Correlations, in the Lower Thermosphere, Mesosphere and Stratosphere, Based on Measurements from <span class="hlt">SABER</span> on TIMED</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans G.; Russell, James M., III; Mlynczak, Martin G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The analysis of mutual ozone-temperature variations can provide useful information on their interdependencies relative to the photochemistry and dynamics governing their behavior. Previous studies have mostly been based on satellite measurements taken at a fixed local time in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere. For these data, it is shown that the zonal mean ozone amounts and temperatures in the lower stratosphere are mostly positively correlated, while they are mostly negatively correlated in the upper stratosphere and in the lower mesosphere. The negative correlation, due to the dependence of photochemical reaction rates on temperature, indicates that ozone photochemistry is more important than dynamics in determining the ozone amounts. In this study, we provide new results by extending the analysis to include diurnal variations over 24 hrs of local time, and to larger spatial regimes, to include the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The results are based on measurements by the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> instrument on the TIMED satellite. For mean variations (i.e., averages over local time and longitude) in the MLT, our results show that there is a sharp reversal in the correlation near 80 km altitude, above which the ozone mixing ratio and temperature are mostly positively correlated, while they are mostly negatively correlated below 80 km. This is consistent with the view that above -80 km, effects due to dynamics are more important compared to photochemistry. For diurnal variations, both the ozone and temperature show phase progressions in local time, as a function of altitude and latitude. For temperature, the phase progression is as expected, as they represent migrating tides. For day time ozone, we also find regular phase progression in local time over the whole altitude range of our analysis, 25 to 105 km, at least for low latitudes. This was not previously known, although phase progressions had been noted by us and by others at lower altitudes. For diurnal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.9806N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.9806N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of non-LTE contributions to OH rotational temperatures based on VLT/X-shooter, VLT/UVES, and TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noll, Stefan; Kausch, Wolfgang; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Proxauf, Bastian; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Jones, Amy M.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The hydroxyl (OH) airglow emission is very valuable for estimating atmospheric temperatures at about 87 km because it is relatively easy to measure. The usual approach is based on intensity ratios of OH lines with low rotational upper levels of a given band and the assumption of a Boltzmann distribution of the level populations consistent with the ambient temperature. However, this assumption can be unrealistic if the frequency of thermalising collisions is too low, which is most likely at the highest emission altitudes. We have investigated the amounts of possible non-LTE contributions to the measured OH rotational temperatures depending on the selected lines, band, and time of observation. For this, we used several hundred spectra from the echelle spectrograph X-shooter at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Cerro Paranal in Chile. These data with a very wide wavelength coverage allowed us to simultaneously measure temperatures for 25 OH bands and two O2 bands. The latter were used to obtain reference temperatures, which is possible since the radiative lifetimes of the upper states are sufficiently long for establishing full thermalisation for the populations of the different rotational levels. For a comparison of the resulting temperatures, a correction of the different emission altitudes is required. Hence, we also used CO2-based temperature and OH and O2 emission profile data from the <span class="hlt">SABER</span> multi-channel radiometer on the TIMED satellite. The altitude-corrected OH rotational temperatures show significant non-LTE effects for higher vibrational levels of the upper state v' and especially even v'. The maximum deviations of more than 10 K were found for v' = 8. The non-LTE effects can vary within a range of a few K. The studied nocturnal variations indicate that the non-LTE contributions increase when the emission layer rises. Finally, we will also present first results for several thousand spectra taken with the VLT high-resolution optical echelle spectrograph UVES</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ACPD...14.1239K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014ACPD...14.1239K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">On the temporal variability of the OH* emission layer at the mesopause: a study based on SD-WACCM4 and <span class="hlt">SABER</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kowalewski, S.; von Savigny, C.; Palm, M.; Notholt, J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Airglow observations are a fundamental tool to study the mesospheric part of the atmosphere. In particular the OH* emission layer is subject of many theoretical and observational studies. The choice of different transition bands of the OH* emission can introduce systematic differences between these studies, hence a profound knowledge of these differences is required for comparison. One systematic difference is given by the vertical displacements between OH* profiles due to different transition bands. A previous study has shown that the vertical displacement is highly sensitive to quenching with atomic oxygen. In this work we follow up this idea by investigating the diurnal as well as the seasonal response of OH* to changes in concentrations of atomic and molecular oxygen, the two most effective quenching species of OH*. For this task we employ a quenching model to calculate vertical OH* concentration profiles from simulations made with the SD-WACCM4 chemistry transport model. From this approach we find that despite the strong impact of O and O2 quenching on the vertical OH* structure, a considerable variability between the vertical displacements of different OH* transition bands is also induced by the natural variability of the O3 and H profiles, which primarily participate in the formation of the mesospheric OH* layer. This in particular applies for the diurnal evolution of the vertical displacements, which cannot be explained by changes in abundances of OH* quenching species only. On the other hand, vertical displacements between OH* transition bands and the amount of effective O and O2 quenching show a coherent semi-annual oscillation at lower latitudes that is in phase with the seasonal variability of the diurnal migrating tide. In particular the role of O2 quenching shows a new aspect of the semi-annual oscillation that, to our knowledge, has not been discussed before. By comparison with limb radiance observations from the <span class="hlt">SABER</span>/TIMED satellite, we find</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ClDy..tmp...92J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ClDy..tmp...92J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Global normal mode planetary wave activity: a study using TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations from the stratosphere to the mesosphere-lower thermosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>John, Sherine Rachel; Kumar, Karanam Kishore</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>A comprehensive study of three normal mode travelling planetary waves, namely the quasi-16, -10 and -5 day waves, is carried out globally using 5 years (2003-2007) of TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> temperature measurements from the stratosphere to the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) by employing the two dimensional Fourier decomposition technique. From preliminary analysis, it is found that significant amplitudes of normal modes are confined to wave numbers-2 (westward propagating modes) to 2 (eastward propagating modes). The westward propagating quasi 16-day waves with zonal wave number 1 (W1; W1 refers to westward propagating wave with zonal wave number 1) peaks over winter-hemispheric high latitudes with northern hemisphere (NH) having higher amplitudes as compared to their southern hemispheric (SH) counterpart. The W1 quasi 16-day waves exhibit a double peak structure in altitude over winter hemispheric high latitudes. The eastward propagating quasi 16-day waves with wave number 1 (E1; E1 refers to eastward propagating wave with zonal wave number 1) exhibits similar features as that of W1 waves in the NH. In contrast, the E1 quasi 16-day waves in the SH show larger amplitudes as compared to the W1 waves and they do not exhibit double peak structure in altitude. Similar to the quasi 16-day waves, the quasi 10- and 5-day wave amplitudes with respect to their wavenumbers are delineated. Unlike quasi-16 and -10 day waves, quasi-5 day waves peak during vernal equinox both in the SH and NH. The peak activity of the W1 quasi-5 day wave is centered around 40°N and 40°S exhibiting symmetry with respect to the equator. A detailed discussion on the height-latitude structure, interannual variability and inter-hemispheric propagation of quasi 16-, 10- and 5-day waves are discussed. The significance of the present study lies in establishing the 5-year climatology of normal mode planetary waves from the stratosphere to the MLT region including their spatial-temporal evolution, which are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=isotope&pg=5&id=EJ327340','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=isotope&pg=5&id=EJ327340"><span id="translatedtitle">Deuterium Exchange <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> by NMR.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Roper, G. C.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Describes a physical chemistry experiment which allows such concepts as <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, catalysis, isotope shifts, coupling constants, and the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for quantitative work to be covered in the same exercise. Background information, experimental procedures used, and typical results obtained are included. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kinetic+AND+molecular+AND+theory&pg=7&id=EJ224342','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kinetic+AND+molecular+AND+theory&pg=7&id=EJ224342"><span id="translatedtitle">Mass Conservation and Chemical <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barbara, Thomas M.; Corio, P. L.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Presents a method for obtaining all mass conservation conditions implied by a given mechanism in which the conditions are used to simplify integration of the rate equations and to derive stoichiometric relations. Discusses possibilities of faulty inference of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> information from a given stoichiometry. (CS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27410745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27410745"><span id="translatedtitle">Macromolecular Crowding Modulates Actomyosin <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ge, Jinghua; Bouriyaphone, Sherry D; Serebrennikova, Tamara A; Astashkin, Andrei V; Nesmelov, Yuri E</p> <p>2016-07-12</p> <p>Actomyosin <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> is usually studied in dilute solutions, which do not reflect conditions in the cytoplasm. In cells, myosin and actin work in a dense macromolecular environment. High concentrations of macromolecules dramatically reduce the amount of free space available for all solutes, which results in an effective increase of the solutes' chemical potential and protein stabilization. Moreover, in a crowded solution, the chemical potential depends on the size of the solute, with larger molecules experiencing a larger excluded volume than smaller ones. Therefore, since myosin interacts with two ligands of different sizes (actin and ATP), macromolecular crowding can modulate the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of individual steps of the actomyosin ATPase cycle. To emulate the effect of crowding in cells, we studied actomyosin cycle reactions in the presence of a high-molecular-weight polymer, Ficoll70. We observed an increase in the maximum velocity of the actomyosin ATPase cycle, and our transient-<span class="hlt">kinetics</span> experiments showed that virtually all individual steps of the actomyosin cycle were affected by the addition of Ficoll70. The observed effects of macromolecular crowding on the myosin-ligand interaction cannot be explained by the increase of a solute's chemical potential. A time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer experiment confirmed that the myosin head assumes a more compact conformation in the presence of Ficoll70 than in a dilute solution. We conclude that the crowding-induced myosin conformational change plays a major role in the changed <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of actomyosin ATPase. PMID:27410745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5068272','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5068272"><span id="translatedtitle">Surfactant adsorption <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> in microfluidics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Riechers, Birte; Maes, Florine; Akoury, Elias; Semin, Benoît; Gruner, Philipp; Baret, Jean-Christophe</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Emulsions are metastable dispersions. Their lifetimes are directly related to the dynamics of surfactants. We design a microfluidic method to measure the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of adsorption of surfactants to the droplet interface, a key process involved in foaming, emulsification, and droplet coarsening. The method is based on the pH decay in the droplet as a direct measurement of the adsorption of a carboxylic acid surfactant to the interface. From the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> measurement of the bulk equilibration of the pH, we fully determine the adsorption process of the surfactant. The small droplet size and the convection during the droplet flow ensure that the transport of surfactant through the bulk is not limiting the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of adsorption. To validate our measurements, we show that the adsorption process determines the timescale required to stabilize droplets against coalescence, and we show that the interface should be covered at more than 90% to prevent coalescence. We therefore quantitatively link the process of adsorption/desorption, the stabilization of emulsions, and the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of solute partitioning—here through ion exchange—unraveling the timescales governing these processes. Our method can be further generalized to other surfactants, including nonionic surfactants, by making use of fluorophore–surfactant interactions. PMID:27688765</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2877599','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2877599"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Modeling of Biological Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Petzold, Linda; Pettigrew, Michel F.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The dynamics of how the constituent components of a natural system interact defines the spatio-temporal response of the system to stimuli. Modeling the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of the processes that represent a biophysical system has long been pursued with the aim of improving our understanding of the studied system. Due to the unique properties of biological systems, in addition to the usual difficulties faced in modeling the dynamics of physical or chemical systems, biological simulations encounter difficulties that result from intrinsic multiscale and stochastic nature of the biological processes. This chapter discusses the implications for simulation of models involving interacting species with very low copy numbers, which often occur in biological systems and give rise to significant relative fluctuations. The conditions necessitating the use of stochastic <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> simulation methods and the mathematical foundations of the stochastic simulation algorithms are presented. How the well-organized structural hierarchies often seen in biological systems can lead to multiscale problems, and possible ways to address the encountered computational difficulties are discussed. We present the details of the existing <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> simulation methods, and discuss their strengths and shortcomings. A list of the publicly available <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> simulation tools and our reflections for future prospects are also provided. PMID:19381542</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kinetics&pg=6&id=EJ920069','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kinetics&pg=6&id=EJ920069"><span id="translatedtitle">Disco Dancing and <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Karakas, Mehmet</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper provides an example of an innovative science activity used in a science methods course for future elementary teachers at a small university in northeastern Turkey. The activity aims to help prospective elementary teachers understand <span class="hlt">kinetic</span>-molecular theory in a simple way and to expose these preservice teachers to an innovative…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kinetics&pg=2&id=EJ1100276','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kinetics&pg=2&id=EJ1100276"><span id="translatedtitle">Solving Simple <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> without Integrals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>de la Pen~a, Lisandro Herna´ndez</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The solution of simple <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> equations is analyzed without referencing any topic from differential equations or integral calculus. Guided by the physical meaning of the rate equation, a systematic procedure is used to generate an approximate solution that converges uniformly to the exact solution in the case of zero, first, and second order…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012JGRA..11710323J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012JGRA..11710323J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of migrating tides to the stratospheric sudden warming in 2009 and their effects on the ionosphere studied by a whole atmosphere-ionosphere model GAIA with COSMIC and TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jin, H.; Miyoshi, Y.; Pancheva, D.; Mukhtarov, P.; Fujiwara, H.; Shinagawa, H.