Science.gov

Sample records for radium 213

  1. Determination of radium in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Franklin Butt; Johnson, J.O.

    1964-01-01

    Radium isotopes are common radioactive constituents of natural waters. The concentration of radium-226 in potable water is of particular significance because this isotope is generally considered the most hazardous of all radionuclides with respect to ingestion. The approximate concentration of radium-226 is determined after coprecipitating radium with barium sulfate. The short-lived daughters of radium are allowed to grow for 10-12 days, then the alpha activity of the precipitate is measured and compared with that of a precipitate containing a known amount of radium-226. Concentrations of the individual alpha-emitting isotopes of radium-223, radium-224, and radium-226, are determined by coprecipitating radium first with lead sulfate, then with barium chloride, and finally with barium sulfate. This final precipitate is initially free of other alpha-emitting nuclides, thus permitting the isotopic composition to be determined by measuring the growth and decay of the alpha activity of the precipitate.

  2. The metabolism of radium-226 during pregnancy in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kshirsagar, S.G. )

    1990-06-01

    Metabolism of radium including the transfer to the fetus through the placenta was studied during three successive pregnancies 92, 155, and 213 days after injection of 226Ra in young female rats. The cumulative fecal and urinary excretions of 226Ra in a 213-day period following injection were about 30 and 15% injected dose (%ID), respectively, most of them occurring during the first 42 days. The excretions were similar in both the pregnant and control (unmated) rats. The whole-body burden of radium (mostly in the skeleton) determined by actual analysis of the entire body was similar in the two groups and was about 53, 48, and 44 %ID at the first, second, and third pregnancy, respectively. Pregnancy alone, therefore, did not significantly affect metabolism of radium. At 20 days of gestation the mean placental content of radium was 0.005, 0.0045, and 0.0036 %ID in the first, second, and third litter, respectively; the corresponding mean fetal content was 0.01, 0.008, and 0.005 %ID. The radium burden of the full-term neonate (21-22 days) was 0.014 and 0.011 %ID for the first and second delivery, respectively. The total amount calculated of radium transferred from the mother to the 8-10 fetuses in a litter did not exceed about 0.3% of the maternal content per each pregnancy. Comparison of the ratio of radium and calcium in the fetus and maternal skeleton shows that there is a Ra-Ca discrimination during their passage from the mother to the fetus.

  3. Radium 226,228

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Radium 226,228 ; CASRN 7440 - 14 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  4. Radiation dosimetry of a graphite moderated radium-beryllium source.

    PubMed

    Holden, Norman E; Reciniello, Richard N; Hu, Jih-Perng

    2004-05-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Sigma Pile is a radium-beryllium neutron source imbedded in a cube of graphite blocks. The pile is approximately 2.13 m on four sides and is 3.07 m high. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to determine the neutron and gamma-ray dose rates in the pile. Gamma-ray dose rate measurements have also been made in the air outside of the pile, while the radium-beryllium neutron source was being withdrawn from the pile. The Monte Carlo code has been used to calculate the coupled neutron-photon transport. Measured dose rates at various locations agreed with the calculated values within 5% to 15%.

  5. Radium/Barium Waste Project

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Allen K.; Ellefson, Mark D.; McDonald, Kent M.

    2015-06-25

    The treatment, shipping, and disposal of a highly radioactive radium/barium waste stream have presented a complex set of challenges requiring several years of effort. The project illustrates the difficulty and high cost of managing even small quantities of highly radioactive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-regulated waste. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research activities produced a Type B quantity of radium chloride low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in a number of small vials in a facility hot cell. The resulting waste management project involved a mock-up RCRA stabilization treatment, a failed in-cell treatment, a second, alternative RCRA treatment approach, coordinated regulatory variances and authorizations, alternative transportation authorizations, additional disposal facility approvals, and a final radiological stabilization process.

  6. Radium-226 content of beverages

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, J. )

    1989-11-01

    Radium contents of commercially obtained beer, wine, milk and mineral waters were measured. All distributions were log-normal with the following geometrical mean values: beer: 2.1 X 10(-2) Bq L-1; wine: 3.4 X 10(-2) Bq L-1; milk: 3 X 10(-3) Bq L-1; normal mineral water: 4.3 X 10(-2) L-1; medical mineral water: 9.4 X 10(-2) Bq L-1.

  7. ION-EXCHANGE METHOD FOR SEPARATING RADIUM FROM RADIUM-BARIUM MIXTURES

    DOEpatents

    Fuentevilla, M.E.

    1959-06-30

    An improved process is presented for separating radium from an aqueous feed solution containing radium and barium values and a complexing agent for these metals. In this process a feed solutlon containing radium and barium ions and a complexing agent for said ions ls cycled through an exchange zone in resins. The radiumenriched resin is then stripped of radium values to form a regeneration liquid, a portion of which is collected as an enriched product, the remaining portion being recycled to the exchange zone to further enrich the ion exchange resin in radium.

  8. REMOVAL OF RADIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water...

  9. A brief history of Lord Rutherford's radium.

    PubMed

    Todd, Neil

    2014-09-20

    In this paper I give a brief summary of what is known about the acquisition, use and fate of the radium sources that were in the possession of Lord Rutherford during his lifetime. The account is written in two parts, corresponding to the periods from the discovery of radium in 1898 until his death in 1937 and then from 1937 until recent times. The history of Rutherford's radium closely shadows the history of radioactivity, the evolution of nuclear physics, the race for the bomb, and the development of the nuclear industry.

  10. A brief history of Lord Rutherford's radium

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I give a brief summary of what is known about the acquisition, use and fate of the radium sources that were in the possession of Lord Rutherford during his lifetime. The account is written in two parts, corresponding to the periods from the discovery of radium in 1898 until his death in 1937 and then from 1937 until recent times. The history of Rutherford's radium closely shadows the history of radioactivity, the evolution of nuclear physics, the race for the bomb, and the development of the nuclear industry. PMID:25254280

  11. Radium-223 for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a phase III trial that compared radium-223 dichloride plus the best standard of care versus a placebo plus the best standard of care in men with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  12. Radium, Marie Curie and modern science.

    PubMed

    Langevin-Joliot, H

    1998-11-01

    In 1898, the discovery of two new elements, polonium and radium, reawakened interest in the topic of uranic rays discovered 2 years before by H. Becquerel. Radioactivity, a name coined by Marie Curie, became a major research field for decades. The contrasting personalities of Pierre Curie, already a first-rank physicist, and of the young Marie Curie-Sklodowska as they undertook their common work are described. It is shown how a well-chosen quantitative method and a systematic approach combining physics and chemistry led to the discovery within less than 1 year. The special role of radium and the determination of its atomic weight by Marie Curie followed by her long-term program for accumulating pure radium salts are emphasized. The first woman with a full professorship at a French University, Marie Curie created and managed the Radium Institute.

