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Sample records for radionuclide ventriculography comparison

  1. The detection of coronary artery disease: a comparison of exercise thallium imaging and exercise equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography.

    PubMed

    McGhie, I; Martin, W; Tweddel, A; Hutton, I

    1987-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of rest and exercise gated equilibrium technetium ventriculography with exercise thallium imaging in 50 consecutive male patients undergoing routine coronary angiography for the evaluation of chest pain. No patients were excluded on the basis of prior myocardial infarction, nature of angiographically defined coronary disease or symptoms. Antianginal therapy was continued in all patients. Eight patients had normal coronary arteries, 9 had single vessel, disease, 20 had double vessel disease and 13 had triple vessel disease. Sixteen patients had previously documented myocardial infarction. Using exercise radionuclide ventriculography, 34 patients with coronary disease were detected resulting in a sensitivity of 81%; 6 patients with normal coronary arteries had normal scans, a specificity of 75%, with a predictive accuracy of 80%. In comparison, thallium imaging detected 42 patients with coronary disease resulting in a sensitivity of 100%. Six patients with normal coronary arteries had normal thallium images resulting in a specificity of 75% and a predictive accuracy of 96%. These results suggest that exercise thallium imaging is a more accurate investigation than exercise equilibrium radio-nuclide ventriculography and is the investigation of choice in the noninvasive detection of coronary artery disease. PMID:3036530

  2. Application of radionuclide ventriculography to cardiac screening

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, J. Jr.; Milner, M.R.; Chandeysson, P.L.; Rodman, D.J.; Okin, P.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1989-05-01

    Screening asymptomatic individuals for latent coronary disease often requires sequential testing because exercise electrocardiography typically produces more false positive than true positive results in a population with a low prevalence of coronary disease. Cardiac scintigraphy is a technique that may be employed as a confirmatory test in lieu of coronary arteriography to further evaluate the significance of a positive exercise electrocardiogram. Radionuclide ventriculography was employed in 98 asymptomatic individuals who were considered to be at moderate risk of heart disease after risk factor analysis and exercise electrocardiography. Seventeen (17%) patients had an abnormal study and underwent cardiac catheterization. Seven had coronary artery disease, two had cardiomyopathy, and eight were normal. Eighty-one (83%) patients had a normal study. Because the sensitivity of radionuclide ventriculography is 63-80%, it was postulated that 2 to 5 individuals with disease were missed. Thus, from a population with an 11-14% prevalence of disease, two subsets were identified. A large subset in which a prevalence of 2-6% could be estimated was separated from a much smaller one in which a prevalence of approximately 50% was demonstrated.

  3. Uncommon breast tumor attenuation artifact on radionuclide ventriculography.

    PubMed

    Metrard, Gilles; Girault, Sylvie; Capitain, Olivier; Jeanguillaume, Christian; Rakotonirina, Hervé; Berthelot, Cécile; Le Jeune, Jean-Jacques; Morel, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    A 39-year-old woman with locally advanced left breast cancer (T4 N0 M0) underwent equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography for baseline assessment of left ventricular function before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The left ventricular ejection fraction was 76% at 75 beats per minute, without localized wall motion abnormality. In the best septal left anterior oblique projection, a large photopenic "halo" surrounded the cardiac chambers, mimicking a pericardial effusion. In fact, this aspect resulted from an attenuation artifact by a large left breast tumor, as demonstrated by FDG-PET/CT imaging. PMID:18356673

  4. Preoperative prediction of reversible myocardial asynergy by postexercise radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Rozanski, A.; Berman, D.; Gray, R.; Diamond, G.; Raymond, M.; Prause, J.; Maddahi, J.; Swan, H.J.; Matloff, J.

    1982-07-22

    Myocardial asynergy is sometimes reversed by coronary bypass, and a noninvasive method of predicting which assess are reversible would be desirable. To assess whether changes in myocardial wall motion observed immediately after exercise can differentiate reversible from nonreversible myocardial asynergy, we evaluated 53 patients by radionuclide ventriculography before and after exercise and again at rest after coronary bypass surgery. Preoperative improvement in wall motion immediately after exercise was highly predictive of the surgical outcome (average chance-corrected agreement, 91 per cent). At surgery the asynergic segments that had improved after exercise were free of grossly apparent epicardial scarring. The accuracy of these predictions for postoperative improvement was significantly greater (P less than 0.01) than that of analysis of Q waves on resting electrocardiography (average chance-corrected agreement, 40 per cent). In contrast, preoperative changes in left ventricular ejection fraction after exercise were not predictive of postoperative resting ejection fraction. We conclude that postexercise radionuclide ventriculography can be used to identify reversible resting myocardial asynergy. This test should prove effective in predicting which patients with myocardial asynergy are most likely to benefit from aortocoronary revascularization.

  5. Accuracy of radionuclide ventriculography for estimation of left ventricular volume changes and end-systolic pressure-volume relations

    SciTech Connect

    Kronenberg, M.W.; Parrish, M.D.; Jenkins, D.W. Jr.; Sandler, M.P.; Friesinger, G.C.

    1985-11-01

    Estimation of left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relations depends on the accurate measurement of small changes in ventricular volume. To study the accuracy of radionuclide ventriculography, paired radionuclide and contrast ventriculograms were obtained in seven dogs during a control period and when blood pressure was increased in increments of 30 mm Hg by phenylephrine infusion. The heart rate was held constant by atropine infusion. The correlation between radionuclide and contrast ventriculography was excellent. The systolic pressure-volume relations were linear for both radionuclide and contrast ventriculography. The mean slope for radionuclide ventriculography was lower than the mean slope for contrast ventriculography; however, the slopes correlated well. The radionuclide-contrast volume relation was compared using background subtraction, attenuation correction, neither of these or both. By each method, radionuclide ventriculography was valid for measuring small changes in left ventricular volume and for defining end-systolic pressure-volume relations.

  6. Receiver operating characteristic analysis improves diagnosis by radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, C.Z.; Forman, M.B.; Vaugh, W.K.; Sandler, M.P.; Kronenberg, M.W.

    1985-05-01

    Receiver operating characteristic analysis (ROC) evaluates continuous variables to define diagnostic criteria for the optimal sensitivity (SENS) and specificity (SPEC) of a test. The authors studied exercise-induced chest pain (CP), ST-changes on electrocardiography (ECG) and rest-exercise gated radionuclide ventriculography (RVG) using ROC to clarify the optimal criteria for detecting myocardial ischemia due to coronary artherosclerosis (CAD). The data of 95 consecutive patients studied with coronary angiography, rest-exercise RVG and ECG were reviewed. 77 patients had ''significant'' CAD (greater than or equal to50% lesions). Exercise-induced CP, ECG abnormalities (ST-T shifts) and RVG abnormalities (change in ejection fraction, 2-view regional wall motion change and relative end-systolic volume) were evaluated to define optimal SENS/SPEC of each and for the combined data. ROC curves were constructed by multiple logistic regression (MLR). By MLR, RVG alone was superior to ECG and CP. The combination of all three produced the best ROC curve for the entire group and for clinical subsets based on the number of diseased vessels and the presence or absence of prior myocardial infarction. When CP, ECG and RVG were combined, the optimal SENS/SPEC for detection of single vessel disease was 88/86. The SENS/SPEC for 3 vessel disease was 93/95. Thus, the application of RVG for the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia is improved with the inclusion of ECG and CP data by the use of a multiple logistic regression model. ROC analysis allows clinical application of multiple data for diagnosing CAD at desired SENS/SPEC rather than by arbitrary single-standard criteria.

  7. [Radionuclide ventriculography in the evaluation of the functional state of the left heart ventricle in patients following myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Sledzevskaia, I K; Stroganova, N P; Il'iash, M G

    1989-03-01

    The use of an expanded set of parameters of radionuclide ventriculography with 99mTc-pertechnetate, characterizing myocardial function, made it possible to specify radionuclide semiotics of myocardial infarction, to identify 4 cardiodynamic types, and to establish correlation between a degree of cardiodynamic changes and a site of lesion, and the relationship with exercise tolerance.

  8. Experimental radionuclide ventriculography and the baboon (Papio ursinus) model: imaging projection of the heart and blood pool labelling.

    PubMed

    Dormehl, I C; du Plessis, M; Maree, M; van Wyk, A

    1986-01-01

    The chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) presents a suitable animal model for the evaluation of interpretation problems of data from radionuclide ventriculography. However, the procedure has to be standardized: it is important to so view the heart as to ensure optimal ventricular separation and minimal ventricle-atrium overlap. Also necessary is efficient labelling of the blood pool for good cardiac images and prolonged experimentation. This report concerns an evaluation of different cardiac viewing projections and labelling procedures, and concludes with a preferred method.

  9. Automated system for ST segment and arrhythmia analysis in exercise radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Hsia, P.W.; Jenkins, J.M.; Shimoni, Y.; Gage, K.P.; Santinga, J.T.; Pitt, B.

    1986-06-01

    A computer-based system for interpretation of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in the diagnosis of arrhythmia and ST segment abnormality in an exercise system is presented. The system was designed for inclusion in a gamma camera so the ECG diagnosis could be combined with the diagnostic capability of radionuclide ventriculography. Digitized data are analyzed in a beat-by-beat mode and a contextual diagnosis of underlying rhythm is provided. Each beat is assigned a beat code based on a combination of waveform analysis and RR interval measurement. The waveform analysis employs a new correlation coefficient formula which corrects for baseline wander. Selective signal averaging, in which only normal beats are included, is done for an improved signal-to-noise ratio prior to ST segment analysis. Template generation, R wave detection, QRS window size, baseline correction, and continuous updating of heart rate have all been automated. ST level and slope measurements are computed on signal-averaged data. Arrhythmia analysis of 13 passages of abnormal rhythm by computer was found to be correct in 98.4 percent of all beats. 25 passages of exercise data, 1-5 min in length, were evaluated by the cardiologist and found to be in agreement in 95.8 percent in measurements of ST level and 91.7 percent in measurements of ST slope.

  10. Nuclear ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculography (RNV); Multiple gate acquisition scan (MUGA); Nuclear cardiology; Cardiomyopathy - nuclear ventriculography ... 56. Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby ...

  11. Sectoranalysis of left ventricular function by fully automated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography.

    PubMed

    Standke, R; Hör, G; Klepzig, H; Maul, F D; Bussmann, W D; Kaltenbach, M

    1985-01-01

    We describe a fully automated method for quantification of left ventricular performance by equilibrium radionuclide ventriculographic studies, based on subdivision of the left ventricular region into 9 equiangular sectors. The precise identification of the left ventricular contours is achieved by the use of morphological and functional criteria in a sequential edge detection algorithm with a success rate of 96%. In addition to left ventricular global and sectorial ejection fraction the first harmonic of the corresponding Fourier spectrum is approximated to each sectorial time-activity curve and to the global one. Sectorial phase is calculated as the difference between the phase of the sectorial and global first Fourier component. Computerized comparison between the sectorial parameters at rest and during peak exercise localizes and classifies the degree of global and regional impairment in response to exercise. The processing time of 60 sec makes this method suitable for routine use. The validity of our procedure has been tested in 34 patients before and after successful transluminal coronary angioplasty. In these patients, 73% of the stenosed vessels before dilatation were localized by sectorial ejection fraction, 77% by sectorial phases, and 88% by the combination of both.

  12. Relative prognostic value of rest thallium-201 imaging, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hakki, A.H.; Nestico, P.F.; Heo, J.; Unwala, A.A.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1987-07-01

    Rest thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour Holter monitoring are acceptable methods to assess myocardial necrosis, performance and electrical instability. This study examined the relative value of the three tests, when obtained a mean of 7 days after acute myocardial infarction, in predicting 1 year mortality in 93 patients. Planar thallium-201 images were obtained in three projections and were scored on a scale of 0 to 4 in 15 segments (normal score = 60). Patients were classified as having high risk test results as follows: thallium score less than or equal to 45 (33 patients), left ventricular ejection fraction less than or equal to 40% (51 patients) and complex ventricular arrhythmias on Holter monitoring (36 patients). During the follow-up of 6.4 +/- 3.4 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients died of cardiac causes. All three tests were important predictors of survival by univariate Cox survival analysis; the thallium score, however, was the only important predictor by multivariate analysis. The predictive power of the thallium score was comparable with that of combined ejection fraction and Holter monitoring (chi-square = 21 versus chi-square = 22). Thus, rest thallium-201 imaging performed before hospital discharge provides important prognostic information in survivors of acute myocardial infarction which is comparable with that provided by left ventricular ejection fraction and Holter monitoring. Patients with a lower thallium score (large perfusion defects) are at high risk of cardiac death during the first year after infarction.

  13. Detection of occult pericardial hemorrhage early after open-heart surgery using technetium-99m red blood cell radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, T.M.; Czer, L.S.; Gray, R.J.; Kass, R.M.; Raymond, M.J.; Garcia, E.V.; Chaux, A.; Matloff, J.M.; Berman, D.S.

    1984-11-01

    Pericardial or mediastinal hemorrhage requiring reoperation occurs in 2% to 5% of patients, usually early (0 to 48 hours), after open-heart surgery. This hemorrhage may be occult, and resulting cardiac tamponade may easily be misinterpreted as ventricular dysfunction, common early postoperatively. In such cases, appropriate and timely intervention may not occur. Of 50 patients evaluated by technetium-99m red blood cell gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) because of early postoperative cardiogenic shock of uncertain etiology, 17 had unique scintigraphic images suggestive of intrathoracic hemorrhage. Of these 17, 5 had a generalized halo of abnormal radioactivity surrounding small hyperdynamic right and left ventricles, 11 had localized regions of intense blood pool activity outside the cardiac chambers (two with compression of single chambers), and one demonstrated marked radionuclide activity in the right hemithorax (2000 ml of blood at reoperation). Twelve patients had exploratory reoperation for control of hemorrhage as a direct result of the scintigraphic findings, three were successfully treated with fresh frozen plasma and platelet infusions along with medical interventions to optimize cardiac performance, and two patients died in cardiogenic shock (presumed tamponade) without reoperation. In the 12 reoperated patients, all were confirmed to have active pericardial bleeding. Scintigraphic localization of abnormal blood pools within the pericardium corresponded to the sites at which active bleeding was witnessed at reoperation. The abnormal bleeding was etiologically related to the tamponade state, with marked improvement in hemodynamics after reoperation. Nine additional patients were reoperated for presumed tamponade after RNV revealed an exaggerated halo of photon deficiency surrounding the cardiac chambers.

  14. Gold-195m first-pass radionuclide ventriculography, thallium-201 single-photon emission CT, and 12-lead ECG stress testing as a combined procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Kipper, S.L.; Ashburn, W.L.; Norris, S.L.; Rimkus, D.S.; Dillon, W.A.

    1985-09-01

    Graded, sequential, rest/exercise, gold-195m, first-pass ventriculography and thallium-201 (Tl-201) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed simultaneously during a single, electrocardiograph-monitored, bicycle stress test in 24 individuals. The technical aspects and logistics involved in performing this combined radionuclide study are stressed in this preliminary report. Fourteen healthy volunteers each had a normal left ventricular ejection fraction and wall-motion response, along with normal T1-201 perfusion and washout, as determined by both visual and quantitative analysis of the tomographic sections. Each of ten patients with coronary artery disease had at least one abnormality of these parameters. The authors suggest that it is technically feasible to evaluate both cardiac function and myocardial perfusion simultaneously by combing Au-195m ventriculography and Tl-201 SPECT imaging into a single, noninvasive, diagnostic package.

  15. Assessment of left ventricular diastolic function by radionuclide ventriculography at rest and exercise in subclinical hypothyroidism, and its response to L-thyroxine therapy.

    PubMed

    Brenta, Gabriela; Mutti, Luis Alberto; Schnitman, Marta; Fretes, Osvaldo; Perrone, Alberto; Matute, María Luisa

    2003-06-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with intrinsic myocardial changes reflected by alterations in contractility and relaxation. Diastolic function, however, rather than systolic cardiac function, seems to be mostly impaired by thyroid hormone deprivation. Our aim was to evaluate diastolic function at rest and during maximal exercise by means of radionuclide ventriculography in subclinical hypothyroidism before and after restoration of euthyroidism. Ten subclinical hypothyroid patients (50 +/- 8.7 years) (thyroid-stimulating hormone 11 +/- 4.2 microUI/ml) without cardiac disease were studied before and 6 months after levothyroxine (L-T(4)) replacement (thyroid-stimulating hormone 1.9 +/- 1.1 microUI/ml). We compared the basal and post-therapy cardiac parameters with a control group of 14 euthyroid patients (52.5 +/- 10 years) (thyroid-stimulating hormone 2.5 +/- 1.2 microUI/ml). Multigated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography was performed to assess systolic and diastolic ventricular function. Student's t and paired Student's t tests were applied for statistical analysis. We found a significant difference between the time to peak filling rate (TPFR) at rest before (0.241 +/- 0.002 ms) and after (0.190 +/- 0.012 ms) treatment with L-T(4). A significant difference that disappeared after restoration of euthyroidism was also observed between the basal TPFR values of the subclinical hypothyroid patients and the control group (0.189 +/- 0.01 ms). The same pattern was observed at maximal exercise. Thus, TPFR, a parameter of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function measured by radionuclide ventriculography, is impaired in subclinical hypothyroid patients both at rest and during exercise and returns to normal values after L-T(4) therapy.

  16. [Left ventricular pressure-volume diagram determined by forward and backward formatting of radionuclide ventriculography and analog pressure data].

    PubMed

    Inagaki, S; Sugihara, H; Nakagawa, T; Katahira, T; Kubota, Y; Katsume, H; Adachi, H; Nakagawa, M; Ikegaya, K; Matsui, S

    1989-02-01

    Pressure-volume (PV) loop is of great value for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) function, but its clinical application has been limited by methodological complexity. A new system was developed to make accurate loop with simplified procedure, and was applied to clinical and interventional study. The system constitutes of a mobile gamma camera, a poly-amplifier and a data processor (GMS-550U, Toshiba Medical) installed in cardiac catheterization labo for simultaneous raw data handling and successive analysis. Since LV time activity curve (TAC) obtained by usual ECG gating is not fully reliable for a entire cardiac cycle, radionuclide data acquired in list mode was formatted forward and backward from ECG trigger together with analog data of LV pressure, ECG and PCG. PV loops were drawn in 10 patients (OMI, AP, MR, HCM) and 5 normals before and after infusion of angiotensin-II (AII), and Emax and LV work (systolic; SW, diastolic; DW, net; NW = SW - DW) were measured. Radionuclide ventriculography was safely performed with cardiac catheterization even in patients with congestive heart failure. Satisfactory PV loops were obtained by the advantage of simultaneous acquisition of RNV and analog data. Changes of ECG, PCG, volume, pressure and derived indices through one cardiac cycle were readily comparable each other. Peak LV pressure (mmHg) increased from 134 to 159 and then 182 by infusion of AII, but no change in heart rate was observed Emax was higher in normals and AP (mean 1.96 mmHg/ml/m2) than in OMI and MR (range of 0.85-1.36). SW increased in response to rise of LV pressure in all subjects. NW increased in normals and AP, but decreased in OMI and MR with relative increase in DW. In conclusion, this new system is feasible for repetitive studies under drug intervention, since it makes accurate PV loop under physiologic state, i.e. without pacing and volume overloading. Variable changes of SW, DW, and NW in response to afterloading were clarified, which may be

  17. Computer analysis of the exercise electrocardiogram and control of radionuclide ventriculography: an optimal statistical decision model for diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hsia, P.W.E.

    1987-01-01

    A new automated technique for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) by stress electrocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) has been developed. The method employs digital signal processing of the electrocardiogram (ECG) for recognition of ischemic and arrhythmic events. On-line detection of abnormal beats is used for control image acquisition by the gamma camera resulting in improved image quality since only identical beats are included in the composite images of the cardiac cycle. A combined stress ECG analysis which measures ST changes indicative of ischemia, and radionuclide results, which reveal corresponding ejection fraction abnormalities yields greater sensitivity and specificity than either test alone. Digitized data from the electrocardiogram are analyzed in a beat-by-beat mode and a contextual diagnosis of underlying rhythm is given. Template generation, R wave detection, QRS window size, baseline correction, and continuous updating of heart rate are completely automated. A statistical model base on computerized ST segment measurements combined with radionuclide ventriculography data has been developed by using a logistic model with stepwise regression fitting. A previously acquired database of similar measurements was used for designing the model. The most significant parameters were found to be (1) ejection fraction of exercise RNV; (2) difference of ST level between exercise and resting test (stdif); and (3) ejection fraction difference between exercise and resting test. The new parameter stdif, not previously used in ECG interpretation, was found to be of great diagnostic significance.

  18. Noninvasive cardiac risk stratification of diabetic and nondiabetic uremic renal allograft candidates using dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging and radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Rimmer, J.; Haisch, C. )

    1989-11-01

    The ability of noninvasive risk stratification using dipyridamole-thallium-201 (Tl-201) imaging and radionuclide ventriculography to predict perioperative and long-term cardiac events (myocardial infarction or cardiac death) was evaluated in 36 uremic diabetic and 29 nondiabetic candidates for renal allograft surgery. Of the 35 patients who underwent renal allograft surgery 8 +/- 7 months after the study, none had transient Tl-201 defects (although 13 had depressed left ventricular ejection fraction) and none developed perioperative cardiac events. During a mean follow-up of 23 +/- 11 months, 6 (9%) patients developed cardiac events. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the predictive value of clinical data (including age, sex, diabetes, chest pain history, allograft recipient) and radionuclide data. Presence of transient Tl-201 defect and left ventricular ejection fraction were the only significant predictors of future cardiac events (p less than 0.01). No other patient variables, including diabetes or receiving a renal allograft, had either univariate or multivariate predictive value. All 3 patients with transient Tl-201 defects had cardiac events compared with only 3 of 62 (5%) patients without transient Tl-201 defect (p less than 0.0001). Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in patients with cardiac events (44 +/- 13%) compared with patients without cardiac events (57 +/- 9%, p less than 0.005). Overall, 5 of 6 patients with cardiac events had either transient Tl-201 defects or depressed left ventricular ejection fraction. Dipyridamole-Tl-201 imaging and radionuclide ventriculography may be helpful in identifying uremic candidates for renal allograft surgery who are at low risk for perioperative and long-term cardiac events.

  19. Comparative value of maximal treadmill testing, exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and exercise radionuclide ventriculography for distinguishing high- and low-risk patients soon after acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, J.; Goris, M.L.; Nash, E.; Kraemer, H.C.; DeBusk, R.F.; Berger, W.E.; Lew, H.

    1984-05-01

    The prognostic value of symptom-limited treadmill exercise electrocardiography, exercise thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculography was compared in 117 men, aged 54 +/- 9 years, tested 3 weeks after a clinically uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction (MI). During a mean follow-up period of 11.6 months, 8 men experienced ''hard'' medical events (cardiac death, nonfatal ventricular fibrillation or recurrent MI) and 14 were hospitalized for unstable angina pectoris, congestive heart failure or coronary bypass surgery (total of 22 combined events). By multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazards model), peak treadmill work load and the change in left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) during exercise were significant (p less than 0.01) predictors of hard medical events; these 2 risk factors and recurrent ischemic chest pain in the coronary care unit were also significantly predictive (p less than 0.001) for combined events. A peak treadmill work load of 4 METs or less or a decrease in EF of 5% or more below the value at rest during submaximal effort distinguished 22 high-risk patients (20% of the study population) from 89 low-risk patients. The rate of hard medical events within 12 months was 23% (5 of 22 patients), vs 2% (2 of 89 patients) in the high- and low-risk patient subsets, respectively (p less than 0.001). Thus, in patients who underwent evaluation 3 weeks after a clinically uncomplicated MI, exercise radionuclide ventriculography contributed independent prognostic information to that provided by symptom-limited treadmill testing and was superior to exercise thallium scintigraphy for this purpose.

  20. Measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction using gated 99mTc-sestamibi myocardial planar images: Comparison to contrast ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.A.; Lloret, R.L.; Barilla, F.; Douthat, L.; Gheorghiade, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Using the new myocardial perfusion agent 99mTc-sestamibi and multigated acquisition on a nuclear medicine gamma camera, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was derived in 13 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Cross-sectional activity profiles were used to measure the left ventricle from end-diastolic and end-systolic images. Several different geometric methods were then utilized to derive ejection fractions from the nuclear data. Comparison of the resultant ejection fractions to those obtained from contrast ventriculography showed significant correlation for all geometric methods (P less than 0.01, Sy X x = 6.2 to 9.6). The authors conclude that in patients with CAD one or more of these simple geometric methods can provide a useful estimate of the LVEF when performing 99mTc-sestamibi multigated myocardial perfusion imaging.

  1. Incremental value of clinical assessment, supine exercise electrocardiography, and biplane exercise radionuclide ventriculography in the prediction of coronary artery disease in men with chest pain

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, P.J.; Kelly, M.J.; Harper, R.W.; Federman, J.; Kalff, V.; Anderson, S.T.; Pitt, A.

    1983-11-01

    The incremental value of clinical assessment, exercise electrocardiography (ECG) and biplane radionuclide ventriculography (RVG) in the prediction of coronary artery disease (CAD) was assessed in 105 men without myocardial infarction who were undergoing coronary angiography for investigation of chest pain. Independent clinical assessment of chest pain was made prospectively by 2 physicians. Graded supine bicycle exercise testing was symptom-limited. Right anterior oblique ECG-gated first-pass RVG and left anterior oblique ECG-gated equilibrium RVG were performed at rest and exercise. Regional wall motion abnormalities were defined by agreement of 2 of 3 blinded observers. A combined strongly positive exercise ECG response was defined as greater than or equal to 2 mm ST depression or 1.0 to 1.9 mm ST depression with exercise-induced chest pain. A multivariate logistic regression model for the preexercise prediction of CAD was derived from the clinical data and selected 2 variables: chest pain class and cholesterol level. A second model assessed the incremental value of the exercise test in prediction of CAD and found 2 exercise variables that improved prediction: RVG wall motion abnormalities, and a combined strongly positive ECG response. Applying the derived predictive models, 37 of the 58 patients (64%) with preexercise probabilities of 10 to 90% crossed either below the 10% probability threshold or above the 90% threshold and 28 (48%) also moved across the 5 and 95% thresholds. Supine exercise testing with ECG and biplane RVG together, but neither test alone, effectively adds to clinical prediction of CAD. It is most useful in men with atypical chest pain and when the ECG and RVG results are concordant.

  2. Comparison of volume study by left ventriculography and gated SPECT in endoventricular circular patchplasty.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiromichi; Ohashi, Hirokazu; Tsutsumi, Yasushi; Kawai, Takahiro; Iino, Kenji; Onaka, Masateru

    2005-01-01

    Although quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) is widely used for left ventricular (LV) volume study, its accuracy is not established for those who have a large myocardial infarction scar or who had endoventricular circular patch plasty (EVCPP). Therefore, we compared LV volumes and LVEF calculated by QGS and those calculated by left ventriculography (LVG) before and after EVCPP. Sixteen patients (13 men and 3 women, mean age 67 +/- 9.5 years) were treated with EVCPP for postinfarction LV dyskinetic and/or akinetic scar. All patients were evaluated with both QGS and LVG before and after surgery. QGS was performed using eight frames per cardiac cycle, 1 hour after 740 MBq (99 m)Tc-tetrofosimin was administered. LVG images were acquired at a frame rate of 30 frames per second in the right anterior oblique 30-degree projection. We compared LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), and LV ejection fraction (LVEF) between QGS and LVG. There was an excellent linear correlation between QGS and LVG in LVEDV (preoperative; r = 0.87, postoperative; r = 0.94), LVESV (preoperative; r = 0.95, postoperative; r = 0.89), and LVEF (preoperative; r = 0.73, postoperative; r = 0.81) before and after EVCPP. However, both preoperative LV volumes and postoperative LVEF calculated from QGS gave a smaller value than those calculated from LVG. Postoperative volume data by QGS was much close to LVG. The present study indicated that volume study by QGS is very useful to evaluate the LV function after EVCPP. However, we should pay attention to those facts. PMID:15985130

  3. Radionuclide Ventriculography or Radionuclide Angiography (MUGA Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Attack Heart Failure Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) ... today ! Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Low Blood Pressure 4 ...

  4. Comparative effects of propranolol and verapamil alone and in combination on left ventricular function and volumes in patients with chronic exertional angina: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study with radionuclide ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, D.L.; Gebhardt, V.A.; Donald, A.; Kostuk, W.J.

    1983-12-01

    With the use of equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography the effects on left ventricular (LV) function of 160 mg oral propranolol daily and 360 mg verapamil daily alone and in combination were compared in 18 patients with chronic exertional angina. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover protocol was used. The reduction in exercise rate-pressure product induced by the combination (118 +/- 28 mm Hg/min) was significantly greater than that by propranolol (135 +/- 27 mm Hg/min) or verapamil alone (163 +/- 28 mm Hg/min). In patients at rest, neither single nor combined therapy altered global or regional left ventricular ejection fractions (EFs). Verapamil, but not propranolol, increased cardiac volumes of resting subjects; used in combination, no further increase in LV volume occurred. With placebo, exercise global EF did not decrease from the level at rest and therefore no drug effect could be demonstrated for this parameter of LV function. By an evaluation of normalized regional EF measurements the combination was shown to reduce exercise-induced hypokinesis (placebo 52 +/- 20%, combination 61 +/- 23%. No significant improvement was noted with propranolol or verapamil alone; only the combination prevented a significant increase in end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes during exercise. Thus, propranolol and verapamil, used alone in moderate doses, exert no beneficial effect on exercise LV function as measured by EF and volume changes, and resting function deteriorates slightly with verapamil.

  5. Comparison of left ventricular ejection fraction values obtained using invasive contrast left ventriculography, two-dimensional echocardiography, and gated single-photon emission computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Nadish; Dresser, Thomas; Aggarwal, Kul; Gupta, Vishal; Mittal, Mayank K; Alpert, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Left ventricular ejection fraction can be measured by a variety of invasive and non-invasive cardiac techniques. This study assesses the relation of three diagnostic modalities to each other in the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction: invasive contrast left ventriculography, two-dimensional echocardiography, and quantitative gated single-photon emission computed tomography. Methods: Retrospective chart review was conducted on 58 patients hospitalized with chest pain, who underwent left ventricular ejection fraction evaluation using each of the aforementioned modalities within a 3-month period not interrupted by myocardial infarction or revascularization. Results: The mean left ventricular ejection fraction values were as follows: invasive contrast left ventriculography (0.44±0.15), two-dimensional echocardiography (0.46±0.13), and gated single-photon emission computed tomography (0.37±0.10). Correlations coefficients and associated p values were as follows: invasive contrast left ventriculography versus two-dimensional echocardiography (r=0.69, p<0.001), invasive contrast left ventriculography versus gated single-photon emission computed tomography (r=0.80, p<0.0001), and gated single-photon emission computed tomography versus two-dimensional echocardiography (r=0.69, p<0.001). Conclusion: Our results indicate that strong positive correlations exist among the three techniques studied. PMID:27621804

  6. Comparison of left ventricular ejection fraction values obtained using invasive contrast left ventriculography, two-dimensional echocardiography, and gated single-photon emission computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Nadish; Dresser, Thomas; Aggarwal, Kul; Gupta, Vishal; Mittal, Mayank K; Alpert, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Left ventricular ejection fraction can be measured by a variety of invasive and non-invasive cardiac techniques. This study assesses the relation of three diagnostic modalities to each other in the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction: invasive contrast left ventriculography, two-dimensional echocardiography, and quantitative gated single-photon emission computed tomography. Methods: Retrospective chart review was conducted on 58 patients hospitalized with chest pain, who underwent left ventricular ejection fraction evaluation using each of the aforementioned modalities within a 3-month period not interrupted by myocardial infarction or revascularization. Results: The mean left ventricular ejection fraction values were as follows: invasive contrast left ventriculography (0.44±0.15), two-dimensional echocardiography (0.46±0.13), and gated single-photon emission computed tomography (0.37±0.10). Correlations coefficients and associated p values were as follows: invasive contrast left ventriculography versus two-dimensional echocardiography (r=0.69, p<0.001), invasive contrast left ventriculography versus gated single-photon emission computed tomography (r=0.80, p<0.0001), and gated single-photon emission computed tomography versus two-dimensional echocardiography (r=0.69, p<0.001). Conclusion: Our results indicate that strong positive correlations exist among the three techniques studied.

  7. A comparison of the dose from natural radionuclides and artificial radionuclides after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Iwaoka, Kazuki

    2016-07-01

    Due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, the evacuees from Namie Town still cannot reside in the town, and some continue to live in temporary housing units. In this study, the radon activity concentrations were measured at temporary housing facilities, apartments and detached houses in Fukushima Prefecture in order to estimate the annual internal exposure dose of residents. A passive radon-thoron monitor (using a CR-39) and a pulse-type ionization chamber were used to evaluate the radon activity concentration. The average radon activity concentrations at temporary housing units, including a medical clinic, apartments and detached houses, were 5, 7 and 9 Bq m(-3), respectively. Assuming the residents lived in these facilities for one year, the average annual effective doses due to indoor radon in each housing type were evaluated as 0.18, 0.22 and 0.29 mSv, respectively. The average effective doses to all residents in Fukushima Prefecture due to natural and artificial sources were estimated using the results of the indoor radon measurements and published data. The average effective dose due to natural sources for the evacuees from Namie Town was estimated to be 1.9 mSv. In comparison, for the first year after the FDNPP accident, the average effective dose for the evacuees due to artificial sources from the accident was 5.0 mSv. Although residents' internal and external exposures due to natural radionuclides cannot be avoided, it might be possible to lower external exposure due to the artificial radionuclides by changing some behaviors of residents.

  8. A comparison of the dose from natural radionuclides and artificial radionuclides after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Iwaoka, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, the evacuees from Namie Town still cannot reside in the town, and some continue to live in temporary housing units. In this study, the radon activity concentrations were measured at temporary housing facilities, apartments and detached houses in Fukushima Prefecture in order to estimate the annual internal exposure dose of residents. A passive radon–thoron monitor (using a CR-39) and a pulse-type ionization chamber were used to evaluate the radon activity concentration. The average radon activity concentrations at temporary housing units, including a medical clinic, apartments and detached houses, were 5, 7 and 9 Bq m−3, respectively. Assuming the residents lived in these facilities for one year, the average annual effective doses due to indoor radon in each housing type were evaluated as 0.18, 0.22 and 0.29 mSv, respectively. The average effective doses to all residents in Fukushima Prefecture due to natural and artificial sources were estimated using the results of the indoor radon measurements and published data. The average effective dose due to natural sources for the evacuees from Namie Town was estimated to be 1.9 mSv. In comparison, for the first year after the FDNPP accident, the average effective dose for the evacuees due to artificial sources from the accident was 5.0 mSv. Although residents' internal and external exposures due to natural radionuclides cannot be avoided, it might be possible to lower external exposure due to the artificial radionuclides by changing some behaviors of residents. PMID:26838130

  9. A comparison of the dose from natural radionuclides and artificial radionuclides after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Iwaoka, Kazuki

    2016-07-01

    Due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, the evacuees from Namie Town still cannot reside in the town, and some continue to live in temporary housing units. In this study, the radon activity concentrations were measured at temporary housing facilities, apartments and detached houses in Fukushima Prefecture in order to estimate the annual internal exposure dose of residents. A passive radon-thoron monitor (using a CR-39) and a pulse-type ionization chamber were used to evaluate the radon activity concentration. The average radon activity concentrations at temporary housing units, including a medical clinic, apartments and detached houses, were 5, 7 and 9 Bq m(-3), respectively. Assuming the residents lived in these facilities for one year, the average annual effective doses due to indoor radon in each housing type were evaluated as 0.18, 0.22 and 0.29 mSv, respectively. The average effective doses to all residents in Fukushima Prefecture due to natural and artificial sources were estimated using the results of the indoor radon measurements and published data. The average effective dose due to natural sources for the evacuees from Namie Town was estimated to be 1.9 mSv. In comparison, for the first year after the FDNPP accident, the average effective dose for the evacuees due to artificial sources from the accident was 5.0 mSv. Although residents' internal and external exposures due to natural radionuclides cannot be avoided, it might be possible to lower external exposure due to the artificial radionuclides by changing some behaviors of residents. PMID:26838130

  10. A prospective comparison of echocardiographic wall motion score index and radionuclide ejection fraction in predicting outcome following acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Galasko, G; Basu, S; Lahiri, A; Senior, R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To characterise echocardiographic wall motion score index (WMSI) as a surrogate measure of left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to compare its prognostic value with that of EF measured by radionuclide ventriculography (RNV).
DESIGN—A prospective study to compare baseline echocardiographic WMSI with RNV EF in consecutive patients thrombolysed for AMI, both performed on the same day before discharge, and their relative prognostic values in predicting cardiac events.
SETTING—District general hospital coronary care unit and cardiology department.
PATIENTS—120 consecutive patients free of exclusion criteria thrombolysed for AMI and followed up for a mean (SD) of 13 (10) months.
INTERVENTIONS—None.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Correlation coefficients and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses plus cardiac event rates at follow up between RNV EF and echocardiographic WMSI.
RESULTS—WMSI correlated well with RNV EF. The best corresponding WMSIs for EFs 45%, 40%, and 35% were 0.6, 0.8, and 1.1, respectively. There were 42 cardiac events during follow up. Although both RNV EF and WMSI were strong univariate predictors of cardiac events, only WMSI independently predicted outcome in a multivariate model. All three WMSI cut offs significantly predicted events, while an RNV EF cut off of ⩽ 45% v > 45% failed to reach significance.
CONCLUSIONS—Although both RNV and echocardiographic WMSI strongly predicted cardiac outcome, WMSI, a cheaper and more readily available technique, is more discriminatory, especially in cases of mild left ventricular dysfunction following AMI.


Keywords: echocardiographic wall motion score index; radionuclide ventriculography; prognosis; acute myocardial infarction PMID:11514477

  11. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON Technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) in phosphogypsum: Comparison CCRI(II)-S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Wershofen, H.; Bollhöfer, A.; Kim, C. K.; Kim, C. S.; Korun, M.; Moune, M.; Lee, S. H.; Tarjan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Within the frame of mutual cooperation between the IAEA and the BIPM, the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation Section II—Measurement of Radionuclides accepted an IAEA-organized interlaboratory comparison in 2008 on the determination of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum. The study was piloted by the Chemistry Unit at the IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf (Austria). This report presents the methodology applied in conducting this comparison and the results. Activity results for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234, U-235 and U-238 were reported by three national metrology institutes (NMI) and five other expert laboratories or designated institutes. Four different approaches were used to calculate the nominal value of the reported results and associated uncertainties, and the results from each individual participant were evaluated and compared with this nominal reference value. The reported evaluation of the measurement results demonstrated agreement amongst the participating laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  12. Comparison of radionuclide imaging and ultrasonography of the liver.

    PubMed

    Elyaderani, M K; Gabriele, O F

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclide liver scans and gray scale ultrasonography of the liver were compared in 456 patients with various abnormalities including normal variants, jaundice, abscesses, and metastatic diseases. In general the better resolution of sonography detected smaller and deeper focal lesions than nuclide scans, but nuclide studies were more informative in hepatocellular disorders. Nuclide studies frequently demonstrated lesions that could be further delineated by sonography as either cystic or solid. This ability was of particular significance in isolated liver lesions found during metastatic surveys. PMID:6823576

  13. Comparison of radiographic and radionuclide skeletal surveys in battered children

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, W.J.; Faleski, E.J.; Chacko, A.; Jarrett, R.V.

    1983-02-01

    A review of 13 cases of suspected child abuse in which radionuclide (RN) scans, radiographic skeletal surveys, and sufficient follow-up were available showed that the RN scans were insensitive, even though fractures were more than 48 hours old at the time of the scan. Frequently missed lesions included skull and extremity fractures. Furthermore, soft tissue and visceral abnormalities that were identified on radiographic examination went undetected on RN scan. We conclude that, although the RN scan may augment the radiographic examination, it should not be used alone to screen for the battered child.

  14. The Current Status of Performing Left Ventriculography in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hung-Hao; Lee, Wen-Hsien; Chiu, Cheng-An; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Hsu, Po-Chao; Su, Ho-Ming; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Background Left ventriculography (LVG) is a gold standard examination of left ventricular function, although it also involves a small but significant risk of complications. However, it was recently reported to be overused in the USA in comparison to an alternative imaging modality. In this study, our aim was to analyze the real-world use of LVG in Taiwan. Methods This cohort study analyzed the data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Bureau database for patients undergoing coronary angiography from 1996-2008. The most recent imaging modalities were used to evaluate left ventricular function including echocardiography and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) within 30-day. The primary outcome was the concomitant use of LVG during coronary angiography. Results Of 8653 patients who underwent coronary angiography, LVG was performed on 4634 (53.6%) of those study participants. The frequency of LVG use was lower in the groups indicating left ventricular function evaluation, including acute myocardial infarction, heart failure and shock (49.5 vs. 57.1%, p < 0.001). In the population that had undergone a recent left ventricular assessment, the use of LVG was lower (52.2% vs. 54.7%, p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis found that 30-day imaging tests are not a predictor for use of LVG. Conclusions In Taiwan, about one half of those patients whose data we reviewed actually received coronary angiography and LVG at the same time. Ultimately, we found that there was no overuse of LVG in those patients with recent alternative imaging modality performed. PMID:27122930

  15. The Revised Sunspot Record in Comparison to Cosmogenic Radionuclide-Based Solar Activity Reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscheler, Raimund; Adolphi, Florian; Herbst, Konstantin; Nilsson, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Recent revisions in the sunspot records illustrate the challenges related to obtaining a 400-year-long observational record of past solar-activity changes. Cosmogenic radionuclides offer the possibility of obtaining an alternative and completely independent record of solar variability. Here, we illustrate that these records offer great potential for quantitative solar-activity reconstructions far back into the past, and we provide updated radionuclide-based solar-activity reconstructions for the past 2000 years. However, cosmogenic-radionuclide records are also influenced by processes independent of solar activity, leading to the need for critical assessment and correction for the non-solar influences. Independent of these uncertainties, we show a very good agreement between the revised sunspot records and the 10Be records from Antarctica and, in particular, the 14C-based solar-activity reconstructions. This comparison offers the potential of identifying remaining non-solar processes in the radionuclide-based solar-activity reconstructions, but it also helps identifying remaining biases in the recently revised sunspot records.

  16. Prognostic value of radionuclide exercise testing after myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Schocken, D.D.

    1984-08-01

    Abnormal systolic ventricular function and persistent ischemia are sensitive indicators of poor prognosis following myocardial infarction. The use of exercise improves the utility of both radionuclide ventriculography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in the identification of postinfarction patients at high risk of subsequent cardiac events. 51 references.

