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Sample records for radionuclide transmutation technology

  1. Separations technology development to support accelerator-driven transmutation concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Venneri, F.; Arthur, E.; Bowman, C.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project investigated separations technology development needed for accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) concepts, particularly those associated with plutonium disposition (accelerator-based conversion, ABC) and high-level radioactive waste transmutation (accelerator transmutation of waste, ATW). Specific focus areas included separations needed for preparation of feeds to ABC and ATW systems, for example from spent reactor fuel sources, those required within an ABC/ATW system for material recycle and recovery of key long-lived radionuclides for further transmutation, and those required for reuse and cleanup of molten fluoride salts. The project also featured beginning experimental development in areas associated with a small molten-salt test loop and exploratory centrifugal separations systems.

  2. ACCELERATOR TRANSMUTATION OF WASTE TECHNOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION SCENARIOS

    SciTech Connect

    D. BELLER; G. VAN TUYLE

    2000-11-01

    During 1999, the U.S. Department of Energy, in conjunction with its nuclear laboratories, a national steering committee, and a panel of world experts, developed a roadmap for research, development, demonstration, and deployment of Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW). The ATW concept that was examined in this roadmap study was based on that developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during the 1990s. The reference deployment scenario in the Roadmap was developed to treat 86,300 tn (metric tonnes initial heavy metal) of spent nuclear fuel that will accumulate through 2035 from existing U.S. nuclear power plants (without license extensions). The disposition of this spent nuclear reactor fuel is an issue of national importance, as is disposition of spent fuel in other nations. The U.S. program for the disposition of this once-through fuel is focused to characterize a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a geological repository for spent fuel and high-level waste. The ATW concept is being examined in the U.S. because removal of plutonium minor actinides, and two very long-lived isotopes from the spent fuel can achieve some important objectives. These objectives include near-elimination of plutonium, reduction of the inventory and mobility of long-lived radionuclides in the repository, and use of the remaining energy content of the spent fuel to produce power. The long-lived radionuclides iodine and technetium have roughly one million year half-lives, and they are candidates for transport into the environment via movement of ground water. The scientists and engineers who contributed to the Roadmap Study determined that the ATW is affordable, doable, and its deployment would support all the objectives. We report the status of the U.S. ATW program describe baseline and alternate technologies, and discuss deployment scenarios to support the existing U.S. nuclear capability and/or future growth with a variety of new fuel cycles.

  3. An overview of accelerator-driven transmutation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Heighway, E.A.

    1994-07-01

    Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology, or ADT{sup 2}, is a collection of programs that share a common theme - they each have at their heart an intense source of neutrons generated by a high-energy proton beam striking a heavy metal target. The beam energy, typically 1000 MeV, is enough for a single proton to smash a target atom into atomic fragments. This so-called spallation process generates large numbers of neutrons (around 20 to 30 per proton) amid the atomic debris. These neutrons are of high value because they can be used to transmute neighboring atoms by neutron capture. Three distinct ADT{sup 2} program elements will be described. These are ADEP - accelerator-driven energy production, ABC - accelerator based conversion (of plutonium) and ATW - accelerator transmutation of waste.

  4. Transmutation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viererbl, L.; Lahodová, Z.; Klupák, V.; Sus, F.; Kučera, J.; Kůs, P.; Marek, M.

    2011-03-01

    We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

  5. Photo-transmutation of long-lived radionuclide 135Cs by laser–plasma driven electron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.-L.; Tan, Z.-Y.; Luo, W.; Zhu, Z.-C.; Wang, X.-D.; Song, Y.-M.

    2016-09-01

    Relativistic electrons, accelerated by the laser ponderomotive force, can be focused onto a high-Z convertor to generate high-brightness beams of gamma-rays, which in turn can be used to induce photonuclear reactions. In this work, the possibility of photo-transmutation of long-lived radionuclide Cs-135 by laser-plasma driven electron source has been demonstrated through Geant4 simulations. High energy electron generation, bremsstrahlung and photonuclear reaction have been observed at four different laser intensities of 10^{20} W/cm^2, 5 times 10^{20} W/cm^2, 10^{21} W/cm^2 and 5 times 10^{21} W/cm^2, respectively. It was shown that the laser intensity and the target geometry have strong effect on the transmutation reaction yield. At different laser intensities the recommended target sizes were found to obtain the maximum reaction yield. The remarkable feature of this work is to evaluate the optimal laser intensity to produce maximum reaction yield of 10^8 per Joule in laser pulse energy, which is 10^{21} W/cm^2. Our study suggests photo-transmutation driven by laser-based electron source as a promising approach for experimental research into transmutation reactions, with potential applications to nuclear waste management.

  6. [Role of Radionuclide Technologies in Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chernyaev, A P; Belousov, A V; Varzar, S M; Borchegovskaya, P Y; Nikolaeva, A A; Krusanov, G A

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the role of radionuclide technologies among the nuclear-physical methods used in medicine. The condition and prospects of the development of nuclear technology with use of radionuclides in medicine, and in particular, the method of brachytherapy are analyzed. The analysis of the current state of applying radionuclide facilities in medicine is provided.

  7. TECHNOLOGIES FOR RADON AND RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a summary of the technologies that are currently being used to remove radionuclides from drinking water. The radionuclides that are featured are the radionuclides currently regulated by EPA; radium, radon and uranium. Tehnologies effective for removal of eac...

  8. Chemistry technology base and fuel cycle of the Los Alamos accelerator-driven transmutation system

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, M.A.

    1997-12-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the Los Alamos accelerator-driven transmutation system, a description of the pyrochemistry technology base and the fuel cycle for the system. The pyrochemistry technology base consists of four processes: direct oxide reduction, reductive extraction, electrorefining, and electrowinning. Each process and its utility is described. The fuel cycle is described for a liquid metal-based system with the focus being the conversion of commercial spent nuclear fuel to fuel for the transmutation system. Fission product separation and actinide recycle processes are also described.

  9. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

    1999-08-12

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  10. Design of rf-cavities in the funnel of accelerators for transmutation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, F.L.; Bultman, N.K.; Chan, K.D.C.; Martineau, R.L.; Nath, S.; Young, L.M.

    1994-09-01

    Funnels are a key component of accelerator structures proposed for transmutation technologies. In addition to conventional accelerator elements, specialized rf-cavities are needed for these structures. Simulations were done to obtain their electromagnetic field distribution and to minimize the rf-induced heat loads. Using these results a structural and thermal analysis of these cavities was performed to insure their reliability at high average power and to determine their cooling requirements. For one cavity the thermal expansion data in return was used to estimate the thermal detuning.

  11. Important requirements for RF generators for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies (ADTT)

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, M.T.; Tallerico, P.J.; Lawrence, G.P.

    1994-09-01

    All Accelerator-Driven Transmutation applications require very large amounts of RF Power. For example, one version of a Plutonium burning system requires an 800-MeV, 80-mA, proton accelerator running at 100% duty factor. This accelerator requires approximately 110-MW of continuous RF power if one assumes only 10% reserve power for control of the accelerator fields. In fact, to minimize beam spill, the RF controls may need as much as 15 to 20% of reserve power. In addition, unlike an electron accelerator in which the beam is relativistic, a failed RF station can disturb the synchronism of the beam, possibly shutting down the entire accelerator. These issues and more lead to a set of requirements for the RF generators which are stringent, and in some cases, conflicting. In this paper, we will describe the issues and requirements, and outline a plan for RF generator development to meet the needs of the Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies. The key issues which will be discussed include: operating efficiency, operating linearity, effect on the input power grid, bandwidth, gain, reliability, operating voltage, and operating current.

  12. Pyrochemical separations technologies envisioned for the U. S. accelerator transmutation of waste system

    SciTech Connect

    Laidler, J. J.

    2000-02-17

    A program has been initiated for the purpose of developing the chemical separations technologies necessary to support a large Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system capable of dealing with the projected inventory of spent fuel from the commercial nuclear power stations in the United States. The baseline process selected combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to enable the efficient separation of uranium, technetium, iodine, and the transuranic elements from LWR spent fuel. The diversity of processing methods was chosen for both technical and economic factors. A six-year technology evaluation and development program is foreseen, by the end of which an informed decision can be made on proceeding with demonstration of the ATW system.

  13. Basis and objectives of the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation technology project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Charles D.

    1995-09-01

    The Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) Project carries three approaches for dealing with waste from the defense and commercial nuclear energy enterprise. First, the problem of excess weapons plutonium in the U.S. and Russia originating both from stockpile reductions and from defense production site clean-up is one of significant current and long-term concern. The ADTT technology offers the possibility of almost complete destruction of this plutonium by fission. The technology might be particularly effective for destruction of the low quality plutonium from defense site clean-up since the system does not require the fabrication of the waste into fuel assemblies, does not require reprocessing and refabrication, and can tolerate a high level of impurities in the feed stream. Second, the ADTT system also can destroy the plutonium, other higher actinide, and long-lived fission product from commercial nuclear waste which now can only be dealt with by geologic storage. And finally, and probably most importantly the system can be used for the production of virtually unlimited electric power from thorium with concurrent destruction of its long-lived waste components so that geologic containment for them is not required. In addition plutonium is not a significant byproduct of the power generation so that non-proliferation concerns about nuclear power are almost completely eliminated. All of the ADTT systems operate with an accelerator supplementing the neutrons which in reactors are provided only by the fission process, and therefore the system can be designed to eliminate the possibility for a runaway chain reaction. The means for integration of the accelerator into nuclear power technology in order to make these benefits possible is described including estimates of accelerator operating parameters required for the three objectives.

  14. A beamline systems model for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Alan M. M.; Paulson, C. C.; Peacock, M. A.; Reusch, M. F.

    1995-09-01

    A beamline systems code, that is being developed for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) facility trade studies, is described. The overall program is a joint Grumman, G. H. Gillespie Associates (GHGA) and Los Alamos National Laboratory effort. The GHGA Accelerator Systems Model (ASM) has been adopted as the framework on which this effort is based. Relevant accelerator and beam transport models from earlier Grumman systems codes are being adapted to this framework. Preliminary physics and engineering models for each ADTT beamline component have been constructed. Examples noted include a Bridge Coupled Drift Tube Linac (BCDTL) and the accelerator thermal system. A decision has been made to confine the ASM framework principally to beamline modeling, while detailed target/blanket, balance-of-plant and facility costing analysis will be performed externally. An interfacing external balance-of-plant and facility costing model, which will permit the performance of iterative facility trade studies, is under separate development. An ABC (Accelerator Based Conversion) example is used to highlight the present models and capabilities.

  15. A beamline systems model for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, Alan M. M.; Paulson, C. C.; Peacock, M. A.; Reusch, M. F.

    1995-09-15

    A beamline systems code, that is being developed for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) facility trade studies, is described. The overall program is a joint Grumman, G. H. Gillespie Associates (GHGA) and Los Alamos National Laboratory effort. The GHGA Accelerator Systems Model (ASM) has been adopted as the framework on which this effort is based. Relevant accelerator and beam transport models from earlier Grumman systems codes are being adapted to this framework. Preliminary physics and engineering models for each ADTT beamline component have been constructed. Examples noted include a Bridge Coupled Drift Tube Linac (BCDTL) and the accelerator thermal system. A decision has been made to confine the ASM framework principally to beamline modeling, while detailed target/blanket, balance-of-plant and facility costing analysis will be performed externally. An interfacing external balance-of-plant and facility costing model, which will permit the performance of iterative facility trade studies, is under separate development. An ABC (Accelerator Based Conversion) example is used to highlight the present models and capabilities.

  16. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies — Burnup and transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomonaco, G.; Frasciello, O.; Osipenko, M.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.

    2014-04-01

    The currently dominant open fuel cycles have resulted in the gradual accumulation of (relatively) large quantities of highly radioactive or fertile materials in the form of depleted uranium, plutonium, minor actinides (MA) and long-lived fission products (LLFP). For low-activity wastes a heavily shielded surface repository is required. Spent fuel can be instead directly buried in deep geological repositories or reprocessed in order to separate U and Pu and eventually also MA and LLFP from other materials. These elements can be further burnt by modern reactors but not yet in sufficient quantities to slow down the steady accumulation of these materials in storage. Using ADS, the residual long-lifetime isotopes can be transmuted by nuclear reactions into shorter-lifetime isotopes again storable in surface repositories. However, in order to perform transmutations at a practical level, high-power reactors (and consequently high-power accelerators) are required; particularly, a significant transmutation can be reached not only by increasing the beam current to something of the order of a few tens of mA, but also by increasing the beam energy above 500MeV in order to reach the spallation regime. Such high-power infrastructures require intermediate test facilities with lower power and higher safety level for the investigation of their dynamics and transmutation capabilities: the ADS proposed in this study could accomplish many of these constraints.

  17. Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.

    1996-12-01

    Radiochemical Studies on the Transmutation of Nuclei Using Relativistic Heavy Ions * Experimental and Theoretical Study of Radionuclide Production on the Electronuclear Plant Target and Construction Materials Irradiated by 1.5 GeV and 130 MeV Protons * Neutronics and Power Deposition Parameters of the Targets Proposed in the ISTC Project 17 * Multicycle Irradiation of Plutonium in Solid Fuel Heavy-Water Blanket of ADS * Compound Neutron Valve of Accelerator-Driven System Sectioned Blanket * Subcritical Channel-Type Reactor for Weapon Plutonium Utilization * Accelerator Driven Molten-Fluoride Reactor with Modular Heat Exchangers on PB-BI Eutectic * A New Conception of High Power Ion Linac for ADTT * Pions and Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste? * V. Problems and Perspectives * Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies for Resolution of Long-Term Nuclear Waste Concerns * Closing the Nuclear Fuel-Cycle and Moving Toward a Sustainable Energy Development * Workshop Summary * List of Participants

  18. Bioremediation: a genuine technology to remediate radionuclides from the environment.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Dhan; Gabani, Prashant; Chandel, Anuj K; Ronen, Zeev; Singh, Om V

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides in the environment are a major human and environmental health concern. Like the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 is once again causing damage to the environment: a large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated and dumped into the environment, and if the general population is exposed to it, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Bioremediation has been viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to environmentally destructive physical remediation. Microorganisms carry endogenous genetic, biochemical and physiological properties that make them ideal agents for pollutant remediation in soil and groundwater. Attempts have been made to develop native or genetically engineered (GE) microbes for the remediation of environmental contaminants including radionuclides. Microorganism-mediated bioremediation can affect the solubility, bioavailability and mobility of radionuclides. Therefore, we aim to unveil the microbial-mediated mechanisms for biotransformation of radionuclides under various environmental conditions as developing strategies for waste management of radionuclides. A discussion follows of '-omics'-integrated genomics and proteomics technologies, which can be used to trace the genes and proteins of interest in a given microorganism towards a cell-free bioremediation strategy.

  19. Bioremediation: a genuine technology to remediate radionuclides from the environment

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Dhan; Gabani, Prashant; Chandel, Anuj K; Ronen, Zeev; Singh, Om V

    2013-01-01

    Summary Radionuclides in the environment are a major human and environmental health concern. Like the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 is once again causing damage to the environment: a large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated and dumped into the environment, and if the general population is exposed to it, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Bioremediation has been viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to environmentally destructive physical remediation. Microorganisms carry endogenous genetic, biochemical and physiological properties that make them ideal agents for pollutant remediation in soil and groundwater. Attempts have been made to develop native or genetically engineered (GE) microbes for the remediation of environmental contaminants including radionuclides. Microorganism-mediated bioremediation can affect the solubility, bioavailability and mobility of radionuclides. Therefore, we aim to unveil the microbial-mediated mechanisms for biotransformation of radionuclides under various environmental conditions as developing strategies for waste management of radionuclides. A discussion follows of ‘-omics’-integrated genomics and proteomics technologies, which can be used to trace the genes and proteins of interest in a given microorganism towards a cell-free bioremediation strategy. PMID:23617701

  20. A repository released-dose model for the evaluation of long-lived fission product transmutation effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.W.

    1995-07-01

    A methodology has been developed to quantify the total integrated dose due to a radionuclide species i emplaced in a geologic repository; the focus is on the seven long-lived fission products (LLFPs). The methodology assumes continuous exposure water contaminated with species i at the accessible environment (i.e., just beyond the geologic barrier afforded by the geologic repository). The dose integration is performed out to a reference post-release time. The integrated dose is a function of the total initial inventory of radionuclide i the repository, the time at which complete and instantaneous failure of the engineered barrier (e.g., waste canister) in, a geologic repository occurs, the fractional dissolution rate (from waste solid form) of radionuclide i in ground water, the ground water travel time to the accessible environment, the retardation factor (sorption on the geologic media) for radionuclide i, the time after radionuclide begins to enter the biosphere. In order to assess relative dose, the ratio of total integrated dose to that for a reference LLFP species j (e.g., {sup 99}Tc) was defined. This ratio is a measure of the relative benefit of transmutation of other LLFPs compared to {sup 99}Tc. This methodology was further developed in order to quantify the integrated dose reduction per neutron utilized for LLFP transmutation in accelerator-driven transmutation technologies (ADTT). This measure of effectiveness is a function of the integrated dose due to LLFP species i, the number of total captures in LLFP species i chain per LLFP nuclide fed to the chain at equilibrium, and the number of total captures in related transmutation product (TP) chains per capture in the LLFP species i chain. To assess relative transmutation effectiveness, the ratio of integrated dose reduction per neutron utilization to that for a reference LLFP species j (e.g., {sup 99}Tc) was defined. This relative measure of effectiveness was evaluated LLFP transmutation strategy.

  1. Mobilization, Extraction, and Removal of Radionuclides. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2001-01-01

    Groundwater contamination is a common problem at both private and government sites due to past manufacturing practices. Because of the unique mission of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), some DOE sites have groundwater contaminated with uranium and other radionuclides. These contaminants in the groundwater are often laterally dispersed over large areas and located vertically at depths up to hundreds of feet below ground surface, making aquifer restoration a difficult problem. The baseline technology of pump and treat will be very expensive over the extended life-cycles of these projects, predicted to be in excess of 30 to 200 years. At the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), near Cincinnati Ohio, approximately 220 acres of the Great Miami Aquifer have become contaminated with uranium at concentrations greater than 20 {micro}g/L as a result of nuclear weapons-production operations. The approved aquifer remediation strategy, that of pumping the groundwater and treating at the surface (the Record of Decision [ROD] for Operable Unit 5 [OU5]), was estimated to take approximately 27 years. Re-injection technology, as an enhancement to pump and treat, can accelerate the remediation of a groundwater plume by increasing the rate of aquifer flushing and by providing a hydraulic barrier to mitigate downgradient contaminant migration (Figure 1). Aquifer flushing facilitates the desorption of the metals and radionuclides from the aquifer matrix into the groundwater, making the contaminants more available for removal by pumping. Re-injection systems for aquifer flushing consist of extraction wells, This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance data.

  2. Imaging Transgene Expression with Radionuclide Imaging Technologies1

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, SS; Herschman, HR; Cherry, SR; Barrio, JR; Satyamurthy, N; Toyokuni, T; Phelps, ME; Larson, SM; Balaton, J; Finn, R; Sadelain, M; Tjuvajev, J

    2000-01-01

    Abstract A variety of imaging technologies are being investigated as tools for studying gene expression in living subjects. Noninvasive, repetitive and quantitative imaging of gene expression will help both to facilitate human gene therapy trials and to allow for the study of animal models of molecular and cellular therapy. Radionuclide approaches using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are the most mature of the current imaging technologies and offer many advantages for imaging gene expression compared to optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approaches. These advantages include relatively high sensitivity, full quantitative capability (for PET), and the ability to extend small animal assays directly into clinical human applications. We describe a PET scanner (micro PET) designed specifically for studies of small animals. We review “marker/reporter gene” imaging approaches using the herpes simplex type 1 virus thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and the dopamine type 2 receptor (D2R) genes. We describe and contrast several radiolabeled probes that can be used with the HSV1-tk reporter gene both for SPECT and for PET imaging. We also describe the advantages/disadvantages of each of the assays developed and discuss future animal and human applications. PMID:10933072

  3. Evaluation and selection of aqueous-based technology for partitioning radionuclides from ICPP calcine

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, A.L.; Schulz, W.W.; Burchfield, L.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Swanson, J.L.; Thompson, M.C.

    1993-02-01

    Early in 1993 Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) chartered a Panel of Nuclear Separations Experts. The purpose of this Panel was to assist WINCO scientists and engineers in selecting, evaluating, and ranking candidate aqueous-based processes and technologies for potential use in partitioning selected radionuclides from nitric acid solutions of retrieved Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcine. Radionuclides of interest are all transuranium elements, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 137}Cs. The six man Panel met for 4 days (February 16--19, 1993) on the campus of the Idaho State University in Pocatello, Idaho. Principal topics addressed included: Available radionuclide removal technology; applicability of separations technology and processes to ICPP calcine; and potential integrated radionuclide partitioning schemes. This report, prepared from contributions from all Panel members, presents a comprehensive account of the proceedings and significant findings of the February, 1993 meeting in Pocatello.

  4. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. )

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  5. Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hong-Nian Jow; R.C. Moore; K.B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A.R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

    2005-01-14

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit above the local water table. The focus of the work described in this paper is the development of radionuclide absorbers or ''getter'' materials for neptunium (Np), iodine (I), and technetium (Tc) for potential deployment in the repository. ''Getter'' materials retard the migration of radionuclides through sorption, reduction, or other chemical and physical processes, thereby slowing or preventing the release and transport of radionuclides. An overview of the objectives and approaches utilized in this work with respect to materials selection and modeling of ion ''getters'' is presented. The benefits of the ''getter'' development program to the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) are outlined.

  6. Nuclear transmutation in steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belozerova, A. R.; Shimanskii, G. A.; Belozerov, S. V.

    2009-05-01

    The investigations of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels that are widely used in nuclear power and research reactors and in steels that are planned for the application in thermonuclear fusion plants, which are employed under the conditions of a prolonged action of neutron irradiation with different spectra, made it possible to study the effects of changes in the isotopic and chemical composition on the tendency of changes in the structural stability of these steels. For the computations of nuclear transmutation in steels, we used a program complex we have previously developed on the basis of algorithms for constructing branched block-type diagrams of nuclide transformations and for locally and globally optimizing these diagrams with the purpose of minimizing systematic errors in the calculation of nuclear transmutation. The dependences obtained were applied onto a Schaeffler diagram for steels used for structural elements of reactors. For the irradiation in fission reactors, we observed only a weak influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability. On the contrary, in the case of irradiation with fusion neutrons, a strong influence of the effects of nuclear transmutation in steels on their structural stability has been noted.

  7. Radioanalytical technology for 10 CFR Part 61 and other selected radionuclides: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.W.; Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    A comprehensive literature review and assessment was conducted to identify and evaluate radioanalytical technology and procedures used for measuring 10CFR61 radionuclides and other long-lived isotopes. This review evaluated radiochemical procedures currently in use at a number of laboratories in the US, as well as identifying new advanced methods and techniques which could be adapted for routine radiochemical analyses of low-level radioactive waste. The 10CFR61 radionuclides include {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Cl, {sup 59,63}Ni, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, and TRU isotopes with half lives greater than 5 years. Other low-level radionuclides of interest include {sup 7,10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 109,113m}Cd, and {sup 121m,126}Sn, which may be present in various types of waste streams from nuclear power stations.

  8. The Physics of transmutation systems : system capabilities and performances.

    SciTech Connect

    Finck, P. J.

    2002-08-21

    This document is complementary to a document produced by Prof. Salvatores on ''The Physics of Transmutation in Critical or Subcritical Reactors and the Impact on the Fuel Cycle''. In that document, Salvatores describes the fundamental of transmutation, through basic physics properties and general parametric studies. In the present document we try to go one step further towards practical implementation (while recognizing that the practical issues such as technology development and demonstration, and economics, can only be mentioned in a very superficial manner). Section 1 briefly overviews the possible objectives of transmutation systems, and links these different objectives to possible technological paths. It also describes the overall constraints which have to be considered when developing and implementing transmutation systems. In section 2 we briefly overview the technological constraints which need to be accounted for when designing transmutation systems. In section 3 we attempt to provide a simplified classification of transmutation systems in order to clarify later comparisons. It compares heterogeneous and homogeneous recycle strategies, and single and multi-tier systems. Section 4 presents case analyses for assessing the transmutation performance of various individual systems, starting with LWR's (1. generic results; 2. multirecycle of plutonium; 3. an alternative: transmutation based on a Thorium fuel cycle), followed by Gas-Cooled Reactors (with an emphasis on the ''deep burn'' approach), and followed by Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven systems (1. generic results; 2. homogeneous recycle of transuranics; 3. practical limit between Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems) Section 5 summarizes recent results on integrated system performances. It focuses first on interface effects between the two elements of a dual tier system, and then summarizes the major lessons learned from recent global physics studies.

  9. Subcritical transmutation of spent nuclear fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Christopher M.

    2011-07-01

    A series of fuel cycle simulations were performed using CEA's reactor physics code ERANOS 2.0 to analyze the transmutation performance of the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR). SABR is a fusion-fission hybrid reactor that combines the leading sodium cooled fast reactor technology with the leading tokamak plasma technology based on ITER physics. Two general fuel cycles were considered for the SABR system. The first fuel cycle is one in which all of the transuranics from light water reactors are burned in SABR. The second fuel cycle is a minor actinide burning fuel cycle in which all of the minor actinides and some of the plutonium produced in light water reactors are burned in SABR, with the excess plutonium being set aside for starting up fast reactors in the future. The minor actinide burning fuel cycle is being considered in European Scenario Studies. The fuel cycles were evaluated on the basis of TRU/MA transmutation rate, power profile, accumulated radiation damage, and decay heat to the repository. Each of the fuel cycles are compared against each other, and the minor actinide burning fuel cycles are compared against the EFIT transmutation system, and a low conversion ratio fast reactor.

  10. Transmutation Fuel Campaign Description and Status

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2008-01-01

    This report contains a technical summary package in response to a Level 2 milestone in the transmutation fuel campaign (TFC) management work-package calling for input to the Secretarial decision. At present, the form of the Secretarial decision package is not fully defined, and it is not clear exactly what will be required from the TFC as a final input. However, it is anticipated that a series oftechnical and programmatic documents will need to be provided in support of a wider encompassing document on GNEP technology development activities. The TFC technical leadership team provides this report as initial input to the secretarial decision package which is being developed by the Technical Integration Office (TIO) in support of Secretarial decision. This report contains a summary of the TFC execution plan with a work breakdown structure, highlevel schedule, major milestones, and summary description of critical activities in support of campaign objectives. Supporting documents referenced in this report but provided under separate cover include: • An updated review of the state-of-the art for transmutation fuel development activities considering national as well as international fuel research and development testing activities. • A definition of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) used to systematically define and execute the transmutation fuel development activities.

  11. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    PubMed

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  12. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    PubMed

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides. PMID:16604724

  13. Neutron transmutation doped Ge bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.; Palaio, N. P.; Richards, P. L.; Rodder, M.

    1983-01-01

    Some conclusions reached are as follow. Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) of high quality Ge single crystals provides perfect control of doping concentration and uniformity. The resistivity can be tailored to any given bolometer operating temperature down to 0.1 K and probably lower. The excellent uniformity is advantaged for detector array development.

  14. Promises and Challenges of Thorium Implementation for Transuranic Transmutation - 13550

    SciTech Connect

    Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E.; Wenner, M.; Lindley, B.; Fiorina, C.; Phillips, C.

    2013-07-01

    This paper focuses on the challenges of implementing a thorium fuel cycle for recycle and transmutation of long-lived actinide components from used nuclear fuel. A multi-stage reactor system is proposed; the first stage consists of current UO{sub 2} once-through LWRs supplying transuranic isotopes that are continuously recycled and burned in second stage reactors in either a uranium (U) or thorium (Th) carrier. The second stage reactors considered for the analysis are Reduced Moderation Pressurized Water Reactors (RMPWRs), reconfigured from current PWR core designs, and Fast Reactors (FRs) with a burner core design. While both RMPWRs and FRs can in principle be employed, each reactor and associated technology has pros and cons. FRs have unmatched flexibility and transmutation efficiency. RMPWRs have higher fuel manufacturing and reprocessing requirements, but may represent a cheaper solution and the opportunity for a shorter time to licensing and deployment. All options require substantial developments in manufacturing, due to the high radiation field, and reprocessing, due to the very high actinide recovery ratio to elicit the claimed radiotoxicity reduction. Th reduces the number of transmutation reactors, and is required to enable a viable RMPWR design, but presents additional challenges on manufacturing and reprocessing. The tradeoff between the various options does not make the choice obvious. Moreover, without an overarching supporting policy in place, the costly and challenging technologies required inherently discourage industrialization of any transmutation scheme, regardless of the adoption of U or Th. (authors)

  15. Current and potential technologies for the detection of radionuclide signatures of proliferation (R and D efforts)

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, R.W.; Wogman, N.A.

    1993-03-01

    A country with the goal of developing nuclear weapons could pursue their ambition in several ways. These could range from the purchase or theft of a weapon or of the principal weapons components to a basic development program which may independently produce all the materials and components which are necessary. If the latter approach were pursued, there would be many signatures of such an effort and the more definitive of these include the actual materials which would be produced in each phase of the fuel cycle/weapons production process. By identifying the more definitive signatures and employing appropriate environmental sampling and analysis techniques for their observation, including imaging procedures, it should be possible to detect nuclear proliferation processes. Possible proliferation processes include: uranium acquisition through fuel fabrication; uranium enrichment for weapons production; reactor operation for plutonium production; fuel reprocessing for plutonium extraction; weapons fabrication; and uranium 233 production. Each of these are briefly discussed. The technologies for the detection of proliferation signatures which are in concept or research and development phase are: whole air beta counter; radiokrypton/xenon separator/analyzer; I-129 detector; isotope analyzer; deuterium/tritium analysis by IR/Raman spectroscopy and scintillation counting; noble gas daughter analysis; and airborne radionuclide collector/analyzer.

  16. Industrial research for transmutation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarcat, Noel; Garzenne, Claude; Le Mer, Joël; Leroyer, Hadrien; Desroches, Estelle; Delbecq, Jean-Michel

    2011-04-01

    This article presents the results of research scenarios for americium transmutation in a 22nd century French nuclear fleet, using sodium fast breeder reactors. We benchmark the americium transmutation benefits and drawbacks with a reference case consisting of a hypothetical 60 GWe fleet of pure plutonium breeders. The fluxes in the various parts of the cycle (reactors, fabrication plants, reprocessing plants and underground disposals) are calculated using EDF's suite of codes, comparable in capabilities to those of other research facilities. We study underground thermal heat load reduction due to americium partitioning and repository area minimization. We endeavor to estimate the increased technical complexity of surface facilities to handle the americium fluxes in special fuel fabrication plants, americium fast burners, special reprocessing shops, handling equipments and transport casks between those facilities.

  17. Proceedings of Soil Decon `93: Technology targeting radionuclides and heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The principal objective for convening this workshop was to exchange ideas and discuss with scientists and engineers methods for removing radionuclides and/or toxic metals from soils. Over the years there have been numerous symposia, conferences, and workshops directed at soil remediation. However, this may be the first where the scope was narrowed to the removal of radionuclides and toxic metals from soils. The intent was to focus on the separation processes controlling the removal of the radionuclide and/or metal from soil. Its purpose was not intended to be a soil washing/leaching workshop, but rather to identify a variety or combination of processes (chemical, physical, and biological) that can be used in concert with the applicable engineering approaches to decontaminate soils of radionuclides and toxic metals. Abstracts and visual aids used by the speakers of the workshop are presented in this document.

  18. Radioactive waste from transmutation of technetium: a model for anticipating characteristics of high level waste from transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, M.G.

    2007-07-01

    At this early stage in the conceptualization of fuel treatment and radioisotope transmutation for the disposition of nuclear wastes, it is possible to anticipate some characteristics of the waste stream resulting from the deployment of advanced technologies. Fission products and actinides cannot be completely destroyed by transmutation even with continuous purification and recycle. This is demonstrated for technetium in this analysis, but is true for all radioisotopes. Also, some of the reaction products are themselves long-lived radioactive isotopes. The purification and recycle steps produce nuclear wastes that must be planned for geologic disposal. Five radioisotopes have been identified to be produced in abundance by transmutation of technetium using fast neutrons. Four of these isotopes may be more benign than the original technetium-99 because of their longer half lives. However, one isotope, molybdenum-93 with a half life of four thousand years, may be troublesome. All of the isotopes arising from the transmutation process that end up in high level waste must be examined in terms of their behavior in geologic disposal. In selecting goals for chemical separations, the technologists must consider the entire cycle of separation and transmutation before applying the performance expected in a single separation to implications concerning a repository. A separation efficiency of 0.95 can translate into the disposal of as much as 30 to 60 percent of the technetium in the repository if down stream losses are not controlled. In this case, the treatment may have little impact on anticipated off site radiation from technetium. The destruction of technetium through continuous recycle requires the cost of increased neutron dose and increased space in reactors that must be considered in design of fuel treatment systems. (authors)

  19. Radionuclide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sorg, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. During the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium, uranium and radon from drinking water. The research consisted of laboratory and field studies conducted by USEPA, universities and consultants. The paper summarizes the results of the most significant projects completed. General information is also presented on the general chemistry of the three radionuclides. The information presented indicates that the most practical treatment methods for radium are ion exchange and lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The methods tested for radon are aeration and granular activated carbon and the methods for uranium are anion exchange and reverse osmosis.

  20. Transmutation of Nuclear Waste and the future MYRRHA Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Alex C.

    2013-03-01

    While a considerable and world-wide growth of the nuclear share in the global energy mix is desirable for many reasons, there are also, in particular in the "old world" major objections. These are both concerns about safety, in particular in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident and concerns about the long-term burden that is constituted by the radiotoxic waste from the spent fuel. With regard to the second topic, the present contribution will outline the concept of Partitioning & Transmutation (P&T), as scientific and technological answer. Deployment of P&T may use dedicated "Transmuter" or "Burner" reactors, using a fast neutron spectrum. For the transmutation of waste with a large content (up to 50%) of (very long-lived) Minor Actinides, a sub-critical reactor, using an external neutron source is a most attractive solution. It is constituted by coupling a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical core. This promising new technology is named ADS, for accelerator-driven system. The present paper aims at a short introduction into the field that has been characterized by a high collaborative activity during the last decade in Europe, in order to focus, in its later part, on the MYRRHA project as the European ADS technology demonstrator.

  1. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  2. Detailed calculations of minor actinide transmutation in a fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Toshikazu

    2015-12-31

    The transmutation of minor actinides in a fast reactor is investigated by a new method to investigate the transmutation behavior of individual minor actinides. It is found that Np-237 and Am-241 mainly contributes to the transmutation rate though the transmutation behaviors are very different.

  3. Analysis of advanced european nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work the transition from the existing Light Water Reactors (LWR) to the advanced reactors is analyzed, including Generation III+ reactors in a European framework. Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed. The first scenario (i.e., reference) is the current fleet using LWR technology and open fuel cycle. The second scenario assumes a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel. The third scenario is a modification of the second one introducing Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet. Finally, in the fourth scenario, the LWR fleet is replaced using FR with MOX fuel as well as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for MA transmutation. All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for a period of 200 years looking for equilibrium mass flows. The simulations were made using the TR-EVOL code, a tool for fuel cycle studies developed by CIEMAT. The results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (U and Pu). Concerning to no transmutation cases, the second scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario, although the MA inventory increases. The transmutation scenarios show that elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires on one hand a maximum of 33% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 26 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation). On the other hand a maximum number of ADS plants accounting for 5% of electricity generation are predicted in the fourth scenario (i.e., 35 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE (Levelized cost of electricity) - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 21% and 29% for FR and FR with transmutation scenarios respectively, and 34% for the fourth scenario. (authors)

  4. ACCELERATED SITE TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT COMPARABILITY OF ISOCS INSTRUMENT IN RADIONUCLIDE CHARACTERICATION AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    KALB,P.; LUCKETT,L.; MILLER,K.; GOGOLAK,C.; MILIAN,L.

    2001-03-01

    This report describes a DOE Accelerated Site Technology Deployment project being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to deploy innovative, radiological, in situ analytical techniques. The technologies are being deployed in support of efforts to characterize the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) facility, which is currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning. This report focuses on the deployment of the Canberra Industries In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) and assesses its data comparability to baseline methods of sampling and laboratory analysis. The battery-operated, field deployable gamma spectrometer provides traditional spectra of counts as a function of gamma energy. The spectra are then converted to radionuclide concentration by applying innovative efficiency calculations using monte carlo statistical methods and pre-defined geometry templates in the analysis software. Measurement of gamma emitting radionuclides has been accomplished during characterization of several BGRR components including the Pile Fan Sump, Above Ground Ducts, contaminated cooling fans, and graphite pile internals. Cs-137 is the predominant gamma-emitting radionuclide identified, with smaller quantities of Co-60 and Am-241 detected. The Project used the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual guidance and the Data Quality Objectives process to provide direction for survey planning and data quality assessment. Analytical results have been used to calculate data quality indicators (DQI) for the ISOCS measurements. Among the DQIs assessed in the report are sensitivity, accuracy, precision, bias, and minimum detectable concentration. The assessment of the in situ data quality using the DQIs demonstrates that the ISOCS data quality can be comparable to definitive level laboratory analysis when the field instrument is supported by an appropriate Quality Assurance Project Plan. A discussion of the results obtained by ISOCS analysis of

  5. FCRD Transmutation Fuels Handbook 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Janney, Dawn Elizabeth; Papesch, Cynthia Ann

    2015-09-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides such as Np, Am, and Cm in spent nuclear fuel is of international interest because of its potential for reducing the long-term health and safety hazards caused by the radioactivity of the spent fuel. One important approach to transmutation (currently being pursued by the DOE Fuel Cycle Research & Development Advanced Fuels Campaign) involves incorporating the minor actinides into U-Pu-Zr alloys, which can be used as fuel in fast reactors. It is, therefore, important to understand the properties of U-Pu-Zr alloys, both with and without minor actinide additions. In addition to requiring extensive safety precautions, alloys containing U and Pu are difficult to study for numerous reasons, including their complex phase transformations, characteristically sluggish phase-transformation kinetics, tendency to produce experimental results that vary depending on the histories of individual samples, and sensitivity to contaminants such as oxygen in concentrations below a hundred parts per million. Many of the experimental measurements were made before 1980, and the level of documentation for experimental methods and results varies widely. It is, therefore, not surprising that little is known with certainty about U-Pu-Zr alloys, and that general acceptance of results sometimes indicates that there is only a single measurement for a particular property. This handbook summarizes currently available information about U, Pu, Zr, and alloys of two or three of these elements. It contains information about phase diagrams and related information (including phases and phase transformations); heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy; thermal expansion; and thermal conductivity and diffusivity. In addition to presenting information about materials properties, it attempts to provide information about how well the property is known and how much variation exists between measurements. Although the handbook includes some references to publications about modeling

  6. Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venneri, Francesco

    1998-04-01

    Nuclear waste from commercial power plants contains large quantities of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and long-lived fission products that are potential proliferation concerns and create challenges for the long-term storage. Different strategies for dealing with nuclear waste are being followed by various countries because of their geologic situations and their views on nuclear energy, reprocessing and non-proliferation. The current United States policy is to store unprocessed spent reactor fuel in a geologic repository. Other countries are opting for treatment of nuclear waste, including partial utilization of the fissile material contained in the spent fuel, prior to geologic storage. Long-term uncertainties are hampering the acceptability and eventual licensing of a geologic repository for nuclear spent fuel in the US, and driving up its cost. The greatest concerns are with the potential for radiation release and exposure from the spent fuel for tens of thousands of years and the possible diversion and use of the actinides contained in the waste for weapons construction. Taking advantage of the recent breakthroughs in accelerator technology and of the natural flexibility of subcritical systems, the Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept offers the United States and other countries the possibility to greatly reduce plutonium, higher actinides and environmentally hazardous fission products from the waste stream destined for permanent storage. ATW does not eliminate the need for, but instead enhances the viability of permanent waste repositories. Far from being limited to waste destruction, the ATW concept also brings to the table new technologies that could be relevant for next-generation power producing reactors. In the ATW concept, spent fuel would be shipped to the ATW site where the plutonium, transuranics and selected long-lived fission products would be destroyed by fission or transmutation in their first and only pass through the

  7. Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation and breeder applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    This work consists of design power plant studies for four types of reactor systems: uranium plasma core breeder, uranium plasma core actinide transmuter, UF6 breeder and UF6 actinide transmuter. The plasma core systems can be coupled to MHD generators to obtain high efficiency electrical power generation. A 1074 MWt UF6 breeder reactor was designed with a breeding ratio of 1.002 to guard against diversion of fuel. Using molten salt technology and a superheated steam cycle, an efficiency of 39.2% was obtained for the plant and the U233 inventory in the core and heat exchangers was limited to 105 Kg. It was found that the UF6 reactor can produce high fluxes (10 to the 14th power n/sq cm-sec) necessary for efficient burnup of actinide. However, the buildup of fissile isotopes posed severe heat transfer problems. Therefore, the flux in the actinide region must be decreased with time. Consequently, only beginning-of-life conditions were considered for the power plant design. A 577 MWt UF6 actinide transmutation reactor power plant was designed to operate with 39.3% efficiency and 102 Kg of U233 in the core and heat exchanger for beginning-of-life conditions.