  13. Radium-226 and radium-228 in shallow ground water, southern New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Zoltan; dePaul, Vincent T.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of total radium (the sum of radium-226 and radium-228) and gross alpha-particle activities in drinking water that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) are known to cause cancer. Results of investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) indicate that concentrations of total radium in water samples from 33 percent of 170 wells in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in southern New Jersey exceeded the MCL of 5 pCi/L (picocuries per liter) (fig. 1). Wells containing water in which concentrations of total radium were greater than the MCL typically are found where the Bridgeton Formation crops out, in or near an agricultural area, where ground water is acidic (pH less than 5), and where nitrate concentrations generally exceed 5 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Leaching of nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium from agricultural chemicals (fertilizer, lime) applied to cropland may increase the mobility of radium in ground water. Gross alphaparticle activities exceeded the USEPA MCL of 15 pCi/L in water from 14 percent of 127 wells. A statistically significant 2:1 ratio between gross alpha-particle activity and concentration of total radium indicates that gross alpha-particle activity can be used as a screening tool to predict the presence of water that may have a high total-radium concentration.

  14. Radium in man - 20 years later

    SciTech Connect

    Maletskos, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    In 1940, there was a need to set a standard for internal exposure to radium for the instrument industry that required luminous characters painted with radium paint. A committee was convened to review the existing information on the health effects of internal radium. Twenty-seven persons had been studied, seven with burdens of 0.5 {mu}g or less with no health effects and twenty with burdens of 1.2 {mu}g or more with health effects. The radium burden dividing the two groups was assumed at 1 {mu}g (an implied threshold), a safety factor of 10 was applied, and the internal radium standard was set at 0.1 {mu}g, a value that still stands today. Over the next five or six decades, about 2000 subjects were investigated, including many measurements on almost all the subjects. In the intervening years, several analyses of the data, available at each particular time, have been made with radical differences in interpretation.

  15. Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Technologies Topics include: Introduction to Rad Chemistry, Summary of the Rad, Regulations Treatment Technology, and Disposal. The introductions cover atoms, ions, radium and uranium and the removal of radioac...

  16. Radium in the environment: exposure pathways and health effects.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Buchner, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive element in the environment that can exist as several isotopes. Little information is available on the acute (short-term) non-cancer effects in humans. Radium exposure has resulted in acute leukopenia, anemia, necrosis of the jaw, and other effects. Cancer is the major effect of concern. Radium, via oral exposure, is known to cause bone, head, and nasal passage tumors in humans. The US Environmental Protection Agency has not classified radium for carcinogenicity.

  17. Towards an EDM Measurement in Radium-225

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Matthew; Bailey, K.; Greene, J.; Holt, R.; Kalita, M.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T.; Parker, R.; Singh, J.

    2012-06-01

    The existence of an atomic electric dipole moment (EDM) would violate both the time and parity symmetries of nature, and so the measurement of one would give a valuable window into physics beyond the standard model. Here we describe recent progress towards measurement of the EDM of radium-225, which is expected to be abnormally large compared to other species. Neutral cold radium atoms are loaded from a magneto-optic trap into an optical dipole trap (ODT), which is mechanically translated to move the radium into the science region. We then transfer the atoms to a second, standing wave ODT suitable for the EDM measurement. In the near future, we plan to optically pump and observe nuclear spin precession. This research is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  18. Removal of radium by ion-exchange from mine water

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jian-hua; Cheng Wei; Deng Jin-xun; Zhou Lei; Chang Jing-tao

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a method on removal of radium from uranium mine water. Resin IR-001 is used to absorb radium from mine water, eluted by saturated NaCl solution. Radium enriched in the eluate is then precipitated by BaCl{sub 2} solution, thereby removed effectively. (authors)

  19. REMOVING RADIUM FROM WATER BY PLAIN AND TREATED ACTIVATED ALUMINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research determined the feasibility of using BaSO4-impregnated activated alumina and plain activated alumina for radium removal from groundwater by fixed-bed adsorption. The major factors influencing radium adsorption onto the two types of alumina were identified. The radium ...

  20. Occurrence of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 in water of the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, southern New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Zoltan; dePaul, Vincent T.; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Parsa, Bahman

    2005-01-01

    Water in the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the New Jersey Coastal Plain contains elevated concentrations (above 3 pCi/L (picocuries per liter)) of the alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide radium-224. Previously, water from the aquifer system had been found to contain radium-226 and radium-228. This observation is of concern because the previously undetected presence of radium-224 may pose an additional, quantifiable health risk that currently is not accounted for by the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 5 pCi/L for combined radium (the sum of radium-226 plus radium-228 is termed 'combined radium') in drinking water. Water samples were collected from a regional network of 88 wells for determination of concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228; gross alpha-particle activity; and concentrations of major ions and selected trace elements. Both gamma and alpha spectroscopic techniques were used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from <0.5 to 16.8 pCi/L (median 2.1 pCi/L, interquartile range 1.2-3.7 pCi/L). Concentrations of radium-226 and radium-228 in the same samples ranged from <0.5 to 17.4 pCi/L (median 1.7 pCi/L, interquartile range 0.9-2.9 pCi/L) and <0.5 to 12.8 pCi/L (median 1.6 pCi/L, interquartile range, 0.9-2.6 pCi/L), respectively. Concentrations of radium-224 typically were greater than those of the other two radium radionuclides, as evidenced by the highest median, third quartile, and maximum concentrations, as well as the highest concentration among the three radium radioisotopes in 52 (59 percent) of the 88 samples. Concentrations of 5.0 to 5.5 pCi/L of radium-224 result in a gross alpha-particle activity of about 15 pCi/L (the MCL) 36 to 48 hours, respectively, after sample collection when ingrowth of radium-224 progeny radionuclides is considered, even with the unlikely assumption that no other alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide is present in the water. Concentrations of 3.4 to 3.7 pCi/L radium-224

  1. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested.