  17. Detection of viable myocardium using coronary angiography and ventriculography.

    PubMed

    Conti, C Richard

    2002-08-01

    In 2002, coronary angiography is the only way to assess precisely the combination of proximal stenoses, distal target vessels, collaterals, microcirculation, and TIMI antegrade flow. At the time of coronary angiography, global LV function is best determined using biplane ventriculography in order to correlate wall motion with coronary stenoses, distal target vessels, microcirculation, collaterals, and antegrade TIMI flow. This can be done under resting conditions after nitrates or after postextrasystolic potentiation. The absolute diagnosis of viability can only be made retrospectively. Large areas of ischemic viable myocardium should improve contraction after revascularization, decrease symptoms, and prolong survival.

  18. Radionuclide therapy of painful bone metastases--a comparative study between consecutive radionuclide infusions, combination with chemotherapy, and radionuclide infusions alone: an in vivo comparison of their effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Sideras, Panagiotis A; Stavraka, Anastasia; Gouliamos, Athanasios; Limouris, Georgios S

    2013-12-01

    Radionuclides have been long used for the palliation of skeletal-related metastatic pain. They are almost invariably used as the last resource for pain palliation. Their use as single agents with dose escalations, in combination with biphosphonates or chemotherapy is well known in the peer-reviewed literature; however, little is known about the combination between different agents. In our study, we used consecutive administration of 2 different radionuclides such as (186)Re-1,1-hydroxyethylidenediphosphonate ((186)Re-HEDP) and (89)Strontium Chloride ((89)Sr-Cl) separated by adequate period of time to allow bone marrow recovery in patients with high chance of bone pain relapse and compared it with (89)Sr-Cl and chemotherapy group and (186)Re-HEDP with bisphosphonates. The end result was that treatment with consecutive radionuclides was much more effective and safe than the other 2 groups.

  19. Comparison of radionuclide levels in soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Landeen, D.S.

    1994-09-01

    Soil, sagebrush, plant litter, cryptogam, and small mammal samples were collected and analyzed for cesium-137, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium 239/240, technetium-99, and iodine-129 from 1981 to 1986 at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State as part of site characterization and environmental monitoring activities. Samples were collected on the 200 Areas Plateau, downwind from ongoing waste management activities. Plant litter, cryptogams, and small mammals are media that are not routinely utilized in monitoring or characterization efforts for determination of radionuclide concentrations. Studies at Hanford, other US Department of Energy sites, and in eastern Europe have indicated that plant litter and cryptogams may serve as effective ``natural`` monitors of air quality. Plant litter in this study consists of fallen leaves from sagebrush and ``cryptogams`` describes that portion of the soil crust composed of mosses, lichens, algae, and fungi. Comparisons of cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations in the soil, sagebrush, litter, and cryptogams revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) levels in plant litter and cryptogams. Technetium-99 values were the highest in sagebrush and litter. Plutonium-238 and 239/40 and iodine-129 concentrations never exceeded 0.8 pCi/gm in all media. No evidence of any significant amounts of any radionuclides being incorporated into the small mammal community was discovered. The data indicate that plant litter and cryptogams may be better, indicators of environmental quality than soil or vegetation samples. Augmenting a monitoring program with samples of litter and cryptogams may provide a more accurate representation of radionuclide environmental uptake and/or contamination levels in surrounding ecosystems. The results of this study may be applied directly to other radioecological monitoring conducted at other nuclear sites and to the monitoring of other pollutants.

  20. Comparison between Theoretical Calculation and Experimental Results of Excitation Functions for Production of Relevant Biomedical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Menapace, E.; Birattari, C.; Bonardi, M.L.; Groppi, F.; Morzenti, S.; Zona, C.

    2005-05-24

    The radionuclide production for biomedical applications has been brought up in the years, as a special nuclear application, at INFN LASA Laboratory, particularly in co-operation with the JRC-Ispra of EC. Mainly scientific aspects concerning radiation detection and the relevant instruments, the measurements of excitation functions of the involved nuclear reactions, the requested radiochemistry studies and further applications have been investigated. On the side of the nuclear data evaluations, based on nuclear model calculations and critically selected experimental data, the appropriate competence has been developed at ENEA Division for Advanced Physics Technologies. A series of high specific activity accelerator-produced radionuclides in no-carrier-added (NCA) form, for uses in metabolic radiotherapy and for PET radiodiagnostics, are investigated. In this work, last revised measurements and model calculations are reviewed for excitation functions of natZn(d,X)64Cu, 66Ga reactions, referring to irradiation experiments at K=38 variable energy Cyclotron of JRC-Ispra. Concerning the reaction data for producing 186gRe and 211At/211gPo (including significant emission spectra) and 210At, most recent and critically selected experimental results are considered and discussed in comparison with model calculations paying special care to pre-equilibrium effects estimate and to the appropriate overall parameterization. Model calculations are presented for 226Ra(p,2n)225Ac reaction, according to the working program of the ongoing IAEA CRP on the matter.

  1. Comparison of Radionuclide Ratios in Atmospheric Nuclear Explosions and Nuclear Releases from Chernobyl and Fukushima seen in Gamma Ray Spectormetry

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Lucas, Dawn D.

    2013-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has remote radionuclide monitoring followed by an On Site Inspection (OSI) to clarify the nature of a suspect event. An important aspect of radionuclide measurements on site is the discrimination of other potential sources of similar radionuclides such as reactor accidents or medical isotope production. The Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear reactor disasters offer two different reactor source term environmental inputs that can be compared against historical measurements of nuclear explosions. The comparison of whole-sample gamma spectrometry measurements from these three events and the analysis of similarities and differences are presented. This analysis is a step toward confirming what is needed for measurements during an OSI under the auspices of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  2. Comparison of radionuclide and enzymatic estimate of infarct size in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsowitz, G.S.; Lakier, J.B.; Marks, D.S.; Lee, T.G.; Goldberg, A.D.; Goldstein, S.

    1983-06-01

    A comparison was made of the estimated size of the myocardial infarction occurring in 26 patients with a first infarction using creatine kinase (CK) enzyme release between radionuclide gated blood pool measurement of total and regional ventricular function and thallium-201 scintigraphic measurement of myocardial perfusion defects. Creatine kinase estimates of infarct size (enzymatic infarct size) correlated closely with the percent of abnormal contracting regions, left ventricular ejection fraction and thallium-201 estimates of percent of abnormal perfusion area (r . 0.78, 0.69 and 0.74, respectively, p less than 0.01). A close correlation also existed between percent abnormal perfusion area and percent of abnormal contracting regions (r . 0.81, p less than 0.01) and left ventricular ejection fraction (r . 0.69, p less than 0.01). Enzymatic infarct size was larger in anterior (116 +/- 37 CK-g-Eq) than inferior (52 +/- 29 CK-g-Eq) myocardial infarction (p less than 0.01) and was associated with significantly more left ventricular functional impairment as determined by left ventricular ejection fraction (33 +/- 7 versus 60 +/- 10%) (p less than 0.01) and percent abnormal perfusion area (58 +/- 14 versus 13 +/- 12) (p less than 0.01). No significant correlation was observed between enzymatic infarct size and right ventricular ejection fraction. These different methods of estimating infarct size correlated closely with each other in these patients with a first uncomplicated myocardial infarction.

  3. Radionuclide detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: A comparison of atomic and radiation detection method

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.R.; Wyse, E.J.; Koppenaal, D.W.

    1991-04-01

    Radionuclide detection by mass spectrometric techniques offers inherent advantages over conventional radiation detection methods. Since radionuclides decay at variable rates (half-lives) and via various nuclear transformations (i.e. emission of alpha, beta, and/or gamma radiation) their determination via radiation detection depends not only on decay systematics but also on detector technology. Radionuclide detection by direct atom measurement, however, is dependent only on technique sensitivity and is indifferent to decay mode. Evaluation of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) indicates this method to be superior conventional radiation detection techniques for many radionuclides. This work discusses factors which influence detection by both methods. Illustrative applications of ICP/MS to the ultra-trace determination of several radionuclides, including {sup 129}I, are presented. 20 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F; Manger, Ryan P

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  5. Inter-comparison of dynamic models for radionuclide transfer to marine biota in a Fukushima accident scenario.

    PubMed

    Vives I Batlle, J; Beresford, N A; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Bezhenar, R; Brown, J; Cheng, J-J; Ćujić, M; Dragović, S; Duffa, C; Fiévet, B; Hosseini, A; Jung, K T; Kamboj, S; Keum, D-K; Kryshev, A; LePoire, D; Maderich, V; Min, B-I; Periáñez, R; Sazykina, T; Suh, K-S; Yu, C; Wang, C; Heling, R

    2016-03-01

    We report an inter-comparison of eight models designed to predict the radiological exposure of radionuclides in marine biota. The models were required to simulate dynamically the uptake and turnover of radionuclides by marine organisms. Model predictions of radionuclide uptake and turnover using kinetic calculations based on biological half-life (TB1/2) and/or more complex metabolic modelling approaches were used to predict activity concentrations and, consequently, dose rates of (90)Sr, (131)I and (137)Cs to fish, crustaceans, macroalgae and molluscs under circumstances where the water concentrations are changing with time. For comparison, the ERICA Tool, a model commonly used in environmental assessment, and which uses equilibrium concentration ratios, was also used. As input to the models we used hydrodynamic forecasts of water and sediment activity concentrations using a simulated scenario reflecting the Fukushima accident releases. Although model variability is important, the intercomparison gives logical results, in that the dynamic models predict consistently a pattern of delayed rise of activity concentration in biota and slow decline instead of the instantaneous equilibrium with the activity concentration in seawater predicted by the ERICA Tool. The differences between ERICA and the dynamic models increase the shorter the TB1/2 becomes; however, there is significant variability between models, underpinned by parameter and methodological differences between them. The need to validate the dynamic models used in this intercomparison has been highlighted, particularly in regards to optimisation of the model biokinetic parameters.

  6. Inter-comparison of dynamic models for radionuclide transfer to marine biota in a Fukushima accident scenario.

    PubMed

    Vives I Batlle, J; Beresford, N A; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Bezhenar, R; Brown, J; Cheng, J-J; Ćujić, M; Dragović, S; Duffa, C; Fiévet, B; Hosseini, A; Jung, K T; Kamboj, S; Keum, D-K; Kryshev, A; LePoire, D; Maderich, V; Min, B-I; Periáñez, R; Sazykina, T; Suh, K-S; Yu, C; Wang, C; Heling, R

    2016-03-01

    We report an inter-comparison of eight models designed to predict the radiological exposure of radionuclides in marine biota. The models were required to simulate dynamically the uptake and turnover of radionuclides by marine organisms. Model predictions of radionuclide uptake and turnover using kinetic calculations based on biological half-life (TB1/2) and/or more complex metabolic modelling approaches were used to predict activity concentrations and, consequently, dose rates of (90)Sr, (131)I and (137)Cs to fish, crustaceans, macroalgae and molluscs under circumstances where the water concentrations are changing with time. For comparison, the ERICA Tool, a model commonly used in environmental assessment, and which uses equilibrium concentration ratios, was also used. As input to the models we used hydrodynamic forecasts of water and sediment activity concentrations using a simulated scenario reflecting the Fukushima accident releases. Although model variability is important, the intercomparison gives logical results, in that the dynamic models predict consistently a pattern of delayed rise of activity concentration in biota and slow decline instead of the instantaneous equilibrium with the activity concentration in seawater predicted by the ERICA Tool. The differences between ERICA and the dynamic models increase the shorter the TB1/2 becomes; however, there is significant variability between models, underpinned by parameter and methodological differences between them. The need to validate the dynamic models used in this intercomparison has been highlighted, particularly in regards to optimisation of the model biokinetic parameters. PMID:26717350

  7. Objective appraisal of tolerance to ventriculography with various radiocontrast media (according to electronystagmography data)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. S.; Puchkov, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    The vestibulo oculomotor reflex (nystagmus) was recorded by means of electronystagmography in 33 neurosurgical patients in dynamics prior to and after ventriculography. For contrasting the ventricular system a water soluble medium (Conrey, dimer X or Amipak) was used in 18 patients and contrast mixtures of water soluble agents in combination with Myodil emulsion in 15. It was established that after ventriculography with water soluble media the trunk vestibular reactions in all types of nystagmus grew frequently and sharply and the vestibulovegetative reactions increased markedly.

  8. Comparison of different classes of radionuclides for potential use in radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, Tom C

    2007-01-01

    Currently, beta-emitting radionuclides are used almost exclusively in the clinic and in clinical radioimmunotherapy studies. The main advantage of beta-emitters is the relatively long path length in biological tissue (in the mm range), which is sufficient to irradiate cancer cells that do not have bound radiolabelled antibody (cross-fire effect). This alleviates problems with inadequate uptake and heterogeneous distribution of radiolabelled antibodies in tumours. Hence, beta-emitters provide a relatively uniform radiation dose to the tumour and it is generally accepted that this class of radionuclides is more appropriate for radioimmunotherapy of solid tumours and large tumour burdens (> 0.5 cm). However, the shorter-range alpha-emitters (50-100 mm) and the ultra-short range Auger electron-emitting radionuclides (the majority of electrons traverse a few nm), have been shown to be more efficient than beta-emitters at inducing lethal lesions in single cells. It has been suggested that these classes of radionuclides may have the potential to provide a more favourable therapeutic index than beta-emitters for radioimmunotherapy of single tumour cells in the circulation, micrometastases and in certain cases, minimal residual disease. The aim of this article is to discuss the different classes of radionuclides with potential for clinical use in radioimmunotherapy.

  9. Radionuclide evaluation of left-ventricular function in chronic Chagas' cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Arreaza, N.; Puigbo, J.J.; Acquatella, H. Casal, H.; Giordano, H.; Valecillos, R.; Mendoza, I.; Perez, J.F.; Hirschhaut, E.; Combellas, I.

    1983-07-01

    Left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and abnormalities of regional wall motion (WMA) were studied by means of radionuclide ventriculography in 41 patients prospectively diagnosed as having chronic Chagas' disease. Thirteen patients were asymptomatic (ASY), 16 were arrhythmic (ARR), and 12 had congestive heart failure (CHF). Mean LVEF was normal in ASY but markedly depressed in CHF. Regional WMAs were minimal in ASY and their severity increased in ARR. Most CHFs (75%) had diffuse hypokinesia of the left ventricle. Seven patients had a distinct apical aneurysm. Correlation between radionuclide and contrast ventriculography data was good in 17 patients. Selective coronary arteriography showed normal arteries in all patients. Therefore, chronic Chagas' heart disease joins ischemic heart disease as a cause of regional WMA.

  10. Ventriculography and cisternography with water-soluble contrast media in infants with myelomeningocele

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H.; Nakamura, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tajima, M.; Kageyama, N.

    1982-04-01

    Fifty-four newborn infants with myelomeningocele and hydrocephalus were studied by ventriculography using water-soluble contrast media; 20 were also studied by metrizamide myeloencephalography and computerized tomographic (CT) cisternography. Ventriculography suggested that the aqueduct was patent in all cases. Outflow of contrast medium from the fourth ventricle was slow in most cases, complete obstruction was seen in 15%, communication was delayed at the outlet in 54%, and rather free communication was observedin 31%. Metrizamide myeloencephalography and CT cisternography suggested a partial block at the level of the ambient cisterns in approximately one-third of infants. These findings support the concept that flow of cerebrospinal fluid is reduced in several areas. Aqueductal stenosis was not considered an important factor in hydrocephalus, while the most important site of obstruction was felt to be the lowest portion of the fourth ventricle.

  11. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  12. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function.

  13. Renal trauma: radiological studies - comparison of urography, computed tomography, angiography, and radionuclide studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, E.K.; Sullivan, J.; Frentz, G.

    1985-01-01

    Excretory urography, computed radionuclide urography, angiography, and both conventional and dynamic computed tomography (CT) were compared with regard to accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in 388 patients with renal trauma. Used as the triage examination, urography established the absence of significant renal injury with an accuracy of 87%, obviating further evaluation. Dynamic CT proved to be the best methods of assessing parenchymal injuries, establishing the correct diagnosis in 129 out of 130 cases compared to 116/130 for conventional CT. Angiography was the procedure of choice for diagnosis and categorization of renal artery injuries, which were diagnosed correctly in all 43 cases. The choice between dynamic CT and angiography as the second examination rests upon careful evaluation of clinical and urographic findings for signs of renal artery injury which would mandate angiographic assessment.

  14. Comparison of multiple exercise radionuclide methods for detection of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.; Gordon, J.; Shaffer, P.; Gibson, R.; Watson, D.; Magorien, R.; Baumert, J.; Kolibash, A.; Bashore, T.

    1985-05-01

    Five planar exercise Thallium (Tl) scintigraphy methods and four exercise radionuclide angiographic criteria were compared for the diagnosis of significant (greater than or equal to50%) angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD). The patient population consisted of 95 randomly selected patients referred for coronary angiography (CATH) for the evaluation of chest pain without other known cardiac pathology. Both Tl and RNA studies were performed on the same day within 48 hours of CATH. Medications were continued. Tl images were evaluated by visual interpretation of analog (A), 20% background subtracted (20), and interpolative background subtracted (INT) images. Quantitative analysis of horizontal profiles (Watson's method) and circumferential profiles (Garcia's method) were also performed. RNA results were classified as abnormal Ejection Fraction response (< 4% rise) (EF), abnormal wall motion (WM), either (E), and both (B). The authors conclude that while significant differences were found among the sensitivities and specificities, the overall accuracy of the methods were not different except for B. Tl and RNA remain useful despite intercurrent drug therapy.

  15. Comparison of predicted ground-level airborne radionuclide concentrations to measured values resulting from operation of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoak, W.V.

    1993-05-01

    A comparison study of measured and predicted downwind radionuclide concentrations from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) was performed. The radionuclide emissions consist primarily of the radioisotopes 11C, 13N, and 150. The gases, vented to the outside environment by a stack located at the facility, potentially increase the radiation exposure at the facility boundary. Emission rate, meteorological, and radiation monitoring station data were collected between September 26, 1992 and October 3, 1992. The meteorological and emission data were input to the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 (CAP88-PC) computer code. The downwind radionuclide air concentrations predicted by the code were compared to the air concentrations measured by the monitoring stations. The code was found to slightly over-predict downwind concentrations during unstable atmospheric conditions. For stable atmospheric conditions, the code was not useful for predicting downwind air concentrations. This is thought to be due to an underestimation of horizontal dispersion.

  16. Comparison of in situ and laboratory gamma spectroscopy of natural radionuclides in desert soil.

    PubMed

    Benke, R R; Kearfott, K J

    1997-08-01

    In situ and laboratory gamma spectroscopy were used to characterize natural background levels of radiation in the soil at eight sites around the Yucca Mountain Range. The purpose of this practical field analysis was to determine if published empirical in situ calibration factors would yield accurate quantitative specific activities (Bq kg(-1)) in a desert environment. Corrections were made to the in situ calibration factors to account for the on-axis response of a detector with a thin beryllium end window. The in situ gamma spectroscopy results were compared to laboratory gamma spectroscopy of soil samples gathered from each site. Five natural radionuclides were considered: 40K, 214Pb, 214Bi, 208Tl, and 228Ac. The in situ determined specific activities were consistently within +/-15% of the laboratory soil sample results. A quantitative discussion of the factors contributing to the uncertainty in the in situ and laboratory results is included. Analysis on the specific activity data using statistical hypothesis tests determined that three nuclides, 214Pb, 214Bi, and 228Ac showed a weak site dependence while the other two nuclides, 40K and 208Tl, did not exhibit a site dependence. Differing radiation background levels from site to site along with in situ and laboratory uncertainties in excess of 10% are two factors that account for the weak site dependence. Despite the good correlation between data, it was recommended that the in situ detector be calibrated by a detector-specific Monte Carlo code which would accurately model more complex geometries and source distributions. PMID:9228170

  17. A normal electrocardiogram precludes the need for left ventriculography in the assessment of coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M; Sinha, S; Hayton, S; Fynn, S; Henderson, R; Bennett, D

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To assess whether a normal electrocardiogram can identify good left ventricular function and obviate the need for routine left ventriculography in patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation for suspected coronary artery disease.
Design—A prospective study of patients undergoing cardiac catheterisation.
Setting—A regional cardiac centre.
Patients—The electrocardiograms, coronary angiograms, and left ventriculograms of 391 consecutive patients undergoing investigations for suspected coronary artery disease were entered into the study. Patients with arrhythmias and cardiac pathologies other than coronary artery disease were excluded.
Main outcome measures—The electrocardiogram was assessed using a 29 point QRS scoring system, and classified by two cardiologists and a trainee cardiologist as normal or abnormal. Left ventricular function was assessed by digital ventriculography.
Results—The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of a QRS score of 0 (normal QRS complexes) for discriminating good left ventricular function (ejection fraction ⩾ 50%) were 92.6%, 41.5%, and 97.2%, respectively. The figures for a normal electrocardiogram as assessed by a doctor were 96.3%, 40.4%, and 98.6% for cardiologist A; 96.3%, 37.4%, and 98.4% for cardiologist B; and 94.4%, 49.6%, and 98.2% for the cardiology trainee.
Conclusions—If a cardiologist judges the ECG to be normal, left ventriculography is unnecessary and a formal QRS score does not improve reliability of this clinical judgment. Adopting this strategy would save £30-40 000 in consumables and 65-87 hours of catheter laboratory and staff time for a department catheterising 3000 patients with suspected coronary artery disease annually.

 Keywords: cardiac catheterisation;  electrocardiogram;  left ventricular ejection fraction PMID:9602660

  18. Mismatch between electrophysiologically defined and ventriculography based theoretical targets for posteroventral pallidotomy in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Merello, M; Cammarota, A; Cerquetti, D; Leiguarda, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Over the past few years many reports have shown that posteroventral pallidotomy is an effective method for treating advanced cases of Parkinson's disease. The main differences with earlier descriptions were the use of standardised evaluation with new high resolution MRI studies and of single cell microrecording which can electrophysiologically define the sensorimotor portion of the internal globus pallidus (GPi). The present study was performed on a consecutive series of 40 patients with Parkinson's disease who underwent posteroventral pallidotomy to determine localisation discrepancies between the ventriculography based theoretical and the electrophysiologically defined target for posteroventral pallidotomy.
METHODS—The tentative location of the posteroventral GPi portion was defined according to the proportional Talairach system. Single cell recording was performed in all patients. The definitive target was chosen according to the feasibility of recording single cells with GPi cell features, including the presence of motor drive and correct identification of the internal capsule and of the optic tract by activity recording and microstimulation.
RESULTS—In all 40 patients the electrophysiologically defined sensorimotor portion of the GPi was lesioned, with significantly improved cardinal Parkinson's disease symptoms as well as levodopa induced dyskinesias, without damage to the internal capsule or optic tract. Significant differences between the localisation of the ventriculography based theoretical versus electrophysiological target were found in depth (p<0.0008) and posteriority (p<0.04). No significant differences were found in laterality between both approaches. Difference ranges were 8 mm for laterality, 6.5 mm for depth, and 10 mm for posteriority.
CONCLUSIONS—Electrophysiologically defined lesion of GPi for posteroventral pallidotomy, shown to be effective for treating Parkinson's disease, is located at a significantly different

  19. Inter-laboratory comparisons of short-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides in nuclear reactor water.

    PubMed

    Klemola, S K

    2008-01-01

    Inter-laboratory comparisons of gamma-emitting nuclides in nuclear power plant coolant water have been carried out in Finland since 1994. The reactor water samples are taken and prepared by one of the two nuclear power plants and delivered to the participants. Since all the participants get their sample within just a few hours it has been possible to analyse and compare results of nuclides with half-lives shorter than 1h. The total number of short-lived nuclides is 26. All the main nuclides are regularly identified and the activities have been obtained with reasonable accuracy throughout the years. The overall deviation of the results has decreased in 13 years. The effects of true coincidence summing and discrepancies in nuclear data have been identified as potential sources of remaining discrepancies. All the participants have found this type of comparison very useful.

  20. Radionuclide trap

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  1. Radionuclide imaging in myocardial sarcoidosis. Demonstration of myocardial uptake of /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate and gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Forman, M.B.; Sandler, M.P.; Sacks, G.A.; Kronenberg, M.W.; Powers, T.A.

    1983-03-01

    A patient had severe congestive cardiomyopathy secondary to myocardial sarcoidosis. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by radionuclide ventriculography, /sup 201/Tl, /sup 67/Ga, and /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate (TcPYP) scintigraphy. Myocardial TcPYP uptake has not been reported previously in sarcoidosis. In this patient, TcPYP was as useful as gallium scanning and thallium imaging in documenting the myocardial process.

  2. State of radionuclides in seawater. Comparison of natural stable and artificial radioactive isotope s of mercury and zinc in natural waters of the arid zone of the USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhmatov, U; Khikmatov, K; Kist, A.A.; Kulmatov, R.A.; Teshabaev, S.T.; Volkov, A.A.

    1986-09-01

    This paper studies the state of stable and artificial radioactive isotopes of merury and zinc in natural waters of the arid zone of the USSR by radioactivity and radiochemical methods. Convergent results have been obtained for the dissolved forms of mercury and zinc in natural waters of the arid zone in a comparison of the results of radioactivation analysis and laboratory simulation using the radionuclides mercury-203 and zinc-65.

  3. Critical comparison of radiometric and mass spectrometric methods for the determination of radionuclides in environmental, biological and nuclear waste samples.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2008-02-11

    The radiometric methods, alpha (alpha)-, beta (beta)-, gamma (gamma)-spectrometry, and mass spectrometric methods, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, accelerator mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and glow discharge mass spectrometry are reviewed for the determination of radionuclides. These methods are critically compared for the determination of long-lived radionuclides important for radiation protection, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, repository of nuclear waste, tracer application in the environmental and biological researches, these radionuclides include (3)H, (14)C, (36)Cl, (41)Ca, (59,63)Ni, (89,90)Sr, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135,137)Cs, (210)Pb, (226,228)Ra, (237)Np, (241)Am, and isotopes of thorium, uranium and plutonium. The application of on-line methods (flow injection/sequential injection) for separation of radionuclides and automated determination of radionuclides is also discussed.

  4. Critical comparison of radiometric and mass spectrometric methods for the determination of radionuclides in environmental, biological and nuclear waste samples.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per

    2008-02-11

    The radiometric methods, alpha (alpha)-, beta (beta)-, gamma (gamma)-spectrometry, and mass spectrometric methods, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, accelerator mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and glow discharge mass spectrometry are reviewed for the determination of radionuclides. These methods are critically compared for the determination of long-lived radionuclides important for radiation protection, decommissioning of nuclear facilities, repository of nuclear waste, tracer application in the environmental and biological researches, these radionuclides include (3)H, (14)C, (36)Cl, (41)Ca, (59,63)Ni, (89,90)Sr, (99)Tc, (129)I, (135,137)Cs, (210)Pb, (226,228)Ra, (237)Np, (241)Am, and isotopes of thorium, uranium and plutonium. The application of on-line methods (flow injection/sequential injection) for separation of radionuclides and automated determination of radionuclides is also discussed. PMID:18215644

  5. Ventricular dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea: radionuclide assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, A.; Leiberman, A.; Margulis, G.; Sofer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Ventricular function was evaluated using radionuclide ventriculography in 27 children with oropharyngeal obstruction and clinical features of obstructive sleep apnea. Their mean age was 3.5 years (9 months to 7.5 years). Conventional clinical assessment did not detect cardiac involvement in 25 of 27 children; however, reduced right ventricular ejection fraction (less than 35%) was found in 10 (37%) patients (mean: 19.5 +/- 2.3% SE, range: 8-28%). In 18 patients wall motion abnormality was detected. In 11 children in whom radionuclide ventriculography was performed before and after adenotonsillectomy, right ventricular ejection fraction rose from 24.4 +/- 3.6% to 46.7 +/- 3.4% (P less than 0.005), and in all cases wall motion showed a definite improvement. In five children, left ventricular ejection fraction rose greater than 10% after removal of oropharyngeal obstruction. It is concluded that right ventricular function may be compromised in children with obstructive sleep apnea secondary to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, even before clinical signs of cardiac involvement are present.

  6. Exercise radionuclide ventriculographic responses in hypertensive patients with chest pain

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, A.G.; Katz, R.J.; Varghese, P.J.; Leiboff, R.H.; Bren, G.G.; Schlesselman, S.; Varma, V.M.; Reba, R.C.; Ross, A.M.

    1984-11-15

    The effectiveness of exercise-treadmill testing in diagnosing coronary-artery disease in hypertensive patients is limited by a high rate of false positivity. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography, however, relies on different criteria (ejection fraction and wall motion), and we have evaluated this procedure in 37 hypertensive and 109 normotensive patients with chest pain, using coronary arteriography as an indicator of coronary disease. In the hypertensive cohort there was no difference in the ejection fraction at rest between the 17 patients with coronary disease and the 20 without it. Neither group had a significant mean (+/- S.E.M.) change in ejection fraction from rest to exercise (-1.9 +/- 2 and 1.4 +/- 1%, respectively). A wall-motion abnormality developed during exercise in 5 of the 17 hypertensive patients with coronary disease (29%) and in 4 of the 20 without it (20%) (P = not significant). In the normotensive cohort, however, the peak-exercise ejection fractions were significantly different. The 71 patients with coronary disease had a mean decrease of 3.6 +/- 1%, in contrast to the patients without coronary disease, who had an increase of +/- 1% (P < 0.001). An exercise-induced wall-motion abnormality was seen in 35 of the 71 patients with coronary disease (48%), as compared with 3 of the 38 without it (8%) (P < 0.001). We conclude that exercise radionuclide ventriculography is inadequate as a screening test for coronary atherosclerosis in hypertensive patients with chest pain. 28 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Proficiency tests in the determination of activity of radionuclides in radiopharmaceutical products measured by nuclear medicine services in 8 years of comparison programmes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tauhata, Luiz; Iwahara, Akira; de Oliveira, Antonio E; Rezende, Eduarda Alexandre; Delgado, José Ubiratan; da Silva, Carlos José; Dos Santos, Joyra A; Nícoli, Ieda G; Alabarse, Frederico G; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2008-01-01

    Proficiency tests were applied to assess the performance of 74 nuclear medicine services in activity measurements of (131)I, (123)I, (99)Tc(m), (67)Ga and (201)Tl. These tests produced 913 data sets from comparison programmes promoted by the National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI) from 1999 to 2006. The data were evaluated against acceptance criteria for accuracy and precision and assigned as Acceptable or Not acceptable accordingly. In addition, three other statistical parameters were used as complementary information for performance evaluation which related to normative requirements and to radionuclide calibrators. The results have shown a necessity to improve quality control procedures and unsatisfactory performances of radionuclide calibrators, which incorporate Geiger-Müller detectors.

  8. Proficiency tests in the determination of activity of radionuclides in radiopharmaceutical products measured by nuclear medicine services in 8 years of comparison programmes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tauhata, Luiz; Iwahara, Akira; de Oliveira, Antonio E; Rezende, Eduarda Alexandre; Delgado, José Ubiratan; da Silva, Carlos José; Dos Santos, Joyra A; Nícoli, Ieda G; Alabarse, Frederico G; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2008-01-01

    Proficiency tests were applied to assess the performance of 74 nuclear medicine services in activity measurements of (131)I, (123)I, (99)Tc(m), (67)Ga and (201)Tl. These tests produced 913 data sets from comparison programmes promoted by the National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI) from 1999 to 2006. The data were evaluated against acceptance criteria for accuracy and precision and assigned as Acceptable or Not acceptable accordingly. In addition, three other statistical parameters were used as complementary information for performance evaluation which related to normative requirements and to radionuclide calibrators. The results have shown a necessity to improve quality control procedures and unsatisfactory performances of radionuclide calibrators, which incorporate Geiger-Müller detectors. PMID:18346902

  9. High-temporal-resolution CdTe nuclear stethoscope for cardiac γ-ventriculography: preclinical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eclancher, Bernard; Arntz, Y.; Chambron, Jacques; Prat, Vincent; Perret, C.; Karman, Miklos; Pszota, Agnes; Nemeth, Laszlo

    1999-10-01

    A hand-size probe including 64 elementary 5 X 5 X 2 mm CdTe detectors has been optimized to detect the (gamma) tracer 99Tc in the heart left ventricle. The system, has been developed, not for imaging, allowing acquisitions at 33 Hz to describe the labeled blood volume variations. The (gamma) -counts variations were found accurately proportional to the known volume variations of an artificial ventricle paced at variable rate and systolic volume. Softwares for on line data monitoring and for post-processing have been developed for beat to beat assessment of cardiac performance at rest and during physical exercise. The evaluation of this probe has been performed on 5 subjects in the Nucl Dep of Balatonfured Cardiology Hospital. It appears that the probe needs to be better shielded to work properly in the hot environment of the ventricle, but can provide reliable ventriculography, even under heavy exercise load, although the ventricle volume itself is unknown.

  10. Imaging quality of (44)Sc in comparison with five other PET radionuclides using Derenzo phantoms and preclinical PET.

    PubMed

    Bunka, Maruta; Müller, Cristina; Vermeulen, Christiaan; Haller, Stephanie; Türler, Andreas; Schibli, Roger; van der Meulen, Nicholas P

    2016-04-01

    PET is the favored nuclear imaging technique because of the high sensitivity and resolution it provides, as well as the possibility for quantification of accumulated radioactivity. (44)Sc (T1/2=3.97h, Eβ(+)=632keV) was recently proposed as a potentially interesting radionuclide for PET. The aim of this study was to investigate the image quality, which can be obtained with (44)Sc, and compare it with five other, frequently employed PET nuclides using Derenzo phantoms and a small-animal PET scanner. The radionuclides were produced at the medical cyclotron at CRS, ETH Zurich ((11)C, (18)F), at the Injector II research cyclotron at CRS, PSI ((64)Cu, (89)Zr, (44)Sc), as well as via a generator system ((68)Ga). Derenzo phantoms, containing solutions of each of these radionuclides, were scanned using a GE Healthcare eXplore VISTA small-animal PET scanner. The image resolution was determined for each nuclide by analysis of the intensity signal using the reconstructed PET data of a hole diameter of 1.3mm. The image quality of (44)Sc was compared to five frequently-used PET radionuclides. In agreement with the positron range, an increasing relative resolution was determined in the sequence of (68)Ga<(44)Sc<(89)Zr<(11)C<(64)Cu<(18)F. The performance of (44)Sc was in agreement with the theoretical expectations based on the energy of the emitted positrons. PMID:26774390

  11. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems ... damage. The amount of radiation used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  12. Comparison of gated radionuclide scans and chest radiographs. Assessment of left ventricular impairment in patients with coronary disease.

    PubMed

    Bianco, J A; Reinke, D B; Makey, D G; Shafer, R B

    1980-03-01

    Diagnostic efficacy of gated cardiac blood pool imaging was studied in 41 consecutive patients with LV ejection fractions (LVEF) less than or equal to 0.50. Eighty percent of patients were receiving therapy for LV failure at the time of the study. All patients had documented coronary-artery disease (CAD). Chest x-ray films were interpreted blindly by a senior radiologist. Cardiothoracic ratio of less than or equal to 0.50 was recorded as normal. Radionuclide assessment of LV function contributes importantly to the diagnostic and screening value of chest x-ray films. Patients with coronary disease and clinical evidence of heart failure should have radioisotopic studies even if chest x-ray film findings are normal. In patients with coronary artery disease and enlarged LV on chest films, radionuclide study of left ventricular performance aids in defining LV impairment, and in the prognostication of subsequent clinical course.

  13. Radionuclide plethysmography and Tc-99m red blood cell venography in venous thrombosis: comparison with contrast venography

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, I.; Royal, H.D.; Uren, R.F.; Waugh, R.C.; McLaughlin, A.F.; Bautoviovich, G.J.; Dyer, I.A.; Fulton, R.R.; Morris, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide plethysmography (RPG) is a new technique that uses Tc-99m labelled red blood cells to ascertain changes in venous volumes by detecting the change in counts in response to the inflation and deflation of proximal thigh cuffs. Diagnosis of ileofemoral venous occlusion is possible using this technique, which also provides kinetic data of venous outflow. Twenty-one patients with suspected deep venous thrombosis were studied prospectively using RPG, radionuclide venography (RV), and contrast venography (CV) to establish the usefulness of RPG alone and in combination wth RV in the diagnosis of ileofemoral venous thrombosis (sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 100%). RV was less sensitive (73%) and less specific (93%) in diagnosing that condition.

  14. Rest and exercise electrocardiograms and radionuclides in patients presenting for cardiac rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Froelicher, V.F.; Sebrechts, C.; Streitwiesser, D.; Battler, A.; McKirnan, M.D.; Ashburn, W.

    1981-03-01

    The rest and exercise ECG, /sup 201/thallium myocardial scintigram (/sup 201/T1), and radionuclide ventriculography are noninvasive procedures which can be used to evaluate myocardial damage and ischemia. To compare these procedures and to obtain baseline information, 85 male patients with coronary heart disease were evaluated prior to beginning an exercise program. Findings at rest included Q waves or bundle branch block in 54%; 47% had /sup 201/T1 redistribution defects and 33% an abnormal ejection fraction (EF). Of the 39 patients with normal ECGs, 31 had no /sup 201/T1 defects and only of these 31 (3%) had an abnormal EF. Abnormal EF or /sup 201/T1 redistribution defects did not occur in patients without a history of myocardial infarction. Abnormal resting EF occurred in 63% of patients with abnormal versus 7% of those with normal /sup 201/T1 redistribution scans. Exercise test results included an abnormal ST-segment response in 80%, an abnormal EF response in 65%, and a /sup 201/T1 ischemic defect in 37%. Twenty patients had exercise-induced ST elevation, and this phenomenon was more related to ventricular aneurysms than to ischemia. /sup 201/Thallium imaging, radionuclide ventriculography, and the ECG provide results regarding myocardial damage that agree by more than chance, while the exercise induced ST-segment changes did not agree with the radionuclide indications of exercise-induced ischemia.

  15. Numerical modeling of the radionuclide water pathway with HYDRUS and comparison with the IAEA model of SR 44.

    PubMed

    Merk, Rainer

    2012-02-01

    This study depicts a theoretical experiment in which the radionuclide transport through the porous material of a landfill consisting of concrete rubble (e.g., from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants) and the subsequent migration through the vadose zone and aquifer to a model well is calculated by means of the software HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2008). The radionuclides originally contained within the rubble become dissolved due to leaching caused by infiltrated rainwater. The resulting well-water contamination (in Bq/L) is calculated numerically as a function of time and location and compared with the outcome of a simplified analytic model for the groundwater pathway published by the IAEA (2005). Identical model parameters are considered. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the predictive capacity of the more simple IAEA model using HYDRUS-1D as a reference. For most of the radionuclides considered (e.g., ¹²⁹I, and ²³⁹Pu), results from applying the IAEA model were found to be comparable to results from the more elaborate HYDRUS modeling, provided the underlying parameter values are comparable. However, the IAEA model appears to underestimate the effects resulting from, for example, high nuclide mobility, short half-life, or short-term variations in the water infiltration. The present results indicate that the IAEA model is suited for screening calculations and general recommendation purposes. However, the analysis of a specific site should be accompanied by detailed HYDRUS computer simulations. In all models considered, the calculation outcome largely depends on the choice of the sorption parameter K(d). PMID:22230022

  16. Numerical modeling of the radionuclide water pathway with HYDRUS and comparison with the IAEA model of SR 44.

    PubMed

    Merk, Rainer

    2012-02-01

    This study depicts a theoretical experiment in which the radionuclide transport through the porous material of a landfill consisting of concrete rubble (e.g., from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants) and the subsequent migration through the vadose zone and aquifer to a model well is calculated by means of the software HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2008). The radionuclides originally contained within the rubble become dissolved due to leaching caused by infiltrated rainwater. The resulting well-water contamination (in Bq/L) is calculated numerically as a function of time and location and compared with the outcome of a simplified analytic model for the groundwater pathway published by the IAEA (2005). Identical model parameters are considered. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the predictive capacity of the more simple IAEA model using HYDRUS-1D as a reference. For most of the radionuclides considered (e.g., ¹²⁹I, and ²³⁹Pu), results from applying the IAEA model were found to be comparable to results from the more elaborate HYDRUS modeling, provided the underlying parameter values are comparable. However, the IAEA model appears to underestimate the effects resulting from, for example, high nuclide mobility, short half-life, or short-term variations in the water infiltration. The present results indicate that the IAEA model is suited for screening calculations and general recommendation purposes. However, the analysis of a specific site should be accompanied by detailed HYDRUS computer simulations. In all models considered, the calculation outcome largely depends on the choice of the sorption parameter K(d).

  17. Comparison of two freshwater turtle species as monitors of radionuclide and chemical contamination: DNA damage and residue analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers-Schoene, L. ); Shugart, L.R.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Walton, B.T. )

    1993-08-01

    Two species of turtles that occupy different ecological niches were compared for their usefulness as monitors of freshwater ecosystems where both low-level radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants are present. The pond slider (Trachemys scripta) and common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) were analyzed for the presence of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 60]Co, and Hg, radionuclides and chemicals known to be present at the contaminated site, and single-strand breaks in liver DNA. The integrity of the DNA was examined by the alkaline unwinding assay, a technique that detects strand breaks as a biological marker of possible exposure to genotoxic agents. This measure of DNA damage was significantly increased in both species of turtles at the contaminated site compared with turtles of the same species at a reference site, and shows that contaminant-exposed populations were under more severe genotoxic stress than those at the reference site. The level of strand breaks observed at the contaminated site was high and in the range reported for other aquatic species exposed to deleterious concentrations of genotoxic agents such as chemicals and ionizing radiation. Statistically significantly higher concentrations of radionuclides and Hg were detected in the turtles from the contaminated area. Mercury concentrations were significantly higher in the more carnivorous snapping turtle compared with the slider; however, both species were effective monitors of the contaminants.

  18. Radionuclide plethysmography and Tc-99m red blood cell venography in venous thrombosis: comparison with contrast venography

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, I.; Royal, H.D.; Uren, R.F.; Waugh, R.C.; McLaughlin, A.F.; Bautovich, G.J.; Dyer, I.A.; Fulton, R.R.; Morris, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide plethysmography (RPG) is a new technique that uses Tc-99m labelled red blood cells to ascertain changes in venous volumes by detecting the change in counts in response to the inflation and deflation of proximal thigh cuffs. Diagnosis of ileofemoral venous occlusion is possible using this technique, which also provides kinetic data of venous outflow. A range of normal values was defined in 19 subjects for per cent change in venous capacitance and venous outflow. Twenty-one patients with suspected deep venous thrombosis were studied prospectively using RPG, radionuclide venography (RV), and contrast venography (CV) to establish the usefulness of RPG alone and in combination with RV in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis. RPG proved to be a reliable technique for the diagnosis of ileofemoral venous thrombosis (sensitivity, 91%; specificity, 100%). RV was less sensitive (73%) and less specific (93%) in diagnosing that condition. When RPG is used as the criterion for the detection of ileofemoral vein thrombosis and RV is used as the criterion for the detection of calf vein thrombosis, the combined techniques show improved sensitivity (92%) and specificity (93%) for the detection of all deep venous thromboses.