  8. Transmutation: The Roots of the Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpenko, Vladimir

    1995-01-01

    Examines the history of alchemical attempts at transmutation and classifies them by differing approaches and techniques. Traces the development of alchemy in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East, and compares alchemy with craftsmanship. (18 references) (DDR)

  9. Nuclear data needs for accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.; Wilson, W.B.; Young, P.G.

    1994-07-01

    The possibilities of several new technologies based on use of intense, medium-energy proton accelerators are being investigated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The potential new areas include destruction of long-lived components of nuclear waste, plutonium burning, energy production, and production of tritium. The design, assessment, and safety analysis of potential facilities involves the understanding of complex combinations of nuclear processes, which in turn places new requirements on nuclear data that transcend the traditional needs of the fission and fusion reactor communities. In this paper an assessment of the nuclear data needs for systems currently being considered in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies program is given.

  10. The Transmutation of Nuclear Waste in the Two-Zone Subcritical System Driven by High- Intensity Neutron Generator - 12098

    SciTech Connect

    Babenko, V.O.; Gulik, V.I.; Pavlovych, V.M.

    2012-07-01

    The main problems of transmutation of high-level radioactive waste (minor actinides and long-lived fission products) are considered in our work. The range of radioactive waste of nuclear power is analyzed. The conditions under which the transmutation of radioactive waste will be most effective are analyzed too. The modeling results of a transmutation of the main radioactive isotopes are presented and discussed. The transmutation of minor actinides and long-lived fission products are modeled in our work (minor actinides - Np-237, Am-241, Am-242, Am-243, Cm-244, Cm-245; long-lived fission products - I-129, Tc-99). The two-zone subcritical system is calculated with help of different neutron-physical codes (MCNP, Scale, Montebarn, Origen). The ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library used in above calculations. Thus, radioactive wastes can be divided into two main groups that need to be transmuted. The minor actinides form the first group and the long-lived fission products form the second one. For the purpose of effective transmutation these isotopes must be extracted from the spent nuclear fuel with the help of either PUREX technology or pyrometallurgical technology. The two-zone reactor system with fast and thermal regions is more effective for nuclear waste transmutation than the one-zone reactor. Modeling results show that nearly all radioactive wastes can be transmuted in the two-zone subcritical system driven by a high-intensity neutron generator with the external neutron source strength of 1.10{sup 13} n/sec. Obviously, transmutation rate will increase with a rise of the external neutron source strength. From the results above we can also see that the initial loading of radioactive isotopes into the reactor system should exceed by mass those isotopes that are finally produced. (authors)

  11. Radionuclide trap

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  12. The enrichment of natural radionuclides in oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia--the impact of new circulating fluidized bed technology.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-03-01

    Burning oil shale to produce electricity has a dominant position in Estonia's energy sector. Around 90% of the overall electric energy production originates from the Narva Power Plants. The technology in use has been significantly renovated - two older types of pulverized fuel burning (PF) energy production units were replaced with new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. Additional filter systems have been added to PF boilers to reduce emissions. Oil shale contains various amounts of natural radionuclides. These radionuclides concentrate and become enriched in different boiler ash fractions. More volatile isotopes will be partially emitted to the atmosphere via flue gases and fly ash. To our knowledge, there has been no previous study for CFB boiler systems on natural radionuclide enrichment and their atmospheric emissions. Ash samples were collected from Eesti Power Plant's CFB boiler. These samples were processed and analyzed with gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations (Bq/kg) and enrichment factors were calculated for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides and for (40)K in different CFB boiler ash fractions. Results from the CFB boiler ash sample analysis showed an increase in the activity concentrations and enrichment factors (up to 4.5) from the furnace toward the electrostatic precipitator block. The volatile radionuclide ((210)Pb and (40)K) activity concentrations in CFB boilers were evenly distributed in finer ash fractions. Activity balance calculations showed discrepancies between input (via oil shale) and output (via ash fractions) activities for some radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb). This refers to a situation where the missing part of the activity (around 20% for these radionuclides) is emitted to the atmosphere. Also different behavior patterns were detected for the two Ra isotopes, (226)Ra and (228)Ra. A part of (226)Ra input activity, unlike (228)Ra, was undetectable in the

  13. SABR fusion-fission hybrid transmutation reactor design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, Weston

    2009-11-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a sub-critical advanced burner reactor (SABR) consisting of i) a sodium cooled fast reactor fueled with the transuranics (TRU) from spent nuclear fuel, and ii) a D-T tokamak fusion neutron source based on ITER physics and technology. Subcritical operation enables more efficient transmutation fuel cycles in TRU fueled reactors (without compromising safety), which may be essential for significant reduction in high-level waste repository requirements. ITER will serve as the prototype for the fusion neutron source, which means SABRs could be implemented to help close the nuclear fuel cycle during the 2^nd quarter of the century.

  14. Incentives and recent proposals for partitioning and transmutation in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, T.J.

    1995-05-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (P-T) is perhaps the most elegant means of high level waste disposal. Currently, the cost of fuel obtained from reprocessing spent fuel exceeds the cost of fuel obtained by mining. This has resulted in the once through fuel cycle dominating the US nuclear industry. Despite this fact P-T continues to be examined and debated by the US as well as abroad. The US first seriously considered P-T between approximately 1976 and 1982 but rejected the concept in favor of reprocessing. More recently, since about 1989, as a result of the once through fuel cycle and the growing problems of waste disposal, studies concerning P-T have resumed. This essay will seek to outline the incentives and goals of partitioning and transmutation as it would apply to the disposal of spent fuel in the US. Recent proposals by various US national laboratories for implementing partitioning and transmutation as a high level waste management and disposal device will also be discussed. The review will seek to examine the technical concepts utilized in each of the proposals and their feasibility. The major focus of this essay will be the transmutation methods themselves, while the partitioning methods will be discussed only briefly. This is because of the fact that partitioning methods fall under reprocessing as an already fairly well established and accepted technology while feasible methods for transmutation are still being advanced.

  15. History of medical radionuclide production.

    PubMed

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  16. Transmutation Fuels Campaign FY-09 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lori Braase

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year 2009 (FY-08) accomplishments for the Transmutation Fuels Campaign (TFC). The emphasis is on the accomplishments and relevance of the work. Detailed description of the methods used to achieve the highlighted results and the associated support tasks are not included in this report.

  17. Fission Product Transmutation in Mixed Radiation Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Frank; Burgett, Erick; Starovoitova, Valeriia; Tsveretkov, Pavel

    2015-01-15

    Work under this grant addressed a part of the challenge facing the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle; reducing the radiotoxicity of lived fission products (LLFP). It was based on the possibility that partitioning of isotopes and accelerator-based transmutation on particular LLFP combined with geological disposal may lead to an acceptable societal solution to the problem of management. The feasibility of using photonuclear processes based on the excitation of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) by bremsstrahlung radiation as a cost effective transmutation method was accessed. The nuclear reactions of interest: (γ,xn), (n,γ), (γ,p) can be induced by bremsstrahlung radiation produced by high power electron accelerators. The driver of these processes would be an accelerator that produces a high energy and high power electron beam of ~ 100 MeV. The major advantages of such accelerators for this purpose are that they are essentially available “off the shelf” and potentially would be of reasonable cost for this application. Methods were examined that used photo produced neutrons or the bremsstrahlung photons only, or use both photons and neutrons in combination for irradiations of selected LLFP. Extrapolating the results to plausible engineering scale transmuters it was found that the energy cost for 129I and 99Tc transmutation by these methods are about 2 and 4%, respectively, of the energy produced from 1000MWe.

  18. Transmutation of Long-Lived Nuclear Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    JAEA is conducting research and development on an Accelerator Driven System (ADS), aiming at reduction of burden for high-level radioactive wastes. To tackle technical challenges on ADS, JAEA is planning to build the Transmutation Experimental Facility as the Phase-2 program of J-PARC. Moreover, JAEA is considering the collaboration with the MYRRHA project proposed by Belgian Nuclear Research Center.

  19. APT radionuclide production experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, J.L.; Gavron, A.; King, J.D.

    1994-07-02

    Tritium ({sup 3}H, a heavy isotope of hydrogen) is produced by low energy neutron-induced reactions on various elements. One such reaction is n+{sup 3}He {yields}>{sup 3}H+{sup 1}H in which {sup 3}He is transmuted to tritium. Another reaction, which has been used in reactor production of tritium, is the n+{sup 6}Li {yields}> {sup 3}H+{sup 4}He reaction. Accelerator Production of Tritium relies on a high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy protons reacting with a heavy nucleus produce a shower of low-energy neutrons and a lower-mass residual nucleus. It is important to quantify the residual radionuclides produced in the spallation target for two reasons. From an engineering point of view, one must understand short-lived isotopes that may contribute to decay heat. From a safety viewpoint, one must understand what nuclei and decay gammas are produced in order to design adequate shielding, to estimate ultimate waste disposal problems, and to predict possible effects due to accidental dispersion during operation. The authors have performed an experiment to measure the production of radioisotopes in stopping-length W and Pb targets irradiated by a 800 MeV proton beam, and are comparing the results to values obtained from calculations using LAHET and MCNP. The experiment was designed to pay particular attention to the short half-life radionuclides, which have not been previously measured. In the following, they present details of the experiment, explain how they analyzed the data and obtain the results, how they perform the calculations, and finally, how the experimental data agree with the calculations.

  20. A low aspect ratio tokamak transmutation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L. J.; Wu, Y. C.; Xiao, B. J.; Xu, Q.; Huang, Q. Y.; Wu, B.; Chen, Y. X.; Xu, W. N.; Chen, Y. P.; Liu, X. P.

    2000-03-01

    A low aspect ratio tokamak transmutation system is proposed as an alternative application of fusion energy on the basis of a review of previous studies. This system includes: (1) a low aspect ratio tokamak as fusion neutron driver, (2) a radioactivity-clean nuclear power system as blanket, and (3) a novel concept of liquid metal centre conductor post as part of the toroidal field coils. In the conceptual design, a driver of 100 MW fusion power under 1 MW/m2 neutron wall loading can transmute the amount of high level waste (including minor actinides and fission products) produced by ten standard pressurized water reactors of 1 GW electrical power output. Meanwhile, the system can produce tritium on a self-sustaining basis and an output of about 2 GW of electrical energy. After 30 years of operation, the biological hazard potential level of the whole system will decrease by two orders of magnitude.

  1. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems ... damage. The amount of radiation used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  2. Review of Transmutation Fuel Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2008-01-01

    The technology demonstration element of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is aimed at demonstrating the closure of the fuel cycle by destroying the transuranic (TRU) elements separated from spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Multiple recycle through fast reactors is used for burning the TRU initially separated from light-water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel. For the initial technology demonstration, the preferred option to demonstrate the closed fuel cycle destruction of TRU materials is a sodium-cooled fast reactor (FR) used as burner reactor. The sodium-cooled fast reactor represents the most mature sodium reactor technology available today. This report provides a review of the current state of development of fuel systems relevant to the sodium-cooled fast reactor. This report also provides a review of research and development of TRU-metal alloy and TRU-oxide composition fuels. Experiments providing data supporting the understanding of minor actinide (MA)-bearing fuel systems are summarized and referenced.

  3. MA transmutation performance in the optimized MYRRHA

    SciTech Connect

    Malambu, E.; Van den Eynde, G.; Fernandez, R.; Baeten, P.; Ait Abderrahim, H.

    2013-07-01

    MYRRHA (multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications) is a multipurpose research facility currently being developed at SCK-CEN. It will be able to work in both critical and subcritical modes and, cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic. In this paper the minor actinides (MA) transmutation capabilities of MYRRHA are investigated. (Pu + Am, U) MOX fuel and (Np + Am + Cm, Pu) Inert Matrix Fuel test samples have been loaded in the central channel of the MYRRHA critical core and have been irradiated during five cycles, each one consisting of 90 days of operation at 100 MWth and 30 days of shutdown. The reactivity worth of the test fuel assembly was about 1.1 dollar. A wide range of burn-up level has been achieved, extending from 42 to 110 MWd/kg HM, the samples with lower MA-to-Pu ratios reaching the highest burn-up. This study has highlighted the importance of the initial MA content, expressed in terms of MA/Pu ratio, on the transmutation rate of MA elements. For (Pu + Am, U) MOX fuel samples, a net build-up of MA is observed when the initial content of MA is very low (here, 1.77 wt% MA/Pu) while a net decrease in MA is observed in the sample with an initial content of 5 wt%. This suggests the existence of some 'equilibrium' initial MA content value beyond which a net transmutation is achievable.

  4. Ruthenium/technetium separations after the accelerator transmutation of waste: Ozonolysis vs ion-exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, N.C.; Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.

    1993-12-31

    Technetium, because of its long half-life (213,000 years) and ability to migrate in the environment, is a primary contributor to the long-term radioactivity related risk associated with geologic nuclear waste disposal. One proposal for converting technetium to an environmentally benign element is its transmutation to ruthenium by reaction of {sup 99}Tc with thermal neutrons to form stable {sup 100}Ru. Los Alamos is currently investigating transmutation with an accelerator-based system (i.e, Accelerator Transmutation of Waste, ATW). Flowsheets developed for this process predict a steady state ruthenium concentration of {minus}10{sup {minus}3} M exiting the transmuter. Seperation of ruthenium from the bulk technetium solution (2 M) is required to preserve neutron economy and to prevent multiple (n, {gamma}) reactions on ruthenium leading to radioactive {sup 103,106}Ru. Ruthenium/technetium separation factors of 1200 have been achieved by ion-exchange. However, the complex chemistry of ruthenium on ion exchange resins and the disposal of the exhausted resins, required that an alternative for this 30-year old baseline technology be sought. For these reasons, volatilization of RuO{sub 4}, formed by ozonolysis of ruthenium is being considered for this separation. The results of experiments showing the violatilization efficiency using ozone will be compared to the separation of ruthenium using the baseline ion-exchange technique.

  5. SCWR Once-Through Calculations for Transmutation and Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    ganda, francesco

    2012-07-01

    It is the purpose of this report to document the calculation of (1) the isotopic evolution and of (2) the 1-group cross sections as a function of burnup of the reference Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR), in a format suitable for the Fuel Cycle Option Campaign Transmutation Data Library. The reference SCWR design was chosen to be that described in [McDonald, 2005]. Super Critical Water Reactors (SCWR) are intended to operate with super-critical water (i.e. H2O at a pressure above 22 MPa and a temperature above 373oC) as a cooling – and possibly also moderating – fluid. The main mission of the SCWR is to generate lower cost electricity, as compared to current standard Light Water Reactors (LWR). Because of the high operating pressure and temperature, SCWR feature a substantially higher thermal conversion efficiency than standard LWR – i.e. about 45% versus 33%, mostly due to an increase in the exit water temperature from ~300oC to ~500oC – potentially resulting in a lower cost of generated electricity. The coolant remains single phase throughout the reactor and the energy conversion system, thus eliminating the need for pressurizers, steam generators, steam separators and dryers, further potentially reducing the reactor construction capital cost. The SCWR concept presented here is based on existing LWR technology and on a large number of existing fossil-fired supercritical boilers. However, it was concluded in [McDonald, 2005], that: “Based on the results of this study, it appears that the reference SCWR design is not feasible.” This conclusion appears based on the strong sensitivity of the design to small deviations in nominal conditions leading to small effects having a potentially large impact on the peak cladding temperature of some fuel rods. “This was considered a major feasibility issue for the SCWR” [McDonald, 2005]. After a description of the reference SCWR design, the Keno V 3-D single assembly model used for this analysis, as well as the

  6. On the use of a molten salt fast reactor to apply an idealized transmutation scenario for the nuclear phase out.

    PubMed

    Merk, Bruno; Rohde, Ulrich; Glivici-Cotruţă, Varvara; Litskevich, Dzianis; Scholl, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In the view of transmutation of transuranium (TRU) elements, molten salt fast reactors (MSFRs) offer certain advantages compared to solid fuelled reactor types like sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). In the first part these advantages are discussed in comparison with the SFR technology, and the research challenges are analyzed. In the second part cycle studies for the MSFR are given for different configurations--a core with U-238 fertile, a fertile free core, and a core with Th-232 as fertile material. For all cases, the transmutation potential is determined and efficient transmutation performance for the case with thorium as a fertile material as well as for the fertile free case is demonstrated and the individual advantages are discussed. The time evolution of different important isotopes is analyzed. In the third part a strategy for the optimization of the transmutation efficiency is developed. The final aim is dictated by the phase out decision of the German government, which requests to put the focus on the determination of the maximal transmutation efficiency and on an as much as possible reduced leftover of transuranium elements at the end of the reactor life. This minimal leftover is achieved by a two step procedure of a first transmuter operation phase followed by a second deep burning phase. There the U-233, which is bred in the blanket of the core consisting of thorium containing salt, is used as feed. It is demonstrated, that transmutation rates up to more than 90% can be achieved for all transuranium isotopes, while the production of undesired high elements like californium is very limited. Additionally, the adaptations needed for the simulation of a MSFR, and the used tool HELIOS 1.10 is described. PMID:24690768

  7. On the use of a molten salt fast reactor to apply an idealized transmutation scenario for the nuclear phase out.

    PubMed

    Merk, Bruno; Rohde, Ulrich; Glivici-Cotruţă, Varvara; Litskevich, Dzianis; Scholl, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In the view of transmutation of transuranium (TRU) elements, molten salt fast reactors (MSFRs) offer certain advantages compared to solid fuelled reactor types like sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). In the first part these advantages are discussed in comparison with the SFR technology, and the research challenges are analyzed. In the second part cycle studies for the MSFR are given for different configurations--a core with U-238 fertile, a fertile free core, and a core with Th-232 as fertile material. For all cases, the transmutation potential is determined and efficient transmutation performance for the case with thorium as a fertile material as well as for the fertile free case is demonstrated and the individual advantages are discussed. The time evolution of different important isotopes is analyzed. In the third part a strategy for the optimization of the transmutation efficiency is developed. The final aim is dictated by the phase out decision of the German government, which requests to put the focus on the determination of the maximal transmutation efficiency and on an as much as possible reduced leftover of transuranium elements at the end of the reactor life. This minimal leftover is achieved by a two step procedure of a first transmuter operation phase followed by a second deep burning phase. There the U-233, which is bred in the blanket of the core consisting of thorium containing salt, is used as feed. It is demonstrated, that transmutation rates up to more than 90% can be achieved for all transuranium isotopes, while the production of undesired high elements like californium is very limited. Additionally, the adaptations needed for the simulation of a MSFR, and the used tool HELIOS 1.10 is described.

  8. On the Use of a Molten Salt Fast Reactor to Apply an Idealized Transmutation Scenario for the Nuclear Phase Out

    PubMed Central

    Merk, Bruno; Rohde, Ulrich; Glivici-Cotruţă, Varvara; Litskevich, Dzianis; Scholl, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In the view of transmutation of transuranium (TRU) elements, molten salt fast reactors (MSFRs) offer certain advantages compared to solid fuelled reactor types like sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). In the first part these advantages are discussed in comparison with the SFR technology, and the research challenges are analyzed. In the second part cycle studies for the MSFR are given for different configurations – a core with U-238 fertile, a fertile free core, and a core with Th-232 as fertile material. For all cases, the transmutation potential is determined and efficient transmutation performance for the case with thorium as a fertile material as well as for the fertile free case is demonstrated and the individual advantages are discussed. The time evolution of different important isotopes is analyzed. In the third part a strategy for the optimization of the transmutation efficiency is developed. The final aim is dictated by the phase out decision of the German government, which requests to put the focus on the determination of the maximal transmutation efficiency and on an as much as possible reduced leftover of transuranium elements at the end of the reactor life. This minimal leftover is achieved by a two step procedure of a first transmuter operation phase followed by a second deep burning phase. There the U-233, which is bred in the blanket of the core consisting of thorium containing salt, is used as feed. It is demonstrated, that transmutation rates up to more than 90% can be achieved for all transuranium isotopes, while the production of undesired high elements like californium is very limited. Additionally, the adaptations needed for the simulation of a MSFR, and the used tool HELIOS 1.10 is described. PMID:24690768

  9. Heterogeneous sodium fast reactor designed for transmuting minor actinide waste isotopes into plutonium fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bays, Samuel Eugene

    2008-10-01

    In the past several years there has been a renewed interest in sodium fast reactor (SFR) technology for the purpose of destroying transuranic waste (TRU) produced by light water reactors (LWR). The utility of SFRs as waste burners is due to the fact that higher neutron energies allow all of the actinides, including the minor actinides (MA), to contribute to fission. It is well understood that many of the design issues of LWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal in a geologic repository are linked to MAs. Because the probability of fission for essentially all the "non-fissile" MAs is nearly zero at low neutron energies, these isotopes act as a neutron capture sink in most thermal reactor systems. Furthermore, because most of the isotopes produced by these capture reactions are also non-fissile, they too are neutron sinks in most thermal reactor systems. Conversely, with high neutron energies, the MAs can produce neutrons by fast fission. Additionally, capture reactions transmute the MAs into mostly plutonium isotopes, which can fission more readily at any energy. The transmutation of non-fissile into fissile atoms is the premise of the plutonium breeder reactor. In a breeder reactor, not only does the non-fissile "fertile" U-238 atom contribute fast fission neutrons, but also transmutes into fissile Pu-239. The fissile value of the plutonium produced by MA transmutation can only be realized in fast neutron spectra. This is due to the fact that the predominate isotope produced by MA transmutation, Pu-238, is itself not fissile. However, the Pu-238 fission cross section is significantly larger than the original transmutation parent, predominately: Np-237 and Am-241, in the fast energy range. Also, Pu-238's fission cross section and fission-to-capture ratio is almost as high as that of fissile Pu-239 in the fast neutron spectrum. It is also important to note that a neutron absorption in Pu-238, that does not cause fission, will instead produce fissile Pu-239. Given this

  10. A Subcritical, Gas-Cooled Fast Transmutation Reactor with a Fusion Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, W.M.; Beavers, V.L.; Casino, W.A.; Cheatham, J.R.; Friis, Z.W.; Green, R.D.; Hamilton, W.R.; Haufler, K.W.; Hutchinson, J.D.; Lackey, W.J.; Lorio, R.A.; Maddox, J.W.; Mandrekas, J.; Manzoor, A.A.; Noelke, C.A.; Oliveira, C. de; Park, M.; Tedder, D.W.; Terry, M.R.; Hoffman, E.A.

    2005-05-15

    A design is presented for a subcritical, He-cooled fast reactor, driven by a tokamak D-T fusion neutron source, for the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The reactor is fueled with coated transuranic (TRU) particles and is intended for the deep-burn (>90%) transmutation of the TRUs in SNF without reprocessing of the coated fuel particles. The reactor design is based on the materials, fuel, and separations technologies under near-term development in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Program and on the plasma physics and fusion technologies under near-term development in the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Program, with the objective of intermediate-term ({approx}2040) deployment. The physical and performance characteristics and research and development requirements of such a reactor are described.

  11. II. Inhibited Diffusion Driven Surface Transmutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    2006-02-01

    This paper is the second of a set of three papers dealing with the role of coherent partitioning as a common element in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), by which is meant cold-fusion related processes. This paper discusses the first step in a sequence of four steps that seem to be necessary to explain Iwamura 2-α-addition surface transmutations. Three concepts are examined: salt-metal interface states, sequential tunneling that transitions D+ ions from localized interstitial to Bloch form, and the general applicability of 2-dimensional vs. 3-dimensional symmetry hosting networks.

  12. The DD Cold Fusion-Transmutation Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    2005-12-01

    LENR theory must explain dd fusion, alpha-addition transmutations, radiationless nuclear reactions, and three-body nuclear particle reactions. Reaction without radiation requires many-body D Bloch+ periodicity in both location and internal structure dependencies. Electron scattering leads to mixed quantum states. The radiationless dd fusion reaction is 2-D Bloch+ -> {}4 He Bloch2+. Overlap between {}4 He Bloch2+ and surface Cs leads to alpha absorption. In the Iwamura et al. studies active deuterium is created by scattering at diffusion barriers.

  13. Transmutable nanoparticles with reconfigurable surface ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngeun; Macfarlane, Robert J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2016-02-01

    Unlike conventional inorganic materials, biological systems are exquisitely adapted to respond to their surroundings. Proteins and other biological molecules can process a complex set of chemical binding events as informational inputs and respond accordingly via a change in structure and function. We applied this principle to the design and synthesis of inorganic materials by preparing nanoparticles with reconfigurable surface ligands, where interparticle bonding can be programmed in response to specific chemical cues in a dynamic manner. As a result, a nascent set of “transmutable nanoparticles” can be driven to crystallize along multiple thermodynamic trajectories, resulting in rational control over the phase and time evolution of nanoparticle-based matter.

  14. Neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaio, N. P.; Rodder, M.; Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.

    1983-01-01

    Six slices of ultra-pure germanium were irradiated with thermal neutron fluences between 7.5 x 10 to the 16th and 1.88 x 10 to the 18th per sq cm. After thermal annealing the resistivity was measured down to low temperatures (less than 4.2 K) and found to follow the relationship rho = rho sub 0 exp(Delta/T) in the hopping conduction regime. Also, several junction FETs were tested for noise performance at room temperature and in an insulating housing in a 4.2 K cryostat. These FETs will be used as first stage amplifiers for neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers.

  15. The role of Z-pinch fusion transmutation of waste in the nuclear fuel cycle.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, James Dean; Drennen, Thomas E.; Rochau, Gary Eugene; Martin, William Joseph; Kamery, William; Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat; Grady, Ryan; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Guild-Bingham, Avery; Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich

    2007-10-01

    The resurgence of interest in reprocessing in the United States with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has led to a renewed look at technologies for transmuting nuclear waste. Sandia National Laboratories has been investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver to burn actinide waste in a sub-critical reactor. The baseline design has been modified to solve some of the engineering issues that were identified in the first year of work, including neutron damage and fuel heating. An on-line control feature was added to the reactor to maintain a constant neutron multiplication with time. The transmutation modeling effort has been optimized to produce more accurate results. In addition, more attention was focused on the integration of this burner option within the fuel cycle including an investigation of overall costs. This report presents the updated reactor design, which is able to burn 1320 kg of actinides per year while producing 3,000 MWth.

  16. Fast reactor core concepts to improve transmutation efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimura, Koji; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Itooka, Satoshi

    2015-12-31

    Fast Reactor (FR) core concepts to improve transmutation efficiency were conducted. A heterogeneous MA loaded core was designed based on the 1000MWe-ABR breakeven core. The heterogeneous MA loaded core with Zr-H loaded moderated targets had a better transmutation performance than the MA homogeneous loaded core. The annular pellet rod design was proposed as one of the possible design options for the MA target. It was shown that using annular pellet MA rods mitigates the self-shielding effect in the moderated target so as to enhance the transmutation rate.

  17. Tokamak transmutation of (nuclear) waste (TTW): Parametric studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, E.T.; Krakowski, R.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1994-06-01

    Radioactive waste generated as part of the commercial-power and defense nuclear programs can be either stored or transmuted. The latter treatment requires a capital-intensive neutron source and is reserved for particularly hazardous and long-lived actinide and fission-product waste. A comparative description of fusion-based transmutation is made on the basis of rudimentary estimates of ergonic performance and transmutation capacities versus inventories for both ultra-low-aspect-ratio (spherical torus, ST) and conversional (aspect-ratio) tokamak fusion-power-core drivers. The parametric systems studies reported herein provides a preamble to more-detailed, cost-based systems analyses.

  18. Critique of rationale for transmutation of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    It has been suggested that nuclear transmutation could be used in the elimination or reduction of hazards from radioactive wastes. The rationale for this suggestion is the subject of this paper. The objectives of partitioning-transmutation are described. The benefits are evaluated. The author concludes that transmutation would appear at best to offer the opportunity of reducing an already low risk. This would not seem to be justifiable considering the cost. If non-radiological risks are considered, there is a negative total benefit. (DC)

  19. Infrared absorption study of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, I. S.; Haller, E. E.

    1988-01-01

    Using high-resolution far-infrared Fourier transform absorption spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements, the evolution of the shallow acceptor and donor impurity levels in germanium during and after the neutron transmutation doping process was studied. The results show unambiguously that the gallium acceptor level concentration equals the concentration of transmutated Ge-70 atoms during the whole process indicating that neither recoil during transmutation nor gallium-defect complex formation play significant roles. The arsenic donor levels appear at full concentration only after annealing for 1 h at 450 C. It is shown that this is due to donor-radiation-defect complex formation. Again, recoil does not play a significant role.

  20. Microstructural Characterization of Cast Metallic Transmutation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    J. I. Cole; D. D. Keiser; J. R. Kennedy

    2007-09-01

    As part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is participating in an international collaboration to irradiate prototypic actinide-bearing transmutation fuels in the French Phenix fast reactor (FUTURIX-FTA experiment). The INL has contributed to this experiment by fabricating and characterizing two compositions of metallic fuel; a non-fertile 48Pu-12Am-40Zr fuel and a low-fertile 35U-29Pu-4Am-2Np-30Zr fuel for insertion into the reactor. This paper highlights results of the microstructural analysis of these cast fuels, which were reasonably homogeneous in nature, but had several distinct phase constituents. Spatial variations in composition appeared to be more pronounced in the low-fertile fuel when compared to the non-fertile fuel.

  1. Transmutation of All German Transuranium under Nuclear Phase Out Conditions – Is This Feasible from Neutronic Point of View?

    PubMed Central

    Merk, Bruno; Litskevich, Dzianis

    2015-01-01

    The German government has decided for the nuclear phase out, but a decision on a strategy for the management of the highly radioactive waste is not defined yet. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) could be considered as a technological option for the management of highly radioactive waste, therefore a wide study has been conducted. In the study group objectives for P&T and the boundary conditions of the phase out have been discussed. The fulfillment of the given objectives is analyzed from neutronics point of view using simulations of a molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum. It is shown that the efficient transmutation of all existing transuranium isotopes would be possible from neutronic point of view in a time frame of about 60 years. For this task three reactors of a mostly new technology would have to be developed and a twofold life cycle consisting of a transmuter operation and a deep burn phase would be required. A basic insight for the optimization of the time duration of the deep burn phase is given. Further on, a detailed balance of different isotopic inventories is given to allow a deeper understanding of the processes during transmutation in the molten salt fast reactor. The effect of modeling and simulation is investigated based on three different modeling strategies and two different code versions. PMID:26717509

  2. Transmutation of All German Transuranium under Nuclear Phase Out Conditions - Is This Feasible from Neutronic Point of View?

    PubMed

    Merk, Bruno; Litskevich, Dzianis

    2015-01-01

    The German government has decided for the nuclear phase out, but a decision on a strategy for the management of the highly radioactive waste is not defined yet. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) could be considered as a technological option for the management of highly radioactive waste, therefore a wide study has been conducted. In the study group objectives for P&T and the boundary conditions of the phase out have been discussed. The fulfillment of the given objectives is analyzed from neutronics point of view using simulations of a molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum. It is shown that the efficient transmutation of all existing transuranium isotopes would be possible from neutronic point of view in a time frame of about 60 years. For this task three reactors of a mostly new technology would have to be developed and a twofold life cycle consisting of a transmuter operation and a deep burn phase would be required. A basic insight for the optimization of the time duration of the deep burn phase is given. Further on, a detailed balance of different isotopic inventories is given to allow a deeper understanding of the processes during transmutation in the molten salt fast reactor. The effect of modeling and simulation is investigated based on three different modeling strategies and two different code versions.

  3. Transmutation of All German Transuranium under Nuclear Phase Out Conditions - Is This Feasible from Neutronic Point of View?

    PubMed

    Merk, Bruno; Litskevich, Dzianis

    2015-01-01

    The German government has decided for the nuclear phase out, but a decision on a strategy for the management of the highly radioactive waste is not defined yet. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) could be considered as a technological option for the management of highly radioactive waste, therefore a wide study has been conducted. In the study group objectives for P&T and the boundary conditions of the phase out have been discussed. The fulfillment of the given objectives is analyzed from neutronics point of view using simulations of a molten salt reactor with fast neutron spectrum. It is shown that the efficient transmutation of all existing transuranium isotopes would be possible from neutronic point of view in a time frame of about 60 years. For this task three reactors of a mostly new technology would have to be developed and a twofold life cycle consisting of a transmuter operation and a deep burn phase would be required. A basic insight for the optimization of the time duration of the deep burn phase is given. Further on, a detailed balance of different isotopic inventories is given to allow a deeper understanding of the processes during transmutation in the molten salt fast reactor. The effect of modeling and simulation is investigated based on three different modeling strategies and two different code versions. PMID:26717509

  4. Transmutation of Isotopes --- Ecological and Energy Production Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudowski, Waclaw

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes principles of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Wastes (ATW) and gives some flavour of the most important topics which are today under investigations in many countries. An assessment of the potential impact of ATW on a future of nuclear energy is also given. Nuclear reactors based on self-sustained fission reactions --- after spectacular development in fifties and sixties, that resulted in deployment of over 400 power reactors --- are wrestling today more with public acceptance than with irresolvable technological problems. In a whole spectrum of reasons which resulted in today's opposition against nuclear power few of them are very relevant for the nuclear physics community and they arose from the fact that development of nuclear power had been handed over to the nuclear engineers and technicians with some generically unresolved problems, which should have been solved properly by nuclear scientists. In a certain degree of simplification one can say, that most of the problems originate from very specific features of a fission phenomenon: self-sustained chain reaction in fissile materials and very strong radioactivity of fission products and very long half-life of some of the fission and activation products. And just this enormous concentration of radioactive fission products in the reactor core is the main problem of managing nuclear reactors: it requires unconditional guarantee for the reactor core integrity in order to avoid radioactive contamination of the environment; it creates problems to handle decay heat in the reactor core and finally it makes handling and/or disposal of spent fuel almost a philosophical issue, due to unimaginable long time scales of radioactive decay of some isotopes. A lot can be done to improve the design of conventional nuclear reactors (like Light Water Reactors); new, better reactors can be designed but it seems today very improbable to expect any radical change in the public perception of conventional

  5. Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Charles D.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

  6. Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, C.D.

    1992-11-03

    Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

  7. Overall assessment of actinide partitioning and transmutation for waste management purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Blomeke, J. O.; Croff, A. G.; Finney, B. C.; Tedder, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    A program to establish the technical feasibility and incentives for partitioning (i.e., recovering) actinides from fuel cycle wastes and then transmuting them in power reactors to shorter-lived or stable nuclides has recently been concluded at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The feasibility was established by experimentally investigating the reduction that can be practicably achieved in the actinide content of the wastes sent to a geologic repository, and the incentives for implementing this concept were defined by determining the incremental costs, risks, and benefits. Eight US Department of Energy laboratories and three private companies participated in the program over its 3-year duration. A reference fuel cycle was chosen based on a self-generated plutonium recycle PWR, and chemical flowsheets based on solvent extraction and ion-exchange techniques were generated that have the potential to reduce actinides in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plant wastes to less than 0.25% of those in the spent fuel. Waste treatment facilities utilizing these flowsheets were designed conceptually, and their costs were estimated. Finally, the short-term (contemporary) risks from fuel cycle operations and long-term (future) risks from deep geologic disposal of the wastes were estimated for cases with and without partitioning and transmutation. It was concluded that, while both actinide partitioning from wastes and transmutation in power reactors appear to be feasible using currently identified and studied technology, implementation of this concept cannot be justified because of the small long-term benefits and substantially increased costs of the concept.

  8. A Los Alamos concept for accelerator transmutation of waste and energy production (ATW)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This document contains the diagrams presented at the ATW (Accelerator Transmutation of Waste and Energy Production) External Review, December 10-12, 1990, held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Included are the charge to the committee and the presentations for the committee`s review. Topics of the presentations included an overview of the concept, LINAC technology, near-term application -- high-level defense wastes (intense thermal neutron source, chemistry and materials), advanced application of the ATW concept -- fission energy without a high-level waste stream (overview, advanced technology, and advanced chemistry), and a summary of the research issues.

  9. Recent development of the CINDER`90 transmutation code and data library for actinide transmutation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.B.; England, T.R.; George, D.C.; Muir, D.W.; Young, P.G.

    1995-09-01

    CINDER`90 is a neutron transmutation code evolved from earlier versions of CINDER and REAC, using the algorithm of CINDER with modifications to accommodate the input of additional constant destruction and production rates associated with reactions outside of the code`s particle or energy domain. In conjunction with other codes simulating the radiation environment, CINDER`90 has been used to describe nuclide inventories in a variety of applications. The library of nuclear data, constantly growing in breadth and quality with international cooperation, now describes 3,400 nuclides in the range 1 {le} Z {le} 103.

  10. Radiation Effects on the Sorption and Mobilization of Radionuclide during Transport through the Geosphere

    SciTech Connect

    L.M. Wang; R.C. Eqing; K.F. Hayes

    2004-03-14

    Site restoration activities at DOE facilities and the permanent disposal of nuclear waste inevitably involve understanding the behavior of materials in a radiation field. Radionuclide decay and the associated radiation fields lead to physical and chemical changes that can degrade or enhance important material properties. Alpha-decay of the actinide elements and beta-decay of the fission products lead to atomic-scale changes in materials (radiation damage and transmutation).

  11. TRU transmutation in thorium-based heterogeneous PWR core

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Kang-Mok; Lim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2004-07-01

    A thorium-based seed and blanket design concept for a conventional pressurized light water reactor (PWR) was proposed to enhance the proliferation resistance potential and fuel cycle economics. The KTF core was satisfied with neutronic and thermal-hydraulic design limit of conventional PWR, APR-1400. In order to evaluate transmutation capability of a thorium-based KTF core, U/Zr seed fuel mixed with 10% TRU which come from 1,000 MWe power reactor after 10 years decay was proposed and analyzed by transmutation indices such as D{sub j}, TEX and SR. KTF core showed an extended fuel cycle burnup; average burnup of seed was 79.5 MWd/kgHM and blanket was 94.6 MWd/kgHM. It means that residence time of TRU in the core could be long enough for transmutation when TRU is mixed in seed fuel. The amount of TRU production from conventional PWR could be transmuted in the KTF-TRU core, especially Am-241 isotope is remarkably transmuted by capture reaction. Even isotopes of curium were cumulated in the core during the burnup, however, KTF-TRU core could reduce the TRU in spent fuel by using well-thermalized neutron spectrum. Proliferation resistance potential of thorium based transmutation fuel is slightly increased. About 31% reduction of TRU amount was measured from reduced plutonium production from U-238. Total amount of Am-241 was reduced significantly, but total amount of minor actinide (MA) was reduced by 28% of its initial loading mass. (authors)

  12. Nickel Foil as Transmutation Detector for Neutron Fluence Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klupák, Vít; Viererbl, Ladislav; Lahodová, Zdena; Šoltés, Jaroslav; Tomandl, Ivo; Kudějová, Petra

    2016-02-01

    Activation detectors are very often used for determination of the neutron fluence in reactor dosimetry. However, there are few disadvantages concerning these detectors; it is the demand of the knowledge of the irradiation history and a loss of information due to a radioactive decay in time. Transmutation detectors TMD could be a solution in this case. The transmutation detectors are materials in which stable or long-lived nuclides are produced by nuclear reactions with neutrons. From a measurement of concentration of these nuclides, neutron fluence can be evaluated regardless of the cooling time.

  13. Accelerator-driven transmutation of high-level waste from the defense and commercial sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.; Arthur, E.; Beard, C.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The major goal has been to develop accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) system designs that will thoroughly and rapidly transmute nuclear waste, including plutonium from dismantled weapons and spent reactor fuel, while generating useful electrical power and without producing a long-lived radioactive waste stream. We have identified and quantified the unique qualities of subcritical nuclear systems and their capabilities in bringing about the complete destruction of plutonium. Although the 1191 subcritical systems involved in our most effective designs radically depart from traditional nuclear reactor concepts, they are based on extrapolations of existing technologies. Overall, care was taken to retain the highly desired features that nuclear technology has developed over the years within a conservative design envelope. We believe that the ATW systems designed in this project will enable almost complete destruction of nuclear waste (conversion to stable species) at a faster rate and without many of the safety concerns associated with the possible reactor approaches.

  14. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    Radionuclide - gallbladder; Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy: HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... small amount of morphine. This can help the radionuclide get into the gallbladder. The morphine may cause ...