  2. Improving Radium-Based Tracer Techniques: Hydrologic Controls on Porewater Radium Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, A. L.; Wilson, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrologic variability influences coastal ecosystems and groundwater biogeochemistry on a range of temporal and spatial scales. Radium isotopes (223Ra, t1/2=11.1 d; 224Ra, t1/2=3.66 d; 226Ra, t1/2=1600 y; and 228Ra, t1/2=5.75 y) are excellent tracers of groundwater movement and discharge in coastal systems, but the accuracy of these tracers has been hindered by poor constraints on porewater radium activity. Porewater activities vary by as much as two orders of magnitude, creating a proportionally large uncertainty in radium-based estimates of coastal groundwater discharge. To determine the primary hydrologic factors that control porewater radium activity, a field and modeling study was performed at an island within North Inlet Salt Marsh in Georgetown, South Carolina. We chose this island because of its well-defined boundaries, the lack of a freshwater upland, its relatively constant elevated salinity, and its stable porewater chemistry (pH and redox). Vibracores collected across the site revealed marsh mud from 1 - 4m thick overlying sand. Porewater radium activity was measured in groundwater samples (wells screened at 1, 2, and 4m depth) and nearby surface water samples collected from November 2009 to February 2011. Water salinity, temperature, pH, and redox were also recorded. Sediment samples were collected from the top 10 cm of the marsh mud as well as from previously-collected sediment cores for analysis of bulk radium generation rates. Statistical analyses revealed no significant relationship (P > 0.05) between porewater radium activity and the known controls of salinity, pH, temperature, and redox. Spatial variations in radium were controlled by differences in groundwater residence time. Porewater radium activity decreased with depth by up to an order of magnitude and laterally by up to a factor of four. Vertical activity variations reflect the contrasting sediment grain size, permeability, and porewater residence time between marsh mud and underlying sand

  3. REMEDIATION OF RADIUM FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of a physico-chemical separation process for the removal of radium from a sample of contaminated soil at the Ottawa, Illinois, site near Chicago. The size/activity distribution analyzed among the particles coarser tha...

  4. Radium Disposition Options for the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, D. L.; Thiel, E. C.; Seidel, B. R.

    2002-02-26

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed plans to disposition its excess nuclear materials, including radium-containing materials. Within DOE, there is no significant demand for radium at this time. However, DOE is exploring reuse options, including uses that may not exist at this time. The Nonactinide Isotopes and Sealed Sources Management Group (NISSMG) has identified 654 radium-containing items, and concluded that there are no remaining radium items that do not have a pathway to disposition. Unfortunately, most of these pathways end with disposal, whereas reuse would be preferable. DOE has a number of closure sites that must remove the radium at their sites as part of their closure activities. NISSMG suggests preserving the larger radium sources that can easily be manufactured into targets for future reuse, and disposing the other items. As alternatives to disposal, there exist reuse options for radium, especially in nuclear medicine. These options were identified by NISSMG. The NISSMG recommends that DOE set up receiver sites to store these radium materials until reuse options become available. The NISSMG recommends two pathways for dispositioning radium sources, depending on the activity and volume of material. Low activity radium sources can be managed as low level radioactive waste per DOE Order 5820.2A. Higher activity radium sources are more appropriate for reuse in nuclear medicine applications and other applications.

  5. Process for separation and preconcentration of radium from water

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, M.; Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Bartsch, R.A.

    1999-01-26

    A process for preconcentrating and separating radium from a contaminated solution containing at least water and radium includes the steps of adding a quantity of a water-soluble macrocyclic polyether to the contaminated solution to form a combined solution. An acid is added to the combined solution to form an acidic combined solution having an [H{sup +}] concentration of about 0.5M. The acidic combined solution is contacted with a sulfonic acid-based strong acid cation exchange medium or a organophilic sulfonic acid medium having a plurality of binding sites thereon to bind the radium thereto and to form a radium-depleted solution. The radium-depleted solution is separated from the strong acid cation exchange medium or organophilic sulfonic acid medium. The radium remaining bound to the exchange medium or organophilic reagent is then stripped from the exchange medium or organophilic medium and the activity of the radium is measured. 24 figs.

  6. Process for separation and preconcentration of radium from water

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip; Chiarizia, Renato; Bartsch, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    A process for preconcentrating and separating radium from a contaminated solution containing at least water and radium includes the steps of adding a quantity of a water-soluble macrocyclic polyether to the contaminated solution to form a combined solution. An acid is added to the combined solution to form an acidic combined solution having an ›H.sup.+ ! concentration of about 0.5M. The acidic combined solution is contacted with a sulfonic acid-based strong acid cation exchange medium or a organophilic sulfonic acid medium having a plurality of binding sites thereon to bind the radium thereto and to form a radium-depleted solution. The radium-depleted solution is separated from the strong acid cation exchange medium or organophilic sulfonic acid medium. The radium remaining bound to the exchange medium or organophilic reagent is then stripped from the exchange medium or organophilic medium and the activity of the radium is measured.

  7. Bone sarcoma in humans induced by radium: A threshold response?

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    The radium 226 and radium 228 have induced malignancies in the skeleton (primarily bone sarcomas) of humans. They have also induced carcinomas in the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. There is no evidence that any leukemias or any other solid cancers have been induced by internally deposited radium. This paper discuses a study conducted on the dial painter population. This study made a concerted effort to verify, for each of the measured radium cases, the published values of the skeletal dose and the initial intake of radium. These were derived from body content measurements made some 40 years after the radium intake. Corrections to the assumed radium retention function resulted in a considerable number of dose changes. These changes have changed the shape of the dose response function. It now appears that the induction of bone sarcomas is a threshold process.

  8. Evaluation of salt marsh hydrology using radium as a tracer

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, M.S. ); Moore, W.S. )

    1993-05-01

    Radium isotopes provide unique and important information concerning water exchange in a salt marsh-tidal creek system. Seasonal radium data collected over five tidal cycles from a creek draining a South Carolina salt marsh, radium and thorium data from the adjacent marsh sediments, and interstitial water radium data from the drainage basin are modeled to yield residence times of water in the upper 10 cm of the marsh sediments ranging from less than one to twenty-six hours. Water residence times derived from chambers which directly measure the flux of Ra isotopes to the creek waters agree well with these calculated interstitial water turnover times. Dissolved radium activities in the tidal creek were greater during the summer than during other times of the year. The authors suspect that seasonal changes in the storage of organic carbon and rates of bioturbation lead to net reduction of radium carrier phases in the marsh sediments during the summer. 18 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Radium isotopes in the lower Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, T. F.; Curwick, P. B.

    1991-02-01

    Radium isotopes have been measured in Mississippi River water at several locations between St. Francisville and Venice, Louisiana. Measured activities averaged 11.1 dpm/100 L (disintegrations per minute per 100 L) for dissolved 226Ra with a 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio of 1.04 and a 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio of 1.06 for the section of river above a phosphogypsum waste-discharge input. Down river from this site, the dissolved 226Ra activity averaged 22.4 dpm/100 L with a 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio of 0.55 and a 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio of 0.87. Chemical and isotopic reequilibration of the radium in the waste with that in the river water and suspended sediments occurs very rapidly. Fluxes of 226Ra are calculated to be 2.44×1014 dpm/yr (disintegrations per minute per year) for the main stem of the Mississippi during phosphogypsum disposal compared to 0.98×1014 dpm/yr when no phosphogypsum disposal is occurring. 28Ra flux is calculated to be 1.06×1014 dpm/yr during disposal and 1.01×1014 dpm/yr in the absence of disposal. The radium flux is estimated to be 45% in the dissolved state and 55% in the adsorbed state.