  19. A comparison of models to assess the atmospheric dispersion of resuspended radionuclides on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.R.; Eckart, R.E.

    1994-11-01

    A study of computer codes was made to determine the suitability of their use for modeling radionuclide dispersion from attachment to fugitive dust at the GMX safety shot area of the Nevada Test site. Two codes, the Industrial Source Complex 2 Long Term Model (ISCLT2) and the Fugitive Dust Model (FDM), were subsequently chosen to model the GMX site. Dose calculations were performed using the output values generated by the computer codes. The concentration values produced by the two codes were within a factor of two of each other and were not significantly different. The FDM, however, was felt to be a more useful code for use in calculating doses caused by attachment to fugitive dust.

  20. Radionuclide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sorg, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. During the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium, uranium and radon from drinking water. The research consisted of laboratory and field studies conducted by USEPA, universities and consultants. The paper summarizes the results of the most significant projects completed. General information is also presented on the general chemistry of the three radionuclides. The information presented indicates that the most practical treatment methods for radium are ion exchange and lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The methods tested for radon are aeration and granular activated carbon and the methods for uranium are anion exchange and reverse osmosis.

  1. KEY COMPARISON: Measurement of activity concentration of radionuclide Cs-137 in a solution (COOMET Project no 386/RU/06)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharitonov, I. A.; Zanevsky, A. V.; Milevski, V.; Ivaniukovich, A.; Oropesa Verdecia, P.; Moreno León, Y.; Svec, A.

    2008-01-01

    A COOMET.RI(II)-K2.Cs-137 comparison of the measurement of a standardized solution of Cs-137 has enabled three national metrology institutes in the COOMET to demonstrate their traceability to the SI. The results of the comparison will be used to evaluate degrees of equivalence for these institutes through the measurements of the linking laboratory in the key comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cs-137. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  2. Transfer coefficients of selected radionuclides to animal products. I. Comparison of milk and meat from dairy cows and goats

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.E.; Ward, G.M.; Ennis, M.E. Jr.; Boamah, K.N.

    1988-02-01

    The diet-milk transfer coefficient, Fm (Bq L-1 output in milk divided by Bq d-1 intake to the animal) was studied for eight radionuclides that previously had been given little attention. The Fm values for cows and goats, respectively, were: 2.3 x 10(-5) and 1.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 99m/Tc, 1.4 x 10(-4) and 8.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 95m/Tc, 1.1 x 10(-2) for /sup 99/Tc (goats only); 1.7 x 10(-3) and 9 x 10(-3) for /sup 99/Mo; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.4 x 10(-3) for /sup 123m/Te; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.6 x 10(-3) for /sup 133/Ba; 5.5 x 10(-7) and 5.5 x 10(-6) for /sup 95/Zr; and 4.1 x 10(-7) and 6.4 x 10(-6) for /sup 95/Nb. The goat/cow transfer coefficient ratios for milk were approximately 10, but the goat/cow ratios for meat varied by three orders of magnitude.

  3. A comparison of measurements of cerebral blood flow in the rabbit using laser Doppler spectroscopy and radionuclide labelled microspheres.

    PubMed

    Eyre, J A; Essex, T J; Flecknell, P A; Bartholomew, P H; Sinclair, J I

    1988-02-01

    Laser Doppler spectroscopy has been evaluated for the measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by correlation with simultaneous measurements by radionuclide labelled microspheres. The experimental procedures were carried out on five anaesthetised rabbits. The cortical tissue was exposed by means of a small burr hole and illuminated by a helium neon laser (632.8 nm). Reflected light was detected using a silicon photodiode, and CBF was calculated continuously from the power of the frequency weighted Doppler spectrum in the reflected light. Three successive measurements of CBF were made using the microsphere technique. Following an initial baseline measurement, CBF was increased by an infusion of metaraminol and then reduced by controlled haemorrhage. Laser Doppler spectroscopy provided continuous monitoring of blood flow fluctuations and during the haemorrhage it was possible to demonstrate CBF autoregulation until the mean blood pressure fell below 6.7 kPa (50 mmHg). A regression analysis was performed between the simultaneous CBF measurements from the two techniques using a least squares best fit straight line analysis (r = 0.92, P less than 0.001). It was concluded that the flow computed from laser Doppler spectroscopy varied linearly with CBF and offers the unique advantage of continuous and instantaneous measurements even during nonsteady state flow.

  4. Comparison of computed tomography and radionuclide scanning for detection of brain metastases in small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, J.M.; Nelson, M.J.; Ihde, D.C.; Makuch, R.W.; Glatstein, E.; Zabell, A.; Johnston-Early, A.; Bates, H.R.; Saini, N.; Cohen, M.H.

    1984-09-01

    Neurologic history and examination, radionuclide brain scans (RN), and computed tomographic brain scans (CT) were performed at diagnosis and sequentially in 153 consecutive patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) to assess the sensitivity and accuracy of these screening methods and to determine whether the early detection of brain metastases influences survival. CT scans (sensitivity, 98%; positive predictive accuracy, 98%) were superior to RN scans (sensitivity, 71%; positive predictive accuracy, 86%) in patients with or without neurologic signs or symptoms. However, CT scans were positive in only 6% of asymptomatic patients at diagnosis and 13% of asymptomatic patients after systemic therapy. Brain metastases detected by CT scan were the sole site of extensive-stage disease in 6% of patients at diagnosis. Despite the enhanced ability of CT scans to detect asymptomatic lesions, survival after therapeutic cranial irradiation was similar for asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. The results suggest that CT brain scans should be used routinely in SCLC patients with neurologic signs or symptoms, at diagnosis (when treatment decisions are based on stage), and at six-month intervals in patients with prior brain metastases and in whom erratic follow-up is likely.

  5. BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Th-228 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 228Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Lucas, L.; Kossert, K.; Nähle, O.; Ott, O.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1986, two national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted two samples of known activity of 228Th to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Th-228. The values of the activity submitted were about 300 kBq and 2 MBq. A key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been evaluated for the first time for 228Th. There is only one result remaining in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Th-228 comparison, the 1986 NIST result being outdated. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect

    J. Houseworth

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  7. KEY COMPARISON: BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cu-64 of the activity measurements of the radionuclide 64Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Courte, S.; Ratel, G.; Kossert, K.; Nähle, O. J.

    2009-01-01

    In 2009, the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany, submitted a sample of known activity of 64Cu to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The value of the activity submitted was about 9.3 MBq. The result of this new comparison has been approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cu-64. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on COOMET.RI(II)-S2.Cs-137 (319/RU/04): Comparison measurements of radionuclide volume sources (Cs-137)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostin, S.; Hernandez, T.; Oropesa, P.; Arnold, D.; Evseev, V.; Ivanukovich, A.; Milevskiy, V.; Svec, A.; Lapenas, A.; Andonova, V.; Steiner, V.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of the Cs-137 specific activity in artificial volume material of water density were performed in nine laboratories with the HPGe spectrometry technique. Analysis of the gamma radiation absorption in the measured material and in the most important substances for environmental monitoring (food, water, biological materials, soils) confirmed Compton scattering as the main mechanism of interaction. The list of CMCs supported by the comparison is suggested in the report of this comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by COOMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. Coronary arteriography and left ventriculography during spontaneous and exercise-induced ST segment elevation in patients with variant angina

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.; Ogawa, H.; Naito, H.; Yoshino, F.; Katayama, K.; Fujii, T.; Matsuzaki, M.; Kusukawa, R.

    1983-09-01

    The present study is an angiographic demonstration of coronary artery spasm during both spontaneous and exercise-induced angina in three patients with variant angina. In each case, clinical, ECG, coronary angiographic, and left ventriculographic observations were made at rest, during spontaneous angina, and during exercise-induced angina. The character of chest pain was similar during spontaneous and exercise-induced episodes. ST segment elevation was present in the anterior ECG leads during both episodes. The left anterior descending coronary artery became partially or totally obstructed during both types of attacks. When coronary spasm was demonstrated during both types of attacks, left ventriculography disclosed akinetic or dyskinetic wall motion in the area supplied by the involved artery. In those patients with reproducible exercise-induced ST segment elevation and chest pain, thallium-201 scintigraphy showed areas of reversible anteroseptal hypoperfusion. Thus in selected patients exercise-induced attacks of angina were similar to spontaneous episodes.

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities in patients with neoplastic meningitis. An evaluation using /sup 111/In-DTPA ventriculography

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, S.A.; Trump, D.L.; Chen, D.C.; Thompson, G.; Camargo, E.E.

    1982-11-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics were evaluated by /sup 111/In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (/sup 111/In-DTPA) ventriculography in 27 patients with neoplastic meningitis. Nineteen patients (70 percent) had evidence of cerebrospinal fluid flow disturbances. These occurred as ventricular outlet obstructions, abnormalities of flow in the spinal canal, or flow distrubances over the cortical convexities. Tumor histology, physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, myelograms, and computerized axial tomographic scans were not sufficient to predict cerebrospinal fluid flow patterns. These data indicate that cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities are common in patients with neoplastic meningitis and that /sup 111/In-DTPA cerebrospinal fluid flow imaging is useful in characterizing these abnormalities. This technique provides insight into the distribution of intraventricularly administered chemotherapy and may provide explanations for treatment failure and drug-induced neurotoxicity in patients with neoplastic meningitis.

  11. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on COOMET.RI(II)-S2.Eu-152 (319/RU/04): Comparison measurements of radionuclide volume sources (Eu-152)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korostin, S.; Hernandez, T.; Oropesa, P.; Arnold, D.; Evseev, V.; Ivanukovich, A.; Milevskiy, V.; Svec, A.; Lapenas, A.; Andonova, V.; Steiner, V.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of the Eu-152 specific activity in an artificial volume sample of water density were performed in nine laboratories with the HPGe spectrometry technique. Analysis of the gamma radiation absorption in the sample material confirmed Compton scattering as the main mechanism of interaction of photons with energy between 300-600 keV and 779-1408 keV in the most important substances for environmental monitoring (food, water, biological materials, soils). A list of CMCs supported by the comparison is suggested in the report. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by COOMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  12. The interval ejection fraction: a cineangiographic and radionuclide study

    SciTech Connect

    Kemper, A.J.; Bianco, J.A.; Shulman, R.M.; Folland, E.D.; Parisi, A.F.; Tow, D.E.

    1982-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the first-third ejection fraction (1/3 EF) for detecting patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), resting contrast ventriculography and first-pass radionuclide angiography with a high-count-rate, multicrystal camera system were performed in 47 subjects: 22 normal controls and 25 patients with clinically stable angina pectoris and severe CAD without and with resting wall motion abnormalities. By contrast angiography, only group 3 had depressed global EF or 1/3 EF compared with control. Whereas 11 of 25 CAD patients had global EF outside the normal range, only two of 25 had depressed 1/3 EF. Both had left ventricular asynergy and a depressed global EF. Studies performed using first-pass radionuclide angiography revealed similar results. A wide range of 1/3 EF values was found in normal subjects by both techniques. Thus, the ejection fraction during the first third of systole at rest is of limited value for detecting patients with CAD.

  13. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    Radionuclide - gallbladder; Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy: HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... small amount of morphine. This can help the radionuclide get into the gallbladder. The morphine may cause ...

  14. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  15. Natural radionuclide accumulation by raindrops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Anatoly; Martin, Inacio; Shkevov, Rumen; Alves, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The laboratory of environmental radiation of ITA (São José dos Campos, 23°11'11″S, 45°52'43″W, 650 MAMSL) performs simultaneous monitoring of a natural radiation background and meteorological parameters. A time resolution of up to 1 minute allows a detailed comparison of changes in meteorological parameters with those of a concentration of ambient radon progenies in the atmosphere. Results of a study of variation of a fallout of radon progenies ^{214}Pb and ^{214}Bi concomitanting rainfalls are present. The radionuclide fallout rate is reconstructed from the observed gamma rate through a simulation of the first kind Volterra integral equation with difference kernel, determined by ratio of precipitating rates of 214Pb and 214Bi and their decay half times. An original straightforward step-by-step procedure was used for the numerical solution of the equation. The radionuclide concentration in the rainwater is calculated as a ratio of the reconstructed fallout to the measured rainfall. It was observed that the radionuclide fallout rate increases as the rainfall one in approximately power 0.6, i.e. the same as the mean raindrop volume. The concentration thereafter decreases as the rainfall rate in power 0.4. A numerical simulation of the process of accumulation of the radionuclides during diffusion and coalescence drop growth and aerosol scavenging during a passage from a cloud to the ground was performed. The results of the simulations agree with the experimental data.

  16. Comparison between Three Promising ß-emitting Radionuclides, 67Cu, 47Sc and 161Tb, with Emphasis on Doses Delivered to Minimal Residual Disease

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Christophe; Quinto, Michele A.; Morgat, Clément; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Hindié, Elif

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Radionuclide therapy is increasingly seen as a promising option to target minimal residual disease. Copper-67, scandium-47 and terbium-161 have a medium-energy β- emission which is similar to that of lutetium-177, but offer the advantage of having diagnostic partner isotopes suitable for pretreatment imaging. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 67Cu, 47Sc and 161Tb to irradiate small tumors. METHODS: The absorbed dose deriving from a homogeneous distribution of 67Cu, 47Sc or 161Tb in water-density spheres was calculated with the Monte Carlo code CELLDOSE. The diameters of the spheres ranged from 5 mm to 10 µm, thus simulating micrometastases or single tumor cells. All electron emissions, including β- spectra, Auger and conversion electrons were taken into account. Because these radionuclides differ in electron energy per decay, the simulations were run assuming that 1 MeV was released per µm3, which would result in a dose of 160 Gy if totally absorbed. RESULTS: The absorbed dose was similar for the three radionuclides in the 5-mm sphere (146-149 Gy), but decreased differently in smaller spheres. In particular, 161Tb delivered higher doses compared to the other radionuclides. For instance, in the 100-µm sphere, the absorbed dose was 24.1 Gy with 67Cu, 14.8 Gy with 47Sc and 44.5 Gy with 161Tb. Auger and conversion electrons accounted for 71% of 161Tb dose. The largest dose differences were found in cell-sized spheres. In the 10-µm sphere, the dose delivered by 161Tb was 4.1 times higher than that from 67Cu and 8.1 times that from 47Sc. CONCLUSION: 161Tb can effectively irradiate small tumors thanks to its decay spectrum that combines medium-energy β- emission and low-energy conversion and Auger electrons. Therefore 161Tb might be a better candidate than 67Cu and 47Sc for treating minimal residual disease in a clinical setting. PMID:27446495

  17. Interval ejection fraction: a cineangiographic and radionuclide study

    SciTech Connect

    Kemper, A.J.; Bianco, J.A.; Shulman, R.M.; Folland, E.D.; Paris, A.F.; Tow, D.E.

    1982-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of the first-third ejection fraction (1/3 EF) for detecting patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), resting contrast ventriculography and first-pass radionuclide angiography with a high-count-rate, multicrystal camera system were performed in 47 subjects: 22 normal controls (group 1) and 25 patients with clinically stable angina pectoris and severe CAD (mean 2.3 vessels) without (group 2, n = 12) and with (group 3, n = 13) resting wall motion abnormalities. By contrast angiography, only group 3 had depressed global EF or 1/3 EF compared with control (global EF: group 1, 0.71 = 0.09; group 2, 0.67 = 0.09 (NS); group 3, 0.49 = 0.05 (p < 0.01 vs groups 1 and 2); 1/3 EF: group 1, 0.29 = 0.06; group 2, 0.28 = 0.05 (NS); group 3, 0.22 = 0.05 (p < 0.01 vs groups 1 and 2)). Whereas 11 of 25 CAD patients had global EF outside the normal range, only two of 25 had depressed 1/3 EF. Both had left ventricular asynergy and a depressed global EF. Studies performed using first-pass radionuclide angiography revealed similar results, i.e., only four of 25 CAD patients, all with left ventricular asynergy and depressed global EF, had depressed 1/3 EF values. A wide range of 1/3 EF values was found in normal subjects by both techniques. Thus, the ejection fraction during the first third of systole at rest is of limited value for detecting patients with CAD.

  18. Comparison of long-term stability of containment systems for residues and wastes contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides at an arid site and two humid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, M.; Merry-Libby, P.; Hinchman, R.

    1985-01-01

    The long-term stability of near-surface containment systems designed for the management of radioactive wastes and residues contaminated with naturally occurring radionuclides are compared at the three different sites. The containment designs are: (1) a diked 8.9-m high mound, including a 3.2-m layered cap at a site (humid) near Lewiston, New York, (2) a 6.8-m-high mound, including a similar 3.2-m cap at a site (humid) near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and (3) 4.8-m deep trenches with 3.0-m backfilled caps at a site (arid) near Hanford, Washington. Geological, hydrological, and biological factors affecting the long-term (1000-year) integrity of the containment systems at each site are examined, including: erosion, flooding, drought, wildfire, slope and cover failure, plant root penetration, burrowing animals, other soil-forming processes, and land-use changes. For the containment designs evaluated, releases of radon-222 at the arid site are predicted to be several orders of magnitude higher than at the two humid sites - upon initial burial and at 1000 years (after severe erosion). Transfer of wastes containing naturally occurring radionuclides from a humid to an arid environment offers little or no advantage relative to long-term stability of the containment system and has a definite disadvantage in terms of gaseous radioactive releases. 26 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  19. Pharmacological and other nonexercise alternatives to exercise testing to evaluate myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    DePuey, E.G.; Rozanski, A. )

    1991-04-01

    Pharmacological vasodilatation with either dipyridamole or adenosine is a safe and accurate alternative to exercise testing to diagnose coronary artery disease with thallium 201 myocardial perfusion imaging. The technique also provides important prognostic information with regard to future cardiac events in patients undergoing diagnostic testing, in those evaluated preoperatively, and in those with recent myocardial infarctions. Multigated equilibrium and first-pass radionuclide ventriculography also are well suited to evaluate the effects of interventional procedures. Success has been achieved using this methodology in a variety of interventions including conventional exercise testing, pharmacological stress testing, atrial pacing, assessment of myocardial viability with nitroglycerin, mental stress testing, and ambulatory monitoring of left ventricular ejection fraction. 67 references.

  20. Comparison of the Bioavailability of Waste Laden Soils Using ''In Vivo'' ''In Vitro'' Analytical Methodology and Bioaccessibility of Radionuclides for Refinement of Exposure/Dose Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    P. J. Lioy; M. Gallo; P. Georgopoulos; R. Tate; B. Buckley

    1999-09-15

    The bioavailability of soil contaminants can be measured using in vitro or in vivo techniques. Since there was no standard method for intercomparison among laboratories, we compared two techniques for bioavailability estimation: in vitro dissolution and in vivo rat feeding model for a NIST-traceable soil material. Bioaccessibility was measured using a sequential soil extraction in synthetic analogues of human saliva, gastric and intestinal fluids. Bioavailability was measured in Sprague Dawley rats by determining metal levels in the major organs and urine, feces, and blood. Bioaccessibility was found to be a good indicator of relative metal bioavailability. Results are presented from bioaccessible experiments with Cesium in contaminated DOE soils, and total alpha and beta bioaccessibility. The results indicate that the modified methodology for bioaccessibility can be used for specific radionuclide analysis.

  1. Radionuclides in US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

  3. Radionuclide Behavior in Containments.

    2000-02-14

    MATADOR analyzes the transport and deposition of radionuclides as vapor or aerosol through Light Water Reactor (LWR) containments during severe accidents and calculates environmental release fractions of radionuclides as a function of time. It is intended for use in system risk studies. The principal output is information on the timing and magnitude of radionuclide releases to the environment as a result of severely degraded core accidents. MATADOR considers the transport of radionuclides through the containmentmore » and their removal by natural deposition and the operation of engineered safety systems such as sprays. Input data on the source term from the primary system, the containment geometry, and thermal-hydraulic conditions are required.« less

  4. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  5. Right heart ventriculography

    MedlinePlus

    Angiography - right heart ... moved forward into the right side of the heart. As the catheter is advanced, the doctor can ... is injected into the right side of the heart. It helps the cardiologist determine the size and ...

  6. Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Harp, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

  7. Correlation of heart rate and radionuclide index of left ventricular contraction and relaxation.

    PubMed

    Adachi, H; Sugihara, H; Nakagawa, H; Inagaki, S; Kubota, Y; Nakagawa, M

    1990-11-01

    Since the cardiac function indices derived from radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) are considered to depend on the heart rate, we studied the relationship between systolic or diastolic indices and heart rates in patients with normal RNV and devised a method of correcting these indices according to the heart rate. For the systolic indices, the heart rate showed significant correlation with ET (r = -0.640), PER (r = 0.791) and TPE (r = -0.401) but not with EF, 1/3 EF, MNSER or 1/3 MNSER. For the diastolic indices, the heart rate correlated with FT (r = -0.938), RFT (r = -0.736), SFT (r = -0.803), 1/3 FF (r = -0.758), PFR (r = 0.759), 1/3 PFR (r = 0.742) and TPF (r = -0.389) but not with AFT, 1/3 MNDFR or AFF. These results indicate that many systolic and diastolic indices derived from RNV are affected by the heart rate. So when cardiac function is evaluated with the use of radionuclide indices, those which are independent of the heart rate should be used, or they should be corrected for the heart rate. As a method of correction, we proposed a rotating method obtained by manipulation of the regression equation of heart rates and indices. This new method is certain and easier to use when the correcting equations are set into a computer program.

  8. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  9. Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

    1981-10-01

    A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

  10. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H

    2005-07-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  11. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  12. Radionuclide studies in impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Hilson, A.J.; Lewis, C.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Impotence may be of physiological origin with causes including vascular or neurological pathology. Alternatively, it may be of psychogenic origin. Clinicians can distinguish between psychological and organic impotence by observing nocturnal penile tumescence. Non-radionuclide investigations for organic impotence include penile plethysmography or pulse Doppler analysis for arterial supply, cavernosometry for venous drainage, and biothesiometry or evoked potentials for neurological pathology. Radionuclide studies are primarily based on the use of technetium 99m-pertechnetate, 99mTc-red blood cells, or xenon 133 to study the blood flow, with or without pharmacological intervention, commonly papaverine. 26 references.

  13. Consultative committee on ionizing radiation: Impact on radionuclide metrology.

    PubMed

    Karam, L R; Ratel, G

    2016-03-01

    In response to the CIPM MRA, and to improve radioactivity measurements in the face of advancing technologies, the CIPM's consultative committee on ionizing radiation developed a strategic approach to the realization and validation of measurement traceability for radionuclide metrology. As a consequence, measurement institutions throughout the world have devoted no small effort to establish radionuclide metrology capabilities, supported by active quality management systems and validated through prioritized participation in international comparisons, providing a varied stakeholder community with measurement confidence. PMID:26688351

  14. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  15. Transport and deposition of radionuclides after the Fukushima nuclear accident: international model inter-comparison in the framework of a WMO Task Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wotawa, Gerhard; Draxler, Roland; Arnold, Delia; Galmarini, Stefano; Hort, Matthew; Jones, Andrew; Leadbetter, Susan; Malo, Alain; Maurer, Christian; Rolph, Glenn; Saito, Kazuo; Servranckx, Rene; Shimbori, Toshiki; Solazzo, Efisio

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of a Task Team set up after the Fukushima accident sponsored by WMO, the atmospheric transport and deposition models (ATDMs) FLEXPART (Austria), HYSPLIT (U.S.), MLDP0 (Canada), NAME (UK) and RATM (Japan) were inter-compared. These models are well-known and widely used for emergency response activities. As alternative model input data, JMA made available a Meso-Analysis with 5 km/ 3 hour resolution, and a radar/rain gauge precipitation analysis with 1 km and 30 minutes resolution. To allow maximum flexibility regarding the release rates of key nuclides, the computations were based on the concept of source-receptor matrices, in this connection also called transfer coefficient matrices (TCM). The matrices are calculated every 3 hours after 11 March 2011 00 UTC, based on unit emissions, and thus can be overlaid with any present and future release scenario that becomes established. As computational species, the model considered tracers, depositing gases and depositing aerosols, allowing accounting for the range of substances emitted during a nuclear accident. The model comparison was based on observed deposition patterns of Cesium-137 in the Fukushima province as collected by MEXT/USDOE shortly after the accident, and a few available in situ stations measuring radioactive isotopes. To perform a statistical comparison, established parameters like correlation coefficient (r), fractional bias (FB) and figure of merit in space (FMS) were used. A further ensemble analysis was performed to determine what subset of model results out of all available would provide non-redundant information and thus is optimal to describe the transport and deposition during the accident. The investigation showed (i) that a TCM-based calculation approach has a lot of merits due to its flexibility, (ii) that models tended to perform better if they were run in improved resolution or directly with the Japanese Meso-analysis, (iii) that the model results depend on the selection of

  16. Radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Webber, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging of the skeleton, now well established as the most important diagnostic procedure in detecting bone metastases, is also a reliable method for the evaluation of the progression or regression of metastatic bone disease. The article concentrates on the technetium-99m agents and the value of these agents in the widespread application of low-dose radioisotope scanning in such bone diseases as metastasis, osteomyelitis, trauma, osteonecrosis, and other abnormal skeletal conditions.

  17. Radionuclide therapy beyond radioiodine.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Michael

    2012-10-01

    For decades, Iodine-131 has been used for the treatment of patients with thyroid cancer. In recent years, increasingly, other radiopharmaceuticals are in clinical use in the treatment of various malignant diseases. Although in principle these therapies-as in all applications of radionuclides-special radiation protection measures are required, a separate nuclear medicine therapy department is not necessary in many cases due to the lower or lack of gamma radiation. In the following article, four different radionuclide therapies are more closely presented which are emerging in the last years. One of them is the "Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy," the so-called PRRT in which radiolabeled somatostatin (SST)-receptor(R) ligands are used in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. On the basis of radiolabeled antibodies against CD20-positive cells, the so-called radioimmunotherapy is used in the treatment of certain forms of malignant lymphoma. In primary or secondary liver tumors, the (90)Y-labeled particles can be administered. Last but not the least, the palliative approach of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals is noted in patients with painful bone metastases.

  18. Correlation of right ventricular volume using axial angulated ventriculography to known right ventricular cast volumes in infants and children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ino, T; Benson, L N; Mikailian, H; Freedom, R M; Rowe, R D

    1988-01-01

    To calculate right ventricular (RV) volumes from biplane cineangiography obtained in nonstandard views, regression equations were developed from RV casts of known volume. Volumes were calculated using Simpson's rule from casts ranging from 2 to 42 ml from 25 postmortem specimens with various congenital heart diseases. The casts were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n = 15) with abnormal or group 2 (n = 10) with normal RV hemodynamic measurements. Biplane cinegrams were taken in the anterolateral, anterior and long axis oblique, hepatoclavicular and sitting up projections. The true volume of each cast was determined from its weight and specific gravity. Excellent correlations were obtained between measured and true volumes (r = 0.92 to 0.96) in all projections, although each projection overestimated the true volume (slope value less than 1). The regression equations obtained from group 1 were not statistically different from those in group 2 in any view. Although the application of different regression equations is required in measuring RV volumes by multiple angulated angiography, these regression equations appear not to be affected by the hemodynamic state of the ventricle. These results are important in assessing RV volume in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease using axial angulated ventriculography.

  19. Influence of myocardial infarction size on radionuclide and Doppler echocardiographic measurements of diastolic function

    SciTech Connect

    Johannessen, K.A.; Cerqueira, M.D.; Stratton, J.R. )

    1990-03-15

    To assess the relation between myocardial infarction size and diastolic function as measured by radionuclide ventriculography and Doppler echocardiography, 83 patients (aged 58 +/- 9 years) without significant valvular disease were studied 8 to 12 weeks after an acute myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction size was measured by resting thallium-201 tomography. Peak early filling rate (in end-diastolic volumes/s) was measured by gated blood pool scintigraphy. Doppler measures of mitral inflow were peak early (E) and atrial (A) filling velocities, slopes of E and A, percent E and A filling, E/A ratio and diastolic filling period. In univariate analyses, there was a significant inverse correlation between infarction size and the peak early filling rate (r = -0.59, p less than 0.001), and this remained significant (r = -0.63, p less than 0.0001) in an analysis that included 2 other determinants of the filling rate, age and diastolic filling period. Infarction size was directly correlated to the peak E velocity (r = 0.37, p less than 0.01), deceleration of E (r = 0.41, p less than 0.01) and percent E filling (r = 0.31, p less than 0.01), and was inversely correlated to peak A (r = -0.27, p less than 0.05) and percent A filling (r = -0.26, p less than 0.05).

  20. Biventricular function in sickle-cell anemia: radionuclide angiographic and thallium-201 scintigraphic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Manno, B.V.; Burka, E.R.; Hakki, A.H.; Manno, C.S.; Iskandrian, A.S.; Noone, A.M.

    1983-09-01

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) function were evaluated at rest and during exercise using radionuclide ventriculography in 10 patients, aged 19-53 years, with sickle-cell anemia (SCA). Seven patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I and 3 were in class II. The resting LV ejection fraction (EF) was normal in 9 patients and the resting RVEF was normal in 4. LV dilation and high cardiac output were observed in 6 patients at rest. The LVEF during exercise was normal in all 10 patients, whereas only 2 patients had normal RVEF at rest and during exercise. The LVEF was lower in patients with SCA at rest (54 +/- 4% versus 61 +/- 6%, p less than 0.001) and exercise (66 +/- 4% versus 74 +/- 6%, p less than 0.001) than in 42 age-matched normal subjects. Rest thallium-201 images from 9 patients showed abnormal RV uptake in 8 and normal LV uptake in 8. Thus, in adult patients with SCA, LV function was normal during exercise in all patients and at rest in all but 1 patient. The LVEF, however, was lower than that in age-matched normal subjects. RV function was abnormal in most patients at rest and during exercise. RV thallium-201 uptake suggested pressure or volume overload (or both), most likely due to pulmonary vaso-occlusive complications of the disease.

  1. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  2. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2005-09-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest.

  3. History of medical radionuclide production.

    PubMed

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  4. Osteopetrosis: radiological & radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis.

  5. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F.

    2008-07-15

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners.

  6. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT∕CT and PET∕CT scanners. PMID:18697529

  7. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1993-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) review and summarize historical data on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River, (2) determine present-day radionuclide tissue burdens from different locations in the Columbia River, and (3) compare historical data with current data. We first reviewed and summarized the historical literature on radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Hanford Reach. Field studies were then conducted to evaluate the relationship among sample locations, age/length of white sturgeon, and present radionuclide tissue burdens. Results and comparisons are discussed in the remainder of this report.

  8. KEY COMPARISON: Comparisons CCRI(II)-K3.F-18 and APMP.RI(II)-K3.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F and links to the key comparison reference value of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Woods, M. J.

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, the CCRI(II) decided that an indirect comparison of 18F measurements piloted by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK in 2001 was sufficiently well constructed that it could be converted into a CCRI(II) comparison, with comparison identifier CCRI(II)-K3.F-18. At the same time, the pilot laboratory made a bilateral comparison with the institute in Chinese Taipei, comparison identifier APMP.RI(II)-K3.F-18. The results of the comparisons have been reported and the key comparison working group (KCWG) of the CCRI(II) has approved the mechanism to link all the results to the key comparison reference value (KCRV) of 18F. The KCRV has been determined through the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. These comparisons have enabled a further four results to be added to the matrix of degrees of equivalence for 18F activity measurements. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  10. APT radionuclide production experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, J.L.; Gavron, A.; King, J.D.

    1994-07-02

    Tritium ({sup 3}H, a heavy isotope of hydrogen) is produced by low energy neutron-induced reactions on various elements. One such reaction is n+{sup 3}He {yields}>{sup 3}H+{sup 1}H in which {sup 3}He is transmuted to tritium. Another reaction, which has been used in reactor production of tritium, is the n+{sup 6}Li {yields}> {sup 3}H+{sup 4}He reaction. Accelerator Production of Tritium relies on a high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy protons reacting with a heavy nucleus produce a shower of low-energy neutrons and a lower-mass residual nucleus. It is important to quantify the residual radionuclides produced in the spallation target for two reasons. From an engineering point of view, one must understand short-lived isotopes that may contribute to decay heat. From a safety viewpoint, one must understand what nuclei and decay gammas are produced in order to design adequate shielding, to estimate ultimate waste disposal problems, and to predict possible effects due to accidental dispersion during operation. The authors have performed an experiment to measure the production of radioisotopes in stopping-length W and Pb targets irradiated by a 800 MeV proton beam, and are comparing the results to values obtained from calculations using LAHET and MCNP. The experiment was designed to pay particular attention to the short half-life radionuclides, which have not been previously measured. In the following, they present details of the experiment, explain how they analyzed the data and obtain the results, how they perform the calculations, and finally, how the experimental data agree with the calculations.

  11. [90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, and 241Am radionuclides in macrophytes within the Krasnensky flood plain: species specificity of concentration and distribution in phytocenosis components].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, D I; Zub, L N; Derevets, V V; Kuz'menko, M I; Nazarov, A B; Kaglian, A E; Savitskiĭ, A L

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of the content of radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239 + 240Pu and 241Am in water vegetation of flood plain reservoirs has allowed studing features of radionuclide accumulation by various species of macrophytes and revealing bioindicators of radionuclide contamination. Thus species-specificity of radionuclide accumulation can essentially change the contribution of different species to a percentage ratio of the radionuclide content in phytomass of reservoirs in comparison with fund of higher aquatic plants.

  12. Radionuclide therapy for arthritic knees

    SciTech Connect

    Doepel, L.K.

    1985-02-08

    A new radionuclide therapeutic approach for rheumatoid arthritis of the knee is described. This therapy combines a short-lived radionuclide with a carrier whose physical and chemical characteristics aid retention of the radioactive particles within the joint. Joining a radionuclide to a particulate carrier had not been explored previously as a potential method for inhibiting radiation leakage. The treatment couples the rare earth element dysprosium 165 to ferric hydroxide in macroaggregate form (size range: 3 to 10 ..mu..m). After the relatively inert iron complex penetrates the synovium, it causes cell death. Macrophages and phagocytes clear away the cellular debris, essentially eliminating the synovium.

  13. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  14. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  15. Video instrumentation for radionuclide angiocardiography.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriss, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Two types of videoscintiscopes for performing radioisotopic angiocardiography with a scintillation camera are described, and use of these instruments in performing clinical studies is illustrated. Radionuclide angiocardiography is a simple, quick and accurate procedure recommended as a screening test for patients with a variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions. When performed in conjunction with coronary arterial catheterization, dynamic radionuclide angiography may provide useful information about regional myocardial perfusion. Quantitative capabilities greatly enhance the potential of this diagnostic tool.

  16. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  17. Radionuclide injury to the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

  18. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  19. Partitioning of natural radionuclides in the waste streams of coal-fired utilities.

    PubMed

    Roeck, D R; Reavey, T C; Hardin, J M

    1987-03-01

    Five coal-fired electric utility plants were sampled to determine radionuclide concentrations in all major process streams. The results, together with plant operating data, were used to track the following six naturally occurring radionuclides: 238U, 226Ra, 210Po, 210Pb, 230Th and 232Th. For each plant, radionuclide balances were computed and the amount and extent of volatilization and enrichment of any radionuclides in the stack effluent were determined. In general, most of the radioactivity was found in boiler bottom ash or particulate control equipment hopper ash; atmospheric emissions were quite small in comparison. Radionuclides in the stack effluent were not detected in the gaseous state and some (especially 210Po and 210Pb) were preferentially associated with the smallest fly-ash particles.

  20. Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

  1. Extinct radionuclides. [in solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, F. A.; Swindle, T. D.

    1988-01-01

    Extinct radionuclides, or radioactive isotopes with lifetimes of the order of 1 to 100 Myr that are now extinct in the solar system are discussed. Evidence is presented for the presence of such radionuclides in the early solar system, including Al-26, Mn-53, Pd-107, I-129, Pu-244, and Sm-146. It is suggested that the abundances of these species provide constraints on nucleosynthetic time scales and the history of solar system materials before they became the solar system. The shortest-lived species is Al-26, which may have been sufficiently abundant to be the major heat source for meteorite parent-body metamorphism or igneous differentiation.

  2. Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

    1983-05-03

    Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

  3. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of unsaturated-zone transport is based on laboratory and field-scale experiments. Fractures provide advective transport pathways. Sorption and matrix diffusion may contribute to retardation of radionuclides. Conversely, sorption onto mobile colloids may enhance radionuclide transport.

  4. Cosmogenic radionuclides and noble gases in the Wethersfield (1982) chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C.; Reeves, J. H.; Bogard, D. D.

    1986-01-01

    The Wethersfield (1982) chondrite was assayed for a suite of cosmogenic radionuclides shortly after fall. Data are reported for Be-7, Na-22, All-26, Sc-46, V-48, Cr-51, Mn-54, Co-56, Co-57, and Co-60. A comparison is made with predicted results based on a scaling to the Deep River Neutron Monitor. Noble gases were also assayed in a subsample. The cosmic-ray-exposure age is estimated to be 45 Myr.

  5. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  6. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  7. TECHNOLOGIES FOR RADON AND RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a summary of the technologies that are currently being used to remove radionuclides from drinking water. The radionuclides that are featured are the radionuclides currently regulated by EPA; radium, radon and uranium. Tehnologies effective for removal of eac...

  8. [Role of Radionuclide Technologies in Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chernyaev, A P; Belousov, A V; Varzar, S M; Borchegovskaya, P Y; Nikolaeva, A A; Krusanov, G A

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the role of radionuclide technologies among the nuclear-physical methods used in medicine. The condition and prospects of the development of nuclear technology with use of radionuclides in medicine, and in particular, the method of brachytherapy are analyzed. The analysis of the current state of applying radionuclide facilities in medicine is provided.

  9. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOEpatents

    Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Perkins, Richard W.; Rieck, Henry G.; Wogman, Ned A.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  10. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOEpatents

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  11. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. )

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  12. Radionuclide synovectomy - essentials for rheumatologists.

    PubMed

    Chojnowski, Marek M; Felis-Giemza, Anna; Kobylecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70-80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice. PMID:27504020

  13. Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1983-08-25

    This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

  14. Chernobyl radionuclide distribution and migration.

    PubMed

    Izrael, Yury A

    2007-11-01

    The accident at Unit No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986 presented severe challenges in radiation protection. Early activity measurements defined the contaminated areas in order to determine what persons should be evacuated on the basis of the exposure limit at that time of 100 mSv (10 rem) for accidents. The immediate definition of these areas was accomplished with specially equipped aircraft capable of measuring external gamma-exposure rate and radionuclide spectra. Over time, maps of 137Cs contamination (the most important long-lived radionuclide) have become more and more sophisticated and have been used for further determinations of the control of the consequences of the accident. About 70% of the total release of 137Cs was deposited in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine; but there was also widespread deposition throughout the countries of Western Europe. Two atlases of contamination throughout Europe were prepared, and the Russian atlas included data on other radionuclides and on external gamma-exposure rates. The radiocesiums behaved as volatile radionuclides because of the volatility of cesium. In contrast to the typical pattern after nuclear weapons tests, 90Sr behaved only as a refractory element, as its volatile precursors krypton and rubidium had already decayed within the reactor. Nearly all of the refractory elements (strontium, plutonium, etc.) released by the accident were confined to the 30-km zone around the reactor. A proposal is made to develop a more complete atlas of 137Cs deposition from the accident that would include the entire Northern Hemisphere. Water was not an important vector of exposure to human beings following the accident. PMID:18049217

  15. Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    2000-06-01

    Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

  16. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U. )

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. Arctic Ocean sea ice drift origin derived from artificial radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Cámara-Mor, P; Masqué, P; Garcia-Orellana, J; Cochran, J K; Mas, J L; Chamizo, E; Hanfland, C

    2010-07-15

    Since the 1950s, nuclear weapon testing and releases from the nuclear industry have introduced anthropogenic radionuclides into the sea, and in many instances their ultimate fate are the bottom sediments. The Arctic Ocean is one of the most polluted in this respect, because, in addition to global fallout, it is impacted by regional fallout from nuclear weapon testing, and indirectly by releases from nuclear reprocessing facilities and nuclear accidents. Sea-ice formed in the shallow continental shelves incorporate sediments with variable concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides that are transported through the Arctic Ocean and are finally released in the melting areas. In this work, we present the results of anthropogenic radionuclide analyses of sea-ice sediments (SIS) collected on five cruises from different Arctic regions and combine them with a database including prior measurements of these radionuclides in SIS. The distribution of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu activities and the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in SIS showed geographical differences, in agreement with the two main sea ice drift patterns derived from the mean field of sea-ice motion, the Transpolar Drift and Beaufort Gyre, with the Fram Strait as the main ablation area. A direct comparison of data measured in SIS samples against those reported for the potential source regions permits identification of the regions from which sea ice incorporates sediments. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in SIS may be used to discern the origin of sea ice from the Kara-Laptev Sea and the Alaskan shelf. However, if the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio is similar to global fallout, it does not provide a unique diagnostic indicator of the source area, and in such cases, the source of SIS can be constrained with a combination of the (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu activities. Therefore, these anthropogenic radionuclides can be used in many instances to determine the geographical source area of sea-ice.

  18. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the 2010 result of the LNE-LNHB (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Cassette, P.; Moune, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2001, six national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted seven samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. The values of the activity submitted were between about 1 MBq and 18 MBq. The primary standardization result for the LNE-LNHB, France, replaces their earlier result of 2002 and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated. In the frame of the BIPM.RI(II)-K4.F18 comparison, the NPL updated their result in the KCDB. Consequently there are now five results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 comparison. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the updated KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  19. Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs.

  20. Radionuclide angiographic evaluation of right and left ventricular function during exercise after repair of transposition of the great arteries. Comparison with normal subjects and patients with congenitally corrected transposition

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, M.D.; Graham, T.P. Jr.; Bender, H.W.; Jones, J.P.; Patton, J.; Partain, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    We assessed the incidence, clinical significance and etiology of ventricular dysfunction after intraatrial repair of d-transposition of the great arteries in 11 patients, mean age 9 +/- 3 years, who had had Mustard operations. We compared the results to 15 patients who were considered to have normal ventricular function, two patients who had Rastelli operations and five patients with congenitally corrected transposition. Gated equilibrium radionuclide angiography with supine exercise stress testing was used to assess these children. We found no significant difference between our patient groups in exercise capacity, heart rate, or blood pressure response to exercise. However, we found a high incidence of right ventricular dysfunction in the patient groups, manifested by an abnormal right ventricular ejection fraction response to dysfunction in the patient groups, manifested by an abnormal right ventricular ejection fraction response to exercise in six of 11 patients with a Mustard repair, both patients with a Rastelli repair and all five with congenitally corrected transposition. In addition, the left ventricular response to exercise was abnormal in 10 of 11 patients who had undergone a Mustard repair, both patients with a Rastelli repair, and two of five patients with congenitally corrected transposition. We conclude that biventricular dysfunction is frequently present after intraatrial repair of d-transposition of the great arteries. Despite this dysfunction, no significant decrease in exercise tolerance is found in childhood.