  15. Characterization of nuclear transmutations in materials irradiated test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents a comparison of nuclear transmutation rates for candidate fusion first wall/blanket structural materials in available, fission test reactors with those produced in a typical fusion spectrum. The materials analyzed in this study include a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti), a reduced activation martensitic steel (Fe-9Cr-2WVTa), a high conductivity copper alloy (Cu-Cr-Zr), and the SiC compound. The fission irradiation facilities considered include the EBR-II fast reactor, and two high flux mixed spectrum reactors, HFIR (High Flux Irradiation Reactor) and SM-3 (Russian reactor). The transmutation and dpa rates that occur in these test reactors are compared with the calculated transmutation and dpa rates characteristic of a D-T fusion first wall spectrum. In general, past work has shown that the displacement damage produced in these fission reactors can be correlated to displacement damage in a fusion spectrum; however, the generation of helium and hydrogen through threshold reactions [(n,x,{alpha}) and (n,xp)] are much higher in a fusion spectrum. As shown in this study, the compositional changes for several candidate structural materials exposed to a fast fission reactor spectrum are very low, similar to those for a characteristic fusion spectrum. However, the relatively high thermalized spectrum of a mixed spectrum reactor produces transmutation rates quite different from the ones predicted for a fusion reactor, resulting in substantial differences in the final composition of several candidate alloys after relatively short irradiation time.

  16. Application of gaseous core reactors for transmutation of nuclear waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnitzler, B. G.; Paternoster, R. R.; Schneider, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    An acceptable management scheme for high-level radioactive waste is vital to the nuclear industry. The hazard potential of the trans-uranic actinides and of key fission products is high due to their nuclear activity and/or chemical toxicity. Of particular concern are the very long-lived nuclides whose hazard potential remains high for hundreds of thousands of years. Neutron induced transmutation offers a promising technique for the treatment of problem wastes. Transmutation is unique as a waste management scheme in that it offers the potential for "destruction" of the hazardous nuclides by conversion to non-hazardous or more manageable nuclides. The transmutation potential of a thermal spectrum uranium hexafluoride fueled cavity reactor was examined. Initial studies focused on a heavy water moderated cavity reactor fueled with 5% enriched U-235-F6 and operating with an average thermal flux of 6 times 10 to the 14th power neutrons/sq cm-sec. The isotopes considered for transmutation were I-129, Am-241, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, and Cm-246.

  17. Accelerator-driven transmutation of spent fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Venneri, Francesco; Williamson, Mark A.; Li, Ning

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is described for transmuting higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. Uranium may also be enriched, thereby providing new fuel for use in conventional nuclear power plants. An accelerator provides the additional neutrons required to perform the processes. The size of the accelerator needed to complete fuel cycle closure depends on the neutron efficiency of the supported reactors and on the neutron spectrum of the actinide transmutation apparatus. Treatment of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWRs) using uranium-based fuel will require the largest accelerator power, whereas neutron-efficient high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) or CANDU reactors will require the smallest accelerator power, especially if thorium is introduced into the newly generated fuel according to the teachings of the present invention. Fast spectrum actinide transmutation apparatus (based on liquid-metal fuel) will take full advantage of the accelerator-produced source neutrons and provide maximum utilization of the actinide-generated fission neutrons. However, near-thermal transmutation apparatus will require lower standing

  18. Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei

    DOEpatents

    Maenchen, J.E.; Ruiz, C.L.

    1998-06-09

    Insuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to medicine and industry. This invention addresses this problem, and helps to solve it by introducing a new apparatus for transmutation of isotopes which enables swift and flexible production on demand. 9 figs.

  19. Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei

    DOEpatents

    Maenchen, J.E.; Ruiz, C.L.

    1998-12-08

    Insuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to medicine and industry. This invention addresses this problem, and helps to solve it by introducing a new apparatus for transmutation of isotopes which enables swift and flexible production on demand. 9 figs.

  20. Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei

    DOEpatents

    Maenchen, John Eric; Ruiz, Carlos Leon

    1998-01-01

    Insuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to medicine and industry. This invention addresses this problem, and helps to solve it by introducing a new apparatus for transmutation of isotopes which enables swift and flexible production on demand.

  1. Analysis of the Gas Core Actinide Transmutation Reactor (GCATR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Design power plant studies were carried out for two applications of the plasma core reactor: (1) As a breeder reactor, (2) As a reactor able to transmute actinides effectively. In addition to the above applications the reactor produced electrical power with a high efficiency. A reactor subsystem was designed for each of the two applications. For the breeder reactor, neutronics calculations were carried out for a U-233 plasma core with a molten salt breeding blanket. A reactor was designed with a low critical mass (less than a few hundred kilograms U-233) and a breeding ratio of 1.01. The plasma core actinide transmutation reactor was designed to transmute the nuclear waste from conventional LWR's. The spent fuel is reprocessed during which 100% of Np, Am, Cm, and higher actinides are separated from the other components. These actinides are then manufactured as oxides into zirconium clad fuel rods and charged as fuel assemblies in the reflector region of the plasma core actinide transmutation reactor. In the equilibrium cycle, about 7% of the actinides are directly fissioned away, while about 31% are removed by reprocessing.

  2. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F.

    2008-07-15

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners.

  3. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT∕CT and PET∕CT scanners. PMID:18697529

  4. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  5. Risks to the public from historical releases of radionuclides and chemicals at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site.

    PubMed

    Till, John E; Rood, Arthur S; Voillequé, Paul G; McGavran, Patricia D; Meyer, Kathleen R; Grogan, Helen A; Sinclair, Warren K; Aanenson, Jill W; Meyer, H Robert; Mohler, H Justin; Rope, Susan K; Case, Marilyn J

    2002-09-01

    This paper summarizes the methods and results of estimating risks of cancer incidence resulting from plutonium, carbon tetrachloride, and beryllium releases from operations at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado, from 1953 through 1989. The key findings show that people who lived near the facility were exposed to plutonium mainly through inhalation during routine operations, from a major fire in 1957, and from plutonium resuspended from contaminated soil from an outdoor drum storage area, called the 903 Area. Results were presented for five exposure scenarios that were location-independent. Individuals described by the laborer scenario received the highest risk of all scenarios considered. Upper bound (95th percentile) incremental lifetime cancer incidence risks for the laborer scenario were in about the 10(-4) range (1 chance in 10,000) for developing cancer from Rocky Flats plutonium releases during a lifetime. At the 5th percentile level, the maximum cancer risk was about 10(-7) (1 chance in 10 million) for developing cancer during a lifetime. Estimated cancer risks at the 95th percentile level are within the range of for acceptable risks established by the US Environmental Protection Agency of 10(-6) to 10(-4). Carbon tetrachloride was found to be the chemical that presented the highest risk to the public. The 5th and 95th percentile risk values for exposure to carbon tetrachloride were 9.2x10(-7) and 2.5x10(-5), respectively. PMID:12198584

  6. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  7. Fusion transmutation of waste: design and analysis of the in-zinerator concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, S. M.; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Guild-Bingham, Avery (Texas A&M University, College Station, TX); Venneri, Francesco (General Atomics, San Diego, CA); Meier, Wayne; Alajo, A.B.; Johnson, T. R.; El-Guebaly, L. A.; Youssef, M. E.; Young, Michael F.; Drennen, Thomas E. (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A&M University, College Station, TX); Morrow, Charles W.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Wilson, Paul (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Grady, Ryan (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Keith, Rodney L.; Smith, James Dean; Cook, Jason T.; Sviatoslavsky, Igor N. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Willit, J. L. (Argonne Mational Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Cleary, Virginia D.; Kamery, William; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2006-11-01

    Due to increasing concerns over the buildup of long-lived transuranic isotopes in spent nuclear fuel waste, attention has been given in recent years to technologies that can burn up these species. The separation and transmutation of transuranics is part of a solution to decreasing the volume and heat load of nuclear waste significantly to increase the repository capacity. A fusion neutron source can be used for transmutation as an alternative to fast reactor systems. Sandia National Laboratories is investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver for this application. This report summarizes the initial design and engineering issues of this ''In-Zinerator'' concept. Relatively modest fusion requirements on the order of 20 MW can be used to drive a sub-critical, actinide-bearing, fluid blanket. The fluid fuel eliminates the need for expensive fuel fabrication and allows for continuous refueling and removal of fission products. This reactor has the capability of burning up 1,280 kg of actinides per year while at the same time producing 3,000 MWth. The report discusses the baseline design, engineering issues, modeling results, safety issues, and fuel cycle impact.

  8. Transmutation in ADS and needs for nuclear data, with an introduction to the n-TOF at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, E.; Embid, M.; Fernandez, R.; Garcia, J.; Villamarin, D.

    1999-11-16

    Transmutation can help in the nuclear waste problem by reducing seriously the life and amount of the most dangerous isotopes (radiotoxicity, heat, packing volume and neutron multiplication reductions). ADS are one of the best technologies for nuclear waste transmutation at large scale. Although enough information is available to prepare conceptual designs and make assessments on their performance, a large R and D campaign is required to obtain the precision data required to optimize the detailed engineering design and refine our expectations calculations on waste reduction by the different transmutation strategies being proposed. In particular a large R and D effort is required in nuclear physics, where fundamental differential measurements and integral verification experiments are required. In this sense, the PS213 n-TOF at CERN PS (at Switzerland) will become one of the largest installations to perform the fundamental differential measurements and a wide international collaboration has been setup to perform the cross section measuring campaign. Similarly, the MUSE and several other experiments taking place and in preparation in Europe, USA and Japan will provide the integral verification.

  9. Separation of Transmutation - and Fission-Produced Radioisotopes from Irradiated Beryllium

    SciTech Connect

    Troy J. Tranter; RIchard D. Tillotson; Nick R. Mann; Glen R. Longhurst

    2011-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a two-step solvent extraction-precipitation process for separating transmutation and fission products from irradiated beryllium. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluoroboric acids. Isotopes of 241Am, 239Pu, 85Sr, 60Co, and 137Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,Ndiisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide in tributyl phosphate diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The 60Co was separated by first forming a cobalt complex and then selectively precipitating the beryllium as a hydroxide. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each radionuclide. Transuranic isotope contamination levels are reduced to less than 100 nCi/g, and sources of high beta-gamma radiation (60Co, 137Cs, and 90Sr) are reduced to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. The separation process may be applicable to a recycle or waste disposition scenario.

  10. Factors Affecting the Stability of Matrix Materials for Actinides Transmutation and Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Rondinella, Vincenzo V.; Wiss, Thierry A.; Hiernaut, J-P; Lutique, Stphanie; Raison, P.; Staicu, D.; Weber, William J.; Fanghanel, T.

    2008-12-01

    The minimization of the long-term radiotoxicity of high level nuclear waste is an important criterion adopted for the development of advanced fuel cycles for the new generations of nuclear reactors. Pu recycling as fuel, and transmutation of Minor Actinides (MA: Np, Am, and in some concepts also Cm) in reactors and/or MA burners are the steps considered to achieve this goal. U-free compounds are considered as matrices for Pu, MA burning. In some cases, these matrices are envisaged also for the conditioning and immobilization of radionuclides in final disposal concepts. The list of properties of a good inert matrix includes good chemical compatibility with the actinides, easy and economical processes of fabrication and, if required, reprocessing, and good thermo-mechanical performance in-pile, in terms of thermal transport, swelling and high temperature stability. In addition, the material must retain the good properties under the cumulative effect of radiation damage, and fission product accumulation. Since good radiation resistance materials usually exhibit poor thermal transport, in some concepts the actinides are stabilized in a host phase (e.g. zirconia) dispersed in a high thermal conductivity matrix (either ceramic or metallic).

  11. Determination of Transmutation Effects in Crystalline Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Donald T.

    2000-06-01

    The overall goal of this project was to study key scientific issues related to the long-term stability and performance of crystalline waste forms under consideration for containment and disposal of nuclear waste. Our research efforts were focused on the effects of transmutation of 137Cs to 137Ba in crystalline pollucite (CsAlSi2O6). This transmutation issue is important to all crystalline nuclear waste forms, including spent fuel. In the research completed, we studied both surrogate samples and actual, 137Cs pollucite radioactive samples ({approx} 20 years old). Analytical techniques that pushed the envelope of existing capabilities were used, leading to limited, but significant, progress. This research was done at Argonne National Laboratory in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  12. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. I. Overall assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Croff, A.G.; Blomeke, J.O.; Finney, B.C.

    1980-06-01

    This report is concerned with an overall assessment of the feasibility of and incentives for partitioning (recovering) long-lived nuclides from fuel reprocessing and fuel refabrication plant radioactive wastes and transmuting them to shorter-lived or stable nuclides by neutron irradiation. The principal class of nuclides considered is the actinides, although a brief analysis is given of the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I. The results obtained in this program permit us to make a comparison of the impacts of waste management with and without actinide recovery and transmutation. Three major conclusions concerning technical feasibility can be drawn from the assessment: (1) actinide P-T is feasible, subject to the acceptability of fuels containing recycle actinides; (2) technetium P-T is feasible if satisfactory partitioning processes can be developed and satisfactory fuels identified (no studies have been made in this area); and (3) iodine P-T is marginally feasible at best because of the low transmutation rates, the high volatility, and the corrosiveness of iodine and iodine compounds. It was concluded on the basis of a very conservative repository risk analysis that there are no safety or cost incentives for actinide P-T. In fact, if nonradiological risks are included, the short-term risks of P-T exceed the long-term benefits integrated over a period of 1 million years. Incentives for technetium and iodine P-T exist only if extremely conservative long-term risk analyses are used. Further RD and D in support of P-T is not warranted.

  13. Radiation and transmutation effects relevant to solid nuclear waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, E.R.; Roy, R.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1981-03-15

    Radiation effects in insulating solids are discussed in a general way as an introduction to the quite sparse published work on radiation effects in candidate nuclear waste forms other than glasses. Likely effects of transmutation in crystals and the chemical mitigation strategy are discussed. It seems probable that radiation effects in solidified HLW will not be serious if the actinides can be wholly incorporated in such radiation-resistant phases as monazite or uraninite.

  14. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function.

  15. Transmutation of nuclear waste with a low-aspect-ratio tokamak neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bong Guen; Moon, Se Youn

    2014-10-01

    The transmutation characteristics of transuranics (TRUs) in a transmutation reactor based on a LAR (Low-aspect-ratio) tokamak as a neutron source are investigated. The optimum radial build of a transmutation reactor is found by using a coupled analysis of the tokamak systems and the neutron transport. The dependences of the transmutation characteristics on the aspect ratio A in the range of 1.5 to 2.5 and on the fusion power in the range of 150 to 500 MW are investigated. An equilibrium fuel cycle is developed for effective transmutation, and show that with one unit of the transmutation reactor based on the LAR tokamak producing fusion power in the range of a few hundred MWs, up to 3 PWRs (1.0 GWe capacity) can be supported with a burn-up fraction larger than 50%.

  16. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Radionuclides In Ground Water - Technical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attentuation) within the subsurface. In gen...

  17. Subsurface Characterization To Support Evaluation Of Radionuclide Transport And Attenuation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

  18. Fusion-fission hybrids for nuclear waste transmutation : a synergistic step between Gen-IV fission and fusion reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Craig Lee; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2007-09-01

    Energy demand and GDP per capita are strongly correlated, while public concern over the role of energy in climate change is growing. Nuclear power plants produce 16% of world electricity demands without greenhouse gases. Generation-IV advanced nuclear energy systems are being designed to be safe and economical. Minimizing the handling and storage of nuclear waste is important. NIF and ITER are bringing sustainable fusion energy closer, but a significant gap in fusion technology development remains. Fusion-fission hybrids could be a synergistic step to a pure fusion economy and act as a technology bridge. We discuss how a pulsed power-driven Z-pinch hybrid system producing only 20 MW of fusion yield can drive a sub-critical transuranic blanket that transmutes 1280 kg of actinide wastes per year and produces 3000 MW. These results are applicable to other inertial and magnetic fusion energy systems. A hybrid system could be introduced somewhat sooner because of the modest fusion yield requirements and can provide both a safe alternative to fast reactors for nuclear waste transmutation and a maturation path for fusion technology. The development and demonstration of advanced materials that withstand high-temperature, high-irradiation environments is a fundamental technology issue that is common to both fusion-fission hybrids and Generation-IV reactors.

  19. Front-end and back-end electrochemistry of molten salt in accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, M.A.; Venneri, F.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this work is to develop preparation and clean-up processes for the fuel and carrier salt in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology molten salt nuclear system. The front-end or fuel preparation process focuses on the removal of fission products, uranium, and zirconium from spent nuclear fuel by utilizing electrochemical methods (i.e., electrowinning). The same method provides the separation of the so-called noble metal fission products at the back-end of the fuel cycle. Both implementations would have important diversion safeguards. The proposed separation processes and a thermodynamic analysis of the electrochemical separation method are presented.

  20. (226)Ra measurement by LSC as a tool to assess the efficiency of a water treatment technology for removing radionuclides from groundwater.

    PubMed

    Suursoo, Siiri; Kiisk, Madis; Al-Malahmeh, Amer; Jantsikene, Alar; Putk, Kaisa; Lumiste, Liie

    2014-11-01

    A simple (226)Ra analysis procedure by LSC with an extractive scintillator was tested for evaluating the long-term radionuclides removal efficiency of a water treatment facility at Viimsi, Estonia. During the 14 months of operation, total radium removal efficiency of the treatment process has stayed over 90%, but the removal efficiencies of the different purification steps have varied notably. This demonstrates the need for routine monitoring of radium content in the water treatment plant.

  1. Cu-Doping of ZnO by Nuclear Transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Selim, F. A.; Tarun, M. C.; Wall, D. E.; Boatner, Lynn A; McCluskey, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide single crystals were doped with copper acceptors by means of the nuclear transmutation doping (NTD) method, which gives highly uniform dopant distributions and has a much higher probability of controlling the dopant locations in the lattice. The Cu doping was confirmed by the infrared absorption signature of Cu2+ at 5780 cm-1. Hall-effect measurements were performed to study the effect of CuZn on the electrical properties of ZnO. These measurements indicated that the Cu acceptor level lies 0.126 eV below the conduction-band minimum.

  2. Impact of Including Higher Actinides in Fast Reactor Transmutation Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    B. Forget; M. Asgari; R. Ferrer; S. Bays

    2007-09-01

    Previous fast reactor transmutation studies generally disregarded higher mass minor actinides beyond Cm-246 due to various considerations including deficiencies in nuclear cross-section data. Although omission of these higher mass actinides does not significantly impact the neutronic calculations and fuel cycle performance parameters follow-on neutron dose calculations related to fuel recycling, transportation and handling are significantly impacted. This report shows that including the minor actinides in the equilibrium fast reactor calculations will increase the predicted neutron emission by about 30%. In addition a sensitivity study was initiated by comparing the impact of different cross-section evaluation file for representing these minor actinides.

  3. Muonic alchemy: Transmuting elements with the inclusion of negative muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncada, Félix; Cruz, Daniel; Reyes, Andrés

    2012-06-01

    In this Letter we present a theoretical study of atoms in which one electron has been replaced by a negative muon. We have treated these muonic systems with the Any Particle Molecular Orbital (APMO) method. A comparison between the electronic and muonic radial distributions revealed that muons are much more localized than electrons. Therefore, the muonic cloud is screening effectively one positive charge of the nucleus. Our results have revealed that by replacing an electron in an atom by a muon there is a transmutation of the electronic properties of that atom to those of the element with atomic number Z - 1.

  4. Radionuclides in US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Calculation of transmutation in copper and comparison with measured electrical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Garner, F.A.; Edwards, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Calculations of the transmutation of pure cooper have been performed for the Fast Flux Test Facility/Materials Open Test Assembly (FFTF/MOTA) and for the STARFIRE first-wall fusion reactor. The principal transmutation products in decreasing order of importance are nickel, zinc, and cobalt. Contrary to previously published calculations, nickel and zinc are produced at nearly equal rates in FFTF, but cobalt is insignificant. The fusion reactor case shows much higher transmutation rates and produces about twice as much nickel as zinc. Transmutation rates for FFTF were determined using adjusted neutron energy spectra based on dosimetry measurements at various positions in the MOTA. The predicted transmutation rates were compared directly with nickel concentrations measured by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS) microchemistry and with measurements of the electrical conductivity of copper and two copper alloys irradiated in the MOTA. Measurements and calculations agree within {+-}15%.

  6. Specific contributions of the Dutch programme ``RAS'' towards accelerator-based transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, K.; Franken, W. M. P.; Bultman, J. H.; Heil, J. A.; Koning, A. J.

    1995-09-01

    Accelerator-based transmutation is being studied by ECN within its general nuclear waste transmutation programme RAS. In this paper the following contributions are presented: 1) Evaluation of cross sections at intermediate energies, within an international frame given by NEA, 2) Cell calculations on the equilibration of transuranium actinides in thermal molten-salt transmuters, 3) Irradiation facilities at the European research reactor HFR in Petten, which have been constructed with the purpose to demonstrate and investigate the transmutation of waste in a high neutron flux, 4) Studies of accelerator-based neutron generating systems to transmute neptunium and technetium, 5) Comparison of several systems on the basis of criteria for successful nuclear waste-management.

  7. Feasibility study of nuclear transmutation by negative muon capture reaction using the PHITS code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Shin-ichiro; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Feasibility of nuclear transmutation of fission products in high-level radioactive waste by negative muon capture reaction is investigated using the Particle and Heave Ion Transport code System (PHITS). It is found that about 80 % of stopped negative muons contribute to transmute target nuclide into stable or short-lived nuclide in the case of 135Cs, which is one of the most important nuclide in the transmutation. The simulation result also indicates that the position of transmutation is controllable by changing the energy of incident negative muon. Based on our simulation, it takes approximately 8.5 × 108years to transmute 500 g of 135Cs by negative muon beam with the highest intensity currently available.

  8. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VII. Long-term risk analysis of the geologic repository

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, S.E.; Conarty, R.L.; Ng, H.S.; Rahal, L.J.; Shirley, C.G.

    1980-09-01

    This report supports the overall assessment by Oak Ridge National Laboratory of actinide partitioning and transmutation by providing an analysis of the long-term risks associated with the terminal storage of wastes from a fuel cycle which incorporates partitioning and transmutation (P-T) and wastes from a cycle which does not. The system model and associated computer code, called AMRAW (Assessment Method for Radioactive Waste), are used for the analysis and are applied to the Los Medanos area in southeastern New Mexico. Because a conservative approach is used throughout, calculated results are believed to be consistently higher than reasonable expectations from actual disruptive incidents at the site and therefore are not directly suited for comparison with other analyses of the particular geologic location. The assessment is made with (1) the probabilistic, or risk, mode that uses combinations of reasonable possible release incidents with their probability of occurrence distributed and applied throughout the assessment period, and (2) the consequence mode that forces discrete release events to occur at specific times. An assessment period of 1 million years is used. The principal results are: (1) In all but the expulsive modes, /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I completely dominate cumulative effects based on their transport to man through leaching and movement with groundwater, effecting about 33,000 health effects (deaths) over the 1 million years; (2) P-T has only limited effectiveness in reducing long-term risk from a radionuclide waste repository under the conditions studied, and such effectiveness is essentially confined to the extremely unlikely (probability of occurrence 10/sup -12//year) expulsive events; (3) Removal or immobilization of /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I might provide benefits sufficiently tangible to warrant special consideration.

  9. Radionuclide Behavior in Containments.

    2000-02-14

    MATADOR analyzes the transport and deposition of radionuclides as vapor or aerosol through Light Water Reactor (LWR) containments during severe accidents and calculates environmental release fractions of radionuclides as a function of time. It is intended for use in system risk studies. The principal output is information on the timing and magnitude of radionuclide releases to the environment as a result of severely degraded core accidents. MATADOR considers the transport of radionuclides through the containmentmore » and their removal by natural deposition and the operation of engineered safety systems such as sprays. Input data on the source term from the primary system, the containment geometry, and thermal-hydraulic conditions are required.« less

  10. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  11. Practising alchemy: the transmutation of evidence into best health care.

    PubMed

    Goodyear-Smith, Felicity

    2011-04-01

    Alchemy was the synthesis or transmutation of all elements in perfect balance to obtain the philosopher's stone, the key to health. Just as alchemists sought this, so health practitioners always seek the best possible practice for optimal health outcomes for our patients. Best practice requires full knowledge--a little information can be dangerous. We need to serve our apprenticeship before we master our profession. Our profession is about improving health care. While the journey may start at medical school, the learning never ceases. It is not only about practising medicine, it is about the development of the practitioner. Professional practice requires systematic thinking combined with capacity to deal morally and creatively in areas of complexity and uncertainty appropriate to a specific context. It requires exemplary communication skills to interact with patients to facilitate collaborative decision making resulting in best practice. The synthesis of scientific and contextual evidence is a concept which applies to all disciplines where theoretical knowledge needs to be transferred to action to inform best practice. Decisions need to be made which take into account a complex array of factors, such as social and legal issues and resource constraints. Therefore, journey towards best practice involves transmutation of these three elements: scientific knowledge, the context in which it is applied and phronesis, the practical wisdom of the practitioner. All science has its limitations and we can never know all possible contextual information. Hence, like the philosopher's stone, best practice is a goal to which we aspire but never quite attain. PMID:21127021

  12. Practising alchemy: the transmutation of evidence into best health care.

    PubMed

    Goodyear-Smith, Felicity

    2011-04-01

    Alchemy was the synthesis or transmutation of all elements in perfect balance to obtain the philosopher's stone, the key to health. Just as alchemists sought this, so health practitioners always seek the best possible practice for optimal health outcomes for our patients. Best practice requires full knowledge--a little information can be dangerous. We need to serve our apprenticeship before we master our profession. Our profession is about improving health care. While the journey may start at medical school, the learning never ceases. It is not only about practising medicine, it is about the development of the practitioner. Professional practice requires systematic thinking combined with capacity to deal morally and creatively in areas of complexity and uncertainty appropriate to a specific context. It requires exemplary communication skills to interact with patients to facilitate collaborative decision making resulting in best practice. The synthesis of scientific and contextual evidence is a concept which applies to all disciplines where theoretical knowledge needs to be transferred to action to inform best practice. Decisions need to be made which take into account a complex array of factors, such as social and legal issues and resource constraints. Therefore, journey towards best practice involves transmutation of these three elements: scientific knowledge, the context in which it is applied and phronesis, the practical wisdom of the practitioner. All science has its limitations and we can never know all possible contextual information. Hence, like the philosopher's stone, best practice is a goal to which we aspire but never quite attain.

  13. Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Harp, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

  14. Georgia Tech Studies of Sub-Critical Advanced Burner Reactors with a D-T Fusion Tokamak Neutron Source for the Transmutation of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, W. M.

    2009-09-01

    The possibility that a tokamak D-T fusion neutron source, based on ITER physics and technology, could be used to drive sub-critical, fast-spectrum nuclear reactors fueled with the transuranics (TRU) in spent nuclear fuel discharged from conventional nuclear reactors has been investigated at Georgia Tech in a series of studies which are summarized in this paper. It is found that sub-critical operation of such fast transmutation reactors is advantageous in allowing longer fuel residence time, hence greater TRU burnup between fuel reprocessing stages, and in allowing higher TRU loading without compromising safety, relative to what could be achieved in a similar critical transmutation reactor. The required plasma and fusion technology operating parameter range of the fusion neutron source is generally within the anticipated operational range of ITER. The implications of these results for fusion development policy, if they hold up under more extensive and detailed analysis, is that a D-T fusion tokamak neutron source for a sub-critical transmutation reactor, built on the basis of the ITER operating experience, could possibly be a logical next step after ITER on the path to fusion electrical power reactors. At the same time, such an application would allow fusion to contribute to meeting the nation's energy needs at an earlier stage by helping to close the fission reactor nuclear fuel cycle.

  15. Description of Transmutation Library for Fuel Cycle System Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Edward A. Hoffman

    2010-08-01

    This report documents the Transmutation Library that is used in Fuel Cycle System Analyses. This version replaces the 2008 version.[Piet2008] The Transmutation Library has the following objectives: • Assemble past and future transmutation cases for system analyses. • For each case, assemble descriptive information such as where the case was documented, the purpose of the calculation, the codes used, source of feed material, transmutation parameters, and the name of files that contain raw or source data. • Group chemical elements so that masses in separation and waste processes as calculated in dynamic simulations or spreadsheets reflect current thinking of those processes. For example, the CsSr waste form option actually includes all Group 1A and 2A elements. • Provide mass fractions at input (charge) and output (discharge) for each case. • Eliminate the need for either “fission product other” or “actinide other” while conserving mass. Assessments of waste and separation cannot use “fission product other” or “actinide other” as their chemical behavior is undefined. • Catalog other isotope-specific information in one place, e.g., heat and dose conversion factors for individual isotopes. • Describe the correlations for how input and output compositions change as a function of UOX burnup (for LWR UOX fuel) or fast reactor (FR) transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR) for either FR-metal or FR-oxide. This document therefore includes the following sections: • Explanation of the data set information, i.e., the data that describes each case. In no case are all of the data presented in the Library included in previous documents. In assembling the Library, we return to raw data files to extract the case and isotopic data, into the specified format. • Explanation of which isotopes and elements are tracked. For example, the transition metals are tracked via the following: two Zr isotopes, Zr-other, Tc99, Tc-other, two Mo-Ru-Rh-Pd isotopes, Mo

  16. The impact of transmutant helium on weldability of austenitic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabritsiev, S. A.; Pokrovsky, A. S.; Brovko, V. A.

    1996-10-01

    The results of the investigation of 0.05-0.15 dpa neutron irradiation impact on the Cr16Ni11Mo3Ti austenitic steel weldability are presented. Samples were irradiated to doses of 10 20 n/cm 2 and 3 × 10 20 n/cm 2 ( E > 0.1 MeV) in the RBT-10 reactor, thus providing helium accumulation of 1 appm and 2.5 appm, respectively. Flat samples, 1 mm in thickness, were welded by an automatic device for argon arc welding in a hot chamber. Low-cycle fatigue (LCF) testing in bending was used to assess impact of helium on the degradation of welded joint properties. LCF tests showed that the transmutant helium accumulation resulted in a decrease in the number of cycles to failure at Ttest = 20°C and 350°C. It is concluded that repeated welding will present in the repair of ITER materials.

  17. Utilization of accelerators for transmutation and energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, Richard L

    2010-09-24

    Given the increased concern over reliable, emission-free power, nuclear power has experienced a resurgence of interest. A sub-critical accelerator driven system (ADS) can drive systems that have either safety constraints (waste transmutation) or reduced fissile content (thorium reactor). The goals of ADS are some or all of the following: (1) to significantly reduce the generation or impacts due to the minor actinides on the packing density and long-term radiotoxicity in the repository design, (2) preserve/use the energy-rich component of used nuclear fuel, and (3) reduce proliferation risk. ADS systems have been actively studied in Europe and Asia over the past two decades and renewed interest is occurring in the U.S. This talk will cover some of the history, possible applicable fuel cycle scenarios, and general issues to be considered in implementing ADS systems.

  18. Americium Transmutation Feasibility When Used as Burnable Absorbers - 12392

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaras, Sean A.; Knight, Travis W.

    2012-07-01

    The use of plutonium in Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel in traditional Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies leads to greater americium production which is not addressed in MOX recycling. The transuranic nuclides (TRU) contribute the most to the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and a reduction of the TRU stockpile would greatly reduce the overall radiotoxicity of what must be managed. Am-241 is a TRU of particular concern because it is the dominant contributor of total radiotoxicity for the first 1000 years in a repository. This research explored the feasibility of transmuting Am-241 by using varying amounts in MOX rods being used in place of burnable absorbers and evaluated with respect to the impact on incineration and transmutation of transuranics in MOX fuel as well as the impact on safety. This research concludes that the addition of americium to a non-uniform fuel assembly is a viable method of transmuting Am-241, holding down excess reactivity in the core while serving as a burnable poison, as well as reducing the radiotoxicity of high level waste that must be managed. The use of Am/MOX hybrid fuel assemblies to transmute americium was researched using multiple computer codes. Am-241 was shown in this study to be able to hold down excess reactivity at the beginning of cycle and shape the power distribution in the core with assemblies of varying americium content loaded in a pattern similar to the traditional use of assemblies with varying amounts of burnable absorbers. The feasibility, safety, and utility of using americium to create an Am/MOX hybrid non-uniform core were also evaluated. The core remained critical to a burnup of 22,000 MWD/MTM. The power coefficient of reactivity as well as the temperature and power defects were sufficiently negative to provide a prompt feedback mechanism in case of a transient and prevent a power excursion, thus ensuring inherent safety and protection of the core. As shown here as well as many other studies, this non

  19. FUEL CYCLE ISOTOPE EVOLUTION BY TRANSMUTATION DYNAMICS OVER MULTIPLE RECYCLES

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel Bays; Steven Piet; Amaury Dumontier

    2010-06-01

    Because all actinides have the ability to fission appreciably in a fast neutron spectrum, these types of reactor systems are usually not associated with the buildup of higher mass actinides: curium, berkelium and californium. These higher actinides have high specific decay heat power, gamma and neutron source strengths, and are usually considered as a complication to the fuel manufacturing and transportation of fresh recycled transuranic fuel. This buildup issue has been studied widely for thermal reactor fuels. However, recent studies have shown that the transmutation physics associated with "gateway isotopes" dictates Cm-Bk-Cf buildup, even in fast burner reactors. Assuming a symbiotic fuel relationship with light water reactors (LWR), Pu-242 and Am-243 are formed in the LWRs and then are externally fed to the fast reactor as part of its overall transuranic fuel supply. These isotopes are created much more readily in a thermal than in fast spectrum systems due to the differences in the fast fission (i.e., above the fission threshold for non-fissile actinides) contribution. In a strictly breeding fast reactor this dependency on LWR transuranics would not exist, and thus avoids the introduction of LWR derived gateway isotopes into the fast reactor system. However in a transuranic burning fast reactor, the external supply of these gateway isotopes behaves as an external driving force towards the creation and build-up of Cm-Bk-Cf in the fuel cycle. It was found that though the Cm-Bk-Cf concentration in the equilibrium fuel cycle is dictated by the fast neutron spectrum, the time required to reach that equilibrium concentration is dictated by recycle, transmutation and decay storage dynamics.

  20. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H

    2005-07-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  1. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  2. Radionuclide studies in impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Hilson, A.J.; Lewis, C.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Impotence may be of physiological origin with causes including vascular or neurological pathology. Alternatively, it may be of psychogenic origin. Clinicians can distinguish between psychological and organic impotence by observing nocturnal penile tumescence. Non-radionuclide investigations for organic impotence include penile plethysmography or pulse Doppler analysis for arterial supply, cavernosometry for venous drainage, and biothesiometry or evoked potentials for neurological pathology. Radionuclide studies are primarily based on the use of technetium 99m-pertechnetate, 99mTc-red blood cells, or xenon 133 to study the blood flow, with or without pharmacological intervention, commonly papaverine. 26 references.

  3. Multi-Reactor Transmutation Analysis Utility (MRTAU,alpha1): Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Andrea Alfonsi; Samuel E. Bays; Cristian Rabiti; Steven J. Piet

    2011-02-01

    Multi-Reactor Transmutation Utility (MRTAU) is a general depletion/decay algorithm under development at INL to support quick assessment of off-normal fuel cycle scenarios of similar nature to well studied reactor and fuel cycle concepts for which isotopic and cross-section data exists. MRTAU has been used in the past for scoping calculations to determine actinide composition evolution over the course of multiple recycles in Light Water Reactor Mixed Oxide and Sodium cooled Fast Reactor. In these applications, various actinide partitioning scenarios of interest were considered. The code has recently been expanded to include fission product generation, depletion and isotopic evolution over multiple recycles. The capability was added to investigate potential partial separations and/or limited recycling technologies such as Melt-Refining, AIROX, DUPIC or other fuel recycle technology where the recycled fuel stream is not completely decontaminated of fission products prior to being re-irradiated in a subsequent reactor pass. This report documents the code's solution methodology and algorithm as well as its solution accuracy compared to the SCALE6.0 software suite.

  4. Numerical evaluation of the production of radionuclides in a nuclear reactor (Part I).

    PubMed

    Mirzadeh, S; Walsh, P

    1998-04-01

    Numerical evaluation of nuclear transmutations is essential for optimization of radionuclide production. Accordingly, we have developed a generalized computer program called LAURA for predicting the production rates of radionuclides in a nuclear reactor. The program is generalized in the sense that it can be used for calculation of the production rate of any member of a network undergoing spontaneous decay and/or induced neutron transformation in a nuclear reactor. In this paper (Part I), we describe the mathematical basis for the development of LAURA. Expressions based on the Rubinson (1949) approach have been used for the evaluation of the depletion functions. This method is also valid when some of the depletion constants have identical values; thus, the approximate solution of Raykin and Shlyakhter (1989) can be used to account for the effects of feedback due to alpha decay.

  5. Conceptual study of fusion-driven transmutation reactor with ITER physics and engineering constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bong

    2011-10-01

    A conceptual study of fusion-driven transmutation reactor was performed based on ITER physics and engineering constraints. A compact reactor concept is desirable from an economic viewpoint. For the optimal design of a reactor, a radial build of reactor components has to be determined by considering the plasma physics and engineering constraints which inter-relate various reactor components. In a transmutation reactor, design of blanket and shield play a key role in determining the size of a reactor; the blanket should produce enough tritium for tritium self-sufficiency, the transmutation rate of waste has to be maximized, and the shield should provide sufficient protection for the superconducting toroidal field (TF) coil. To determine the radial build of the blanket and the shield, not only a radiation transport analysis but also a burnup calculation were coupled with the system analysis and it allowed the self-consistent determination of the design parameters of a transmutation reactor.

  6. FIRST-PRINCIPLES CALCULATIONS OF INTRINSIC DEFECTS AND Mg TRANSMUTANTS IN 3C-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Jiang, Weilin; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2013-09-25

    Silicon carbide (SiC) possesses many desirable attributes for applications in high-temperature and neutron radiation environments. These attributes include excellent dimensional and thermodynamic stability, low activation, high strength, and high thermal conductivity. Therefore, SiC based materials draw broad attention as structural materials for the first wall (FW) and blanket in fusion power plants. Under the severe high-energy neutron environment of D-T fusion systems, SiC suffers significant transmutation resulting in both gaseous and metallic transmutants. Recent calculations by Sawan, et al. [2] predict that at a fast neutron dose of ~100 dpa, there will be about 0.5 at% Mg generated in SiC through nuclear transmutation. Other transmutation products, including 0.15 at% Al, 0.2 at% Be and 2.2 at% He, also emerge. Formation and migration energies of point defects in 3C-SiC have been widely investigated using density functional theory (DFT). However, the properties of defects associated with transmutants are currently not well understood. Fundamental understanding of where the transmutation products go and how they affect microstructure evolution of SiC composites will help to predict property evolution and performance of SiC-based materials in fusion reactors.

  7. Technical and economic assessment of different options for minor actinide transmutation: the French case

    SciTech Connect

    Chabert, C.; Coquelet-Pascal, C.; Saturnin, A.; Mathonniere, G.; Boullis, B.; Warin, D.; Van Den Durpel, L.; Caron-Charles, M.; Garzenne, C.

    2013-07-01

    Studies have been performed to assess the industrial perspectives of partitioning and transmutation of long-lived elements. These studies were carried out in tight connection with GEN-IV systems development. The results include the technical and economic evaluation of fuel cycle scenarios along with different options for optimizing the processes between the minor actinide transmutation in fast neutron reactors, their interim storage and geological disposal of ultimate waste. The results are analysed through several criteria (impacts on waste, on waste repository, on fuel cycle plants, on radiological exposure of workers, on costs and on industrial risks). These scenario evaluations take place in the French context which considers the deployment of the first Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) in 2040. 3 management options of minor actinides have been studied: no transmutation, transmutation in SFR and transmutation in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). Concerning economics the study shows that the cost overrun related to the transmutation process could vary between 5 to 9% in SFR and 26 % in the case of ADS.

  8. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  9. Minimum B mirror with expander aimed for transmutation and energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ågren, Olov; Moiseenko, V. E.; Noack, Klaus; Hagnestål, Anders

    2009-11-01

    A comparatively simple fusion driven fission device may be developed for industrial transmutation and energy production from spent nuclear waste [1-2]. This opportunity stems from the large fission to fusion power production ratio, Pfis/Pfus 150, in a subcritical fusion device surrounded by a fission mantle with the neutron multiplicity keff =0.96. Power production is predicted if the electron temperature exceeds 700 eV. The expanders may improve the electron temperature by a formation of an ambipolar potential. Theoretical studies include RF heating, magnetic coil designs, fission mantle kinetics and some basic plasma investigations. A 20 m long mirror with a 40 cm plasma radius could be sufficient for a electric power production of 500 MW. [1] S. Taczanowski, ``Premises for development of fusion-fission hybrid systems'' in IAEA-RC-870.3, TWG-FR/132, Chennai, India 15 -- 19 January 2007. [2] O. ågren, V.E. Moiseenko, A. Hagnestål, ``The straight field line mirror concept and applications'', Problems of atomic science and technology 6. Series: Plasma Physics, 8 (2008).