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>This paper compares results from a whole atmosphere-ionosphere coupled model, GAIA, with the COSMIC and TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> observations during the 2008/2009 northern winter season. The GAIA model has assimilated meteorological reanalysis data by a nudging method. The comparison shows general agreement in the major features from the stratosphere to the ionosphere including the growth and decay of the major stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) event in 2009. During this period, a pronounced semidiurnal variation in the F region electron density and its local-time phase shift similar to the previous observations are reproduced by the model and COSMIC observation. The model suggests that the electron density variation is caused by an enhanced semidiurnal variation in the E × B drift, which is probably related to an amplified semidiurnal migrating tide (SW2) in the lower thermosphere. The model and TIMED/<span class="hlt">SABER</span> observation show that the SW2 tide amplifies at low latitudes from the stratosphere to the thermosphere as well as the phase variation. Possible mechanisms for the SW2 variability in the low latitude stratosphere could be the change of its propagation condition, especially the (2, 2) mode, due to changing zonal background wind and meridional temperature gradient, and/or an enhancement of its source due to redistribution of stratospheric ozone. Present results also show a prominent long-term variation of the terdiurnal migrating component (TW3) in the ionosphere and atmosphere.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890040976&hterms=Kinetic+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DKinetic%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890040976&hterms=Kinetic+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DKinetic%2Benergy"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> energy equations for the average-passage equation system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Richard W.; Adamczyk, John J.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Important <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy equations derived from the average-passage equation sets are documented, with a view to their interrelationships. These <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> equations may be used for closing the average-passage equations. The turbulent <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy transport equation used is formed by subtracting the mean <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy equation from the averaged total instantaneous <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy equation. The aperiodic <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy equation, averaged steady <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy equation, averaged unsteady <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy equation, and periodic <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy equation, are also treated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6809951','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6809951"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> investigation of wood pyrolysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.</p> <p>1980-06-01</p> <p>The objective of this investigation was to determine the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20979436','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20979436"><span id="translatedtitle">H{sup +} ion-implantation energy dependence of electronic transport properties in the MeV range in n-type silicon wafers using frequency-domain photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang Chinhua; Mandelis, Andreas; Tolev, Jordan; Burchard, Bernd; Meijer, Jan</p> <p>2007-06-15</p> <p>Industrial n-type Si wafers (resistivity of 5-10 {omega} cm) were H{sup +} ion implanted with energies between 0.75 and 2.00 MeV, and the electronic transport properties of the implanted layer (recombination lifetime, carrier diffusion coefficient, and front-surface and implanted-interface recombination velocities s{sub 1} and s{sub 2}) were studied using photocarrier <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PCR). A quantitative fitting procedure to the diffusing photoexcited free-carrier density wave was introduced using a relatively simple two-layer PCR model in lieu of the more realistic but substantially more complicated three-layer model. The experimental trends in the transport properties of H{sup +}-implanted Si layers extracted from the PCR amplitude and phase data as functions of implantation energy corroborate a physical model of the implanted layer in which (a) overlayer damage due to the light H{sup +} ions decreases with increased depth of implantation at higher energies (b) the implanted region damage close to the interface is largely decoupled from the overlayer crystallinity, and (c) the concentration of implanted H{sup +} ions decreases at higher implantation energies at the interface, thus decreasing the degree of implantation damage at the interface proper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1225483','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1225483"><span id="translatedtitle">Transient state <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> tutorial using the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> simulation program, KINSIM.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wachsstock, D H; Pollard, T D</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>This article provides an introduction to a computer tutorial on transient state <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. The tutorial uses our Macintosh version of the computer program, KINSIM, that calculates the time course of reactions. KINSIM is also available for other popular computers. This program allows even those investigators not mathematically inclined to evaluate the rate constants for the transitions between the intermediates in any reaction mechanism. These rate constants are one of the insights that are essential for understanding how biochemical processes work at the molecular level. The approach is applicable not only to enzyme reactions but also to any other type of process of interest to biophysicists, cell biologists, and molecular biologists in which concentrations change with time. In principle, the same methods could be used to characterize time-dependent, large-scale processes in ecology and evolution. Completion of the tutorial takes students 6-10 h. This investment is rewarded by a deep understanding of the principles of chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and familiarity with the tools of <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> simulation as an approach to solve everyday problems in the laboratory. PMID:7811941</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kinetic+AND+molecular+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ384557','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kinetic+AND+molecular+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ384557"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding Product Optimization: <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> versus Thermodynamic Control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lin, King-Chuen</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the concept of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> versus thermodynamic control of reactions. Explains on the undergraduate level (1) the role of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> and thermodynamic control in <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> equations, (2) the influence of concentration and temperature upon the reaction, and (3) the application of factors one and two to synthetic chemistry. (MVL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RJPCA..90...22E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RJPCA..90...22E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> models of conjugated metabolic cycles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ershov, Yu. A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A general method is developed for the quantitative <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> analysis of conjugated metabolic cycles in the human organism. This method is used as a basis for constructing a <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> graph and model of the conjugated citric acid and ureapoiesis cycles. The results from a <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> analysis of the model for these cycles are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/920769','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/920769"><span id="translatedtitle">Erbium hydride thermal desorption : controlling <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ferrizz, Robert Matthew</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report show that hydride film processing parameters directly impact thermal stability. Issues to be addressed include desorption <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> for dihydrides and trihydrides, and the effect of film growth parameters, loading parameters, and substrate selection on desorption <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22105865','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22105865"><span id="translatedtitle">On fast reactor <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seleznev, E. F.; Belov, A. A.; Matveenko, I. P.; Zhukov, A. M.; Raskach, K. F.</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The results and the program of fast reactor core time and space <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> experiments performed and planned to be performed at the IPPE critical facility is presented. The TIMER code was taken as computation support of the experimental work, which allows transient equations to be solved in 3-D geometry with multi-group diffusion approximation. The number of delayed neutron groups varies from 6 to 8. The code implements the solution of both transient neutron transfer problems: a direct one, where neutron flux density and its derivatives, such as reactor power, etc, are determined at each time step, and an inverse one for the point <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> equation form, where such a parameter as reactivity is determined with a well-known reactor power time variation function. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARD23002B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARD23002B"><span id="translatedtitle">Freezing <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> in overcompressed water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bastea, Marina; Bastea, S.; Reaugh, J.; Reisman, D.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>The transformation of water into ice is among the most common first order phase transitions occurring in nature, but it is far from being an ordinary one. Water has unusual physical properties both as a liquid and as a solid due largely to hydrogen bonding effects, which also play a major role in determining the characteristics of its freezing <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. We report high pressure dynamic compression experiments of liquid water along a quasi-adiabatic path leading to the formation of ice VII. We observe dynamic features resembling Van der Waals loops and find that liquid water is compacted to a metastable state close to the ice density before the onset of crystallization. By analyzing the characteristic <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> time scale involved we estimate the nucleation barrier and conclude that liquid water has been compressed to a high pressure state close to its thermodynamic stability limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22181304','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22181304"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> activation-relaxation technique.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Béland, Laurent Karim; Brommer, Peter; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Joly, Jean-François; Mousseau, Normand</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>We present a detailed description of the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice, self-learning <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with on-the-fly event search. Combining a topological classification for local environments and event generation with ART nouveau, an efficient unbiased sampling method for finding transition states, k-ART can be applied to complex materials with atoms in off-lattice positions or with elastic deformations that cannot be handled with standard KMC approaches. In addition to presenting the various elements of the algorithm, we demonstrate the general character of k-ART by applying the algorithm to three challenging systems: self-defect annihilation in c-Si (crystalline silicon), self-interstitial diffusion in Fe, and structural relaxation in a-Si (amorphous silicon).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6653506','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6653506"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> theory of relativistic plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gould, R.J.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The thermalization of particle <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> motion by binary collisions is considered for a plasma with kTapprox.(10--100) mc/sup 2/, where m is the electron mass. At this temperature, the principal mechanism for relaxation of electron motion is via radiationless electron-electron collisions (Moller scattering). Ions are nonrelativistic, but are energetic enough so that their Coulomb scattering can be treated in the Born approximation. Relaxation times are computed and Boltzmann-equation Fokker--Planck operators are derived for the various binary-collision processes. The expression for the rate of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy exchange between electron and ion gases is derived for the case where the gases are at different temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7101295','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7101295"><span id="translatedtitle">Isoprene: a photochemical <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> mechanism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Killus, J.P.; Whitten, G.Z.</p> <p>1984-03-01</p> <p>A computer-modeling study has produced a photochemical <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> mechanism for the atmospheric chemistry of isoprene, a naturally occurring common constituent of the troposphere. The <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> mechnism is ready for use in atmospheric models because the reactions described are shown to adequately reproduce the results of a series of outdoor smog chamber experiments which encompass a wide range of precursor conditions of isoprene and NO/sub x/. Isoprene is a very reactive molecule that can contribute as much as 50% of the overall reactivity of rural air even though isoprene might be only 6% of the ambient hydrocarbon level. The major intermediate products of the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, methylglyoxal, and formaldehyde are also highly reactive. 25 references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810037080&hterms=Kinetic+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2528Kinetic%2Btheory%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810037080&hterms=Kinetic+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2528Kinetic%2Btheory%2529"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> theory of relativistic plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gould, R. J.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The thermalization of particle <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> motion by binary collisions is considered for a plasma with a Boltzmann constant-temperature product approximately equal to 10 to 100 times the product of the electron mass with the square of the speed of light. At this temperature, the principal mechanism for relaxation of electron motion is via radiationless electron-electron collisions (Moller scattering). Ions are nonrelativistic, but are energetic enough so that their Coulomb scattering can be treated in the Born approximation. Relaxation times are computed and Boltzmann-equation Fokker-Planck operators are derived for the various binary-collision processes. The expression for the rate of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy exchange between electron and ion gases is derived for the case where the gases are at different temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.717a2027K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.717a2027K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> studies of ICF implosions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kagan, Grigory; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y.-H.; Schmitt, M. J.; Hakel, P.; Hsu, S. C.; Hoffman, N. M.; Svyatsky, D.; Baalrud, S. D.; Daligault, J. O.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Albright, B. J.; Taitano, W.; Kyrala, G. A.; Bradley, P. A.; Huang, C.-K.; McDevitt, C. J.; Chacon, L.; Srinivasan, B.; McEvoy, A. M.; Joshi, T. R.; Adams, C. S.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> effects on inertial confinement fusion have been investigated. In particular, inter-ion-species diffusion and suprathermal ion distribution have been analyzed. The former drives separation of the fuel constituents in the hot reacting core and governs mix at the shell/fuel interface. The latter underlie measurements obtained with nuclear diagnostics, including the fusion yield and inferred ion burn temperatures. Basic mechanisms behind and practical consequences from these effects are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1262018-kinetic-studies-icf-implosions','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1262018-kinetic-studies-icf-implosions"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> studies of ICF implosions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Kagan, Grigory; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. -H.; Schmitt, M. J.; Hakel, P.; Hsu, S. C.; Hoffman, N. M.; Svyatsky, D.; Baalrud, S. D.; Daligault, J. O.; et al</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Here, <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> effects on inertial confinement fusion have been investigated. In particular, inter-ion-species diffusion and suprathermal ion distribution have been analyzed. The former drives separation of the fuel constituents in the hot reacting core and governs mix at the shell/fuel interface. The latter underlie measurements obtained with nuclear diagnostics, including the fusion yield and inferred ion burn temperatures. Basic mechanisms behind and practical consequences from these effects are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22472105','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22472105"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiflow approach to plasma <span class="hlt">kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ignatov, A. M.