  1. Computed tomography and radionuclide brain scanning. [/sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Lusins, J.O.; Chayes, Z.; Nakagawa, H.

    1980-02-01

    A comparison o CT (computerized Tomography) and radionuclide brain scanning was performed; 30 patients with a total of 42 lesions were evaluated. Previous sreports have shown that CT and radionuclide scanning are equally useful in detecting metastatic disease. However, if contrast enhancement is used we find that computerized tomography is far more accurate than radionuclide scanning in detecting metastatic disease to the brain, 95.4 percent as compared to 62 percent. Our study also shows that radionuclide scanning falls off in accuracy when the the lesion is below 2 cm. in size. Also, the presence of brain edema in association with metastatic disease increases the probability of having a positive nuclear scan finding.

  2. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

  3. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  4. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  5. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gudkov, Sergey V.; Shilyagina, Natalya Yu.; Vodeneev, Vladimir A.; Zvyagin, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed. PMID:26729091

  6. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors.

    PubMed

    Gudkov, Sergey V; Shilyagina, Natalya Yu; Vodeneev, Vladimir A; Zvyagin, Andrei V

    2015-12-28

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed.

  7. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

  8. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

    1990-11-13

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

  9. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  10. Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Hines, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  11. Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xiaoyuan; Wai, Chien M.; Fisher, Darrell R.

    2000-01-01

    The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

  12. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

  13. Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

  14. Real time cardiac radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jarkewicz, G.G.

    1986-04-29

    A data acquisition system is described for use in radionuclide cardiac imaging of a patient having been administered a myocardium specific radionuclide, comprising: (a) means for monitoring the electrical activity of the heart; (b) first temporary storage means for accumulating respective pages of data corresponding to nuclear events during each cardiac cycle; (c) means, responsive to the means for monitoring, for determining the time duration of each successive cardiac cycle; (d) means for comparing each determined duration of a cardiac cycle with a preselected time duration range; (e) second temporary storage means; and (f) means for conditionally transferring pages of data from the first temporary storage means to the second temporary storage means if the measured duration associated with each page has predetermined correspondence with the preselected duration range, whereby pages of data having the predetermined correspondence may be collated into a quasi-real time study, while pages of data having different correspondence with the preselected time duration range are discarded from the study.

  15. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  16. Inventory of radionuclides for the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report uses a material balance approach to describe the quantities and composition of reported releases of radionuclides to air and water, and the distribution of these nuclides in atmospheric, aquatic, and biotic compartments of the Great Lakes ecosystem. The primary sources considered are discharges from nuclear fuel cycle facilities in the Great Lakes Basin. Other sources include commercial, industrial, medical, and research institutions. Radionuclide inventories are first presented by source, both natural and anthropogenic, then by geographical and environmental distribution. The concluding section discusses the adequacy of radionuclide monitoring, the need for a reassessment of environmental monitoring of nuclear facilities, radionuclide data reporting, harmonization of monitoring and data reporting, biological transfer factors for lake systems, and radionuclides of concern. A glossary is included.

  17. Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids

    DOEpatents

    Patch, Keith D.; Morgan, Dean T.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

  18. Analytical solutions for reactive transport of N-member radionuclide chains in a single fracture.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yunwei; Buscheck, Thomas A

    2003-01-01

    Several numerical codes have been used to simulate radionuclide transport in fractured rock systems. The validation of such numerical codes can be accomplished by comparison of numerical simulations against appropriate analytical solutions. In this paper, we present analytical solutions for the reactive transport of N-member radionuclide chains (i.e., multiple species of radionuclides and their daughter species) through a discrete fracture in a porous rock matrix applying a system decomposition approach. We consider the transport of N-member radionuclide chains in a single-fracture-matrix system as a starting point to simulate more realistic and complex systems. The processes considered are advection along the fracture, lateral diffusion in the matrix, radioactive decay of multiple radionuclides, and adsorption in both the fracture and matrix. Different retardation factors can be specified for the fracture and matrix. However, all species are assumed to share the same retardation factors for the fracture and matrix, respectively. Although a daughter species may penetrate farther along the fracture than its parent species when a constant-concentration boundary condition is applied, our results indicate that all species retain the same transport speed in the fracture if a pulse of the first species is released into the fracture. This solution scheme provides a way to validate numerical computer codes of radionuclide transport in fractured rock, such as those being used to assess the performance of a potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  19. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    DOEpatents

    Kuhl, David E.; Edwards, Roy Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

  20. Radionuclides in surface and groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Kate M.

    2009-01-01

    Unique among all the contaminants that adversely affect surface and water quality, radioactive compounds pose a double threat from both toxicity and damaging radiation. The extreme energy potential of many of these materials makes them both useful and toxic. The unique properties of radioactive materials make them invaluable for medical, weapons, and energy applications. However, mining, production, use, and disposal of these compounds provide potential pathways for their release into the environment, posing a risk to both humans and wildlife. This chapter discusses the sources, uses, and regulation of radioactive compounds in the United States, biogeochemical processes that control mobility in the environment, examples of radionuclide contamination, and current work related to contaminated site remediation.

  1. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  2. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  3. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Norain, Abdullah; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-05-01

    An estimated 60,000 individuals in the United States and 132,000 worldwide are yearly diagnosed with melanoma. Until recently, treatment options for patients with stages III-IV metastatic disease were limited and offered marginal, if any, improvement in overall survival. The situation changed with the introduction of B-RAF inhibitors and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 immunotherapies into the clinical practice. With only some patients responding well to the immune therapies and with very serious side effects and high costs of immunotherapy, there is still room for other approaches for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma could be divided into the domains of radioimmunotherapy (RIT), radiolabeled peptides, and radiolabeled small molecules. RIT of melanoma is currently experiencing a renaissance with the clinical trials of alpha-emitter (213)Bi-labeled and beta-emitter (188)Rhenium-labeled monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic melanoma producing encouraging results. The investigation of the mechanism of efficacy of melanoma RIT points at killing of melanoma stem cells by RIT and involvement of immune system such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The domain of radiolabeled peptides for targeted melanoma therapy has been preclinical so far, with work concentrated on radiolabeled peptide analogues of melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor and on melanin-binding peptides. The field of radiolabeled small molecule produced radioiodinated benzamides that cross the cellular membrane and bind to the intracellular melanin. The recent clinical trial demonstrated measurable antitumor effects and no acute or midterm toxicities. We are hopeful that the targeted radionuclide therapy of metastatic melanoma would become a clinical reality as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with the immunotherapies such as anti-PD1 programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies

  4. 2009 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2010-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2009. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  5. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  6. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  7. Conus Medullaris Syndrome following Radionuclide Cisternography.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jay Chol

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclide cisternography is generally considered to be a safe procedure without significant neurological complications. However, in this report we present a patient who developed conus medullaris syndrome following radionuclide cisternography. A 46-year-old woman underwent lumbar puncture followed by radionuclide cisternography with the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. After the cisternography, she developed voiding difficulty with perineal sensory loss. Lumbar MRI revealed a high signal intensity lesion on T2-weighted images at the level of conus medullaris. Considering its clinical course and MRI findings, a spinal cord infarction is highly suggested as a cause of the conus medullaris lesion in this patient.

  8. The mutation process in a chlorella population under the combined action of radionuclides and chemical mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyna, S.N.; Sergeeva, S.A.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Shvobene, R.Y.

    1985-09-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of the mutation process under the combined chronic action of radionuclides (/sup 144/Ce, /sup 90/Sr) and inhibitors of repair, acriflavine and caffeine, as well as under the joint action of ethyleneimine and acriflavine, in a Chlorella population. It is shown that the modifying effect of acriflavine is more pronounced under the action of /sup 144/Ce, which is evidently due to its stronger genetic effect, in comparison with /sup 90/Sr. Experiments with inhibitors confirm the participation of the repair systems in the establishment of the visible picture of the mutation process induced by radionuclides and by ethyleneimine (EI).

  9. The theoretical derivation of solubilities of long-lived radionuclides in disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, John H.

    1985-02-01

    Calculations have been carried out on the solubilities of several long-lived radionuclides under disposal conditions, including several geologies. The effects of the matrix for immobilisation on pH and of the corroding canister on Eh are taken into account. An approach involving Pourbaix diagrams has been used for the fission and activation products, but a more complex model has had to be employed with the actinides. Comparison with assumed upper concentrations in drinking water suggests that, of the radionuclides studied, plutonium, neptunium, americium, caesium-135, iodine-129 and technetium-99 merit high priority in source term studies. Extensions are suggested to the model used to calculate actinide solubilities.

  10. Radionuclide angiography for assessment of hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.W.; Welji, A.N.; Shapiro, J.H.; Angtuaco, E.

    1982-01-01

    A retrospective study of 66 radionuclide angiograms of the thyroid showed that a simple visual inspection of the images is highly accurate for diagnosing hyperthyroidism. Mathematical analysis with computers is not necessary.

  11. Radionuclide carriers for targeting of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sofou, Stavroula

    2008-01-01

    This review describes strategies for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches are summarized in terms of tumor location in the body, and tumor morphology. These determine the radionuclides of choice for suggested targeting ligands, and the type of delivery carriers. This review is not exhaustive in examples of radionuclide carriers for targeted cancer therapy. Our purpose is two-fold: to give an integrated picture of the general strategies and molecular constructs currently explored for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides, and to identify challenges that need to be addressed. Internal radiotherapies for targeting of cancer are at a very exciting and creative stage. It is expected that the current emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches for exploring such therapeutic directions should enable internal radiotherapy to reach its full potential. PMID:18686778

  12. System and method for assaying a radionuclide

    SciTech Connect

    Cadieux, James R; King, III, George S; Fugate, Glenn A

    2014-12-23

    A system for assaying a radionuclide includes a liquid scintillation detector, an analyzer connected to the liquid scintillation detector, and a delay circuit connected to the analyzer. A gamma detector and a multi-channel analyzer are connected to the delay circuit and the gamma detector. The multi-channel analyzer produces a signal reflective of the radionuclide in the sample. A method for assaying a radionuclide includes selecting a sample, detecting alpha or beta emissions from the sample with a liquid scintillation detector, producing a first signal reflective of the alpha or beta emissions, and delaying the first signal a predetermined time. The method further includes detecting gamma emissions from the sample, producing a second signal reflective of the gamma emissions, and combining the delayed first signal with the second signal to produce a third signal reflective of the radionuclide.

  13. Dosimetry and Case Studies for Selected Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive review and analysis of biokinetic and dosimetric information for those radionuclides most likely to be involved in accidental exposures to workers or members of the public or used in radiological terrorism.

  14. Long lived gamma emitting radionuclides in incense.

    PubMed

    Alrefae, Tareq

    2013-10-01

    A study of long-lived gamma emitters in incense was performed. The incense samples originated from seven different countries, and the investigated radionuclides were Ra, Ra, and K. Gamma spectroscopy revealed the presence of all three investigated radionuclides in all samples. Interestingly, the activity concentrations revealed a clear bimodal distribution that distinguished samples that were natural incense from others that were processed incense. The activity concentrations in the latter group were found to be one order of magnitude greater than in the former group. Consequently, the estimated annual effective dose from the latter group was one order of magnitude higher than that of the former group. Nonetheless, the doses from both groups were found to be some three orders of magnitude less than the average worldwide exposure to inhaled natural radionuclides. This finding suggests the radiological safety of incense for the investigated radionuclides.

  15. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.; Shkolnik, A.; Yogev, R.; Firlit, C.; Traisman, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis.

  16. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

  17. Biodecontamination of radionuclide contaminated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, M.A.; Rogers, R.D.; Benson, J.

    1996-10-01

    Within the nuclear industry, there are literally hundreds of square miles of radionuclide contaminated concrete surfaces. A novel technology for biologically decontaminating concrete is being developed. The technology exploits a naturally occurring phenomenon referred to as microbially influenced degradation (MID) in which bacteria produce acids that dissolve the cement matrix of the concrete. Accelerated testing in laboratory conditions was conducted. The bacteria Thiobacillus thiooxidans, supplied from a continuous flow bioreactor, was applied to an exposed concrete surface. A control chamber exposing concrete to sterile media was operated under the same conditions. One hundred percent of surrogate cobalt contamination was recovered from the Thiobacillus treated concrete and 1 mm thickness of concrete material was removed in 60 days. Prototype chambers that can be mounted directly to concrete surfaces have been designed to allow control of environmental conditions to promote MID after inoculation of the surface with bacteria. Studies to determine optimum source and quantity of reduced sulfur, bacterial species or consortia best suited for rapid MID, and methods of application and delivery of bacteria and nutrients will be discussed.

  18. Treatment of radionuclide contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Pettis, S.A.; Kallas, A.J.; Kochen, R.L.; McGlochlin, S.C.

    1988-06-01

    Rockwell, International, Rocky Flats Plants, is committed to remediating within the scope of RCRA/CERCLA, Solid Waste Managements Units (SWMUs) at Rocky Flats found to be contaminated with hazardous substances. SWMUs fund to have radionuclide (uranium, plutonium, and/or americium) concentrations in the soils and/or groundwater that exceed background levels or regulatory limits will also be included in this remediation effort. This paper briefly summarizes past and present efforts by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, to identify treatment technologies appropriate for remediating actinide contaminated soils. Many of the promising soil treatments evaluated in Rocky Flats' laboratories during the late 1970's and early 1980's are currently being revisited. These technologies are generally directed toward substantially reducing the volume of contaminated soils, with the subsequent intention of disposing of a small remaining concentrated fraction of contaminated soil in a facility approved to receive radioactive wastes. Treatment processes currently will be treated to remove actinides, and recycled back to the process. Past investigations have included evaluations of dry screening, wet screening, scrubbing, ultrasonics, chemical oxidation, calcination, desliming, flotation, and heavy-liquid density separation. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  20. (Radiological assessments of radionuclide releases)

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1990-12-28

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, data have been obtained throughout the Northern Hemisphere on the concentrations of radionuclides in air, vegetation, soil, water, and foodstuffs that could be important means of human exposure. At the IAEA's invitation, the traveler reviewed recently published data and handbook summaries. The traveler evaluated the need for revising the default values recommended in Chapter 5, Terrestrial and Aquatic Food Chain Transport,'' of IAEA Safety Series No. 57. All attempts at revision were made to keep the mathematical complexity of the models to a minimum without substantial underestimation of dose to critical population subgroups. The traveler also served as chairman of the Multiple Pathways Working Group of the Coordinated Research Program on VAMP. This group has been established to test predictions of models assessing multiple exposure pathways potentially leading to human exposure to {sup 137}Cs. Testing is carried out for major components of assessment models that predict deposition, environmental transport, food chain bioaccumulation, and subsequent uptake and retention in the human body and dose due to exposure to external gamma radiation.

  1. Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Lull, R.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Boll, D.A.; Kaplan, K.A.

    1983-07-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs.

  2. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F.F.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention.

  3. Accumulation of radionuclides by fish in relation to presence of bottom deposits and concentration of microelements in the water

    SciTech Connect

    Katkov, A.E.

    1980-03-01

    This paper is devoted to determination of the special features of accumulation of hydrobionts of radionuclides desorbed from the bottom in comparison with the accumulation of radionuclides entering the water directly. The investigations were stimulated by published information indicating that bottom deposits can shield bottom bionts against the uptake of some radionuclides and that the uptake of radionuclides by plants is enhanced by the presence of bottom deposits. We also sum up the results of experimental investigations of concentration factors (CF) for nuclides in relation to their concentration in water to obtain a more accurate picture of the role of mineralization in the exchange of microelements. The experiments were conducted on adult (6 to 8 years old) goldfish (Carassius carassius) from a body of water containing fresh water with a total mineral content of 0.06 g/liter.

  4. Application of MINERVA Monte Carlo simulations to targeted radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Descalle, Marie-Anne; Hartmann Siantar, Christine L; Dauffy, Lucile; Nigg, David W; Wemple, Charles A; Yuan, Aina; DeNardo, Gerald L

    2003-02-01

    Recent clinical results have demonstrated the promise of targeted radionuclide therapy for advanced cancer. As the success of this emerging form of radiation therapy grows, accurate treatment planning and radiation dose simulations are likely to become increasingly important. To address this need, we have initiated the development of a new, Monte Carlo transport-based treatment planning system for molecular targeted radiation therapy as part of the MINERVA system. The goal of the MINERVA dose calculation system is to provide 3-D Monte Carlo simulation-based dosimetry for radiation therapy, focusing on experimental and emerging applications. For molecular targeted radionuclide therapy applications, MINERVA calculates patient-specific radiation dose estimates using computed tomography to describe the patient anatomy, combined with a user-defined 3-D radiation source. This paper describes the validation of the 3-D Monte Carlo transport methods to be used in MINERVA for molecular targeted radionuclide dosimetry. It reports comparisons of MINERVA dose simulations with published absorbed fraction data for distributed, monoenergetic photon and electron sources, and for radioisotope photon emission. MINERVA simulations are generally within 2% of EGS4 results and 10% of MCNP results, but differ by up to 40% from the recommendations given in MIRD Pamphlets 3 and 8 for identical medium composition and density. For several representative source and target organs in the abdomen and thorax, specific absorbed fractions calculated with the MINERVA system are generally within 5% of those published in the revised MIRD Pamphlet 5 for 100 keV photons. However, results differ by up to 23% for the adrenal glands, the smallest of our target organs. Finally, we show examples of Monte Carlo simulations in a patient-like geometry for a source of uniform activity located in the kidney. PMID:12667310

  5. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  6. Activity measurements of the radionuclide 99mTc for the VNIIM, Russian Federation and ENEA-INMRI, Italy, in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m and KCRV update in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michottea, C.; Nonisa, M.; Alekseevb, I. V.; Kharitonovb, I. A.; Tereshchenkob, E. E.; Zanevskiyb, A. V.; Capognic, M.; De Felicec, P.; Fazioc, A.; Carconic, P.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, comparisons of activity measurements of 99mTc using the Transfer Instrument of the International Reference System (SIRTI) took place at the VNIIM (Russian Federation) and at the ENEA-INMRI (Italy), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m. Ampoules containing about 32 kBq of 99mTc solutions were measured in the SIRTI for three half-lives. There are now nine results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m comparison. This comparison is linked to the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m has been updated to include eligible results from BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR or the SIRTI and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Fast analysis of radionuclide decay chain migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. S.; Liang, C. P.; Liu, C. W.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    A novel tool for rapidly predicting the long-term plume behavior of an arbitrary length radionuclide decay chain is presented in this study. This fast tool is achieved based on generalized analytical solutions in compact format derived for a set of two-dimensional advection-dispersion equations coupled with sequential first-order decay reactions in groundwater system. The performance of the developed tool is evaluated by a numerical model using a Laplace transform finite difference scheme. The results of performance evaluation indicate that the developed model is robust and accurate. The developed model is then used to fast understand the transport behavior of a four-member radionuclide decay chain. Results show that the plume extents and concentration levels of any target radionuclide are very sensitive to longitudinal, transverse dispersion, decay rate constant and retardation factor. The developed model are useful tools for rapidly assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  8. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  9. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  10. Radionuclide Mobility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Smith, D; Rose, T; Glascoe, L; Steefel, C; Zavarin, M

    2003-11-13

    Underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are characterized by abundant fission product and actinide source terms. Included are {sup 99}Tc and other soluble radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in groundwater and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors. NTS provides the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an analog of the release of these radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository in the absence of engineered barriers. The investigation described in this report synthesizes a substantial body of data collected on the identity and distribution of soluble radionuclides at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters, for durations up to 40 years, and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This body of data is complemented by laboratory transport studies and a synthesis of recent modeling investigations from the NTS, with an emphasis on the ongoing Yucca Mountain Program (YMP) efforts. Overall, understanding the controls of radionuclide mobility associated with these nuclear tests will provide insight into the repository's future performance as well as bounds and calibrations for the numerical predictions of long-term radionuclide releases and migration.

  11. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

  12. Laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured Climax granite

    SciTech Connect

    Failor, R.; Isherwood, D.; Raber, E.; Vandergraaf, T.

    1982-06-01

    This report documents our laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured granite cores. To simulate natural conditions, our laboratory studies used naturally fractured cores and natural ground water from the Climax Granite Stock at the Nevada Test Site. For comparison, additional tests used artificially fractured granite cores or distilled water. Relative to the flow of tritiated water, {sup 85}Sr and /sup 95m/Tc showed little or no retardation, whereas {sup 137}Cs was retarded. After the transport runs the cores retained varying amounts of the injected radionuclides along the fracture. Autoradiography revealed some correlation between sorption and the fracture fill material. Strontium and cesium retention increased when the change was made from natural ground water to distilled water. Artificial fractures retained less {sup 137}Cs than most natural fractures. Estimated fracture apertures from 18 to 60 {mu}m and hydraulic conductivities from 1.7 to 26 x 10{sup -3} m/s were calculated from the core measurements.

  13. Radionuclide imaging of abomasal emptying in sheep.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, T; Stockdale, H R; Critchley, M; Grime, J S; Jones, R S; Maltby, P

    1997-01-01

    A liquid radionuclide tracer was administered to nine sheep in order to visualise the abomasum with a gamma camera computer system. The aim was to develop a method of studying gastric emptying, with minimal surgical intervention. Oral administration of the tracer gave good images of the whole complex stomach, but quantifying abomasal emptying was not possible because of the superimposition of the stomach compartments. When the reticular groove reflex was stimulated with oral copper sulphate the radionuclide bypassed the reticulorumen, allowing quantitative analysis of abomasal activity. However, the repeatability of the reflex activation was low. Radionuclide administered directly into the abomasum produced good images of abomasal outflow and provided digital data which were analysed quantitatively. A wide range of emptying rates was observed, generally with a stepped pattern.

  14. 2014 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David Patrick

    2015-07-21

    This report describes the emissions of airborne radionuclides from operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2014, and the resulting off-site dose from these emissions. This document fulfills the requirements established by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H – Emissions of Radionuclides other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities, commonly referred to as the Radionuclide NESHAP or Rad-NESHAP. Compliance with this regulation and preparation of this document is the responsibility of LANL’s RadNESHAP compliance program, which is part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6.

  15. State of radionuclides in natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kulmatov, R.A.; Rakhmatov, U.; Kist, A.A.; Volkov, A.A.

    1987-03-01

    This work is devoted to a study of the kinetics of attainment of equilibrium between various forms of the radionuclide mercury-203 and to an evaluation of the part played by isotope exchange in this process. The radionuclide mercury-203 was added without a carrier to natural waters of the Syr-Dar'ya and Amu-Dar'ya Rivers and the Aral Sea in the cationic form (3). In order to determine the time of attainment of equilibrium between the forms of the radionuclide mercury-203 and the stable nuclide analogs, they used the methods of sorption on L-36 glass, AV-17 anion-exchanger, KU-2 cation-exchanger, extraction with chloroform plus isobutyl alcohol, and filtration.

  16. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized.

  17. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

  18. Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2012-04-25

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

  19. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

  20. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Brabander, Tessa; Teunissen, Jaap J M; Van Eijck, Casper H J; Franssen, Gaston J H; Feelders, Richard A; de Herder, Wouter W; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, the number of neuroendocrine tumours that are detected is increasing. A relative new and promising therapy for patients with metastasised or inoperable disease is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). This therapy involves an infusion of somatostatin analogues linked to radionuclides like Yttrium-90 or Lutetium-177. Objective response rates are reported in 15-35%. Response rates may vary between type of tumour and radionuclide. Besides the objective response rate, overall survival and progression free survival increase significantly. Also, the quality of life improves as well. Serious side-affects are rare. PRRT is usually well tolerated, also in patients with extensive metastasised disease. Recent studies combined PRRT with other types of therapies. Unfortunately no randomised trials comparing these strategies are available. In the future, more research is needed to evaluate the best therapy combinations or sequence of therapies. PMID:26971847

  1. Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Mark; Herrington, Pres; Miley, Harry; Ellis, J. Edward; McKinnon, David; St. Pierre, Devon

    1999-08-03

    Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by electronic mail using formats defined in IMS 1.0, Formats and Protocols for Messages. An open message authentication standard exists, called S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), which has been proposed for use with all IMS radionuclide station message communications. This standard specifies adding a digital signature and public key certificate as a MIME attachment to the e-mail message. It is advantageous because it allows authentication to be added to all IMS 1.0 messages in a standard format and is commercially supported in e-mail software. For command and control, the RASA system uses a networked Graphical User Interface (GUI) based upon Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) communications, which requires special authentication procedures. The authors have modified the RASA system to meet CTBTO authentication guidelines, using a FORTEZZA card for authentication functions. They demonstrated signing radionuclide data messages at the RASA, then sending, receiving, and verifying the messages at a data center. They demonstrated authenticating command messages and responses from the data center GUI to the RASA. Also, the particular authentication system command to change the private/public key pair and retrieve the new public key was demonstrated. This work shows that data surety meeting IMS guidelines may be immediately applied to IMS radionuclide systems.

  2. Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2010-01-04

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

  3. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-05-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax.

  4. Detection of subdural empyema with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    McKillop, J.H.; Holtzman, D.S.; McDougall, I.R.

    1980-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is now the standard method of confirming a diagnosis of suspected subdural empyema. We report a case in which the radionuclide brain scan was abnormal at a time when the CT scan was normal. An /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scan was also performed in this patient and demonstrated abnormal uptake in the empyema. The scintigraphic findings in a second case of subdural empyema are also described. The relative roles of radionuclide studies and CT scans in the patient with suspected subdural empyema are discussed.

  5. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable. 136 references.

  6. Radionuclide scanning in children with rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Weinblatt, M.E.; Miller, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy was performed in 46 children with rhabdomyosarcoma. Of the 63 radiologically confirmed sites of bone disease, 76% were detected by /sup 99m/Tc-labeled phosphate uptake. All 15 sites of hepatic involvement and eight of the nine cranial sites of disease exhibited isotope accumulation. Gallium 67 scans showed 57% of the 43 proven sites of disease, including four previously unsuspected areas. Twelve false-positive sites were obtained with gallium. Radionuclide scanning is a valuable aid in the diagnostic evaluation and management of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

  7. Radionuclide inventories for short run-time space nuclear reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coats, R.L.

    1992-10-22

    Space Nuclear Reactor Systems, especially those used for propulsion, often have expected operation run times much shorter than those for land-based nuclear power plants. This produces substantially different radionuclide inventories to be considered in the safety analyses of space nuclear systems. This presentation describes an analysis utilizing ORIGEN2 and DKPOWER to provide comparisons among representative land-based and space systems. These comparisons enable early, conceptual considerations of safety issues and features in the preliminary design phases of operational systems, test facilities, and operations by identifying differences between the requirements for space systems and the established practice for land-based power systems. Early indications are that separation distance is much more effective as a safety measure for space nuclear systems than for power reactors because greater decay of the radionuclide activity occurs during the time to transport the inventory a given distance. In addition, the inventories of long-lived actinides are very low for space reactor systems.

  8. A free database of radionuclide voxel S values for the dosimetry of nonuniform activity distributions.

    PubMed

    Lanconelli, N; Pacilio, M; Lo Meo, S; Botta, F; Di Dia, A; Aroche, A Torres; Pérez, M A Coca; Cremonesi, M

    2012-01-21

    The increasing availability of SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity for the accurate assessment of the radiation dose to the biological target volume during radionuclide therapy. Voxel dosimetry can be performed employing direct Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, based on both morphological and functional images of the patient. On the other hand, for voxel dosimetry calculations the voxel S value method can be considered an easier approach than patient-specific Monte Carlo simulations, ensuring a good dosimetric accuracy at least for anatomic regions which are characterized by uniform density tissue. However, this approach has been limited because of the lack of tabulated S values for different voxel dimensions and radionuclides. The aim of this work is to provide a free dataset of values which can be used for voxel dosimetry in targeted radionuclide studies. Seven different radionuclides (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, 188Re), and 13 different voxel sizes (2.21, 2.33, 2.4, 3, 3.59, 3.9, 4, 4.42, 4.8, 5, 6, 6.8 and 9.28 mm) are considered. Voxel S values are calculated performing simulations of monochromatic photon and electron sources in two different homogeneous tissues (soft tissue and bone) with DOSXYZnrc code, and weighting the contributions on the basis of the radionuclide emission spectra. The outcomes are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with other codes (PENELOPE and MCNP4c) performing direct simulation of the radionuclide emission spectra. The differences among the different Monte Carlo codes are of the order of a few per cent when considering the source voxel and the bremsstrahlung tail, whereas the highest differences are observed at a distance close to the maximum continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. These discrepancies would negligibly affect dosimetric assessments. The dataset of voxel S values can be freely downloaded from the website www.medphys.it.

  9. A free database of radionuclide voxel S values for the dosimetry of nonuniform activity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanconelli, N.; Pacilio, M.; Lo Meo, S.; Botta, F.; Di Dia, A.; Torres Aroche, L. A.; Coca Pérez, M. A.; Cremonesi, M.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing availability of SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity for the accurate assessment of the radiation dose to the biological target volume during radionuclide therapy. Voxel dosimetry can be performed employing direct Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, based on both morphological and functional images of the patient. On the other hand, for voxel dosimetry calculations the voxel S value method can be considered an easier approach than patient-specific Monte Carlo simulations, ensuring a good dosimetric accuracy at least for anatomic regions which are characterized by uniform density tissue. However, this approach has been limited because of the lack of tabulated S values for different voxel dimensions and radionuclides. The aim of this work is to provide a free dataset of values which can be used for voxel dosimetry in targeted radionuclide studies. Seven different radionuclides (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, 188Re), and 13 different voxel sizes (2.21, 2.33, 2.4, 3, 3.59, 3.9, 4, 4.42, 4.8, 5, 6, 6.8 and 9.28 mm) are considered. Voxel S values are calculated performing simulations of monochromatic photon and electron sources in two different homogeneous tissues (soft tissue and bone) with DOSXYZnrc code, and weighting the contributions on the basis of the radionuclide emission spectra. The outcomes are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with other codes (PENELOPE and MCNP4c) performing direct simulation of the radionuclide emission spectra. The differences among the different Monte Carlo codes are of the order of a few per cent when considering the source voxel and the bremsstrahlung tail, whereas the highest differences are observed at a distance close to the maximum continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. These discrepancies would negligibly affect dosimetric assessments. The dataset of voxel S values can be freely downloaded from the website www.medphys.it.

  10. Assessment of Radionuclides in the Savannah River Site Environment Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.

    1999-01-26

    This document summarizes the impact of radionuclide releases from Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities from 1954 through 1996. The radionuclides reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS.

  11. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T. ); Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E. ); Wobber, F.J. )

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. REMOVAL OF RADIONUCLIDES BY ELECTROKINETIC SOIL PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrokinetics promises to be an innovative treatment process for in-situ treatment of soils and groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Electrokinetics refers to the movement of ionic liquids and charged particles relative to one another under the action ...

  13. Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Layered materials play an important role in nuclear waste management and environmental cleanup. Better understanding of radionuclide interactions with those materials is critical for engineering high-performance materials for various applications. This presentation will provide an overview on radionuclide interactions with two general categories of layered materials - cationic clays and anionic clays - from a perspective of nanopore confinement. Nanopores are widely present in layered materials, either as the interlayers or as inter-particle space. Nanopore confinement can significantly modify chemical reactions in those materials. This effect may cause the preferential enrichment of radionuclides in nanopores and therefore directly impact the mobility of the radionuclides. This effect also implies that conventional sorption measurements using disaggregated samples may not represent chemical conditions in actual systems. The control of material structures on ion exchange, surface complexation, and diffusion in layered materials will be systematically examined, and the related modeling approaches will be discussed. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories, which is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the DOE under contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  14. Distribution of radionuclides in Dardanelle Reservoir sediments.

    PubMed

    Forgy, J R; Epperson, C E; Swindle, D L

    1984-02-01

    Natural and reactor-discharged gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Dardanelle Reservoir surface sediments taken near the Arkansas Nuclear One Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths and particle sizes, at 33 locations, in a field survey conducted in early September 1980. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: natural radioactivity (40K as well as uranium and thorium decay products) 661-1210 Bq/kg; and reactor discharged radioactivity (137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co,, 58Co, 54Mn), no detectable activity to 237 Bq/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with decreasing sediment particle size. The average external whole-body and skin doses from all measurable reactor-discharged radionuclides were calculated according to the mathematical formula for determining external dose from sediment given by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Inside the discharge embayment near the reactor discharge canal, the doses were 1.7 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and 2.0 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the skin. Outside this area, the doses were 0.15 X 10(-3) and 0.18 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and skin, respectively. PMID:6693264

  15. Physical and chemical properties of radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Wessels, B W; Meares, C F

    2000-04-01

    As more radionuclide therapies move from laboratory feasibility studies into clinical reality, it becomes increasingly important for the labeling chemistry to produce consistently a stable radiopharmaceutical that remains intact under the challenge of human catabolism. Similarly, once proof of principle is established to bring a radionuclide conjugate into clinical therapy trials, dosimetric estimates should be made to select the appropriate radionuclide properties, which are based on animal-specific or patient-specific pharmacokinetics and match a set of specific clinical endpoints. These properties may include the radionuclide physical half-life, radiolabeled conjugate biological uptake and clearance, product-specific activity, range and type of emissions, and resultant effects on tumor and normal tissue cellular survival. The immunologist and labeling chemist have now produced a variety of strategies that have potential to increase the therapeutic ratio (tumor-to-normal tissue dose ratio). The advent of normal tissue clearing agents, fragmented or chimerized carriers to improve targeting, and the method of bispecific or two-step and three-step targeting agents has increased the need for realistic modeling of the carrier in vivo to guide prospectively the competitive development of these radiopharmaceuticals. In this article, examples have been taken from the literature to elucidate the benchmark of success that careful experimental design has fostered to bring these agents into clinical practice by creative and logical methodologies.

  16. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  17. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide...

  18. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device intended to permit...

  19. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device intended to permit...

  20. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A radionuclide brachytherapy source is a device that consists of...

  1. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A radionuclide brachytherapy source is a device that consists of...

  2. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A radionuclide brachytherapy source is a device that consists of...

  3. Intercomparison of radionuclide calibrator measurements in U.K. hospitals.

    PubMed

    Woods, M J

    1983-01-01

    The Life Sciences Working Group of the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology had received various reports of users of radionuclide calibrators experiencing problems in obtaining accurate measurements of radionuclide activity. Working Group members were encouraged to initiate surveys in their own countries to assess the magnitude of these problems. The results of the survey in the United Kingdom are given.

  4. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is...

  5. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is...

  6. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is...

  7. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A remote controlled radionuclide applicator system is...

  8. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  9. The International Framework for Maintaining Equivalence and Traceability in Radionuclide Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Mike; Sahagia, Maria

    2008-08-14

    Confidence that a testing or calibration laboratory consistently obtains reliable results is of major importance to users of laboratory services and participation in proficiency testing schemes provides laboratories with an objective means of assessing and demonstrating the level of confidence that can be ascribed to the reliability of the data they are producing. That level of confidence, in turn, depends on the quality of the proficiency tests and, in particular, on the accuracy of the property values associated with the test samples. In the ideal situation, the relevant property value, such as the activity of a particular radionuclide in a test matrix, will be directly traceable to the SI via comparisons with a national or international metrology institute (NMI). This, in turn, begs the question of, how reliable are the results from that NMI.Demonstration of that reliability at the highest metrological levels is achieved through inter-laboratory comparisons that are conducted between national and international metrological institutes. These are coordinated primarily by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) via Key Comparisons or by comparisons within Regional Metrological Organisations (RMOs), with the results from those RMO exercises being linked to the BIPM Key Comparison results. Such programmes have been in place for many years but they have grown in importance and frequency over the past decade. Tabulation of these comparison data has been regularized recently and made available to the user communities via the BIPM Key Comparison Database (KCDB).In the field of ionizing radiation, the radionuclide metrology discipline exhibits a number of special features. For example, these include the number of potential radionuclides in a user sample; the variety of physical and chemical formats that may be presented; the statistical and temporal effects of radioactive decay; the variations in primary standardization techniques; and the restricted

  10. Targeted radionuclide therapy--an overview.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, F F Russ; Pillai, M R A

    2013-09-01

    Radionuclide therapy (RNT) based on the concept of delivering cytotoxic levels of radiation to disease sites is one of the rapidly growing fields of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, RNT targets diseases at the cellular level rather than on a gross anatomical level. This concept is a blend of a tracer moiety that mediates a site specific accumulation followed by induction of cytotoxicity with the short-range biological effectiveness of particulate radiations. Knowledge of the biochemical reactions taking place at cellular levels has stimulated the development of sophisticated molecular carriers, catalyzing a shift towards using more specific targeting radiolabelled agents. There is also improved understanding of factors of importance for choice of appropriate radionuclides based on availability, the types of emissions, linear energy transfer (LET), and physical half-life. This article discusses the applications of radionuclide therapy for treatment of cancer as well as other diseases. The primary objective of this review is to provide an overview on the role of radionuclide therapy in the treatment of different diseases such as polycythaemia, thyroid malignancies, metastatic bone pain, radiation synovectomy, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and others. In addition, recent developments on the systematic approach in designing treatment regimens as well as recent progress, challenges and future perspectives are discussed. An examination of the progress of radionuclide therapy indicates that although a rapid stride has been made for treating hematological tumors, the development for treating solid tumors has, so far, been limited. However, the emergence of novel tumor-specific targeting agents coupled with successful characterization of new target structures would be expected to pave the way for future treatment for such tumors.

  11. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  12. Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

  13. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere observed at Tsukuba: characteristics of the radionuclides derived from Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Doi, Taeko; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi; Toyoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Hirose, Katsumi

    2013-08-01

    During a serious accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a huge quantity of radionuclides was released into the atmosphere and ocean. We measured anthropogenic radionuclides in surface air at Tsukuba, about 170 km from the FDNPP. On March 15, 2011, we detected the radioactivity released from the Fukushima accident in air samples at Tsukuba. The major radionuclides that we observed were radioiodine ((131)I, (132)I, (133)I) and radiocesium ((134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs). This radioiodine consisted of gaseous and particulate forms; the percentage of particulate (131)I in the total (131)I ranged from 0 to 86%. The percentage of the particulate (131)I to the total (131)I increased on the arrival of the plumes from major emissions of the FDNPP. After activities of the radionuclides attained the maximum on March 15, 2011, the FDNPP-derived radionuclides decreased rapidly in surface air. The activity median aerodynamic diameter of (131)I-bearing particles was 0.7 μm, while those of (134)Cs- and (137)Cs-bearing particles were larger than 1 μm. Large variations of ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (132)Te/(137)Cs, and (99)Mo ((99m)Tc)/(137)Cs (all involving different elements) suggest that the behaviors of these radionuclides in the atmosphere, including the processes of their emission, differed each other.

  14. Cancer mortality in relation to monitoring for radionuclide exposure in three UK nuclear industry workforces.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, L. M.; Higgins, C. D.; Douglas, A. J.; Maconochie, N. E.; Omar, R. Z.; Fraser, P.; Beral, V.; Smith, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    exposure, with rates of radiation workers not monitored for any radionuclide forming the comparison group. In tritium-monitored workers, RRs for prostatic cancer varied significantly according to the number of years in which they were monitored (2P = 0.03). In workers monitored for plutonium exposure, RRs for all cancers combined increased with the number of years in which they were monitored (2P = 0.04) and with the number of years since first monitoring (2P = 0.0003). There was little suggestion of systematic variation in RRs for workers monitored for other radionuclides in relation to the timing or duration of monitoring, nor did it appear that their raised rates of cancer of the lung and prostate were explained by external radiation dose. These analyses of cancer mortality in relation to monitoring for radionuclide exposure reported in a large cohort of nuclear industry workers suggest that certain patterns of monitoring for some radionuclides may be associated with higher death rates from cancers of the lung, pleura, prostate and all cancers combined. Some of these findings may be due to chance. Moreover, because of the paucity of related data and lack of information about other possible exposures, such as whether plutonium workers are more likely to be exposed to asbestos, firm conclusions cannot be drawn at this stage. Further investigations of the relationship between radionuclide exposure and cancer in nuclear industry workers are needed. PMID:9820185

  15. Forage uptake of uranium series radionuclides in the vicinity of the anaconda uranium mill

    SciTech Connect

    Rayno, D.R.; Momeni, M.H.; Sabau, C.

    1980-01-01

    Radiochemical analysis was performed on samples of soil and eight species of common vegetation growing on the Anaconda uranium mill site, located in New Mexico. The concentrations of the long-lived radionuclides U-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, and Pb-210 in these forage plants were determined. The sampling procedures and analytical laboratory methods used are described. The highest radionuclide concentration found in a forage species was 130 pCi of Ra-226 per gram dry weight for grass growing on the main tailings pile at Anaconda, where the surface soil activity of Ra-226 was 236 pCi/g. A comparison of shoots activity with that of roots and soil was used to determine a distribution index and uptake coefficient for each species. The distribution index, the ratio of root activity to shoot activity, ranged from 0.30 (Th-230) in galleta grass (Hilaria jamesii) to 38.0 (Ra-226) in Indian ricegrass (Oryzopsis hymenoides). In nearly all instances, the roots contained higher radionuclide concentrations. The uptake coefficient, the ratio of vegetation activity to soil activity, ranged from 0.69 (U-238) in Indian ricegrass roots to 0.01 (U-238) in four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescans) shoots. The range of radionuclide concentrations in plants growing on the Anaconda mill site is compared to that in vegetation from a control site 20 km away.

  16. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  17. Radionuclide bone scanning in giant cell tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nostrand, D.; Madewell, J.E.; McNiesh, L.M.; Kyle, R.W.; Sweet, D.

    1986-03-01

    Radionuclide bone scan findings are described and correlated with pathology in 23 patients with giant cell tumor (GCT) of the bone. The degree of radionuclide activity was markedly increased in 20 (87%), minimally increased in three (13%), and decreased in none of the patients. Of the 23 patients with increased radioactivity, the pattern was diffuse in 11 (48%) and doughnut in 12 (52%). Extended patterns of radioactivity were present in 19 of 22 patients; however, none were associated with true tumor extension. Bone scanning did not aid in the detection of GCT, was nonspecific, and did not differentiate benign from malignant GCT. Although radioactivity extended beyond the radiographic abnormality in the majority of patients, this was most likely secondary to other bony abnormalities or local and/or regional hyperemia, and caution should be taken in ascribing this extension to either tumor or metastasis.

  18. Radionuclide synovectomy – essentials for rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Felis-Giemza, Anna; Kobylecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70–80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice. PMID:27504020

  19. Decline of radionuclides in Columbia River biota

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Watson, D.G.; Scott, A.J.; Gurtisen, J.M.

    1980-03-01

    In January 1971, the last of nine plutonium production reactors using direct discharge of once-through cooling waters into the Columbia River was closed. Sampling was initiated at three stations on the Columbia River to document the decline of the radionuclide body burdens in the biota of the Columbia River ecosystem. The data show that in a river-reservoir complex, the measurable body burden of fission-produced radionuclides decreased to essentially undetectable levels within 18 to 24 mo after cessation of discharge of once-through cooling water into the river. On the basis of data from the free-flowing station, we believe that this decrease would be even more rapid in an unimpounded river.