  10. Naturalness and dimensional transmutation in classically scale-invariant gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einhorn, Martin B.; Jones, D. R. Timothy

    2015-03-01

    We discuss the nature of quantum field theories involving gravity that are classically scale-invariant. We show that gravitational radiative corrections are crucial in the determination of the nature of the vacuum state in such theories, which are renormalisable, technically natural, and can be asymptotically free in all dimensionless couplings. In the pure gravity case, we discuss the role of the Gauss-Bonnet term, and we find that Dimensional Transmutation (DT) à la Coleman-Weinberg leads to extrema of the effective action corresponding to nonzero values of the curvature, but such that these extrema are local maxima. In even the simplest extension of the theory to include scalar fields, we show that the same phenomenon can lead to extrema that are local minima of the effective action, with both non-zero curvature and non-zero scalar vacuum expectation values, leading to spontaneous generation of the Planck mass. Although we find an asymptotically free (AF) fixed point exists, unfortunately, no running of the couplings connect the region of DT to the basin of attraction of the AF fixed point. We also find there remains a flat direction for one of the conformal modes. We suggest that in more realistic models AF and DT could be compatible, and that the same scalar vacuum expectation values could be responsible both for DT and for spontaneous breaking of a Grand Unified gauge group.

  11. Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation. [uranium hexafluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.; Wan, P. T.; Chow, S.

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design of a uranium hexafluoride actinide transmutation reactor to convert long-lived actinide wastes to shorter-lived fission product wastes was analyzed. It is shown that externally moderated gas core reactors are ideal radiators. They provide an abundant supply of thermal neutrons and are insensitive to composition changes in the blanket. For the present reactor, an initial load of 6 metric tons of actinides is loaded. This is equivalent to the quantity produced by 300 LWR-years of operation. At the beginning, the core produces 2000 MWt while the blanket generates only 239 MWt. After four years of irradiation, the actinide mass is reduced to 3.9 metric tonnes. During this time, the blanket is becoming more fissile and its power rapidly approaches 1600 MWt. At the end of four years, continuous refueling of actinides is carried out and the actinide mass is held constant. Equilibrium is essentially achieved at the end of eight years. At equilibrium, the core is producing 1400 MWt and the blanket 1600 MWt. At this power level, the actinide destruction rate is equal to the production rate from 32 LWRs.

  12. Compton Radiation for Nuclear Waste Management and Transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulyak, E.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-10-01

    Compton inverse radiation is emitted in the process of backscattering of the laser pulses off the relativistic electrons. This radiation possesses high spectral density and high energy of photons--in hard x-ray up to gammaray energy range--with moderate electron energies (hundreds of MeV up to 1 GeV) due to short wavelength of the laser radiation. The Compton radiation is well collimated: emitting within a narrow cone along the electron beam. A distinct property of the Compton inverse radiation is a steep high-energy cutoff of the spectrum and the maximal intensity just below the cutoff. The Compton sources can attain: spectral density up to 1014 gammas/(s 0.1%bandwidth) in MeV range of energies, and spectral brightness up to 1020 gammas/(smm2mr2 0.1% bw). Applicability of Compton sources for nuclear waste management and detection of radioisotopes and fissionable nuclides are discussed in the report. Also application limits of Compton gamma sources for transmutation of radioactive isotopes are estimated. A recently proposed subtracting method, in which two sets of data obtained by irradiating the object by the Compton beams with slightly different maximal energies are compared, will enhance resolution of detection radioactive elements at the 'atomic' (hundreds of keV) and the 'nuclear' (a few MeV) photon energies.

  13. Radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Webber, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging of the skeleton, now well established as the most important diagnostic procedure in detecting bone metastases, is also a reliable method for the evaluation of the progression or regression of metastatic bone disease. The article concentrates on the technetium-99m agents and the value of these agents in the widespread application of low-dose radioisotope scanning in such bone diseases as metastasis, osteomyelitis, trauma, osteonecrosis, and other abnormal skeletal conditions.

  14. Radionuclide therapy beyond radioiodine.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Michael

    2012-10-01

    For decades, Iodine-131 has been used for the treatment of patients with thyroid cancer. In recent years, increasingly, other radiopharmaceuticals are in clinical use in the treatment of various malignant diseases. Although in principle these therapies-as in all applications of radionuclides-special radiation protection measures are required, a separate nuclear medicine therapy department is not necessary in many cases due to the lower or lack of gamma radiation. In the following article, four different radionuclide therapies are more closely presented which are emerging in the last years. One of them is the "Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy," the so-called PRRT in which radiolabeled somatostatin (SST)-receptor(R) ligands are used in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. On the basis of radiolabeled antibodies against CD20-positive cells, the so-called radioimmunotherapy is used in the treatment of certain forms of malignant lymphoma. In primary or secondary liver tumors, the (90)Y-labeled particles can be administered. Last but not the least, the palliative approach of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals is noted in patients with painful bone metastases.

  15. Consultative committee on ionizing radiation: Impact on radionuclide metrology.

    PubMed

    Karam, L R; Ratel, G

    2016-03-01

    In response to the CIPM MRA, and to improve radioactivity measurements in the face of advancing technologies, the CIPM's consultative committee on ionizing radiation developed a strategic approach to the realization and validation of measurement traceability for radionuclide metrology. As a consequence, measurement institutions throughout the world have devoted no small effort to establish radionuclide metrology capabilities, supported by active quality management systems and validated through prioritized participation in international comparisons, providing a varied stakeholder community with measurement confidence. PMID:26688351

  16. Optimisation of composite metallic fuel for minor actinide transmutation in an accelerator-driven system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyttenhove, W.; Sobolev, V.; Maschek, W.

    2011-09-01

    A potential option for neutralization of minor actinides (MA) accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) is their transmutation in dedicated accelerator-driven systems (ADS). A promising fuel candidate dedicated to MA transmutation is a CERMET composite with Mo metal matrix and (Pu, Np, Am, Cm)O 2-x fuel particles. Results of optimisation studies of the CERMET fuel targeting to increasing the MA transmutation efficiency of the EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) core are presented. In the adopted strategy of MA burning the plutonium (Pu) balance of the core is minimized, allowing a reduction in the reactivity swing and the peak power form-factor deviation and an extension of the cycle duration. The MA/Pu ratio is used as a variable for the fuel optimisation studies. The efficiency of MA transmutation is close to the foreseen theoretical value of 42 kg TW -1 h -1 when level of Pu in the actinide mixture is about 40 wt.%. The obtained results are compared with the reference case of the EFIT core loaded with the composite CERCER fuel, where fuel particles are incorporated in a ceramic magnesia matrix. The results of this study offer additional information for the EFIT fuel selection.

  17. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  18. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2005-09-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest.

  19. Osteopetrosis: radiological & radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis.

  20. Biodecontamination of radionuclide contaminated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, M.A.; Rogers, R.D.; Benson, J.

    1996-10-01

    Within the nuclear industry, there are literally hundreds of square miles of radionuclide contaminated concrete surfaces. A novel technology for biologically decontaminating concrete is being developed. The technology exploits a naturally occurring phenomenon referred to as microbially influenced degradation (MID) in which bacteria produce acids that dissolve the cement matrix of the concrete. Accelerated testing in laboratory conditions was conducted. The bacteria Thiobacillus thiooxidans, supplied from a continuous flow bioreactor, was applied to an exposed concrete surface. A control chamber exposing concrete to sterile media was operated under the same conditions. One hundred percent of surrogate cobalt contamination was recovered from the Thiobacillus treated concrete and 1 mm thickness of concrete material was removed in 60 days. Prototype chambers that can be mounted directly to concrete surfaces have been designed to allow control of environmental conditions to promote MID after inoculation of the surface with bacteria. Studies to determine optimum source and quantity of reduced sulfur, bacterial species or consortia best suited for rapid MID, and methods of application and delivery of bacteria and nutrients will be discussed.

  1. Treatment of radionuclide contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Pettis, S.A.; Kallas, A.J.; Kochen, R.L.; McGlochlin, S.C.

    1988-06-01

    Rockwell, International, Rocky Flats Plants, is committed to remediating within the scope of RCRA/CERCLA, Solid Waste Managements Units (SWMUs) at Rocky Flats found to be contaminated with hazardous substances. SWMUs fund to have radionuclide (uranium, plutonium, and/or americium) concentrations in the soils and/or groundwater that exceed background levels or regulatory limits will also be included in this remediation effort. This paper briefly summarizes past and present efforts by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, to identify treatment technologies appropriate for remediating actinide contaminated soils. Many of the promising soil treatments evaluated in Rocky Flats' laboratories during the late 1970's and early 1980's are currently being revisited. These technologies are generally directed toward substantially reducing the volume of contaminated soils, with the subsequent intention of disposing of a small remaining concentrated fraction of contaminated soil in a facility approved to receive radioactive wastes. Treatment processes currently will be treated to remove actinides, and recycled back to the process. Past investigations have included evaluations of dry screening, wet screening, scrubbing, ultrasonics, chemical oxidation, calcination, desliming, flotation, and heavy-liquid density separation. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  2. The Minor Actinide Transmutation-Incineration Potential Studies in High Intensity Neutron Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Letourneau, A.; Chabod, S.; Foucher, Y.; Marie, F.; Ridikas, D.; Veyssiere, Ch.; Blandin, Ch.

    2005-05-24

    In the framework of nuclear waste transmutation studies, the Mini-INCA project has been initiated at CEA/DSM with objectives to determine optimal conditions for transmutation and incineration of Minor Actinides (MA) in high intensity neutron fluxes. Our experimental tools based on alpha- and gamma-spectroscopy of irradiated samples and the development of fission micro-chambers could gather both microscopic information on nuclear reactions (total and partial cross sections for neutron capture and/or fission reactions) and macroscopic information on transmutation and incineration potentials. Cross sections of selected actinides (241Am, 242Am, 242Pu, 237Np, 238Np) have already been measured at ILL, showing some discrepancies when compared to evaluated data libraries but in overall good agreement with recent experimental data.

  3. Study on partitioning and transmutation as a possible option for spent fuel management within a nuclear phase-out scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Fazion, C.; Rineiski, A.; Salvatores, M.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Romanello, V.; Vezzoni, B.; Gabrielli, F.

    2013-07-01

    Most Partitioning and Transmutation (PT) studies implicitly presuppose the continuous use of nuclear energy. In this case the development of new facilities or the modification of the fuel cycle can be justified in the long-term as an important feature in order to improve sustainability by minimizing radioactive waste and reducing the burden at waste disposal. In the case of a country with nuclear energy phase-out policy, the PT option might have also an important role for what concerns the final disposal strategies of the spent fuel. In this work three selected scenarios are analyzed in order to assess the impact of PT implementation in a nuclear energy phase out option. The scenarios are: -) Scenario 1: Identification of Research/Development activities needs for a technological development of PT while postponing the decision of PT implementation; -) Scenario 2: Isolated application of PT in a phase-out context; and -) Scenario 3: Implementation of PT in a European context. In order to facilitate the discrimination among the 3 scenarios, a number of figures of indicators have been evaluated for each scenario. The selected indicators are: the mass of High Level Waste (HLW), Uranium inventory, thermal output of HLW, Radiotoxicity, Fuel cycle secondary waste associated to the PT operation, and Facility capacity/number requirements. The reduction, due to PT implementation, of high level wastes masses and their associated volumes can be significant. For what concerns the thermal output and radiotoxicity a significant impact can be also expected. However, when assessing these two indicators the contribution coming from already vitrified waste should also not be neglected. Moreover, an increase of secondary waste inventory is also expected. On the contrary, the increase of fission product inventories due to the operation of the transmutation system has a relatively limited impact on the fuel cycle.

  4. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VI. Short-term risk analysis of reprocessing, refabrication, and transportation: appendix

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.R.; Jackson, R.

    1980-01-01

    The Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has prepared a set of documents that evaluate a Partitioning-Transmutation (PT) fuel cycle relative to a Reference cycle employing conventional fuel-material recovery methods. The PT cycle uses enhanced recovery methods so that most of the long-lived actinides are recycled to nuclear power plants and transmuted to shorter-lived materials, thereby reducing the waste toxicity. This report compares the two fuel cycles on the basis of the short-term radiological and nonradiological risks they present to the public and to workers. The accidental radiological risk to the public is analyzed by estimating the probabilities of sets of accidents; the consequences are calculated using the CRAC code appropriately modified for the material composition. Routine radiological risks to the public are estimated from the calculated release amounts; the effects are calculated using the CRAC code. Radiological occupational risks are determined from prior experience, projected standards, and estimates of accident risk. Nonradiological risks are calculated from the number of personnel involved, historical experience, and epidemiological studies. The result of this analysis is that the short-term risk of PT is 2.9 times greater than that of the Reference cycle, primarily due to the larger amount of industry. This conclusion is strongly dominated by the nonradiological risk, which is about 150 times greater than the radiological risk. The absolute risk as estimated for the fuel cycle portions considered in this report is 0.91 fatalities/GWe-year for the PT cycle and 0.34 fatalities/GWe-year for the Reference cycle. This should be compared with Inhaber's estimate of 1.5 for nuclear and 150 for coal. All of the risks assumed here are associated with the production of one billion watts of electricity (GWe) per year.

  5. Calculation and measurement of helium generation and solid transmutations in Cu-Zn-Ni alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, L.R.; Oliver, B.M.; Garner, F.A.; Muroga, T.

    1998-03-01

    A method was recently proposed by Garner and Greenwood that would allow the separation of the effects of solid and gaseous transmutation for Cu-Zn-Ni alloys. Pure copper produces zinc and nickel during neutron irradiation. {sup 63}Cu transmutes to {sup 64}Ni and {sup 64}Zn, in about a 2-to-1 ratio, and {sup 65}Cu transmutes to {sup 66}Zn. The {sup 64}Zn further transmutes to {sup 65}Zn which has been shown to have a high thermal neutron (n,{alpha}) cross-section. Since a three-step reaction sequence is required for natural copper, the amount of helium produced is much smaller than would be produced for the two-step, well-known {sup 58}Ni (n,{gamma}) {sup 59}Ni (n,{alpha}) reaction sequence. The addition of natural Zn and Ni to copper leads to greatly increased helium production in neutron spectra with a significant thermal component. Using a suitable Cu-Zn-Ni alloy matrix and comparative irradiation of thermal neutron-shielded and unshielded specimens, it should be possible to distinguish the separate influences of the solid and gaseous transmutants. Whereas helium generation rates have been previously measured for natural nickel and copper, they have not been measured for natural Zn or Cu-Ni-Zn alloys. The (N,{alpha}) cross section for {sup 65}Zn was inferred from helium measurements made with natural copper. By comparing helium production in Cu and Cu-Zn alloys, this cross section can be determined more accurately. In the current study, both the solid and helium transmutants were measured for Cu, Cu-5Ni, Cu-3.5Zn and Cu-5Ni-2Zn, irradiated in each of two positions in the HFIR JP-23 test. Highly accurate helium measurements were performed on these materials by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using a facility that was recently moved from Rockwell International to PNNL. It is shown that both the helium and solid transmutants for Cu-zn-Ni alloys can be calculated with reasonable certainty, allowing the development of a transmutation experiment as proposed by

  6. The concept of electro-nuclear facility for useful power generation and minor actinides transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergelson, B. R.; Balyuk, S. A.

    1995-09-01

    The possibility is shown to design in principle the double-purpose liquid fuel electro nuclear facility for useful power generation and minor actinides transmutation in U-Pu fuel cycle conditions. D2O and a melt of fluorine salts are considered as a working media for liquid fuel. Such facility replenished with depicted or natural uranium only makes it possible to generate power of 900 MW (c) for external consumers and serve 20 WWER-1000 reactors for transmutation of MA. The facility could be thought as an alternative to fast reactors since appr. 30% of the total power confined in uranium is utilized in it.

  7. Transmutation-induced embrittlement of V-Ti-Ni and V-Ni alloys in HFIR

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuki, S.; Takahashi, H.; Garner, F.A.; Pawel, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    Vanadium, V-1Ni, V-10Ti and V-10Ti-1Ni (at %) were irradiated in HFIR to doses ranging from 18 to 30 dpa and temperatures between 300 and 600C. Since the irradiation was conducted in a highly thermalized neutron spectrum without shielding against thermal neutrons, significant levels of chromium (15-22%) were formed by transmutation. The addition of such large chromium levels strongly elevated the ductile to brittle transition temperature. At higher irradiation temperatures radiation-induced segregation of transmutant Cr and solute Ti at specimen surfaces leads to strong increases in the density of the alloy.

  8. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  9. EASY-II: a system for modelling of n, d, p, γ and α activation and transmutation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sublet, Jean-Christophe; Eastwood, James; Morgan, Guy; Koning, Arjan; Rochman, Dimitri

    2014-06-01

    EASY-II is designed as a functional replacement for the previous European Activation System, EASY-2010. It has extended nuclear data and new software, FISPACT-II, written in object-style Fortran to provide new capabilities for predictions of activation, transmutation, depletion and burnup. The new FISPACT-II code has allowed us to implement many more features in terms of energy range, up to GeV; incident particles: alpha, gamma, proton, deuteron and neutron; and neutron physics: self-shielding effects, temperature dependence, pathways analysis, sensitivity and error estimation using covariance data. These capabilities cover most application needs: nuclear fission and fusion, accelerator physics, isotope production, waste management and many more. In parallel, the maturity of modern general-purpose libraries such as TENDL-2012 encompassing thousands of target nuclides, the evolution of the ENDF format and the capabilities of the latest generation of processing codes PREPRO-2012, NJOY2012 and CALENDF-2010 have allowed the FISPACT-II code to be fed with more robust, complete and appropriate data: cross-sections with covariance, probability tables in the resonance ranges, kerma, dpa, gas and radionuclide production and 24 decay types. All such data for the five most important incident particles are placed in evaluated data files up to an incident energy of 200 MeV. The resulting code and data system, EASY-II, includes many new features and enhancements. It has been extensively tested, and also benefits from the feedback from wide-ranging validation and verification activities performed with its predecessor

  10. ORIGEN2 simulation of the Los Alamos accelerator-driven transmutation system

    SciTech Connect

    Landeyro, P.A. ); Buccafurni, A.; Orazi, A. )

    1992-01-01

    This work aims at analyzing different actinide-burning systems to evaluate their performance and verify the possibility of eliminating, or at least reducing, the storage time for nuclear wastes in the final repository. To achieve these goals, two steps are added to the normal fuel cycle: partitioning and transmutation. In the partitioning step, the actinides are extracted from the high-level wastes produced in reprocessing plants, while during the transmutation step, the actinides are burned. To evaluate the potential performance of the different systems suitable for actinide transmutation, it is necessary to determine and analyze the parameters that influence actinide burning as well as to compare the potential risk due to the waste produced by each system with that associated with radioactive materials existing in nature. Another important parameter to consider is the ratio between the transmutation and generation rates, which shows how fast the system burns actinides. For these considerations, an analysis of the parameters that influence actinide burning are followed by an evaluation by means of the ORIGEN2 generation and depletion code that is as accurate as possible.

  11. Scent Transmutation: A New Way to Teach on Chemical Equilibrium, Distillation, and Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Qing; El-Hamdi, Nadia S.; Miljanic´, Ognjen S?.

    2014-01-01

    Esters are volatile and pleasantly smelling compounds, commonly used as food additives. Using Ti(OBu)[subscript 4]-catalyzed acyl exchange, we demonstrate a scent transmutation experiment, in which two fragrant esters swap their acyl and alkoxy substituents and are, during the course of a reactive distillation, quantitatively converted into two…

  12. The Effects of Flux Spectrum Perturbation on Transmutation of Actinides: Optimizing the Production of Transcurium Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hogle, Susan L; Maldonado, G Ivan; Alexander, Charles W

    2012-01-01

    This research presented herein involves the optimization of transcurium production in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Due to the dependence of isotope cross sections on incoming neutron energy, the efficiency with which an isotope is transmuted is highly dependent upon the flux spectrum. There are certain energy bands in which the rate of fission of transcurium production feedstock materials is minimized, relative to the rate of non-fission absorptions. It is proposed that by perturbing the flux spectrum, it is possible to increase the amount of key isotopes, such as 249Bk and 252Cf, that are produced during a transmutation cycle, relative to the consumption of feedstock material. This optimization process is carried out by developing an iterative objective framework involving problem definition, flux spectrum and cross section analysis, simulated transmutation, and analysis of final yields and transmutation parameters. It is shown that it is possible to perturb the local flux spectrum in the transcurium target by perturbing the composition of the target. It is further shown that these perturbations are able to alter the target yields in a non-negligible way. Future work is necessary to develop the optimization framework, and identify the necessary algorithms to update the problem definition based upon progress towards the optimization goals.

  13. Radionuclides' Content Speciation and Fingerprinting of Nigerian Tin Mining Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olise, F. S.; Oladejo, O. F.; Owoade, O. K.; Almeida, S. M.; Ho, M. D.; Olaniyi, H. B.

    2012-04-01

    Sediment and process-waste samples rich in cassiterite, monazite and zircon, which are of industrial interest, were analysed for the natural series radionuclides, 232Th and 238U and the non-series radionuclide, 40K using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. The natural radionuclides' radioactivity in the samples from the tin-rich areas of Jos, Nigeria was determined using K0-INAA. The obtained results have a high degree of reliability judging from the techniqués accuracy, precision and its non-dependence on secular equilibrium and density correction problems inherent in gamma spectrometry as well as rigorous contamination-prone sample preparation requirements of other methods. Radionuclides speciation and ratios, giving radionuclide fingerprinting of the tin mining tailings is reported. The measured radionuclides activity levels are several orders of magnitude higher than UNSCEAR reference values, revealing the pollution potential of the tin mining and process activities on the surrounding areas, vis-à-vis heavy particulate matter load, leaching into various water channels and direct exposure to gamma rays emitted from the houses and facilities built from the generated wastes. The observed activity levels reflects possible worst scenario situation and the data would not only be of use to the government in its remediation plan for the study area but will also serve as important information for the nuclear science and technology programme about to be embarked upon. Methods of checking exposure have also been suggested.

  14. Simulation of radionuclide transport in U. S. agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, R.D.; Baes, C.F. III

    1982-01-01

    Because of the recent concern about the impact of energy technologies on man and related health effects, there has emerged a need for models to calculate or predict the effects of radionuclides on man. A general overview is presented of a model that calculates the ingrowth of radionuclides into man's food chain. The FORTRAN IV computer program TERRA, Transport of Environmentally Released Radionuclides in Agriculture, simulates the build-up of radionuclides in soil, four plant food compartments, in meat and milk from beef, and in the livestock food compartments that cause radionuclide build-up in milk and meat from beef. A large data set of spatially oriented parameters has been developed in conjunction with TERRA. This direct-access data set is called SITE, Specific Information on the Terrestrial Environment, and contains 35 parameters for each of 3525 half-degree longitude-latitude cells which define the lower 48 states. TERRA and SITE are used together as a package for determining radionuclide concentrations in man's food anywhere within the conterminous 48 states due to atmospheric releases.

  15. Radionuclide therapy for arthritic knees

    SciTech Connect

    Doepel, L.K.

    1985-02-08

    A new radionuclide therapeutic approach for rheumatoid arthritis of the knee is described. This therapy combines a short-lived radionuclide with a carrier whose physical and chemical characteristics aid retention of the radioactive particles within the joint. Joining a radionuclide to a particulate carrier had not been explored previously as a potential method for inhibiting radiation leakage. The treatment couples the rare earth element dysprosium 165 to ferric hydroxide in macroaggregate form (size range: 3 to 10 ..mu..m). After the relatively inert iron complex penetrates the synovium, it causes cell death. Macrophages and phagocytes clear away the cellular debris, essentially eliminating the synovium.

  16. Transmutations of elements under irradiation and its impact on alloys composition

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    This study presents a comparison of nuclear transmutation rates for candidate fusion first wall/blanket structural materials in available fission test reactors with those produced in a typical fusion spectrum. The materials analyzed in this study include a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti), a reduced activation martensitic steel (Fe-9Cr-2WVTa), a high conductivity copper alloy (Cu-Cr-Zr), and the SiC compound. The fission irradiation facilities considered include the EBR-II (Experimental Breeder Reactor) fast reactor, and two high flux mixed spectrum reactors, HFIR (High Flux Irradiation Reactor) and SM-3 (Russian reactor). The transmutation and dpa rates that occur in these test reactors are compared with the calculated transmutation and dpa rates characteristic of a D-T fusion first wall spectrum. In general, past work has shown that the displacement damage produced in these fission reactors can be correlated to displacement damage in a fusion spectrum; however, the generation of helium and hydrogen through threshold reactions [(n,x{alpha}) and (n,xp)] are much higher in a fusion spectrum. As shown in this study, the compositional changes for several candidate structural materials exposed to a fast fission reactor spectrum are very low, similar to those for a characteristic fusion spectrum. However, the relatively high thermalized spectrum of a mixed spectrum reactor produces transmutation rates quite different from the ones predicted for a fusion reactor, resulting in substantial differences in the final composition of several candidate alloys after relatively short irradiation time. As examples, the transmutation rates of W, Ta, V, Cu, among others, differ considerably when the irradiation is performed under a mixed spectrum reactor`s and fusion first wall`s spectrum. Fast reactors (EBR-II) provide the only possibility for obtaining high damage rates without producing significant compositional effects in vanadium alloys, ferritic steels and copper alloys.

  17. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  18. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect

    J. Houseworth

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  19. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  20. Video instrumentation for radionuclide angiocardiography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriss, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Two types of videoscintiscopes for performing radioisotopic angiocardiography with a scintillation camera are described, and use of these instruments in performing clinical studies is illustrated. Radionuclide angiocardiography is a simple, quick and accurate procedure recommended as a screening test for patients with a variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions. When performed in conjunction with coronary arterial catheterization, dynamic radionuclide angiography may provide useful information about regional myocardial perfusion. Quantitative capabilities greatly enhance the potential of this diagnostic tool.

  1. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  2. The fast-spectrum transmutation experimental facility FASTEF: Main design achievements (Part 1: Core and primary system) within the FP7-CDT collaborative project of the European Commission

    SciTech Connect

    De Bruyn, D.; Fernandez, R.; Mansani, L.; Woaye-Hune, A.; Sarotto, M.; Bubelis, E.

    2012-07-01

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hybrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is the flexible experimental accelerator-driven system (ADS) in development at SCK CEN in replacement of its material testing reactor BR2. SCK CEN in association with 17 European partners from industry, research centres and academia, responded to the FP7 (Seventh Framework Programme) call from the European Commission to establish a Central Design Team (CDT) for the design of a Fast Spectrum Transmutation Experimental Facility (FASTEF) able to demonstrate efficient transmutation and associated technology through a system working in subcritical and/or critical mode. The project has started on April 01, 2009 for a period of three years. In this paper, we present the latest configuration of the reactor core and primary system. The FASTEF facility has evolved quite a lot since the intermediate reporting done at the ICAPP'10 and ICAPP'11 conferences 1 2. If it remains a small-scale facility, the core power amounts now up to 100 MWth in critical mode. In a companion paper 3, we present the concept of the reactor building and the plant layout. (authors)

  3. [Main approaches to choose a method purifying soils from radionuclides].

    PubMed

    Sklifasovskaia, Iu G

    2009-01-01

    The article contains brief review problems of soils decontamination, radionuclides content contaminating natural and technogenic materials amenable to long-term storage. The authors present results of experiments on soils purification through agitative and percolative lixiviation and on determining optimal technologic parameters for reagent purification of soils polluted with Ra-226.

  4. 4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  5. [Main approaches to choose a method purifying soils from radionuclides].

    PubMed

    Sklifasovskaia, Iu G

    2009-01-01

    The article contains brief review problems of soils decontamination, radionuclides content contaminating natural and technogenic materials amenable to long-term storage. The authors present results of experiments on soils purification through agitative and percolative lixiviation and on determining optimal technologic parameters for reagent purification of soils polluted with Ra-226. PMID:19441703

  6. The optimization of an AP1000 fuel assembly for the transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washington, Jeremy A.

    The average nuclear power plant produces twenty metric tons of used nuclear fuel per year, containing approximately 95 wt% uranium, 1 wt% plutonium, and 4 wt% fission products and transuranic elements. Fast reactors are a preferred option for the transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides; however, an optimistic deployment time of at least 20 years indicates a need for a near-term solution. The goal of this thesis is to examine the potential of light water reactors for plutonium and minor actinides transmutation as a near-term solution. This thesis screens the available nuclear isotope database to identify potential absorbers as coatings on a transmutation fuel in a light water reactor. A spectral shift absorber coating tunes the neutron energy spectrum experienced by the underlying target fuel. Eleven different spectral shift absorbers (B4C, CdO, Dy2O3, Er 2O3, Eu2O3, Gd2O3, HfO2, In2O3, Lu2O3, Sm2O3, and TaC) have been selected for further evaluation. A model developed using the NEWT module of SCALE 6.1 code provided performance data for the burnup of the target fuel rods. Irradiation of the target fuels occurs in a Westinghouse 17x17 XL Robust Fuel Assembly over a 1400 Effective Full Power Days (EFPD) interval. The fuels evaluated in this thesis include PuO2, Pu3Si2, PuN, MOX, PuZrH, PuZrHTh, PuZrO 2, and PuUZrH. MOX (5 wt% PuO2), Pu0.31ZrH 1.6Th1.08, and PuZrO2MgO (8 wt%) are selected for detailed analysis in a multi-pin transmutation assembly. A coupled model optimized the resulting transmutation fuel elements. The optimization considered three stages of fuel assemblies containing target fuel pins. The first stage optimized four target fuel pins adjacent to the central instrumentation channel. The second stage evaluated a variety of assemblies with multiple target fuel pins and the third stage re-optimized target fuel pins in the second-stage assembly. A PuZrO2MgO (8 wt%) target fuel with a coating of Lu 2O3 resulted in the greatest reduction in curium-244

  7. THE VALUE OF HELIUM-COOLED REACTOR TECHNOLOGIES OF NUCLEAR WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    C. RODRIGUEZ; A. BAXTER

    2001-03-01

    Helium-cooled reactor technologies offer significant advantages in accomplishing the waste transmutation process. They are ideally suited for use with thermal, epithermal, or fast neutron energy spectra. They can provide a relatively hard thermal neutron spectrum for transmutation of fissionable materials such as Pu-239 using ceramic-coated transmutation fuel particles, a graphite moderator, and a non-fertile burnable poison. These features (1) allow deep levels of transmutation with minimal or no intermediate reprocessing, (2) enhance passive decay heat removal via heat conduction and radiation, (3) allow operation at relatively high temperatures for a highly efficient generation of electricity, and (4) discharge the transmuted waste in a form that is highly resistant to corrosion for long times. They also offer the possibility for the use of epithermal neutrons that can interact with transmutable materials more effectively because of the large atomic cross sections in this energy domain. A fast spectrum may be useful for deep burnup of certain minor actinides. For this application, helium is essentially transparent to neutrons, does not degrade neutron energies, and offers the hardest possible neutron energy environment. In this paper, we report results from recent work on materials transmutation balances, safety, value to a geological repository, and economic considerations.

  8. Evaluation of transuranium isotopes inventory for Candu/ACR standard and SEU spent fuel and the possibility to transmute them

    SciTech Connect

    Ghizdeanu, Elena Nineta; Pavelescu, Alexandru; Balaceanu, Victoria

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The main disadvantage of nuclear energy is the quantity of long lived radioactive waste produced in a NPP. Transmutation could be one of the solutions to reduce it. Waste transmutation will require a suitable deployment of techniques for spent fuel reprocessing. At present, reprocessing is done by aqueous methods that are very efficient for Pu separation (up to 99.9%). For transmutation applications, new partitioning processes must be developed for minor actinides separation from the high level waste. Although these processes are still very much at the research stage, industrial scale-up will result in the deployment of new, more specific separation techniques for transmutation applications. Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) techniques could contribute to reduce the radioactive inventory and its associated radio-toxicity. Scientists are looking for ways to drastically reduce both the mass and the radio-toxicity of the nuclear waste to be stored in a deep geological repository, and to reduce the time needed to reach the radioactivity level of the raw material originally used to produce energy. The first stage in the transmutation process is the isotopes inventory formed in the spent fuel. In this paper is made an intercomparison evaluation using WIMS 5B.12 and ORIGEN computer codes. Using these two codes, there is evaluated the isotopes released by a fuel standard from a Candu reactor. Moreover, there is simulated an inventory released by a Candu-SEU reactor and an ACR reactor. (authors)

  9. Radionuclide injury to the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

  10. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  11. High-power proton linac for transmuting the long-lived fission products in nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    High power proton linacs are being considered at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux spallation neutron sources that can be used to transmute the troublesome long-lived fission products in defense nuclear waste. The transmutation scheme being studied provides a high flux (> 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}{minus}s) of thermal neutrons, which efficiently converts fission products to stable or short-lived isotopes. A medium-energy proton linac with an average beam power of about 110 MW can burn the accumulated Tc99 and I129 inventory at the DOE's Hanford Site within 30 years. Preliminary concepts for this machine are described. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Detailed studies of Minor Actinide transmutation-incineration in high-intensity neutron fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Bringer, O.; Blandin, C.; Oriol, L.

    2006-07-01

    The Mini-INCA project is dedicated to the measurement of incineration-transmutation chains and potentials of minor actinides in high-intensity thermal neutron fluxes. In this context, new types of detectors and methods of analysis have been developed. The {sup 241}Am and {sup 232}Th transmutation-incineration chains have been studied and several capture and fission cross sections measured very precisely, showing some discrepancies with existing data or evaluated data. An impact study was made on different based-like GEN-IV reactors. It underlines the necessity to proceed to precise measurements for a large number of minor-actinides that contribute to these future incineration scenarios. (authors)

  13. Transmutation of Matter in Byzantium: The Case of Michael Psellos, the Alchemist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsiampoura, Gianna

    2008-06-01

    There is thus nothing paradoxical about the inclusion of alchemy in the ensemble of the physical sciences nor in the preoccupation with it on the part of learned men engaged in scientific study. In the context of the Medieval model, where discourse on the physical world was ambiguous, often unclear, and lacking the support of experimental verification, the transmutation of matter, which was the subject of alchemy, even if not attended by a host of occult features, was a process that was thought to have a probable basis in reality. What is interesting in this connection is the utilization of the scientific categories of the day for discussion of transmutation of matter and the attempt to avoid, in most instances in the texts that survive, of methods reminiscent of magic.

  14. TRANSMUTATIONS IN SiC IRRADIATED IN ARIES-IV FIRST WALL

    SciTech Connect

    Heinisch, Howard L.

    2001-04-01

    The change in concentrations of elements due to transmutations resulting from neutron irradiation in the first wall of the ARIES-IV conceptual fusion energy device were determined as a function of neutron dose. SiC burns out at a rate of about 0.5% per effective full power year. The largest impurity concentration is that of He, but several other elements burn in at rates of hundreds of appm/efpy.

  15. Minor actinide transmutation in thorium and uranium matrices in heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, Zaki; Hyland, B.; Edwards, G.W.R.

    2013-07-01

    The irradiation of Th{sup 232} breeds fewer of the problematic minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) than the irradiation of U{sup 238}. This characteristic makes thorium an attractive potential matrix for the transmutation of these minor actinides, as these species can be transmuted without the creation of new actinides as is the case with a uranium fuel matrix. Minor actinides are the main contributors to long term decay heat and radiotoxicity of spent fuel, so reducing their concentration can greatly increase the capacity of a long term deep geological repository. Mixing minor actinides with thorium, three times more common in the Earth's crust than natural uranium, has the additional advantage of improving the sustainability of the fuel cycle. In this work, lattice cell calculations have been performed to determine the results of transmuting minor actinides from light water reactor spent fuel in a thorium matrix. 15-year-cooled group-extracted transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am, Cm) from light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel were used as the fissile component in a thorium-based fuel in a heavy water moderated reactor (HWR). The minor actinide (MA) transmutation rates, spent fuel activity, decay heat and radiotoxicity, are compared with those obtained when the MA were mixed instead with natural uranium and taken to the same burnup. Each bundle contained a central pin containing a burnable neutron absorber whose initial concentration was adjusted to have the same reactivity response (in units of the delayed neutron fraction β) for coolant voiding as standard NU fuel. (authors)

  16. Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) germanium thermistors for sub-mm bolometer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, E. E.; Itoh, K. M.; Beeman, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) semiconductor thermistors fabricated from natural and controlled isotopic composition germanium are reported. The near ideal doping uniformity that can be achieved with the NTD process, the device simplicity of NTD Ge thermistors and the high performance of cooled junction field effect transistor preamplifiers led to the widespread acceptance of these thermal sensors in ground-based, airborne and spaceborne radio telescopes. These features made possible the development of efficient bolometer arrays.

  17. Influence of fast neutrons on the recombination and electrical properties of neutron transmutation doped gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Bykovsky, V.A.; Karas, V.I.; Shoh, V.F.; Strzelecka, S.; Hruban, A.; Gladysz, M.

    1996-12-31

    The electrical properties, photoluminescence and DLTS spectra of LEC gallium arsenide crystals after neutron transmutation doping (NTD) has been investigated as function of starting material properties, irradiation dose and thermal to fast neutron fluences-ratio. The residual carbon acceptors interact with radiation induced defects (RD) in neutron irradiated GaAs crystals and formed nonradiative recombination centers, which are stable up to 700 C temperature.

  18. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

    1998-07-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

  19. Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

  20. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-03-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a site-directed targeted therapeutic strategy that specifically uses radiolabeled peptides as biological targeting vectors designed to deliver cytotoxic levels of radiation dose to cancer cells, which overexpress specific receptors. Interest in PRRT has steadily grown because of the advantages of targeting cellular receptors in vivo with high sensitivity as well as specificity and treatment at the molecular level. Recent advances in molecular biology have not only stimulated advances in PRRT in a sustainable manner but have also pushed the field significantly forward to several unexplored possibilities. Recent decades have witnessed unprecedented endeavors for developing radiolabeled receptor-binding somatostatin analogs for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors, which have played an important role in the evolution of PRRT and paved the way for the development of other receptor-targeting peptides. Several peptides targeting a variety of receptors have been identified, demonstrating their potential to catalyze breakthroughs in PRRT. In this review, the authors discuss several of these peptides and their analogs with regard to their applications and potential in radionuclide therapy. The advancement in the availability of combinatorial peptide libraries for peptide designing and screening provides the capability of regulating immunogenicity and chemical manipulability. Moreover, the availability of a wide range of bifunctional chelating agents opens up the scope of convenient radiolabeling. For these reasons, it would be possible to envision a future where the scope of PRRT can be tailored for patient-specific application. While PRRT lies at the interface between many disciplines, this technology is inextricably linked to the availability of the therapeutic radionuclides of required quality and activity levels and hence their production is also reviewed.

  1. Extinct radionuclides. [in solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, F. A.; Swindle, T. D.

    1988-01-01

    Extinct radionuclides, or radioactive isotopes with lifetimes of the order of 1 to 100 Myr that are now extinct in the solar system are discussed. Evidence is presented for the presence of such radionuclides in the early solar system, including Al-26, Mn-53, Pd-107, I-129, Pu-244, and Sm-146. It is suggested that the abundances of these species provide constraints on nucleosynthetic time scales and the history of solar system materials before they became the solar system. The shortest-lived species is Al-26, which may have been sufficiently abundant to be the major heat source for meteorite parent-body metamorphism or igneous differentiation.

  2. The technical and economic impact of minor actinide transmutation in a sodium fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, G. M.; Morin, F.; Dechelette, F.; Sanseigne, E.; Chabert, C.

    2012-07-01

    Within the frame work of the French National Act of June 28, 2006 pertaining to the management of high activity, long-lived radioactive waste, one of the proposed processes consists in transmuting the Minor Actinides (MA) in the radial blankets of a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). With this option, we may assess the additional cost of the reactor by comparing two SFR designs, one with no Minor Actinides, and the other involving their transmutation. To perform this exercise, we define a reference design called SFRref, of 1500 MWe that is considered to be representative of the Reactor System. The SFRref mainly features a pool architecture with three pumps, six loops with one steam generator per loop. The reference core is the V2B core that was defined by the CEA a few years ago for the Reactor System. This architecture is designed to meet current safety requirements. In the case of transmutation, for this exercise we consider that the fertile blanket is replaced by two rows of assemblies having either 20% of Minor Actinides or 20% of Americium. The assessment work is performed in two phases. - The first consists in identifying and quantifying the technical differences between the two designs: the reference design without Minor Actinides and the design with Minor Actinides. The main differences are located in the reactor vessel, in the fuel handling system and in the intermediate storage area for spent fuel. An assessment of the availability is also performed so that the impact of the transmutation can be known. - The second consists in making an economic appraisal of the two designs. This work is performed using the CEA's SEMER code. The economic results are shown in relative values. For a transmutation of 20% of MA in the assemblies (S/As) and a hypothesis of 4 kW allowable for the washing device, there is a large external storage demanding a very long cooling time of the S/As. In this case, the economic impact may reach 5% on the capital part of the Levelized Unit

  3. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1983-05-03

    Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  4. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of unsaturated-zone transport is based on laboratory and field-scale experiments. Fractures provide advective transport pathways. Sorption and matrix diffusion may contribute to retardation of radionuclides. Conversely, sorption onto mobile colloids may enhance radionuclide transport.