</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>Instead of the commonly used Vlasov equation, one is able to treat <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> phenomena in collisionless plasma with the help of the infinite set of hydrodynamic equations. The present paper deals with the linear approximation of multiflow hydrodynamics. It is shown that single-particle and collective excitations analogous to Van Kampen waves are explicitly separated. Expressions for the energy of all eigenmodes are obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178916','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10178916"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of accelerator driven devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Perry, R.T.; Buksa, J.; Houts, M.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> calculations were made to show that subcritical accelerator driven devices are robust and stable. The calculations show that large changes in reactivity that would lead to an uncontrollable excursion in a reactor would lead only to a new power level in subcritical device. Calculations were also made to show the rate of power changes resulting from startup and shutdown, and that methods also exist for continuously monitoring the reactivity of a subcritical system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21075683','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21075683"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> model of HIV infection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhdanov, V. P.</p> <p>2007-10-15</p> <p>Recent experiments clarifying the details of exhaustion of CD8 T cells specific to various strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are indicative of slow irreversible (on a one-year time scale) deterioration of the immune system. The conventional models of HIV <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> do not take this effect into account. Removing this shortcoming, we show the likely influence of such changes on the escape of HIV from control of the immune system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24523110','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24523110"><span id="translatedtitle">Multienzyme <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and sequential metabolism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wienkers, Larry C; Rock, Brooke</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Enzymes are the catalysts of biological systems and are extremely efficient. A typical enzyme accelerates the rate of a reaction by factors of at least a million compared to the rate of the same reaction in the absence of the enzyme. In contrast to traditional catalytic enzymes, the family of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are catalytically promiscuous, and thus they possess remarkable versatility in substrates. The great diversity of reactions catalyzed by CYP enzymes appears to be based on two unique properties of these heme proteins, the ability of their iron to exist under multiple oxidation states with different reactivities and a flexible active site that can accommodate a wide variety of substrates. Herein is a discussion of two distinct types of <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> observed with CYP enzymes. The first example is of CYP complex <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> profiles when multiple CYP enzymes form the sample product. The second is sequential metabolism, in other words, the formation of multiple products from one CYP enzyme. Given the degree of CYP enzyme promiscuity, it is hardly surprising that there is also a high degree of complex <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> profiles generated during the catalytic cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MeScT..25c5204P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MeScT..25c5204P"><span id="translatedtitle">A linear relationship between the Hall carrier concentration and the effective absorption coefficient measured by means of photothermal <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> in IR semi-transparent n-type CdMgSe mixed crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pawlak, M.; Maliński, M.; Firszt, F.; Pelzl, J.; Ludwig, A.; Marasek, A.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>In this work we demonstrate the ability to measure the effective infrared absorption coefficient in semiconductors by a photothermal infrared <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> (PTR) experiment, and its correlation with the Hall carrier concentration. The amplitude and phase of the PTR signal were measured for Cd1-xMgxSe mixed crystals, with the magnesium content varying from x = 0 to x = 0.15. The PTR experiments were performed at room temperature in thermal reflection and transmission configurations using a mercury cadmium telluride infrared detector. The PTR data were analyzed in the frame of the one-dimensional heat transport model for infrared semi-transparent crystals. Based on the variation of the normalized PTR phase and amplitude on the modulation frequency, the thermal diffusivity and the effective infrared absorption coefficient were obtained by fitting the theoretical expression to experimental data and compared with the Hall carrier concentration determined by supplementary Hall experiments. A linear relationship between the effective infrared absorption coefficient and the Hall carrier concentration was found which is explained in the frame of the Drude theory. The uncertainty of the measured slope was 6%. The value of the slope depends on (1) the sample IR absorption spectrum and (2) the spectral range of the infrared detector. It has to be pointed out that this method is suitable for use in an industrial environment for a fast and contactless carrier concentration measurement. This method can be used for the characterization of other semiconductors after a calibration procedure is carried out. In addition, the PTR technique yields information on the thermal properties in the same experiment.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JSSCh.207..163W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JSSCh.207..163W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxidation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of aluminum diboride</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Whittaker, Michael L.; Sohn, H. Y.; Cutler, Raymond A.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The oxidation characteristics of aluminum diboride (AlB2) and a physical mixture of its constituent elements (Al+2B) were studied in dry air and pure oxygen using thermal gravimetric analysis to obtain non-mechanistic <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> parameters. Heating in air at a constant linear heating rate of 10 °C/min showed a marked difference between Al+2B and AlB2 in the onset of oxidation and final conversion fraction, with AlB2 beginning to oxidize at higher temperatures but reaching nearly complete conversion by 1500 °C. <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> parameters were obtained in both air and oxygen using a model-free isothermal method at temperatures between 500 and 1000 °C. Activation energies were found to decrease, in general, with increasing conversion for AlB2 and Al+2B in both air and oxygen. AlB2 exhibited O2-pressure-independent oxidation behavior at low conversions, while the activation energies of Al+2B were higher in O2 than in air. Differences in the composition and morphology between oxidized Al+2B and AlB2 suggested that Al2O3-B2O3 interactions slowed Al+2B oxidation by converting Al2O3 on aluminum particles into a Al4B2O9 shell, while the same Al4B2O9 developed a needle-like morphology in AlB2 that reduced oxygen diffusion distances and increased conversion. The model-free <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> analysis was critical for interpreting the complex, multistep oxidation behavior for which a single mechanism could not be assigned. At low temperatures, moisture increased the oxidation rate of Al+2B and AlB2, but both appear to be resistant to oxidation in cool, dry environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000020628&hterms=self+determination+diet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dself%2Bdetermination%2Bdiet','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000020628&hterms=self+determination+diet&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dself%2Bdetermination%2Bdiet"><span id="translatedtitle">Calcium <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> During Space Flight</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Scott M.; Wastney, Meryl E.; OBrien, Kimberly O.; Lane, Helen W.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Bone loss is one of the most detrimental effects of space flight, threatening to limit the duration of human space missions. The ability to understand and counteract this loss will be critical for crew health and safety during and after extended-duration missions. The hypotheses to be tested in this project are that space flight alters calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism, and that calcium homeostasis and bone mineral metabolism will return to baseline within days to weeks of return to Earth. These hypotheses will be evidenced by elevated rates of bone mineral resorption and decreased bone mineral deposition, decreased absorption of dietary calcium, altered calcitropic endocrine profiles, elevated excretion of calcium in urine and feces, and elevated excretion of markers of bone resorption. The second hypothesis will be evidenced by return of indices of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism to preflight levels within days to weeks of return to Earth. Studies will be conducted on International Space Station astronauts before, during, and after extended-duration flights. Measurements of calcium <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, bone mass, and endocrine/biochemical markers of bone and calcium homeostasis will be conducted. <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> studies utilizing dual isotope tracer <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> studies and mathematical modeling techniques will allow for determination of bone calcium deposition, bone calcium resorption, dietary calcium absorption and calcium excretion (both urinary and endogenous fecal excretion). These studies will build upon preliminary work conducted on the Russian Mir space station. The results from this project will be critical for clarifying how microgravity affects bone and calcium homeostasis, and will provide an important control point for assessment of countermeasure efficacy. These results are expected to aid in developing countermeasures for bone loss, both for space crews and for individuals on Earth who have metabolic bone diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...824...44P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...824...44P"><span id="translatedtitle">Variance Anisotropy in <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parashar, Tulasi N.; Oughton, Sean; Matthaeus, William H.; Wan, Minping</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Solar wind fluctuations admit well-documented anisotropies of the variance matrix, or polarization, related to the mean magnetic field direction. Typically, one finds a ratio of perpendicular variance to parallel variance of the order of 9:1 for the magnetic field. Here we study the question of whether a <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> plasma spontaneously generates and sustains parallel variances when initiated with only perpendicular variance. We find that parallel variance grows and saturates at about 5% of the perpendicular variance in a few nonlinear times irrespective of the Reynolds number. For sufficiently large systems (Reynolds numbers) the variance approaches values consistent with the solar wind observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1054047','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1054047"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Modeling of Microbiological Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Chongxuan; Fang, Yilin</p> <p>2012-08-26</p> <p><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> description of microbiological processes is vital for the design and control of microbe-based biotechnologies such as waste water treatment, petroleum oil recovery, and contaminant attenuation and remediation. Various models have been proposed to describe microbiological processes. This editorial article discusses the advantages and limiation of these modeling approaches in cluding tranditional, Monod-type models and derivatives, and recently developed constraint-based approaches. The article also offers the future direction of modeling researches that best suit for petroleum and environmental biotechnologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26207458','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26207458"><span id="translatedtitle">Collisions in Chiral <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Jing-Yuan; Son, Dam T; Stephanov, Mikhail A</p> <p>2015-07-10</p> <p>Using a covariant formalism, we construct a chiral <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> theory Lorentz invariant to order O(ℏ), which includes collisions. We find a new contribution to the particle number current due to the side jumps required by the conservation of angular momentum during collisions. We also find a conserved symmetric stress-energy tensor as well as the H function obeying Boltzmann's H theorem. We demonstrate their use by finding a general equilibrium solution and the values of the anomalous transport coefficients characterizing the chiral vortical effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15447309','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15447309"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> pinning and biological antifreezes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sander, Leonard M; Tkachenko, Alexei V</p> <p>2004-09-17</p> <p>Biological antifreezes protect cold-water organisms from freezing. An example is the antifreeze proteins (AFP's) that attach to the surface of ice crystals and arrest growth. The mechanism for growth arrest has not been heretofore understood in a quantitative way. We present a complete theory based on a <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> model. We use the "stones on a pillow" picture. Our theory of the suppression of the freezing point as a function of the concentration of the AFP is quantitatively accurate. It gives a correct description of the dependence of the freezing point suppression on the geometry of the protein, and might lead to advances in design of synthetic AFP's.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/914611','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/914611"><span id="translatedtitle">Freezing <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> in Overcompressed Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bastea, M; Bastea, S; Reaugh, J; Reisman, D</p> <p>2006-09-27</p> <p>We report high pressure dynamic compression experiments of liquid water along a quasi-adiabatic path leading to the formation of ice VII. We observe dynamic features resembling Van der Waals loops and find that liquid water is compacted to a metastable state close to the ice density before the onset of crystallization. By analyzing the characteristic <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> time scale involved we estimate the nucleation barrier and conclude that liquid water has been compressed to a high pressure state close to its thermodynamic stability limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvB..75q2104B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvB..75q2104B"><span id="translatedtitle">Freezing <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> in overcompressed water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bastea, Marina; Bastea, Sorin; Reaugh, John E.; Reisman, David B.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>We report high-pressure dynamic compression experiments of liquid water along a quasiadiabatic path leading to the ice-VII region of the phase diagram. We observe dynamic features resembling van der Waals loops and find that liquid water is compacted to a metastable state close to the ice density before the onset of crystallization. By analyzing the characteristic <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> time scale involved we estimate the nucleation barrier and conclude that liquid water has been compressed to a high-pressure state close to its thermodynamic stability limit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/479297','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/479297"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> analysis of nonisothermal crystallization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kelton, K.F.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>A realistic computer model for polymorphic crystallization under isothermal and nonisothermal conditions, which takes proper account of time-dependent nucleation behavior and cluster-size-dependent growth, is presented. A new correction to the standard Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) statistical analysis that takes account of finite sample size is incorporated to simulate data taken from fine particles and nano-structured materials. Model predictions compare well with experimental data obtained from calorimetric studies of the polymorphic crystallization of lithium disilicate glass. The computer model is employed to evaluate commonly used methods of analysis for calorimetric data and to suggest new approaches for extracting <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> parameters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7357796','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7357796"><span id="translatedtitle">Zomepirac <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> in healthy males.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nayak, R K; Ng, K T; Gottlieb, S; Plostnieks, J</p> <p>1980-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of zomepirac, an oral, nonnarcotic analgesic, were studied in healthy males in 3 clinical experiments. In study A, zomepirac 100 mg was taken as tablet, capsule, and solution. Bioavailability of zomepirac from the 3 dosage forms was much the same. Zomepirac absorption was rapid, peak plasma concentrations being reached within 1 to 1 hr. Plasma concentration profile could be described by the 2-compartmentoral absorption model with an absorption rate constant (Ka) of 7.66 hr-1 t 1/2 = 0.09 hr), a rapid disposition rate constant (alpha) of 0.75 hr-1 (t 1/2 = 0.94 hr), and a slow disposition rate constant (beta) of 0.16 hr-1 (t 1/2 = 4.3 hr). In study B, safety and acceptability were established with 100 mg 4 times a day for 14 days followed by 150 mg 4 times a day for 14 days. Zomepirac plasma levels indicated attainment of steady state within less than 3 days of treatment. There was little drug accumulation on the regimens studied. There was no change in plasma <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> after 14 days on either regimen. In study C, dose/bioavailability response was followed at 50-, 100-, and 200-mg dose levels. There were linear correlations between dose and peak plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration-time curve, and urinary excretion of intact and total (intact + glucuronide conjugate) zomepirac during the 12 hr following drug administration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/139897','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/139897"><span id="translatedtitle">Combustion <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and reaction pathways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W.