  20. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  1. [Radionuclide therapy for bone metastases: new opportunities].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V V; Kochetova, T Yu; Voloznev, L V

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of patients with multiple bone metastases accompanied by pain syndrome is a complicated clinical task. Radionuclide therapy is one of its solutions, which is used to achieve long reduction of pain syndrome and significant improvement the quality of patients' life. However mechanism of action of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals suggests not only pain control but antitumor effect as well. In early clinical studies of safety and efficacy of the most common bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in single administration there were not any preferences in overall survival but individual clinical cases with extraordinary tumor regression after radionuclide therapy were reported. Repeated bone targeted therapy and combination with other treatment modalities can help to gain statistical significant increase in overall survival of patients.

  2. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary vasculature resulting in intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cuntaeous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  3. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggrregated albumin (/sup 99m/Tc MAA) labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cutaneous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  4. Skin decontamination of commonly used medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Moore, P H; Mettler, F A

    1980-05-01

    The increasing use of radionuclides in medical diagnosis raises the possibility of accidental spills and skin contamination. This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of several decontaminating agents. Most nuclides were easily removed to levels of less than 5% of their original activity. Sodium pertechnetate (Tc-99m) was the most difficult compound to remove. Little difference was found between the effectiveness of tap water, soap and water, and two commercially available decontaminating agents.

  5. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  6. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  7. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. PMID:24508949

  8. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk.

  9. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.

    1986-12-01

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references.

  10. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  11. Concrete Property and Radionuclide Migration Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2008-10-01

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the DOE Complex. Part of theses services includes safe disposal of LLW and MLLW at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the requirements listed in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, a Performance Assessment (PA) analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires that continuing data collection be conducted to enhance confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied upon to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the Order. One critical assumption is that concrete will frequently be used as waste form or container material to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Data was collected to (1) quantify radionuclide migration through concrete materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the LLBG, (2) measure the properties of the concrete materials, especially those likely to influence radionuclide migration, and (3) quantify the stability of U-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  12. [Biosorption of Radionuclide Uranium by Deinococcus radiodurans].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Dong, Fa-qin; Dai, Qun-wei; Liu, Ming-xue; Nie, Xiao-qin; Zhang, Dong; Ma, Jia-lin; Zhou, Xian

    2015-04-01

    As a biological adsorbent, Living Deinococcus radiodurans was used for removing radionuclide uranium in the aqueous solution. The effect factors on biosorption of radionuclide uranium were researched in the present paper, including solution pH values and initial uranium concentration. Meanwhile, the biosorption mechanism was researched by the method of FTIR and SEM/EDS. The results show that the optimum conditions for biosorption are as follows: pH = 5, co = 100 mg · L(-1) and the maximum biosorption capacity is up to 240 mgU · g(-1). According to the SEM results and EDXS analysis, it is indicated that the cell surface is attached by lots of sheet uranium crystals, and the main biosorpiton way of uranium is the ion exchange or surface complexation. Comparing FTIR spectra and FTIR fitting spectra before and after biosorption, we can find that the whole spectra has a certain change, particularly active groups (such as amide groups of the protein, hydroxy, carboxyl and phosphate group) are involved in the biosorption process. Then, there is a new peak at 906 cm(-1) and it is a stretching vibration peak of UO2(2+). Obviously, it is possible that as an anti radiation microorganism, Deinococcus radiodurans could be used for removing radionuclide uranium in radiation environment.

  13. Sorption of radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, A.; Triay, I.; Knight, S.; Cisneros, M.

    1989-11-01

    A substantial database of sorption coefficients for important radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs has been obtained by Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past ten years. Current sorption studies are focussed on validation questions and augmentation of the existing database. Validation questions concern the effects of the use of crushed instead of solid rock samples in the batch experiments, the use of oversaturated stock solutions, and variations in water/rock ratios. Sorption mechanisms are also being investigated. Database augmentation activities include determination of sorption coefficients for elements with low sorption potential, sorption on psuedocolloids, sorption on fracture lining minerals, and sorption kinetics. Sorption can provide an important barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the proposed repository within Yucca Mountain to the accessible environment. In order to quantify this barrier, sorption coefficients appropriate for the Yucca Mountain groundwater system must be obtained for each of the important radionuclides in nuclear waste. Los Alamos National Laboratories has conducted numerous batch (crushed-rock) sorption experiments over the past ten years to develop a sorption coefficient database for the Yucca Mountain site. In the present site characterization phase, the main goals of the sorption test program will be to validate critical sorption coefficients and to augment the existing database where important data are lacking. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  14. UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-28

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  15. Radionuclide transport and retardation in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.N.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; DeVilliers, S.J.; Erdal, B.R.; Lawrence, F.O.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1980-12-31

    Batch measurements provide an understanding of which experimental variables are important. For example, sorption ratios vary little with particle size (and surface area); however, groundwater composition and rock composition are quite important. A general correlation has been identified between mineralogy (major phases) and degree of sorption for strontium, cesium, and barium. Although these are approximate, a more detailed analysis may be possible as more samples are studied and the data base increased. Data from crushed tuff columns indicate that, except in simple cases where sorption coefficients are relatively low, and ion-exchange equilibria not only exist but are the dominant mechanism for removal of radioisotopes from solution, the simple relation between the sorption ratio R/sub d/ (or K/sub d/) and the relative velocity of radionuclides with respect to groundwater velocity may be insufficient to permit accurate modeling of the retardation of radionuclides. Additional work on whole core columns and larger blocks of intact material is required to better understand radionuclide sorption and transport through rock.

  16. Targeted radionuclide therapies for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Shah, M; Da Silva, R; Gravekamp, C; Libutti, S K; Abraham, T; Dadachova, E

    2015-08-01

    Pancreatic malignancies, the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths, have an aggressive behavior with poor prognosis, resulting in a 5-year survival rate of only 4%. It is typically a silent malignancy until patients develop metastatic disease. Targeted radionuclide therapies of cancer such as radiolabeled peptides, which bind to the receptors overexpressed by cancer cells and radiolabeled antibodies to tumor-specific antigens provide a viable alternative to chemotherapy and external beam radiation of metastatic cancers. Multiple clinical trials of targeted radionuclide therapy of pancreatic cancer have been performed in the last decade and demonstrated safety and potential efficacy of radionuclide therapy for treatment of this formidable disease. Although a lot of progress has been made in treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with radiolabeled (90)Y and (177)Lu somatostatin peptide analogs, pancreatic adenocarcinomas remain a major challenge. Novel approaches such as peptides and antibodies radiolabeled with alpha emitters, pre-targeting, bispecific antibodies and biological therapy based on the radioactive tumorlytic bacteria might offer a potential breakthrough in treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinomas.

  17. Evaluation of radionuclide dose-calibrator measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Paras, P.; Comer, F.M.; Demeis, F.; Coursey, B.M.; Calhoun, J.M.; Golas, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    Performance data for radionuclide dose calibrators, which are primarily ionization chambers, are scarce. Large deviations have occasionally been reported, particularly for low photon energies, i.e., emissions from /sup 201/Tl, /sup 133/Xe. The volunteer user program (QB series) of the College of American Pathologists (CAP) (laboratory intercomparison quality control), supported by the US National Bureau of Standards (NBS), for quality control of dose calibrators was suspended. The Atomic Industrial Forum (AIF) has a quality control program among radiopharmaceutical manufacturers but there is no user program in the US at this time, and the performance of dose calibrators in the field is not known. In addition, a number of professionals expressed a strong feeling for the continuation of the CAP program and the availability of standards for dose calibrators from NBS. The objective of this study is twofold: (a) to evaluate the accuracy of dose calibrator measurements for individual patient radioactivity administered doses, and (b) to provide certified sources of certain radionuclides to calibrate the instruments for these radionuclides.

  18. Towards a unified modeling system of predicting the transport of radionuclides in coastal sea regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Kyung Tae; Brovchenko, Igor; Maderich, Vladimir; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Qiao, Fangli

    2016-04-01

    We present in this talk a recent progress in developing a unified modeling system of predicting three-dimensional transport of radionuclides coupled with multiple-scale circulation, wave and suspended sediment modules, keeping in mind the application to coastal sea regions with non-uniform distribution of suspended and bed sediments of both cohesive and non-cohesive types. The model calculates the concentration fields of dissolved and particulate radionuclides in bottom sediment as well as in water column. The transfer of radioactivity between the water column and the pore water in the upper layer of the bottom sediment is governed by diffusion processes. The phase change between dissolved and particulate radionuclides is written in terms of absorption/desorption rates and distribution coefficients. The dependence of distribution coefficients is inversely proportional to the sediment particle size. The hydrodynamic numerical model SELFE that solves equations for the multiple-scale circulation, the wave action and sand transport on the unstructured grids has been used as a base model. We have extended the non-cohesive sediment module of SELFE to the form applicable to mixture of cohesive and non-cohesive sedimentary regimes by implementing an extended form of erosional rate and a flocculation model for the determination of settling velocity of cohesive flocs. Issues related to the calibration of the sediment transport model in the Yellow Sea are described. The radionuclide transport model with one-step transfer kinetics and single bed layer has been initially developed and then applied to Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. The model has been in this study verified through the comparison with measurements of 137Cs concentration in bed sediments. Preliminary application to the Yellow and East China Seas with a hypothetical release scenario are described. On-going development of the radionuclide transport model using two-step transfer kinetics and multiple bed layers

  19. Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    1981-04-01

    The study objective of "The Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters" is to synthesize and test radionuclide transport models capable of realistically assessing radionuclide transport in various types of surface water bodies by including the sediment-radionuclide interactions. These interactions include radionuclide adsorption by sediment; desorption from sediment into water; and transport, deposition, and resuspension of sorbed radionuclides controlled by the sediment movements. During FY-1979, the modification of sediment and contaminant (radionuclide) transport model, FETRA, was completed to make it applicable to coastal waters. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral) model that consists of three submodels (for sediment, dissolved-contaminant, and particulate-contaminant transport), coupled to include the sediment-contaminant interactions. In estuaries, flow phenomena and consequent sediment and radionuclide migration are often three-dimensional in nature mainly because of nonuniform channel cross-sections, salinity intrusion, and lateral-flow circulation. Thus, an unsteady, three-dimensional radionuclide transport model for estuaries is also being synthesized by combining and modifying a PNL unsteady hydrothermal model and FETRA. These two radionuclide transport models for coastal waters and estuaries will be applied to actual sites to examine the validity of the codes.

  20. Innovative methodology for intercomparison of radionuclide calibrators using short half-life in situ prepared radioactive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, P. A.; Santos, J. A. M.

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: An original radionuclide calibrator method for activity determination is presented. The method could be used for intercomparison surveys for short half-life radioactive sources used in Nuclear Medicine, such as{sup 99m}Tc or most positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals. Methods: By evaluation of the resulting net optical density (netOD) using a standardized scanning method of irradiated Gafchromic XRQA2 film, a comparison of the netOD measurement with a previously determined calibration curve can be made and the difference between the tested radionuclide calibrator and a radionuclide calibrator used as reference device can be calculated. To estimate the total expected measurement uncertainties, a careful analysis of the methodology, for the case of{sup 99m}Tc, was performed: reproducibility determination, scanning conditions, and possible fadeout effects. Since every factor of the activity measurement procedure can influence the final result, the method also evaluates correct syringe positioning inside the radionuclide calibrator. Results: As an alternative to using a calibrated source sent to the surveyed site, which requires a relatively long half-life of the nuclide, or sending a portable calibrated radionuclide calibrator, the proposed method uses a source preparedin situ. An indirect activity determination is achieved by the irradiation of a radiochromic film using {sup 99m}Tc under strictly controlled conditions, and cumulated activity calculation from the initial activity and total irradiation time. The irradiated Gafchromic film and the irradiator, without the source, can then be sent to a National Metrology Institute for evaluation of the results. Conclusions: The methodology described in this paper showed to have a good potential for accurate (3%) radionuclide calibrators intercomparison studies for{sup 99m}Tc between Nuclear Medicine centers without source transfer and can easily be adapted to other short half-life radionuclides.

  1. Radionuclide release and transport from nuclear underground tests performed at Mururoa and Fangataufa--predictions under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Pfingsten, W; Hadermann, J; Perrochet, P

    2001-02-01

    In the context of a study by the International Geomechanical Commission (IGC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the effects of nuclear tests at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa, release to the biosphere is estimated for 35 radionuclides originating from 147 nuclear underground tests. Based on a qualitatively characterised hydrogeological situation of atolls and relatively scarce site-specific data, a model chain was developed to conservatively estimate the radionuclide fluxes via groundwater, from their sources, the explosion cavities, towards the biosphere, the ocean or lagoon. Finite element hydro-thermal modelling was used to describe water flow. Parameters were calibrated by a very few measured pre-test temperature profiles in bore holes. The impact of the tests on groundwater flow and mechanical impact on rock was considered. Estimates were made to quantify spatial extensions and temporal evolution of impact by using measurements on refilling rate of the cavities. Tests were categorised according to their specific yield and location although detailed data were missing. A base case parameter set was defined for the hydraulic conditions and for the initial radionuclide inventory of individual tests. Models were used to describe the concentration of radionuclides in the cavities as a function of time. Radionuclide transport from the cavities to the biosphere was represented by two different approaches: a double porosity model for the fractured volcanic rock and a single porosity model for the overlaying, highly porous carbonates. Results consist of conservative estimates on radionuclide release into the environment, or concentration in the lagoon or ocean water. Their sensitivity was investigated using different models and parameters. A few measured data (concentrations in a few cavities, in the deep carbonates and in the lagoons for selected radionuclides, such as 3H, 14C, 36Cl, 90Sr, 129I, 137Cs239 240Pu and 241Am) were available for a

  2. Tissue radionuclide concentrations in water birds and upland birds on the Hanford Site (USA) from 1971-2009.

    PubMed

    Delistraty, Damon; Van Verst, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result, there is a need to characterize contaminant effects on site biota. Within this framework, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in bird tissue, obtained from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The database was sorted by avian group (water bird vs. upland bird), radionuclide (over 20 analytes), tissue (muscle, bone, liver), location (onsite vs. offsite), and time period (1971-1990 vs. 1991-2009). Onsite median concentrations in water birds were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in onsite upland birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990) and Sr-90 in bone (1991-2009), perhaps due to behavioral, habitat, or trophic species differences. Onsite median concentrations in water birds were higher (borderline significance with Bonferroni P = 0.05) than those in offsite birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990). Onsite median concentrations in the earlier time period were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in the later time period for Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Sr-90 in water bird muscle and for Cs-137 in upland bird muscle tissue. Median concentrations of Sr-90 in bone were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in muscle for both avian groups and both locations. Over the time period, 1971-2009, onsite median internal dose was estimated for each radionuclide in water bird and upland bird tissues. However, a meaningful dose comparison between bird groups was not possible, due to a dissimilar radionuclide inventory, mismatch of time periods for input radionuclides, and lack of an external dose estimate. Despite these limitations, our results contribute toward ongoing efforts to characterize ecological risk at the Hanford Site.

  3. An international model validation exercise on radionuclide transfer and doses to freshwater biota.

    SciTech Connect

    Yankovich, T. L.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Vives-Lynch, S.; Beresford, N. A.; Barnett, C. L.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Brown, J. E.; Cheng, J.-J.; Copplestone, D.; Heling, R.; Hosseini, A.; Howard, B. J.; Kamboj, S.; Kryshev, A. I.; Nedveckaite, T.; Smith, J. T.; Wood, M. D.; Environmental Science Division; AREVA Resources; Environmental Science, Westlakes Scientific Consulting Ltd.; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; IRSN; Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority; The Environment Agency; Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group; Univ. of Liverpool; School of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Inst. of Physics, Lithuania; State Enterprise Scientific Production Association

    2010-06-09

    Under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)'s EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program, activity concentrations of {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 3}H in Perch Lake at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Chalk River Laboratories site were predicted, in freshwater primary producers, invertebrates, fishes, herpetofauna and mammals using eleven modelling approaches. Comparison of predicted radionuclide concentrations in the different species types with measured values highlighted a number of areas where additional work and understanding is required to improve the predictions of radionuclide transfer. For some species, the differences could be explained by ecological factors such as trophic level or the influence of stable analogues. Model predictions were relatively poor for mammalian species and herpetofauna compared with measured values, partly due to a lack of relevant data. In addition, concentration ratios are sometimes under-predicted when derived from experiments performed under controlled laboratory conditions representative of conditions in other water bodies.

  4. Developing of Watershed Radionuclide Transport Model DHSVM-R as Modification and Extension of Distributed Hydrological and Sediment Dynamics Model DHSVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleznyak, M.; Kivva, S.; Onda, Y.; Nanba, K.; Wakiyama, Y.; Konoplev, A.

    2015-12-01

    of sediment transport in radionuclide wash-off from mountain and lowland watersheds is analyzed in comparison of modeling results for Chernobyl and Fukushima watersheds.

  5. Deposition of radionuclides by fogwater on plants at Houdelaincourt, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tav, Jackie; Masson, Olivier; Burnet, Frédéric; De Visme, Anne; Paulat, Pascal; Bourrianne, Thierrry; Conil, Sébastien; Simon, Maxime

    2015-04-01

    After a nuclear accident like Fukushima, large quantities of radionuclides attached to particles are released in the atmosphere. Those particles can act as condensation nuclei to form fog droplets. To determine the radiological impact of fog droplets deposition on plants, an analysis of the fogwater radioactivity levels and a quantification of the fogwater deposition have been performed. To collect fogwater samples, a replica of the Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collector (Demoz et al. 1996) is implemented at the atmospheric research platform in Houdelaincourt (North-East region of France). This instrument allows air containing fog drops to be drawn through a cylinder by a fan. In this tube, rows of Teflon strands are collecting the drops by impaction. Other active collectors have been developed on the same principle with a tube and a mesh grid as the impaction surface. Passive collectors are also used; they consist of vertical strings surrounding a container where the drops are collected. Once the fogwater is collected, it is analyzed to determine the activity levels of gamma emitter radionuclides. In previous studies (Bourcier 2009) the mean level activity for cesium 137, beryllium 7 and lead 210 in rainwater at the Puy de DÙme have been previously estimated. A comparison between activity levels found in rainwater and in fogwater highlights the fact that fog deposition of radionuclides is far from negligible. At the same time a fog monitor FM-120 from DMT provides the size distribution of droplets from 1 to 30 microns. A visibility meter and a PVM from Gerber Scientific Inc. provide respectively the visibility and the liquid water content (LWC) to identify and characterize fog events. In order to quantify the deposition of water on plants, plastics plants were exposed to fog droplet deposition and weighed at the end of the event to measure the amount of water deposited. A second experiment was conducted, during which plastics plants were implemented on a

  6. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom... performance characteristic of a nuclear medicine imaging device. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom... performance characteristic of a nuclear medicine imaging device. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom... performance characteristic of a nuclear medicine imaging device. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom... performance characteristic of a nuclear medicine imaging device. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  10. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  11. Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides. This bibliography is a compilation of the references containing studies of plutonium and americium in the environment as a result of resuspension.

  12. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  13. [Biological effects of the iodine 131 radionuclide].

    PubMed

    Kasuba, V

    1997-06-01

    Radionuclides released into the biosphere by local sources are added to artificial radionuclides introduced by atmospheric nuclear weapon tests or nuclear accidents. The main polluters are nuclear industry reprocessing plants and nuclear power stations. Other sources are hospitals using radionuclides for diagnostics and therapy. This article presents the effects of radioisotope iodine-131 on a living organism, on the cell and on the genetic material within the cell. Beside the accident iodine-131 contamination, its wide diagnostic and therapeutic application attributes to the total radiation dose. The biological distribution of this radiopharmaceutical in the body depends on the way of use and on the and physical and chemical shape of this radiopharmaceutical. A few minutes after the administration, all iodine ingested or inhaled is rapidly absorbed by blood. The irradiation dose in blood depends on the administered amount of 131I and the fraction passing into the plasma as protein-bound 131I. After entering the organism, iodine mostly accumulates in the thyroid gland. The effect of ionized radiation on living cells are proportional to the dosage of 131I. Intracellular radioactive decay occurs in cytoplasm, in karyoplasm, and in the DNA molecule incorporated fraction. Beside the damage resulting from the deposition of radiation energy, 131I causes biological damage when it decays while the isotope is incorporated into the DNA of human cells. Certain beta/gamma-emitting isotopes such as 131I may be particularly hazardous when incorporated into DNA. Incorporation of radioactively labeled compounds into the DNA leads to highly selective irradiation of the nucleus of the proliferating cells. This produces pronounced biological damage as the genetic material in the cell nucleus constitutes the most radiosensitive target within the cell. PMID:9471970

  14. Visualizing plumes of heavy metals and radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigiobbe, V.; Liu, T.; Bryant, S. L.; Hesse, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The understanding of the transport behaviors in porous media resides on the ability to reproduce fundamental phenomena in a lab setting. Experiments with quasi 2D tanks filled with beads are performed to study physical phenomena induced by chemical and fluid dynamic processes. When an alkaline solution containing heavy metals or radionuclides invades a low pH region, mixing due to longitudinal dispersion induces destabilization of the front forming a fast travelling pulse [1]. When the two fluids travel in parallel, instead, mixing induced by transverse dispersion creates a continuous leakage from the alkaline region into the acidic one forming a fast travelling plume [2] (Figure 1). Impact of these phenomena are on aquifers upon leaking of alkaline fluids, rich in heavy metals and radionuclides, from waste storage sites. Here, we report the results from a study where experiments with a quasi 2D tank are performed to analyze the effect of transverse mixing on strontium (Sr2+) transport. To visualize the leaking plume, a fluorescent dye (Fura-2) is added the acidic solution, which has been widely used in biomedical applications [3]. It is the aim of this work to optimize its application under the conditions relevant to this work. Spectrometric measurements of absorption and fluorescence show sensitivity of the dye to the presence of Sr2+ throughout a broad range of pH and Sr2+ concentration (Figure 2). In the absence of Sr2+, no significant absorption and fluorescence was measured, but as Sr2+ was added the relevant peaks increase significantly and sample dilution of tenfold was required to remain within the measuring threshold. These results show a strong sensitivity of the dye to the cation opening the opportunity to use Fura-2 as a tool to visualize heavy metals and radionuclides plumes. References[1] Prigiobbe et al. (2012) GRL 39, L18401. [2] Prigiobbe and Hesse (2015) in preparation. [3] Xu-Friedman and Regehr (2000) J. Neurosci. 20(12) 4414-4422.

  15. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-03-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a site-directed targeted therapeutic strategy that specifically uses radiolabeled peptides as biological targeting vectors designed to deliver cytotoxic levels of radiation dose to cancer cells, which overexpress specific receptors. Interest in PRRT has steadily grown because of the advantages of targeting cellular receptors in vivo with high sensitivity as well as specificity and treatment at the molecular level. Recent advances in molecular biology have not only stimulated advances in PRRT in a sustainable manner but have also pushed the field significantly forward to several unexplored possibilities. Recent decades have witnessed unprecedented endeavors for developing radiolabeled receptor-binding somatostatin analogs for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors, which have played an important role in the evolution of PRRT and paved the way for the development of other receptor-targeting peptides. Several peptides targeting a variety of receptors have been identified, demonstrating their potential to catalyze breakthroughs in PRRT. In this review, the authors discuss several of these peptides and their analogs with regard to their applications and potential in radionuclide therapy. The advancement in the availability of combinatorial peptide libraries for peptide designing and screening provides the capability of regulating immunogenicity and chemical manipulability. Moreover, the availability of a wide range of bifunctional chelating agents opens up the scope of convenient radiolabeling. For these reasons, it would be possible to envision a future where the scope of PRRT can be tailored for patient-specific application. While PRRT lies at the interface between many disciplines, this technology is inextricably linked to the availability of the therapeutic radionuclides of required quality and activity levels and hence their production is also reviewed.

  16. Research remote laser methods for radionuclides monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kascheev, S. V.; Elizarov, Valentin V.; Grishkanich, Alexander S.; Bespalov, V. G.; Vasil'ev, Sergey K.; Zhevlakov, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Laser sensing can serve as a highly effective method of searching and monitoring of radioactive contamination. The first method is essence consists in definition the Sr90 and Сs137 concentration by excitation and registration of fluorescence at wavelength of λ = 0.347÷7.0 μm at laser sounding. The second method experiments were carried out under the Raman-scattering circuit. Preliminary results of investigation show the real possibility to register of leakage of a radionuclide with concentration at level of 108÷109 сm-3 on a safe distance from the infected object.

  17. Radionuclide evaluation of nonmalignant bone disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.

    1983-02-01

    Recent advances in nuclear imaging have improved the noninvasive evaluation of patients with nonmalignant bone disorders. When bone scanning agents are combined with bone marrow scanning agents and gallium-67 scintigraphy, a more accurate diagnosis can be obtained. By selecting the appropriate imaging sequence, it is often possible to distinguish cellulitis from underlying osteomyelitis. In patients with total hip replacements, it may be possible to separate postsurgical changes from prosthetic loosening or infection. Stress fractures in joggers may be detected by radionuclide bone scintigraphy before radiographs become abnormal. These nuclear imaging procedures can be done in most hospitals.

  18. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

  19. Radionuclide partitioning across great lakes natural interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platford, R. F.; Joshi, S. R.

    1989-11-01

    Several water and surface microlayer samples from Lake St. Clair, the Niagara River, and the North Shore of Lake Ontario collected during 1983 1986 have been assayed for a variety of radionuclides. In addition, the foam accumulating in the pool just below Niagara Falls was also analyzed and found to be the most efficient aqueous phase collector of137Cs,210Pb, and226Ra. The order of radioisotope specific activities from highest to lowest is: Lake Ontario sediment, Niagara River suspended solids, Niagara River foam, surface microlayer water, and subsurface water. Radiological dose rates to the sediments from137Cs,226Ra, and228Th total about 5 mGy/y.

  20. Code System for Radionuclide Migration Calculations.

    1988-02-26

    Version: 00 IONMIG is used to calculate the far-field transport of decaying radionuclides through a porous medium by diffusion and convection. It was specifically developed in support of the U. S. Subseabed Disposal program. For user specified velocity and temperature fields the convection-diffusion equation is solved in a sorbing porous medium. The sorption may be a function of species type, concentration, vertical position and local temperature. The formulation used is applicable to two-dimensional planar ormore » axisymmetric geometries. Zero flux conditions are assumed at all but the upper boundaries.« less

  1. Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

  2. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  3. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed Central

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  4. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

  5. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

  6. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  7. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  8. Radionuclide complexation in xylem exudates of plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; McFadden, D.M.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    The plant xylem is the primary avenue for transport of nutrient and pollutant elements from the roots of aerial portions of the plant. It is proposed that the transport of reactive or hydrolyzable ions is facilitated by the formation of stable/soluble complexes with organic metabolites. The xylem exudates of soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams) were characterized as to their inorganic and organic components, complexation patterns for radionuclides, both in vivo and in vitro, and for class fractions of exudates using thin-layer electrophoresis. The radionuclides Pu-238 and Fe-59 were found primarily as organic acid complexes, while Ni-63 and Cd-109 were associated primarily with components of the amono acid fraction. Technetium-99 was found to be uncomplexed and transported as the pertechnetate ion. It was not possible to duplicate fully complexes formed in vivo by back reaction with whole exudates or class fractions, indicating the possible importance of plant induction processes, reaction kinetics and/or the formation of mixed ligand complexes. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Treatment planning for molecular targeted radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Siantar, Christine Hartmann; Vetter, Kai; DeNardo, Gerald L; DeNardo, Sally J

    2002-06-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide therapy promises to expand the usefulness of radiation to successfully treat widespread cancer. The unique properties of radioactive tags make it possible to plan treatments by predicting the radiation absorbed dose to both tumors and normal organs, using a pre-treatment test dose of radiopharmaceutical. This requires a combination of quantitative, high-resolution, radiation-detection hardware and computerized dose-estimation software, and would ideally include biological dose-response data in order to translate radiation absorbed dose into biological effects. Data derived from conventional (external beam) radiation therapy suggests that accurate assessment of the radiation absorbed dose in dose-limiting normal organs could substantially improve the observed clinical response for current agents used in a myeloablative regimen, enabling higher levels of tumor control at lower tumor-to-normal tissue therapeutic indices. Treatment planning based on current radiation detection and simulations technology is sufficient to impact on clinical response. The incorporation of new imaging methods, combined with patient-specific radiation transport simulations, promises to provide unprecedented levels of resolution and quantitative accuracy, which are likely to increase the impact of treatment planning in targeted radionuclide therapy. PMID:12136519

  10. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; da Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.

  11. FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Bruce; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    This special issue of Metrologia on radionuclide metrology is the first of a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurement, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The idea was first proposed at the 2003 series of CCRI Section meetings, with the general aim of showcasing the relevance and importance of metrology in ionizing radiation to a broader metrological audience. After the 2005 meeting of Section II (measurement of radionuclides), the radioactivity aspect of the project began to move forward in earnest. A working group was set up with the brief that the special issue should be of use by experienced metrologists as an overview of the 'state of the art' to compare progress and scientific content with those in other fields of metrology, as a resource for new metrologists joining the field and as a guide for users of radioactivity to explain how traceability to the international measurement system may be achieved. Since mankind first became aware of the existence of radioactivity just over a century ago (due to its discovery by Becquerel and further work by the Curies), much has been learnt and understood in the interim period. The field of radionuclide metrology that developed subsequently is broad-based and encompasses, amongst others, nuclear physics (experimental and theory), chemistry, mathematics, mathematical statistics, uncertainty analysis and advanced computing for data analysis, simulation and modelling. To determine the activity of radionuclides accurately requires elements of all of these subjects. In more recent decades the focus has been on the practical applications of radioactivity in industry and the health field in particular. In addition, low-level environmental radioactivity monitoring has taken on ever greater importance in the nuclear power era. These developments have required new detection instrumentation and techniques on an ongoing basis to ensure

  12. Radionuclide measurement of differential glomerular filtration rate

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.A.; Stone, W.J.; Grove, R.B.; Plunkett, J.M.; Kadir, S.; Patton, J.A.; Bowen, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The authors sought to determine whether radionuclides could provide a reasonable estimate of differential renal function in five normal dogs and six dogs with unilateral segmental renal infarction. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of each kidney was measured by the standard technique using constant infusions of 99mTc-DTPA, iothalamate, and creatinine following ureteral catheterization. These results were correlated with total GFR estimated by bolus injection of 99mTc-DTPA and analysis of the plasma 99mTc-DTPA disappearance curve obtained by blood sampling. Differential GFR was then calculated by multiplying the total GFR from double exponential analysis of this curve (DTPA2) by each of three measures of differential function. These include the percent differential uptake of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA in the posterior projection as well as the geometric mean of 99mTc-DMSA uptake. There were good correlations between differential GFR calculated from iothalamate clearances obtained at ureteral catheterization and all noninvasive methods involving radionuclides and DTPA2 (r = 0.85 - 0.99). Single exponential analysis of the 99mTc-DTPA plasma disappearance curve was less satisfactory. The authors suggest that measurement of total and differential GFR calculated from plasma clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and external counting may be a useful method with potential clinical applications.

  13. [Radionuclide therapy of endocrine-related cancer].

    PubMed

    Kratochwil, C; Giesel, F L

    2014-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the established radionuclide therapies for endocrine-related cancer that already have market authorization or are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Radioiodine therapy is still the gold standard for differentiated iodine-avid thyroid cancer. In patients with bone and lung metastases (near) total remission is seen in approximately 50% and the 15-year survival rate for these patients is approximately 90%. In contrast to the USA, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy has market approval in Europe. According to the current literature, in the setting of advanced stage neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, radiological remission can be achieved in >30% and symptom control in almost 80% of the treated patients. Somatostatin receptor targeted radionuclide therapies (e.g. with DOTATATE or DOTATOC) demonstrated promising results in phase 2 trials, reporting progression-free survival in the range of 24-36 months. A first phase 3 pivotal trial for intestinal carcinoids is currently recruiting and another trial for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is planned. Radiopharmaceuticals based on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) or minigastrins are in the early evaluation stage for application in the treatment of insulinomas and medullary thyroid cancer. In general, radiopharmaceutical therapy belongs to the group of so-called theranostics which means that therapy is tailored for individual patients based on molecular imaging diagnostics to stratify target positive or target negative tumor phenotypes.

  14. Reuse of Material Containing Natural Radionuclides - 12444

    SciTech Connect

    Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.J.

    2012-07-01

    Disposal of and use of wastes containing natural radioactive material (NORM) or technologically enhanced natural radioactive material (TENORM) with excessive natural background as a building material is very important in the supervision body activity. At the present time, the residents of Octyabrsky village are under resettlement. This village is located just near the Priargunsky mining and chemical combine (Ltd. 'PPGHO'), one of the oldest uranium mines in our country. The vacated wooden houses in the village are demolished and partly used as a building material. To address the issue of potential radiation hazard of the wooden beams originating from demolition of houses in Octyabrsky village, the contents of the natural radionuclides (K-40, Th-232, Ra-226, U- 238) are being determined in samples of the wooden beams of houses. The NORM contents in the wooden house samples are higher, on average, than their content in the reference sample of the fresh wood shavings, but the range of values is rather large. According to the classification of waste containing the natural radionuclides, its evaluation is based on the effective specific activity. At the effective specific activity lower 1.5 kBq/kg and gamma dose rate lower 70 μR/h, the material is not considered as waste and can be used in building by 1 - 3 classes depending upon A{sub eff} value. At 1.5 kBq/kg < A{sub eff} ≤ 4 kBq/kg (4 class), the wooden beams might be used for the purpose of the industrial building, if sum of ratios between the radionuclide specific activity and its specific activity of minimum significance is lower than unit. The material classified as the waste containing the natural radionuclides has A{sub eff} higher 1.5 kBq /kg, and its usage for the purpose of house-building and road construction is forbidden. As for the ash classification and its future usage, such usage is unreasonable, because, according to the provided material, more than 50% of ash samples are considered as radioactive

  15. Marine radionuclide transfer factors in chordates and a phylogenetic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Jeffree, Ross A; Oberhaensli, Francois; Teyssie, Jean-Louis

    2013-12-01

    Previous radiotracer experiments that compared multi-elemental whole organism: water transfer factors among chondrichthyan and teleost fishes, including an ICRP reference flatfish Psetta maxima, demonstrated distinctive contrasts in their bioaccumulation characteristics, with generally elevated bioaccumulation in chondrichthyans. These results supported a hypothesis that phylogenetic divergence may influence marine radionuclide transfer factors. This notion has been further evaluated in an amphioxus species Branchiostoma lanceolatum, sub-phylum Cephalochordata. This taxon diverged about 800 MYBP from a common ancestor of the teleosts and the chondrichthyans, which in turn diverged from each other around 500 MYBP. Our experimental results indicate that amphioxus is indeed more divergent in its multi-elemental bioaccumulation patterns from teleosts and chondrichthyans than they are from each other, consistent with our hypothesis. The experimental comparisons with the ICRP reference flatfish P. maxima also revealed an unexpectedly enhanced capacity in amphioxus to accumulate all eight tested trace elements from seawater, and for some by more than two orders of magnitude. These results have practical applications for the strategic selection of marine biota for further radioecological investigations to better guarantee the radiological protection of marine biodiversity. Such seemingly anomalous results for understudied biota like amphioxus and chondrichthyans suggest that more effort in marine radioecology be directed to assessing the bioaccumulatory capacities of other phylogenetic groups that have received less attention so far, particularly those that are phylogenetically more remote from commonly investigated taxa and those nominated as ICRP marine reference organisms.

  16. Marine radionuclide transfer factors in chordates and a phylogenetic hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Jeffree, Ross A; Oberhaensli, Francois; Teyssie, Jean-Louis

    2013-12-01

    Previous radiotracer experiments that compared multi-elemental whole organism: water transfer factors among chondrichthyan and teleost fishes, including an ICRP reference flatfish Psetta maxima, demonstrated distinctive contrasts in their bioaccumulation characteristics, with generally elevated bioaccumulation in chondrichthyans. These results supported a hypothesis that phylogenetic divergence may influence marine radionuclide transfer factors. This notion has been further evaluated in an amphioxus species Branchiostoma lanceolatum, sub-phylum Cephalochordata. This taxon diverged about 800 MYBP from a common ancestor of the teleosts and the chondrichthyans, which in turn diverged from each other around 500 MYBP. Our experimental results indicate that amphioxus is indeed more divergent in its multi-elemental bioaccumulation patterns from teleosts and chondrichthyans than they are from each other, consistent with our hypothesis. The experimental comparisons with the ICRP reference flatfish P. maxima also revealed an unexpectedly enhanced capacity in amphioxus to accumulate all eight tested trace elements from seawater, and for some by more than two orders of magnitude. These results have practical applications for the strategic selection of marine biota for further radioecological investigations to better guarantee the radiological protection of marine biodiversity. Such seemingly anomalous results for understudied biota like amphioxus and chondrichthyans suggest that more effort in marine radioecology be directed to assessing the bioaccumulatory capacities of other phylogenetic groups that have received less attention so far, particularly those that are phylogenetically more remote from commonly investigated taxa and those nominated as ICRP marine reference organisms. PMID:22800799

  17. Atmospheric radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear reactor accident observed in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Long, N Q; Truong, Y; Hien, P D; Binh, N T; Sieu, L N; Giap, T V; Phan, N T

    2012-09-01

    Radionuclides from the reactor accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant were observed in the surface air at stations in Hanoi, Dalat, and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam, about 4500 km southwest of Japan, during the period from March 27 to April 22, 2011. The maximum activity concentrations in the air measured at those three sites were 193, 33, and 37 μBq m(-3) for (131)I, (13)(4)Cs, and (13)(7)Cs, respectively. Peaks of radionuclide concentrations in the air corresponded to arrival of the air mass from Fukushima to Vietnam after traveling for 8 d over the Pacific Ocean. Cesium-134 was detected with the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio of about 0.85 in line with observations made elsewhere. The (131)I/(137)Cs activity ratio was observed to decrease exponentially with time as expected from radioactive decay. The ratio at Dalat, where is 1500 m high, was higher than those at Hanoi and HCMC in low lands, indicating the relative enrichment of the iodine in comparison to cesium at high altitudes. The time-integrated surface air concentrations of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the Southeast Asia showed exponential decrease with distance from Fukushima.

  18. A method for determining allowable residual contamination levels of radionuclide mixtures in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.

    1982-05-01

    An important consideration in the disposal of radioactive wastes, and consequently in the preparation of plans for remedial actions at contaminated sites, is the amount of radioactive contamination that may be allowed to remain at any particular waste site. The allowable residual contamination level (ARCL) is dependent on the radiation dose limit imposed, the physical and environmental characteristics of the waste site, and the time at which exposure to the wastes is assumed to occur. The steps in generating an ARCL are generally as follows: (1) develop plausible, credible site-specific exposure scenario; (2) calculate maximum annual radiation doses to an individual for each radionuclide based on the existing physical characteristics of the waste site and the site-specific exposure scenario; (3) calculate the ARCL for the dose limit desired, including all radionuclides present, uncorrected for site cleanup or barrier considerations; and (4) apply any corrections for proposed cleanup activity or addition of barriers to waste migration or uptake to obtain the ARCL applicable to the proposed action. Use of this method allows appropriate application of resources to achieve uniform compliance with a single regulatory standard, i.e., a radiation dose rate limit. Application and modification of the ARCL method requires appropriate models of the environmental transport and fate of radionuclides. Example calculations are given for several specific waste forms and waste site types in order to demonstrate the technique and generate comparisons with other approaches.

  19. Sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qin-Hong; Weng, Jian-Qing; Wang, Jin-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview on sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment, as well as a brief discussion of salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current developments that have lead, or could potentially contribute, to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) uranium mining and milling; (5) commercial fuel reprocessing; (6) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes that include radionuclides might be released in the future, and (7) nuclear accidents. Then, we briefly summarize the inventory of radionuclides (99)Tc and (129)I, as well as geochemical behavior for radionuclides (99)Tc, (129)I, and (237)Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment; biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides. PMID:18819734

  20. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator system is a manually operated...

  1. Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

    2008-08-07

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

  2. Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

    2008-08-01

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

  3. Selection and manipulation of immunoglobulins for radionuclide delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Steplewski, Z.; Curtis, P.; Hainfeld, J.; Mausner, L.; Mease, R.; Srivastava, S.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes a collection of monoclonal antibodies that are candidates for use in radioimmunotherapy towards neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, or of astrocytomas. In addition a large series of candidate radionuclides to conjugate to antibodies for therapeutic uses are discussed with respect to potential therapeutic utility and to means of radionuclide production.

  4. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  5. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  6. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  9. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  11. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... intended to apply a radionuclide source into the body or to the surface of the body for radiation...

  12. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. A radionuclide dose calibrator is a radiation detection device intended to assay...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. A radionuclide dose calibrator is a radiation detection device intended to assay...

  14. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Identification. A radionuclide dose calibrator is a radiation detection device intended to assay...

  15. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section 892.5750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device intended to permit...

  16. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator system is a manually operated...

  17. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section 892.5750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device intended to permit...

  18. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator system is a manually operated...

  19. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650 Section 892.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator system is a manually operated...

  20. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section 892.5750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device intended to permit...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF THE RADIONUCLIDE COMPOSITION OF "HOT PARTICLES" SAMPLED IN THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT FOURTH REACTOR UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) 4th Reactor Unit Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified and the fuel burnup in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burnup values based on the cesium isotopes, in comparison with other radionuclides, was observed. The conducted studies were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 243}Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from {sup 241}Am (and going higher), in comparison with the theoretical calculations.

  2. Assessment of the radionuclide composition of "hot particles" sampled in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant fourth reactor unit.

    PubMed

    Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zheltonozhsky, Viktor A; Zheltonozhskaya, Maryna V; Kulich, Nadezhda V; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy; Marra, James C

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified, and the fuel burn-up in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burn-up values based on the cesium isotopes in comparison with other radionuclides was observed. The studies conducted were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of 242Cm and 243Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from 241Am (and going higher) in comparison with the theoretical calculations.

  3. Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1981-03-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ([sup 238]Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

  4. Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1981-03-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ({sup 238}Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

  5. Quantitative modeling of Cerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Bradley J; Thorek, Daniel L J; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Pentlow, Keith S; Humm, John L; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use.