  5. Treatment planning for molecular targeted radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Siantar, Christine Hartmann; Vetter, Kai; DeNardo, Gerald L; DeNardo, Sally J

    2002-06-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide therapy promises to expand the usefulness of radiation to successfully treat widespread cancer. The unique properties of radioactive tags make it possible to plan treatments by predicting the radiation absorbed dose to both tumors and normal organs, using a pre-treatment test dose of radiopharmaceutical. This requires a combination of quantitative, high-resolution, radiation-detection hardware and computerized dose-estimation software, and would ideally include biological dose-response data in order to translate radiation absorbed dose into biological effects. Data derived from conventional (external beam) radiation therapy suggests that accurate assessment of the radiation absorbed dose in dose-limiting normal organs could substantially improve the observed clinical response for current agents used in a myeloablative regimen, enabling higher levels of tumor control at lower tumor-to-normal tissue therapeutic indices. Treatment planning based on current radiation detection and simulations technology is sufficient to impact on clinical response. The incorporation of new imaging methods, combined with patient-specific radiation transport simulations, promises to provide unprecedented levels of resolution and quantitative accuracy, which are likely to increase the impact of treatment planning in targeted radionuclide therapy. PMID:12136519

  6. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  7. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  8. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  9. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOEpatents

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Perkins, Richard W.; Rieck, Henry G.; Wogman, Ned A.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  10. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOEpatents

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  11. Radionuclide detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: A comparison of atomic and radiation detection method

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.; Wyse, E.J.; Koppenaal, D.W.

    1991-04-01

    Radionuclide detection by mass spectrometric techniques offers inherent advantages over conventional radiation detection methods. Since radionuclides decay at variable rates (half-lives) and via various nuclear transformations (i.e. emission of alpha, beta, and/or gamma radiation) their determination via radiation detection depends not only on decay systematics but also on detector technology. Radionuclide detection by direct atom measurement, however, is dependent only on technique sensitivity and is indifferent to decay mode. Evaluation of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) indicates this method to be superior conventional radiation detection techniques for many radionuclides. This work discusses factors which influence detection by both methods. Illustrative applications of ICP/MS to the ultra-trace determination of several radionuclides, including {sup 129}I, are presented. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  13. Transmutation Analysis of Enriched Uranium and Deep Burn High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Michael A. Pope

    2012-07-01

    High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been under consideration for production of electricity, process heat, and for destruction of transuranics for decades. As part of the transmutation analysis efforts within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) campaign, a need was identified for detailed discharge isotopics from HTRs for use in the VISION code. A conventional HTR using enriched uranium in UCO fuel was modeled having discharge burnup of 120 GWd/MTiHM. Also, a deep burn HTR (DB-HTR) was modeled burning transuranic (TRU)-only TRU-O2 fuel to a discharge burnup of 648 GWd/MTiHM. For each of these cases, unit cell depletion calculations were performed with SCALE/TRITON. Unit cells were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were first set by using Serpent calculations to match a spectral index between unit cell and whole core domains. In the case of the DB-HTR, the unit cell which was arrived at in this way conserved the ratio of fuel to moderator found in a single block of fuel. In the conventional HTR case, a larger moderator-to-fuel ratio than that of a single block was needed to simulate the whole core spectrum. Discharge isotopics (for 500 nuclides) and one-group cross-sections (for 1022 nuclides) were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations. In addition to the discharge isotopics, one-group cross-sections were provided for the full list of 1022 nuclides tracked in the transmutation library.

  14. Radionuclide synovectomy - essentials for rheumatologists.

    PubMed

    Chojnowski, Marek M; Felis-Giemza, Anna; Kobylecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70-80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice. PMID:27504020

  15. Uniform acceptor distribution in neutron-transmutation-doped far-infrared p-Ge lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, E. W.; Dolguikh, M. V.; Flitsiyan, E. S.; Muravjov, A. V.; Peale, R. E.; Kleckley, S. H.; Vernetson, W. G.; Tsipin, V. Z.

    2003-09-01

    A neutron transmutation doped (NTD) far-infrared p-Ge laser crystal and a melt-grown p-Ge laser are analyzed and compared. Though the doping level in the NTD active crystal is twice lower than optimal, the laser performance is comparable to that produced from high-quality melt-grown crystals because of superior dopant uniformity. Compensation was examined by comparing results of neutron activation analysis with majority carrier concentration. Study of impurity breakdown electric field reveals better crystal quality in NTD. The current saturation behavior confirms the expected higher doping uniformity over melt grown laser rods.

  16. Robert Boyle, Transmutation, and the History of Chemistry before Lavoisier: A Response to Kuhn.

    PubMed

    Newman, William R

    2014-01-01

    In an influential article of 1952, Thomas Kuhn argued that Robert Boyle had little or no influence on the subsequent development of chemistry. This essay challenges Kuhn's view on two fronts. First, it shows that Johann Joachim Becher developed his hierarchical matter theory under the influence of Boyle and then transmitted it to the founder of the phlogiston theory, G. E. Stahl. Second, this essay argues that transmutational matter theories were not necessarily opposed to the existence of stable chemical species, pace Kuhn. Boyle's corpuscular theory descended largely from the tradition of "chymical atomism," which often advocated both chrysopoeia and the reality of robust chemical substances. PMID:26103748

  17. Robert Boyle, Transmutation, and the History of Chemistry before Lavoisier: A Response to Kuhn.

    PubMed

    Newman, William R

    2014-01-01

    In an influential article of 1952, Thomas Kuhn argued that Robert Boyle had little or no influence on the subsequent development of chemistry. This essay challenges Kuhn's view on two fronts. First, it shows that Johann Joachim Becher developed his hierarchical matter theory under the influence of Boyle and then transmitted it to the founder of the phlogiston theory, G. E. Stahl. Second, this essay argues that transmutational matter theories were not necessarily opposed to the existence of stable chemical species, pace Kuhn. Boyle's corpuscular theory descended largely from the tradition of "chymical atomism," which often advocated both chrysopoeia and the reality of robust chemical substances.

  18. Migration and accumulation at dislocations of transmutation helium in austenitic steels upon neutron irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Portnykh, I. A.

    2016-04-01

    The model of the migration and accumulation at dislocations of transmutation helium and the formation of helium-vacancy pore nuclei in austenitic steels upon neutron irradiation has been proposed. As illustrations of its application, the dependences of the characteristics of pore nuclei on the temperature of neutron irradiation have been calculated. The results of the calculations have been compared with the experimental data in the literature on measuring the characteristics of radiation-induced porosity that arises upon the irradiation of shells of fuel elements of a 16Cr-19Ni-2Mo-2Mn-Si-Ti-Nb-V-B steel in a fast BN600 neutron reactor at different temperatures.

  19. Simulation for thick-target yields of transmutation reactions on radioactive targets, based on inverse kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebata, Shuichiro; Aikawa, Masayuki; Imai, Shotaro

    2016-06-01

    To dispose of long-lived fission products (LLFP) ejected from nuclear reactor plants is one of the most important tasks on nuclear physics and engineering. The experiments with the radiative target are limited, due to the high radioactivity and chemical property of the target. In consequence, the nuclear reaction data for LLFP are insufficient. In this work, we propose a feasible method to obtain the data for radiative targets using inverse kinematics and simulate specific systems to evaluate the thick-target yields of the nuclear transmutation reactions for LLFP.

  20. Synthesis of (Zr, Y, Am)O2-x transmutation targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nästren, C.; Staicu, D.; Somers, J.; Fernandez, A.

    2013-02-01

    A process consisting of sol gel external gelation and infiltration steps has been developed for the synthesis of oxide fuels and targets for the transmutation of minor actinides, in this case americium. Carbon has been introduced into the sol gel produced beads, removal of which leads to higher porosity. In addition, the beads are softer enabling better pressing characteristics and most importantly an optimised microstructure devoid of lenticular pores. This microstructure improvement has a strong positive effect on the thermal conductivity, which is increased by 40%. Thus, the margin between operating temperature and melting temperature of the fuel is increased, improving significantly safety aspects of the fuel in the reactor.

  1. Transuranic Transmutation and Criticality Calculation Sensitivity to Heterogeneous Lattice Effects - 12391

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaras, Sean A.; Knight, Travis W.

    2012-07-01

    Using Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel in traditional Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies has been researched at length and has shown to provide the benefit of transmutation and targets the amount and toxicity of high level waste needed to be managed. Advanced MOX concepts using enriched Uranium Dioxide (UO{sub 2}) are required for multiple recycling of plutonium. The use of MOX and ordinary UO{sub 2} fuel in the same assembly as well as unfueled rods and assembly edge effects contrasts with the unit cell computational assumption of a uniform infinite array of rods. While a deterministic method of calculating the Dancoff factor has traditionally been employed in fuel assembly analysis due to the lighter computational and modeling requirements, this research seeks to determine the validity of the uniform, infinite lattice assumption with respect to Dancoff factor and determine the magnitude of the impact of nonuniform lattice effects on fuel assembly criticality calculations as well as transuranic isotope production and transmutation. This research explored the pin-to-pin interaction in a non-uniform lattice of MOX fuel rods and UO{sub 2} fuel rods through the impact of the calculated Dancoff factors from the deterministic method used in SCALE versus the Monte Carlo method used in the code DANCOFF-MC. Using the Monte Carlo method takes into account the non-uniform lattice effects of having neighboring fuel rods with different cross-sectional spectra whereas the Dancoff factor calculated by SCALE assumes a uniform, infinite lattice of one fuel rod type. Differences in eigenvalue calculations as a function of burnup are present between the two methods of Dancoff factor calculation. The percent difference is greatest at low burnup and then becomes smaller throughout the cycle. Differences in the transmutation rate of transuranic isotopes in the MOX fuel are also present between the Dancoff factor calculation methods. The largest difference is in Pu-239, Pu-242, and Am-241

  2. Transmutation of skyrmions to half-solitons driven by the nonlinear optical spin Hall effect.

    PubMed

    Flayac, H; Solnyshkov, D D; Shelykh, I A; Malpuech, G

    2013-01-01

    We show that the spin domains, generated in the linear optical spin Hall effect by the analog of spin-orbit interaction for exciton polaritons, are associated with the formation of a Skyrmion lattice. In the nonlinear regime, the spin anisotropy of the polariton-polariton interactions results in a spatial compression of the domains and in a transmutation of the Skyrmions into oblique half-solitons. This phase transition is associated with both the focusing of the spin currents and the emergence of a strongly anisotropic emission pattern.

  3. Neutron transmutation doped (Ntd) germanium thermistors for sub-Mm bolometer applications

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E. |; Itoh, K.M.; Beeman, J.W.

    1996-09-01

    The authors report on recent advances in the development of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) semiconductor thermistors fabricated from germanium of natural and controlled isotopic composition. The near ideal doping uniformity which can be achieved with the NTD process, the device simplicity of NTD Ge thermistors and the high performance of cooled junction field effect transistor (FET) preamplifiers have led to the widespread acceptance of these thermal sensors in many radiotelescopes operating on the ground, on high altitude aircraft and on spaceborne satellites. These features also have made possible the development of efficient bolometer arrays which are beginning to produce exciting results.

  4. Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1983-08-25

    This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

  5. Chernobyl radionuclide distribution and migration.

    PubMed

    Izrael, Yury A

    2007-11-01

    The accident at Unit No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986 presented severe challenges in radiation protection. Early activity measurements defined the contaminated areas in order to determine what persons should be evacuated on the basis of the exposure limit at that time of 100 mSv (10 rem) for accidents. The immediate definition of these areas was accomplished with specially equipped aircraft capable of measuring external gamma-exposure rate and radionuclide spectra. Over time, maps of 137Cs contamination (the most important long-lived radionuclide) have become more and more sophisticated and have been used for further determinations of the control of the consequences of the accident. About 70% of the total release of 137Cs was deposited in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine; but there was also widespread deposition throughout the countries of Western Europe. Two atlases of contamination throughout Europe were prepared, and the Russian atlas included data on other radionuclides and on external gamma-exposure rates. The radiocesiums behaved as volatile radionuclides because of the volatility of cesium. In contrast to the typical pattern after nuclear weapons tests, 90Sr behaved only as a refractory element, as its volatile precursors krypton and rubidium had already decayed within the reactor. Nearly all of the refractory elements (strontium, plutonium, etc.) released by the accident were confined to the 30-km zone around the reactor. A proposal is made to develop a more complete atlas of 137Cs deposition from the accident that would include the entire Northern Hemisphere. Water was not an important vector of exposure to human beings following the accident. PMID:18049217

  6. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  7. Reuse of Material Containing Natural Radionuclides - 12444

    SciTech Connect

    Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.J.

    2012-07-01

    Disposal of and use of wastes containing natural radioactive material (NORM) or technologically enhanced natural radioactive material (TENORM) with excessive natural background as a building material is very important in the supervision body activity. At the present time, the residents of Octyabrsky village are under resettlement. This village is located just near the Priargunsky mining and chemical combine (Ltd. 'PPGHO'), one of the oldest uranium mines in our country. The vacated wooden houses in the village are demolished and partly used as a building material. To address the issue of potential radiation hazard of the wooden beams originating from demolition of houses in Octyabrsky village, the contents of the natural radionuclides (K-40, Th-232, Ra-226, U- 238) are being determined in samples of the wooden beams of houses. The NORM contents in the wooden house samples are higher, on average, than their content in the reference sample of the fresh wood shavings, but the range of values is rather large. According to the classification of waste containing the natural radionuclides, its evaluation is based on the effective specific activity. At the effective specific activity lower 1.5 kBq/kg and gamma dose rate lower 70 μR/h, the material is not considered as waste and can be used in building by 1 - 3 classes depending upon A{sub eff} value. At 1.5 kBq/kg < A{sub eff} ≤ 4 kBq/kg (4 class), the wooden beams might be used for the purpose of the industrial building, if sum of ratios between the radionuclide specific activity and its specific activity of minimum significance is lower than unit. The material classified as the waste containing the natural radionuclides has A{sub eff} higher 1.5 kBq /kg, and its usage for the purpose of house-building and road construction is forbidden. As for the ash classification and its future usage, such usage is unreasonable, because, according to the provided material, more than 50% of ash samples are considered as radioactive

  8. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs.

  9. Microstructural Changes In Thermally Cycled U-Pu-Zr-Am-Np Metallic Transmutation Fuel With 1.5% Lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn E. Janney; J. Rory Kennedy

    2008-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is developing metallic actinide-zirconium alloy fuels for the transmutation of minor actinides as part of a closed fuel cycle. The molten salt electrochemical process to be used for fuel recycle has the potential to carry over up to 2% fission product lanthanide content into the fuel fabrication process. Within the scope of the fuel irradiation testing program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), candidate metal alloy transmutation fuels containing quantities of lanthanide elements have been fabricated, characterized, and delivered to the Advanced Test Reactor for irradiation testing.

  10. The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-12-01

    The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11-12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides as well as (40)K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides

  11. Remediation of Deep Vadose Zone Radionuclide and Metal Contamination: Status and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P. Evan; Truex, Michael J.; Cantrell, Keri

    2008-12-30

    This report documents the results of a PNNL literature review to report on the state of maturity of deep vadose zone remediation technologies for metal contaminants including some radionuclides. Its recommendations feed into decisionmakers need for scientific information and cost-effective in situ remediation technlogies needed under DOE's Environmental Management initiative Enhanced Remediation Methods: Scientific & Technical Basis for In Stu Treatment Systems for Metals and Radionuclides.

  12. The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-12-01

    The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11-12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides as well as (40)K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides

  13. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

  14. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  15. Electrochemical separation is an attractive strategy for development of radionuclide generators for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh; Pillai, M R A

    2012-07-01

    Electrochemical separation techniques are not widely used in radionuclide generator technology and only a few studies have been reported [1-4]. Nevertheless, this strategy is useful when other parent-daughter separation techniques are not effective or not possible. Such situations are frequent when low specific activity (LSA) parent radionuclides are used for instance with adsorption chromatographic separations, which can result in lower concentration of the daughter radionuclide in the eluent. In addition, radiation instability of the column matrix in many cases can affect the performance of the generator when long lived parent radionuclides are used. Intricate knowledge of the chemistry involved in the electrochemical separation is crucial to develop a reproducible technology that ensures that the pure daughter radionuclide can be obtained in a reasonable time of operation. Crucial parameters to be critically optimized include the applied potential, choice of electrolyte, selection of electrodes, temperature of electrolyte bath and the time of electrolysis in order to ensure that the daughter radionuclide can be reproducibly recovered in high yields and high purity. The successful electrochemical generator technologies which have been developed and are discussed in this paper include the (90)Sr/(90)Y, (188)W/(188)Re and (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generators. Electrochemical separation not only acts as a separation technique but also is an effective concentration methodology which yields high radioactive concentrations of the daughter products. The lower consumption of reagents and minimal generation of radioactive wastes using such electrochemical techniques are compatible with 'green chemistry' principles.

  16. Analyses in Support of Z-Pinch IFE and Actinide Transmutation - LLNL Progress Report for FY-06

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Moir, R W; Abbott, R

    2006-09-19

    This report documents results of LLNL's work in support of two studies being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL): the development of the Z-pinch driven inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE), and the use of Z-pinch driven inertial fusion as a neutron source to destroy actinides from fission reactor spent fuel. LLNL's efforts in FY06 included: (1) Development of a systems code for Z-IFE and use of the code to examine the operating parameter space in terms of design variables such as the Z-pinch driver energy, the chamber pulse repetition rate, the number of chambers making up the power plant, and the total net electric power of the plant. This is covered in Section 3 with full documentation of the model in Appendix A. (2) Continued development of innovative concepts for the design and operation of the recyclable transmission line (RTL) and chamber for Z-IFE. The work, which builds on our FY04 and FY05 contributions, emphasizes design features that are likely to lead to a more attractive power plant including: liquid jets to protect all structures from direct exposure to neutrons, rapid insertion of the RTL to maximize the potential chamber rep-rate, and use of cast flibe for the RTL to reduce recycling and remanufacturing costs and power needs. See Section 4 and Appendix B. (3) Description of potential figures of merit (FOMs) for actinide transmutation technologies and a discussion of how these FOMs apply and can be used in the ongoing evaluation of the Z-pinch actinide burner, referred to as the In-Zinerator. See Section 5. (4) A critique of, and suggested improvements to, the In-Zinerator chamber design in response to the SNL design team's request for feedback on its preliminary design. This is covered in Section 6.

  17. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  18. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gudkov, Sergey V.; Shilyagina, Natalya Yu.; Vodeneev, Vladimir A.; Zvyagin, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed. PMID:26729091

  19. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors.

    PubMed

    Gudkov, Sergey V; Shilyagina, Natalya Yu; Vodeneev, Vladimir A; Zvyagin, Andrei V

    2015-12-28

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed.

  20. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

  1. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

    1990-11-13

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

  2. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  3. Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  4. Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wai, Chien M.; Fisher, Darrell R.

    2000-01-01

    The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

  5. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

  6. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of technology focuses on instructional technology. Topics include inquiry and technology; curriculum development; reflection and curriculum evaluation; criteria for technological innovations that will increase student motivation; standards; impact of new technologies on library media centers; software; and future trends. (LRW)

  7. Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

  8. Neutron-transmuted carbon-14 in neutron-irradiated GaN: Compensation of DX-like center

    SciTech Connect

    Ida, T.; Oga, T.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Xu, Q.; Fukutani, S.

    2013-12-04

    The transmuted-C related luminescence and net carrier concentration are studied by combining photoluminescence, liquid scintillation, and Raman scattering. GaN single crystal films grown by metalorganic-vapor-phase epitaxy are irradiated with fast and thermal neutrons at fluxes of 3.9 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} and 8.15 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}s{sup −1}, respectively. Irradiation time is 48 hours. The calculated {sup 72}Ge and {sup 14}C concentrations are 1.24 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} and 1.13 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}, respectively. The transmuted {sup 14}C is detected by the liquid scintillation method to survey β-rays emitted in the process of {sup 14}C decays from {sup 14}N. Tritium ({sup 3}H) is also emitted by a (n,t) reaction of {sup 14}N due to the neutron irradiation above 4.5 MeV. Photoluminescence relating to C, DX-like center of Ge and yellow luminescence band are observed in 1000 °C annealed NTD-GaN. The free electron concentration estimated from Raman scattering is 4.97 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}. This value is lower than that from the transmuted Ge concentration, suggesting the compensation due to the transmuted {sup 14}C acceptors.

  9. Approaches to reducing radiation dose from radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Dorbala, Sharmila; Blankstein, Ron; Skali, Hicham; Park, Mi-Ae; Fantony, Jolene; Mauceri, Charles; Semer, James; Moore, Stephen C; Di Carli, Marcelo F

    2015-04-01

    Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) plays a vital role in the evaluation and management of patients with coronary artery disease. However, because of a steep growth in MPI in the mid 2000s, concerns about inappropriate use of MPI and imaging-related radiation exposure increased. In response, the professional societies developed appropriate-use criteria for MPI. Simultaneously, novel technology, image-reconstruction software for traditional scanners, and dedicated cardiac scanners emerged and facilitated the performance of MPI with low-dose and ultra-low-dose radiotracers. This paper provides a practical approach to performing low-radiation-dose MPI using traditional and novel technologies. PMID:25766891

  10. Real time cardiac radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jarkewicz, G.G.

    1986-04-29

    A data acquisition system is described for use in radionuclide cardiac imaging of a patient having been administered a myocardium specific radionuclide, comprising: (a) means for monitoring the electrical activity of the heart; (b) first temporary storage means for accumulating respective pages of data corresponding to nuclear events during each cardiac cycle; (c) means, responsive to the means for monitoring, for determining the time duration of each successive cardiac cycle; (d) means for comparing each determined duration of a cardiac cycle with a preselected time duration range; (e) second temporary storage means; and (f) means for conditionally transferring pages of data from the first temporary storage means to the second temporary storage means if the measured duration associated with each page has predetermined correspondence with the preselected duration range, whereby pages of data having the predetermined correspondence may be collated into a quasi-real time study, while pages of data having different correspondence with the preselected time duration range are discarded from the study.

  11. Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

    1981-10-01

    A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

  12. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with toxic elements and radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, J.E.; Goldberg, W.C.; Levine, R.S.; Benemann, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    At many US Department of Energy (US DOE) facilities and other sites, surface soils over relatively large areas are contaminated with heavy metals, radionuclides, and other toxic elements, often at only a relatively small factor above regulatory action levels. Cleanup of such sites presents major challenges, because currently available soil remediation technologies can be very expensive. In response, the US DOE`s Office of Technology Development, through the Western Environmental Technology Office, is sponsoring research in the area of phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses higher plants to transfer toxic elements and radionuclides from surface soils into aboveground biomass. Some plants, termed hyperaccumulators, take up toxic elements in substantial amounts, resulting in concentrations in aboveground biomass over 100 times those observed with conventional plants. After growth, the plant biomass is harvested, and the toxic elements are concentrated and reclaimed or disposed of. As growing, harvesting, and processing plant biomass is relatively inexpensive, phytoremediation can be a low-cost technology for remediation of extensive areas having lightly to moderately contaminated soils. This paper reviews the potential of hyper- and moderate accumulator plants in soil remediation, provides some comparative cost estimates, and outlines ongoing work initiated by the US DOE.

  13. Inventory of radionuclides for the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report uses a material balance approach to describe the quantities and composition of reported releases of radionuclides to air and water, and the distribution of these nuclides in atmospheric, aquatic, and biotic compartments of the Great Lakes ecosystem. The primary sources considered are discharges from nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Great Lakes Basin. Other sources include commercial, industrial, medical, and research institutions. Radionuclide inventories are first presented by source, both natural and anthropogenic, then by geographical and environmental distribution. The concluding section discusses the adequacy of radionuclide monitoring, the need for a reassessment of environmental monitoring of nuclear facilities, radionuclide data reporting, harmonization of monitoring and data reporting, biological transfer factors for lake systems, and radionuclides of concern. A glossary is included.

  14. Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids

    DOEpatents

    Patch, Keith D.; Morgan, Dean T.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

  15. Transient Analyses for a Molten Salt Transmutation Reactor Using the Extended SIMMER-III Code

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shisheng; Rineiski, Andrei; Maschek, Werner; Ignatiev, Victor

    2006-07-01

    Recent developments extending the capabilities of the SIMMER-III code for the dealing with transient and accidents in Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs) are presented. These extensions refer to the movable precursor modeling within the space-time dependent neutronics framework of SIMMER-III, to the molten salt flow modeling, and to new equations of state for various salts. An important new SIMMER-III feature is that the space-time distribution of the various precursor families with different decay constants can be computed and took into account in neutron/reactivity balance calculations and, if necessary, visualized. The system is coded and tested for a molten salt transmuter. This new feature is also of interest in core disruptive accidents of fast reactors when the core melts and the molten fuel is redistributed. (authors)

  16. Transmutation of Personal Glucose Meters into Portable and Highly Sensitive Microbial Pathogen Detection Platform.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Zhaowei; Gao, Nan; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-10-01

    Herein, for the first time, we presented a simple and general approach by using personal glucose meters (PGM) for portable and ultrasensitive detection of microbial pathogens. Upon addition of pathogenic bacteria, glucoamylase-quaternized magnetic nanoparticles (GA-QMNPS) conjugates were disrupted by the competitive multivalent interactions between bacteria and QMNPS, resulting in the release of GA. After magnetic separation, the free GA could catalyze the hydrolysis of amylose into glucose for quantitative readout by PGM. In such way, PGM was transmuted into a bacterial detection device and extremely low detection limits down to 20 cells mL(-1) was achieved. More importantly, QMNPS could inhibit the growth of the bacteria and destroy its cellular structure, which enabled bacteria detection and inhibition simultaneously. The simplicity, portability, sensitivity and low cost of presented work make it attractive for clinical applications. PMID:26153225

  17. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. IV. Miscellaneous aspects. [Transport; fuel fabrication; decay; policy; economics

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.W.; Croff, A.G.

    1980-09-01

    This report discusses seven aspects of actinide partitioning-transmutation (P-T) which are important in any complete evaluation of this waste treatment option but which do not fall within other major topical areas concerning P-T. The so-called miscellaneous aspects considered are (1) the conceptual design of a shipping cask for highly neutron-active fresh and spent P-T fuels, (2) the possible impacts of P-T on mixed-oxide fuel fabrication, (3) alternatives for handling the existing and to-be-produced spent fuel and/or wastes until implementation of P-T, (4) the decay and dose characteristics of P-T and standard reactor fuels, (5) the implications of P-T on currently existing nuclear policy in the United States, (6) the summary costs of P-T, and (7) methods for comparing the risks, costs, and benefits of P-T.

  18. Laser-Bioplasma Interaction: The Blood Type Transmutation Induced by Multiple Ultrashort Wavelength Laser Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The interaction of ultrashort wavelength multi laser beams with the flowing blood thin films leads to the transmutation of the blood types A, B, and AB into O type. This is a novel mechanism of importance for the transfusion medicine. Laser radiation is in resonance with the eigen-frequency modes of the antigen proteins and forces the proteins to parametrically oscillate until they get kicked out from the surface. The stripping away of antigens is done by the scanning-multiple-lasers of a high repetition rate in the blue-purple frequency domain. The guiding-lasers are in the red-green frequency domain. The laser force, (parametric interaction with the antigen eigen-oscillation), upon the antigen protein molecule must exceed its weight. The scanning laser beam is partially reflected as long as the antigen(s) is not eliminated. The process of the protein detachment can last a few minutes. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., Stefan University.

  19. Thermal conductivity changes upon neutron transmutation of {sup 10}B doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannadham, K.; Verghese, K.; Butler, J. E.

    2014-08-28

    {sup 10}B doped p-type diamond samples were subjected to neutron transmutation reaction using thermal neutron flux of 0.9 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} and fast neutron flux of 0.09 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Another sample of epilayer grown on type IIa (110) single crystal diamond substrate was subjected to equal thermal and fast neutron flux of 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The defects in the diamond samples were previously characterized by different methods. In the present work, thermal conductivity of these diamond samples was determined at room temperature by transient thermoreflectance method. The thermal conductivity change in the samples as a function of neutron fluence is explained by the phonon scattering from the point defects and disordered regions. The thermal conductivity of the diamond samples decreased more rapidly initially and less rapidly for larger neutron fluence. In addition, the thermal conductivity in type IIb diamond decreased less rapidly with thermal neutron fluence compared to the decrease in type IIa diamond subjected to fast neutron fluence. It is concluded that the rate of production of defects during transmutation reaction is slower when thermal neutrons are used. The thermal conductivity of epilayer of diamond subjected to high thermal and fast neutron fluence is associated with the covalent carbon network in the composite structure consisting of disordered carbon and sp{sup 2} bonded nanocrystalline regions.

  20. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Kuhl, David E.; Edwards, Roy Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

  1. Radionuclides in surface and groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Kate M.

    2009-01-01

    Unique among all the contaminants that adversely affect surface and water quality, radioactive compounds pose a double threat from both toxicity and damaging radiation. The extreme energy potential of many of these materials makes them both useful and toxic. The unique properties of radioactive materials make them invaluable for medical, weapons, and energy applications. However, mining, production, use, and disposal of these compounds provide potential pathways for their release into the environment, posing a risk to both humans and wildlife. This chapter discusses the sources, uses, and regulation of radioactive compounds in the United States, biogeochemical processes that control mobility in the environment, examples of radionuclide contamination, and current work related to contaminated site remediation.

  2. Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

  3. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  4. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  5. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Norain, Abdullah; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-05-01

    An estimated 60,000 individuals in the United States and 132,000 worldwide are yearly diagnosed with melanoma. Until recently, treatment options for patients with stages III-IV metastatic disease were limited and offered marginal, if any, improvement in overall survival. The situation changed with the introduction of B-RAF inhibitors and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 immunotherapies into the clinical practice. With only some patients responding well to the immune therapies and with very serious side effects and high costs of immunotherapy, there is still room for other approaches for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma could be divided into the domains of radioimmunotherapy (RIT), radiolabeled peptides, and radiolabeled small molecules. RIT of melanoma is currently experiencing a renaissance with the clinical trials of alpha-emitter (213)Bi-labeled and beta-emitter (188)Rhenium-labeled monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic melanoma producing encouraging results. The investigation of the mechanism of efficacy of melanoma RIT points at killing of melanoma stem cells by RIT and involvement of immune system such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The domain of radiolabeled peptides for targeted melanoma therapy has been preclinical so far, with work concentrated on radiolabeled peptide analogues of melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor and on melanin-binding peptides. The field of radiolabeled small molecule produced radioiodinated benzamides that cross the cellular membrane and bind to the intracellular melanin. The recent clinical trial demonstrated measurable antitumor effects and no acute or midterm toxicities. We are hopeful that the targeted radionuclide therapy of metastatic melanoma would become a clinical reality as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with the immunotherapies such as anti-PD1 programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies

  6. GIS Modelling of Radionuclide Transport from the Semipalatinsk Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakay, L.; Zakarin, E.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, the software complex GIS-project MigRad (Migration of Radionuclide) was developed, tested and applied for the territory of the Semipalatinsk test site/ polygon (Republic of Kazakhstan), where since 1961, in total 348 underground nuclear explosions were conducted. The MigRad is oriented on integration of large volumes of different information (mapping, ground-based, and satellite-based survey): and also includes modeling on its base local redistribution of radionuclides by precipitation and surface waters and by long-range transport of radioactive aerosols. The existing thermal anomaly on territory of the polygon was investigated in details, and the object-oriented analysis was applied for the studied area. Employing the RUNOFF model, the simulation of radionuclides migration with surface waters was performed. Employing the DERMA model, the simulation of long-term atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition patterns for cesium was conducted from 3 selected locations (Balapan, Delegen, and Experimental Field). Employing geoinformation technology, the mapping of the of the high temperature zones and epicenters of radioactive aerosols transport for the territory of the test site was carried out with post-processing and integration of modelling results into GIS environment. Contamination levels of pollution due to former nuclear explosions for population and environment of the surrounding polygon territories of Kazakhstan as well as adjacent countries were analyzed and evaluated. The MigRad was designed as instrument for comprehensive analysis of complex territorial processes influenced by former nuclear explosions on the territory of Semipalatinsk test site. It provides possibilities in detailed analyses for (i) extensive cartographic material, remote sensing, and field measurements data collected in different level databases; (ii) radionuclide migration with flows using accumulation and redistribution of soil particles; (iii) thermal anomalies

  7. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  8. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  9. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  10. Conus Medullaris Syndrome following Radionuclide Cisternography.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jay Chol

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclide cisternography is generally considered to be a safe procedure without significant neurological complications. However, in this report we present a patient who developed conus medullaris syndrome following radionuclide cisternography. A 46-year-old woman underwent lumbar puncture followed by radionuclide cisternography with the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. After the cisternography, she developed voiding difficulty with perineal sensory loss. Lumbar MRI revealed a high signal intensity lesion on T2-weighted images at the level of conus medullaris. Considering its clinical course and MRI findings, a spinal cord infarction is highly suggested as a cause of the conus medullaris lesion in this patient.

  11. The Changes of Energy Interactions between Nucleus Function and Mitochondria Functions Causing Transmutation of Chronic Inflammation into Cancer Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ponizovskiy, Michail R

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between nucleus and mitochondria functions induce the mechanism of maintenance stability of cellular internal energy according to the first law of thermodynamics in able-bodied cells and changes the mechanisms of maintenance stability of cellular internal energy creating a transition stationary state of ablebodied cells into quasi-stationary pathologic states of acute inflammation transiting then into chronic inflammation and then transmuting into cancer metabolism. The mechanisms' influences of intruding etiologic pathologic agents (microbe, virus, etc.) lead to these changes of energy interactions between nucleus and mitochondria functions causing general acute inflammation, then passing into local chronic inflammation, and reversing into cancer metabolism transmutation. Interactions between biochemical processes and biophysical processes of cellular capacitors' operations create a supplementary mechanism of maintenance stability of cellular internal energy in the norm and in pathology. Discussion of some scientific works eliminates doubts of the authors of these works. PMID:27480780

  12. Radionuclide angiography for assessment of hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.W.; Welji, A.N.; Shapiro, J.H.; Angtuaco, E.

    1982-01-01

    A retrospective study of 66 radionuclide angiograms of the thyroid showed that a simple visual inspection of the images is highly accurate for diagnosing hyperthyroidism. Mathematical analysis with computers is not necessary.

  13. Radionuclide carriers for targeting of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sofou, Stavroula

    2008-01-01

    This review describes strategies for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches are summarized in terms of tumor location in the body, and tumor morphology. These determine the radionuclides of choice for suggested targeting ligands, and the type of delivery carriers. This review is not exhaustive in examples of radionuclide carriers for targeted cancer therapy. Our purpose is two-fold: to give an integrated picture of the general strategies and molecular constructs currently explored for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides, and to identify challenges that need to be addressed. Internal radiotherapies for targeting of cancer are at a very exciting and creative stage. It is expected that the current emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches for exploring such therapeutic directions should enable internal radiotherapy to reach its full potential. PMID:18686778

  14. System and method for assaying a radionuclide

    SciTech Connect

    Cadieux, James R; King, III, George S; Fugate, Glenn A

    2014-12-23

    A system for assaying a radionuclide includes a liquid scintillation detector, an analyzer connected to the liquid scintillation detector, and a delay circuit connected to the analyzer. A gamma detector and a multi-channel analyzer are connected to the delay circuit and the gamma detector. The multi-channel analyzer produces a signal reflective of the radionuclide in the sample. A method for assaying a radionuclide includes selecting a sample, detecting alpha or beta emissions from the sample with a liquid scintillation detector, producing a first signal reflective of the alpha or beta emissions, and delaying the first signal a predetermined time. The method further includes detecting gamma emissions from the sample, producing a second signal reflective of the gamma emissions, and combining the delayed first signal with the second signal to produce a third signal reflective of the radionuclide.

  15. Dosimetry and Case Studies for Selected Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive review and analysis of biokinetic and dosimetric information for those radionuclides most likely to be involved in accidental exposures to workers or members of the public or used in radiological terrorism.

  16. Long lived gamma emitting radionuclides in incense.

    PubMed

    Alrefae, Tareq

    2013-10-01

    A study of long-lived gamma emitters in incense was performed. The incense samples originated from seven different countries, and the investigated radionuclides were Ra, Ra, and K. Gamma spectroscopy revealed the presence of all three investigated radionuclides in all samples. Interestingly, the activity concentrations revealed a clear bimodal distribution that distinguished samples that were natural incense from others that were processed incense. The activity concentrations in the latter group were found to be one order of magnitude greater than in the former group. Consequently, the estimated annual effective dose from the latter group was one order of magnitude higher than that of the former group. Nonetheless, the doses from both groups were found to be some three orders of magnitude less than the average worldwide exposure to inhaled natural radionuclides. This finding suggests the radiological safety of incense for the investigated radionuclides.

  17. Experience with Alloys Compatibility with Fuel and Coolant Salts and their Application to Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Aleksandr; Gnidoi, Ivan; Fedulov, Vladimir; Afonichkin, Valery; Bovet, Andrei; Subbotin, Vladimir; Panov, Aleksandr; Toropov, Andrei

    2006-07-01

    This paper summarizes results of recent work and the present state of knowledge about materials for molten salt reactors. The central focus is placed on the compatibility of container alloys with molten salt for Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter. Preliminary results from recent thermal convection loop studies are presented. Methods for purification of molten salt composition and improvement of Ni- base container alloys compatibility by maintaining the salt at low redox potential are discussed. (authors)

  18. Increasing the Acceptance of Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal by the Transmutation of Minor Actinides Using an Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Richard L.

    2010-02-01

    The main challenge in nuclear fuel cycle closure is the reduction of the potential radiotoxicity of spent LWR nuclear fuel, or the length of time in which that potential hazard exists. Partitioning and accelerator-based transmutation in combination with geological disposal can lead to an acceptable societal solution for the nuclear spent fuel management problem. Nuclear fuel seems ideally suited for recycling. Only a small fraction of the available energy in the fuel is extracted in a single pass and the problem isotopes, consisting of the transuranic elements plutonium, neptunium, americium, curium and the long-lived fission products iodine and technetium, could be burned in fast-neutron spectrum reactors or sub-critical accelerator driven transmuters. Most of the remaining wastes have half-lives of a few hundred years and can be safely stored in man-made containment structures (casks or glass). The very small amount of remaining long-lived waste could be safely stored in a small geologic repository. The problem for the next 100 years is that a sufficient number of fast reactors are unlikely to be built by industry to burn its own waste and the waste from existing and new light water reactors (LWRs). So an interim solution is required to transition to a fast reactor economy. The goals of accelerator transmutation are some or all of the following: 1) to significantly reduce the impacts due to the minor actinides on the packing density and long-term radiotoxicity in the repository design, 2) preserve/use the energy-rich component of used nuclear fuel, and 3) reduce proliferation risk. Accelerator-based transmutation could lead to a greater percentage of our power coming from greenhouse-gas emission-free nuclear power and provide a long-term strategy enabling the continuation and growth of nuclear power in the U.S. )

  19. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.; Shkolnik, A.; Yogev, R.; Firlit, C.; Traisman, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis.

  20. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

  1. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  2. (Radiological assessments of radionuclide releases)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1990-12-28

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, data have been obtained throughout the Northern Hemisphere on the concentrations of radionuclides in air, vegetation, soil, water, and foodstuffs that could be important means of human exposure. At the IAEA's invitation, the traveler reviewed recently published data and handbook summaries. The traveler evaluated the need for revising the default values recommended in Chapter 5, Terrestrial and Aquatic Food Chain Transport,'' of IAEA Safety Series No. 57. All attempts at revision were made to keep the mathematical complexity of the models to a minimum without substantial underestimation of dose to critical population subgroups. The traveler also served as chairman of the Multiple Pathways Working Group of the Coordinated Research Program on VAMP. This group has been established to test predictions of models assessing multiple exposure pathways potentially leading to human exposure to {sup 137}Cs. Testing is carried out for major components of assessment models that predict deposition, environmental transport, food chain bioaccumulation, and subsequent uptake and retention in the human body and dose due to exposure to external gamma radiation.

  3. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Lull, R.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Boll, D.A.; Kaplan, K.A.

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs.

  4. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F.F.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention.