</p> <p>1993-12-01</p> <p>This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/787778','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/787778"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Profiles in NSTX Plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>R.E. Bell; B.P. LeBlanc; C. Bourdelle; D.R. Ernst; E.D. Fredrickson; D.A. Gates; J.C. Hosea; D.W. Johnson; S.M. Kaye; R. Maingi; S. Medley; J.E. Menard; D. Mueller; M. Ono; F. Paoletti; M. Peng; S.A. Sabbagh; D. Stutman; D.W. Swain; E.J. Synakowski; and J.R. Wilson</p> <p>2001-07-10</p> <p>The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio (R/a approximately 1.3) device with auxiliary heating from neutral-beam injection (NBI) and high-harmonic fast-wave heating (HHFW). Typical NSTX parameters are R(subscript ''0'') = 85 cm, a = 67 cm, I(subscript ''p'') = 0.7-1.4 MA, B(subscript ''phi'') = 0.25-0.45 T. Three co-directed deuterium neutral-beam sources have injected P(subscript ''NB'') less than or equal to 4.7 MW. HHFW plasmas typically have delivered P(subscript ''RF'') less than or equal to 3 MW. Important to the understanding of NSTX confinement are the new <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> profile diagnostics: a multi-pulse Thomson scattering system (MPTS) and a charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) system. The MPTS diagnostic currently measures electron density and temperature profiles at 30 Hz at ten spatial locations. The CHERS system has recently become available to measure carbon ion temperature and toroidal flow at 17 radial positions spanning the outer half of the minor radius with 20 msec time resolution during NBI. Experiments conducted during the last year have produced a wide range of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> profiles in NSTX. Some interesting examples are presented below.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/671860','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/671860"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of actinide complexation reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nash, K.L.; Sullivan, J.C.</p> <p>1997-09-01</p> <p>Though the literature records extensive compilations of the thermodynamics of actinide complexation reactions, the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of complex formation and dissociation reactions of actinide ions in aqueous solutions have not been extensively investigated. In light of the central role played by such reactions in actinide process and environmental chemistry, this situation is somewhat surprising. The authors report herein a summary of what is known about actinide complexation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. The systems include actinide ions in the four principal oxidation states (III, IV, V, and VI) and complex formation and dissociation rates with both simple and complex ligands. Most of the work reported was conducted in acidic media, but a few address reactions in neutral and alkaline solutions. Complex formation reactions tend in general to be rapid, accessible only to rapid-scan and equilibrium perturbation techniques. Complex dissociation reactions exhibit a wider range of rates and are generally more accessible using standard analytical methods. Literature results are described and correlated with the known properties of the individual ions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EPJB...87..170H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EPJB...87..170H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> models of immediate exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heinsalu, Els; Patriarca, Marco</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>We propose a novel <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> exchange model differing from previous ones in two main aspects. First, the basic dynamics is modified in order to represent economies where immediate wealth exchanges are carried out, instead of reshufflings or uni-directional movements of wealth. Such dynamics produces wealth distributions that describe more faithfully real data at small values of wealth. Secondly, a general probabilistic trading criterion is introduced, so that two economic units can decide independently whether to trade or not depending on their profit. It is found that the type of the equilibrium wealth distribution is the same for a large class of trading criteria formulated in a symmetrical way with respect to the two interacting units. This establishes unexpected links between and provides a microscopic foundations of various <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> exchange models in which the existence of a saving propensity is postulated. We also study the generalized heterogeneous version of the model in which units use different trading criteria and show that suitable sets of diversified parameter values with a moderate level of heterogeneity can reproduce realistic wealth distributions with a Pareto power law.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4978265','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4978265"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetically</span> guided colloidal structure formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hecht, Fabian M.; Bausch, Andreas R.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The self-organization of colloidal particles is a promising approach to create novel structures and materials, with applications spanning from smart materials to optoelectronics to quantum computation. However, designing and producing mesoscale-sized structures remains a major challenge because at length scales of 10–100 μm equilibration times already become prohibitively long. Here, we extend the principle of rapid diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) to a multicomponent system of spherical colloidal particles to enable the rational design and production of finite-sized anisotropic structures on the mesoscale. In stark contrast to equilibrium self-assembly techniques, <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> traps are not avoided but exploited to control and guide mesoscopic structure formation. To this end the affinities, size, and stoichiometry of up to five different types of DNA-coated microspheres are adjusted to <span class="hlt">kinetically</span> control a higher-order hierarchical aggregation process in time. We show that the aggregation process can be fully rationalized by considering an extended analytical DLCA model, allowing us to produce mesoscopic structures of up to 26 µm in diameter. This scale-free approach can easily be extended to any multicomponent system that allows for multiple orthogonal interactions, thus yielding a high potential of facilitating novel materials with tailored plasmonic excitation bands, scattering, biochemical, or mechanical behavior. PMID:27444018</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25871530','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25871530"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of Propargyl Radical Dissociation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klippenstein, Stephen J; Miller, James A; Jasper, Ahren W</p> <p>2015-07-16</p> <p>Due to the prominent role of the propargyl radical for hydrocarbon growth within combustion environments, it is important to understand the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of its formation and loss. The ab initio transition state theory-based master equation method is used to obtain theoretical <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> predictions for the temperature and pressure dependence of the thermal decomposition of propargyl, which may be its primary loss channel under some conditions. The potential energy surface for the decomposition of propargyl is first mapped at a high level of theory with a combination of coupled cluster and multireference perturbation calculations. Variational transition state theory is then used to predict the microcanonical rate coefficients, which are subsequently implemented within the multiple-well multiple-channel master equation. A variety of energy transfer parameters are considered, and the sensitivity of the thermal rate predictions to these parameters is explored. The predictions for the thermal decomposition rate coefficient are found to be in good agreement with the limited experimental data. Modified Arrhenius representations of the rate constants are reported for utility in combustion modeling. PMID:25871530</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25871530','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25871530"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of Propargyl Radical Dissociation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Klippenstein, Stephen J; Miller, James A; Jasper, Ahren W</p> <p>2015-07-16</p> <p>Due to the prominent role of the propargyl radical for hydrocarbon growth within combustion environments, it is important to understand the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of its formation and loss. The ab initio transition state theory-based master equation method is used to obtain theoretical <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> predictions for the temperature and pressure dependence of the thermal decomposition of propargyl, which may be its primary loss channel under some conditions. The potential energy surface for the decomposition of propargyl is first mapped at a high level of theory with a combination of coupled cluster and multireference perturbation calculations. Variational transition state theory is then used to predict the microcanonical rate coefficients, which are subsequently implemented within the multiple-well multiple-channel master equation. A variety of energy transfer parameters are considered, and the sensitivity of the thermal rate predictions to these parameters is explored. The predictions for the thermal decomposition rate coefficient are found to be in good agreement with the limited experimental data. Modified Arrhenius representations of the rate constants are reported for utility in combustion modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1254839-spectral-method-kinetic-swarming-model','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1254839-spectral-method-kinetic-swarming-model"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectral method for a <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> swarming model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Gamba, Irene M.; Haack, Jeffrey R.; Motsch, Sebastien</p> <p>2015-04-28</p> <p>Here we present the first numerical method for a <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> description of the Vicsek swarming model. The <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> model poses a unique challenge, as there is a distribution dependent collision invariant to satisfy when computing the interaction term. We use a spectral representation linked with a discrete constrained optimization to compute these interactions. To test the numerical scheme we investigate the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> model at different scales and compare the solution with the microscopic and macroscopic descriptions of the Vicsek model. Lastly, we observe that the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> model captures key features such as vortex formation and traveling waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V13F..03P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V13F..03P"><span id="translatedtitle">Equilibrium and <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> in metamorphism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pattison, D. R.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The equilibrium model for metamorphism is founded on the metamorphic facies principle, the repeated association of the same mineral assemblages in rocks of different bulk composition that have been metamorphosed together. Yet, for any metamorphic process to occur, there must be some degree of reaction overstepping (disequilibrium) to initiate reaction. The magnitude and variability of overstepping, and the degree to which it is either a relatively minor wrinkle or a more substantive challenge to the interpretation of metamorphic rocks using the equilibrium model, is an active area of current research. <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> barriers to reaction generally diminish with rising temperature due to the Arrhenius relation. In contrast, the rate of build-up of the macroscopic energetic driving force needed to overcome <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> barriers to reaction, reaction affinity, does not vary uniformly with temperature, instead varying from reaction to reaction. High-entropy reactions that release large quantities of H2O build up reaction affinity more rapidly than low-entropy reactions that release little or no H2O, such that the former are expected to be overstepped less than the latter. Some consequences include: (1) metamorphic reaction intervals may be discrete rather than continuous, initiating at the point that sufficient reaction affinity has built up to overcome <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> barriers; (2) metamorphic reaction intervals may not correspond in a simple way to reaction boundaries in an equilibrium phase diagram; (3) metamorphic reactions may involve metastable reactions; (4) metamorphic 'cascades' are possible, in which stable and metastable reactions involving the same reactant phases may proceed simultaneously; and (5) fluid generation, and possibly fluid presence in general, may be episodic rather than continuous, corresponding to discrete intervals of reaction. These considerations bear on the interpretation of P-T-t paths from metamorphic mineral assemblages and textures. The success of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kinetic+AND+Art&id=EJ314862','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kinetic+AND+Art&id=EJ314862"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Drawing System: A Review and Integration of the <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Family and School Drawing Techniques.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Knoff, Howard M.; Prout, H. Thompson</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Presents the <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Drawing System as a logical integration of the <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Family Drawing and <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> School Drawing techniques. Reviews the literature of these two projective techniques and provides a rationale and process toward their combination into a single approach. (LLL)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Sci...265..918Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Sci...265..918Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Intermediates in RNA Folding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zarrinkar, Patrick P.; Williamson, James R.</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>The folding pathways of large, highly structured RNA molecules are largely unexplored. Insight into both the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of folding and the presence of intermediates was provided in a study of the Mg2+-induced folding of the Tetrahymena ribozyme by hybridization of complementary oligodeoxynucleotide probes. This RNA folds via a complex mechanism involving both Mg2+-dependent and Mg2+-independent steps. A hierarchical model for the folding pathway is proposed in which formation of one helical domain (P4-P6) precedes that of a second helical domain (P3-P7). The overall rate-limiting step is formation of P3-P7, and takes place with an observed rate constant of 0.72 ± 0.14 minute-1. The folding mechanism of large RNAs appears similar to that of many multidomain proteins in that formation of independently stable substructures precedes their association into the final conformation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4859646','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4859646"><span id="translatedtitle">CMD <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and regenerative medicine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Anjamrooz, Seyed Hadi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The author’s theory of the cell memory disc (CMD) offers a radical and holistic picture of the cell from both functional and structural perspectives. Despite all of the attention that has been focused on different regenerative strategies, several serious CMD-based obstacles still remain that make current cell therapies inherently unethical, harmful, and largely ineffective from a clinical viewpoint. Accordingly, unless there is a real breakthrough in finding an alternative or complementary approach to overcome these barriers, all of the discussion regarding cell-based therapies may be fruitless. Hence, this paper focuses on the issue of CMD <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> in an attempt to provide a fresh perspective on regenerative medicine. PMID:27186287</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27598896','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27598896"><span id="translatedtitle">Katrina <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span>: The Physician Supply.