  6. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  7. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  8. Intravenous radionuclide cystography for the detection of vesicorenal reflux

    SciTech Connect

    Pollet, J.E.; Sharp, P.F.; Smith, F.W.; Davidson, A.I.; Miller, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    Intravenous radionuclide cystography using a single intravenous injection of 99mtechnetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, provides information on individual kidney function, coarse anatomy and vesicorenal reflux. This study investigates the effectiveness of intravenous radionuclide cystography in detecting reflux. In 58 children intravenous radionuclide cystography detected 53 ureters with reflux compared to 32 detected by voiding cystography. This difference was investigated further with patients in whom other test suggested reflux. While there was no statistically significant difference for patients having pyelonephritis or hydronephrosis, intravenous radionuclide cystography detected significantly more ureters with reflux in patients with abnormal ureteral orifices or infected urine and, therefore, predisposed to reflux. Intravenous radionuclide cystography is a more comprehensive and sensitive test for vesicorenal reflux than voiding cystography.

  9. RAGBEEF: a FORTRAN IV implementation of a time-dependent model for radionuclide contamination of beef

    SciTech Connect

    Pleasant, J C; McDowell-Boyer, L M; Killough, G G

    1982-06-01

    RAGBEEF is a FORTRAN IV program that calculates radionuclide concentrations in beef as a result of ingestion of contaminated feeds, pasture, and pasture soil by beef cattle. The model implemented by RAGBEEF is dynamic in nature, allowing the user to consider age- and season-dependent aspects of beef cattle management in estimating concentrations in beef. It serves as an auxiliary code to RAGTIME, previously documented by the authors, which calculates radionuclide concentrations in agricultural crops in a dynamic manner, but evaluates concentrations in beef for steady-state conditions only. The time-dependent concentrations in feeds, pasture, and pasture soil generated by RAGTIME are used as input to the RAGBEEF code. RAGBEEF, as presently implemented, calculates radionuclide concentrations in the muscle of age-based cohorts in a beef cattle herd. Concentrations in the milk of lactating cows are also calculated, but are assumed age-dependent as in RAGTIME. Radionuclide concentrations in beef and milk are described in RAGBEEF by a system of ordinary linear differential equations in which the transfer rate of radioactivity between compartments is proportional to the inventory of radioactivity in the source compartment. This system is solved by use of the GEAR package for solution of systems of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of this solution is monitored at various check points by comparison with explicit solutions of Bateman-type equations. This report describes the age- and season-dependent considerations making up the RAGBEEF model, as well as presenting the equations which describe the model and a documentation of the associated computer code. Listings of the RAGBEEF and updated RAGTIME codes are provided in appendices, as are the results of a sample run of RAGBEEF and a description of recent modifications to RAGTIME.

  10. Accumulation of radionuclides by plants as a monitor system.

    PubMed Central

    Koranda, J J; Robison, W L

    1978-01-01

    The accumulation of radionuclides by plants acting as a monitoring system in the environment may occur by two modes; foliar absorption by the leaves and shoot of the plant, or by root uptake from the soil. Data on plant accumulation of radionuclides may be obtained from studies of fission product radionuclides deposited as worldwide fallout, and from tracer studies of plant physiology. The epidermal features of plant foliage may exert an effect upon particle retention by leaves, and subsequent uptake of radionuclides from the surface. The transport of radionuclides across the cuticle and epidermis of plant leaves is determined in part by the anatomy of the leaf, and by physiological factors. The foliar uptake of fallout radionuclides, 99Sr, 131I, and 137Cs, is described with examples from the scientific literature. The environmental half-life of 131I, for example, is considerably shorter than its physical half-life because of physical and biological factors which may produce a half-life as short as 0.23/day. 99Sr and 137Cs are readily taken up by the leaf, but 137Cs undergoes more translocation into fruit and seeds than 99Sr which tends to remain in the plant part in which it was initially absorbed. Soil-root uptake is conditioned primarily by soil chemical and physical factors which may selectively retain a radionuclide, such as 137Cs. The presence of organic matter, inorganic colloids (clay), and competing elements will strongly affect the uptake of 99Sr and 137Cs by plants from the soil. The role of plants as monitors of radionuclides is twofold: as monitors of recent atmospheric releases of radionuclides; and as indicators of the long-term behavior of aged deposits of radionuclides in the soil. PMID:367767

  11. Radionuclide therapy in neuroendocrine tumours: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gulenchyn, K Y; Yao, X; Asa, S L; Singh, S; Law, C

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals in patients with different types of advanced neuroendocrine tumour (NETs). A literature search was carried out in MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 1998 to November 2010. The Cochrane Library (to Issue 10, 2010) and the Standards and Guidelines Evidence Inventory of Cancer Guidelines, including over 1100 English-language cancer guidelines from January 2003 to June 2010, were also checked. No existing systematic reviews or clinical practice guidelines based on a systematic review or randomised controlled trials focusing on this topic were found. Twenty-four fully published articles were abstracted and summarised: 16 articles focused on five peptide receptor radionuclide therapy ((111)In-DTPAOC, (90)Y-DOTALAN, (90)Y-DOTATOC, (90)Y-DOTATATE, and (177)Lu-DOTATATE) and eight focused on (131)I-MIBG treatment. Limited evidence from a historical comparison of studies in one centre supported that (177)Lu-DOTATATE might be associated with greater clinical outcomes compared with (90)Y-DOTATOC or (111)In-DTPAOC. The severe toxicities for (177)Lu-DOTATATE included hepatic insufficiency in 0.6%, myelodysplastic syndrome in 0.8% and renal insufficiency in 0.4% of patients in this study. Insufficient evidence suggested efficacy of (131)I-MIBG in adult NET patients, but the overall tumour response rate from (131)I-MIBG was 27-75% for malignant neuroblastoma, paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma. Haematological toxicities were the main severe side-effects after (131)I-MIBG and 4% of patients developed secondary malignancies in one study. To date, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy seems to be an acceptable option and is relatively safe in adult advanced NET patients with receptor uptake positive on scintigraphy, but patients' renal function must be monitored. (131)I-MIBG may be effective for malignant neuroblastoma, paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma, but its side-effects need to be

  12. A limiting factor for the progress of radionuclide-based cancer diagnostics and therapy--availability of suitable radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Tolmachev, Vladimir; Carlsson, Jörgen; Lundqvist, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Advances in diagnostics and targeted radionuclide therapy of haematological and neuroendocrine tumours have raised hope for improved radionuclide therapy of other forms of disseminated tumours. New molecular target structures are characterized and this stimulates the efforts to develop new radiolabelled targeting agents. There is also improved understanding of factors of importance for choice of appropriate radionuclides. The choice is determined by physical, chemical, biological, and economic factors, such as a character of emitted radiation, physical half-life, labelling chemistry, chemical stability of the label, intracellular retention time, and fate of radiocatabolites and availability of the radionuclide. There is actually limited availability of suitable radionuclides and this is a limiting factor for further progress in the field and this is the focus in this article. The probably most promising therapeutic radionuclide, 211At, requires regional production and distribution centres with dedicated cyclotrons. Such centres are, with a few exceptions in the world, lacking today. They can be designed to also produce beta- and Augeremitters of therapeutic interest. Furthermore, emerging satellite PET scanners will in the near future demand long-lived positron emitters for diagnostics with macromolecular radiopharmaceuticals, and these can also be produced at such centres. To secure continued development and to meet the foreseen requirements for radionuclide availability from the medical community it is necessary to establish specialized cyclotron centres for radionuclide production. PMID:15244250

  13. Prospects for the methods of radionuclide production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamian, S. A.; Dmitriev, S. N.

    2015-03-01

    In the present report, methods of radionuclide production for the nuclear-medicine purposes are described. In a budget approach, the application of low-energy accelerators is especially advantageous. Intense flux of bremsstrahlung at electron accelerators or high-current cyclotron beams of alpha particles must supply a great yield for many isotopes. The choice of a target material and of the projectile energy provides enough variation for concrete species formation. The innovating procedures are here proposed for optimizing of methods, for instance, application of the noble-gas target for production and transport of activities. The known and new variants of the "generator" scheme are discussed. Many isotopes are listed as promising in the context of the therapeutic and theragnostic applications. Among them are isotopes/isomers emitting soft radiation for the selective and careful body treatment, also the positron emitters for PET, and the halogen and alkali-metal species convenient for chemical separation.

  14. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

    1998-07-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

  15. Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmuleva, N. I.; Barinov, E. Ya.; Petukhov, V. L.

    2003-05-01

    The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - Cs-137 and Sr-90 in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. Cs-137 level was 3.7...9.2 times higher than Sr-90 one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg).

  16. Radioimmunotherapy of malignancy using antibody targeted radionuclides.

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, L. M.; Humm, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Antibodies directed against tumour associated antigens provide a means for delivering preferentially cytotoxic radionuclides to the cells of primary and secondary tumours. The factors that influence the effectiveness of the radiation in the tumour compared with its effect on the radiosensitive normal tissues include the specificity of the antibody, the distribution of targeted energy within the tumour and the host's response to the injected foreign antibody. Recently some encouraging results from clinical trials of radioimmunotherapy have been reported in the literature. There is a continual search for more avid and specific antibodies, and the techniques of genetic engineering are being applied to the problem of reducing the antigenicity and mass of the carrier antibody. The improved efficiency of the labelled antibody needs to be supplemented by an identification of those tumours most likely to respond to this form of therapy. PMID:3542006

  17. Radionuclide imaging and treatment of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu Juan; Li, XianFeng; Ren, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, the diagnostic methods and therapeutic tools for thyroid cancer (TC) have been greatly improved. In addition to the classical method of ingestion of radioactive iodine-131 (I131) and subsequent I123 and I124 positron emission tomography (PET) in therapy and examination, I124 PET-based 3-dimensional imaging, Ga68-labeled [1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid]-1-NaI(3)-octreotide (DOTANOC) PET/computed tomography (CT), Tc99m tetrofosmin, pre-targeted radioimmunotherapy, and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy have all been used clinically. These novel methods are useful in diagnosis and therapy of TC, but also have unavoidable adverse effects. In this review, we will discuss the development of nuclear medicine in TC examination and treatment. PMID:27100499

  18. Radionuclide cholescintigraphy in genetically confirmed Rotor syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sirucek, Pavel; Sulakova, Astrida; Jirsa, Milan; Mrhac, Lubomir; Havel, Martin; Kraft, Otakar

    2015-10-01

    A 7-year-old girl had been followed up for persistent conjugated hyperbilirubinemia since birth. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity was within the normal range, and liver protein synthesis had always been normal. Infectious etiology of jaundice, autoimmune diseases, drug-induced liver injury, hemolytic anemia, α-1 anti-trypsin deficiency, Wilson disease and Gilbert syndrome were ruled out. At the age of 8 years the patient underwent radionuclide dynamic cholescintigraphy, indicating poor accumulation of the radiotracer in the liver on one hand, and severe retention of the radiopharmaceutical in the blood pool (including the heart) on the other hand. Rotor syndrome was suspected and finally confirmed on molecular analysis. This case represents the first cholescintigraphy report in a pediatric patient with genetically proven Rotor syndrome. PMID:26508179

  19. Prospects for the methods of radionuclide production

    SciTech Connect

    Karamian, S. A. Dmitriev, S. N.

    2015-03-30

    In the present report, methods of radionuclide production for the nuclear-medicine purposes are described. In a budget approach, the application of low-energy accelerators is especially advantageous. Intense flux of bremsstrahlung at electron accelerators or high-current cyclotron beams of alpha particles must supply a great yield for many isotopes. The choice of a target material and of the projectile energy provides enough variation for concrete species formation. The innovating procedures are here proposed for optimizing of methods, for instance, application of the noble-gas target for production and transport of activities. The known and new variants of the “generator” scheme are discussed. Many isotopes are listed as promising in the context of the therapeutic and theragnostic applications. Among them are isotopes/isomers emitting soft radiation for the selective and careful body treatment, also the positron emitters for PET, and the halogen and alkali-metal species convenient for chemical separation.

  20. Cadastral valuation of land contaminated with radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnikov, A. N.; Sapozhnikov, P. M.; Sanzharova, N. I.; Sviridenko, D. G.; Zhigareva, T. L.; Popova, G. I.; Panov, A. V.; Kozlova, I. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The methodology and procedure for cadastral valuation of land in the areas contaminated with radionuclides are presented. The efficiency of rehabilitation measures applied to decrease crop contamination to the levels satisfying sanitary-hygienic norms is discussed. The differentiation of cadastral value of radioactively contaminated agricultural lands for the particular farms and land plots is suggested. An example of cadastral valuation of agricultural land contaminated during the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident is given. It is shown that the use of sandy and loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 37-185 and >185 kBq/m2 for crop growing is unfeasible. The growing of grain crops and potatoes on clay loamy soddy-podzolic soils with the 137Cs contamination of 555-740 kBq/m2 is unprofitable. The maximum cadastral value of radioactively contaminated lands is typical of leached chernozems.

  1. Radionuclide Decay and In-growth Technical Basis Document

    SciTech Connect

    Kersting, A B; Finnegan, D L; Tompson, A F B; Esser, B K; Smith, D K; Zavarin, M; Bruton, C J; Pawloski, G A

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to assess the decay and in-growth of radionuclides from the radionuclide source term (RST) deposited by underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at the NTS from 1951 through 1992. A priority of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project, administered by the Environmental Restoration Division of NNSA/NV, was to determine as accurately as possible a measure of the total radionuclide inventory for calculation of the RST deposited in the subsurface at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The motivation for the development of a total radionuclide inventory is driven by a need to calculate the amount of radioactivity that will move away from the nuclear test cavities over time, referred to as the hydrologic source term (HST). The HST is a subset of the RST and must be calculated using knowledge of the geochemistry and hydrology of the subsurface environment. This will serve the regulatory process designed to protect human health from exposures to contaminated groundwater. Following the detonation of an underground nuclear test, and depending on the presence of water at the location of the detonation, the residual radionuclides may be found in aqueous or gaseous states, precipitated or chemically sorbed states, or incorporated in melt glass produced by the nuclear test. The decay and in-growth of radionuclides may have geochemical implications for the migration of radionuclides away from underground nuclear test cavities. For example, in the case of a long-lived mobile parent decaying to a shorter-lived and less mobile daughter, the geochemical properties of the parent element may control the migration potential of the daughter nuclide. It becomes important to understand the evolution of the RST in terms of effects on the mobility, solubility, or abundance of radionuclides in the HST that are created by decay and in-growth processes. The total radionuclide inventory and thus the RST changes with time due to radioactive decay. The abundance of a

  2. Colloid-Associated Radionuclide Concentration Limits: ANL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Mertz

    2000-12-21

    The purpose and scope of this report is to describe the analysis of available colloidal data from waste form corrosion tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to extract characteristics of these colloids that can be used in modeling their contribution to the source term for sparingly soluble radioelements (e.g., Pu). Specifically, the focus is on developing a useful description of the following waste form colloid characteristics: (1) composition, (2) size distribution, and (3) quantification of the rate of waste form colloid generation. The composition and size distribution information are intended to support analysis of the potential transport of the sparingly soluble radionuclides associated with the waste form colloids. The rate of colloid generation is intended to support analysis of the waste form colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. In addressing the above characteristics, available data are interpreted to address mechanisms controlling colloid formation and stability. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000). Because the end objective is to support the source term modeling we have organized the conclusions into two categories: (1) data analysis conclusions and (2) recommendations for colloid source term modeling. The second category is included to facilitate use of the conclusions from the data analysis in the abstraction of a colloid source term model. The data analyses and conclusions that are presented in this report are based on small-scale laboratory tests conducted on a limited number of waste glass compositions and spent fuel types.

  3. Removal of radionuclides at a waterworks.

    PubMed

    Gäfvert, T; Ellmark, C; Holm, E

    2002-01-01

    A waterworks with an average production rate of 1.3 m3 s(-1), providing several large cities in the province of Scania with drinking water has been studied regarding its capacity to remove several natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. The raw water is surface water from lake Bolmen which is transported through an 80 km long tunnel in the bedrock before it enters the waterworks. The method used for purification is a combination of coagulation-flocculation and filtration in sand filters. Two different purification lines are currently in use, one using Al2(SO4)3 as a coagulant and one using FeCl3. After coagulation and flocculation the precipitate is removed and the water is passed through two different sand filters (rapid filtration and slow filtration). Water samples were collected at the lake, the inlet to the waterworks, after each of the flocculation basins (Al2(SO4)3 and FeCl3), after rapid filtration and from the municipal distribution network. The samples were analysed with respect to their content of uranium, thorium, polonium, radium, plutonium and caesium. The results show a high removal capacity for uranium (about 85%), thorium (>90%), plutonium (>95%) and polonium (>90% in the coagulation-flocculation process) while caesium, strontium and radium pass through the purification process with almost unchanged activity concentrations. During transportation of the water in the tunnel it was also observed that infiltration of groundwater leads to a change in isotopic ratios and/or activity concentrations for the naturally occurring radionuclides and plutonium.

  4. Introduction to Radiobiology of Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Jean-Pierre; Lozza, Catherine; Deshayes, Emmanuel; Boudousq, Vincent; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, new radionuclide-based targeted therapies have emerged as efficient tools for cancer treatment. Targeted radionuclide therapies (TRTs) are based on a multidisciplinary approach that involves the cooperation of specialists in several research fields. Among them, radiobiologists investigate the biological effects of ionizing radiation, specifically the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the radiation response. Most of the knowledge about radiation effects concerns external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and radiobiology has then strongly contributed to the development of this therapeutic approach. Similarly, radiobiology and dosimetry are also assumed to be ways for improving TRT, in particular in the therapy of solid tumors, which are radioresistant. However, extrapolation of EBRT radiobiology to TRT is not straightforward. Indeed, the specific physical characteristics of TRT (heterogeneous and mixed irradiation, protracted exposure, and low absorbed dose rate) differ from those of conventional EBRT (homogeneous irradiation, short exposure, and high absorbed dose rate), and consequently the response of irradiated tissues might be different. Therefore, specific TRT radiobiology needs to be explored. Determining dose–effect correlation is also a prerequisite for rigorous preclinical radiobiology studies because dosimetry provides the necessary referential to all TRT situations. It is required too for developing patient-tailored TRT in the clinic in order to estimate the best dose for tumor control, while protecting the healthy tissues, thereby improving therapeutic efficacy. Finally, it will allow to determine the relative contribution of targeted effects (assumed to be dose-related) and non-targeted effects (assumed to be non-dose-related) of ionizing radiation. However, conversely to EBRT where it is routinely used, dosimetry is still challenging in TRT. Therefore, it constitutes with radiobiology, one of the main challenges of

  5. Chancellor Water Colloids: Characterization and Radionuclide Association

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Fattah, Amr I.

    2012-06-18

    Concluding remarks about this paper are: (1) Gravitational settling, zeta potential, and ultrafiltration data indicate the existence of a colloidal phase of both the alpha and beta emitters in the Chancellor water; (2) The low activity combined with high dispersion homogeneity of the Chancellor water indicate that both alpha and beta emitters are not intrinsic colloids; (3) Radionuclides in the Chancellor water, particularly Pu, coexist as dissolved aqueous and sorbed phases - in other words the radionuclides are partitioned between the aqueous phase and the colloidal phase; (4) The presence of Pu as a dissolved species in the aqueous phase, suggests the possibility of Pu in the (V) oxidation state - this conclusion is supported by the similarity of the k{sub d} value of Pu determined in the current study to that determined for Pu(V) sorbed onto smectite colloids, and the similar electrokinetic behavior of the Chancellor water colloids to smectite colloids; (5) About 50% of the Pu(V) is in the aqueous phase and 50% is sorbed on colloids (mass concentration of colloids in the Chancellor water is 0.12 g/L); (6) The k{sub d} of the Pu and the beta emitters (fission products) between aqueous and colloidal phases in the Chancellor water is {approx}8.0 x 10{sup 3} mL/g using two different activity measurement techniques (LSC and alpha spectroscopy); (7) The gravitational settling and size distributions of the association colloids indicate that the properties (at least the physical ones) of the colloids to which the alpha emitters are associated with seem to be different that the properties of the colloids to which the beta emitters are associated with - the beta emitters are associated with very small particles ({approx}50 - 120 nm), while the alpha emitters are associated with relatively larger particles; and (8) The Chancellor water colloids are extremely stable under the natural pH and ionic strength conditions, indicating high potential for transport in the

  6. Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 ((131)I), phosphorous-32 ((32)P), strontium-90 ((90)Sr), and yttrium-90 ((90)Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies.

  7. Underground radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Nimz, G.J. ); Thompson, J.L. )

    1992-06-22

    This document reviews results from a number of studies concerning underground migration of radionuclides from nuclear test cavities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Discussed are all cases known to the Department of Energy's Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program where radionuclides have been detected outside of the immediate vicinity of nuclear test cavities that are identifiable as the-source of the nuclides, as well as cases where radionuclides might have been expected and were intentionally sought but not fixed. There are nine locations where source-identifiable radionuclide migration has been detected, one where migration was purposely induced by pumping, and three where migration might be expected but was not found. In five of the nine cases of non-induced migration, the inferred migration mechanism is prompt fracture injection during detonation. In the other four cases, the inferred migration mechanism is water movement. In only a few of the reviewed cases can the actual migration mechanism be stated with confidence, and the attempt has been made to indicate the level of confidence for each case. References are cited where more information may be obtained. As an aid to future study, this document concludes with a brief discussion of the aspects of radionuclide migration that, as the present review indicates, are not yet understood. A course of action is suggested that would produce a better understanding of the phenomenon of radionuclide migration.

  8. Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

  9. Distribution of Natural (U-238, Th-232, Ra-226) and Technogenic (Sr-90, Cs-137) Radionuclides in Soil-Plants Complex Near Issyk-Kul Lake, Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, L.; Kaldybaev, B.; Djenbaev, B.; Tilenbaev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Researches on radionuclides distribution in the soil-plants complex provide essential information in understanding human exposure to natural and technogenic sources of radiation. It is necessary in establishing regulation relating to radiation protection. The aim of this study was the radiochemical analysis of the content natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th,226Ra and technogenic radionuclides content (90Sr, 137Cs) in soils near Issyk-Kul lake (Kyrgyzstan). Results of radiochemical analyses have shown, that the concentrations of thorium-232 are fluctuating in the limits (11.7-84.1)-10-4% in the soils. The greatest concentration of thorium-232 has been found in the light chestnut soils. The content of uranium-238 in the soils near Issyk-Kul lake is fluctuating from 2.8 up to 12.7-10-4%. Radium-226 has more migration ability in comparison with other heavy natural radionuclides. According to our research the concentrations of radium-226 are fluctuating in the limits (9.4-43.0)-10-11%. The greatest concentration of radium-226 (43,0±2,8)-10-11% has been determined in the light chestnut soil. In connection with global migration of contaminating substances, including radioactive, the special attention is given long-lived radionuclides strontium-90 and caesium-137 in food-chains, and agroecosystems. Results of radiochemical analyses have shown, that specific activity of strontium-90 is fluctuating in the range of 2.9 up to 11.1 Bq/kg, and caesium-137 from 3.7 up to 14,3 Bq/kg in the soil of agroecosystems in the region of Issyk-Kul. In soil samples down to 1 meter we have observed vertical migration of these radionuclides, they were found to accumulate on the surface of soil horizon (0-5 cm) and their specific activity sharply decreases with depth. In addition in high-mountain pastures characterized by horizontal migration of cattle in profiles of soil, it was discovered that specific activity of radionuclides are lower on the slope than at the foot of the mountain. The

  10. Resuspension and redistribution of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: part I. Fire experiments.

    PubMed

    Yoschenko, V I; Kashparov, V A; Protsak, V P; Lundin, S M; Levchuk, S E; Kadygrib, A M; Zvarich, S I; Khomutinin, Yu V; Maloshtan, I M; Lanshin, V P; Kovtun, M V; Tschiersch, J

    2006-01-01

    Controlled burning of experimental plots of forest or grassland in the Chernobyl exclusion zone has been carried out in order to estimate the parameters of radionuclide resuspension, transport and deposition during forest and grassland fires and to evaluate the working conditions of firemen. An increase of several orders of magnitude of the airborne radionuclide concentration was observed in the territory near the fire area. The resuspension factor for (137)Cs and (90)Sr was determined to range from 10(-6) to 10(-5) m(-1), and for the plutonium radionuclides from 10(-7) to 10(-6) m(-1) (related to the nuclides in the combustible biomass). These values are 2 orders of magnitude lower if they are calculated relatively to the total contamination density (including the nuclides in the soil). The radionuclide fallout along the plume axis is negligible in comparison to the existing contamination. However, the additional inhalation dose for firemen exposed in the affected area can reach the level of the additional external irradiation in the period of their mission. The plutonium nuclides constitute the dominating contribution to the inhalation dose. PMID:16213067

  11. Elevated Concentrations of Primordial Radionuclides in Sediments from the Reedy River and Surrounding Creeks in Simpsonville, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, B A; Hughes, L D; Soreefan, A M; Falta, D; Wall, M; DeVol, T A

    2006-12-27

    A gamma-ray survey and analysis of sixteen riverbed samples from the Reedy River watershed near Simpsonville, SC were conducted and compared with national and international studies of primordial radionuclides. The study reported here follows on a recent discovery of anomalously high uranium concentrations in several private well waters in the area near Simpsonville, SC. A HPGe spectrometer was used for quantification of gamma emitting radionuclides in the sediments. All sediments contained radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series as well as {sup 40}K. Uranium-238 concentrations in sediment samples ranged from 11.1 to 74.2 Bq kg{sup -1}. The measured radionuclide concentrations were compared with data from UNSCEAR and NURE reports. The river and stream sediment data were augmented by in situ NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer measurements. Comparisons between the ex-situ and in-situ measurements indicate equivalently distributed uranium in the surface soils and stream sediments, the source of which is likely attributed to the monazite belts that are known to exist in the area.

  12. Spatial distribution of Auger electrons emitted from internalised radionuclides in cancer cells: the photoresist autoradiography (PAR) method.

    PubMed

    Royle, G; Myhra, S; Chakalova, R; Vallis, K A; Falzone, N

    2015-09-01

    Microdosimetric evaluation of Auger electron-emitting radionuclides involves a detailed evaluation of energy deposition at a nanometre scale. To perform Monte Carlo modelling of such energy deposition, accurate information regarding the spatial distribution of the radionuclide is required. A recent addition to the methods for determining the spatial distribution of cellular internalised radionuclides is based on detection in a polymer photoresist (e.g. polymethyl methacralate), followed by atomic force microscopy analysis of the resultant 3D pattern. In comparison with present practice, the method offers greater spatial resolution and improved quantification. The volume of the pattern is proportional to the total dose, thereby permitting assessment of variability of accumulated activity, while the variation in depth across the pattern reflects the lateral spatial distribution in the local fluence per unit area. An added advantage is the similarity in response to ionising radiation of an organic polymer compared to that of biological material. A pattern in the resist from radiation emitted by a radionuclide treated cell gives additional spatial information about the energy deposited in the resist.

  13. Dynamics and transformations of radionuclides in soils and ecosystem health

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J. ); Ainsworth, Calvin C. ); Driver, Crystal J. ); Cataldo, Dominic A. )

    1998-12-01

    The chemical behavior of radionuclides can vary widely in soil and sediment environments. Equally important, for a given radionuclide the physico-chemical properties of the solids and aqueous phase can greatly influence a radionuclides behavior. Radionuclides can conceivably occur in soils as soluble-free, inorganic-soluble-complexed, organic-soluble, complexed, adsorbed, precipitated, coprecipitated, or solid structural species. While it is clear that an assessment of a radionuclide?s soil chemistry and potential shifts in speciation will yield a considerable understanding of its behavior in the natural environment, it does not directly translate to bioavailability or its impact on ecosystems health. The soil chemical factors have to be linked to food chain considerations and other ecological parameters that directly tie to an analysis of ecosystem health. In general, the movement of radionuclides from lower to higher trophic levels diminishes with each trophic level in both aqua tic and terrestrial systems. In some cases, transfer is limited because of low absorption/assimilation by successive trophic organisms (Pu, U); for other radionuclides (Tc, H) assimilation may be high but rapid metabolic turnover and low retention greatly reduce tissue concentrations available to predator species. Still others are chemical analogs of essential elements whose concentrations are maintained under strict metabolic control in tissues (Cs) or are stored in tissues seldom consumed by other organisms (Sr storage in exoskeleton, shells, and bone). Therefore, the organisms that receive the greatest ingestion exposures are those in lower trophic positions or are in higher trophic levels but within simple, short food chains. Food source, behavior, and habitat influence the accumulation of radionuclides in animals.

  14. Radionuclide transport through engineered barrier system alteration products

    SciTech Connect

    Viani, B.E.; Torretto, P.C.; Matzen, S.L.

    1997-12-01

    The primary rationale for studying the transport behavior of radionuclides through the Engineered Barrier system / Near Field Environment (EBS/NFE) is to ascertain whether the material properties of the introduced and altered host rock can significantly affect the transport of radionuclides from the waste container to the far field. The intent of this report is to present data and modeling results that can be used to assess the importance of canister corrosion products and cementitious materials to transport of radionuclides to the far field.

  15. Selection of plants for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Entry J.A.; Vance, N.C.; Watrud, L.S.

    1996-12-31

    Remediation of soil contaminated with radionuclides typically requires that soil be removed from the site and treated with various dispersing and chelating chemicals. Numerous studies have shown that radionuclides are generally not leached from the top 0.4 meters of soil, where plant roots actively accumulate elements. Restoration of large areas of land contaminated with low levels of radionuclides may be feasible using phytoremediation. Criteria for the selection of plants for phytoremediation, molecular approaches to increase radio nuclide uptake, effects of cultural practices on uptake and assessment of environmental effects of phytoremediation will be discussed.

  16. Consequence ranking of radionuclides in Hanford tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schmittroth, F.A.; De Lorenzo, T.H.

    1995-09-01

    Radionuclides in the Hanford tank waste are ranked relative to their consequences for the Low-Level Tank Waste program. The ranking identifies key radionuclides where further study is merited. In addition to potential consequences for intrude and drinking-water scenarios supporting low-level waste activities, a ranking based on shielding criteria is provided. The radionuclide production inventories are based on a new and independent ORIGEN2 calculation representing the operation of all Hanford single-pass reactors and the N Reactor.

  17. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and

  18. VIDA: a voxel-based dosimetry method for targeted radionuclide therapy using Geant4.

    PubMed

    Kost, Susan D; Dewaraja, Yuni K; Abramson, Richard G; Stabin, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    We have developed the Voxel-Based Internal Dosimetry Application (VIDA) to provide patient-specific dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy performing Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport with the Geant4 toolkit. The code generates voxel-level dose rate maps using anatomical and physiological data taken from individual patients. Voxel level dose rate curves are then fit and integrated to yield a spatial map of radiation absorbed dose. In this article, we present validation studies using established dosimetry results, including self-dose factors (DFs) from the OLINDA/EXM program for uniform activity in unit density spheres and organ self- and cross-organ DFs in the Radiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) reference adult phantom. The comparison with reference data demonstrated agreement within 5% for self-DFs to spheres and reference phantom source organs for four common radionuclides used in targeted therapy ((131)I, (90)Y, (111)In, (177)Lu). Agreement within 9% was achieved for cross-organ DFs. We also present dose estimates to normal tissues and tumors from studies of two non-Hodgkin Lymphoma patients treated by (131)I radioimmunotherapy, with comparison to results generated independently with another dosimetry code. A relative difference of 12% or less was found between methods for mean absorbed tumor doses accounting for tumor regression.

  19. VIDA: A Voxel-Based Dosimetry Method for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Using Geant4

    PubMed Central

    Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Abramson, Richard G.; Stabin, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We have developed the Voxel-Based Internal Dosimetry Application (VIDA) to provide patient-specific dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy performing Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport with the Geant4 toolkit. The code generates voxel-level dose rate maps using anatomical and physiological data taken from individual patients. Voxel level dose rate curves are then fit and integrated to yield a spatial map of radiation absorbed dose. In this article, we present validation studies using established dosimetry results, including self-dose factors (DFs) from the OLINDA/EXM program for uniform activity in unit density spheres and organ self- and cross-organ DFs in the Radiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) reference adult phantom. The comparison with reference data demonstrated agreement within 5% for self-DFs to spheres and reference phantom source organs for four common radionuclides used in targeted therapy (131I, 90Y, 111In, 177Lu). Agreement within 9% was achieved for cross-organ DFs. We also present dose estimates to normal tissues and tumors from studies of two non-Hodgkin Lymphoma patients treated by 131I radioimmunotherapy, with comparison to results generated independently with another dosimetry code. A relative difference of 12% or less was found between methods for mean absorbed tumor doses accounting for tumor regression. PMID:25594357

  20. Developments in Bioremediation of Soils and Sediments Pollutedwith Metals and Radionuclides: 2. Field Research on Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.; Tabak, Henry H.

    2007-03-15

    Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides has had manyfield tests, demonstrations, and full-scale implementations in recentyears. Field research in this area has occurred for many different metalsand radionuclides using a wide array of strategies. These strategies canbe generally characterized in six major categories: biotransformation,bioaccumulation/bisorption, biodegradation of chelators, volatilization,treatment trains, and natural attenuation. For all field applicationsthere are a number of critical biogeochemical issues that most beaddressed for the successful field application. Monitoring andcharacterization parameters that are enabling to bioremediation of metalsand radionuclides are presented here. For each of the strategies a casestudy is presented to demonstrate a field application that uses thisstrategy.

  1. [Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].

    PubMed

    Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at

  2. Gas: A Neglected Phase in Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B

    2005-09-28

    The gas phase is generally ignored in remediation of metals and radionuclides because it is assumed that there is no efficient way to exploit it. In the literal sense, all remediations involve the gas phase because this phase is linked to the liquid and solid phases by vapor pressure and thermodynamic relationships. Remediation methods that specifically use the gas phase as a central feature have primarily targeted volatile organic contaminants, not metals and radionuclides. Unlike many organic contaminants, the vapor pressure and Henry's Law constants of metals and radionuclides are not generally conducive to direct air stripping of dissolved contaminants. Nevertheless, the gas phase can play an important role in remediation of inorganic contaminants and provide opportunities for efficient, cost effective remediation. The objective here is to explore ways in which manipulation of the gas phase can be used to facilitate remediation of metals and radionuclides.

  3. SRNL RADIONUCLIDE FIELD LYSIMETER EXPERIMENT: BASELINE CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Bagwell, L.; Powell, B.; Almond, P.; Emerson, H.; Hixon, A.; Jablonski, J.; Buchanan, C.; Waterhouse, T.

    2012-10-17

    The purpose of this document is to compile information regarding experimental design, facility design, construction, radionuclide source preparation, and path forward for the ten year Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radionuclide Field Lysimeter Experiment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This is a collaborative effort by researchers at SRNL and Clemson University. The scientific objectives of this study are to: Study long-term radionuclide transport under conditions more representative of vadose zone conditions than laboratory experiments; Provide more realistic quantification of radionuclide transport and geochemistry in the vadose zone, providing better information pertinent to radioactive waste storage solutions than presently exists; Reduce uncertainty and improve justification for geochemical models such as those used in performance assessments and composite analyses.

  4. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Radionuclides In Ground Water - Technical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attentuation) within the subsurface. In gen...

  5. Site Characterization for MNA of Radionuclides in Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation is often evaluated as a component of the remedy for ground water contaminated with radionuclides. When properly employed, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may provide an effective knowledge-based remedy where a thorough engineering analysis inform...

  6. Subsurface Characterization To Support Evaluation Of Radionuclide Transport And Attenuation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

  7. Numerical modeling of radionuclide migration through a borehole disposal site.

    PubMed

    Yeboah, Serwaa; Akiti, Thomas T; Fletcher, John J

    2014-01-01

    The migration of radionuclides from a borehole repository located about 20 km from the Akwapim fault line which lies in an area of high seismicity was analyzed for some selected radionuclides. In the event of a seismic activity, fractures and faults could be rejuvenated or initiated resulting in container failure leading to the release of radionuclides. A numerical model was solved using a two-dimensional finite element code (Comsol Multiphysics) by taking into account the effect of heterogeneities. Results showed that, the fractured medium created preferential pathways indicating that, fault zones generated potential paths for released radionuclides from a radioactive waste repository. The results obtained showed that variations in hydraulic conductivity as a result of the heterogeneity considered within the domain significantly affected the direction of flow.

  8. Biomolecular Mechanisms Controlling Metal and Radionuclide Transformations in Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans

    SciTech Connect

    Beliaev, Alexander S.; Fredrickson, James K.; Loeffler, Frank E.; Sanford, Robert A.

    2006-06-01

    Microbiological reduction and immobilization of U(VI) and Tc(VII) has been proposed as a strategy for remediating radionuclide-contaminated environments. Numerous studies focusing on the reduction kinetics and speciation of these metals have been carried out using contaminated sediment samples, microbial consortia, and pure bacterial cultures. While previous work with model organisms has increased the general understanding of radionuclide transformation processes, fundamental questions regarding radionuclide reduction mechanisms by indigenous microorganisms are poorly understood, especially under the commonly encountered scenario where multiple electron acceptors are present. Therefore, the overall goal of the proposed research is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of radionuclide biotransformation by Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans, a predominant member of indigenous microorganism commonly found in contaminated subsurface environments, and to assess the effects of relevant environmental factors affecting these transformation reactions.

  9. Monitored natural attenuation forum: MNA of metals and radionuclides

    EPA Science Inventory

    While the natural attenuation of many organic compounds is established and accepted by the regulated and regulatory communities, there is some debate whether monitored natural attenuation (MNA) of metals and radionuclides is a reasonable remedial alternative to consider. Do you...

  10. Radionuclide Imaging Applications in Cardiomyopathies and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Harinstein, Matthew E; Soman, Prem

    2016-03-01

    Multiple epidemiological factors including population aging and improved survival after acute coronary syndromes have contributed to a heart failure (HF) prevalence in the USA in epidemic proportions. In the absence of transplantation, HF remains a progressive disease with poor prognosis. The structural and functional abnormalities of the myocardium in HF can be assessed by various radionuclide imaging techniques. Radionuclide imaging may be uniquely suited to address several important clinical questions in HF such as identifying etiology and guiding the selection of patients for coronary revascularization. Newer approaches such as autonomic innervation imaging, phase analysis for synchrony assessment, and other molecular imaging techniques continue to expand the applications of radionuclide imaging in HF. In this manuscript, we review established and evolving applications of radionuclide imaging for the diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of HF. PMID:26841785

  11. Recent Advances in Molecular Image-Guided Cancer Radionuclide Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gao, Duo; Sun, Xianlei; Gao, Liquan; Liu, Zhaofei

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-targeted radionuclide therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of a wide variety of malignancies, especially those resistant to conventional therapies. However, to improve the use of targeted radionuclide therapy for the management of cancer patients, the in vivo behaviors, dosimetry, and efficacy of radiotherapeutic agents need to be well characterized and monitored. Molecular imaging, which is a powerful tool for the noninvasive characterization and quantification of biological processes in living subjects at the cellular and molecular levels, plays an important role in the guidance of cancer radionuclide therapy. In this review, we introduce the radiotherapeutics for cancer-targeted therapy and summarize the most recent evidence supporting the use of molecular imaging to guide cancer radionuclide therapy.

  12. Modeling the Dispersal and Deposition of Radionuclides: Lessons from Chernobyl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ApSimon, H. M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Described are theoretical models that simulate the dispersion of radionuclides on local and global scales following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Discusses the application of these results to nuclear weapons fallout. (CW)

  13. Using environmental radionuclides as fingerprints to study streambank erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of sediment source areas in the watershed is a key component for designing management strategies to reduce sediment and chemical loads from watersheds. Potential sediment sources in watersheds can be characterized (fingerprinted) using diagnostic environmental radionuclides, chem...

  14. Personal dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for 1252 radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Otto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides are useful for routine calculations in radiation protection in industry, medicine and research. They give a simple and often sufficient estimate of dose rates during production, handling and storage of radionuclide sources, based solely on the source's activity. The latest compilation of such conversion coefficients dates from 20 y ago, based on nuclear decay data published 30 y ago. The present publication provides radionuclide-specific conversion coefficients to personal dose based on the most recent evaluations of nuclear decay data for 1252 radionuclides and fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for monoenergetic radiations. It contains previously unknown conversion coefficients for >400 nuclides and corrects those conversion coefficients that were based on erroneous decay schemes. For the first time, estimates for the protection quantity Hp(3) are included.

  15. Radionuclide uptake and growth of barn swallows nesting by radioactive leaching ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, J.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Markham, O.D. )

    1990-04-01

    Populations of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica) nested seasonally near the Test Reactor Area (TRA) radioactive leaching ponds on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. These birds utilized leaching pond arthropods as a food source and contaminated mud for nest construction. Over 20 fission and activation products were detected in immature and adult TRA birds. The radionuclide exhibiting the highest mean concentration in adult birds was 51Cr, with 16.1 Bq g-1. Mean concentrations of detectable radionuclides were used to calculate internal dose rates. Approximately 72% of the total dose rate of 219 microGy d-1 (22 mrad d-1) for adult birds was due to 24Na. Swallow thyroids contained a mean 131I concentration of 3330 Bq g-1. An average dose rate to the thyroid was calculated to be 4300 microGy d-1 or 450 mGy (45 rad) for the entire breeding season. Data from LiF-700 thermoluminescent dosimeters in swallow nests indicated that average dose rates were 840 microGy d-1 for eggs and 2200 Gy d-1 for nestlings, for a total of 54 mGy (5.4 rad) during the nesting period. The breeding biology and growth rate were investigated for TRA swallows and comparison group located 15 km and 100 km away. Total mortality rates for the comparison group vs. 1976 and 1977 TRA populations were not found to be significantly (p greater than 0.9) different. Nonlinear regression was used to fit individual growth curves and estimate parameters using a logistic model. First clutch TRA swallows were found to have a significantly lower mean growth rate compared to either the first clutch comparison group or the second clutch of TRA birds. Mean asymptotic weights achieved by immature TRA birds were also found to be significantly lower than those achieved by comparison group birds. Both growth rate and asymptotic weights for TRA birds were within the normal range reported in the literature.

  16. Somatostatin Receptor Based Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Somatostatin (SST) receptors (SSTRs) belong to the typical 7-transmembrane domain family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Five distinct subtypes (termed SSTR1-5) have been identified, with SSTR2 showing the highest affinity for natural SST and synthetic SST analogs. Most neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have high expression levels of SSTRs, which opens the possibility for tumor imaging and therapy with radiolabeled SST analogs. A number of tracers have been developed for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of NETs with impressive results, which facilitates the applications of human SSTR subtype 2 (hSSTr2) reporter gene based imaging and therapy in SSTR negative or weakly positive tumors to provide a novel approach for the management of tumors. The hSSTr2 gene can act as not only a reporter gene for in vivo imaging, but also a therapeutic gene for local radionuclide therapy. Even a second therapeutic gene can be transfected into the same tumor cells together with hSSTr2 reporter gene to obtain a synergistic therapeutic effect. However, additional preclinical and especially translational and clinical researches are needed to confirm the value of hSSTr2 reporter gene based imaging and therapy in tumors. PMID:25879040

  17. Optimizing diagnosis in Parkinson's disease: Radionuclide imaging.

    PubMed

    Arena, Julieta E; Stoessl, A Jon

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and other disorders characterized by basal ganglia dysfunction are often associated with limited structural imaging changes that might assist in the clinical or research setting. Radionuclide imaging has been used to assess characteristic functional changes. Presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction in PD can be revealed through the imaging of different steps in the process of dopamine synthesis and storage: L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) activity, Vesicular Monoamine Transporter type 2 (VMAT2) binding or its reuptake via the dopamine transporter (DAT). Postsynaptic dopamine dysfunction can also be studied with a variety of different tracers that primarily assess D2-like dopamine receptor availability. The function of other neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, serotonin and acetylcholine can be imaged as well, giving important information about the underlying pathophysiologic process of PD and its complications. The imaging of metabolic activity and pathologic changes has also provided great advances in the field. Together, these techniques have allowed for a better understanding of PD, may be of aid for differentiating PD from other forms of parkinsonism and will undoubtedly be useful for the establishment of new therapeutic targets.