  5. Determination of transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, D.M.; Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A.; Hess, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    'A team from two national laboratories is studying transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. Analyses are being done with 18 year old samples of {sup 137}Cs-bearing pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} \\267 0.5 H{sub 2}O) obtained from a French company. These samples are unique in that the pollucite was made with various amounts of {sup 137}Cs, which was then sealed in welded stainless- steel capsules to be used as tumor irradiation sources. Over the past 18 years, the {sup 137}Cs has been decaying to stable Ba in the capsules, i.e., in the absence of atmospheric effects. This material serves as an analogue to a crystalline waste form in which such a transmutation occurs to possibly disrupt the integrity of the original waste form. Work this year consisted of determining the construction of the capsule and state of the pollucite in the absence of details about these components from the French company. The authors have opened one capsule containing nonradioactive pollucite. The information on the construction of the stainless-steel capsule is useful for the work that the authors are preparing to do on capsules containing radioactive pollucite. Microscopic characterization of the nonradioactive pollucite revealed that there are at least two compounds in addition to pollucite: a Cs-silicate and a Cs-aluminosilicate (CsAlSiO{sub 4}). These findings may complicate the interpretation of the planned experiments using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (flourescence) have been used to characterize the nonradioactive pollucite. They have investigated the stability of the nonradioactive pollucite to {beta} radiation damage by use of 200 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope. The samples were found to become amorphous in less than 10 minutes with loss of Cs. This is equivalent to many more years of {beta} radiation damage than under normal decay of the {sup 137}Cs. In fact, the dose was

  6. Radiological assessment of target materials for accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickers, Linda Diane

    This dissertation issues the first published document of the radiation absorbed dose rate (rad-h-1) to tissue from radioactive spallation products in Ta, W, Pb, Bi, and LBE target materials used in Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) applications. No previous works have provided an estimate of the absorbed dose rate (rad-h-1) from activated targets for ATW applications. The results of this dissertation are useful for planning the radiological safety assessment to personnel, and for the design, construction, maintenance, and disposition of target materials of high-energy particle accelerators for ATW applications (Charlton, 1996). In addition, this dissertation provides the characterization of target materials of high-energy particle accelerators for the parameters of: (1) spallation neutron yield (neutrons/proton), (2) spallation products yield (nuclides/proton), (3) energy-dependent spallation neutron fluence distribution, (4) spallation neutron flux, (5) identification of radioactive spallation products for consideration in safety of personnel to high radiation dose rates, and (6) identification of the optimum geometrical dimensions for the target applicable to the maximum radial spallation neutron leakage from the target. Pb and Bi target materials yielded the lowest absorbed dose rates (rad-h -1) for a 10-year irradiation/50-year decay scheme, and would be the preferred target materials for consideration of the radiological safety of personnel during ATW operations. A beneficial characteristic of these target materials is that they do not produce radioactive transuranic isotopes, which have very long half-lives and require special handling and disposition requirements. Furthermore, the targets are not considered High-Level Waste (HLW) such as reactor spent fuel for disposal purposes. It is a basic ATW system requirement that the spallation target after it has been expended should be disposable as Class C low-level radioactive waste. Therefore, the disposal

  7. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of 30 works of children's literature that support the topic of technology and its influences on readers' daily lives. Notes some stories tell about a time when simple tools enabled individuals to accomplish tasks, and others feature visionaries who used technology to create buildings, bridges, roads, and inventions. Considers…

  8. Accelerator Technology Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  9. (Environmental technology)

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  10. Innovative methods to stabilize liquid membranes for removal of radionuclides from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Lokhandwala, K.

    1997-10-01

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, Membrane Technology Research, Inc., is developing a stable liquid membrane for extracting uranium and other radionuclides from groundwater. The improved membrane can also be applied to separation of other metal ions from aqueous streams in industrial operations.

  11. Modulated electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous media, hyperbolic pseudoanalytic functions, and transmutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmelnytskaya, Kira V.; Kravchenko, Vladislav V.; Torba, Sergii M.

    2016-05-01

    The time-dependent Maxwell system describing electromagnetic wave propagation in inhomogeneous isotropic media in the one-dimensional case reduces to a Vekua-type equation for bicomplex-valued functions of a hyperbolic variable, see Kravchenko and Ramirez [Adv. Appl. Cliord Algebr. 21(3), 547-559 (2011)]. Using this relation, we solve the problem of the transmission through an inhomogeneous layer of a normally incident electromagnetic time-dependent plane wave. The solution is written in terms of a pair of Darboux-associated transmutation operators [Kravchenko, V. V. and Torba, S. M., J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45, 075201 (2012)], and combined with the recent results on their construction [Kravchenko, V. V. and Torba, S. M., Complex Anal. Oper. Theory 9, 379-429 (2015); Kravchenko, V. V. and Torba, S. M., J. Comput. Appl. Math. 275, 1-26 (2015)] can be used for efficient computation of the transmitted modulated signals. We develop the corresponding numerical method and illustrate its performance with examples.

  12. Assessment of SFR fuel pin performance codes under advanced fuel for minor actinide transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Bouineau, V.; Lainet, M.; Chauvin, N.; Pelletier, M.

    2013-07-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is, therefore, an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and residual power packages as well as the repository area. In the SUPERFACT Experiment four different oxide fuels containing high and low concentrations of {sup 237}Np and {sup 241}Am, representing the homogeneous and heterogeneous in-pile recycling concepts, were irradiated in the PHENIX reactor. The behavior of advanced fuel materials with minor actinide needs to be fully characterized, understood and modeled in order to optimize the design of this kind of fuel elements and to evaluate its performances. This paper assesses the current predictability of fuel performance codes TRANSURANUS and GERMINAL V2 on the basis of post irradiation examinations of the SUPERFACT experiment for pins with low minor actinide content. Their predictions have been compared to measured data in terms of geometrical changes of fuel and cladding, fission gases behavior and actinide and fission product distributions. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results, although improvements are also pointed out for further studies, especially if larger content of minor actinide will be taken into account in the codes. (authors)

  13. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  14. Fast analysis of radionuclide decay chain migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. S.; Liang, C. P.; Liu, C. W.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    A novel tool for rapidly predicting the long-term plume behavior of an arbitrary length radionuclide decay chain is presented in this study. This fast tool is achieved based on generalized analytical solutions in compact format derived for a set of two-dimensional advection-dispersion equations coupled with sequential first-order decay reactions in groundwater system. The performance of the developed tool is evaluated by a numerical model using a Laplace transform finite difference scheme. The results of performance evaluation indicate that the developed model is robust and accurate. The developed model is then used to fast understand the transport behavior of a four-member radionuclide decay chain. Results show that the plume extents and concentration levels of any target radionuclide are very sensitive to longitudinal, transverse dispersion, decay rate constant and retardation factor. The developed model are useful tools for rapidly assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  15. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  16. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  17. Radionuclide Mobility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Smith, D; Rose, T; Glascoe, L; Steefel, C; Zavarin, M

    2003-11-13

    Underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are characterized by abundant fission product and actinide source terms. Included are {sup 99}Tc and other soluble radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in groundwater and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors. NTS provides the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an analog of the release of these radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository in the absence of engineered barriers. The investigation described in this report synthesizes a substantial body of data collected on the identity and distribution of soluble radionuclides at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters, for durations up to 40 years, and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This body of data is complemented by laboratory transport studies and a synthesis of recent modeling investigations from the NTS, with an emphasis on the ongoing Yucca Mountain Program (YMP) efforts. Overall, understanding the controls of radionuclide mobility associated with these nuclear tests will provide insight into the repository's future performance as well as bounds and calibrations for the numerical predictions of long-term radionuclide releases and migration.

  18. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

  19. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 1, Autopsy and In Vivo Data

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-02-25

    This paper is part one of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. The goal of part one of this work was to review, summarize, and characterize all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Forty-five papers and reports were obtained and their data reviewed, and three data sets were obtained via private communication. The 45 radionuclides of interest are the 238U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by 235U; 11 nuclides), and the 232Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides 87Rb and 40 K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides 14C and 3H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs-137mBa, 129I, and 90Sr-90Y. Measurements judged to be relevant were available for only 15 of these radionuclides: 238U, 235U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 137Cs, 87Rb, 40K, 14C, and 3H. Recent and relevant measurements were not available for 129I and 90Sr-90Y. A total of 11,714 radionuclide concentration measurements were found in one or more tissues or organs from 14 States. Data on age, sex, geographic locations, height, and weight of subjects were available only sporadically. Too often authors did not provide meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements so that variability in data sets is confounded with measurement uncertainty. The following papers detail how these shortcomings are overcome to achieve the goals of the three-part series.

  20. Workshop on development of radionuclide getters for the Yucca Mountain waste repository: proceedings.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles; Lukens, Wayne W. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

    2006-03-01

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository, located in southern Nevada, is to be the first facility for permanent disposal of spent reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analysis has indicated that among the major radionuclides contributing to dose are technetium, iodine, and neptunium, all of which are highly mobile in the environment. Containment of these radionuclides within the repository is a priority for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). These proceedings review current research and technology efforts for sequestration of the radionuclides with a focus on technetium, iodine, and neptunium. This workshop also covered issues concerning the Yucca Mountain environment and getter characteristics required for potential placement into the repository.

  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-04-08

    Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

  2. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  3. Radionuclide imaging of abomasal emptying in sheep.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, T; Stockdale, H R; Critchley, M; Grime, J S; Jones, R S; Maltby, P

    1997-01-01

    A liquid radionuclide tracer was administered to nine sheep in order to visualise the abomasum with a gamma camera computer system. The aim was to develop a method of studying gastric emptying, with minimal surgical intervention. Oral administration of the tracer gave good images of the whole complex stomach, but quantifying abomasal emptying was not possible because of the superimposition of the stomach compartments. When the reticular groove reflex was stimulated with oral copper sulphate the radionuclide bypassed the reticulorumen, allowing quantitative analysis of abomasal activity. However, the repeatability of the reflex activation was low. Radionuclide administered directly into the abomasum produced good images of abomasal outflow and provided digital data which were analysed quantitatively. A wide range of emptying rates was observed, generally with a stepped pattern.

  4. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  5. State of radionuclides in natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kulmatov, R.A.; Rakhmatov, U.; Kist, A.A.; Volkov, A.A.

    1987-03-01

    This work is devoted to a study of the kinetics of attainment of equilibrium between various forms of the radionuclide mercury-203 and to an evaluation of the part played by isotope exchange in this process. The radionuclide mercury-203 was added without a carrier to natural waters of the Syr-Dar'ya and Amu-Dar'ya Rivers and the Aral Sea in the cationic form (3). In order to determine the time of attainment of equilibrium between the forms of the radionuclide mercury-203 and the stable nuclide analogs, they used the methods of sorption on L-36 glass, AV-17 anion-exchanger, KU-2 cation-exchanger, extraction with chloroform plus isobutyl alcohol, and filtration.

  6. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized.

  7. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

  8. Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2012-04-25

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

  9. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

  10. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Brabander, Tessa; Teunissen, Jaap J M; Van Eijck, Casper H J; Franssen, Gaston J H; Feelders, Richard A; de Herder, Wouter W; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, the number of neuroendocrine tumours that are detected is increasing. A relative new and promising therapy for patients with metastasised or inoperable disease is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). This therapy involves an infusion of somatostatin analogues linked to radionuclides like Yttrium-90 or Lutetium-177. Objective response rates are reported in 15-35%. Response rates may vary between type of tumour and radionuclide. Besides the objective response rate, overall survival and progression free survival increase significantly. Also, the quality of life improves as well. Serious side-affects are rare. PRRT is usually well tolerated, also in patients with extensive metastasised disease. Recent studies combined PRRT with other types of therapies. Unfortunately no randomised trials comparing these strategies are available. In the future, more research is needed to evaluate the best therapy combinations or sequence of therapies. PMID:26971847

  11. Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Mark; Herrington, Pres; Miley, Harry; Ellis, J. Edward; McKinnon, David; St. Pierre, Devon

    1999-08-03

    Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by electronic mail using formats defined in IMS 1.0, Formats and Protocols for Messages. An open message authentication standard exists, called S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), which has been proposed for use with all IMS radionuclide station message communications. This standard specifies adding a digital signature and public key certificate as a MIME attachment to the e-mail message. It is advantageous because it allows authentication to be added to all IMS 1.0 messages in a standard format and is commercially supported in e-mail software. For command and control, the RASA system uses a networked Graphical User Interface (GUI) based upon Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) communications, which requires special authentication procedures. The authors have modified the RASA system to meet CTBTO authentication guidelines, using a FORTEZZA card for authentication functions. They demonstrated signing radionuclide data messages at the RASA, then sending, receiving, and verifying the messages at a data center. They demonstrated authenticating command messages and responses from the data center GUI to the RASA. Also, the particular authentication system command to change the private/public key pair and retrieve the new public key was demonstrated. This work shows that data surety meeting IMS guidelines may be immediately applied to IMS radionuclide systems.

  12. A Study of Fast Reactor Fuel Transmutation in a Candidate Dispersion Fuel Design

    SciTech Connect

    Mark DeHart; Hongbin Zhang; Eric Shaber; Matthew Jesse

    2010-11-01

    Dispersion fuels represent a significant departure from typical ceramic fuels to address swelling and radiation damage in high burnup fuel. Such fuels use a manufacturing process in which fuel particles are encapsulated within a non-fuel matrix. Dispersion fuels have been studied since 1997 as part of an international effort to develop and test very high density fuel types for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program.[1] The Idaho National Laboratory is performing research in the development of an innovative dispersion fuel concept that will meet the challenges of transuranic (TRU) transmutation by providing an integral fission gas plenum within the fuel itself, to eliminate the swelling that accompanies the irradiation of TRU. In this process, a metal TRU vector produced in a separations process is atomized into solid microspheres. The dispersion fuel process overcoats the microspheres with a mixture of resin and hollow carbon microspheres to create a TRUC. The foam may then be heated and mixed with a metal power (e.g., Zr, Ti, or Si) and resin to form a matrix metal carbide, that may be compacted and extruded into fuel elements. In this paper, we perform reactor physics calculations for a core loaded with the conceptual fuel design. We will assume a “typical” TRU vector and a reference matrix density. We will employ a fuel and core design based on the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) design.[2] Using the CSAS6 and TRITON modules of the SCALE system [3] for preliminary scoping studies, we will demonstrate the feasibility of reactor operations. This paper will describe the results of these analyses.

  13. Hardening neutron spectrum for advanced actinide transmutation experiments in the ATR.

    PubMed

    Chang, G S; Ambrosek, R G

    2005-01-01

    The most effective method for transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast test reactor in the United States, initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. Such a test facility, with a spectrum similar but somewhat softer than that of the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), has been constructed in the INEEL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The radial fission power distribution of the actinide fuel pin, which is an important parameter in fission gas release modelling, needs to be accurately predicted and the hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum is compared. The comparison analyses in this study are performed using MCWO, a well-developed tool that couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and build-up code ORIGEN-2. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations and detailed radial fission power profile calculations for a typical fast reactor (LMFBR) neutron spectrum and the hardened neutron spectrum test region in the ATR. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the cadmium basket used in the advanced fuel test assembly in the ATR can effectively depress the linear heat generation rate in the experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum in the test region.

  14. Nuclear Transmutations in HFIR's Beryllium Reflector and Their Impact on Reactor Operation and Reflector Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, David; Maldonado, G Ivan; Primm, Trent; Proctor, Larry Duane

    2012-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory utilizes a large cylindrical beryllium reflector that is subdivided into three concentric regions and encompasses the compact reactor core. Nuclear transmutations caused by neutron activation occur in the beryllium reflector regions, which leads to unwanted neutron absorbing and radiation emitting isotopes. During the past year, two topics related to the HFIR beryllium reflector were reviewed. The first topic included studying the neutron poison (helium-3 and lithium-6) buildup in the reflector regions and its affect on beginning-of-cycle reactivity. A new methodology was developed to predict the reactivity impact and estimated symmetrical critical control element positions as a function of outage time between cycles due to helium-3 buildup and was shown to be in better agreement with actual symmetrical critical control element position data than the current methodology. The second topic included studying the composition of the beryllium reflector regions at discharge as well as during decay to assess the viability of transporting, storing, and ultimately disposing the reflector regions currently stored in the spent fuel pool. The post-irradiation curie inventories were used to determine whether the reflector regions are discharged as transuranic waste or become transuranic waste during the decay period for disposal purposes and to determine the nuclear hazard category, which may affect the controls invoked for transportation and temporary storage. Two of the reflector regions were determined to be transuranic waste at discharge and the other region was determined to become transuranic waste in less than 2 years after being discharged due to the initial uranium content (0.0044 weight percent uranium). It was also concluded that all three of the reflector regions could be classified as nuclear hazard category 3 (potential for localized consequences only).

  15. Damages in ceramics for nuclear waste transmutation by irradiation with swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvy, Michel; Dalmasso, Chrystelle; Thiriet-Dodane, Catherine; Simeone, David; Gosset, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Inert matrices are proposed for advanced nuclear fuels or for the transmutation of the actinides that is an effective solution for the nuclear waste management. The behaviour of inert matrix ceramics like MgO, MgAl2O4 and cubic ZrO2 oxides under irradiation is presented in this study. The alumina Al2O3 has been also studied as a reference for the ceramic materials. These oxides have been irradiated with swift heavy ions at CIRIL/GANIL to simulate the fragment fission effects. The irradiations with the different heavy ions (from S to Pb) with energy between 91 and 820 MeV, have been realised at room temperature or 500 °C. The fluencies were between 5 × 1010 and 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The polished faces of sintered polycrystalline disks or single crystal slices have been characterized before and after irradiation by X-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy. The apparent swelling evaluated from surface profile measurements after irradiation is very important for spinel and zirconia, comparatively with those of magnesia or alumina. The amorphisation seems to be at the origin of this swelling, and the electronic stopping power of the ions is the most influent parameter for the irradiation damages. The point defects characterized by optical spectroscopy show a significant amount of damage on the oxygen sub-lattice in the irradiated oxides. F+ centres are present in all irradiated oxides. However, new absorption bands are observed and cation clusters cannot be excluded in magnesia and spinel after irradiation.

  16. Phase Formation and Transformations in Transmutation Fuel Materials for the LIFE Engine Part I - Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P E; Kaufman, L; Fluss, M J

    2008-11-10

    The current specifications of the LLNL fusion-fission hybrid proposal, namely LIFE, impose severe constraints on materials, and in particular on the nuclear fissile or fertile nuclear fuel and its immediate environment. This constitutes the focus of the present report with special emphasis on phase formation and phase transformations of the transmutation fuel and their consequences on particle and pebble thermal, chemical and mechanical integrities. We first review the work that has been done in recent years to improve materials properties under the Gen-IV project, and with in particular applications to HTGR and MSR, and also under GNEP and AFCI in the USA. Our goal is to assess the nuclear fuel options that currently exist together with their issues. Among the options, it is worth mentioning TRISO, IMF, and molten salts. The later option will not be discussed in details since an entire report is dedicated to it. Then, in a second part, with the specific LIFE specifications in mind, the various fuel options with their most critical issues are revisited with a path forward for each of them in terms of research, both experimental and theoretical. Since LIFE is applicable to very high burn-up of various fuels, distinctions will be made depending on the mission, i.e., energy production or incineration. Finally a few conclusions are drawn in terms of the specific needs for integrated materials modeling and the in depth knowledge on time-evolution thermochemistry that controls and drastically affects the performance of the nuclear materials and their immediate environment. Although LIFE demands materials that very likely have not yet been fully optimized, the challenge are not insurmountable and a well concerted experimental-modeling effort should lead to dramatic advances that should well serve other fission programs such as Gen-IV, GNEP, AFCI as well as the international fusion program, ITER.

  17. Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2010-01-04

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

  18. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-05-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax.

  19. Detection of subdural empyema with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; Holtzman, D.S.; McDougall, I.R.

    1980-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is now the standard method of confirming a diagnosis of suspected subdural empyema. We report a case in which the radionuclide brain scan was abnormal at a time when the CT scan was normal. An /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scan was also performed in this patient and demonstrated abnormal uptake in the empyema. The scintigraphic findings in a second case of subdural empyema are also described. The relative roles of radionuclide studies and CT scans in the patient with suspected subdural empyema are discussed.

  20. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable. 136 references.

  1. Radionuclide scanning in children with rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weinblatt, M.E.; Miller, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy was performed in 46 children with rhabdomyosarcoma. Of the 63 radiologically confirmed sites of bone disease, 76% were detected by /sup 99m/Tc-labeled phosphate uptake. All 15 sites of hepatic involvement and eight of the nine cranial sites of disease exhibited isotope accumulation. Gallium 67 scans showed 57% of the 43 proven sites of disease, including four previously unsuspected areas. Twelve false-positive sites were obtained with gallium. Radionuclide scanning is a valuable aid in the diagnostic evaluation and management of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

  2. Investigation of the generation of several long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology: Report on a Coordinated Research Program sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Pashchenko, A.B.

    1994-05-01

    The IAEA initiated a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) in 1988 to obtain reliable information for 16 long-lived activation reactions of special importance to fusion reactor technology: {sup 27}Al (n, 2n){sup 26}Al, {sup 63}Cu(n,p){sup 63}Ni, {sup 94}Mo(n,p) {sup 94}Nb, {sup 109}Ag(n,2n){sup 108m}Ag, {sup 179}Hf(n,2n) {sup 178m2}Hf, {sup 182}W(n,n{sup `}a){sup 178m2}Hf, {sup 151}Eu(n,2n) {sup 150}gEu, {sup 153}Eu(n,2n){sup 152+m2}Eu, {sup 159}Tb(n, 2n){sup 158}Tb, {sup 158}Dy(n,p){sup 158}Tb, {sup 193}Ir(n,2n) {sup 192m2}Ir, {sup 187}Re(n,2n){sup 186m}Re, {sup 62}Ni(n{gamma}) {sup 63}Ni, {sup 98}Mo(n,{gamma}){sup 99}Mo({beta}-){sup 99}Tc, {sup 165}Ho(n,{gamma}) {sup 166m}Ho and {sup 191}Ir(n,{gamma}){sup 192m2}Ir. this paper documents progress achieved from the start of the program through mid- 1993.

  3. Summary Report on New Transmutation Analysis for the Evaluation of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Options in Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    R. M. Ferrer; S. Bays; M. Pope; B. Forget; W. Skerjanc; M. Asgari

    2008-08-01

    A 1000 MWth commercial-scale Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) design was selected as the baseline in this scenario study. Traditional approaches to Light Water Reactor (LWR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) transuranic waste (TRU) burning in a fast spectrum system have typically focused on the continual homogeneous recycling (reprocessing) of the discharge fast reactor fuel. The effective reduction of transuranic inventories has been quantified through the use of the transuranics conversion ratio (TRU CR). The implicit assumption in the use of this single parameter is a homogeneous fast reactor option where equal weight is given to the destruction of transuranics, either by fission or eventual fission via transmutation. This work explores the potential application of alternative fast reactor fuel cycles in which the minor actinide (MA) component of the TRU is considered ‘waste’, while the plutonium component is considered as fuel. Specifically, a set of potential designs that incorporate radial heterogeneous target assemblies is proposed and results relevant to transmutation and system analysis are presented. In this work we consider exclusively minor actinide-bearing radial targets in a continual reprocessing scenario (as opposed to deep-burn options). The potential use of targets in a deep burn mode is not necessarily ruled out as an option. However, due to work scope constraints and material limit considerations, it was preferred to leave the target assemblies reach either the assumed limit of 200 DPA at discharge or maximum allowable gas pressure caused by helium production from transmutation. The number and specific design of the target assemblies was chosen to satisfy the necessary core symmetry and physical dimensions (available space for a certain amount of mass in an assembly based on an iterated mass density).

  4. Prognosis and comparison of performances of composite CERCER and CERMET fuels dedicated to transmutation of TRU in an EFIT ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, V.; Uyttenhove, W.; Thetford, R.; Maschek, W.

    2011-07-01

    The neutronic and thermomechanical performances of two composite fuel systems: CERCER with (Pu,Np,Am,Cm)O 2-x fuel particles in ceramic MgO matrix and CERMET with metallic Mo matrix, selected for transmutation of minor actinides in the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT), were analysed aiming at their optimisation. The ALEPH burnup code system, based on MNCPX and ORIGEN codes and JEFF3.1 nuclear data library, and the modern version of the fuel rod performance code TRAFIC were used for this analysis. Because experimental data on the properties of the mixed minor-actinide oxides are scarce, and the in-reactor behaviour of the T91 steel chosen as cladding, as well as of the corrosion protective layer, is still not well-known, a set of "best estimates" provided the properties used in the code. The obtained results indicate that both fuel candidates, CERCER and CERMET, can satisfy the fuel design and safety criteria of EFIT. The residence time for both types of fuel elements can reach about 5 years with the reactivity swing within ±1000 pcm, and about 22% of the loaded MA is transmuted during this period. However, the fuel centreline temperature in the hottest CERCER fuel rod is close to the temperature above which MgO matrix becomes chemically instable. Moreover, a weak PCMI can appear in about 3 years of operation. The CERMET fuel can provide larger safety margins: the fuel temperature is more than 1000 K below the permitted level of 2380 K and the pellet-cladding gap remains open until the end of operation.

  5. Assessment of Radionuclides in the Savannah River Site Environment Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.

    1999-01-26

    This document summarizes the impact of radionuclide releases from Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities from 1954 through 1996. The radionuclides reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS.

  6. Transmutation of Radioactive Nuclear Waste — Present Status and Requirement for the Problem-Oriented Nuclear Database: Approach to Scheduling the Experiments (Reactor, Target, Blanket)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artisyuk, V.; Ignatyuk, A.; Korovin, Yu.; Lopatkin, A.; Matveenko, I.; Stankovskiy, A.; Titarenko, Yu.

    2005-05-01

    Transmutation of nuclear wastes (Minor Actinides and Long-Lived Fission Products) remains an important option to reduce the burden of high-level waste on final waste disposal in deep geological structures. Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) are considered as possible candidates to perform transmutation due to their subcritical operation mode that eliminates some of the serious safety penalties unavoidable in critical reactors. Specific requirements to nuclear data necessary for ADS transmutation analysis is the main subject of the ISTC Project ♯2578 which started in 2004 to identify the areas of research priorities in the future. The present paper gives a summary of ongoing project stressing the importance of nuclear data for blanket performance (reactivity behavior with associated safety characteristics) and uncertainties that affect characteristics of neutron producing target.

  7. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T. ); Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E. ); Wobber, F.J. )

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. REMOVAL OF RADIONUCLIDES BY ELECTROKINETIC SOIL PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrokinetics promises to be an innovative treatment process for in-situ treatment of soils and groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Electrokinetics refers to the movement of ionic liquids and charged particles relative to one another under the action ...

  9. Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Layered materials play an important role in nuclear waste management and environmental cleanup. Better understanding of radionuclide interactions with those materials is critical for engineering high-performance materials for various applications. This presentation will provide an overview on radionuclide interactions with two general categories of layered materials - cationic clays and anionic clays - from a perspective of nanopore confinement. Nanopores are widely present in layered materials, either as the interlayers or as inter-particle space. Nanopore confinement can significantly modify chemical reactions in those materials. This effect may cause the preferential enrichment of radionuclides in nanopores and therefore directly impact the mobility of the radionuclides. This effect also implies that conventional sorption measurements using disaggregated samples may not represent chemical conditions in actual systems. The control of material structures on ion exchange, surface complexation, and diffusion in layered materials will be systematically examined, and the related modeling approaches will be discussed. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories, which is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the DOE under contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  10. Distribution of radionuclides in Dardanelle Reservoir sediments.

    PubMed

    Forgy, J R; Epperson, C E; Swindle, D L

    1984-02-01

    Natural and reactor-discharged gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Dardanelle Reservoir surface sediments taken near the Arkansas Nuclear One Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths and particle sizes, at 33 locations, in a field survey conducted in early September 1980. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: natural radioactivity (40K as well as uranium and thorium decay products) 661-1210 Bq/kg; and reactor discharged radioactivity (137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co,, 58Co, 54Mn), no detectable activity to 237 Bq/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with decreasing sediment particle size. The average external whole-body and skin doses from all measurable reactor-discharged radionuclides were calculated according to the mathematical formula for determining external dose from sediment given by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Inside the discharge embayment near the reactor discharge canal, the doses were 1.7 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and 2.0 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the skin. Outside this area, the doses were 0.15 X 10(-3) and 0.18 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and skin, respectively. PMID:6693264

  11. Physical and chemical properties of radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Wessels, B W; Meares, C F

    2000-04-01

    As more radionuclide therapies move from laboratory feasibility studies into clinical reality, it becomes increasingly important for the labeling chemistry to produce consistently a stable radiopharmaceutical that remains intact under the challenge of human catabolism. Similarly, once proof of principle is established to bring a radionuclide conjugate into clinical therapy trials, dosimetric estimates should be made to select the appropriate radionuclide properties, which are based on animal-specific or patient-specific pharmacokinetics and match a set of specific clinical endpoints. These properties may include the radionuclide physical half-life, radiolabeled conjugate biological uptake and clearance, product-specific activity, range and type of emissions, and resultant effects on tumor and normal tissue cellular survival. The immunologist and labeling chemist have now produced a variety of strategies that have potential to increase the therapeutic ratio (tumor-to-normal tissue dose ratio). The advent of normal tissue clearing agents, fragmented or chimerized carriers to improve targeting, and the method of bispecific or two-step and three-step targeting agents has increased the need for realistic modeling of the carrier in vivo to guide prospectively the competitive development of these radiopharmaceuticals. In this article, examples have been taken from the literature to elucidate the benchmark of success that careful experimental design has fostered to bring these agents into clinical practice by creative and logical methodologies.

  12. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  13. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide...

  14. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device intended to permit...

  15. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device intended to permit...

  16. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A radionuclide brachytherapy source is a device that consists of...

  17. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A radionuclide brachytherapy source is a device that consists of...

  18. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A radionuclide brachytherapy source is a device that consists of...

  19. Intercomparison of radionuclide calibrator measurements in U.K. hospitals.

    PubMed

    Woods, M J

    1983-01-01

    The Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology had received various reports of users of radionuclide calibrators experiencing problems in obtaining accurate measurements of radionuclide activity. Working Group members were encouraged to initiate surveys in their own countries to assess the magnitude of these problems. The results of the survey in the United Kingdom are given.

  20. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is...

  1. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is...

  2. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is...

  3. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is...

  4. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  5. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  6. Measuring and Modeling Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material: Interpreting the Relationship Between the Natural Radionuclides Present

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, A.J.; Mucha, A.F.

    2008-07-01

    The regulatory release of sites and facilities (property) for restricted or unrestricted use has evolved beyond prescribed levels to model-derived dose and risk based limits. Dose models for deriving corresponding soil and structure radionuclide concentration guidelines are necessarily simplified representations of complex processes. A conceptual site model is often developed to present a reasonable and somewhat conservative representation of the physical and chemical properties of the impacted material. Dose modeling software is then used to estimate resulting dose and/or radionuclide specific acceptance criteria (activity concentrations). When the source term includes any or all of the uranium, thorium or actinium natural decay series radionuclides the interpretation of the relationship between the individual radionuclides of the series is critical to a technically correct and complete assessment of risk and/or derivation of radionuclide specific acceptance criteria. Unlike man-made radionuclides, modeling and measuring naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) source terms involves the interpretation of the relationship between the radionuclide present, e.g., secular equilibrium, enrichment, depletion or transient equilibrium. Isotopes of uranium, radium, and thorium occur in all three natural decay series. Each of the three series also produces a radon gas isotope as one of its progeny. In nature, the radionuclides in the three natural decay series are in a state that is approaching or has achieved secular equilibrium, in which the activities of all radionuclides within each series are nearly equal. However, ores containing the three natural decay series may begin in approximate secular equilibrium, but after processing, equilibrium may be broken and certain elements (and the radioactive isotopes of that element) may be concentrated or removed. Where the original ore may have contained one long chain of natural

  7. Targeted radionuclide therapy--an overview.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, F F Russ; Pillai, M R A

    2013-09-01

    Radionuclide therapy (RNT) based on the concept of delivering cytotoxic levels of radiation to disease sites is one of the rapidly growing fields of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, RNT targets diseases at the cellular level rather than on a gross anatomical level. This concept is a blend of a tracer moiety that mediates a site specific accumulation followed by induction of cytotoxicity with the short-range biological effectiveness of particulate radiations. Knowledge of the biochemical reactions taking place at cellular levels has stimulated the development of sophisticated molecular carriers, catalyzing a shift towards using more specific targeting radiolabelled agents. There is also improved understanding of factors of importance for choice of appropriate radionuclides based on availability, the types of emissions, linear energy transfer (LET), and physical half-life. This article discusses the applications of radionuclide therapy for treatment of cancer as well as other diseases. The primary objective of this review is to provide an overview on the role of radionuclide therapy in the treatment of different diseases such as polycythaemia, thyroid malignancies, metastatic bone pain, radiation synovectomy, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and others. In addition, recent developments on the systematic approach in designing treatment regimens as well as recent progress, challenges and future perspectives are discussed. An examination of the progress of radionuclide therapy indicates that although a rapid stride has been made for treating hematological tumors, the development for treating solid tumors has, so far, been limited. However, the emergence of novel tumor-specific targeting agents coupled with successful characterization of new target structures would be expected to pave the way for future treatment for such tumors.

  8. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  9. Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

  10. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere observed at Tsukuba: characteristics of the radionuclides derived from Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Doi, Taeko; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi; Toyoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Hirose, Katsumi

    2013-08-01

    During a serious accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a huge quantity of radionuclides was released into the atmosphere and ocean. We measured anthropogenic radionuclides in surface air at Tsukuba, about 170 km from the FDNPP. On March 15, 2011, we detected the radioactivity released from the Fukushima accident in air samples at Tsukuba. The major radionuclides that we observed were radioiodine ((131)I, (132)I, (133)I) and radiocesium ((134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs). This radioiodine consisted of gaseous and particulate forms; the percentage of particulate (131)I in the total (131)I ranged from 0 to 86%. The percentage of the particulate (131)I to the total (131)I increased on the arrival of the plumes from major emissions of the FDNPP. After activities of the radionuclides attained the maximum on March 15, 2011, the FDNPP-derived radionuclides decreased rapidly in surface air. The activity median aerodynamic diameter of (131)I-bearing particles was 0.7 μm, while those of (134)Cs- and (137)Cs-bearing particles were larger than 1 μm. Large variations of ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (132)Te/(137)Cs, and (99)Mo ((99m)Tc)/(137)Cs (all involving different elements) suggest that the behaviors of these radionuclides in the atmosphere, including the processes of their emission, differed each other.

  11. A free database of radionuclide voxel S values for the dosimetry of nonuniform activity distributions.

    PubMed

    Lanconelli, N; Pacilio, M; Lo Meo, S; Botta, F; Di Dia, A; Aroche, A Torres; Pérez, M A Coca; Cremonesi, M

    2012-01-21

    The increasing availability of SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity for the accurate assessment of the radiation dose to the biological target volume during radionuclide therapy. Voxel dosimetry can be performed employing direct Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, based on both morphological and functional images of the patient. On the other hand, for voxel dosimetry calculations the voxel S value method can be considered an easier approach than patient-specific Monte Carlo simulations, ensuring a good dosimetric accuracy at least for anatomic regions which are characterized by uniform density tissue. However, this approach has been limited because of the lack of tabulated S values for different voxel dimensions and radionuclides. The aim of this work is to provide a free dataset of values which can be used for voxel dosimetry in targeted radionuclide studies. Seven different radionuclides (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, 188Re), and 13 different voxel sizes (2.21, 2.33, 2.4, 3, 3.59, 3.9, 4, 4.42, 4.8, 5, 6, 6.8 and 9.28 mm) are considered. Voxel S values are calculated performing simulations of monochromatic photon and electron sources in two different homogeneous tissues (soft tissue and bone) with DOSXYZnrc code, and weighting the contributions on the basis of the radionuclide emission spectra. The outcomes are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with other codes (PENELOPE and MCNP4c) performing direct simulation of the radionuclide emission spectra. The differences among the different Monte Carlo codes are of the order of a few per cent when considering the source voxel and the bremsstrahlung tail, whereas the highest differences are observed at a distance close to the maximum continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. These discrepancies would negligibly affect dosimetric assessments. The dataset of voxel S values can be freely downloaded from the website www.medphys.it.

  12. A free database of radionuclide voxel S values for the dosimetry of nonuniform activity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanconelli, N.; Pacilio, M.; Lo Meo, S.; Botta, F.; Di Dia, A.; Torres Aroche, L. A.; Coca Pérez, M. A.; Cremonesi, M.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing availability of SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity for the accurate assessment of the radiation dose to the biological target volume during radionuclide therapy. Voxel dosimetry can be performed employing direct Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, based on both morphological and functional images of the patient. On the other hand, for voxel dosimetry calculations the voxel S value method can be considered an easier approach than patient-specific Monte Carlo simulations, ensuring a good dosimetric accuracy at least for anatomic regions which are characterized by uniform density tissue. However, this approach has been limited because of the lack of tabulated S values for different voxel dimensions and radionuclides. The aim of this work is to provide a free dataset of values which can be used for voxel dosimetry in targeted radionuclide studies. Seven different radionuclides (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, 188Re), and 13 different voxel sizes (2.21, 2.33, 2.4, 3, 3.59, 3.9, 4, 4.42, 4.8, 5, 6, 6.8 and 9.28 mm) are considered. Voxel S values are calculated performing simulations of monochromatic photon and electron sources in two different homogeneous tissues (soft tissue and bone) with DOSXYZnrc code, and weighting the contributions on the basis of the radionuclide emission spectra. The outcomes are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with other codes (PENELOPE and MCNP4c) performing direct simulation of the radionuclide emission spectra. The differences among the different Monte Carlo codes are of the order of a few per cent when considering the source voxel and the bremsstrahlung tail, whereas the highest differences are observed at a distance close to the maximum continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. These discrepancies would negligibly affect dosimetric assessments. The dataset of voxel S values can be freely downloaded from the website www.medphys.it.

  13. Multiple rod-cone and cone-rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: evidence from visual opsin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Simões, Bruno F; Sampaio, Filipa L; Loew, Ellis R; Sanders, Kate L; Fisher, Robert N; Hart, Nathan S; Hunt, David M; Partridge, Julian C; Gower, David J

    2016-01-27

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor 'transmutation'. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels.

  14. Radionuclide Imaging of Neurohormonal System of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinyu; Werner, Rudolf A.; Javadi, Mehrbod S.; Maya, Yoshifumi; Decker, Michael; Lapa, Constantin; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is one of the growing causes of death especially in developed countries due to longer life expectancy. Although many pharmacological and instrumental therapeutic approaches have been introduced for prevention and treatment of heart failure, there are still limitations and challenges. Nuclear cardiology has experienced rapid growth in the last few decades, in particular the application of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which allow non-invasive functional assessment of cardiac condition including neurohormonal systems involved in heart failure; its application has dramatically improved the capacity for fundamental research and clinical diagnosis. In this article, we review the current status of applying radionuclide technology in non-invasive imaging of neurohormonal system in the heart, especially focusing on the tracers that are currently available. A short discussion about disadvantages and perspectives is also included. PMID:25825596

  15. Targets and methods for target preparation for radionuclide production

    DOEpatents

    Zhuikov, Boris L; Konyakhin, Nicolai A; Kokhanyuk, Vladimir M; Srivastava, Suresh C

    2012-10-16

    The invention relates to nuclear technology, and to irradiation targets and their preparation. One embodiment of the present invention includes a method for preparation of a target containing intermetallic composition of antimony Ti--Sb, Al--Sb, Cu--Sb, or Ni--Sb in order to produce radionuclides (e.g., tin-117 m) with a beam of accelerated particles. The intermetallic compounds of antimony can be welded by means of diffusion welding to a copper backing cooled during irradiation on the beam of accelerated particles. Another target can be encapsulated into a shell made of metallic niobium, stainless steel, nickel or titanium cooled outside by water during irradiation. Titanium shell can be plated outside by nickel to avoid interaction with the cooling water.

  16. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  17. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 22: Advanced Radionuclide Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  18. Radionuclide bone scanning in giant cell tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nostrand, D.; Madewell, J.E.; McNiesh, L.M.; Kyle, R.W.; Sweet, D.

    1986-03-01

    Radionuclide bone scan findings are described and correlated with pathology in 23 patients with giant cell tumor (GCT) of the bone. The degree of radionuclide activity was markedly increased in 20 (87%), minimally increased in three (13%), and decreased in none of the patients. Of the 23 patients with increased radioactivity, the pattern was diffuse in 11 (48%) and doughnut in 12 (52%). Extended patterns of radioactivity were present in 19 of 22 patients; however, none were associated with true tumor extension. Bone scanning did not aid in the detection of GCT, was nonspecific, and did not differentiate benign from malignant GCT. Although radioactivity extended beyond the radiographic abnormality in the majority of patients, this was most likely secondary to other bony abnormalities or local and/or regional hyperemia, and caution should be taken in ascribing this extension to either tumor or metastasis.

  19. Radionuclide synovectomy – essentials for rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Felis-Giemza, Anna; Kobylecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70–80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice. PMID:27504020

  20. Decline of radionuclides in Columbia River biota

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Watson, D.G.; Scott, A.J.; Gurtisen, J.M.

    1980-03-01

    In January 1971, the last of nine plutonium production reactors using direct discharge of once-through cooling waters into the Columbia River was closed. Sampling was initiated at three stations on the Columbia River to document the decline of the radionuclide body burdens in the biota of the Columbia River ecosystem. The data show that in a river-reservoir complex, the measurable body burden of fission-produced radionuclides decreased to essentially undetectable levels within 18 to 24 mo after cessation of discharge of once-through cooling water into the river. On the basis of data from the free-flowing station, we believe that this decrease would be even more rapid in an unimpounded river.

  1. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  2. [Radionuclide therapy for bone metastases: new opportunities].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V V; Kochetova, T Yu; Voloznev, L V

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of patients with multiple bone metastases accompanied by pain syndrome is a complicated clinical task. Radionuclide therapy is one of its solutions, which is used to achieve long reduction of pain syndrome and significant improvement the quality of patients' life. However mechanism of action of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals suggests not only pain control but antitumor effect as well. In early clinical studies of safety and efficacy of the most common bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in single administration there were not any preferences in overall survival but individual clinical cases with extraordinary tumor regression after radionuclide therapy were reported. Repeated bone targeted therapy and combination with other treatment modalities can help to gain statistical significant increase in overall survival of patients.