  10. Dosimetry of radium-223 and progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Sgouros, G.

    1999-01-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived (11.4 d) alpha emitter with potential applications in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Radium-223 can be complexed and linked to protein delivery molecules for specific tumor-cell targeting. It decays through a cascade of short-lived alpha- and beta-emitting daughters with emission of about 28 MeV of energy through complete decay. The first three alpha particles are essentially instantaneous. Photons associated with Ra-223 and progeny provide the means for tumor and normal-organ imaging and dosimetry. Two beta particles provide additional therapeutic value. Radium-223 may be produced economically and in sufficient amounts for widescale application. Many aspects of the chemistry of carrier-free isotope preparation, complexation, and linkage to the antibody have been developed and are being tested. The radiation dosimetry of a Ra-223-labeled antibody shows favorable tumor to normal tissue dose ratios for therapy. The 11.4-d half-life of Ra-223 allows sufficient time for immunoconjugate preparation, administration, and tumor localization by carrier antibodies before significant radiological decay takes place. If 0.01 percent of a 37 MBq (1 mCi) injection deposits in a one gram tumor mass, and if the activity is retained with a typical effective half-time (75 h), the absorbed dose will be 163 mGy MBq{sup {minus}1} (600 rad mCi{sup {minus}1}) administered. 49 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Reverse osmosis separation of radium from dilute aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K.S.; Sastri, V.S.

    1980-03-01

    Porous cellulose acetate membranes obtained from Osmonics Inc. were characterized in terms of pure water permeability constant, solute transport parameter, and mass transfer coefficient with aqueous sodium chloride solution as the reference system. Reverse osmosis separation behavior of radium-226 as nitrate, chloride, and sulfate salts was studied. Reverse osmosis method of removing radium-226 from aqueous solutions has been compared with other methods, and it has been shown to be one of the best methods for alleviating radium contamination problems.

  12. Radium-226 in wetland birds from Florida phosphate mines

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, O.B.; Marion, W.R.; O'Meara, T.E.; Roessler, C.E. )

    1989-10-01

    Radium-226 is a naturally-occurring radionuclide found in enhanced levels at Florida phosphate mines. We inventoried levels of radium-226 in the tissues of 4 wetland bird species from 2 mined and 2 umined areas in Florida. Bone tissues of wood duck (Aix sponsa), mottled duck (Anas fulvigula), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), and double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) colleted at phosphate mines contained more radium-226 than tissues from unmined areas. Radium-226 concentrations in these birds were within guidelines inferred from radiological standards designed for human protection and should not adversely affect bird populations.

  13. Radium in Humans: A Review of U.S. Studies.

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Rowland, R. E.

    1994-09-01

    This document was originally conceived as a description of the radium studies that took place at Argonne National Laboratory. It soon became evident, however, that to document the widespread use of radium, a brief review of the application of radium in medicine and in the US dial painting industry is required. Further, because the Argonne studies were not the only such efforts, brief overviews of the other radium programs are included. Even so, much material has been omitted. The extensive references included will allow the interested reader to find additional information. The effects of internally deposited radium in humans have been studied in this country for more than 75 years. Some 2,400 subjects have had their body contents of radium measured, and a majority of them have been followed for most of their adult lives, to understand and quantify the effects of radium. Many more individuals acquired radium internally but were never measured. Some of this group have been located and followed until death; in these cases the cause of death is known without a body content measurement. As a consequence of the efforts made to locate, measure, and follow exposed individuals, a great deal of information about the effects of radium is available. Nevertheless, great gaps remain in the knowledge of radium toxicity. The Argonne study is the largest every undertaken of the effects on humans of an internally deposited radioelement, in which the insult has been quantitated by actual measurements of the retained radioisotope. The study has now been terminated, even though more than 1,000 subjects with measured radium burdens are still alive. This document is written as a brief summary of current knowledge accumulated in this incomplete study.

  14. Radioactive artifacts: historical sources of modern radium contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Blaufox, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radium has been distributed in a wide variety of devices during the early part of this century. Antique objects containing significant amounts of radium turn up at flea markets, antique shows, and antique dealers, in a variety of locations. These objects include radium in devices which were used by legitimate medical practitioners for legitimate medical purposes such as therapy, as well as a wide variety of quack cures. These devices may contain anywhere from a few nanocuries to as much as several hundred microcuries of radium. In addition to medical sources, a large variety of scientific instruments utilize radium in luminous dials. These instruments include compasses, azimuth indicators, and virtually any object which might require some form of calibration. In addition, the consumer market utilized a large amount of radium in the production of wrist watches, pocket watches, and clocks with luminous dials. Some of these watches contained as much as 4.5 microCi of radium, and between 1913 and 1920 about 70 gm was produced for the manufacture of luminous compounds. In addition to the large amount of radium produced for scientific and consumer utilization, there were a number of materials produced which were claimed to contain radium but in fact did not, further adding to the confusion in this area. The wide availability of radium is a result of the public's great fascination with radioactivity during the early part of this century and a belief in its curative properties. A number of objects were produced in order to trap the emanations of radium in water for persons to drink in order to benefit from their healing effects. Since the late 20s and early 30s the public's attitude towards radiation has shifted 180 degrees and it is now considered an extremely dangerous and harmful material.

  15. [Radium in pharmacy! Second Part: Pharmaceutical used of radium during the inter-war years].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile; Lefebvre, Thierry

    2012-05-01

    This article presents the raise of patent medicines composed of radium during the inter-war years. Because of a lack of regulation, this production was getting anarchistic. It is studied throught many documents from pharmaceutical laboratories wich are kept by the Curie' museum. Those laboratories would obtain certificates from Curie Institute, to show them in their advertisements.

  16. [Radium in pharmacies! First Part : Pharmaceutical used of radium before the first World War].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile; Lefebvre, Thierry

    2012-02-01

    The authors present in this part the creation of first radioactiv drugs, since the discovery of radium to the first World War. They present the industrial and chemist Emile Armet de Lisle and the pharmacist Alexandre Antonin Jaboin, first manufacturers of those new way of treatment.

  17. EVALUATING ION EXCHANGE FOR REMOVING RADIUM FROM GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article, the second in a series, focuses on the results of bench- and pilot-scale studies of ion exchange processes for radium removal from groundwater in Lemont, Ill. Batch and column studies indicated a very high resin selectivity for radium compared with common cations. E...

  18. EVALUATING VARIOUS ADSORBENTS AND MEMBRANES FOR REMOVING RADIUM FROM GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies were conducted in Lemont, Ill., to evaluate specific adsorbents and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes for removing radium from groundwater. A radium-selective complexer and barium-sulfate-loaded alumina appeared to have the best potential for low-cost adsorption of ra...

  19. Rapid Radiochemical Method for Radium-226 in Building ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Radium-226 in building materials Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of radium-226 in concrete or brick building materials Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  20. Marie and Pierre Curie and radium: history, mystery, and discovery.