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rigby, Perry Gardner; Paragi Gururaja, Ramnaryan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina 10 years ago, acute changes were recognized and reported; acute <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> destruction and desperation. Physicians performed heroically, but after the flood and the closing of hospitals, most left at least briefly. The chronic recovery began with spirit, but was uncharted and unplanned with the recognition that individual decisions were a necessity. The documentation of physician numbers of practicing doctors, residents and fellows, from the AMA as related to geography, population, and other circumstances tells an additional story of renewal, more objectively without the hype. The fall and rise of the physician population occurred, and was and is remarkable in its consistency, smaller than expected variations. Its effect generated promise for continuous chronic conditions of recovery and positive change. PMID:27598896</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2737326','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2737326"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling reaction <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> inside cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Grima, Ramon; Schnell, Santiago</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In the past decade, advances in molecular biology such as the development of non-invasive single molecule imaging techniques have given us a window into the intricate biochemical activities that occur inside cells. In this article we review four distinct theoretical and simulation frameworks: (1) non-spatial and deterministic, (2) spatial and deterministic, (3) non-spatial and stochastic and (4) spatial and stochastic. Each framework can be suited to modelling and interpreting intracellular reaction <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. By estimating the fundamental length scales, one can roughly determine which models are best suited for the particular reaction pathway under study. We discuss differences in prediction between the four modelling methodologies. In particular we show that taking into account noise and space does not simply add quantitative predictive accuracy but may also lead to qualitatively different physiological predictions, unaccounted for by classical deterministic models. PMID:18793122</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/227639','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/227639"><span id="translatedtitle">Acyclovir <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> after intravenous infusion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Miranda, P; Whitley, R J; Blum, M R; Keeney, R E; Barton, N; Cocchetto, D M; Good, S; Hemstreet, G P; Kirk, L E; Page, D A; Elion, G B</p> <p>1979-12-01</p> <p>The disposition and safety of the antiviral drug acyclovir were studied in 14 subjects with advanced malignancies. Acyclovir was administered by a 1-hr intravenous infusion at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg. At the end of infusion, mean peak plasma levels (+/- SEM), determined by radioimmunoassay, were 6.4 +/- 0.7, 12.1 +/- 2.3, 14.9 +/- 2.7, and 33.7 +/- 7.1 microM. The plasma concentration-time profiles could be described by a biexponential equation. The half-life of acyclovir in the slow disposition phase ranged from 2.2 to 5 hr and the drug was detected in the plasma for at least 18 hr after infusion. The total body clearance ranged from 117 to 396 ml/min/1.73 m2. A proportionality between area under the curve and dose suggests that acyclovir exhibits dose-independent <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> in the dose range studied. There was wide variation in cumulative urinary excretion of unchanged drug, ranging from 30 to 69% of the dose. From renal clearances of acyclovir, which were higher than creatinine clearances, it appears that both glomerular filtration and tubular secretion contribute to its renal excretion. Analysis of the urine by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of the metabolite 9-carboxymethoxymethylguanine. There was no indication of toxicity either clinically or from laboratory findings in any of the study subjects. This study demonstrates that in addition to selectivity and low toxicity, the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> profile and metabolic disposition of acyclovir make it an attractive candidate for therapy in a variety of herpes infections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28e3001M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28e3001M"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanoparticle shape, thermodynamics and <span class="hlt">kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marks, L. D.; Peng, L.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Nanoparticles can be beautiful, as in stained glass windows, or they can be ugly as in wear and corrosion debris from implants. We estimate that there will be about 70 000 papers in 2015 with nanoparticles as a keyword, but only one in thirteen uses the nanoparticle shape as an additional keyword and research focus, and only one in two hundred has thermodynamics. Methods for synthesizing nanoparticles have exploded over the last decade, but our understanding of how and why they take their forms has not progressed as fast. This topical review attempts to take a critical snapshot of the current understanding, focusing more on methods to predict than a purely synthetic or descriptive approach. We look at models and themes which are largely independent of the exact synthetic method whether it is deposition, gas-phase condensation, solution based or hydrothermal synthesis. Elements are old dating back to the beginning of the 20th century—some of the pioneering models developed then are still relevant today. Others are newer, a merging of older concepts such as <span class="hlt">kinetic</span>-Wulff constructions with methods to understand minimum energy shapes for particles with twins. Overall we find that while there are still many unknowns, the broad framework of understanding and predicting the structure of nanoparticles via diverse Wulff constructions, either thermodynamic, local minima or <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> has been exceedingly successful. However, the field is still developing and there remain many unknowns and new avenues for research, a few of these being suggested towards the end of the review.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzymes+AND+background&id=EJ301979','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzymes+AND+background&id=EJ301979"><span id="translatedtitle">Microcomputer Simulation of Enzyme <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Behaviour.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gill, R. A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Describes a program which simulates the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> behavior of a "typical" enzyme. Program objectives, background to the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> model used in the simulation, major program features, typical results obtained, and a note on the availability of the program (written in BASIC for Commodore microcomputer) are included. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rate+AND+law+AND+chemistry&pg=3&id=EJ536534','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rate+AND+law+AND+chemistry&pg=3&id=EJ536534"><span id="translatedtitle">Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Mario N.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Describes the inflation rate problem and offers an interesting analogy with chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. Presents and solves the car devaluation problem as a normal chemical <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> problem where the order of the rate law and the value of the rate constant are derived. (JRH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19700000473','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19700000473"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> inductance measured in a superconducting wire</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meservey, R. H.; Tedrow, P. M.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Ultrasensitive technique to measure <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> inductance has test specimen included as part of the inductance of a tank circuit of a tunnel diode oscillator. Frequency counter measures shift in frequency of oscillator, caused by changes in inductance. Frequency shift in tank circuit is proportional to change in <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> inductance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rate+AND+reactions&pg=6&id=EJ833794','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=rate+AND+reactions&pg=6&id=EJ833794"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing Thai Students' Learning of Chemical <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chairam, Sanoe; Somsook, Ekasith; Coll, Richard K.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> is an extremely important concept for introductory chemistry courses. The literature suggests that instruction in chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> is often teacher-dominated at both the secondary school and tertiary levels, and this is the case in Thailand--the educational context for this inquiry. The work reported here seeks to shift students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Velocity&pg=7&id=EJ943678','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Velocity&pg=7&id=EJ943678"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comprehensive Enzyme <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Exercise for Biochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barton, Janice S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a comprehensive treatment of experimental enzyme <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> strongly coupled to electronic data acquisition and use of spreadsheets to organize data and perform linear and nonlinear least-squares analyses, all in a manner that promotes development of important reasoning skills. <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> parameters are obtained for the stable…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10185623','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10185623"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and oil shale process design</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Burnham, A.K.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1323395','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1323395"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Chain Approach for Shoulder Rehabilitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McMullen, John; Uhl, Timothy L.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To introduce an approach to shoulder rehabilitation that integrates the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> chain throughout the rehabilitation program while providing the theoretical rationale for this program. Background: The focus of a typical rehabilitation program is to identify and treat the involved structures. However, in activities of sport and daily life, the body does not operate in isolated segments but rather works as a dynamic unit. Recently, rehabilitation programs have emphasized closed <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> chain exercises, core-stabilization exercises, and functional programs. These components are implemented as distinct entities and are used toward the end of the rehabilitation program. Description: <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> chain shoulder rehabilitation incorporates the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> link biomechanical model and proximal-to-distal motor-activation patterns with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and closed <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> chain exercise techniques. This approach focuses on movement patterns rather than isolated muscle exercises. Patterns sequentially use the leg, trunk, and scapular musculature to activate weakened shoulder musculature, gain active range of motion, and increase strength. The paradigm of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> chain shoulder rehabilitation suggests that functional movement patterns and closed <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> chain exercises should be incorporated throughout the rehabilitation process. Clinical Advantages: The exercises in this approach are consistent with biomechanical models, apply biomechanical and motor control theory, and work toward sport specificity. The exercises are designed to stimulate weakened tissue by motion and force production in the adjacent <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> link segments. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8. PMID:16558646</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..91b3016G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvE..91b3016G"><span id="translatedtitle">Saffman-Taylor fingers with <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> undercooling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gardiner, Bennett P. J.; McCue, Scott W.; Dallaston, Michael C.; Moroney, Timothy J.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The mathematical model of a steadily propagating Saffman-Taylor finger in a Hele-Shaw channel has applications to two-dimensional interacting streamer discharges which are aligned in a periodic array. In the streamer context, the relevant regularization on the interface is not provided by surface tension but instead has been postulated to involve a mechanism equivalent to <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> undercooling, which acts to penalize high velocities and prevent blow-up of the unregularized solution. Previous asymptotic results for the Hele-Shaw finger problem with <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> undercooling suggest that for a given value of the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> undercooling parameter, there is a discrete set of possible finger shapes, each analytic at the nose and occupying a different fraction of the channel width. In the limit in which the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> undercooling parameter vanishes, the fraction for each family approaches 1 /2 , suggesting that this "selection" of 1 /2 by <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> undercooling is qualitatively similar to the well-known analog with surface tension. We treat the numerical problem of computing these Saffman-Taylor fingers with <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> undercooling, which turns out to be more subtle than the analog with surface tension, since <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> undercooling permits finger shapes which are corner-free but not analytic. We provide numerical evidence for the selection mechanism by setting up a problem with both <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> undercooling and surface tension and numerically taking the limit that the surface tension vanishes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3970910','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3970910"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of water transport in sickle cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Craescu, C T; Cassoly, R; Galacteros, F; Prehu, C</p> <p>1985-02-14</p> <p>This paper reports the results of stopped-flow studies on differences in the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of osmotic water transport of sickle and normal erythrocytes. The <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of inward osmotic water permeability are similar in sickle and normal red blood cells. In contrast, the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of outward water flux are significantly (approx. 38%) decreased in sickle cells. Deoxygenation does not modify the water influx <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> in either type of cells, but accelerates considerably the rate of water efflux in sickle cells. No significant variation of water transport <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> was observed in density-separated cell fractions of either type. The results suggest that membrane-associated hemoglobin may decrease the outward water permeability and that in deoxygenated sickle cells the fraction of hemoglobin S near the lipid bilayer is lower than in oxygenated conditions. PMID:3970910</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22075544','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22075544"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Guo Xiaoming</p> <p>2012-09-26</p> <p>The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF <span class="hlt">kinetically</span> superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy. Without enough <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AIPC.1479.2407G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AIPC.1479.2407G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guo, Xiaoming</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF <span class="hlt">kinetically</span> superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy. Without enough <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/896461','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/896461"><span id="translatedtitle">Center for Environmental <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Synthesis (CEKA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lichtner, Peter .</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>CEKA, as an Environmental Molecular Science Institute, is a joint research initiative of the National Science Foundation and U.S. Department of Energy, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). DOE collaborators are from DOE facilities at Los Alamos National Lab, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab and Pacific Northwest National Lab. The chief goals for CEKA are to 1) collect and synthesize molecular-level <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> data into a coherent framework that can be used to predict time evolution of environmental processes over a range of temporal and spatial scales; 2) train a cohort of talented and diverse students to work on <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> problems at multiple scales; 3) develop and promote the use of new experimental techniques in environmental <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>; 4) develop and promote the use of new modeling tools to conceptualize reaction <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> in environmental systems; and 5) communicate our understanding of issues related to environmental <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and issues of scale to the broader scientific community and to the public.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060010507&hterms=collagen&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcollagen','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060010507&hterms=collagen&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dcollagen"><span id="translatedtitle">Calcium <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> During Space Flight</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K. O.; Abrams, S. A.; Wastney, M. E.