  18. Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

    1999-04-02

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolite{trademark} NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900{trademark}, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material.

  19. Radionuclide surveillance of the allografted pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    George, E.A.; Salimi, Z.; Carney, K.; Castaneda, M.; Garvin, P.J.

    1988-04-01

    To determine the value of scintigraphy to detect posttransplantation complications of the allografted pancreas, we retrospectively reviewed 209 scintigrams obtained with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid (/sup 99m/Tc-SC) and /sup 99m/Tc-glucoheptonate (/sup 99m/Tc-GH). The scintigraphic studies were performed in 37 recipients of simultaneous renal and pancreatic allografts harvested from the same donor. /sup 99m/Tc-SC was used as an indicator of thrombotic vasculitis; pancreatic perfusion and blood-pool parameters were monitored with /sup 99m/Tc-GH. In 11 of the 37 recipients, scintigraphic abnormalities suggested posttransplantation infarction. Recurrent episodes of acute rejection of the pancreatic allograft, which always coincided with acute rejection of the renal allograft, were monitored in 24 recipients. Rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis was suggested in 12 of the 24 recipients and persisted in 10 recipients for several weeks after improvement of renal allograft rejection. Pancreatic atrophy was suggested scintigraphically in 16 of the 24 recipients with recurrent episodes of rejection. Spontaneous pancreatic-duct obstruction and obstructive pancreatitis were associated with a scintigraphic pattern similar to that of rejection-induced ischemic pancreatitis. We concluded that the specific radionuclides used in this series are useful for the surveillance and assessment of posttransplantation pancreatic infarction, acute rejection, pancreatitis, and atrophy

  20. Radionuclide Imaging of Musculoskeletal Infection: A Review.

    PubMed

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    There are numerous imaging tests for diagnosing musculoskeletal infection. Radiographs are routinely performed, because even when not diagnostic, they provide an anatomic overview of the region of interest that could influence subsequent procedure selection and interpretation. MRI is sensitive and provides superb anatomic detail. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. (67)Ga is used primarily for spondylodiskitis. Although in vitro labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide test of choice for complicating osteomyelitis such as diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection, it is not useful for spondylodiskitis. Antigranulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments have limitations and are not widely available. (111)In-biotin is useful for spondylodiskitis. Radiolabeled synthetic fragments of the antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin are promising infection-specific agents. (18)F-FDG is the radiopharmaceutical of choice for spondylodiskitis. Its role in diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection is not established. Preliminary data suggest (68)Ga may be useful in musculoskeletal infection. (124)I-fialuridine initially showed promise as an infection-specific radiopharmaceutical, but subsequent investigations were disappointing. The development of PET/CT and SPECT/CT imaging systems, which combine anatomic and functional imaging, has revolutionized diagnostic imaging. These hybrid systems are redefining the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected or known infection and inflammation by improving diagnostic accuracy and influencing patient management. PMID:27390160

  1. Natural chelating agents for radionuclide decorporation

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1985-06-11

    This invention relates to the production of metal-binding compounds useful for the therapy of heavy metal poisoning, for biological mining and for decorporation of radionuclides. The present invention deals with an orderly and effective method of producing new therapeutically effective chelating agents. This method uses challenge biosynthesis for the production of chelating agents that are specific for a particular metal. In this approach, the desired chelating agents are prepared from microorganisms challenged by the metal that the chelating agent is designed to detoxify. This challenge induces the formation of specific or highly selective chelating agents. The present invention involves the use of the challenge biosynthetic method to produce new complexing/chelating agents that are therapeutically useful to detoxify uranium, plutonium, thorium and other toxic metals. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa family of organisms is the referred family of microorganisms to be used in the present invention to produce the new chelating agent because this family is known to elaborate strains resistant to toxic metals.

  2. Radionuclide transit in patients with colon interposition

    SciTech Connect

    Isolauri, J.; Koskinen, M.O.; Markkula, H.

    1987-10-01

    To assess radionuclide transit in interposed segments of the colon, we examined 25 patients with colon interposition for benign esophageal disease. No such assessment has been reported previously. The most common indications for operation were esophageal strictures that developed after lye ingestion and reflux strictures not responding to other treatment. The operations were performed without thoracotomy by blunt esophageal dissection in 80% of the patients. There were 18 antiperistaltic and seven isoperistaltic colon grafts. A large-field gamma camera and computer system were used. Data were collected at time intervals of 0.5 second during the first 30 seconds and at intervals of 30 seconds up to 20 minutes. The 5% and 90% stomach filling times, times to 50% and 25% activity levels, and residual activity levels as a percentage of the maxima were calculated in the upper, middle, and lower thirds of the colon grafts and of the normal esophagus of 10 healthy control subjects. The examinations were performed with the subject in a sitting position. All parameters showed that emptying of the colon graft was markedly slower than that of the normal esophagus. The intra-abdominal third of the graft had a residual activity of 50.5% +/- 15.7% after 20 minutes' observation. No differences between antiperistaltic and isoperistaltic grafts were observed. Reconstruction with proximal cologastric anastomosis and a short intra-abdominal colon graft segments is suggested.

  3. New Trends in Radionuclide Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Guang-Uei; Wang, Yuh-Feng; Su, Hung-Yi; Hsieh, Te-Chun; Ko, Chi-Lun; Yen, Ruoh-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been widely used clinically as one of the major functional imaging modalities for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) for decades. Ample evidence has supported the use of MPI as a useful and important tool in the diagnosis, risk stratification and treatment planning for CAD. Although popular in the United States, MPI has become the most frequently used imaging modality among all nuclear medicine tests in Taiwan. However, it should be acknowledged that MPI SPECT does have its limitations. These include false-positive results due to certain artifacts, false-negative due to balanced ischemia, complexity and adverse reaction arising from current pharmacological stressors, time consuming nature of the imaging procedure, no blood flow quantitation and relatively high radiation exposure. The purpose of this article was to review the recent trends in nuclear cardiology, including the utilization of positron emission tomography (PET) for MPI, new stressor, new SPECT camera with higher resolution and higher sensitivity, dynamic SPECT protocol for blood flow quantitation, new software of phase analysis for evaluation of LV dyssynchrony, and measures utilized for reducing radiation exposure of MPI. PMID:27122946

  4. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

  5. GEPNETs update: Radionuclide therapy in neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    van der Zwan, Wouter A; Bodei, Lisa; Mueller-Brand, Jan; de Herder, Wouter W; Kvols, Larry K; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2015-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a promising new treatment modality for inoperable or metastasized gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEPNETs) patients. Most studies report objective response rates in 15-35% of patients. Also, outcome in terms of progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival compares very favorably with that for somatostatin analogs, chemotherapy, or new, 'targeted' therapies. They also compare favorably to PFS data for liver-directed therapies. Two decades after the introduction of PRRT, there is a growing need for randomized controlled trials comparing PRRT to 'standard' treatment, that is treatment with agents that have proven benefit when tested in randomized trials. Combining PRRT with liver-directed therapies or with targeted therapies could improve treatment results. The question to be answered, however, is whether a combination of therapies performed within a limited time-span from one another results in a better PFS than a strategy in which other therapies are reserved until after (renewed) tumor progression. Randomized clinical trials comparing PRRT with other treatment modalities should be undertaken to determine the best treatment options and treatment sequelae for patients with GEPNETs.

  6. Radionuclide imaging of soft tissue neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.; Enneking, W.F.

    1981-10-01

    Two classes of radiopharmaceuticals may be used for imaging tumors of the musculoskeletal system. The first is comprised of soft tissue or tumor specific agents such as gallium-67, bleomycin, and radionuclide-labeled antibodies, which may be useful for detecting and localizing these tumors. The other class of tracer is comprised of those with avidity for bone. The 99mTc-labeled-phosphate skeletal imaging compounds have been found to localize in a variety of soft tissue lesions, including benign and malignant tumors. In 1972, Enneking began to include bone scans in the preoperative evaluation of soft tissue masses. Later, he and his associates reported that these scans were useful in planning operative treatment of sarcomas by detecting involvement of bone by the tumors. Nearly all malignant soft tissue tumors take up bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, and bone involvement was indicated in two-thirds of the scans we reviewed. About half of benign soft tissue lesions had normal scans, but the other half showed uptake within the lesion and a few also showed bone involvement. Careful, thorough imaging technique is essential to proper evaluation. Multiple, high-resolution static gamma camera images in different projections are necessary to adequately demonstrate the presence or absence of soft tissue abnormality and to define the precise relationship of the tumor to the adjacent bone.

  7. Seepage basin radionuclide transport in sediments and vegetation. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Jerome, K.M.

    1993-12-31

    Radionuclide concentrations were measured in soil and vegetation growing adjacent to and in the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins as part of the plan for closure of the basin system. The results of the measurements provide some information about the mobility of the radionuclides introduced into the basins. {sup 90}Sr is the most mobile of the radionuclides in soil. Its high mobility and high relative uptake by vegetation cause {sup 90}Sr to be distributed throughout the basin system. {sup 137}Cs is not as mobile in the basin soil, limiting its uptake by vegetation growing on the edge of the seepage basins; however, it is readily taken up by the vegetation growing in the basins. Soil mobility and vegetation uptake is relatively low for all of the transuranic radionuclides. For the most part these radionuclides remain near the surface of the basin soils where they were absorbed from the waste-water. The relative role of soil mobility and vegetation uptake on the distribution of radionuclide at the basins was futher evaluated by comparing the vegetation concentration ratio and the half-depth of penetration of the radionuclides in the basin soil. The results suggest that vegetation processes dominate in determining the concentration of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs in the vegetation. The influences of soil and vegetation are more balanced for {sup 90}Sr. The other radionuclides exhibit both low soil mobility and low vegetation uptake. The lack of soil mobility is seen in the lower concentrations found in vegetation growing on the edge of the basin compared to those growing in the basin.

  8. Compositions and methods for removal of toxic metals and radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuero, Raul G. (Inventor); McKay, David S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for the removal of toxic metals or radionuclides from source materials. Toxic metals may be removed from source materials using a clay, such as attapulgite or highly cationic bentonite, and chitin or chitosan. Toxic metals may also be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan. Radionuclides may be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan.

  9. Statistical analyses of plume composition and deposited radionuclide mixture ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Terrence D.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Brito, Roxanne; Hunt, Brian D.; Osborn, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    A proposed method is considered to classify the regions in the close neighborhood of selected measurements according to the ratio of two radionuclides measured from either a radioactive plume or a deposited radionuclide mixture. The subsequent associated locations are then considered in the area of interest with a representative ratio class. This method allows for a more comprehensive and meaningful understanding of the data sampled following a radiological incident.

  10. Bioaccumulation of radionuclides in fertilized Canadian Shield lake basins.

    PubMed

    Bird, G A; Hesslein, R H; Mills, K H; Schwartz, W J; Turner, M A

    1998-07-11

    Radionuclide tracers of heavy metals (59Fe, 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se, 85Sr, 134Cs and 203Hg) representing potential contamination from nuclear power plants, industry and agriculture were added to separate basins of Lake 226, Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario. The two basins were part of a eutrophication experiment and differed in their trophic status; the north basin (L226N) was eutrophic whereas the south basin (L226S) was mesotrophic. Our objective was to determine the uptake of the radionuclides by biota and the effect of lake trophic status on their bioaccumulation. The trophic status of the lakes did not appear to have a marked effect on the accumulation of radionuclides by the biota. This may have been because of a mid-summer leakage of nutrients between the basins which enhanced primary production in L226S, because there is a time lag between primary production and the availability of the radionuclides to the fishes or because trophic status does not affect the uptake of at least some of these radionuclides. However, there was a tendency for faster uptake of the radionuclides in L226N by fish than L226S, but the differences were not significant. Concentrations in the biota generally decreased in the order: fathead minnow > pearl dace > tadpoles > slimy sculpin > leeches. Concentrations in biota generally decreased in the order. 65Zn > 203Hg > 75Se > 134Cs > 60Co > 85Sr = 59Fe. Cobalt-60 concentrations in tadpoles were greater than in the other biota. Radionuclide concentrations in the tissues of lake whitefish indicated that uptake was predominantly from food. Radionuclide concentrations were usually higher in the posterior gut, liver and kidney than in other tissues, whereas body burdens were generally high in the muscle for 75Se, 134Cs and 203Hg; kidney and gut for 60Co; and bone for 65Zn and 75Se. Mercury-203 burdens were also high in the bone and gut. PMID:9718743

  11. Bioaccumulation of radionuclides in fertilized Canadian Shield lake basins.

    PubMed

    Bird, G A; Hesslein, R H; Mills, K H; Schwartz, W J; Turner, M A

    1998-07-11

    Radionuclide tracers of heavy metals (59Fe, 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se, 85Sr, 134Cs and 203Hg) representing potential contamination from nuclear power plants, industry and agriculture were added to separate basins of Lake 226, Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario. The two basins were part of a eutrophication experiment and differed in their trophic status; the north basin (L226N) was eutrophic whereas the south basin (L226S) was mesotrophic. Our objective was to determine the uptake of the radionuclides by biota and the effect of lake trophic status on their bioaccumulation. The trophic status of the lakes did not appear to have a marked effect on the accumulation of radionuclides by the biota. This may have been because of a mid-summer leakage of nutrients between the basins which enhanced primary production in L226S, because there is a time lag between primary production and the availability of the radionuclides to the fishes or because trophic status does not affect the uptake of at least some of these radionuclides. However, there was a tendency for faster uptake of the radionuclides in L226N by fish than L226S, but the differences were not significant. Concentrations in the biota generally decreased in the order: fathead minnow > pearl dace > tadpoles > slimy sculpin > leeches. Concentrations in biota generally decreased in the order. 65Zn > 203Hg > 75Se > 134Cs > 60Co > 85Sr = 59Fe. Cobalt-60 concentrations in tadpoles were greater than in the other biota. Radionuclide concentrations in the tissues of lake whitefish indicated that uptake was predominantly from food. Radionuclide concentrations were usually higher in the posterior gut, liver and kidney than in other tissues, whereas body burdens were generally high in the muscle for 75Se, 134Cs and 203Hg; kidney and gut for 60Co; and bone for 65Zn and 75Se. Mercury-203 burdens were also high in the bone and gut.

  12. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    SciTech Connect

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified.

  13. Radionuclides' Content Speciation and Fingerprinting of Nigerian Tin Mining Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olise, F. S.; Oladejo, O. F.; Owoade, O. K.; Almeida, S. M.; Ho, M. D.; Olaniyi, H. B.

    2012-04-01

    Sediment and process-waste samples rich in cassiterite, monazite and zircon, which are of industrial interest, were analysed for the natural series radionuclides, 232Th and 238U and the non-series radionuclide, 40K using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. The natural radionuclides' radioactivity in the samples from the tin-rich areas of Jos, Nigeria was determined using K0-INAA. The obtained results have a high degree of reliability judging from the techniqués accuracy, precision and its non-dependence on secular equilibrium and density correction problems inherent in gamma spectrometry as well as rigorous contamination-prone sample preparation requirements of other methods. Radionuclides speciation and ratios, giving radionuclide fingerprinting of the tin mining tailings is reported. The measured radionuclides activity levels are several orders of magnitude higher than UNSCEAR reference values, revealing the pollution potential of the tin mining and process activities on the surrounding areas, vis-à-vis heavy particulate matter load, leaching into various water channels and direct exposure to gamma rays emitted from the houses and facilities built from the generated wastes. The observed activity levels reflects possible worst scenario situation and the data would not only be of use to the government in its remediation plan for the study area but will also serve as important information for the nuclear science and technology programme about to be embarked upon. Methods of checking exposure have also been suggested.

  14. Simulation of radionuclide transport in U. S. agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, R.D.; Baes, C.F. III

    1982-01-01

    Because of the recent concern about the impact of energy technologies on man and related health effects, there has emerged a need for models to calculate or predict the effects of radionuclides on man. A general overview is presented of a model that calculates the ingrowth of radionuclides into man's food chain. The FORTRAN IV computer program TERRA, Transport of Environmentally Released Radionuclides in Agriculture, simulates the build-up of radionuclides in soil, four plant food compartments, in meat and milk from beef, and in the livestock food compartments that cause radionuclide build-up in milk and meat from beef. A large data set of spatially oriented parameters has been developed in conjunction with TERRA. This direct-access data set is called SITE, Specific Information on the Terrestrial Environment, and contains 35 parameters for each of 3525 half-degree longitude-latitude cells which define the lower 48 states. TERRA and SITE are used together as a package for determining radionuclide concentrations in man's food anywhere within the conterminous 48 states due to atmospheric releases.

  15. Transfer coefficients of radionuclides secreted in milk of dairy cows

    SciTech Connect

    Sam, D.; Williams, W.F.; Rockmann, D.D.; Allen, J.T.

    1980-09-01

    This study simulated experimentally the transfer of radionuclides to milk of dairy cows on a worst-case situation using various radionuclides known to emanate from nuclear power stations and which have been detected on particulates. Two lactating Holstein cows were administered orally one gelatin capsule containing 10 radionuclides in water-soluble form per day for 14 consecutive days. Milk samples were collected and aliquots analyzed in a germanium lithium-drifted detector coupled to a 2048-multichannel gamma-ray analyzer to measure small amounts of complex mixtures of radionuclides. The transfer coefficients of the radionuclides were calculated when their secretion in milk reached or approached a plateau of concentration. The radionuclides and their transfer coefficients to milk were: chromium/sup 51/ less than 0.01%; manganese/sup 54/ 0.033 +- 0.005%; cobalt/sup 60/ 0.01 +- 0.002%; iron/sup 59/ 0.0048 +- 0.002%; zinc/sup 65/ 0.31 +- 0.07%; selenium/sup 75/ 0.29 +- 0.1%; antimony/sup 125/ 0.011 +- 0.003%; iodine/sup 131/ 0.88 +- 0.05%; and cesium/sup 137/ 0.79 +- 0.08%.

  16. Calculation of Accumulated Radiation Doses to Man from Radionuclides Found in Food Products and from Radionuclides in the Environment.

    1981-02-17

    PABLM calculates internal radiation doses to man from radionuclides in food products and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. It can be used to calculate accumulated doses to 23 possible body organs or tissues for any one or a combination of radionuclides. Radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment may be calculated from deposition on the soil or plants during an atmospheric or liquid release, or from exposure to residual radionuclides in themore » environment after the releases have ended. Radioactive decay is considered during the release of radionuclides, after they are deposited on the plants or ground, and during holdup of food after harvest. A chain decay scheme is used; it includes branching to account for transitions to and from isomeric states. Doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. The doses calculated are accumulated doses from continuous chronic exposure. A first-year committed dose is calculated as well as an integrated dose for a selected number of years.« less

  17. [Modeling of Processes of Migration and Accumulation of Radionuclides in Freshwater Ecosystems by the Example of the Samson, Lev, Vandras Rivers Related to the Ob-Irtysh River Basin].

    PubMed

    Trapeznikov, A V; Korzhavin, A V; Trapeznikova, V N; Nikolkin, V N

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models of horizontal distribution and migration of radionuclides are presented in water and floodplain soils of the Samson-Lev-Vandras river system related to the Ob-Irtysh river basin. Integral inventory of radionuclides in the main components of the river ecosystems is calculated. The estimated annual discharge of radionuclides from the Vandras river to the Great Salym river is given. The effect of the removal of man-made radionuclides in the Samson, Lev, Vandras rivers on radioactive contamination of the Ob-Irtysh river system is shown in comparison with the Techa river, that also belongs to the Ob-Irtysh river basin. Despite the presence of an additional radioactive contamination of the Samson floodplain, the transfer of radioactive substances in the Samson, Lev, Vandras rivers has a much smaller impact on the contamination of the Ob-Irtysh river system, compared to the Techa river, prone to a large-scale radioactive contamination.

  18. [Modeling of Processes of Migration and Accumulation of Radionuclides in Freshwater Ecosystems by the Example of the Samson, Lev, Vandras Rivers Related to the Ob-Irtysh River Basin].

    PubMed

    Trapeznikov, A V; Korzhavin, A V; Trapeznikova, V N; Nikolkin, V N

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models of horizontal distribution and migration of radionuclides are presented in water and floodplain soils of the Samson-Lev-Vandras river system related to the Ob-Irtysh river basin. Integral inventory of radionuclides in the main components of the river ecosystems is calculated. The estimated annual discharge of radionuclides from the Vandras river to the Great Salym river is given. The effect of the removal of man-made radionuclides in the Samson, Lev, Vandras rivers on radioactive contamination of the Ob-Irtysh river system is shown in comparison with the Techa river, that also belongs to the Ob-Irtysh river basin. Despite the presence of an additional radioactive contamination of the Samson floodplain, the transfer of radioactive substances in the Samson, Lev, Vandras rivers has a much smaller impact on the contamination of the Ob-Irtysh river system, compared to the Techa river, prone to a large-scale radioactive contamination. PMID:27534071

  19. Radionuclide Migation Project 1984 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.; Isherwood, D.

    1985-04-01

    The report discusses the hydrogeologic settings and histories of studies associated with the Cheshire (U20n), Cambric (U5e), Nash (UE2ce), Bilby (U3cn), Bourbon (U7n), and Faultless (UC1) Events. Radionuclide and some chemical data are presented for water samples from cavity or chimney wells associated with the Cheshire, Cambric, and Bilby Events, and from satellite wells at the Cambric, Nash, Bibly, Bourbon, and Faultless Event sites. The report also gives the results of studies of specific sampling or analytical methodologies. These studies demonstrated that the apparent migration of /sup 155/Eu is an artfact of spectrometric misidentification of gamma- and x-ray peaks from other constituents. A potential problem with atmospheric contamination of samples collected with evacuated thief samples was also identified. Ultrafiltration techniques were applied to some of the Cheshire cavity samples collected, and preliminary results suggest that substantial amounts of activity may be associated with colloidal particles in the size range of 0.006 to 0.45 ..mu..m. A study has begun of the recharge of effluent water from RNM-2S (Cambric satellite well) into the desert floor as a result of nine years of continuous pumping. This report gives the initial results of unsaturated zone studies showing the propagation of moisture and tritium fronts through the shallow soil. Geochemical modeling of the behavior of ruthenium and technetium was carried out, with particular emphasis on the identification of ionic species that would be potentially mobile under NTS ground-water conditions. The report compares the results with observations of ruthenium migration to the Cambric satellite well.

  20. Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2002-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and

  1. a Generalized Program for Internal Radionuclide Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy Karl

    The development of monoclonal antibodies specific for tumor surface antigens promises a highly specific carrier medium for delivering a tumorcidal radiation dose. Dosimetry calculations of monoclonal antibodies are made difficult, however, precisely because the focus of radioactivity is targeted for a nonstandard volume in a nonstandard geometry. This precludes straightforward application of the formalism developed for internal radionuclide dosimetry by the Medical Internal Radiation Dose Committee. A software program was written to account for the perturbations introduced by the inclusion of a tumor mass as an additional source of, and target for, radiation. The program allows the interactive development of a mathematical model to account for observed biodistribution data. The model describes the time dependence of radioactivity in each organ system that retains radiolabeled antibody, including tumor. Integration of these "time-activity" curves yield cumulative activity for each organ system identified as a 'source' of radioactivity. A Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport is then executed for each source organ to obtain the fraction of radiation energy absorbed by various 'target' organs. When combined with the cumulative activity, this absorbed fraction allows an estimate of dose to be made for each target organ. The program has been validated against ten analytic models designed to span a range of common input data types. Additionally, a performance benchmark has been defined to assess the practicality of implementing the program on different computing hardware platforms. Sources of error in the computation are elaborated on, and future directions and improvements discussed. The software presents an integrated modeling/dosimetry environment particularly suited for performing Monoclonal Antibody dosimetry. It offers a viable methodology for performing prospective treatment planning, based on extrapolation of tracer kinetic data to therapeutic levels.

  2. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 113Sn to include the 2010 results of the PTB (Germany) and the LNE-LNHB (France), and the 2011 result of the CIEMAT (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Kossert, K.; Nähle, O.; Bobin, C.; Lépy, M.-C.; Moune, M.; Garcia-Toraño, E.; Peyres, V.; Roteta, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 1975, seven national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted eleven samples of known activity of 113Sn to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113. The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.7 MBq and 22 MBq. The present primary standardization results for the PTB, Germany and the LNE-LNHB, France, replace their earlier results of 1989 and 1992, respectively. A key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been evaluated for the first time for 113Sn. There are only three results remaining in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sn-113 comparison, all the previously published ones being outdated. The degrees of equivalence between each of these three equivalent activities measured in the SIR and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cu-64 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 64Cu to include the 2009 results of the CMI-IIR (Czech Rep.) and the NPL (UK), the 2010 result of the LNE-LNHB (France) and the 2011 result of the ENEA-INMRI (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Sochorovà, J.; Auerbach, P.; Keightley, J.; Johansson, L.; Bakhshandeiar, E.; Cassette, P.; Moune, M.; Capogni, M.; De Felice, P.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2009, four national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted four samples of known activity of 64Cu to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cu-64. The values of the activity submitted were between about 3 MBq and 260 MBq. There are now five results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cu-64 comparison. A key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been calculated for the first time for this nuclide. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS, A.J.

    2006-09-29

    Treatment of waste streams containing radionuclides, the remediation of contaminated materials, soils, and water, and the safe and economical disposal of radionuclides and toxic metals containing wastes is a major concern. Radionuclides may exist in various oxidation states and may be present as oxide, coprecipitates, inorganic, and organic complexes depending on the process and waste stream. Unlike organic contaminants, the metals cannot be destroyed, but must either be converted to a stable form or removed. Microorganisms present in the natural environment play a major role in the mobilization and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metals by direct enzymatic or indirect non-enzymatic actions and could affect the chemical nature of the radionuclides by altering the speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of microbiological transformations of various chemical forms of uranium present in wastes and contaminated soils and water has led to the development of novel bioremediation processes. One process uses anaerobic bacteria to stabilize the radionuclides by reductive precipitation from higher to lower oxidation state with a concurrent reduction in volume due to the dissolution and removal of nontoxic elements from the waste matrix. In an another process, uranium and other toxic metals are removed from contaminated surfaces, soils, and wastes by extracting with the chelating agent citric acid. Uranium is recovered from the citric acid extract after biodegradation followed by photodegradation in a concentrated form as UO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O for recycling or appropriate disposal. These processes use all naturally occurring materials, common soil bacteria, naturally occurring organic compound citric acid and sunlight.

  5. Mass transfer and transport of radionuclides through backfill in a geologic nuclear waster repository

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Chulhyung.

    1989-01-01

    Analytical models for the mass transfer and transport of radionuclides through waste package backfill material are developed and their numerical illustrations are demonstrated. These models can aid in the performance assessment of the waste package in nuclear waste repositories. The following analyses are considered to study the performance of the backfill barrier in a geologic nuclear waste repository. (1) The analysis for time and space dependent mass transfer and mass transport of a radioactive decay chain for a congruent release with the matrix species is studied. Non-recursive analytical solutions are derived for a semi-infinite medium and a finite medium. The theory is illustrated with the important decay chain {sup 234}U {yields} {sup 230}Th {yields} {sup 226}Ra. (2) The time and space dependent mass transport for high solubility nuclides, such as iodine or cesium, is analyzed. The approximate solution that is valid for all times is developed, and validated by comparison with an asymptotic solution and the solution obtained by the numerical inversion of a Laplace transform covering the entire time span. From this model one can determine the thickness of the backfill to satisfy a prescribed release rate limit for high soluble radionuclides. (3) The analysis of the transient radionuclide migration through the backfill into a fracture intersecting the waste form is developed. The nuclides are advected by water flowing in the fracture. The numerical illustrations show that the species transport for the short half-life nuclide can be stopped effectively within the backfill, but the backfill can no longer retard the migration for stable nuclides or long half-life nuclides after some initial time period. (4) The steady state mass transfer from a cylindrical waste form with flow through the backfill layer is examined.

  6. REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES IN DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8)

    SciTech Connect

    Reboul, S.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.; Bannochie, C.

    2011-12-20

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that the waste producer 'shall report the curie inventory of radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115.' As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type all radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and contribute greater than 0.01 percent of the total curie inventory from the time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial list of radionuclides to be reported is based on the design-basis glass identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report. However, it is required that the list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that meet the 'greater than 0.01% of the curie inventory' criterion. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, and U-238; and Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete list of reportable radionuclides must also include these sets of U and Pu isotopes - and the U and Pu isotopic mass distributions must be identified. The DWPF receives HLW sludge slurry from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 40. For Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), the waste in Tank 40 contained a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) material transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. This sludge blend is also referred to as Macrobatch 8. Laboratory analyses of a Tank 40 sludge sample were performed to quantify the concentrations of pertinent radionuclides in the SB7a waste. Subsequently, radiological decay and in

  7. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-15

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7,255 ± 285 Bq kg(-1), mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (<1.0 μm). Depending on smoke particle concentration, (210)Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 m Bq m(-3), while in smoke-free air (210)Po concentration was about 30 μ Bq m(-3). The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from (210)Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of (210)Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended.

  8. Chemical studies of H chondrites 11. Cosmogenic radionuclides in falls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferko, T. E.; Wang, M.-S.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    2002-10-01

    We measured the long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be, 26Al, and 36Cl in 47 H chondrite falls: 13 ``Cluster 1'' members, 9 ``Cluster 5'' members, and 25 random falls. From the date and time of fall, Clusters 1 and 5 were previously identified as possible coorbital meteoroid streams with distinctive thermal histories being confirmed by contents of volatile trace elements. Here, we use model data, including a three-radionuclide plot (10Bebulk/26Albulk versus 36Clmetal/26Albulk) and the multivariate statistical techniques of logistic regression and linear discriminant analysis to compare radionuclide levels and their utility to differentiate specific suites from other H chondrites. From our radionuclide results and from noble gas data from other workers, we identified 35 falls with simple irradiation histories and cosmic ray exposure ages >4 Ma. Eight others exhibit evidence for shorter (<=4 Ma) exposure, three of which had complex exposure histories (two having been reported by others previously); three others may have had such a history. In any event, the small proportion of H chondrite falls with complex exposure histories supports recent suggestions that they are not commonly encountered, as earlier workers suggested. Although cosmogenic radionuclides do not differentiate between Cluster 1 and a random set of H chondrites, H chondrites that lost 3He from solar heating are distinguishable from those with normal 3He levels.

  9. A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System

    SciTech Connect

    Kahook, S.D.

    1992-08-01

    A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water system to the environment via evaporation to the atmosphere and blow-down to the Savannah River. The developed model allows for delay times associated with the transport of the cooling water radioactivity through cooling water system components. Additionally, this model simulates the time-dependent behavior of radionuclides levels in various CWS components. The developed model is incorporated into the K-reactor Cooling Tower Activity (KCTA) code. KCTA allows the accident (heat exchanger leak rate) and the cooling tower blow-down and evaporation rates to be described as time-dependent functions. Thus, the postulated leak and the consequence of the assumed leak can be modelled realistically. This model is the first of three models to be ultimately assembled to form a comprehensive Liquid Pathway Activity System (LPAS). LPAS will offer integrated formation, transport, deposition, and release estimates for radionuclides formed in a SRS facility. Process water and river water modules are forthcoming as input and downstream components, respectively, for KCTA.

  10. Radionuclides, radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Leonard I.

    Radioactive tracers for in vivo clinical diagnosis fall within a narrow, strictly-defined set of specifications in respect of their physical properties, chemical and biochemical characteristics, and (approved) medical applications. The type of radioactive decay and physical half-life of the radionuclide are immutable properties which, along with the demands of production and supply, limit the choice of radionuclides used in medicine to only a small fraction of those known to exist. In use, the biochemical and physiological properties of a radiotracer are dictated by the chemical form of the radionuclide. This chemical form may range from elemental, molecular or ionic, to complex compounds formed by coordinate or covalent bonding of the radionuclide to either simple organic or inorganic molecules, or complex macromolecules. Few of the radiotracers which are tested in model systems ever become radiopharmaceuticals in the strictest sense. Radionuclides, radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals in use are reviewed. Drug legislation and regulations concerning drug manufacture, as well as hospital ethical constraints and legislation concerning unsealed sources of radiation must all be satisfied in order to translate a radiopharmaceutical from the laboratory to clinical use.

  11. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-15

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7,255 ± 285 Bq kg(-1), mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (<1.0 μm). Depending on smoke particle concentration, (210)Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 m Bq m(-3), while in smoke-free air (210)Po concentration was about 30 μ Bq m(-3). The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from (210)Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of (210)Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. PMID:24295758

  12. Quantitative modeling of Cerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Bradley J; Thorek, Daniel L J; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Pentlow, Keith S; Humm, John L; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

  13. Bioremediation: a genuine technology to remediate radionuclides from the environment.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Dhan; Gabani, Prashant; Chandel, Anuj K; Ronen, Zeev; Singh, Om V

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides in the environment are a major human and environmental health concern. Like the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 is once again causing damage to the environment: a large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated and dumped into the environment, and if the general population is exposed to it, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Bioremediation has been viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to environmentally destructive physical remediation. Microorganisms carry endogenous genetic, biochemical and physiological properties that make them ideal agents for pollutant remediation in soil and groundwater. Attempts have been made to develop native or genetically engineered (GE) microbes for the remediation of environmental contaminants including radionuclides. Microorganism-mediated bioremediation can affect the solubility, bioavailability and mobility of radionuclides. Therefore, we aim to unveil the microbial-mediated mechanisms for biotransformation of radionuclides under various environmental conditions as developing strategies for waste management of radionuclides. A discussion follows of '-omics'-integrated genomics and proteomics technologies, which can be used to trace the genes and proteins of interest in a given microorganism towards a cell-free bioremediation strategy.

  14. Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, Bradley J.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Schmidtlein, Charles R.; Pentlow, Keith S.; Humm, John L.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

  15. Bioremediation: a genuine technology to remediate radionuclides from the environment

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Dhan; Gabani, Prashant; Chandel, Anuj K; Ronen, Zeev; Singh, Om V

    2013-01-01

    Summary Radionuclides in the environment are a major human and environmental health concern. Like the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 is once again causing damage to the environment: a large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated and dumped into the environment, and if the general population is exposed to it, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Bioremediation has been viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to environmentally destructive physical remediation. Microorganisms carry endogenous genetic, biochemical and physiological properties that make them ideal agents for pollutant remediation in soil and groundwater. Attempts have been made to develop native or genetically engineered (GE) microbes for the remediation of environmental contaminants including radionuclides. Microorganism-mediated bioremediation can affect the solubility, bioavailability and mobility of radionuclides. Therefore, we aim to unveil the microbial-mediated mechanisms for biotransformation of radionuclides under various environmental conditions as developing strategies for waste management of radionuclides. A discussion follows of ‘-omics’-integrated genomics and proteomics technologies, which can be used to trace the genes and proteins of interest in a given microorganism towards a cell-free bioremediation strategy. PMID:23617701

  16. Can scintillation detectors with low spectral resolution accurately determine radionuclides content of building materials?

    PubMed

    Kovler, K; Prilutskiy, Z; Antropov, S; Antropova, N; Bozhko, V; Alfassi, Z B; Lavi, N

    2013-07-01

    The current paper makes an attempt to check whether the scintillation NaI(Tl) detectors, in spite of their poor energy resolution, can determine accurately the content of NORM in building materials. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides were measured using two types of detectors: (a) NaI(Tl) spectrometer equipped with the special software based on the matrix method of least squares, and (b) high-purity germanium spectrometer. Synthetic compositions with activity concentrations varying in a wide range, from 1/5 to 5 times median activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides available in the earth crust and the samples of popular building materials, such as concrete, pumice and gypsum, were tested, while the density of the tested samples changed in a wide range (from 860 up to 2,410 kg/m(3)). The results obtained in the NaI(Tl) system were similar to those obtained with the HPGe spectrometer, mostly within the uncertainty range. This comparison shows that scintillation spectrometers equipped with a special software aimed to compensate for the lower spectral resolution of NaI(Tl) detectors can be successfully used for the radiation control of mass construction products. PMID:23542118

  17. The Study on the Migration of Radionuclides in the Shallow Land

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.; Wang, Z.; Li, Z.; Zhao Y.; Guo, Z.; Guo, L.; Shi, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Maeda, T.; Matsumoto, J.; Mukai, M.; Tanaka, T.

    2002-02-25

    >From 1995 through 2001 a cooperative study project on the migration of radionuclides in shallow land was carried out by CIRP and JAERI, which covers field test, laboratory simulation test, other laboratory studies and related model development. The radionuclides studied involve 90Sr, 237Np, 238Pu. For comparison the nonradioactive elements Sr, Nd and Ce were also studied. The field test was performed both in aerated zone and aquifer zone of loess. In the aerated zone the nuclide migration in engineering materials were also studied. The study in the aerated zone was carried out in 9 pits with the size of 2m x 2m under natural conditions or artificial sprinkling conditions. The study in the aquifer was carried out in a new built Underground Research Facility with the area of 142m2. The test results show that the order of adsorption activity of the nuclide on the loess is 238Pu > 237Np > 90Sr and Nd, Ce > Sr. During the 3 years period of test the migration of 238Pu and Nd, Ce was not observable in both aerated zone and aquifer zone, the nuclide of 237Np migrated a small distance, and the nuclide of 90Sr had a relative large migration. The migration of the nuclides in engineering materials was not detected, which include cement, degraded cement, cement mortar, Chinese bentonite and Japanese bentonite.

  18. Gastrointestinal fractional absorption of radionuclides in adult domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Fesenko, S

    2009-12-01

    Information has been complied on the fractional absorption of a range of radionuclides by adult domestic ruminants. Critical analysis of these data has enabled the derivation of recommended values for fractional absorption which will form part of the new handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in terrestrial and freshwater environments to be published by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Whilst most data considered were for caesium, strontium and iodine, values for 23 other radionuclides are also given. The recommended fractional absorption values are presented here, together with descriptions of the literature used to derive them. The values for domestic ruminants are compared with those derived by the International Commission for Radiological Protection for adult humans.

  19. Recent research involving the transfer of radionuclides to milk

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The radionuclides in milk, which result from exposure of dairy cows to radioactive fallout, are a major factor in assessment of internal radiation of humans. To evaluate the radionuclide intake of people from fallout-contaminated milk requires information about feed sources and milk distribution. Pasture intake and the shelf-life of milk are important factors in the case of a short-lived radionuclide like /sup 131/I. Large-scale human radiation assessment studies are underway, all of which consider the dairy food chain as a critical component. These include retrospective studies of fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada site in the 1950s and the impact of the Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986.

  20. Distribution of artificial radionuclides in lacustrine sediments in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fengchang; Zheng, Jian; Liao, Haiqing; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2011-07-01

    Establishing accurate historical records of the distribution, inventory and source of artificial radionuclides in the environment is important for environmental monitoring and radiological health protection due to their potential toxicity, and is also useful for identification and risk assessment of possible future environmental inputs of radionuclides from nuclear weapons tests and accidental release from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities or nuclear power reactors. A sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer was used to study the recent sedimentation of Pu isotopes in 11 lakes in China. The distribution of (137)Cs was investigated using the conventional radiometric analytical methods. Based on the isotopic compositions of Pu and the activity ratio of (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu, the sources of artificial radionuclides were identified. The potential applications of Pu isotopes for sediment dating and for regional and global environmental change studies were discussed. PMID:21498412

  1. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  2. Geomorphic control of radionuclide diffusion in desert soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pelletier, J.D.; Harrington, C.D.; Whitney, J.W.; Cline, M.; DeLong, S.B.; Keating, G.; Ebert, T.K.

    2005-01-01

    Diffusion is a standard model for the vertical migration of radionuclides in soil profiles. Here we show that diffusivity values inferred from fallout 137CS profiles in soils on the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan, Nye County, Nevada, have a strong inverse correlation with the age of the geomorphic surface. This result suggests that radionuclide-bound particles are predominantly transported by infiltration rather than by bulk-mixing processes such as wetting/ drying, freeze/thaw, and bioturbation. Our results provide a preliminary basis for using soil-geomorphic mapping, point-based calibration data, and the diffusion model to predict radionuclide trans desert soils within a pedotransfer-function approach. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Radionuclide analyses of Saskatchewan caribou, 1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    Lichens, the main winter forage for caribou, adsorb radionuclides from air more efficiently than other plants. Caribou, in turn, are the main dietary staple for northern Saskatchewan residents. Uranium mining in the Wollaston Lake area of northern Saskatchewan has prompted a need to assess environmental impacts on both human and non-human biota in the area. The presence of caribou in the Wollaston Lake area in early 1995 allowed measurement of uranium and its decay products in these animals while on winter range relatively close to uranium mines. This report presents results of analyses of radionuclide levels in a variety of tissues from 18 caribou collected from the area in March 1995. Data are used to describe food chain transfer from rumen contents to caribou, and are compared with previous data on caribou in the Northwest Territories. The radionuclides investigated included uranium, radium-226, polonium-210, lead-210, and gamma emitters.

  4. Removal of dissolved heavy metals and radionuclides by microbial spores

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.W.; Hadden, C.T.; Edenborn, H.