  3. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary vasculature resulting in intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cuntaeous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  4. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggrregated albumin (/sup 99m/Tc MAA) labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cutaneous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  5. FIRST-PRINCIPLES CALCULATIONS OF CHARGE STATES AND FORMATION ENERGIES OF Mg, Al, and Be TRANSMUTANTS IN 3C-SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Shenyang Y.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Jiang, Weilin; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2014-08-28

    The Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP) is employed to calculate charge states and the formation energies of Mg, Al and Be transmutants at different lattice sites in 3C-SiC. The results provide important information on the dependence of the most stable charge state and formation energy of Mg, Al, Be and vacancies on electron potentials.

  6. Skin decontamination of commonly used medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Moore, P H; Mettler, F A

    1980-05-01

    The increasing use of radionuclides in medical diagnosis raises the possibility of accidental spills and skin contamination. This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of several decontaminating agents. Most nuclides were easily removed to levels of less than 5% of their original activity. Sodium pertechnetate (Tc-99m) was the most difficult compound to remove. Little difference was found between the effectiveness of tap water, soap and water, and two commercially available decontaminating agents.

  7. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  8. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  9. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. PMID:24508949

  10. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk.

  11. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.

    1986-12-01

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references.

  12. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  13. Concrete Property and Radionuclide Migration Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2008-10-01

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the DOE Complex. Part of theses services includes safe disposal of LLW and MLLW at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the requirements listed in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, a Performance Assessment (PA) analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires that continuing data collection be conducted to enhance confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied upon to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the Order. One critical assumption is that concrete will frequently be used as waste form or container material to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Data was collected to (1) quantify radionuclide migration through concrete materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the LLBG, (2) measure the properties of the concrete materials, especially those likely to influence radionuclide migration, and (3) quantify the stability of U-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  14. [Biosorption of Radionuclide Uranium by Deinococcus radiodurans].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Dong, Fa-qin; Dai, Qun-wei; Liu, Ming-xue; Nie, Xiao-qin; Zhang, Dong; Ma, Jia-lin; Zhou, Xian

    2015-04-01

    As a biological adsorbent, Living Deinococcus radiodurans was used for removing radionuclide uranium in the aqueous solution. The effect factors on biosorption of radionuclide uranium were researched in the present paper, including solution pH values and initial uranium concentration. Meanwhile, the biosorption mechanism was researched by the method of FTIR and SEM/EDS. The results show that the optimum conditions for biosorption are as follows: pH = 5, co = 100 mg · L(-1) and the maximum biosorption capacity is up to 240 mgU · g(-1). According to the SEM results and EDXS analysis, it is indicated that the cell surface is attached by lots of sheet uranium crystals, and the main biosorpiton way of uranium is the ion exchange or surface complexation. Comparing FTIR spectra and FTIR fitting spectra before and after biosorption, we can find that the whole spectra has a certain change, particularly active groups (such as amide groups of the protein, hydroxy, carboxyl and phosphate group) are involved in the biosorption process. Then, there is a new peak at 906 cm(-1) and it is a stretching vibration peak of UO2(2+). Obviously, it is possible that as an anti radiation microorganism, Deinococcus radiodurans could be used for removing radionuclide uranium in radiation environment.

  15. Sorption of radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, A.; Triay, I.; Knight, S.; Cisneros, M.

    1989-11-01

    A substantial database of sorption coefficients for important radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs has been obtained by Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past ten years. Current sorption studies are focussed on validation questions and augmentation of the existing database. Validation questions concern the effects of the use of crushed instead of solid rock samples in the batch experiments, the use of oversaturated stock solutions, and variations in water/rock ratios. Sorption mechanisms are also being investigated. Database augmentation activities include determination of sorption coefficients for elements with low sorption potential, sorption on psuedocolloids, sorption on fracture lining minerals, and sorption kinetics. Sorption can provide an important barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the proposed repository within Yucca Mountain to the accessible environment. In order to quantify this barrier, sorption coefficients appropriate for the Yucca Mountain groundwater system must be obtained for each of the important radionuclides in nuclear waste. Los Alamos National Laboratories has conducted numerous batch (crushed-rock) sorption experiments over the past ten years to develop a sorption coefficient database for the Yucca Mountain site. In the present site characterization phase, the main goals of the sorption test program will be to validate critical sorption coefficients and to augment the existing database where important data are lacking. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  16. UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-28

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  17. Radionuclide transport and retardation in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.N.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; DeVilliers, S.J.; Erdal, B.R.; Lawrence, F.O.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1980-12-31

    Batch measurements provide an understanding of which experimental variables are important. For example, sorption ratios vary little with particle size (and surface area); however, groundwater composition and rock composition are quite important. A general correlation has been identified between mineralogy (major phases) and degree of sorption for strontium, cesium, and barium. Although these are approximate, a more detailed analysis may be possible as more samples are studied and the data base increased. Data from crushed tuff columns indicate that, except in simple cases where sorption coefficients are relatively low, and ion-exchange equilibria not only exist but are the dominant mechanism for removal of radioisotopes from solution, the simple relation between the sorption ratio R/sub d/ (or K/sub d/) and the relative velocity of radionuclides with respect to groundwater velocity may be insufficient to permit accurate modeling of the retardation of radionuclides. Additional work on whole core columns and larger blocks of intact material is required to better understand radionuclide sorption and transport through rock.

  18. Targeted radionuclide therapies for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Shah, M; Da Silva, R; Gravekamp, C; Libutti, S K; Abraham, T; Dadachova, E

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic malignancies, the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths, have an aggressive behavior with poor prognosis, resulting in a 5-year survival rate of only 4%. It is typically a silent malignancy until patients develop metastatic disease. Targeted radionuclide therapies of cancer such as radiolabeled peptides, which bind to the receptors overexpressed by cancer cells and radiolabeled antibodies to tumor-specific antigens provide a viable alternative to chemotherapy and external beam radiation of metastatic cancers. Multiple clinical trials of targeted radionuclide therapy of pancreatic cancer have been performed in the last decade and demonstrated safety and potential efficacy of radionuclide therapy for treatment of this formidable disease. Although a lot of progress has been made in treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with radiolabeled (90)Y and (177)Lu somatostatin peptide analogs, pancreatic adenocarcinomas remain a major challenge. Novel approaches such as peptides and antibodies radiolabeled with alpha emitters, pre-targeting, bispecific antibodies and biological therapy based on the radioactive tumorlytic bacteria might offer a potential breakthrough in treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinomas.

  19. Evaluation of radionuclide dose-calibrator measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Paras, P.; Comer, F.M.; Demeis, F.; Coursey, B.M.; Calhoun, J.M.; Golas, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    Performance data for radionuclide dose calibrators, which are primarily ionization chambers, are scarce. Large deviations have occasionally been reported, particularly for low photon energies, i.e., emissions from /sup 201/Tl, /sup 133/Xe. The volunteer user program (QB series) of the College of American Pathologists (CAP) (laboratory intercomparison quality control), supported by the US National Bureau of Standards (NBS), for quality control of dose calibrators was suspended. The Atomic Industrial Forum (AIF) has a quality control program among radiopharmaceutical manufacturers but there is no user program in the US at this time, and the performance of dose calibrators in the field is not known. In addition, a number of professionals expressed a strong feeling for the continuation of the CAP program and the availability of standards for dose calibrators from NBS. The objective of this study is twofold: (a) to evaluate the accuracy of dose calibrator measurements for individual patient radioactivity administered doses, and (b) to provide certified sources of certain radionuclides to calibrate the instruments for these radionuclides.

  20. Isolation of uranium mill tailings and their component radionuclides from the biosphere; some earth science perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling is an expanding activity in the. Western United States. Although the milling process yields a uranium concentrate, the large volume of tailings remaining contains about 85 percent of the radioactivity originally associated with the ore. By virtue of the physical and chemical processing of the ore and the redistribution of the contained radionuclides at the Earth's surface, these tailings constitute a technologically enhanced source of natural radiation exposure. Sources of potential human radiation exposure from uranium mill tailings include the emanation of radon gas, the transport of particles by wind and water, and the transport of soluble radionuclides, seeping from disposal areas, by ground water. Due to the 77,000 year half-life of thorium-230, the parent of radium-226, the environmental effects associated with radionuclides contained in these railings must be conceived of within the framework of geologic processes operating over geologic time. The magnitude of erosion of cover materials and tailings and the extent of geochemical mobilization of the contained radionuclides to the atmosphere and hydrosphere should be considered in the evaluation of the potential, long-term consequences of all proposed uranium mill tailings management plans.

  1. Radioimmunoimaging with longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides: potentials and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Tapan K.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2012-01-01

    Radioimmunoimaging and therapy has been an area of interest for several decades. Steady progress has been made towards clinical translation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Tremendous advances have been made in imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET). However, these advances have so far eluded routine translation into clinical radioimmunoimaging applications due to the mismatch between the short half-lives of routinely used positron-emitting radionuclides such as 18F versus the pharmacokinetics of most intact monoclonal antibodies of interest. The lack of suitable positron-emitting radionuclides that match the pharmacokinetics of intact antibodies has generated interest in exploring the use of longer-lived positron emitters that are more suitable for radioimmunoimaging and dosimetry applications with intact monoclonal antibodies. In this review, we examine the opportunities and challenges of radioimmunoimaging with select longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides such as 124I, 89Zr and 86Y with respect to radionuclide production, ease of radiolabeling intact antibodies, imaging characteristics, radiation dosimetry and clinical translation potential. PMID:19125647

  2. Copper doping of ZnO crystals by transmutation of {sup 64}Zn to {sup 65}Cu: An electron paramagnetic resonance and gamma spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Recker, M. C.; McClory, J. W. Holston, M. S.; Golden, E. M.; Giles, N. C.; Halliburton, L. E.

    2014-06-28

    Transmutation of {sup 64}Zn to {sup 65}Cu has been observed in a ZnO crystal irradiated with neutrons. The crystal was characterized with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) before and after the irradiation and with gamma spectroscopy after the irradiation. Major features in the gamma spectrum of the neutron-irradiated crystal included the primary 1115.5 keV gamma ray from the {sup 65}Zn decay and the positron annihilation peak at 511 keV. Their presence confirmed the successful transmutation of {sup 64}Zn nuclei to {sup 65}Cu. Additional direct evidence for transmutation was obtained from the EPR of Cu{sup 2+} ions (where {sup 63}Cu and {sup 65}Cu hyperfine lines are easily resolved). A spectrum from isolated Cu{sup 2+} (3d{sup 9}) ions acquired after the neutron irradiation showed only hyperfine lines from {sup 65}Cu nuclei. The absence of {sup 63}Cu lines in this Cu{sup 2+} spectrum left no doubt that the observed {sup 65}Cu signals were due to transmuted {sup 65}Cu nuclei created as a result of the neutron irradiation. Small concentrations of copper, in the form of Cu{sup +}-H complexes, were inadvertently present in our as-grown ZnO crystal. These Cu{sup +}-H complexes are not affected by the neutron irradiation, but they dissociate when a crystal is heated to 900 °C. This behavior allowed EPR to distinguish between the copper initially in the crystal and the copper subsequently produced by the neutron irradiation. In addition to transmutation, a second major effect of the neutron irradiation was the formation of zinc and oxygen vacancies by displacement. These vacancies were observed with EPR.

  3. Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    1981-04-01

    The study objective of "The Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters" is to synthesize and test radionuclide transport models capable of realistically assessing radionuclide transport in various types of surface water bodies by including the sediment-radionuclide interactions. These interactions include radionuclide adsorption by sediment; desorption from sediment into water; and transport, deposition, and resuspension of sorbed radionuclides controlled by the sediment movements. During FY-1979, the modification of sediment and contaminant (radionuclide) transport model, FETRA, was completed to make it applicable to coastal waters. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral) model that consists of three submodels (for sediment, dissolved-contaminant, and particulate-contaminant transport), coupled to include the sediment-contaminant interactions. In estuaries, flow phenomena and consequent sediment and radionuclide migration are often three-dimensional in nature mainly because of nonuniform channel cross-sections, salinity intrusion, and lateral-flow circulation. Thus, an unsteady, three-dimensional radionuclide transport model for estuaries is also being synthesized by combining and modifying a PNL unsteady hydrothermal model and FETRA. These two radionuclide transport models for coastal waters and estuaries will be applied to actual sites to examine the validity of the codes.

  4. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by neutron capture transmutation of Ra-226.

    PubMed

    Melville, G; Melville, P

    2013-02-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy neutrons from a neutron source to produce Ra-225 and hence Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 by neutron capture using a theoretical model in which neutron energy is convoluted with the corresponding neutron cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained. This study shows that an intense beam of high-energy neutrons could initiate neutron capture on Ra-226 to produce Ra-225 and hence practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226.

  5. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VI. Short-term risk analysis of reprocessing, refabrication, and transportation: summary

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.; Jackson, R.

    1980-03-01

    A Partitioning-Transmutation (PT) fuel cycle is being compared to a Reference cycle employing conventional fuel-material recovery methods. The PT cycle uses enhanced recovery methods so that most of the long-lived actinides are recycled to nuclear power plants and transmuted thereby reducing the waste toxicity. This report compares the two fuel cycles on the basis of the short-term radiological and nonradiological risks. The accidental radiological risk to the public is analyzed by estimating the probabilities of sets of accidents; the consequences are calculated using the risk, which is RAC code. Routine radiological risks to the public are estimated from the calculated release amounts, also using the CRAC code. Radiological occupational risks are determined from prior experience, projected standards, and estimates of accident risk. Nonradiological risks are calculated from the number of personnel involved, historical experience, and epidemiological studies. Result of this analysis is that the short-term risk of PT is 2.9 times greater than that of the Reference cycle, primarily due to the larger amount of industry. The nonradiological risk which is about 150 times greater than the radiological risk. If the radiological risk is consdered alone, the ratio of PT to Reference risk is 3, composed as follows: radiological operations affecting the public 5, radiological operations affecting the workers 1.7, and radiological accidents affecting the public 1.4, all in the order of decreasing risk. The absolute risk as estimated for the fuel cycle portions considered in this report is 0.91 fatality/GWe-year for the PT cycle and 0.34 fatality/GWe-year for the reference cycle; this compares with 1.5 for nuclear and 150 for coal. All of the risks assumed here are associated with the production of one billion watts of electricity (GWe) per year.

  6. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom... performance characteristic of a nuclear medicine imaging device. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom... performance characteristic of a nuclear medicine imaging device. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom... performance characteristic of a nuclear medicine imaging device. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom... performance characteristic of a nuclear medicine imaging device. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  10. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  11. Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides. This bibliography is a compilation of the references containing studies of plutonium and americium in the environment as a result of resuspension.

  12. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  13. [Biological effects of the iodine 131 radionuclide].

    PubMed

    Kasuba, V

    1997-06-01

    Radionuclides released into the biosphere by local sources are added to artificial radionuclides introduced by atmospheric nuclear weapon tests or nuclear accidents. The main polluters are nuclear industry reprocessing plants and nuclear power stations. Other sources are hospitals using radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy. This article presents the effects of radioisotope iodine-131 on a living organism, on the cell and on the genetic material within the cell. Beside the accident iodine-131 contamination, its wide diagnostic and therapeutic application attributes to the total radiation dose. The biological distribution of this radiopharmaceutical in the body depends on the way of use and on the and physical and chemical shape of this radiopharmaceutical. A few minutes after the administration, all iodine ingested or inhaled is rapidly absorbed by blood. The irradiation dose in blood depends on the administered amount of 131I and the fraction passing into the plasma as protein-bound 131I. After entering the organism, iodine mostly accumulates in the thyroid gland. The effect of ionized radiation on living cells are proportional to the dosage of 131I. Intracellular radioactive decay occurs in cytoplasm, in karyoplasm, and in the DNA molecule incorporated fraction. Beside the damage resulting from the deposition of radiation energy, 131I causes biological damage when it decays while the isotope is incorporated into the DNA of human cells. Certain beta/gamma-emitting isotopes such as 131I may be particularly hazardous when incorporated into DNA. Incorporation of radioactively labeled compounds into the DNA leads to highly selective irradiation of the nucleus of the proliferating cells. This produces pronounced biological damage as the genetic material in the cell nucleus constitutes the most radiosensitive target within the cell. PMID:9471970

  14. Visualizing plumes of heavy metals and radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigiobbe, V.; Liu, T.; Bryant, S. L.; Hesse, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The understanding of the transport behaviors in porous media resides on the ability to reproduce fundamental phenomena in a lab setting. Experiments with quasi 2D tanks filled with beads are performed to study physical phenomena induced by chemical and fluid dynamic processes. When an alkaline solution containing heavy metals or radionuclides invades a low pH region, mixing due to longitudinal dispersion induces destabilization of the front forming a fast travelling pulse [1]. When the two fluids travel in parallel, instead, mixing induced by transverse dispersion creates a continuous leakage from the alkaline region into the acidic one forming a fast travelling plume [2] (Figure 1). Impact of these phenomena are on aquifers upon leaking of alkaline fluids, rich in heavy metals and radionuclides, from waste storage sites. Here, we report the results from a study where experiments with a quasi 2D tank are performed to analyze the effect of transverse mixing on strontium (Sr2+) transport. To visualize the leaking plume, a fluorescent dye (Fura-2) is added the acidic solution, which has been widely used in biomedical applications [3]. It is the aim of this work to optimize its application under the conditions relevant to this work. Spectrometric measurements of absorption and fluorescence show sensitivity of the dye to the presence of Sr2+ throughout a broad range of pH and Sr2+ concentration (Figure 2). In the absence of Sr2+, no significant absorption and fluorescence was measured, but as Sr2+ was added the relevant peaks increase significantly and sample dilution of tenfold was required to remain within the measuring threshold. These results show a strong sensitivity of the dye to the cation opening the opportunity to use Fura-2 as a tool to visualize heavy metals and radionuclides plumes. References[1] Prigiobbe et al. (2012) GRL 39, L18401. [2] Prigiobbe and Hesse (2015) in preparation. [3] Xu-Friedman and Regehr (2000) J. Neurosci. 20(12) 4414-4422.

  15. Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides: What It Is and How It Works (2nd Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmisano, Anna; Hazen, Terry

    2003-09-30

    This primer is intended for people interested in environmental problems of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. The second edition of the primer incorporates recent findings by researchers in DOE's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on the physical-chemical environment, microbial communities, and nature of the contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through the addition of nutrients (biostimulation) or inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation). Over the past few years, interest in bioremediation has increased. It has become clear that many organic contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuels can be degraded to relatively harmless products such as CO{sub 2} (the end result of the degradation process). Waste water managers and scientists have also found that microorganisms can interact with metals and convert them from one chemical form to another. Laboratory tests and ex situ bioremediation applications have shown that microorganisms can change the valence, or oxidation state, of some heavy metals (e.g., chromium and mercury) and radionuclides (e.g., uranium) by using them as electron acceptors. In some cases, the solubility of the altered species decreases and the contaminant is immobilized in situ, i.e., precipitated into an

  16. Research remote laser methods for radionuclides monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kascheev, S. V.; Elizarov, Valentin V.; Grishkanich, Alexander S.; Bespalov, V. G.; Vasil'ev, Sergey K.; Zhevlakov, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Laser sensing can serve as a highly effective method of searching and monitoring of radioactive contamination. The first method is essence consists in definition the Sr90 and Сs137 concentration by excitation and registration of fluorescence at wavelength of λ = 0.347÷7.0 μm at laser sounding. The second method experiments were carried out under the Raman-scattering circuit. Preliminary results of investigation show the real possibility to register of leakage of a radionuclide with concentration at level of 108÷109 сm-3 on a safe distance from the infected object.

  17. Radionuclide evaluation of nonmalignant bone disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.

    1983-02-01

    Recent advances in nuclear imaging have improved the noninvasive evaluation of patients with nonmalignant bone disorders. When bone scanning agents are combined with bone marrow scanning agents and gallium-67 scintigraphy, a more accurate diagnosis can be obtained. By selecting the appropriate imaging sequence, it is often possible to distinguish cellulitis from underlying osteomyelitis. In patients with total hip replacements, it may be possible to separate postsurgical changes from prosthetic loosening or infection. Stress fractures in joggers may be detected by radionuclide bone scintigraphy before radiographs become abnormal. These nuclear imaging procedures can be done in most hospitals.

  18. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

  19. Radionuclide partitioning across great lakes natural interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platford, R. F.; Joshi, S. R.

    1989-11-01

    Several water and surface microlayer samples from Lake St. Clair, the Niagara River, and the North Shore of Lake Ontario collected during 1983 1986 have been assayed for a variety of radionuclides. In addition, the foam accumulating in the pool just below Niagara Falls was also analyzed and found to be the most efficient aqueous phase collector of137Cs,210Pb, and226Ra. The order of radioisotope specific activities from highest to lowest is: Lake Ontario sediment, Niagara River suspended solids, Niagara River foam, surface microlayer water, and subsurface water. Radiological dose rates to the sediments from137Cs,226Ra, and228Th total about 5 mGy/y.

  20. Code System for Radionuclide Migration Calculations.

    1988-02-26

    Version: 00 IONMIG is used to calculate the far-field transport of decaying radionuclides through a porous medium by diffusion and convection. It was specifically developed in support of the U. S. Subseabed Disposal program. For user specified velocity and temperature fields the convection-diffusion equation is solved in a sorbing porous medium. The sorption may be a function of species type, concentration, vertical position and local temperature. The formulation used is applicable to two-dimensional planar ormore » axisymmetric geometries. Zero flux conditions are assumed at all but the upper boundaries.« less

  1. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  2. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  3. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed Central

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  4. The ability to create NTD silicon technology in the IRT-T reactor in a horizontal experimental channel with one-side access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varlachev, V. A.; Golovatsky, A. V.; Emets, E. G.; Butko, Ya A.

    2016-06-01

    The article shows the ability of creation of neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of monocrystalline silicon technology in the reactor's channel, which has a one-side access. In the article a distribution of thermal neutron flux through the length of channel and it's radius, neutron spectrum were obtained which confirmed that horizontal experimental channel HEC-1 is suitable for NTD.

  5. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

  6. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

  7. Radiation doses to members of the U.S. population from ubiquitous radionuclides in the body: Part 1, autopsy and in vivo data.

    PubMed

    Watson, David J; Strom, Daniel J

    2011-04-01

    This paper is Part 1 of a three-part series investigating steady-state effective dose rates to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling (222)Rn, (220)Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. In this work, it is assumed that instantaneous dose rates in target organs are proportional to steady-state radionuclide concentrations in source regions. The goal of Part 1 of this work was to review, summarize, and characterize all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Forty-five papers and reports were obtained and their data reviewed, and three data sets were obtained via private communication. The 45 radionuclides of interest are the (238)U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by (235)U; 11 nuclides), and the (232)Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides (87)Rb and (40)K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides (14)C and (3)H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides (137)Cs-(137m)Ba, (129)I, and (90)Sr-(90)Y. Measurements judged to be relevant were available for only 15 of these radionuclides: (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (232)Th, (230)Th, (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (137)Cs, (87)Rb, (40)K, (14)C, and (3)H. Recent and relevant measurements were not available for (129)I and (90)Sr-(90)Y. A total of 11,741 radionuclide concentration measurements were found in one or more tissues or organs from 14 states. Data on age, gender, geographic locations, height, and weight of subjects were available only sporadically. Too often authors did not provide meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements, so that variability in data sets is confounded with

  8. Radiation doses to members of the U.S. population from ubiquitous radionuclides in the body: Part 1, autopsy and in vivo data.

    PubMed

    Watson, David J; Strom, Daniel J

    2011-04-01

    This paper is Part 1 of a three-part series investigating steady-state effective dose rates to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling (222)Rn, (220)Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. In this work, it is assumed that instantaneous dose rates in target organs are proportional to steady-state radionuclide concentrations in source regions. The goal of Part 1 of this work was to review, summarize, and characterize all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Forty-five papers and reports were obtained and their data reviewed, and three data sets were obtained via private communication. The 45 radionuclides of interest are the (238)U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by (235)U; 11 nuclides), and the (232)Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides (87)Rb and (40)K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides (14)C and (3)H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides (137)Cs-(137m)Ba, (129)I, and (90)Sr-(90)Y. Measurements judged to be relevant were available for only 15 of these radionuclides: (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (232)Th, (230)Th, (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (137)Cs, (87)Rb, (40)K, (14)C, and (3)H. Recent and relevant measurements were not available for (129)I and (90)Sr-(90)Y. A total of 11,741 radionuclide concentration measurements were found in one or more tissues or organs from 14 states. Data on age, gender, geographic locations, height, and weight of subjects were available only sporadically. Too often authors did not provide meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements, so that variability in data sets is confounded with

  9. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  10. Fusion of waveform events and radionuclide detections with the help of atmospheric transport modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysta, Monika; Kushida, Noriyuki; Kotselko, Yuriy; Carter, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    Possibilities of associating information from four pillars constituting CTBT monitoring and verification regime, namely seismic, infrasound, hydracoustic and radionuclide networks, have been explored by the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) for a long time. Based on a concept of overlying waveform events with the geographical regions constituting possible sources of the detected radionuclides, interactive and non-interactive tools were built in the past. Based on the same concept, a design of a prototype of a Fused Event Bulletin was proposed recently. One of the key design elements of the proposed approach is the ability to access fusion results from either the radionuclide or from the waveform technologies products, which are available on different time scales and through various different automatic and interactive products. To accommodate various time scales a dynamic product evolving while the results of the different technologies are being processed and compiled is envisioned. The product would be available through the Secure Web Portal (SWP). In this presentation we describe implementation of the data fusion functionality in the test framework of the SWP. In addition, we address possible refinements to the already implemented concepts.

  11. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  12. Radionuclide complexation in xylem exudates of plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; McFadden, D.M.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    The plant xylem is the primary avenue for transport of nutrient and pollutant elements from the roots of aerial portions of the plant. It is proposed that the transport of reactive or hydrolyzable ions is facilitated by the formation of stable/soluble complexes with organic metabolites. The xylem exudates of soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams) were characterized as to their inorganic and organic components, complexation patterns for radionuclides, both in vivo and in vitro, and for class fractions of exudates using thin-layer electrophoresis. The radionuclides Pu-238 and Fe-59 were found primarily as organic acid complexes, while Ni-63 and Cd-109 were associated primarily with components of the amono acid fraction. Technetium-99 was found to be uncomplexed and transported as the pertechnetate ion. It was not possible to duplicate fully complexes formed in vivo by back reaction with whole exudates or class fractions, indicating the possible importance of plant induction processes, reaction kinetics and/or the formation of mixed ligand complexes. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Application of radionuclide ventriculography to cardiac screening

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, J. Jr.; Milner, M.R.; Chandeysson, P.L.; Rodman, D.J.; Okin, P.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1989-05-01

    Screening asymptomatic individuals for latent coronary disease often requires sequential testing because exercise electrocardiography typically produces more false positive than true positive results in a population with a low prevalence of coronary disease. Cardiac scintigraphy is a technique that may be employed as a confirmatory test in lieu of coronary arteriography to further evaluate the significance of a positive exercise electrocardiogram. Radionuclide ventriculography was employed in 98 asymptomatic individuals who were considered to be at moderate risk of heart disease after risk factor analysis and exercise electrocardiography. Seventeen (17%) patients had an abnormal study and underwent cardiac catheterization. Seven had coronary artery disease, two had cardiomyopathy, and eight were normal. Eighty-one (83%) patients had a normal study. Because the sensitivity of radionuclide ventriculography is 63-80%, it was postulated that 2 to 5 individuals with disease were missed. Thus, from a population with an 11-14% prevalence of disease, two subsets were identified. A large subset in which a prevalence of 2-6% could be estimated was separated from a much smaller one in which a prevalence of approximately 50% was demonstrated.

  14. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; da Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  15. FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Bruce; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    This special issue of Metrologia on radionuclide metrology is the first of a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurement, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The idea was first proposed at the 2003 series of CCRI Section meetings, with the general aim of showcasing the relevance and importance of metrology in ionizing radiation to a broader metrological audience. After the 2005 meeting of Section II (measurement of radionuclides), the radioactivity aspect of the project began to move forward in earnest. A working group was set up with the brief that the special issue should be of use by experienced metrologists as an overview of the 'state of the art' to compare progress and scientific content with those in other fields of metrology, as a resource for new metrologists joining the field and as a guide for users of radioactivity to explain how traceability to the international measurement system may be achieved. Since mankind first became aware of the existence of radioactivity just over a century ago (due to its discovery by Becquerel and further work by the Curies), much has been learnt and understood in the interim period. The field of radionuclide metrology that developed subsequently is broad-based and encompasses, amongst others, nuclear physics (experimental and theory), chemistry, mathematics, mathematical statistics, uncertainty analysis and advanced computing for data analysis, simulation and modelling. To determine the activity of radionuclides accurately requires elements of all of these subjects. In more recent decades the focus has been on the practical applications of radioactivity in industry and the health field in particular. In addition, low-level environmental radioactivity monitoring has taken on ever greater importance in the nuclear power era. These developments have required new detection instrumentation and techniques on an ongoing basis to ensure

  16. Radionuclide measurement of differential glomerular filtration rate

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.A.; Stone, W.J.; Grove, R.B.; Plunkett, J.M.; Kadir, S.; Patton, J.A.; Bowen, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The authors sought to determine whether radionuclides could provide a reasonable estimate of differential renal function in five normal dogs and six dogs with unilateral segmental renal infarction. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of each kidney was measured by the standard technique using constant infusions of 99mTc-DTPA, iothalamate, and creatinine following ureteral catheterization. These results were correlated with total GFR estimated by bolus injection of 99mTc-DTPA and analysis of the plasma 99mTc-DTPA disappearance curve obtained by blood sampling. Differential GFR was then calculated by multiplying the total GFR from double exponential analysis of this curve (DTPA2) by each of three measures of differential function. These include the percent differential uptake of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA in the posterior projection as well as the geometric mean of 99mTc-DMSA uptake. There were good correlations between differential GFR calculated from iothalamate clearances obtained at ureteral catheterization and all noninvasive methods involving radionuclides and DTPA2 (r = 0.85 - 0.99). Single exponential analysis of the 99mTc-DTPA plasma disappearance curve was less satisfactory. The authors suggest that measurement of total and differential GFR calculated from plasma clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and external counting may be a useful method with potential clinical applications.

  17. [Radionuclide therapy of endocrine-related cancer].

    PubMed

    Kratochwil, C; Giesel, F L

    2014-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the established radionuclide therapies for endocrine-related cancer that already have market authorization or are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Radioiodine therapy is still the gold standard for differentiated iodine-avid thyroid cancer. In patients with bone and lung metastases (near) total remission is seen in approximately 50% and the 15-year survival rate for these patients is approximately 90%. In contrast to the USA, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy has market approval in Europe. According to the current literature, in the setting of advanced stage neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, radiological remission can be achieved in >30% and symptom control in almost 80% of the treated patients. Somatostatin receptor targeted radionuclide therapies (e.g. with DOTATATE or DOTATOC) demonstrated promising results in phase 2 trials, reporting progression-free survival in the range of 24-36 months. A first phase 3 pivotal trial for intestinal carcinoids is currently recruiting and another trial for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is planned. Radiopharmaceuticals based on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) or minigastrins are in the early evaluation stage for application in the treatment of insulinomas and medullary thyroid cancer. In general, radiopharmaceutical therapy belongs to the group of so-called theranostics which means that therapy is tailored for individual patients based on molecular imaging diagnostics to stratify target positive or target negative tumor phenotypes.

  18. Sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qin-Hong; Weng, Jian-Qing; Wang, Jin-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview on sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment, as well as a brief discussion of salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current developments that have lead, or could potentially contribute, to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) uranium mining and milling; (5) commercial fuel reprocessing; (6) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes that include radionuclides might be released in the future, and (7) nuclear accidents. Then, we briefly summarize the inventory of radionuclides (99)Tc and (129)I, as well as geochemical behavior for radionuclides (99)Tc, (129)I, and (237)Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment; biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides. PMID:18819734

  19. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator system is a manually operated...

  20. Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

    2008-08-07

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

  1. Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

    2008-08-01

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

  2. Selection and manipulation of immunoglobulins for radionuclide delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Steplewski, Z.; Curtis, P.; Hainfeld, J.; Mausner, L.; Mease, R.; Srivastava, S.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes a collection of monoclonal antibodies that are candidates for use in radioimmunotherapy towards neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, or of astrocytomas. In addition a large series of candidate radionuclides to conjugate to antibodies for therapeutic uses are discussed with respect to potential therapeutic utility and to means of radionuclide production.

  3. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  4. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  5. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  8. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  10. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... intended to apply a radionuclide source into the body or to the surface of the body for radiation...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. A radionuclide dose calibrator is a radiation detection device intended to assay...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. A radionuclide dose calibrator is a radiation detection device intended to assay...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. A radionuclide dose calibrator is a radiation detection device intended to assay...

  14. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section 892.5750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device intended to permit...

  15. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator system is a manually operated...

  16. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section 892.5750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device intended to permit...

  17. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator system is a manually operated...

  18. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator system is a manually operated...

  19. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section 892.5750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device intended to permit...

  20. Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1981-03-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ([sup 238]Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

  1. Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1981-03-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ({sup 238}Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

  2. Quantitative modeling of Cerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Bradley J; Thorek, Daniel L J; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Pentlow, Keith S; Humm, John L; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use.

  3. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  4. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  5. Intravenous radionuclide cystography for the detection of vesicorenal reflux

    SciTech Connect

    Pollet, J.E.; Sharp, P.F.; Smith, F.W.; Davidson, A.I.; Miller, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    Intravenous radionuclide cystography using a single intravenous injection of 99mtechnetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, provides information on individual kidney function, coarse anatomy and vesicorenal reflux. This study investigates the effectiveness of intravenous radionuclide cystography in detecting reflux. In 58 children intravenous radionuclide cystography detected 53 ureters with reflux compared to 32 detected by voiding cystography. This difference was investigated further with patients in whom other test suggested reflux. While there was no statistically significant difference for patients having pyelonephritis or hydronephrosis, intravenous radionuclide cystography detected significantly more ureters with reflux in patients with abnormal ureteral orifices or infected urine and, therefore, predisposed to reflux. Intravenous radionuclide cystography is a more comprehensive and sensitive test for vesicorenal reflux than voiding cystography.

  6. Accumulation of radionuclides by plants as a monitor system.

    PubMed Central

    Koranda, J J; Robison, W L

    1978-01-01

    The accumulation of radionuclides by plants acting as a monitoring system in the environment may occur by two modes; foliar absorption by the leaves and shoot of the plant, or by root uptake from the soil. Data on plant accumulation of radionuclides may be obtained from studies of fission product radionuclides deposited as worldwide fallout, and from tracer studies of plant physiology. The epidermal features of plant foliage may exert an effect upon particle retention by leaves, and subsequent uptake of radionuclides from the surface. The transport of radionuclides across the cuticle and epidermis of plant leaves is determined in part by the anatomy of the leaf, and by physiological factors. The foliar uptake of fallout radionuclides, 99Sr, 131I, and 137Cs, is described with examples from the scientific literature. The environmental half-life of 131I, for example, is considerably shorter than its physical half-life because of physical and biological factors which may produce a half-life as short as 0.23/day. 99Sr and 137Cs are readily taken up by the leaf, but 137Cs undergoes more translocation into fruit and seeds than 99Sr which tends to remain in the plant part in which it was initially absorbed. Soil-root uptake is conditioned primarily by soil chemical and physical factors which may selectively retain a radionuclide, such as 137Cs. The presence of organic matter, inorganic colloids (clay), and competing elements will strongly affect the uptake of 99Sr and 137Cs by plants from the soil. The role of plants as monitors of radionuclides is twofold: as monitors of recent atmospheric releases of radionuclides; and as indicators of the long-term behavior of aged deposits of radionuclides in the soil. PMID:367767

  7. A limiting factor for the progress of radionuclide-based cancer diagnostics and therapy--availability of suitable radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Tolmachev, Vladimir; Carlsson, Jörgen; Lundqvist, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Advances in diagnostics and targeted radionuclide therapy of haematological and neuroendocrine tumours have raised hope for improved radionuclide therapy of other forms of disseminated tumours. New molecular target structures are characterized and this stimulates the efforts to develop new radiolabelled targeting agents. There is also improved understanding of factors of importance for choice of appropriate radionuclides. The choice is determined by physical, chemical, biological, and economic factors, such as a character of emitted radiation, physical half-life, labelling chemistry, chemical stability of the label, intracellular retention time, and fate of radiocatabolites and availability of the radionuclide. There is actually limited availability of suitable radionuclides and this is a limiting factor for further progress in the field and this is the focus in this article. The probably most promising therapeutic radionuclide, 211At, requires regional production and distribution centres with dedicated cyclotrons. Such centres are, with a few exceptions in the world, lacking today. They can be designed to also produce beta- and Augeremitters of therapeutic interest. Furthermore, emerging satellite PET scanners will in the near future demand long-lived positron emitters for diagnostics with macromolecular radiopharmaceuticals, and these can also be produced at such centres. To secure continued development and to meet the foreseen requirements for radionuclide availability from the medical community it is necessary to establish specialized cyclotron centres for radionuclide production. PMID:15244250

  8. Prospects for the methods of radionuclide production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamian, S. A.; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2015-03-01

    In the present report, methods of radionuclide production for the nuclear-medicine purposes are described. In a budget approach, the application of low-energy accelerators is especially advantageous. Intense flux of bremsstrahlung at electron accelerators or high-current cyclotron beams of alpha particles must supply a great yield for many isotopes. The choice of a target material and of the projectile energy provides enough variation for concrete species formation. The innovating procedures are here proposed for optimizing of methods, for instance, application of the noble-gas target for production and transport of activities. The known and new variants of the "generator" scheme are discussed. Many isotopes are listed as promising in the context of the therapeutic and theragnostic applications. Among them are isotopes/isomers emitting soft radiation for the selective and careful body treatment, also the positron emitters for PET, and the halogen and alkali-metal species convenient for chemical separation.

  9. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmuleva, N. I.; Barinov, E. Ya.; Petukhov, V. L.

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - Cs-137 and Sr-90 in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. Cs-137 level was 3.7...9.2 times higher than Sr-90 one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg).

  10. Radioimmunotherapy of malignancy using antibody targeted radionuclides.

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, L. M.; Humm, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Antibodies directed against tumour associated antigens provide a means for delivering preferentially cytotoxic radionuclides to the cells of primary and secondary tumours. The factors that influence the effectiveness of the radiation in the tumour compared with its effect on the radiosensitive normal tissues include the specificity of the antibody, the distribution of targeted energy within the tumour and the host's response to the injected foreign antibody. Recently some encouraging results from clinical trials of radioimmunotherapy have been reported in the literature. There is a continual search for more avid and specific antibodies, and the techniques of genetic engineering are being applied to the problem of reducing the antigenicity and mass of the carrier antibody. The improved efficiency of the labelled antibody needs to be supplemented by an identification of those tumours most likely to respond to this form of therapy. PMID:3542006

  11. Radionuclide imaging and treatment of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu Juan; Li, XianFeng; Ren, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, the diagnostic methods and therapeutic tools for thyroid cancer (TC) have been greatly improved. In addition to the classical method of ingestion of radioactive iodine-131 (I131) and subsequent I123 and I124 positron emission tomography (PET) in therapy and examination, I124 PET-based 3-dimensional imaging, Ga68-labeled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI(3)-octreotide (DOTANOC) PET/computed tomography (CT), Tc99m tetrofosmin, pre-targeted radioimmunotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy have all been used clinically. These novel methods are useful in diagnosis and therapy of TC, but also have unavoidable adverse effects. In this review, we will discuss the development of nuclear medicine in TC examination and treatment. PMID:27100499

  12. Radionuclide cholescintigraphy in genetically confirmed Rotor syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sirucek, Pavel; Sulakova, Astrida; Jirsa, Milan; Mrhac, Lubomir; Havel, Martin; Kraft, Otakar

    2015-10-01

    A 7-year-old girl had been followed up for persistent conjugated hyperbilirubinemia since birth. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity was within the normal range, and liver protein synthesis had always been normal. Infectious etiology of jaundice, autoimmune diseases, drug-induced liver injury, hemolytic anemia, α-1 anti-trypsin deficiency, Wilson disease and Gilbert syndrome were ruled out. At the age of 8 years the patient underwent radionuclide dynamic cholescintigraphy, indicating poor accumulation of the radiotracer in the liver on one hand, and severe retention of the radiopharmaceutical in the blood pool (including the heart) on the other hand. Rotor syndrome was suspected and finally confirmed on molecular analysis. This case represents the first cholescintigraphy report in a pediatric patient with genetically proven Rotor syndrome. PMID:26508179

  13. Prospects for the methods of radionuclide production

    SciTech Connect

    Karamian, S. A. Dmitriev, S. N.