    PubMed

    Mould, R F

    1999-09-01

    Commencing with Marie Curie's early life in Poland and the discovery of radium in the rue l'Homond "shed" in Paris in 1898, this paper includes some little known facts. It ends with some unusual uses of and claims for radium, and finally, because Medical Physics is an American journal, details are included of Marie Curie's two visits to the USA.

  1. Radium in humans: A review of U.S. studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    This document was originally conceived as a compilation of activities at Argonne National Laboratory that were directed toward the study of radium in humans. However, it soon became obvious that this was a very limited approach, because such a compilation would include no background on the widespread uses of radium in industry and in the medical profession, nor would it address the early history of the discovery of the hazards of radium. Such an approach would also ignore contributions to the study of radium effects made at other laboratories. This document now addresses these topics, in order to give an overall picture of what might be called the radium era, that period from the early part of this century, when radium was rapidly exploited as a tool and a medication, to the present time, when radium is not generally used and the study of its effects has been terminated. The appendix to this review lists all of the measured radium cases, a total of 2,403 individuals whose records were in the files at the end of 1990. For each case the route of exposure, the dates of exposure, the years of birth and death, the measured body content, the calculated intake and dose, and the cause of death have been listed. 165 refs.

  2. Nasopharyngeal radium irradiation: The lessons of history.

    PubMed

    Graamans, Kees

    2017-02-01

    In the Netherlands, nasopharyngeal radium irradiation was started in 1945. The indications included refractory symptoms of otitis media with effusion and other adenoid-related disorders after adenoidectomy. It was considered a safe and effective therapy. Its use decreased sharply in 1958, following a worldwide media avalanche around the dramatic events in the treatment of a 5-year-old child in Utrecht, enhancing the widespread fear of radioactivity. This case history illustrates the powerful role of the media in medical decision-making.

  3. Radium Ra 223 dichloride in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Joung, J Y; Ha, Y S; Kim, I Y

    2013-08-01

    Radium Ra 223 dichloride (Xofigo®, formerly Alpharadin) is one of the representative α-particle-emitting isotopes that delivers radiation with a higher biological effect to a more localized area. Preclinical studies in mouse, rat and canine models have demonstrated that radium Ra 223 dichloride has a definite skeletal affinity and antitumor effect with a relatively low toxicity on bone marrow. More recently, in a large randomized phase III trial (ALSYMPCA), patients with bone metastasis and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) received six cycles of 50 kBq/kg of radium Ra 223 dichloride in 4-week intervals. In these men, radium Ra 223 dichloride improved the median overall survival by 3.6 months when compared to the placebo group. Collectively, these results suggest that radium Ra 223 dichloride is a promising candidate for managing bone metastases in patients with CRPC.

  4. Controls on radium transport by adsorption to iron minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Wang, T.; Kocar, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are generated by uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal porewater flux leads to accumulation. These isotopes are used as natural tracers for estimating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], allowing for large scale estimation of GW fluxes into and out of the ocean [2]. They also represent a substantial hazard in wastewater produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release to surface and near-surface waters, and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a dominant pathway of radium retention in subsurface environments. For SGD studies, adsorption processes impact estimates of GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids mediates wastewater radium activities. Analysis of past sorption studies revealed large variability in partition coefficients [4], while examination of radium adsorption kinetics and surface complexation have only recently started [5]. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption and column experiments of radium with a suite of iron minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through artificial waters. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the transport and retention of radium. These results will provide critical information on the mineralogical controls on radium retention in subsurface environments, and will therefore improve predictions of radium groundwater transport in natural and contaminated systems. [1] Charette, M.A., Buesseler, K.O. & Andrews, J.E., Limnol. Oceanogr. (2001). [2] Moore, W.S., Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci. (2010). [3] Vengosh, A

  5. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing

  6. American radium engenders telecurie therapy during World War I.

    PubMed

    Robison, R

    2000-06-01

    From 1899 to 1912 there was a European monopoly controlling the sale of radium for cancer therapy. This trust was finally broken, albeit only temporarily, in 1912/13 by American entrepreneurs J. Flannery, H. Kelly, and J. Douglas. Joe Flannery was a former mortician turned mining magnate. Dr. Howard Kelly was the renowned gynecological surgeon at Johns Hopkins Hospital and Medical School who defied tradition by maintaining his own private hospital. Professor James Douglas was the Arizona copper king who helped support Memorial Hospital in New York City as America's first cancer hospital. During 1913-1916 surgeons Howard Kelly (Baltimore) and H. H. Janeway (Memorial Hospital) began using radium and radon for the treatment of deep seated cancers. Their technique required placement of the sources several centimeters away from the skin surface. As this new concept, telecurie therapy, resulted in a significant decrease in dose rate, it was necessary for both surgeons to have several grams of radium, costing $180000/gram, in their possession. Fortunately, Kelly and Janeway were the sole beneficiaries of a radium mining company, the National Radium Institute, from 1913 to 1916. With this unique American source of radium and with Europe otherwise preoccupied, these two American surgeons pioneered megavoltage telecurie therapy, using the 1.2 MeV gamma rays of "mass radium."

  7. Radithor and the era of mild radium therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Macklis, R.M. )

    1990-08-01

    Soon after the discovery of radium, a school of practitioners arose who were interested primarily in the physiological rather than the tumoricidal powers of this new radioactive element. This treatment philosophy was called mild radium therapy and involved the oral or parenteral administration of microgram quantities of radium and its daughter isotopes, often as cures for rheumatic diseases, hypertension, and metabolic disorders. Manufacturers of patent medicines responded to this market by producing a variety of over-the-counter radioactive preparations including pills, elixirs, and salves. One such nostrum was Radithor, a popular and expensive mixture of radium 226 and radium 228 in distilled water. Radithor was advertised as an effective treatment for over 150 endocrinologic diseases, especially lassitude and sexual impotence. Over 400,000 bottles, each containing over 2 muCi (74 kBq) of radium, were apparently marketed and sold worldwide between 1925 and 1930. The death of the Pittsburgh millionaire sportsman Eben M. Byers, who was an avid Radithor user, by radium poisoning in 1932 brought an end to this era and prompted the development of regulatory controls for all radiopharmaceuticals.