    1997-11-01

    Microbial systems have been shown to remove specific heavy metals from contaminated aqueous waste to levels acceptable to EPA for environmental release. However, systems capable of removing a variety of heavy metals from aqueous waste to environmentally acceptable levels remain to be reported. The present studies were performed to determine the specificity of spores of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the adsorption of dissolved metals and radionuclides from aqueous waste. The spores effectively adsorbed eight heavy metals from a prepared metal mix and from a plating rinse waste to EPA acceptable levels for waste water. These results suggest that spores have multiple binding sites for the adsorption of heavy metals. Spores were also effective in adsorbing the radionuclides {sup 85}strontium and {sup 197}cesium. The presence of multiple sites in spores for the adsorption of heavy metals and radionuclides makes this biosorbent a good candidate for the treatment of aqueous wastes associated with the plating and nuclear industries. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

  6. The new conversion model MODERN to derive erosion rates from inventories of fallout radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Frenkel, Elena; A'Campo-Neuen, Annette; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The measurement of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) has become one of the most commonly used methods to quantify soil erosion and depositional processes. FRNs include anthropogenic radionuclides (e.g. 137Cs, 239+240Pu) released into the atmosphere during nuclear bomb tests and power plant accidents (e.g Chernobyl, Fukushima-Daiichi), as well as natural radiotracers such as 210Pbex and 7Be. FRNs reach the land surface by dry and wet fallouts from the atmosphere. Once deposited, FRNs are tightly adsorbed by fine soil particles and their subsequent redistribution is mostly associated with soil erosion processes. FRNs methods are based on a qualitative comparison: the inventory (total radionuclide activity per unit area) at a given sampling site is compared to that of a so called reference site. The conversion of FRN inventories into soil erosion and deposition rates is done with a variety of models, which suitability is dependent on the selected FRN, soil cultivation (ploughed or unploughed) and movement (erosion or deposition). The authors propose a new conversion model, which can be easily and comprehensively used for different FRNs, land uses and soil redistribution processes. This new model i.e. MODERN (MOdelling Deposition and Erosion rates with RadioNuclides) considers the precise depth distribution of a given FRN at a reference site, and allows adapting it for any specific site conditions. MODERN adaptability and performance has been tested on two published case studies: (i) a 137Cs study in an alpine and unploughed area in the Aosta valley (Italy) and (ii) a 210Pbex study on a ploughed area located in Romania. The results show a good agreement and a significant correlation (r= 0.91, p<0.0001) between the results of MODERN and the published models currently used by the FRN scientific community (i.e. the Profile Distribution Model and the Mass Balance Model). The open access code and the cost free accessibility of MODERN will ensure the promotion of a wider

  7. Radionuclide concentrations in vegetation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1998

    SciTech Connect

    G. J. Gonzales; P. R. Fresquez; M. A. Mullen; L. Naranjo, Jr.

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes and evaluates the concentrations of {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 90}Sr, and total U in understory and overstory vegetation collected from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), its perimeter, and regional background areas in 1998. Comparisons to conservative toxicity reference value safe limits were also made. The arithmetic mean LANL radionuclide concentrations in understory were 501 pCi L{sup {minus}1} for {sup 3}H, 0.581 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 137}Cs, 0.001 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 238}Pu, 0.008 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 0.007 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 241}Am, 1.46 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 90}Sr, and 0.233 {micro}g ash g{sup {minus}1} for total uranium. The mean LANL radionuclide concentrations in overstory were 463 pCi L{sup {minus}1} for {sup 3}H, 1.51 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 137}Cs, 0.0004 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} {sup 238}Pu, 0.008 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 239,240}Pu, 0.014 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 241}Am, 1.97 pCi ash g{sup {minus}1} for {sup 90}Sr, and 0.388 {micro}g ash g{sup {minus}1} for total uranium. Concentrations of radionuclides and total U in both understory and overstory vegetation at LANL generally were not statistically higher than in perimeter and regional background vegetation ({alpha} = 0.05). The exceptions were LANL {sup 3}H > perimeter {sup 3}H (understory) and LANL {sup 3}H background {sup 3}H (overstory). All maximum radionuclide concentrations were lower than toxicity reference values. With the exception of total U, the relationship between contaminant concentration in soil vs. vegetation was insignificant ({alpha} = 0.05). Generally, as the concentration of total U in soil decreased, the concentration in vegetation increased. This held true for both understory and overstory and regardless of whether data were separated by general location (LANL, perimeter, and background) or not. There was no

  8. Comparative Measures of Radionuclide Containment in the Crystalline Geophere

    SciTech Connect

    Cvetkovic, V.; Painter, S.; Selroos, J.O.

    2002-11-15

    A probabilistic model for assessing the capacity of a fractured crystalline rock volume to contain radionuclides is developed. The rock volume is viewed as a network of discrete fractures through which radionuclides are transported by flowing water. Diffusive mass transfer between the open fractures and the stagnant water in the pore space of the rock matrix allow radionuclides access to mineral grains where physical and chemical processes - collectively known as sorption - can retain radionuclides. A stochastic Lagrangian framework is adopted to compute the probability that a radionuclide particle will be retained by the rock, i.e., the probability that it will decay before being released from the rock volume. A dimensionless quantity referred to as the 'containment index' is related to this probability and proposed as a suitable measure for comparing different rock volumes; such a comparative measure may be needed, for example, in a site selection program for geological radioactive waste disposal. The probabilistic solution of the transport problem is based on the statistics of two Lagrangian variables: {tau}, the travel time of an imaginary tracer moving with the flowing water, and {beta}, a suitably normalized surface area available for retention. Statistics of {tau} and {beta} may be computed numerically using site-specific discrete fracture network simulations. Fracture data from the well-characterized Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory site in southern Sweden are used to illustrate the implementation of the proposed containment index for six radionuclides ({sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 79}Se). It is found that fractures of small aperture imply prolonged travel times and hence long tails in both beta and tau. This, in turn, enhances retention and is favorable from a safety assessment perspective.

  9. COLLOID-FACILITATED TRANSPORT OF RADIONUCLIDES THROUGH THE VADOSE ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Flury, Markus

    2003-09-14

    Contaminants have leaked into the vadose zone at the USDOE Hanford reservation. It is important to understand the fate and transport of these contaminants to design remediation strategies and long-term waste management plans at the Hanford reservation. Colloids may play an important role in fate and transport of strongly sorbing contaminants, such as Cs or Pu. This project seeks to improve the basic understanding of colloid and colloid-facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone. The specific objectives addressed are: (1) Determine the structure, composition, and surface charge characteristics of colloidal particles formed under conditions similar to those occurring during leakage of waste typical of Hanford tank supernatants into soils and sediments surrounding the tanks. (2) Characterize the mutual interactions between colloids, contaminant, and soil matrix in batch experiments under various ionic strength and pH conditions. We will investigate the nature of the solid-liquid interactions and the kinetics of the reactions. (3) Evaluate mobility of colloids through soil under different degrees of water saturation and solution chemistry (ionic strength and pH). (4) Determine the potential of colloids to act as carriers to transport the contaminant through the vadose zone and verify the results through comparison with field samples collected under leaking tanks. (5) Improve conceptual characterization of colloid-contaminant-soil interactions and colloid-facilitated transport for implementation into reactive chemical transport models. This project was in part supported by an NSF-IGERT grant to Washington State University. The IGERT grant provided funding for graduate student research and education, and two graduate students were involved in the EMSP project. The IGERT program also supported undergraduate internships. The project is part of a larger EMSP program to study fate and transport of contaminants under leaking Hanford waste tanks. The project has

  10. Method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide source distribution

    DOEpatents

    Stolin, Alexander V.; McKisson, John E.; Lee, Seung Joon; Smith, Mark Frederick

    2012-12-18

    A method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide distributions. Its particular embodiment is for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of awake animals, though its techniques are general enough to be applied to other moving radionuclide distributions as well. The invention eliminates motion and blurring artifacts for image reconstructions of moving source distributions. This opens new avenues in the area of small animal brain imaging with radiotracers, which can now be performed without the perturbing influences of anesthesia or physical restraint on the biological system.

  11. U.S. DOE 2004 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    K.W. Jacobson

    2005-08-12

    Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2004.

  12. Detection of terrestrial radionuclides with X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Trojek, T; Čechák, T

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of analytical methods frequently used to identify terrestrial radionuclides in samples. While radioactivity is normally measured through the ionising radiation produced during the spontaneous decay of unstable atoms, selected radionuclides or their chemical elements can be quantified with instrumental techniques based on stimulated emission or counting of atoms. The advantages and disadvantages of these analytical methods are discussed. Particular attention is paid to X-ray fluorescence analysis of materials containing uranium and thorium. It is also possible to determine the area distributions of these chemical elements in samples with the use of scanning X-ray fluorescence systems.

  13. Negative radionuclide scan in osteoid osteoma. A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Fehring, T.K.; Green, N.E.

    1984-05-01

    Advances in radionuclide imaging have facilitated the accurate diagnosis and surgical excision of osteoid osteoma. While radionuclide imaging has been inconsistent in the diagnosis of certain problems, its accuracy in the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma has been frequently stressed. To date, no case of a negative bone scan in the presence of a histologically proven osteoid osteoma has been reported. The present case report emphasizes that a negative bone scan does not preclude the diagnosis of osteoid osteoma. Clinical suspicion remains the most sensitive indicator of this lesion.

  14. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes our continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections during the next year. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  15. Detection of terrestrial radionuclides with X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    PubMed

    Trojek, T; Čechák, T

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of analytical methods frequently used to identify terrestrial radionuclides in samples. While radioactivity is normally measured through the ionising radiation produced during the spontaneous decay of unstable atoms, selected radionuclides or their chemical elements can be quantified with instrumental techniques based on stimulated emission or counting of atoms. The advantages and disadvantages of these analytical methods are discussed. Particular attention is paid to X-ray fluorescence analysis of materials containing uranium and thorium. It is also possible to determine the area distributions of these chemical elements in samples with the use of scanning X-ray fluorescence systems. PMID:25977354

  16. Radionuclide releases from natural analogues of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, D.B.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Dixon, P.; Aguilar, R.; Rokop, D.; Cramer, J.

    1993-12-31

    Measures of {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 239}Pu and U concentrations in rock samples from uranium deposits at Cigar Lake and Koongarra have been used to study processes of radionuclide release from uranium minerals. Rates of release have been immeasurably slow at Cigar Lake. At Koongarra release rates appear to have been faster, producing small deficiencies of {sup 99}Tc, and larger ones of {sup 129}I. The inferred differences in radionuclide release rates are consistent with expected differences in uranium mineral degradation rates produced by the differing hydrogeochemical environments at the two sites.

  17. Radionuclide angiography in juvenile angiofibroma of the nasopharynx.

    PubMed

    Castor, W F; Lentle, B C; Glazebrook, G A

    1975-01-01

    Radionuclide angiography was performed by intravenous injection of 99mTc-pertechnetate and recorded by serial gamma camera scintiphotographs. Its usefulness as a prebiopsy or preoperative procedure is demonstrated by two case reports of angiofibroma of the nasopharynx and it was also found to be useful for radiation therapy follow-up assessment. Radionuclide angiography offers a convenient and safe method to assess the vascularity of a mass and by this technique the surgeon may be alerted to the possibility of severe postbiopsy hemorrhage and also the occasional dramatic complications of radiological carotid angiography can be avoided.

  18. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for advanced neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Bodei, Lisa; Cremonesi, Marta; Kidd, Mark; Grana, Chiara M; Severi, Stefano; Modlin, Irvin M; Paganelli, Giovanni

    2014-08-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) consists of the systemic administration of a synthetic peptide, labeled with a suitable β-emitting radionuclide, able to irradiate tumors and their metastases via internalization through a specific receptor (usually somatostatin S2), over-expressed on the cell membrane. After almost 2 decades of experience, PRRT, with either (90)Y-octreotide or (177)Lu-octreotate, has established itself to be an efficient and effective therapeutic modality. As a treatment, it is relatively safe up to the known thresholds of absorbed and bio-effective isotope dosages and the renal and hematological toxicity profiles are acceptable if adequate protective measures are undertaken.

  19. Radionuclide migration laboratory studies for validation of batch sorption data

    SciTech Connect

    Triay, I.R.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

    1991-12-31

    Advective and diffusive migration experiments (within the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project) involve utilizing crushed material, intact, and fractured tuff in order to test and improve (if necessary) transport models by experimentally observing the migration of sorbing and non-sorbing radionuclides on a laboratory scale. Performing a validation of the sorption data obtained with batch techniques (within the Batch Sorption Study) is an integral part of the mission of the Dynamic Transport Column Experiments and Diffusion Studies. In this paper the work scope of the radionuclide migration laboratory experiments (as they apply to validation of batch sorption data) is reviewed.

  20. Radionuclides in Small Mammals Collected at the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility during 2001-- 2003

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Fresquez

    2005-01-20

    Rodents are effective indicators of environmental contamination and the Dual-Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility Mitigation Action Plan specifies the (radionuclide) comparison of small mammals to baseline levels to determine if there are any impacts as a result of operations. Consequently, samples of (whole body) field mice (Peromyscus spp.) were collected from within the grounds of the DARHT facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 15, from 2001 through 2003. Samples were analyzed for {sup 3}H, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U. Results, which represent three years since the start of operations in 2000, were compared with baseline statistical reference level (BSRL) data established over a four-year-long preoperational period. Most radionuclides in mice were either at nondetectable levels or within BSRLs. The few radionuclides that were above BSRLs included U isotopes; and the ratios of some samples indicated depleted U sources. Although the amounts of U in some samples were just above BSRLs, and since depleted U is less soluble and less toxic (chemical and radioactive) than naturally occurring U, the very small levels in the mice collected around the DARHT facility grounds are unlikely to pose a threat to predators that feed upon them.

  1. Temporal variations of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in sea otter skull tissue in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskaran, M.; Hong, G.-H.; Dayton, S.; Bodkin, J.L.; Kelley, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Marine mammals being among the top predators in the food web tend to accumulate organic and inorganic contaminants from the environment. The body burden of contaminants in these species could reflect their foods and thus contaminant levels could serve as proxies on the changes of ecosystem. A pilot study was carried out to investigate the possibility of radionuclide leakage at Amchitka using a suite of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) skulls collected near Amchitka nuclear test-sites before (1950s) and after the testing (1990s), and at Adak, another Aleutian Island, about 300 km from Amchitka, where the potential impact of radionuclide leakage from Amchitka is expected to be negligible. In addition, the naturally occurring and anthropogenic radionuclide content on the sea otter skull was also utilized to investigate if there was any significant ecosystem changes in the environment. Concentration of 210Pb in sea otter bones collected during the 1950s was significantly higher than those collected in the 1990s. We propose that among the various factors that could cause this higher enrichment in 210Pb, changes in the sea otter prey is the most likely one. Comparison of the 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu concentrations appear not to be significantly higher in sea otter skulls collected in 1990s from Amchitka where the underground tests in 1965-71 than those from Adak, although significant differences were detected among different groups collected at various times. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporal variations of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in sea otter skull tissue in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskaran, M.; Hong, G.-H.; Dayton, S.; Bodkin, J.L.; Kelly, J.J.

    2003-01-01

    Marine mammals being in the top predator in the food web tend to accumulate organic and inorganic contaminants from the environment. The body burden of contaminants in these species could reflect their foods and thus contaminant levels could serve as proxies on the changes of ecosystem. A pilot study was carried out to investigate the possibility of radionuclide leakage at Amchitka using a suite of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) skulls collected near Amchitka nuclear test-sites before (1950s) and after the testing (1990s), and at Adak, another Aleutian Island, about 300 km from Amchitka, where the potential impact of radionuclide leakage from Amchitka is expected to be negligible. In addition, the naturally occurring and anthropogenic radionuclide content on the sea otter skull was also utilized to investigate if there was any significant ecosystem changes in the environment. Concentration of 210Pb in sea otter bones collected during the 1950's was significantly higher than those collected in the 1990's. We propose that among the various factors that could cause this higher enrichment in 210Pb, changes in the sea otter prey is the most likely one. Comparison of the 137Cs, 90Sr, 239,240Pu concentrations appear not to be significantly higher in sea otter skulls collected in 1990s from Amchitka where the underground tests in 1965-71 than those from Adak, although significant differences were detected among different groups collected at various times.

  3. Health implications of radionuclide levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lapham, S C; Millard, J B; Samet, J M

    1989-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine radionuclide tissue levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities. Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, has been the site of extensive U mining for 30 y and contains several underground U mines, a processing mill, and two large U tailings piles. Ten cows were purchased from two grazing areas in Ambrosia Lake and ten control animals were purchased from Crownpoint, New Mexico. Muscle, liver, kidney, and bone tissue taken from these animals, and environmental samples, including water, grasses and soil collected from the animals' grazing areas, were analyzed for 238U, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb, and 210Po. Mean radionuclide levels in cattle tissue and environmental samples from Ambrosia Lake were higher in almost every comparison than those found in respective controls. Liver and kidney tissues were particularly elevated in 226Ra and 210Po. Radiation dose commitments from eating cattle tissue with these radionuclide concentrations were calculated. We concluded that the health risk to the public from eating exposed cattle is minimal, unless large amounts of this tissue, especially liver and kidney, are ingested.

  4. Development of a Relational-Design Database for Preservation and Analysis of Historic Measurements of Radionuclides in Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Anne White, et al.

    2008-03-01

    Between 1981 and 1986, in situ spectral gamma measurements were made from tracked vehicles as part of the Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program (RIDP) to document the distribution and develop inventories of 16 man-made radionuclides in surface soil from nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site. To preserve and permit more precise geospatial and other electronic analysis of the data, the raw spectral gamma measurements (units of nanocuries/m2) were recovered from nine-track magnetic tapes, transferred to a flat-file database, and finally converted into a relational-design, desktop application in Microsoft Access 2000. To test the reliability of the measurement locations, the Nevada Grid Coordinate information was imported into Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcMap to compare against plots in the 1991 RIDP summary report and against known field points. The resulting RIDP Database allows users to create files of the location and concentration where each radionuclide was detected, or files of all gamma measurements associated with a particular nuclear test. Maps can be generated showing where particular radionuclides were detected. For additional analysis, datasets can be exported to a hypertext markup language (HTML) format. Extensive use has been made of RIDP data prior to development of this database. However, there have been some inconsistencies in results because of use of interim results published prior to 1991, and because some half lives used when the data was collected are different than those used today. Two major steps were taken to standardize analysis using the RIDP database. First, only spectral gamma data decay corrected to January 1, 1990 was used. Second, currently accepted half lives for the radionuclides were incorporated into an option that allows decay correction of inventory and activity values since 1990. For long-lived radionuclides, changes in inventory have been inconsequential. However, for short-lived fission

  5. New best estimates for radionuclide solid-liquid distribution coefficients in soils. Part 2: naturally occurring radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, H; Gil-García, C; Rigol, A; Vidal, M

    2009-09-01

    Predicting the transfer of radionuclides in the environment for normal release, accidental, disposal or remediation scenarios in order to assess exposure requires the availability of an important number of generic parameter values. One of the key parameters in environmental assessment is the solid liquid distribution coefficient, K(d), which is used to predict radionuclide-soil interaction and subsequent radionuclide transport in the soil column. This article presents a review of K(d) values for uranium, radium, lead, polonium and thorium based on an extensive literature survey, including recent publications. The K(d) estimates were presented per soil groups defined by their texture and organic matter content (Sand, Loam, Clay and Organic), although the texture class seemed not to significantly affect K(d). Where relevant, other K(d) classification systems are proposed and correlations with soil parameters are highlighted. The K(d) values obtained in this compilation are compared with earlier review data.

  6. SALTSTONE AND RADIONUCLIDE INTERACTIONS: RADIONUCLIDE SORPTION AND DESORPTION, AND SALTSTONE REDUCTION CAPACITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D; Kimberly Roberts, K; Steven Serkiz, S; Matthew Siegfried, M

    2008-10-30

    The overall objective of this study was to measure a number of key input parameters quantifying geochemical processes in the subsurface environment of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) Saltstone Facility. For the first time, sorption (K{sub d}) values of numerous radionuclides were measured with Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete. Particular attention was directed at understanding how Tc adsorbs and desorbs from these cementitious materials with the intent to demonstrate that desorption occurs at a much slower rate than adsorption, thus permitting the use of kinetic terms instead of (or along with) the steady state K{sub d} term. Another very important parameter measured was the reduction capacity of these materials. This parameter is used to estimate the duration that the Saltstone facility remains in a reduced chemical state, a condition that maintains several otherwise mobile radionuclides in an immobile form. Key findings of this study follow. K{sub d} values for Am, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Hg, I, Np, Pa, Pu, Se, Sn, Tc, U, and Y for Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete were measured under oxidized and reduced conditions. Precipitation of several of the higher valence state radionuclides was observed. There was little evidence that the Vault 2 and Saltstone K{sub d} values differed from previous SRS K{sub d} values measured with reducing grout (Kaplan and Coates 2007). These values also supported a previous finding that K{sub d} values of slag-containing cementitious materials, tend to be greater for cations and about the same for anions, than regular cementitious materials without slag. Based on these new findings, it was suggested that all previous reducing concrete K{sub d} values be used in future PAs, except Np(V) and Pu(IV) K{sub d} values, which should be increased, and I values, which should be slightly decreased in all three stages of concrete aging. The reduction capacity of Saltstone, consisting of 23 wt-% blast furnace slag, was 821.8 microequivalents per gram

  7. Dispersion of radionuclides released into a stable planetary boundary layer using a Monte Carlo model.

    PubMed

    Basit, Abdul; Shoaib Raza, S; Irfan, Naseem

    2006-12-01

    In this paper a Monte Carlo model for describing the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides (represented by Lagrangian particles/neutral tracers) continuously released into a stable planetary boundary layer is presented. The effect of variation in release height and wind directional shear on plume dispersion is studied. The resultant plume concentration and dose rate at the ground is also calculated. The turbulent atmospheric parameters, like vertical profiles of fluctuating wind velocity components and eddy lifetime, were calculated using empirical relations for a stable atmosphere. The horizontal and vertical dispersion coefficients calculated by a numerical Lagrangian model are compared with the original and modified Pasquill-Gifford and Briggs empirical sigmas. The comparison shows that the Monte Carlo model can successfully predict dispersion in a stable atmosphere using the empirical turbulent parameters. The predicted ground concentration and dose rate contours indicate a significant increase in the affected area when wind shear is accounted for in the calculations.

  8. The delayed respiratory consequences of inhaled radionuclides in population exposed to nuclear catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Chuchalin, A G; Grobova, O M; Cherniaev, A L; Tatarsky, A R; Hoffshir, D; Voisin, C

    1995-05-01

    Cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and x-ray energy dispersive spectrometry of intercellular compounds were evaluated in 19 workers ("liquidators") commissioned to clean and contain the nuclear waste after the Chernobyl catastrophe in comparison with ten control subjects. Results showed a significant increase of neutrophils, small monocyte-like alveolar macrophages (AM) and AM with large black cytoplasmic inclusions. In addition, such mineral elements as Zr, Ce, Pr, Sm, Pa, PU and Cs were detected in AM phagosomes in liquidators. These elements were reported as markers of Chernobyl-type nuclear fuel. It is recognized that BAL gives access to particulate matter present in lung parenchyma. Thus, spectrometric analysis of AM inclusions can provide reliable information about the exposure to inhaled radionuclides seven years after the catastrophe.

  9. When the model doesn’t cover reality: examples from radionuclide metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommé, S.

    2016-04-01

    It could be argued that activity measurements of radioactive substances should be under statistical control, considering that the measurand is unambiguously defined, the radioactive decay processes are theoretically well understood and the measurement function can be derived from physical principles. However, comparisons invariably show a level of discrepancy among activity standardisation results that exceeds expectation from uncertainty evaluations. Also decay characteristics of radionuclides determined from different experiments show unexpected inconsistencies. Arguably, the problem lies mainly in incomplete uncertainty assessment. Of the various reasons leading to incomplete uncertainty assessment, from human failure to limitations to the state-of-the-art knowledge, a selection of cases is discussed in which imperfections in the modelling of the measurement process can lead to unexpectedly large underestimations of uncertainty.

  10. Radionuclide behaviour in forest soils of Russian Federation and Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, A. I.; Tsvetnova, O. B.

    2012-04-01

    Behaviour of radionuclides in soil determines to a great extent the radionuclide root uptake and their further migration in food chains. The radionuclide fate in the soil is determined by a wide spectrum of simultaneously running, often competitive elementary processes, such as adsorption-desorption, diffusion-mass transport, retention-migration, etc. The intensity of each elementary process depends, in turn, on a combination of several factors such as nature of the radionuclide, physicochemical features of the fallout, soil properties, environmental regimes, etc. Radionuclide deposition in soils is known to be a basic criterion of the radioecological situation in the contaminated territory. Our long-term investigations performed in contaminated forests (30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP; Tula, Kaluga and Bryansk regions of the Russian Federation) had shown that radionuclide migration in the forest landscapes was determined primarily by the forest litter presence. The key factors of radionuclide redistribution within the soil litter are (i) permanent addition of the low-contaminated organic matter ("clean" litterfall), and (ii) high rate of transformation. The dynamics and intensity of decontamination processes depends on the forest litter sub-horizon. Leaf (A0l) layer exhibits the highest rate of decontamination: 137Cs content in this layer decreased twofold by the second year after the accident and reached its equilibrium value (about 1% of the total deposition) by the 4-5th year after the fallout. The corresponding quasi-equilibrium radionuclide content in A0f layer (10-20%) is reached by the 8-9th year after the accident. The corresponding equilibrium in A0h layer is not reached yet. Thus, the effective half-life of radionuclides in soils should be calculated for each sub-horizon separately, taking into account the above-discussed features of the radionuclide dynamics. The rate of annual radionuclide replacement from the forest litter to mineral layers depends on the

  11. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 61 - Methods for Estimating Radionuclide Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Table 1. Table 1—Adjustment to Emission Factors for Effluent Controls Controls Types of radionuclides... applicable to gaseous radionuclides; periodic testing is prudent to ensure high removal efficiency....

  12. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 61 - Methods for Estimating Radionuclide Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Table 1. Table 1—Adjustment to Emission Factors for Effluent Controls Controls Types of radionuclides... applicable to gaseous radionuclides; periodic testing is prudent to ensure high removal efficiency....

  13. ITE CHARACTERIZATION TO SUPPORT CONCEPTUAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR SUBSURFACE RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of radionuclide contaminants in ground water often begins with the development of conceptual and analytical models that guide our understanding of the processes controlling radionuclide transport. The reliability of these models is often predicated on the collection o...

  14. Analysis of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a radiopharmaceutical production facility based on a medical cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardina, M.; Tomarchio, E.; Greco, D.

    2015-11-01

    Positron emitting radionuclides are increasingly used in medical diagnostics and the number of radiopharmaceutical production facilities have been estimated to be growing worldwide. During the process of production and/or patient administration of radiopharmaceuticals, an amount of these radionuclides might become airborne and escape into the environment. Therefore, the analysis of radionuclide concentration in the air released to the stack is a very important issue to evaluate the dose to the population living around the plant. To this end, sampling and measurement of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a Nuclear Medicine Center (NMC), provided with a cyclotron for radiopharmaceuticals production, must be routinely carried out with an automatic measurement system. In this work is presented the air monitoring system realized at "San Gaetano" NMC at Bagheria (Italy) besides the analysis of the recorded stack relesead air concentration data. Sampling of air was carried out continuously and gamma-ray spectrometric measurement are made on-line and for a short time by using a shielded Marinelli beaker filled with sampled air and a gamma detector. The use of this system allows to have 1440 values of air concentration per day from 2002, year of the start of operation with the cyclotron. Therefore, the concentration values are very many and an analysis software is needed to determine the dose to the population. A comparison with the results of a simulation code based on a Gaussian Plume air dispersion modelling allow us to confirm the no-radiological significance of the stack effluent releases in terms of dose to population and to evaluate possible improvements in the plant devices to reduce the air concentration at stack.

  15. The interaction with suspended and settled sedimentary materials of long-lived radionuclides discharged into United Kingdom coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentreath, R. J.

    1987-11-01

    Low-level liquid radioactive wastes are routinely discharged under authorization into United Kingdom coastal waters from nuclear reactor sites, from nuclear fuel reprocessing and fabrication plants, and from other facilities connected with the nuclear industries. The effluents contain a wide range of radionuclides, with greatly varying half-lives and in different chemical forms. The receiving environments are also markedly different. All of these factors need to be taken into account in order that the authorizations for discharge are based on a sound knowledge of the underlying environmental science as well as meeting the objectives of radiological protection. The largest research effort has been expended on the longer-lived nuclides discharged from the BNFL plant at Sellafield into the Irish Sea. These studies have focused on such aspects as the nature of the effluent, the dispersion of the soluble nuclides out of the Irish Sea, the retention of other nuclides within it, and the incorporation of radionuclides into settled sediments. Some comparisons have also been made between other sites by observing the concentrations of radionuclides in similar materials, at similar distances, per unit rate of discharge. Although these studies are useful in developing an understanding of the dynamics of radionuclides in coastal environments, it is essential to have a wider and more general knowledge if the long-term consequences of discharging radionuclides—or any other chemical waste—into coastal waters are to be fully evaluated. These consequences are assessed by the use of models which have, necessarily, to simplify many of the processes involved. It is therefore all the more important that the underlying science relating to the nature and behaviour of the wastes, and of the receiving environment, is fully explored, and that the assumptions used in the models can be satisfactorily validated.

  16. Radionuclide transport coupled with bentonite extrusion in a saturated fracture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, Robert Angelo

    The study in this dissertation focuses on the characterization of radionuclide migration in a water saturated fracture. The near field of a high level radioactive waste repository contains the engineered barrier system, which provides manufactured components designed to limit radionuclide releases to the environment. A major component in this system involves the utilization of bentonite as a buffer to protect the degraded waste package and limit release of radionuclides into intersecting fractures that pose possible pathways for transport to the environment. A model is derived for radionuclide migration through this fracture. The model incorporates the features of bentonite: extrusion into the fracture, sorption, and the effect of bentonite swelling on groundwater flow. The resulting derivation of this model is a coupled system of differential equations. The differential equation describing the mass conservation of radionuclides is coupled to the equation system for bentonite extrusion. The models are coupled through the parameters in the radionuclide transport model, which are dependent on the spatial distribution of solid material in the domain. Numerical evaluations of the solution to this radionuclide transport model were conducted for neptunium, a weakly sorbing radionuclide and americium, a strongly sorbing radionuclide. Results were presented in terms normalized spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration in the fluid phase and normalized radionuclide release rate in the fluid phase. Major findings of the study conducted for this dissertation are provided. (1) Bentonite extrusion affects fluid phase advection resulting in groundwater flow countercurrent to the direction of extrusion to the direction of radionuclide migration. (2) The sorption distribution coefficient is the most important parameter affecting radionuclide behavior in this system for this model. (3) Simulations of the model for americium, a highly sorbing radionuclide, indicate that

  17. Comprehensive analysis of myocardial infarction due to left circumflex artery occlusion: comparison with infarction due to right coronary artery and left anterior descending artery occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Huey, B.L.; Beller, G.A.; Kaiser, D.L.; Gibson, R.S.

    1988-11-01

    Forty consecutive patients with creatine kinase-MB confirmed myocardial infarction due to circumflex artery occlusion (Group 1) were prospectively evaluated and compared with 107 patients with infarction due to right coronary artery occlusion (Group 2) and 94 with left anterior descending artery occlusion (Group 3). All 241 patients underwent exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy, radionuclide ventriculography, 24 h Holter electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring and coronary arteriography before hospital discharge and were followed up for 39 +/- 18 months. There were no significant differences among the three infarct groups in age, gender, number of risk factors, prevalence and type of prior infarction, Norris index, Killip class and frequency of in-hospital complications. Acute ST segment elevation was present in only 48% of patients in Group 1 versus 71 and 72% in Groups 2 and 3, respectively (p = 0.012), and 38% of patients with a circumflex artery-related infarct had no significant ST changes (that is, elevation or depression) on admission (versus 21 and 20% for patients in Groups 2 and 3, respectively) (p = 0.001). Abnormal R waves in lead V1 were more common in Group 1 than in Group 2 (p less than 0.003) as was ST elevation in leads I, aVL and V4 to V6 (p less than or equal to 0.048). These differences in ECG findings between Group 1 and 2 patients correlated with a significantly higher prevalence of posterior and lateral wall asynergy in the group with a circumflex artery-related infarct. Infarct size based on peak creatine kinase levels and multiple radionuclide variables was intermediate in Group 1 compared with that in Group 2 (smallest) and Group 3 (largest). During long-term follow-up, the probability of recurrent cardiac events was similar in the three infarct groups.

  18. [Main approaches to choose a method purifying soils from radionuclides].

    PubMed

    Sklifasovskaia, Iu G

    2009-01-01

    The article contains brief review problems of soils decontamination, radionuclides content contaminating natural and technogenic materials amenable to long-term storage. The authors present results of experiments on soils purification through agitative and percolative lixiviation and on determining optimal technologic parameters for reagent purification of soils polluted with Ra-226.

  19. Sources of secondary radionuclide releases from Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Heeb, C.M.; Gydesen, S.P.

    1994-05-01

    This report considers Hanford facilities and operations with the potential to be secondary radionuclide release sources. Facilities that produced radionuclides or processed products of fission reactions and were not covered in previous source term reports are included in this report. The following facilities are described and any potentially significant releases from them are estimated: PUREX (1956--1972, 1983--1988) and REDOX (1952--1967)--campaigns with non-standard feed material (materials other than fuel from single-pass reactors); C PLANT (Hot Semi-Works)--pilot plant and strontium recovery; Z Plant--plutonium finishing; U and UO{sub 3} Plants--uranium recovery; 108 B Plant--tritium extraction; 300 Area Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR); 300 Area Low Power Test Reactors; Criticality Accidents; and 400 Area Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The method of analysis was to examine each facility, give a brief description of its purpose and operations, and describe the types of material the facility processed as an indication of the radionuclides it had the potential to release. Where possible, specific radionuclides are estimated and values from the original documents are reported.

  20. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  1. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  2. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  3. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  4. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51... levels for radionuclides. (a) (b) MCL for combined radium-226 and -228. The maximum contaminant level for combined radium-226 and radium-228 is 5 pCi/L. The combined radium-226 and radium-228 value is...

  5. Radionuclides in sediments and seawater at Rongelap Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    The present concentrations and distributions of long-lived, man-made radionuclides in Rongelap Atoll lagoon surface sediments, based on samples collected and analyzed in this report. The radionuclides were associated with debris generated with the 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test at Bikini Atoll. Presently, only {sup 90}Sr and the transuranic radionuclides are found associated with the surface sediments in any quantity. Other radionuclides, including {sup 60}Co and {sup 137} Cs, are virtually absent and have either decayed or migrated from the deposits to the overlying seawater. Present inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 249+240}Pu in the surface layer at Rongelap are estimated to be 3% of the respective inventories in surface sediments from Bikini Atoll. There is a continuous slow release of the transuranics from the sediments back to the water column. The inventories will only slowly change with time unless the chemical-physical processes that now regulate this release to the water column are changed or altered.

  6. Waste site reclamation with recovery of radionuclides and metals

    DOEpatents

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    1994-03-08

    A method for decontaminating radionuclides and other toxic metal-contaminate The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016 between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities, Inc.

  7. Differences in the regulation of chemicals and radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.

    1993-12-01

    Government regulations limiting public exposure to radionuclides and chemicals have historically been developed by regulatory agencies using different approaches with the result that levels of protection vary for the two classes of contaminants. These differences create difficulties in determining equitable regulatory measures when both radionuclides and chemical pollutants are involved. Generally, radiation exposure is not regulated as stringently as chemical exposure (Travis et al, 1989). The International commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends limiting excess environmental radiation exposure to the general public to 100 millirem per year (mrem/yr) (ICRP, 1991), a lifetime cancer risk of about 3.5E-3. An acceptable level of risk for chemical exposures is generally considered to be below 1E-6. Differences in regulatory approach for radionuclides and chemicals evoke debate over why they are different and which regulation strategy is better. Because these pollutants often coexist (mixed waste sites, contaminated metals and facilities, etc.), it is important to analyze inconsistencies in the regulation of chemicals and radionuclides and establish a more consistent approach to defining an acceptable level of exposure for these contaminants.

  8. 4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  9. Detection of varicocele by radionuclide blood-pool scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Freund, J.; Handelsman, D.J.; Bautovich, G.J.; Conway, A.J.; Morris, J.G.

    1980-10-01

    Varicocele is a common and treatable cause of male subfertility. The authors describe a new technique for varicocele detection using radionuclide blood-pool imaging of the scrotum. The results indicate that this technique detects unilateral varicoceles with high sensitivity, including some which are subclinical. There may be significant implications for treatment of infertility.

  10. Radionuclide transport behavior in a generic geological radioactive waste repository.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Marco; Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens T

    2015-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport to study the influence of several factors, including the ambient hydraulic gradient, groundwater pressure anomalies, and the properties of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ), on the prevailing transport mechanism (i.e., advection or molecular diffusion) in a generic nuclear waste repository within a clay-rich geological formation. By comparing simulation results, we show that the EDZ plays a major role as a preferential flowpath for radionuclide transport. When the EDZ is not taken into account, transport is dominated by molecular diffusion in almost the totality of the simulated domain, and transport velocity is about 40% slower. Modeling results also show that a reduction in hydraulic gradient leads to a greater predominance of diffusive transport, slowing down radionuclide transport by about 30% with respect to a scenario assuming a unit gradient. In addition, inward flow caused by negative pressure anomalies in the clay-rich formation further reduces transport velocity, enhancing the ability of the geological barrier to contain the radioactive waste. On the other hand, local high gradients associated with positive pressure anomalies can speed up radionuclide transport with respect to steady-state flow systems having the same regional hydraulic gradients. Transport behavior was also found to be sensitive to both geometrical and hydrogeological parameters of the EDZ. Results from this work can provide useful knowledge toward correctly assessing the post-closure safety of a geological disposal system. PMID:24571606

  11. Waste site reclamation with recovery of radionuclides and metals

    DOEpatents

    Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Dodge, Cleveland J.

    1994-01-01

    A method for decontaminating radionuclides and other toxic metal-contaminate The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016 between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities, Inc.

  12. Radionuclide transfer to fruit in the IAEA TRS No. 472

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, F.; Pellizzoni, M.; Giosuè, S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the approach taken to present the information on fruits in the IAEA report TRS No. 472, supported by the IAEA-TECDOC-1616, which describes the key transfer processes, concepts and conceptual models regarded as important for dose assessment, as well as relevant parameters for modelling radionuclide transfer in fruits. Information relate to fruit plants grown in agricultural ecosystems of temperate regions. The relative significance of each pathway after release of radionuclides depends upon the radionuclide, the kind of crop, the stage of plant development and the season at time of deposition. Fruit intended as a component of the human diet is borne by plants that are heterogeneous in habits, and morphological and physiological traits. Information on radionuclides in fruit systems has therefore been rationalised by characterising plants in three groups: woody trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. Parameter values have been collected from open literature, conference proceedings, institutional reports, books and international databases. Data on root uptake are reported as transfer factor values related to fresh weight, being consumption data for fruits usually given in fresh weight.

  13. Isonitrile radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.G.; Abrams, M.J.; Davison, A.

    1984-06-05

    A coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta, is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

  14. Radionuclide transport behavior in a generic geological radioactive waste repository.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Marco; Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens T

    2015-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport to study the influence of several factors, including the ambient hydraulic gradient, groundwater pressure anomalies, and the properties of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ), on the prevailing transport mechanism (i.e., advection or molecular diffusion) in a generic nuclear waste repository within a clay-rich geological formation. By comparing simulation results, we show that the EDZ plays a major role as a preferential flowpath for radionuclide transport. When the EDZ is not taken into account, transport is dominated by molecular diffusion in almost the totality of the simulated domain, and transport velocity is about 40% slower. Modeling results also show that a reduction in hydraulic gradient leads to a greater predominance of diffusive transport, slowing down radionuclide transport by about 30% with respect to a scenario assuming a unit gradient. In addition, inward flow caused by negative pressure anomalies in the clay-rich formation further reduces transport velocity, enhancing the ability of the geological barrier to contain the radioactive waste. On the other hand, local high gradients associated with positive pressure anomalies can speed up radionuclide transport with respect to steady-state flow systems having the same regional hydraulic gradients. Transport behavior was also found to be sensitive to both geometrical and hydrogeological parameters of the EDZ. Results from this work can provide useful knowledge toward correctly assessing the post-closure safety of a geological disposal system.

  15. External exposure to radionuclides in air, water, and soil

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Ryman, J.C.

    1996-05-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 12 tabulates dose coefficients for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides distributed in air, water, and soil. The dose coefficients are intended for use by Federal Agencies in calculating the dose equivalent to organs and tissues of the body.

  16. Analysis of radionuclide release from spent ion-exchange resins

    SciTech Connect

    Su, S.I.; Yim, M.S.

    2000-04-01

    Ion-exchange resins represent one of the most important waste streams in low-level waste management due to the unstabilized nature of the waste form and the large amount of radioactivity contained. To describe the release of radionuclides from ion-exchange resins stored in a disposal facility, a mechanistic release model was developed. The model is based on description of radionuclide migration both in the resin bead phase and the bulk pore water phase within waste containers. This modeling setup provides the capability to describe all the major physical processes taking place for the release of radionuclides. Because of the difficulty in obtaining analytical solutions, the numerical solution approach was employed in this model. The new resin release model was used to examine key processes and parameters in describing radionuclide release. These were found to be diffusion within the bulk pore water phase, flow rate of infiltrating leachant water, concentration of counterions of the leachant water, and sorption during the transport in the bulk pore water phase. Some parameters were found to have little impact in describing the release. These include the interdiffusion coefficient within resin beads and the density and radius of resin beads. Existing simplified modeling approaches were also compared with the new resin release model, and validities of using these simplified models are discussed.

  17. Osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption: CT and radionuclide imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Roman-Goldstein, S.; Clunie, D.A.; Stevens, J.; Hogan, R.; Monard, J.; Ramsey, F.; Neuwelt, E.A.

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare CT and radionuclide imaging of osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption, and to develop a quantitative method for imaging osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption and to see if iopamidol could be safety given intravenously in conjunction with blood-brain barrier disruption. Forty-five blood-brain barrier disruption procedures were imaged with CT and radionuclide scans. The scans were evaluated with visual and quantitative scales. Patients were observed for adverse effects after blood-brain barrier disruption. There was a 4% rate of seizures in this study. There was good agreement between visual CT and radionuclide grading systems. Quantitative disruption did not add useful information to visual interpretations. Nonionic iodine-based contrast medium has a lower incidence of seizures when injected intravenously in conjunction with osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption than ionic contrast material. Contrast-enhanced CT is the preferred method to image disruption because it has better spatial resolution than radionuclide techniques. 34 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. The fate of radionuclides in sewage sludge applied to land

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, H.L.; Van Miegroet, H.; Larsen, I.L.; Walzer, A.E. ); Carlton, J.E. )

    1990-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge containing up to 12 pCi/g {sup 137}Cs, 20 pCi/g {sup 60}Co, and 300 ppm U was injected in a pasture (43 Mg/ha) and sprayed over a young pine plantation (34 Mg/ha). In the pasture, radionuclides were largely retained in the upper 15 cm of the soil, and only about 15% moved below 15 cm. Sludge rapidly infiltrated the soil on the pine plantation. One year after application, at least 85% of the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and U were found in the upper 7 cm of the pine plantation, with only about 15% moving into the 7- to 15-cm strata. On-site total added radiation dose was 2 to 6 mrem/year. Radionuclides were not detected above background in soil solutions at {approximately}50 cm depth or in shallow down-gradient groundwater wells. Surface runoff from application areas did not have elevated radionuclide concentrations. Concentrations of these radionuclides increased slightly in vegetation on treated sites, and uranium was notably higher in earthworms. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... source into the body or to the surface of the body for radiation therapy. This generic type of device...

  20. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... enclosed in a sealed container. The device is intended for radiation therapy, with the radiation...