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges to astronaut health on space exploration missions. Defining the time course and mechanism of these changes will aid in developing means to counteract bone loss during space flight, and will have relevance for other clinical situations that impair weight-bearing activity. Bone health is a product of the balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research could not clearly identify which of these was the main process altered in bone loss, but identification of the collagen crosslinks in the 1990s made possible a clear understanding that the impact of space flight was greater on bone resorption, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> data showed that bone resorption was greater during flight than before flight (668 plus or minus 130 vs. 427 plus or minus 153 mg/d, p less than 0.001), and clearly documented that true intestinal calcium absorption was lower during flight than before flight (233 plus or minus 87 vs. 460 plus or minus 47 mg/d, p less than 0.01). Weightlessness had a detrimental effect on the balance in bone turnover: the difference between daily calcium balance during flight (-234 plus or minus 102 mg/d) and calcium balance before flight (63 plus or minus 75 mg/d) approached 300 mg/d (p less than 0.01). These data demonstrate that the bone loss that occurs during space flight is a consequence of increased bone resorption and decreased intestinal calcium absorption. Examining the changes in bone and calcium homeostasis in the initial days and weeks of space flight, as well as at later times on missions longer than 6 months, is critical to understanding the nature of bone adaptation to weightlessness. To increase knowledge of these changes, we studied bone adaptation to space flight on the 16-day Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) mission. When the brave and talented crew of Columbia were lost during reentry on the tragic morning</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......184S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......184S"><span id="translatedtitle">Non isothermal effects on phase transformation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sista, Vivekanand</p> <p></p> <p>Cyclic thermal processing has been shown to accelerate the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of several phase transformations, with a significant beneficial impact on productivity and energy consumption of the energy intensive operations like cyclic grain growth <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, recrystallization <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and austempering. Austempering is an important thermal processing operation, where strong and tough bainitic steel is produced in a single heat treatment. A new process called cyclic austempering was developed where the steel is first austenized and then cooled rapidly to just above the martensite start temperature where the bainitic transformation is carried out in a controlled fluctuating temperature profile, by continuous heating and cooling segments between two temperature limits. Both isothermal and cyclic austempering experiments were performed on 1080 steel. The powerful dilatometry technique was used to measure the diametrical change as a function of transformation time and temperature. The time taken for the complete bainitic transformation in both isothermal and cyclic austempering processes were calculated to see whether the bainitic <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> are accelerated or not. Asymmetric cyclic austempering was also performed to determine the heating and cooling rate effects on the transformation. Cyclic austempering resulted in accelerating <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> to about an 80% reduction in time compared to that of conventional isothermal austempering. Incubation times were calculated to propose a possible mechanism for the accelerated <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. Microstructure analysis and hardness analysis was used to establish the cyclic transformation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/877784','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/877784"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal Decomposition <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of HMX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Burnham, A K; Weese, R K</p> <p>2004-11-18</p> <p>Nucleation-growth <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> expressions are derived for thermal decomposition of HMX from a variety of thermal analysis data types, including mass loss for isothermal and constant rate heating in an open pan and heat flow for isothermal and constant rate heating in open and closed pans. Conditions are identified in which thermal runaway is small to nonexistent, which typically means temperatures less than 255 C and heating rates less than 1 C/min. Activation energies are typically in the 140 to 165 kJ/mol range for open pan experiments and about 150 to 165 kJ/mol for sealed pan experiments. Our activation energies tend to be slightly lower than those derived from data supplied by the University of Utah, which we consider the best previous thermal analysis work. The reaction clearly displays more than one process, and most likely three processes, which are most clearly evident in open pan experiments. The reaction is accelerated in closed pan experiments, and one global reaction appears to fit the data well. Comparison of our rate measurements with additional literature sources for open and closed low temperature pyrolysis from Sandia gives a likely activation energy of 165 kJ/mol at 10% conversion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDL16009K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DFDL16009K"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerodynamics of Unsteady Sailing <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Keil, Colin; Schutt, Riley; Borshoff, Jennifer; Alley, Philip; de Zegher, Maximilien; Williamson, Chk</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>In small sailboats, the bodyweight of the sailor is proportionately large enough to induce significant unsteady motion of the boat and sail. Sailors use a variety of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> techniques to create sail dynamics which can provide an increment in thrust, thereby increasing the boatspeed. In this study, we experimentally investigate the unsteady aerodynamics associated with two techniques, ``upwind leech flicking'' and ``downwind S-turns''. We explore the dynamics of an Olympic class Laser sailboat equipped with a GPS, IMU, wind sensor, and camera array, sailed expertly by a member of the US Olympic team. The velocity heading of a sailing boat is oriented at an apparent wind angle to the flow. In contrast to classic flapping propulsion, the heaving of the sail section is not perpendicular to the sail's motion through the air. This leads to heave with components parallel and perpendicular to the incident flow. The characteristic motion is recreated in a towing tank where the vortex structures generated by a representative 2-D sail section are observed using Particle Image Velocimetry and the measurement of thrust and lift forces. Amongst other results, we show that the increase in driving force, generated due to heave, is larger for greater apparent wind angles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8032869','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8032869"><span id="translatedtitle">The neurology of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> art.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zeki, S; Lamb, M</p> <p>1994-06-01</p> <p>All visual art must obey the laws of the visual system. The first law is that an image of the visual world is not impressed upon the retina, but assembled together in the visual cortex. Consequently, many of the visual phenomena traditionally attributed to the eye actually occur in the cortex. Among these is visual motion. The second law is that of the functional specialization of the visual cortex, by which we mean that separate attributes of the visual scene are processed in geographically separate parts of the visual cortex, before being combined to give a unified and coherent picture of the visual world. The third law is that the attributes that are separated, and separately processed, in the cerebral cortex are those which have primacy in vision. These are colour, form, motion and, possibly, depth. It follows that motion is an autonomous visual attribute, separately processed and therefore capable of being separately compromised after brain lesions. It is also one of the visual attributes that have primacy, just like form or colour or depth. We conclude that it is this separate visual attribute which those involved in <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> art have tried to exploit, instinctively and physiologically, from which it follows that in their explorations artists are unknowingly exploring the organization of the visual brain though with techniques unique to them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5745037','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5745037"><span id="translatedtitle">Pyrolysis <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of lignocellulosic materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Balci, S.; Dogu, T.; Yuecel, H. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>Pyrolysis <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of almond and hazelnut shells and beech wood were carried out using a thermogravimetric technique. Experiments were repeated for different final pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 300 to 850 C. Approximately 90% of the pyrolysis reactions were completed up to 450 C. The initial values of the activation energy of pyrolysis reaction were found to be around 22 kcal/mol for shells of almond and hazelnut. On the other hand, initial activation energy of beech wood pyrolysis was found as 29.4 kcal/mol. Results indicated that a first-order decomposition in terms of volatile content of the reactant showed good agreement with the data only at the initial stages of the reaction. The reaction rate constant was found to decrease with reaction extent due to the changes in the chemical and physical structure of the solid. Among several models proposed, a model which predicted an increase of activation energy with reaction extent gave the best agreement with the experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862375','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862375"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal Decomposition <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of HMX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Burnham, A K; Weese, R K</p> <p>2005-03-17</p> <p>Nucleation-growth <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> expressions are derived for thermal decomposition of HMX from a variety of types of data, including mass loss for isothermal and constant rate heating in an open pan, and heat flow for isothermal and constant rate heating in open and closed pans. Conditions are identified in which thermal runaway is small to nonexistent, which typically means temperatures less than 255 C and heating rates less than 1 C/min. Activation energies are typically in the 140 to 165 kJ/mol regime for open pan experiments and about 150-165 kJ/mol for sealed-pan experiments. The reaction clearly displays more than one process, and most likely three processes, which are most clearly evident in open pan experiments. The reaction is accelerated for closed pan experiments, and one global reaction fits the data fairly well. Our A-E values lie in the middle of the values given in a compensation-law plot by Brill et al. (1994). Comparison with additional open and closed low temperature pyrolysis experiments support an activation energy of 165 kJ/mol at 10% conversion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720033966&hterms=Kinetic+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DKinetic%2Benergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720033966&hterms=Kinetic+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DKinetic%2Benergy"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> energy and quasi-biennial oscillation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, A. J.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>The modulation of the vertical flux of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy to the stratosphere by the pressure-work effect at 100 mb is compared with variations in the hemispheric <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy, the horizontal momentum and heat transports at 'low' latitudes, and the tropical zonal wind and temperature for the lower stratosphere. It is deduced that the variation of the vertical flux of geopotential is in phase with the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy in the lower stratosphere and is statistically related to the time rate of change of the horizontal transports of heat and momentum at 30 N. The association of these results to the general circulation of the lower stratosphere is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/989898','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/989898"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of Reactor <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> and Dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Matthew Johnson; Scott Lucas; Pavel Tsvetkov</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>In order to model a full fuel cycle in a nuclear reactor, it is necessary to simulate the short time-scale <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> behavior of the reactor as well as the long time-scale dynamics that occur with fuel burnup. The former is modeled using the point <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> equations, while the latter is modeled by coupling fuel burnup equations with the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> equations. When the equations are solved simultaneously with a nonlinear equation solver, the end result is a code with the unique capability of modeling transients at any time during a fuel cycle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/198292','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/198292"><span id="translatedtitle">Liquefaction chemistry and <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>: Hydrogen utilization studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rothenberger, K.S.; Warzinski, R.P.; Cugini, A.V.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The objectives of this project are to investigate the chemistry and <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> that occur in the initial stages of coal liquefaction and to determine the effects of hydrogen pressure, catalyst activity, and solvent type on the quantity and quality of the products produced. The project comprises three tasks: (1) preconversion chemistry and <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, (2) hydrogen utilization studies, and (3) assessment of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> models for liquefaction. The hydrogen utilization studies work will be the main topic of this report. However, the other tasks are briefly described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5248874','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5248874"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of coal pyrolysis and devolatilization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The objective of these coordinated experimental and modeling studies is to develop an improved understanding of the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of coal devolatilization which are relevant to suspension firing of powdered coal. These fundamental <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> studies address several topics related to an improved understanding of pulverized coal combustion and includes both homogeneous and hetergeneous reactions. The principal topics include: (a) the pyrolysis and devolatilization of coal; and (b) the formation of char. Research activities include small-scale experimentation, interpretation of experimental results in terms of mechanistic understanding and the development and validation of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> models of fundamental processes. 6 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16196745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16196745"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum annealing in a <span class="hlt">kinetically</span> constrained system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Das, Arnab; Chakrabarti, Bikas K; Stinchcombe, Robin B</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Classical and quantum annealing is discussed in the case of a generalized <span class="hlt">kinetically</span> constrained model, where the relaxation dynamics of a system with trivial ground state is retarded by the appearance of energy barriers in the relaxation path, following a local <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> rule. Effectiveness of thermal and quantum fluctuations in overcoming these <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> barriers to reach the ground state are studied. It has been shown that for certain barrier characteristics, quantum annealing might by far surpass its thermal counter part in reaching the ground state faster.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1227325-relationships-between-michaelismenten-kinetics-reverse-michaelismenten-kinetics-equilibrium-chemistry-approximation-kinetics-quadratic-kinetics','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1227325-relationships-between-michaelismenten-kinetics-reverse-michaelismenten-kinetics-equilibrium-chemistry-approximation-kinetics-quadratic-kinetics"><span id="translatedtitle">On the relationships between the Michaelis–Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, reverse Michaelis–Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, equilibrium chemistry approximation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, and quadratic <span class="hlt">kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Tang, J. Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Michaelis–Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and the reverse Michaelis–Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> are two popular mathematical formulations used in many land biogeochemical models to describe how microbes and plants would respond to changes in substrate abundance. However, the criteria of when to use either of the two are often ambiguous. Here I show that these two <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> are special approximations to the equilibrium chemistry approximation (ECA) <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, which is the first-order approximation to the quadratic <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> that solves the equation of an enzyme–substrate complex exactly for a single-enzyme and single-substrate biogeochemical reaction with the law of mass action and the assumption of a quasi-steadymore » state for the enzyme–substrate complex and that the product genesis from enzyme–substrate complex is much slower than the equilibration between enzyme–substrate complexes, substrates, and enzymes. In particular, I show that the derivation of the Michaelis–Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> does not consider the mass balance constraint of the substrate, and the reverse Michaelis–Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> does not consider the mass balance constraint of the enzyme, whereas both of these constraints are taken into account in deriving the equilibrium chemistry approximation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. By benchmarking against predictions from the quadratic <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> for a wide range of substrate and enzyme concentrations, the Michaelis–Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> was found to persistently underpredict the normalized sensitivity ∂ ln v / ∂ ln k2+ of the reaction velocity v with respect to the maximum product genesis rate k2+, persistently overpredict the normalized sensitivity ∂ ln v / ∂ ln k1+ of v with respect to the intrinsic substrate affinity k1+, persistently overpredict the normalized sensitivity ∂ ln v / ∂ ln [E]T of v with respect the total enzyme concentration [E]T, and persistently underpredict the normalized sensitivity ∂ ln v / ∂ ln [S]T of v with respect to the total substrate concentration</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GMD.....8.3823T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GMD.....8.3823T"><span id="translatedtitle">On the relationships between the Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, reverse Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, equilibrium chemistry approximation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, and quadratic <span class="hlt">kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, J. Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and the reverse Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> are two popular mathematical formulations used in many land biogeochemical models to describe how microbes and plants would respond to changes in substrate abundance. However, the criteria of when to use either of the two are often ambiguous. Here I show that these two <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> are special approximations to the equilibrium chemistry approximation (ECA) <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, which is the first-order approximation to the quadratic <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> that solves the equation of an enzyme-substrate complex exactly for a single-enzyme and single-substrate biogeochemical reaction with the law of mass action and the assumption of a quasi-steady state for the enzyme-substrate complex and that the product genesis from enzyme-substrate complex is much slower than the equilibration between enzyme-substrate complexes, substrates, and enzymes. In particular, I show that the derivation of the Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> does not consider the mass balance constraint of the substrate, and the reverse Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> does not consider the mass balance constraint of the enzyme, whereas both of these constraints are taken into account in deriving the equilibrium chemistry approximation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. By benchmarking against predictions from the quadratic <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> for a wide range of substrate and enzyme concentrations, the Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> was found to persistently underpredict the normalized sensitivity ∂ ln v / ∂ ln k2+ of the reaction velocity v with respect to the maximum product genesis rate k2+, persistently overpredict the normalized sensitivity ∂ ln v / ∂ ln k1+ of v with respect to the intrinsic substrate affinity k1+, persistently overpredict the normalized sensitivity ∂ ln v / ∂ ln [E]T of v with respect the total enzyme concentration [E]T, and persistently underpredict the normalized sensitivity ∂ ln v / ∂ ln [S]T of v with respect to the total substrate concentration [S</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20586467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20586467"><span id="translatedtitle">How ambiguous is the local <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, James S M; Ayers, Paul W; Hernandez, Juan I Rodriguez</p> <p>2010-08-26</p> <p>The local <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy and the closely related local electronic stress tensor are commonly used to elucidate chemical bonding patterns, especially for covalent bonds. We use three different approaches-transformation properties of the stress tensor, quasiprobability distributions, and the virial theorem from density-functional theory-to clarify the inherent ambiguity in these quantities, discussing the implications for analyses based on the local <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy and stress tensor. An expansive-but not universal-family of local <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy forms that includes the most common choices and is suitable for both chemical-bonding and atoms-in-molecule analysis is derived. A family of local electronic stress tensors is also derived. Several local <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy functions that are mathematically justified, but unlikely to be conceptually useful, are derived. The implications of these forms for atoms-in-molecule analysis are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzymes+AND+background&id=EJ377998','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzymes+AND+background&id=EJ377998"><span id="translatedtitle">Practical Enzyme <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span>: A Biochemical Laboratory Experiment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rowe, H. Alan; Brown, Morris</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Describes an experiment that provides a fundamental understanding of the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of the enzyme papain. Discusses background, materials, procedures and results. Mentions analogous experiments that can be conducted with enzymatic contact-lens cleaning solutions. (CW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24423262','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24423262"><span id="translatedtitle">Practical steady-state enzyme <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lorsch, Jon R</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Enzymes are key components of most biological processes. Characterization of enzymes is therefore frequently required during the study of biological systems. Steady-state <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> provides a simple and rapid means of assessing the substrate specificity of an enzyme. When combined with site-directed mutagenesis (see Site-Directed Mutagenesis), it can be used to probe the roles of particular amino acids in the enzyme in substrate recognition and catalysis. Effects of interaction partners and posttranslational modifications can also be assessed using steady-state <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>. This overview explains the general principles of steady-state enzyme <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> experiments in a practical, rather than theoretical, way. Any biochemistry textbook will have a section on the theory of Michaelis-Menten <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>, including derivations of the relevant equations. No specific enzymatic assay is described here, although a method for monitoring product formation or substrate consumption over time (an assay) is required to perform the experiments described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016RJPCA..90...48Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016RJPCA..90...48Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Polycondensation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of furfuryl alcohol solutions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zherebtsov, D. A.; Galimov, D. M.; Zagorul'ko, O. V.; Frolova, E. V.; Bol'shakov, O. I.; Zakharov, V. G.; Mikhailov, G. G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Changes in the viscosity, electrical conductivity, monomer concentration, and the size of growing molecules of polycondensed furfuryl alcohol are studied in solutions containing triethylene glycol and isooctylphenyldecaethylene glycol. The effect the solution compositions have on the condensation <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> is considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kinetic+AND+molecular+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ202203','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Kinetic+AND+molecular+AND+theory&pg=5&id=EJ202203"><span id="translatedtitle">The Early Development of <span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Theory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Whitaker, Robert D.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>A review of the work of Bernoulli and other early contributors to <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> theory. One significant point is that the most outstanding work in this early period was done by a little-known Scotsman, John J. Waterston. (BB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=289828&keyword=Digestion&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68430959&CFTOKEN=46247193','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=289828&keyword=Digestion&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68430959&CFTOKEN=46247193"><span id="translatedtitle">Extracellular enzyme <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> scale with resource availability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Microbial community metabolism relies on external digestion, mediated by extracellular enzymes that break down complex organic matter into molecules small enough for cells to assimilate. We analyzed the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of 40 extracellular enzymes that mediate the degradation and assimi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20586467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20586467"><span id="translatedtitle">How ambiguous is the local <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, James S M; Ayers, Paul W; Hernandez, Juan I Rodriguez</p> <p>2010-08-26</p> <p>The local <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy and the closely related local electronic stress tensor are commonly used to elucidate chemical bonding patterns, especially for covalent bonds. We use three different approaches-transformation properties of the stress tensor, quasiprobability distributions, and the virial theorem from density-functional theory-to clarify the inherent ambiguity in these quantities, discussing the implications for analyses based on the local <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy and stress tensor. An expansive-but not universal-family of local <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy forms that includes the most common choices and is suitable for both chemical-bonding and atoms-in-molecule analysis is derived. A family of local electronic stress tensors is also derived. Several local <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> energy functions that are mathematically justified, but unlikely to be conceptually useful, are derived. The implications of these forms for atoms-in-molecule analysis are discussed. PMID:20586467</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bifurcations&pg=2&id=EJ717117','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bifurcations&pg=2&id=EJ717117"><span id="translatedtitle">Principle of Detailed Balance in <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alberty, Robert A.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The effects of the detailed balance on chemical <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> on the chemical monomolecular triangle reactions are illustrated. A simple experiment that illustrates oscillations, limit cycles, bifurcations and noise are illustrated along with the oscillating reactions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Recombination&pg=3&id=EJ157505','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Recombination&pg=3&id=EJ157505"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of Nitrogen Atom Recombination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, G. Ronald; Winkler, C. A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Describes a study of the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of the recombination of nitrogen atoms in which concentration-time relations are determined directly by utilizing visual observations of emissions to make gas phase titrations of N atoms with NO. (MLH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PhRvL.110r8101S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013PhRvL.110r8101S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> versus Energetic Discrimination in Biological Copying</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sartori, Pablo; Pigolotti, Simone</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We study stochastic copying schemes in which discrimination between a right and a wrong match is achieved via different <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> barriers or different binding energies of the two matches. We demonstrate that, in single-step reactions, the two discrimination mechanisms are strictly alternative and cannot be mixed to further reduce the error fraction. Close to the lowest error limit, <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> discrimination results in a diverging copying velocity and dissipation per copied bit. On the other hand, energetic discrimination reaches its lowest error limit in an adiabatic regime where dissipation and velocity vanish. By analyzing experimentally measured <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> rates of two DNA polymerases, T7 and Polγ, we argue that one of them operates in the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> and the other in the energetic regime. Finally, we show how the two mechanisms can be combined in copying schemes implementing error correction through a proofreading pathway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=catalysis&pg=6&id=EJ255462','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=catalysis&pg=6&id=EJ255462"><span id="translatedtitle">A Course in <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> and Catalysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bartholomew, C. H.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Describes a one-semester, three-credit hour course integrating the fundamentals of <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and the scientific/engineering principles of heterogeneous catalysis. Includes course outline, list of texts, background readings, and topical journal articles. (SK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5294278','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5294278"><span id="translatedtitle">Ozone mass transfer and <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bollyky, L.J.; Beary, M.M.</p> <p>1981-12-01</p> <p>Experiments were conducted at the Hanford Site to determine the most efficient pH and temperature levels for the destruction of complexants in Hanford high-level defense waste. These complexants enhance migration of radionuclides in the soil and inhibit the growth of crystals in the evaporator-crystallizer. Ozone mass transfer and <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> tests have been outlined for the determination of critical mass transfer and <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> parameters of the ozone-complexant reaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090022165&hterms=battles&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dbattles','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090022165&hterms=battles&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dbattles"><span id="translatedtitle">Joint Non-<span class="hlt">kinetic</span> Effects Model (JNEM)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chamberlain, Robert G.; Metivier, Timothy</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This slide presentation reviews the development of the Joint Non-<span class="hlt">kinetic</span> Effects Model (JNEM), which is tool to support Battle Command Training that links simulation-generated non-<span class="hlt">kinetic</span> events and outcomes to Training Audience Command and Staff decisions. JNEM helps create the operating environment for the following population groups (P-groups): (1) Local Civilians on the Battlefield, (2) Inter-Governmental Organizations (3) Non-Governmental Organizations (4) Contractors on the battlefield.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://nlte.nist.gov/NLTE4/','NISTDBS'); return false;" href="http://nlte.nist.gov/NLTE4/"><span id="translatedtitle">NLTE4 Plasma Population <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> Database</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://srdata.nist.gov/gateway/gateway?search=keyword">National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>SRD 159 NLTE4 Plasma Population <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> Database (Web database for purchase)   This database contains benchmark results for simulation of plasma population <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and emission spectra. The data were contributed by the participants of the 4th Non-LTE Code Comparison Workshop who have unrestricted access to the database. The only limitation for other users is in hidden labeling of the output results. Guest users can proceed to the database entry page without entering userid and password.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhyA..237..285I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997PhyA..237..285I"><span id="translatedtitle">Algebraic operator approach to gas <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Il'ichov, L. V.</p> <p>1997-02-01</p> <p>Some general properties of the linear Boltzmann <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> equation are used to present it in the form ∂ tϕ = - †Âϕ with the operators Âand† possessing some nontrivial algebraic properties. When applied to the Keilson-Storer <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> model, this method gives an example of quantum ( q-deformed) Lie algebra. This approach provides also a natural generalization of the “kangaroo model”.