  8. History of the determination of radium in man since 1915

    SciTech Connect

    Rundo, J.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of radium in man can be traced back to experiments in 1915 when volunteers were injected with, or ingested, solutions of a radium salt, and the excreta were analyzed for radium. However, the first direct demonstrations of the presence of radium in vivo years after exposure were reported in 1925 by Martland et al. A few years later, Schlundt et al. repeated Martland's types of measurements with a Wulf-Hess electroscope, in an attempt to be quantitative. Data on the excretion rate of radium were published by Schlundt and Failla in 1931. The results of an investigation by the US Public Health Service of the health aspects of radium dial painting were published in three papers in 1933. In the second of these, Ives et al. reported results for 40 subjects who showed gamma-ray results of 1 {mu}g radium (i.e., retained radon) or more. There was a major improvement in sensitivity in 1937 when Evans described the use of a Geiger-Mueller detector and the metre-arc geometry. Ten years later, Hess and McNiff published details of an ionization chamber method that did permit such levels to be determined. In the early 1950s, three groups described the first equipments for the assay of radioactivity in the human body that could detect the radiation from the naturally radioactive potassium content. In 1955, the introduction by Marinelli et al. of the sodium iodide crystal as gamma-ray detector revolutionized the assay of radium (and all other gamma-ray emitters) in vivo. These factors have all contributed to a steady decrease in the lower limit of detection of radium in man that was roughly exponential from 1929 to the mid-1950s with a half-period of a little over 3 years. 36 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Distribution of radium and plutonium in human bone

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents aspects of current and recent work on the distribution of radium and plutonium near the surfaces of human bone and applications of the data. Included are sections on methods, surface deposit thickness, radium distribution near the endosteal surface, the use of alpha spectrometry in conjunction with autoradiography, radium distribution in the mastoid, and factors affecting plutonium specific activity. Emphasis is placed on the alpha spectrometry technique because of its usefulness and its recent application to problems of local dosimetry. 19 references, 14 figures, 6 tables.

  10. Radium dial watches, a potentially hazardous legacy?

    PubMed

    Gillmore, Gavin K; Crockett, Robin; Denman, Tony; Flowers, Alan; Harris, Richard

    2012-09-15

    This study re-examines the risk to health from radium ((226)Ra) dial watches. Ambient dose equivalent rates have been measured for fifteen pocket watches giving results of up to 30 μSv h(-1) at a distance of 2 cm taken with a series 1000 mini-rad from the front face (arithmetic mean ambient dose equivalent for pocket watches being 13.2 μSv h(-1)). A pocket compass gave rise to a similar ambient dose equivalent rate, of 20 μSv h(-1), to the pocket watches, with its cover open. Eighteen wristwatches have also been assessed, but their dose rates are generally much lower (the arithmetic mean being 3.0 μSv h(-1)), although the highest ambient dose equivalent rate noted was 20 μSv h(-1). A phantom experiment using a TLD suggested an effective dose equivalent of 2.2 mSv/y from a 1 μCi (37 kBq) radium dial worn for 16 h/day throughout the year (dose rate 0.375 μSv h(-1)). For this condition we estimated maximum skin dose for our pocket watches as 16 mSv per year, with effective doses of 5.1 mSv and 1.169 mSv when worn in vest and trouser pockets respectively. This assumes exposure from the back of the watch which is generally around 60-67% of that from the front. The maximum skin dose from a wristwatch was 14 mSv, with 4.2 mSv effective dose in vest pocket. Radium ((226)Ra) decays to the radioactive gas radon ((222)Rn), and atmospheric radon concentration measurements taken around a pocket watch in a small sealed glass sphere recorded 18,728 B qm(-3). All watches were placed in a room with a RAD7 real-time radon detector. Radon concentration average was 259±9 Bq m(-3) over 16 h, compared to background average over 24h of 1.02 Bq m(-3). Over 6 weeks highs of the order of 2000 Bq m(-3) were routinely recorded when the heating/ventilation system in the room was operating at reduced rates, peaking at over 3000 Bq m(-3) on several occasions. Estimates of the activity of (226)Ra in the watches ranged from 0.063 to 1.063 μCi (2.31 to 39.31 kBq) for pocket watches and

  11. Why the radium wasn't found.

    PubMed

    Rosen, R

    2000-08-01

    Although this search for lost radium tubes was conducted some forty years ago, the lessons deduced in this report are still relevant today. The origin of the loss and five stages of the search, which turned out to be unsuccessful, are described in detail. These included monitoring the hospital incinerator, its ash, residential pathways, the municipal rubbish tip, the hospital theatre and its drains, and the hospital environs. Incidentally, the searcher nearly became a victim of quicksand, and a false lead was attributed to the use of uranium coloring agent in the wall tiles of the hospital theatre. The deduced lessons include the necessity for users of sealed radioactive sources to have adequately trained staff; to follow an accredited code of practice; to have ready access to a radiation survey meter; to have a suitable storage safe and a meticulously maintained source register. Some advice is given about the conduct of a search and desirable personal attributes of a proficient searcher.

  12. History of the determination of radium in man since 1915

    SciTech Connect

    Rundo, J.

    1993-12-31

    In 1915, volunteers were injected with, or ingested, solutions of a radium salt, and the excreta were analysed for radium, but the first direct demonstrations of the presence of radium in vivo years after exposure were reported in 1925; they were also able to demonstrate the presence of radon isotopes in the exhaled breath. In 1929, radium levels were reported in six living persons based on a calibration that was derived from measurements on a seventh who subsequently died and whose partial skeleton was analysed. In 1933 results were reported for 40 subjects who showed gamma-ray results of 1 {mu}g radium (i.e., retained radon) or more. There was an improvement in sensitivity by a order of magnitude in 1937 with the use of a Geiger-Mueller detector and the metre-arc geometry; the method was still incapable of measuring radium at the {open_quotes}tolerance dose{close_quotes} of 0.1 {mu}g. Ten years later, details of an ionization chamber method were published that did permit such levels to be determined. In the early 1950s, three groups independently described the use of long high-pressure ionization chambers that were sensitive enough to detect the radiation from the naturally radioactive potassium content of the human body. In 1955, the introduction of sodium iodide as gamma-ray detector, with its high detection efficiency and spectrometric capabilities, and of large organic scintillators, revolutionized the assay of radium (and all other gamma-ray emitters) in vivo. The lower limit of detection of radium in man showed a steady decrease that was roughly exponential from 1929 to the mid-1950s with a half-period of a little more than 3 y.

  13. Radium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of radium contamination in the environment. Topics include the presence of radium in drinking water and groundwater, removal techniques, bioaccumulation, natural sources of contamination, containment of contaminated waste solids, contribution to radon pollution, and radium as a pollutant in mine tailings and phosphate mining operations. Methods of radium analysis, and health hazards from radium exposure are discussed. Government regulations regarding radium in consumer products and drinking water are described. (Contains a minimum of 95 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-01-01

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  15. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-12-31

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  16. Intermittent Elevated Radium Concentrations in Coastal Plain Groundwater of South Carolina, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, Miles; Millings, Margaret; Noonkester, Jay

    2005-09-22

    To learn the cause of intermittent radium concentrations in groundwater of Coastal Plain aquifers, 31 groundwater wells in South Carolina, U.S.A. were sampled for radium and other geochemical parameters. Sediments cored from near the well screens were also sampled to examine any relationship between sediment properties and radium concentration in the groundwater. Elevated radium concentrations only occurred in groundwater with low electrical conductivity and pH values below 6.3. The adsorption edge for radium on hematite--a major surface active mineral in these aquifers--is at a pH value of about 6. Near this value, small changes in pH can result in significant adsorption or desorption of radium. In groundwater with initially low alkalinity, small intermittent decreases in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in groundwater cause decreases in pH and desorption of radium. The result is intermittent elevated radium concentrations.