    2015-03-30

    In the present report, methods of radionuclide production for the nuclear-medicine purposes are described. In a budget approach, the application of low-energy accelerators is especially advantageous. Intense flux of bremsstrahlung at electron accelerators or high-current cyclotron beams of alpha particles must supply a great yield for many isotopes. The choice of a target material and of the projectile energy provides enough variation for concrete species formation. The innovating procedures are here proposed for optimizing of methods, for instance, application of the noble-gas target for production and transport of activities. The known and new variants of the “generator” scheme are discussed. Many isotopes are listed as promising in the context of the therapeutic and theragnostic applications. Among them are isotopes/isomers emitting soft radiation for the selective and careful body treatment, also the positron emitters for PET, and the halogen and alkali-metal species convenient for chemical separation.

  14. Cadastral valuation of land contaminated with radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnikov, A. N.; Sapozhnikov, P. M.; Sanzharova, N. I.; Sviridenko, D. G.; Zhigareva, T. L.; Popova, G. I.; Panov, A. V.; Kozlova, I. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The methodology and procedure for cadastral valuation of land in the areas contaminated with radionuclides are presented. The efficiency of rehabilitation measures applied to decrease crop contamination to the levels satisfying sanitary-hygienic norms is discussed. The differentiation of cadastral value of radioactively contaminated agricultural lands for the particular farms and land plots is suggested. An example of cadastral valuation of agricultural land contaminated during the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident is given. It is shown that the use of sandy and loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 37-185 and >185 kBq/m2 for crop growing is unfeasible. The growing of grain crops and potatoes on clay loamy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 555-740 kBq/m2 is unprofitable. The maximum cadastral value of radioactively contaminated lands is typical of leached chernozems.

  15. Radionuclide Decay and In-growth Technical Basis Document

    SciTech Connect

    Kersting, A B; Finnegan, D L; Tompson, A F B; Esser, B K; Smith, D K; Zavarin, M; Bruton, C J; Pawloski, G A

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the decay and in-growth of radionuclides from the radionuclide source term (RST) deposited by underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at the NTS from 1951 through 1992. A priority of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project, administered by the Environmental Restoration Division of NNSA/NV, was to determine as accurately as possible a measure of the total radionuclide inventory for calculation of the RST deposited in the subsurface at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The motivation for the development of a total radionuclide inventory is driven by a need to calculate the amount of radioactivity that will move away from the nuclear test cavities over time, referred to as the hydrologic source term (HST). The HST is a subset of the RST and must be calculated using knowledge of the geochemistry and hydrology of the subsurface environment. This will serve the regulatory process designed to protect human health from exposures to contaminated groundwater. Following the detonation of an underground nuclear test, and depending on the presence of water at the location of the detonation, the residual radionuclides may be found in aqueous or gaseous states, precipitated or chemically sorbed states, or incorporated in melt glass produced by the nuclear test. The decay and in-growth of radionuclides may have geochemical implications for the migration of radionuclides away from underground nuclear test cavities. For example, in the case of a long-lived mobile parent decaying to a shorter-lived and less mobile daughter, the geochemical properties of the parent element may control the migration potential of the daughter nuclide. It becomes important to understand the evolution of the RST in terms of effects on the mobility, solubility, or abundance of radionuclides in the HST that are created by decay and in-growth processes. The total radionuclide inventory and thus the RST changes with time due to radioactive decay. The abundance of a

  16. Colloid-Associated Radionuclide Concentration Limits: ANL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Mertz

    2000-12-21

    The purpose and scope of this report is to describe the analysis of available colloidal data from waste form corrosion tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to extract characteristics of these colloids that can be used in modeling their contribution to the source term for sparingly soluble radioelements (e.g., Pu). Specifically, the focus is on developing a useful description of the following waste form colloid characteristics: (1) composition, (2) size distribution, and (3) quantification of the rate of waste form colloid generation. The composition and size distribution information are intended to support analysis of the potential transport of the sparingly soluble radionuclides associated with the waste form colloids. The rate of colloid generation is intended to support analysis of the waste form colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. In addressing the above characteristics, available data are interpreted to address mechanisms controlling colloid formation and stability. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000). Because the end objective is to support the source term modeling we have organized the conclusions into two categories: (1) data analysis conclusions and (2) recommendations for colloid source term modeling. The second category is included to facilitate use of the conclusions from the data analysis in the abstraction of a colloid source term model. The data analyses and conclusions that are presented in this report are based on small-scale laboratory tests conducted on a limited number of waste glass compositions and spent fuel types.

  17. Removal of radionuclides at a waterworks.

    PubMed

    Gäfvert, T; Ellmark, C; Holm, E

    2002-01-01

    A waterworks with an average production rate of 1.3 m3 s(-1), providing several large cities in the province of Scania with drinking water has been studied regarding its capacity to remove several natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. The raw water is surface water from lake Bolmen which is transported through an 80 km long tunnel in the bedrock before it enters the waterworks. The method used for purification is a combination of coagulation-flocculation and filtration in sand filters. Two different purification lines are currently in use, one using Al2(SO4)3 as a coagulant and one using FeCl3. After coagulation and flocculation the precipitate is removed and the water is passed through two different sand filters (rapid filtration and slow filtration). Water samples were collected at the lake, the inlet to the waterworks, after each of the flocculation basins (Al2(SO4)3 and FeCl3), after rapid filtration and from the municipal distribution network. The samples were analysed with respect to their content of uranium, thorium, polonium, radium, plutonium and caesium. The results show a high removal capacity for uranium (about 85%), thorium (>90%), plutonium (>95%) and polonium (>90% in the coagulation-flocculation process) while caesium, strontium and radium pass through the purification process with almost unchanged activity concentrations. During transportation of the water in the tunnel it was also observed that infiltration of groundwater leads to a change in isotopic ratios and/or activity concentrations for the naturally occurring radionuclides and plutonium.

  18. Introduction to Radiobiology of Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Jean-Pierre; Lozza, Catherine; Deshayes, Emmanuel; Boudousq, Vincent; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, new radionuclide-based targeted therapies have emerged as efficient tools for cancer treatment. Targeted radionuclide therapies (TRTs) are based on a multidisciplinary approach that involves the cooperation of specialists in several research fields. Among them, radiobiologists investigate the biological effects of ionizing radiation, specifically the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the radiation response. Most of the knowledge about radiation effects concerns external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and radiobiology has then strongly contributed to the development of this therapeutic approach. Similarly, radiobiology and dosimetry are also assumed to be ways for improving TRT, in particular in the therapy of solid tumors, which are radioresistant. However, extrapolation of EBRT radiobiology to TRT is not straightforward. Indeed, the specific physical characteristics of TRT (heterogeneous and mixed irradiation, protracted exposure, and low absorbed dose rate) differ from those of conventional EBRT (homogeneous irradiation, short exposure, and high absorbed dose rate), and consequently the response of irradiated tissues might be different. Therefore, specific TRT radiobiology needs to be explored. Determining dose–effect correlation is also a prerequisite for rigorous preclinical radiobiology studies because dosimetry provides the necessary referential to all TRT situations. It is required too for developing patient-tailored TRT in the clinic in order to estimate the best dose for tumor control, while protecting the healthy tissues, thereby improving therapeutic efficacy. Finally, it will allow to determine the relative contribution of targeted effects (assumed to be dose-related) and non-targeted effects (assumed to be non-dose-related) of ionizing radiation. However, conversely to EBRT where it is routinely used, dosimetry is still challenging in TRT. Therefore, it constitutes with radiobiology, one of the main challenges of

  19. Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    2000-06-01

    Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

  20. Chancellor Water Colloids: Characterization and Radionuclide Association

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Fattah, Amr I.

    2012-06-18

    Concluding remarks about this paper are: (1) Gravitational settling, zeta potential, and ultrafiltration data indicate the existence of a colloidal phase of both the alpha and beta emitters in the Chancellor water; (2) The low activity combined with high dispersion homogeneity of the Chancellor water indicate that both alpha and beta emitters are not intrinsic colloids; (3) Radionuclides in the Chancellor water, particularly Pu, coexist as dissolved aqueous and sorbed phases - in other words the radionuclides are partitioned between the aqueous phase and the colloidal phase; (4) The presence of Pu as a dissolved species in the aqueous phase, suggests the possibility of Pu in the (V) oxidation state - this conclusion is supported by the similarity of the k{sub d} value of Pu determined in the current study to that determined for Pu(V) sorbed onto smectite colloids, and the similar electrokinetic behavior of the Chancellor water colloids to smectite colloids; (5) About 50% of the Pu(V) is in the aqueous phase and 50% is sorbed on colloids (mass concentration of colloids in the Chancellor water is 0.12 g/L); (6) The k{sub d} of the Pu and the beta emitters (fission products) between aqueous and colloidal phases in the Chancellor water is {approx}8.0 x 10{sup 3} mL/g using two different activity measurement techniques (LSC and alpha spectroscopy); (7) The gravitational settling and size distributions of the association colloids indicate that the properties (at least the physical ones) of the colloids to which the alpha emitters are associated with seem to be different that the properties of the colloids to which the beta emitters are associated with - the beta emitters are associated with very small particles ({approx}50 - 120 nm), while the alpha emitters are associated with relatively larger particles; and (8) The Chancellor water colloids are extremely stable under the natural pH and ionic strength conditions, indicating high potential for transport in the

  1. WORKSHOP ON DEVELOPMENT OF RADIONUCLIDE GETTERS FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    K.C. Holt

    2006-03-13

    One of the important that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently undertaking is the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository to be located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Concern is generated by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is due to potential releases as groundwater contamination, as described in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The dose to an off-site individual using this groundwater for drinking and irrigation is dominated by four radionuclides: Tc-99, I-127, Np-237, and U-238. Ideally, this dose would be limited to a single radionuclide, U-238; in other words, YMP would resemble a uranium ore body, a common geologic feature in the Western U.S. For this reason and because of uncertainties in the behavior of Tc-99, I-127, and Np-237, it would be helpful to limit the amount of Tc, I, and Np leaving the repository, which would greatly increase the confidence in the long-term performance of YMP. An approach to limiting the migration of Tc, I, and Np that is complementary to the existing YMP repository design plans is to employ sequestering agents or ''getters'' for these radionuclides such that their migration is greatly hindered, thus decreasing the amount of radionuclide leaving the repository. Development of such getters presents a number of significant challenges. The getter must have a high affinity and high selectivity for the radionuclide in question since there is approximately a 20- to 50-fold excess of other fission products and a 1000-fold excess of uranium in addition to the ions present in the groundwater. An even greater challenge is that the getters must function over a period greater than the half-life of the radionuclide (greater than 5 half-lives would be ideal). Typically, materials with a high affinity for Tc, I, or Np are not sufficiently durable. For example, strong-base ion exchange resins have a very high affinity for TcO{sub 4}{sup -} but are not expected to be durable. On the other hand, durable

  2. Preparation of alpha sources using magnetohydrodynamic electrodeposition for radionuclide metrology.

    PubMed

    Panta, Yogendra M; Farmer, Dennis E; Johnson, Paula; Cheney, Marcos A; Qian, Shizhi

    2010-02-01

    Expanded use of nuclear fuel as an energy resource and terrorist threats to public safety clearly require the development of new state-of-the-art technologies and improvement of safety measures to minimize the exposure of people to radiation and the accidental release of radiation into the environment. The precision in radionuclide metrology is currently limited by the source quality rather than the detector performance. Electrodeposition is a commonly used technique to prepare massless radioactive sources. Unfortunately, the radioactive sources prepared by the conventional electrodeposition method produce poor resolution in alpha spectrometric measurements. Preparing radioactive sources with better resolution and higher yield in the alpha spectrometric range by integrating magnetohydrodynamic convection with the conventional electrodeposition technique was proposed and tested by preparing mixed alpha sources containing uranium isotopes ((238)U, (234)U), plutonium ((239)Pu), and americium ((241)Am) for alpha spectrometric determination. The effects of various parameters such as magnetic flux density, deposition current and time, and pH of the sample solution on the formed massless radioactive sources were also experimentally investigated.

  3. Development of Monte Carlo Methods for Investigating Migration of Radionuclides in Contaminated Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Avrorin, E. N.; Tsvetokhin, A. G.; Xenofontov, A. I.; Kourbatova, E. I.; Regens, J. L.

    2002-02-26

    This paper presents the results of an ongoing research and development project conducted by Russian institutions in Moscow and Snezhinsk, supported by the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), in collaboration with the University of Oklahoma. The joint study focuses on developing and applying analytical tools to effectively characterize contaminant transport and assess risks associated with migration of radionuclides and heavy metals in the water column and sediments of large reservoirs or lakes. The analysis focuses on the development and evaluation of theoretical-computational models that describe the distribution of radioactive wastewater within a reservoir and characterize the associated radiation field as well as estimate doses received from radiation exposure. The analysis focuses on the development and evaluation of Monte Carlo-based, theoretical-computational methods that are applied to increase the precision of results and to reduce computing time for estimating the characteristics the radiation field emitted from the contaminated wastewater layer. The calculated migration of radionuclides is used to estimate distributions of radiation doses that could be received by an exposed population based on exposure to radionuclides from specified volumes of discrete aqueous sources. The calculated dose distributions can be used to support near-term and long-term decisions about priorities for environmental remediation and stewardship.

  4. Strontium and cesium radionuclide leak detection alternatives in a capsule storage pool

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.E.; Crawford, T.W.; Joyce, S.M.

    1981-08-01

    A study was performed to assess radionuclide leak-detection systems for use in locating a capsule leaking strontium-90 or cesium-137 into a water-filled pool. Each storage pool contains about 35,000 L of water and up to 715 capsules, each of which contains up to 150 kCi strontium-90 or 80 kCi cesium-137. Potential systems assessed included instrumental chemical analyses, radionuclide detection, visual examination, and other nondestructive nuclear-fuel examination techniques. Factors considered in the assessment include: cost, simplicity of maintenance and operation, technology availability, reliability, remote operation, sensitivity, and ability to locate an individual leaking capsule in its storage location. The study concluded that an adaption of the spent nuclear-fuel examination technique of wet sipping be considered for adaption. In the suggested approoch, samples would be taken continuously from pool water adjacent to the capsule(s) being examined for remote radiation detection. In-place capsule isolation and subsequent water sampling would confirm that a capsule was leaking radionuclides. Additional studies are needed before implementing this option. Two other techniques that show promise are ultrasonic testing and eddy-current testing.

  5. Drinking water standards for radionuclides: the dilemma and a possible resolution.

    PubMed

    Kocher, D C

    2001-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is undertaking a revision of existing standards for radionuclides in drinking water. The Safe Drinking Water Act specifies that any revision "shall maintain or provide for greater protection of the health of persons." This provision appears to require that existing standards (maximum contaminant levels, MCLs) cannot be relaxed. Such a requirement presents a dilemma for two reasons. First, EPA has shown that the MCL for radium was not cost-effective. Second, MCLs for beta/gamma-emitting radionuclides incorporate outdated approaches to estimating dose from ingestion of radionuclides and, thus, appear to violate provisions of the Safe Drinking Water Act concerning the use of sound science in setting standards. We suggest that this dilemma can be resolved based on an argument that the standard for protection of public health mandated by the Safe Drinking Water Act is one of applying best-available technology for removal of contaminants from drinking water at a reasonable cost, not one of meeting previously established MCLs. PMID:11316079

  6. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle–Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R&D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  7. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by photon-induced transmutation of Ra-226.

    PubMed

    Melville, G; Fan Liu, Sau; Allen, B J

    2006-09-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation on a small scale by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) to produce Ra-225, which subsequently decays to Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'targeted alpha therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 with a linac using an accurate theoretical model in which the bremsstrahlung photon spectrum at 18 MV linac electron energy is convoluted with the corresponding photonuclear cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained and is compared with a computer simulation. This study shows that at 18 MV, the photonuclear reaction on Ra-226 can produce low activities of Ac-225 with a linac. However, a high power linac with high current, pulse length and frequency is needed to produce practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226.

  8. Multiple rod–cone and cone–rod photoreceptor transmutations in snakes: Evidence from visual opsin gene expression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoe, Bruno F; Sampaio, Filipa L.; Loew, Ellis R.; Sanders, Kate L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Hart, Nathan S.; Hunt, David M.; Partridge, Julian C.; Gower, David J.

    2016-01-01

    In 1934, Gordon Walls forwarded his radical theory of retinal photoreceptor ‘transmutation’. This proposed that rods and cones used for scotopic and photopic vision, respectively, were not fixed but could evolve into each other via a series of morphologically distinguishable intermediates. Walls' prime evidence came from series of diurnal and nocturnal geckos and snakes that appeared to have pure-cone or pure-rod retinas (in forms that Walls believed evolved from ancestors with the reverse complement) or which possessed intermediate photoreceptor cells. Walls was limited in testing his theory because the precise identity of visual pigments present in photoreceptors was then unknown. Subsequent molecular research has hitherto neglected this topic but presents new opportunities. We identify three visual opsin genes, rh1, sws1 and lws, in retinal mRNA of an ecologically and taxonomically diverse sample of snakes central to Walls' theory. We conclude that photoreceptors with superficially rod- or cone-like morphology are not limited to containing scotopic or photopic opsins, respectively. Walls' theory is essentially correct, and more research is needed to identify the patterns, processes and functional implications of transmutation. Future research will help to clarify the fundamental properties and physiology of photoreceptors adapted to function in different light levels.

  9. Theoretical and Experimental Research in Neutron Spectra and Nuclear Waste Transmutation on Fast Subcritical Assembly with MOX Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, D. A.; Buttsev, V. S.; Chigrinov, S. E.; Kutuev, R. Kh.; Polanski, A.; Rakhno, I. L.; Sissakian, A.; Zulkarneev, R. Ya.; Zulkarneeva, Yu. R.

    2003-07-01

    The paper deals with theoretical and experimental investigation of transmutation rates for a number of long-lived fission products and minor actinides, as well as with neutron spectra formed in a subcritical assembly driven with the following monodirectional beams: 660-MeV protons and 14-MeV neutrons. In this work, the main objective is the comparison of neutron spectra in the MOX assembly for different external driving sources: a 660-MeV proton accelerator and a 14-MeV neutron generator. The SAD project (JINR, Russia) has being discussed. In the context of this project, a subcritical assembly consisting of a cylindrical lead target surrounded by a cylindrical MOX fuel layer will be constructed. Present conceptual design of the subcritical assembly is based on the core with a nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to a multiplication coefficient, keff= 0.945, and an accelerator beam power of 0.5 kW. The results of theoretical investigations on the possibility of incinerating long-lived fission products and minor actinides in fast neutron spectrum and formation of neutron spectra with different hardness in subcritical systems based on the MOX subcritical assembly are discussed. Calculated neutron spectra emitted from a lead target irradiated by a 660-MeV protons are also presented.

  10. A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by photon-induced transmutation of Ra-226.

    PubMed

    Melville, G; Fan Liu, Sau; Allen, B J

    2006-09-01

    Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation on a small scale by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) to produce Ra-225, which subsequently decays to Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'targeted alpha therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 with a linac using an accurate theoretical model in which the bremsstrahlung photon spectrum at 18 MV linac electron energy is convoluted with the corresponding photonuclear cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained and is compared with a computer simulation. This study shows that at 18 MV, the photonuclear reaction on Ra-226 can produce low activities of Ac-225 with a linac. However, a high power linac with high current, pulse length and frequency is needed to produce practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226. PMID:16806950

  11. Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 ((131)I), phosphorous-32 ((32)P), strontium-90 ((90)Sr), and yttrium-90 ((90)Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies.

  12. Underground radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nimz, G.J. ); Thompson, J.L. )

    1992-06-22

    This document reviews results from a number of studies concerning underground migration of radionuclides from nuclear test cavities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Discussed are all cases known to the Department of Energy's Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program where radionuclides have been detected outside of the immediate vicinity of nuclear test cavities that are identifiable as the-source of the nuclides, as well as cases where radionuclides might have been expected and were intentionally sought but not fixed. There are nine locations where source-identifiable radionuclide migration has been detected, one where migration was purposely induced by pumping, and three where migration might be expected but was not found. In five of the nine cases of non-induced migration, the inferred migration mechanism is prompt fracture injection during detonation. In the other four cases, the inferred migration mechanism is water movement. In only a few of the reviewed cases can the actual migration mechanism be stated with confidence, and the attempt has been made to indicate the level of confidence for each case. References are cited where more information may be obtained. As an aid to future study, this document concludes with a brief discussion of the aspects of radionuclide migration that, as the present review indicates, are not yet understood. A course of action is suggested that would produce a better understanding of the phenomenon of radionuclide migration.

  13. Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

  14. Fabrication of Dispersed CERamic-CERamic and Ceramic-METallic pellets for the Transmutation of Actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, A.; Haas, D.; Konings, R. J. M.; Somers, J.

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the development of fabrication technology for target materials to be used in irradiation experiments, in the PHENIX and HFR reactors. Several target concepts will be tested: micro- as well as macrodispersed composites of (Am,Y,Zr)O2 in MgO (cercer) and macrodispersed composites of (Pu,Y,Zr)O2 in Stainless Steel (cermet) material. Results of the completed fabrication campaigns for cermet and cercer will be presented.

  15. Dynamics and transformations of radionuclides in soils and ecosystem health

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J. ); Ainsworth, Calvin C. ); Driver, Crystal J. ); Cataldo, Dominic A. )

    1998-12-01

    The chemical behavior of radionuclides can vary widely in soil and sediment environments. Equally important, for a given radionuclide the physico-chemical properties of the solids and aqueous phase can greatly influence a radionuclides behavior. Radionuclides can conceivably occur in soils as soluble-free, inorganic-soluble-complexed, organic-soluble, complexed, adsorbed, precipitated, coprecipitated, or solid structural species. While it is clear that an assessment of a radionuclide?s soil chemistry and potential shifts in speciation will yield a considerable understanding of its behavior in the natural environment, it does not directly translate to bioavailability or its impact on ecosystems health. The soil chemical factors have to be linked to food chain considerations and other ecological parameters that directly tie to an analysis of ecosystem health. In general, the movement of radionuclides from lower to higher trophic levels diminishes with each trophic level in both aqua tic and terrestrial systems. In some cases, transfer is limited because of low absorption/assimilation by successive trophic organisms (Pu, U); for other radionuclides (Tc, H) assimilation may be high but rapid metabolic turnover and low retention greatly reduce tissue concentrations available to predator species. Still others are chemical analogs of essential elements whose concentrations are maintained under strict metabolic control in tissues (Cs) or are stored in tissues seldom consumed by other organisms (Sr storage in exoskeleton, shells, and bone). Therefore, the organisms that receive the greatest ingestion exposures are those in lower trophic positions or are in higher trophic levels but within simple, short food chains. Food source, behavior, and habitat influence the accumulation of radionuclides in animals.

  16. Endoprobe: A system for radionuclide-guided endoscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Srinivasan, Amarnath

    2004-12-01

    Methods to guide the surgical treatment of cancer utilizing handheld beta-sensitive probes in conjunction with tumor-avid radiopharmaceuticals [such as {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)] have previously been developed. These technologies could also potentially be used to assist in minimally invasive techniques for the diagnosis of cancer. The goal of this project is to develop and test a system for performing radionuclide-guided endoscopies. This system (called Endoprobe) has four major subsystems: beta detector, position tracker, endoscope, and user interface. The beta detection unit utilizes two miniaturized solid state detectors to preferentially detect beta particles. The position tracking system allows real-time monitoring of the unit's location. The beta detector and position tracking system's receiver are mounted on the tip of an endoscope. Information from the beta detector and tracking system, in addition to the video signal from the endoscope, are combined and presented to the user via a computer interface. The system was tested in a simulated search for radiotracer-avid areas of esophageal cancer. The search for esophageal cancer was chosen because this type of cancer is often diagnosed with endoscopic procedures and has been reported to have good affinity for FDG. Accumulations of FDG in the normal organs of the abdomen were simulated by an anthropomorphic torso phantom filled with the appropriate amounts of radioactivity. A 1.5-mm-thick gelatin film containing FDG was used to simulate radiotracer uptake in the lining of normal esophagus. Esophageal lesions (both benign and malignant) were simulated by thin disks of gelatin (diameters=3.5-12 mm) containing appropriate concentrations of FDG embedded in the gelatin film simulating normal esophagus. Endoprobe facilitated visual identification and examination of the simulated lesions. The position tracking system permitted the location of the Endoprobe tip to be monitored and plotted in real time on a

  17. Endoprobe: a system for radionuclide-guided endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Raylman, Raymond R; Srinivasan, Amarnath

    2004-12-01

    Methods to guide the surgical treatment of cancer utilizing handheld beta-sensitive probes in conjunction with tumor-avid radiopharmaceuticals [such as 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)] have previously been developed. These technologies could also potentially be used to assist in minimally invasive techniques for the diagnosis of cancer. The goal of this project is to develop and test a system for performing radionuclide-guided endoscopies. This system (called Endoprobe) has four major subsystems: beta detector, position tracker, endoscope, and user interface. The beta detection unit utilizes two miniaturized solid state detectors to preferentially detect beta particles. The position tracking system allows real-time monitoring of the unit's location. The beta detector and position tracking system's receiver are mounted on the tip of an endoscope. Information from the beta detector and tracking system, in addition to the video signal from the endoscope, are combined and presented to the user via a computer interface. The system was tested in a simulated search for radiotracer-avid areas of esophageal cancer. The search for esophageal cancer was chosen because this type of cancer is often diagnosed with endoscopic procedures and has been reported to have good affinity for FDG. Accumulations of FDG in the normal organs of the abdomen were simulated by an anthropomorphic torso phantom filled with the appropriate amounts of radioactivity. A 1.5- mm-thick gelatin film containing FDG was used to simulate radiotracer uptake in the lining of normal esophagus. Esophageal lesions (both benign and malignant) were simulated by thin disks of gelatin (diameters=3.5-12 mm) containing appropriate concentrations of FDG embedded in the gelatin film simulating normal esophagus. Endoprobe facilitated visual identification and examination of the simulated lesions. The position tracking system permitted the location of the Endoprobe tip to be monitored and plotted in real time on a

  18. Radionuclides deposition and fine sediment transport in a forested watershed, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, S.; Gomi, T.; Kato, H.; Tesfaye, T.; Onda, Y.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated radionuclides deposition and fine sediment transport in a 13 ha headwater watershed, Tochigi prefecture, located in 98.94 km north of Tokyo. The study site was within Karasawa experimental forest, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology. We conducted fingerprinting approach, based on the activities of fallout radionuclides, including caesium-134 (Cs-134) caesium-137 (Cs-137) and excess lead-210 (Pb-210ex). For indentifying specific sources of fine sediment, we sampled tree, soil on forested floor, soil on logging road surface, stream bed and stream banks. We investigated the radionuclides (i.e., as Cs-134, Cs-137 and Pb-210ex) deposition on tree after accident of nuclear power plants on March 11, 2011. We sampled fruits, leaves, branches, stems, barks on Japanese cedar (Sugi) and Japanese cypress (Hinoki). To analyze the samples, gammaray spectrometry was performed at a laboratory at the University of Tsukuba (Tsukuba City, Japan) using n-type coaxial low-energy HPGe gamma detectors (EGC-200-R and EGC25-195-R of EURYSIS Co., Lingolsheim, France) coupled with a multichannel analyzer. We also collected soil samples under the forest canopy in various soil depths from 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 cm along transect of hillslopes. Samples at forest road were collected road segments crossing on the middle section of monitoring watersheds. Fine sediment transport in the streams were collected at the outlet of 13 ha watersheds using integrated suspended sediment samplers. This study indicates the some portion of radio nuclide potentially remained on the tree surface. Part of the deposited radionuclides attached to soil particles and transported to the streams. Most of the fine sediment can be transported on road surface and/or near stream side (riparian zones).

  19. Testing of high-volume sampler inlets for the sampling of atmospheric radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Hammad; Su, Wei-Chung; Cheng, Yung S; Medici, Fausto

    2006-09-01

    Sampling of air for radioactive particles is one of the most important techniques used to determine the nuclear debris from a nuclear weapon test in the Earth's atmosphere or those particles vented from underground or underwater tests. Massive-flow air samplers are used to sample air for any indication of radionuclides that are a signature of nuclear tests. The International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization includes seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound, and gaseous xenon isotopes sampling technologies, in addition to radionuclide sampling, to monitor for any violation of the treaty. Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute has developed a large wind tunnel to test the outdoor radionuclide samplers for the International Monitoring System. The inlets for these samplers are tested for their collection efficiencies for different particle sizes at various wind speeds. This paper describes the results from the testing of two radionuclide sampling units used in the International Monitoring System. The possible areas of depositional wall losses are identified and the losses in these areas are determined. Sampling inlet type 1 was tested at 2.2 m s wind speed for 5, 10, and 20-microm aerodynamic diameter particles. The global collection efficiency was about 87.6% for 10-microm particles for sampling inlet type 1. Sampling inlet type 2 was tested for three wind speeds at 0.56, 2.2, and 6.6 m s for 5, 10, and 20-microm aerodynamic diameter particles in two different configurations (sampling head lowered and raised). The global collection efficiencies for these configurations for 10-microm particles at 2.2 m s wind speed were 77.4% and 82.5%, respectively. The sampling flow rate was 600 m h for both sampling inlets.

  20. Radionuclide transport through engineered barrier system alteration products

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, B.E.; Torretto, P.C.; Matzen, S.L.

    1997-12-01

    The primary rationale for studying the transport behavior of radionuclides through the Engineered Barrier system / Near Field Environment (EBS/NFE) is to ascertain whether the material properties of the introduced and altered host rock can significantly affect the transport of radionuclides from the waste container to the far field. The intent of this report is to present data and modeling results that can be used to assess the importance of canister corrosion products and cementitious materials to transport of radionuclides to the far field.

  1. Selection of plants for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Entry J.A.; Vance, N.C.; Watrud, L.S.

    1996-12-31

    Remediation of soil contaminated with radionuclides typically requires that soil be removed from the site and treated with various dispersing and chelating chemicals. Numerous studies have shown that radionuclides are generally not leached from the top 0.4 meters of soil, where plant roots actively accumulate elements. Restoration of large areas of land contaminated with low levels of radionuclides may be feasible using phytoremediation. Criteria for the selection of plants for phytoremediation, molecular approaches to increase radio nuclide uptake, effects of cultural practices on uptake and assessment of environmental effects of phytoremediation will be discussed.

  2. Consequence ranking of radionuclides in Hanford tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schmittroth, F.A.; De Lorenzo, T.H.

    1995-09-01

    Radionuclides in the Hanford tank waste are ranked relative to their consequences for the Low-Level Tank Waste program. The ranking identifies key radionuclides where further study is merited. In addition to potential consequences for intrude and drinking-water scenarios supporting low-level waste activities, a ranking based on shielding criteria is provided. The radionuclide production inventories are based on a new and independent ORIGEN2 calculation representing the operation of all Hanford single-pass reactors and the N Reactor.

  3. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and

  4. Developments in Bioremediation of Soils and Sediments Pollutedwith Metals and Radionuclides: 2. Field Research on Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.; Tabak, Henry H.

    2007-03-15

    Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides has had manyfield tests, demonstrations, and full-scale implementations in recentyears. Field research in this area has occurred for many different metalsand radionuclides using a wide array of strategies. These strategies canbe generally characterized in six major categories: biotransformation,bioaccumulation/bisorption, biodegradation of chelators, volatilization,treatment trains, and natural attenuation. For all field applicationsthere are a number of critical biogeochemical issues that most beaddressed for the successful field application. Monitoring andcharacterization parameters that are enabling to bioremediation of metalsand radionuclides are presented here. For each of the strategies a casestudy is presented to demonstrate a field application that uses thisstrategy.

  5. On the problem of deactivation of land areas contaminated with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Blagoev, V.V.; Galkin, A.P.; Galkina, L.A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a complex of technologies for land deactivation in areas of nuclear accidents, short-term chemical fixation of such dusting areas as well as long-term combined chemical and biological fixation. Short-term fixation is based on application of chemical compositions containing side-products of hydrolysis of cellulose and calcium chloride. Long-term fixation is achieved by application of some plants that are able to intensive growth. These combined covers prevent an expansion of radionuclides into environment. Methods of deactivation include removal of surface layer of soil with following displacement or burial. Effective deactivation is provided by available technics and cheep chemicals.

  6. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  7. Gas: A Neglected Phase in Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B

    2005-09-28

    The gas phase is generally ignored in remediation of metals and radionuclides because it is assumed that there is no efficient way to exploit it. In the literal sense, all remediations involve the gas phase because this phase is linked to the liquid and solid phases by vapor pressure and thermodynamic relationships. Remediation methods that specifically use the gas phase as a central feature have primarily targeted volatile organic contaminants, not metals and radionuclides. Unlike many organic contaminants, the vapor pressure and Henry's Law constants of metals and radionuclides are not generally conducive to direct air stripping of dissolved contaminants. Nevertheless, the gas phase can play an important role in remediation of inorganic contaminants and provide opportunities for efficient, cost effective remediation. The objective here is to explore ways in which manipulation of the gas phase can be used to facilitate remediation of metals and radionuclides.

  8. SRNL RADIONUCLIDE FIELD LYSIMETER EXPERIMENT: BASELINE CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Bagwell, L.; Powell, B.; Almond, P.; Emerson, H.; Hixon, A.; Jablonski, J.; Buchanan, C.; Waterhouse, T.

    2012-10-17

    The purpose of this document is to compile information regarding experimental design, facility design, construction, radionuclide source preparation, and path forward for the ten year Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radionuclide Field Lysimeter Experiment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This is a collaborative effort by researchers at SRNL and Clemson University. The scientific objectives of this study are to: Study long-term radionuclide transport under conditions more representative of vadose zone conditions than laboratory experiments; Provide more realistic quantification of radionuclide transport and geochemistry in the vadose zone, providing better information pertinent to radioactive waste storage solutions than presently exists; Reduce uncertainty and improve justification for geochemical models such as those used in performance assessments and composite analyses.

  9. Site Characterization for MNA of Radionuclides in Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation is often evaluated as a component of the remedy for ground water contaminated with radionuclides. When properly employed, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may provide an effective knowledge-based remedy where a thorough engineering analysis inform...

  10. Numerical modeling of radionuclide migration through a borehole disposal site.

    PubMed

    Yeboah, Serwaa; Akiti, Thomas T; Fletcher, John J

    2014-01-01

    The migration of radionuclides from a borehole repository located about 20 km from the Akwapim fault line which lies in an area of high seismicity was analyzed for some selected radionuclides. In the event of a seismic activity, fractures and faults could be rejuvenated or initiated resulting in container failure leading to the release of radionuclides. A numerical model was solved using a two-dimensional finite element code (Comsol Multiphysics) by taking into account the effect of heterogeneities. Results showed that, the fractured medium created preferential pathways indicating that, fault zones generated potential paths for released radionuclides from a radioactive waste repository. The results obtained showed that variations in hydraulic conductivity as a result of the heterogeneity considered within the domain significantly affected the direction of flow.

  11. Biomolecular Mechanisms Controlling Metal and Radionuclide Transformations in Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans

    SciTech Connect

    Beliaev, Alexander S.; Fredrickson, James K.; Loeffler, Frank E.; Sanford, Robert A.

    2006-06-01

    Microbiological reduction and immobilization of U(VI) and Tc(VII) has been proposed as a strategy for remediating radionuclide-contaminated environments. Numerous studies focusing on the reduction kinetics and speciation of these metals have been carried out using contaminated sediment samples, microbial consortia, and pure bacterial cultures. While previous work with model organisms has increased the general understanding of radionuclide transformation processes, fundamental questions regarding radionuclide reduction mechanisms by indigenous microorganisms are poorly understood, especially under the commonly encountered scenario where multiple electron acceptors are present. Therefore, the overall goal of the proposed research is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of radionuclide biotransformation by Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans, a predominant member of indigenous microorganism commonly found in contaminated subsurface environments, and to assess the effects of relevant environmental factors affecting these transformation reactions.

  12. Monitored natural attenuation forum: MNA of metals and radionuclides

    EPA Science Inventory

    While the natural attenuation of many organic compounds is established and accepted by the regulated and regulatory communities, there is some debate whether monitored natural attenuation (MNA) of metals and radionuclides is a reasonable remedial alternative to consider. Do you...

  13. Radionuclide Imaging Applications in Cardiomyopathies and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Harinstein, Matthew E; Soman, Prem

    2016-03-01

    Multiple epidemiological factors including population aging and improved survival after acute coronary syndromes have contributed to a heart failure (HF) prevalence in the USA in epidemic proportions. In the absence of transplantation, HF remains a progressive disease with poor prognosis. The structural and functional abnormalities of the myocardium in HF can be assessed by various radionuclide imaging techniques. Radionuclide imaging may be uniquely suited to address several important clinical questions in HF such as identifying etiology and guiding the selection of patients for coronary revascularization. Newer approaches such as autonomic innervation imaging, phase analysis for synchrony assessment, and other molecular imaging techniques continue to expand the applications of radionuclide imaging in HF. In this manuscript, we review established and evolving applications of radionuclide imaging for the diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of HF. PMID:26841785

  14. Recent Advances in Molecular Image-Guided Cancer Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Duo; Sun, Xianlei; Gao, Liquan; Liu, Zhaofei

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-targeted radionuclide therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies, especially those resistant to conventional therapies. However, to improve the use of targeted radionuclide therapy for the management of cancer patients, the in vivo behaviors, dosimetry, and efficacy of radiotherapeutic agents need to be well characterized and monitored. Molecular imaging, which is a powerful tool for the noninvasive characterization and quantification of biological processes in living subjects at the cellular and molecular levels, plays an important role in the guidance of cancer radionuclide therapy. In this review, we introduce the radiotherapeutics for cancer-targeted therapy and summarize the most recent evidence supporting the use of molecular imaging to guide cancer radionuclide therapy.

  15. Modeling the Dispersal and Deposition of Radionuclides: Lessons from Chernobyl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ApSimon, H. M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Described are theoretical models that simulate the dispersion of radionuclides on local and global scales following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Discusses the application of these results to nuclear weapons fallout. (CW)

  16. Using environmental radionuclides as fingerprints to study streambank erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of sediment source areas in the watershed is a key component for designing management strategies to reduce sediment and chemical loads from watersheds. Potential sediment sources in watersheds can be characterized (fingerprinted) using diagnostic environmental radionuclides, chem...

  17. Personal dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for 1252 radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Otto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides are useful for routine calculations in radiation protection in industry, medicine and research. They give a simple and often sufficient estimate of dose rates during production, handling and storage of radionuclide sources, based solely on the source's activity. The latest compilation of such conversion coefficients dates from 20 y ago, based on nuclear decay data published 30 y ago. The present publication provides radionuclide-specific conversion coefficients to personal dose based on the most recent evaluations of nuclear decay data for 1252 radionuclides and fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for monoenergetic radiations. It contains previously unknown conversion coefficients for >400 nuclides and corrects those conversion coefficients that were based on erroneous decay schemes. For the first time, estimates for the protection quantity Hp(3) are included.

  18. Somatostatin Receptor Based Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Somatostatin (SST) receptors (SSTRs) belong to the typical 7-transmembrane domain family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Five distinct subtypes (termed SSTR1-5) have been identified, with SSTR2 showing the highest affinity for natural SST and synthetic SST analogs. Most neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have high expression levels of SSTRs, which opens the possibility for tumor imaging and therapy with radiolabeled SST analogs. A number of tracers have been developed for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of NETs with impressive results, which facilitates the applications of human SSTR subtype 2 (hSSTr2) reporter gene based imaging and therapy in SSTR negative or weakly positive tumors to provide a novel approach for the management of tumors. The hSSTr2 gene can act as not only a reporter gene for in vivo imaging, but also a therapeutic gene for local radionuclide therapy. Even a second therapeutic gene can be transfected into the same tumor cells together with hSSTr2 reporter gene to obtain a synergistic therapeutic effect. However, additional preclinical and especially translational and clinical researches are needed to confirm the value of hSSTr2 reporter gene based imaging and therapy in tumors. PMID:25879040

  19. Optimizing diagnosis in Parkinson's disease: Radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Arena, Julieta E; Stoessl, A Jon

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and other disorders characterized by basal ganglia dysfunction are often associated with limited structural imaging changes that might assist in the clinical or research setting. Radionuclide imaging has been used to assess characteristic functional changes. Presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction in PD can be revealed through the imaging of different steps in the process of dopamine synthesis and storage: L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity, Vesicular Monoamine Transporter type 2 (VMAT2) binding or its reuptake via the dopamine transporter (DAT). Postsynaptic dopamine dysfunction can also be studied with a variety of different tracers that primarily assess D2-like dopamine receptor availability. The function of other neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, serotonin and acetylcholine can be imaged as well, giving important information about the underlying pathophysiologic process of PD and its complications. The imaging of metabolic activity and pathologic changes has also provided great advances in the field. Together, these techniques have allowed for a better understanding of PD, may be of aid for differentiating PD from other forms of parkinsonism and will undoubtedly be useful for the establishment of new therapeutic targets.

  20. Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

    1999-04-02

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolite{trademark} NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900{trademark}, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material.