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9631283','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9631283"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiologically based models of metal <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>O'Flaherty, E J</p> <p>1998-05-01</p> <p>The issues confronting the modeler of metals <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> are somewhat different from those with which the modeler of organic chemical behavior is faced. Particularly important features of metals <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> include metal-protein binding and metal-metal interactions. Reduction, and for some metals oxidation, is frequently an intrinsic part of metal metabolism. Alkylation/dealkylation reactions may or may not render the metal less active, and the behavior of alkylated or dealkylated metabolites must often be included in a complete <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> model. Despite these complexities, the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of metals are as amenable to the techniques of physiologically based modeling as are the <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of organic chemicals. Like all models, those for metals <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> have the potential to organize a variety of observations, sometimes including apparently inconsistent observations, into a coherent framework of behavior, to identify needs for more complete experimental information, and to assist the risk assessor in making judgments concerning dose-response relationships. Development of physiologically based models of the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> behavior of metals is in its very early stages. The <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of only four metals, arsenic, chromium, mercury, and lead, have been modeled with any degree of completeness. Of these, the lead model is the most fully realized at the present time. The chromium and mercury models are still in the process of development, and experimental data are being gathered to support further development and refinement of the arsenic model. We may expect to see continued progress made on these models and their practical applications, as well as the development of new models for other toxicologically significant metals such as cadmium, manganese, nickel, and aluminum. PMID:9631283</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255284','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22255284"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> partitioning mechanism of HDV ribozyme folding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Jiawen; Gong, Sha; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Wenbing</p> <p>2014-01-14</p> <p>RNA folding <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> is directly tied to RNA biological functions. We introduce here a new approach for predicting the folding <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of RNA secondary structure with pseudoknots. This approach is based on our previous established helix-based method for predicting the folding <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of RNA secondary structure. In this approach, the transition rates for an elementary step: (1) formation, (2) disruption of a helix stem, and (3) helix formation with concomitant partial melting of an incompatible helix, are calculated with the free energy landscape. The folding <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of the Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and the mutated sequences are studied with this method. The folding pathways are identified by recursive searching the states with high net flux-in(out) population starting from the native state. The theory results are in good agreement with that of the experiments. The results indicate that the bi-phasic folding <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> for the wt HDV sequence is ascribed to the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> partitioning mechanism: Part of the population will quickly fold to the native state along the fast pathway, while another part of the population will fold along the slow pathway, in which the population is trapped in a non-native state. Single mutation not only changes the folding rate but also the folding pathway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.140b5102C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.140b5102C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> partitioning mechanism of HDV ribozyme folding</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Jiawen; Gong, Sha; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Wenbing</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>RNA folding <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> is directly tied to RNA biological functions. We introduce here a new approach for predicting the folding <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of RNA secondary structure with pseudoknots. This approach is based on our previous established helix-based method for predicting the folding <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of RNA secondary structure. In this approach, the transition rates for an elementary step: (1) formation, (2) disruption of a helix stem, and (3) helix formation with concomitant partial melting of an incompatible helix, are calculated with the free energy landscape. The folding <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> of the Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme and the mutated sequences are studied with this method. The folding pathways are identified by recursive searching the states with high net flux-in(out) population starting from the native state. The theory results are in good agreement with that of the experiments. The results indicate that the bi-phasic folding <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> for the wt HDV sequence is ascribed to the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> partitioning mechanism: Part of the population will quickly fold to the native state along the fast pathway, while another part of the population will fold along the slow pathway, in which the population is trapped in a non-native state. Single mutation not only changes the folding rate but also the folding pathway.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..GECFT1040O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..GECFT1040O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetic</span> Description of the Impedance Probe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oberrath, Jens; Lapke, Martin; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Active plasma resonance spectroscopy is a well known diagnostic method. Many concepts of this method are theoretically investigated and realized as a diagnostic tool, one of which is the impedance probe (IP). The application of such a probe in plasmas with pressures of a few Pa raises the question whether <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> effects have to be taken into account or not. To address this question a <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> model is necessary. A general <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> model for an electrostatic concept of active plasma spectroscopy was presented by R.P. Brinkmann and can be used to describe the multipole resonance probe (MRP). In principle the IP is interpretable as a special case of the MRP in lower order. Thus, we are able to describe the IP by the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> model of the MRP. Based on this model we derive a solution to investigate the influence of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> effects to the resonance behavior of the IP. Active plasma resonance spectroscopy is a well known diagnostic method. Many concepts of this method are theoretically investigated and realized as a diagnostic tool, one of which is the impedance probe (IP). The application of such a probe in plasmas with pressures of a few Pa raises the question whether <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> effects have to be taken into account or not. To address this question a <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> model is necessary. A general <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> model for an electrostatic concept of active plasma spectroscopy was presented by R.P. Brinkmann and can be used to describe the multipole resonance probe (MRP). In principle the IP is interpretable as a special case of the MRP in lower order. Thus, we are able to describe the IP by the <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> model of the MRP. Based on this model we derive a solution to investigate the influence of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> effects to the resonance behavior of the IP. The authors acknowledge the support by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) via the Ruhr University Research School and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research in frame of the PluTO project.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26506404','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26506404"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Target Binding <span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> in Drug Discovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Dong; Heitman, Laura H; IJzerman, Adriaan P</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Traditionally structure-activity/affinity relationships (SAR) have dominated research in medicinal chemistry. However, structure-<span class="hlt">kinetics</span> relationships (SKR) can be very informative too. In this viewpoint we explore the molecular determinants of binding <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> and discuss challenges for future binding <span class="hlt">kinetics</span> studies. A scheme for future <span class="hlt">kinetics</span>-directed drug design and discovery is also proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894349','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/894349"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Kinetics</span> of PBX9404 Aging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Burnham, A K; Fried, L E</p> <p>2006-09-11</p> <p> blue color decades after formulation. Subsequently, heat and light both send it through a progression of colors from grayish blue, blue-green, green, brown, dirty yellow, mottled tan, and eventually pale tan. The progression is accelerated by oxygen and possibly moisture, as has been shown in several accelerated aging studies. The precise compounds causing the color evolution are uncertain, but they are undoubtedly a progression of quinoidal, nitroso, and nitrated DPA compounds. For example, paranitroso DPA is deep blue. Unfortunately, the location of various nitrated DPAs, which ranged from yellow to orange to red to brown and which were used by Pantex as analytical standards in the 1970s, is not currently known. While the color change is indicative of aging, it is by no means a quantitative measure of the extent of nitrocellulose degradation. Inspection of the literature yielded a variety of <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> models, and the activation energy typically ranges from 25-35 kcal/mol for T<100 C. This literature qualitatively predicts times for 30% decomposition ranging from a few days at 100 C to 1-2 years at 50 C to 50 years at room temperature. To develop a quantitative model, we used the data of Leider and Seaton, which were collected at conditions most closely matching stockpile conditions for any data set we had available. They used PBX 9404 heated as pressed pellets in closed vessels at temperatures ranging from 50 to 100 C for times up to three years, and they report mass loss, gas yield and composition, and chemical analysis of the residual solid by methods used in stockpile surveillance. Initial <span class="hlt">kinetic</span> analysis of the weight of remaining nitrocellulose as measured by liquid chromatography and the loss of nitrate esters by a colorimetric technique gave an activation energy of 27 kcal/mol. However, the reaction is complex due to the different stability of the three nitroester positions, and this complexity required either parallel first-order reactions or an nth</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11538320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11538320"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> of near-earth asteroids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Veeder, G J; Hanner, M S; Matson, D L; Tedesco, E F; Lebofsky, L A; Tokunaga, A T</p> <p>1989-04-01</p> <p>We report 10 micrometers infrared photometry for 22 Aten, Apollo, and Amor asteroids. Thermal models are used to derive the corresponding radiometric albedos and diameters. Several of these asteroids appear to have surfaces of relatively high thermal inertia due to the exposure of bare rock or a coarse regolith. The Apollo asteroid 3103, 1982 BB, is recognized as class E. The Jupiter-crossing Amor asteroid 3552, 1983 SA, is confirmed as class D, but low albedos remain rare for near-Earth asteroids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160011399','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160011399"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric Correction for Satellite Ocean Color <span class="hlt">Radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mobley, Curtis D.; Werdell, Jeremy; Franz, Bryan; Ahmad, Ziauddin; Bailey, Sean</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This tutorial is an introduction to atmospheric correction in general and also documentation of the atmospheric correction algorithms currently implemented by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) for processing ocean color data from satellite-borne sensors such as MODIS and VIIRS. The intended audience is graduate students or others who are encountering this topic for the first time. The tutorial is in two parts. Part I discusses the generic atmospheric correction problem. The magnitude and nature of the problem are first illustrated with numerical results generated by a coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer model. That code allow the various contributions (Rayleigh and aerosol path radiance, surface reflectance, water-leaving radiance, etc.) to the topof- the-atmosphere (TOA) radiance to be separated out. Particular attention is then paid to the definition, calculation, and interpretation of the so-called "exact normalized water-leaving radiance" and its equivalent reflectance. Part I ends with chapters on the calculation of direct and diffuse atmospheric transmittances, and on how vicarious calibration is performed. Part II then describes one by one the particular algorithms currently used by the OBPG to effect the various steps of the atmospheric correction process, viz. the corrections for absorption and scattering by gases and aerosols, Sun and sky reflectance by the sea surface and whitecaps, and finally corrections for sensor out-of-band response and polarization effects. One goal of the tutorial-guided by teaching needs- is to distill the results of dozens of papers published over several decades of research in atmospheric correction for ocean color remote sensing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11538320','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11538320"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Radiometry</span> of near-earth asteroids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Veeder, G J; Hanner, M S; Matson, D L; Tedesco, E F; Lebofsky, L A; Tokunaga, A T</p> <p>1989-04-01</p> <p>We report 10 micrometers infrared photometry for 22 Aten, Apollo, and Amor asteroids. Thermal models are used to derive the corresponding radiometric albedos and diameters. Several of these asteroids appear to have surfaces of relatively high thermal inertia due to the exposure of bare rock or a coarse regolith. The Apollo asteroid 3103, 1982 BB, is recognized as class E. The Jupiter-crossing Amor asteroid 3552, 1983 SA, is confirmed as class D, but low albedos remain rare for near-Earth asteroids. PMID:11538320</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750063653&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19750063653&hterms=VALUE+ABSOLUTE&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DVALUE%2BABSOLUTE"><span id="translatedtitle">Absolute <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> and the solar constant</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Willson, R. C.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A series of active cavity radiometers (ACRs) are described which have been developed as standard detectors for the accurate measurement of irradiance in absolute units. It is noted that the ACR is an electrical substitution calorimeter, is designed for automatic remote operation in any environment, and can make irradiance measurements in the range from low-level IR fluxes up to 30 solar constants with small absolute uncertainty. The instrument operates in a differential mode by chopping the radiant flux to be measured at a slow rate, and irradiance is determined from two electrical power measurements together with the instrumental constant. Results are reported for measurements of the solar constant with two types of ACRs. The more accurate measurement yielded a value of 136.6 plus or minus 0.7 mW/sq cm (1.958 plus or minus 0.010 cal/sq cm per min).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870008818','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870008818"><span id="translatedtitle">Gas filter correlation <span class="hlt">radiometry</span>: Report of panel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reichle, Henry G., Jr.; Barringer, A. A.; Nichols, Ralph; Russell, James M., III</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>To measure the concentration of a gas in the troposphere, the gas filter radiometer correlates the pattern of the spectral lines of a sample of gas contained within the instrument with the pattern of the spectral lines in the upwelling radiation. A schematic diagram of a generalized gas filter radiometer is shown. Three instruments (the Gas Filter Radiometer, GFR; the Halogen Occultation Experiment, HALOE; and the Gas Filter Correlation Spectrometer, GASCOFIL) that have application to remotely measuring tropospheric constituents are described. A set of preliminary calculations to determine the feasibility of performing a multiple-layer, tropospheric carbon monoxide measurement experiment was performed. It can be seen that a three-layer measurement in the troposphere is possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17645204','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17645204"><span id="translatedtitle">Microwave <span class="hlt">radiometry</span> for cement kiln temperature measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stephan, Karl D; Wang, Lingyun; Ryza, Eric</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The maximum temperature inside a cement kiln is a critical operating parameter, but is often difficult or impossible to measure. We present here the first data that show a correlation between cement kiln temperature measured using a microwave radiometer and product chemistry over an eight-hour period. The microwave radiometer senses radiation in the 12-13 GHz range and has been described previously [Stephan and Pearce (2002), JMPEE 37: 112-124].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982GeoRL...9..621K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982GeoRL...9..621K"><span id="translatedtitle">Broad band airborne water vapor <span class="hlt">radiometry</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuhn, Peter M.</p> <p></p> <p>An infrared radiometer with a pass band of 280 to 520 cm-1 (35.7 to 19.2 µm) is employed on the NASA Ames Research Center U-2 and C-141A aircraft in the measurement of water vapor burden in the upper troposphere and stratosphere. Coincidentally with altitude changes the water vapor mass mixing ratio is also inferred by observing the change in optical depth over a known vertical distance. Data from the December 1980 U-2 Water Vapor Exchange Experiment over the Panama Canal Zone adds to the concept that overshooting cumulonimbus towers “moisten” the lower stratosphere. The average mass mixing ratio in close proximity to or above such towers ranges from 3.5 to 5.0 parts per million above 18 km while the average background mass mixing ratio is only 2.9 parts per million. Generally the lowest background mixing ratios, averaging 2.6 parts per million occurred in the 18 to 21 km layer. For the same levels background Panama mass mixing ratios averaged from 1.0 to 3.0 parts per million higher than in middle latitudes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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