  17. EPA Method 903.1: Radium-226 in Drinking Water Radon Emanation Technique

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAM lists this method to provide for the analysis of drinking water samples that contain Radium-226, and is based on the emanation and scintillation counting of Radon-222, the immediate decay product of Radium-226.

  18. Principal aquifers can contribute radium to sources of drinking water under certain geochemical conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Zoltan; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Hancock, Tracy Connell

    2012-01-01

    What are the most important factors affecting dissolved radium concentrations in principal aquifers used for drinking water in the United States? Study results reveal where radium was detected and how rock type and chemical processes control radium occurrence. Knowledge of the geochemical conditions may help water-resource managers anticipate where radium may be elevated in groundwater and minimize exposure to radium, which contributes to cancer risk. Summary of Major Findings: * Concentrations of radium in principal aquifers used for drinking water throughout the United States generally were below 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for combined radium - radium-226 (Ra-226) plus radium-228 (Ra-228) - in public water supplies. About 3 percent of sampled wells had combined radium concentrations greater than the MCL. * Elevated concentrations of combined radium were more common in groundwater in the eastern and central United States than in other regions of the Nation. About 98 percent of the wells that contained combined radium at concentrations greater than the MCL were east of the High Plains. * The highest concentrations of combined radium were in the Mid-Continent and Ozark Plateau Cambro-Ordovician aquifer system and the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. More than 20 percent of sampled wells in these aquifers had combined radium concentrations that were greater than or equal to the MCL. * Concentrations of Ra-226 correlated with those of Ra-228. Radium-226 and Ra-228 occur most frequently together in unconsolidated sand aquifers, and their presence is strongly linked to groundwater chemistry. * Three common geochemical factors are associated with the highest radium concentrations in groundwater: (1) oxygen-poor water, (2) acidic conditions (low pH), and (3) high concentrations of dissolved solids.

  19. Application of zeolites for radium removal from mine water.

    PubMed

    Chałupnik, Stanisław; Franus, Wojciech; Wysocka, Małgorzata; Gzyl, Grzegorz

    2013-11-01

    For removal of radium from saline waters in Upper Silesian mines, several methods of purification have been developed. The most efficient one is based on application of barium chloride, which was implemented in full technical scale in two Polish coal mines several years ago. Very good results of purification have been achieved-the removal efficiency exceeding 95% of the initial activity. Another possibility for the removal of different ions from salty waters and brines is the application of zeolites. We found that technique as a very promising method for removal of not only radium isotopes from mine waters but also other ions (barium, iron, manganese). Treatment of several various water samples has been done to assess the removal efficiency for natural radionuclides. Preliminary results show very good effects for radium isotopes as well as for barium ions. In the paper, a short description of laboratory results of the purification of mine waters with application of synthetic zeolites is presented.

  20. Isotopic generator for bismuth-212 and lead-212 from radium

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Friedman, Arnold M.; Hines, John

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing radionuclides of bismuth-212 and lead-212. Thorium-228 and carrier solution starting material is input to a radiologically contained portion of an isotopic generator system, and radium-224 is separated from thorium-228 which is retained by a strongly basic anion exchange column. The separated radium-224 is transferred to an accessible, strongly acidic cationic exchange column. The cationic column retains the radium-224, and natural radioactive decay generates bismuth-212 and lead-212. The cationic exchange column can also be separated from the contained portion of the system and utilized without the extraordinary safety measures necessary in the contained portion. Furthermore, the cationic exchange column provides over a relatively long time period the short lived lead-212 and bismuth-212 radionuclides which are useful for a variety of medical therapies.

  1. RADIUM REMOVAL FROM WATER MANGANESE DIOXIDE ADSORP- TION AND DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study reveals that radium adsorption onto precipitated MnO2 followed by diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration is a very effective treatment process for radium-contaminated water. Radium removals in the range of 80% to 97% were observed for performed MnO2 feed concentrations of 0...

  2. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. The provisions of this subpart C...

  3. Advisory Report on the Health Effects of Radium 226 in Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Inst. for Environmental Quality, Chicago.

    Examined are the health effects of law concentrations of the radioactive isotope Radium-226 in drinking water. Contents include discussions of the physical properties of radium, biological and metabolic effects, health effects of exposure to Radium-226, and populations at risk. Appendices provide more technical information including equations,…

  4. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. The provisions of this subpart C are applicable...

  5. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. The provisions of this subpart C...

  6. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. The provisions of this subpart C are applicable...

  7. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. The provisions of this subpart C...

  8. 49 CFR 372.213 - Pueblo, CO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pueblo, CO. 372.213 Section 372.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.213 Pueblo, CO. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part...

  9. 49 CFR 372.213 - Pueblo, CO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pueblo, CO. 372.213 Section 372.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.213 Pueblo, CO. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part...

  10. 49 CFR 372.213 - Pueblo, CO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pueblo, CO. 372.213 Section 372.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.213 Pueblo, CO. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part...

  11. 49 CFR 372.213 - Pueblo, CO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pueblo, CO. 372.213 Section 372.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.213 Pueblo, CO. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part...

  12. 49 CFR 372.213 - Pueblo, CO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pueblo, CO. 372.213 Section 372.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.213 Pueblo, CO. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part...

  13. 49 CFR 213.37 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.37 Section 213.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Roadbed § 213.37 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on...

  14. 49 CFR 213.321 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.321 Section 213.321 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.321 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on or immediately adjacent to roadbed shall be controlled so that...

  15. 49 CFR 213.37 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.37 Section 213.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Roadbed § 213.37 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on...

  16. 49 CFR 213.321 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.321 Section 213.321 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.321 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on or immediately adjacent to roadbed shall be controlled so that...

  17. 49 CFR 213.37 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.37 Section 213.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Roadbed § 213.37 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on...

  18. 49 CFR 213.321 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.321 Section 213.321 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.321 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on or immediately adjacent to roadbed shall be controlled so that...

  19. 49 CFR 213.37 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.37 Section 213.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Roadbed § 213.37 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on...

  20. 49 CFR 213.321 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.321 Section 213.321 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.321 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on or immediately adjacent to roadbed shall be controlled so that...

  1. 48 CFR 213.302-5 - Clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clauses. 213.302-5 Section... Methods 213.302-5 Clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.243-7001, Pricing of Contract Modifications, in all bilateral purchase orders. (d) When using the clause at FAR 52.213-4, delete the reference to the clause...

  2. 47 CFR 101.213 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station identification. 101.213 Section 101.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.213 Station identification. Stations in these services are...

  3. 47 CFR 101.213 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station identification. 101.213 Section 101.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.213 Station identification. Stations in these services are...

  4. 47 CFR 101.213 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station identification. 101.213 Section 101.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.213 Station identification. Stations in these services are...

  5. 36 CFR 2.13 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fires. 2.13 Section 2.13... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.13 Fires. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Lighting or maintaining a fire, except in designated areas or receptacles and under conditions that may be established...

  6. 36 CFR 2.13 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fires. 2.13 Section 2.13... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.13 Fires. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Lighting or maintaining a fire, except in designated areas or receptacles and under conditions that may be established...

  7. 36 CFR 2.13 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fires. 2.13 Section 2.13... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.13 Fires. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Lighting or maintaining a fire, except in designated areas or receptacles and under conditions that may be established...

  8. 47 CFR 76.213 - Lotteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lotteries. 76.213 Section 76.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.213 Lotteries. (a) No cable television system...

  9. 47 CFR 76.213 - Lotteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lotteries. 76.213 Section 76.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.213 Lotteries. (a) No cable television system...

  10. 47 CFR 76.213 - Lotteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lotteries. 76.213 Section 76.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.213 Lotteries. (a) No cable television system...

  11. 47 CFR 76.213 - Lotteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lotteries. 76.213 Section 76.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.213 Lotteries. (a) No cable television system...

  12. 47 CFR 76.213 - Lotteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lotteries. 76.213 Section 76.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.213 Lotteries. (a) No cable television system...

  13. 14 CFR 171.213 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports. 171.213 Section 171.213 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES VHF Marker Beacons § 171.213 Reports. The owner of each...

  14. 14 CFR 171.213 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports. 171.213 Section 171.213 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES VHF Marker Beacons § 171.213 Reports. The owner of each...

  15. 14 CFR 171.213 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports. 171.213 Section 171.213 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES VHF Marker Beacons § 171.213 Reports. The owner of each...

  16. 47 CFR 213.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 213.4 Section 213.4 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.4 Definitions. As used herein: (a)...

  17. 47 CFR 213.7 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policies. 213.7 Section 213.7 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.7 Policies. (a) Calls and messages in each...

  18. 47 CFR 213.0 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authority. 213.0 Section 213.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.0 Authority. (a) The voice and message...

  19. 47 CFR 213.8 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Implementation. 213.8 Section 213.8 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.8 Implementation. Federal departments and agencies...

  20. 47 CFR 213.3 - Cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cancellation. 213.3 Section 213.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.3 Cancellation. This circular cancels: (a)...

  1. 47 CFR 213.0 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority. 213.0 Section 213.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.0 Authority. (a) The voice and message...

  2. 47 CFR 213.7 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policies. 213.7 Section 213.7 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.7 Policies. (a) Calls and messages in each...

  3. 47 CFR 213.3 - Cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cancellation. 213.3 Section 213.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.3 Cancellation. This circular cancels: (a)...

  4. 47 CFR 213.7 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policies. 213.7 Section 213.7 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.7 Policies. (a) Calls and messages in each...

  5. 47 CFR 213.8 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Implementation. 213.8 Section 213.8 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.8 Implementation. Federal departments and agencies...

  6. 47 CFR 213.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope. 213.2 Section 213.2 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.2 Scope. The precedence system contained herein...

  7. 47 CFR 213.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 213.2 Section 213.2 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.2 Scope. The precedence system contained herein...

  8. 47 CFR 213.3 - Cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cancellation. 213.3 Section 213.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.3 Cancellation. This circular cancels: (a)...

  9. 47 CFR 213.8 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Implementation. 213.8 Section 213.8 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.8 Implementation. Federal departments and agencies...

  10. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  11. 47 CFR 213.3 - Cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cancellation. 213.3 Section 213.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.3 Cancellation. This circular cancels: (a)...

  12. 47 CFR 213.3 - Cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cancellation. 213.3 Section 213.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.3 Cancellation. This circular cancels: (a)...

  13. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  14. 47 CFR 213.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 213.4 Section 213.4 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.4 Definitions. As used herein: (a)...

  15. 47 CFR 213.0 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authority. 213.0 Section 213.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.0 Authority. (a) The voice and message...

  16. 47 CFR 213.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope. 213.2 Section 213.2 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.2 Scope. The precedence system contained herein...

  17. 47 CFR 213.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope. 213.2 Section 213.2 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.2 Scope. The precedence system contained herein...

  18. 47 CFR 213.6 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Criteria. 213.6 Section 213.6 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.6 Criteria. (a) Flash, Flash Emergency. (1) This is...

  19. 47 CFR 213.7 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policies. 213.7 Section 213.7 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.7 Policies. (a) Calls and messages in each...

  20. 47 CFR 213.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 213.4 Section 213.4 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.4 Definitions. As used herein: (a)...

  1. 47 CFR 213.7 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policies. 213.7 Section 213.7 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.7 Policies. (a) Calls and messages in each...

  2. 47 CFR 213.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 213.4 Section 213.4 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.4 Definitions. As used herein: (a)...

  3. 47 CFR 213.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 213.4 Section 213.4 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.4 Definitions. As used herein: (a)...

  4. 47 CFR 213.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 213.2 Section 213.2 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.2 Scope. The precedence system contained herein...

  5. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  6. 47 CFR 213.0 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authority. 213.0 Section 213.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.0 Authority. (a) The voice and message...

  7. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  8. 47 CFR 213.0 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authority. 213.0 Section 213.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.0 Authority. (a) The voice and message...

  9. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  10. 47 CFR 213.8 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Implementation. 213.8 Section 213.8 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.8 Implementation. Federal departments and agencies...

  11. 47 CFR 213.8 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Implementation. 213.8 Section 213.8 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.8 Implementation. Federal departments and agencies...

  12. 47 CFR 213.6 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Criteria. 213.6 Section 213.6 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.6 Criteria. (a) Flash, Flash Emergency. (1) This is...

  13. 47 CFR 213.6 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Criteria. 213.6 Section 213.6 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.6 Criteria. (a) Flash, Flash Emergency. (1) This is...

  14. 7 CFR 3565.213 - Geographic distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic distribution. 3565.213 Section 3565.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.213 Geographic distribution....

  15. 25 CFR 213.46 - Field clerks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Field clerks. 213.46 Section 213.46 Indians BUREAU OF... FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Removal of Restrictions § 213.46 Field clerks. Local representatives known officially as “field clerks” are located in the various districts comprising that part...

  16. 25 CFR 213.46 - Field clerks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Field clerks. 213.46 Section 213.46 Indians BUREAU OF... FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Removal of Restrictions § 213.46 Field clerks. Local representatives known officially as “field clerks” are located in the various districts comprising that part...

  17. 25 CFR 213.46 - Field clerks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Field clerks. 213.46 Section 213.46 Indians BUREAU OF... FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Removal of Restrictions § 213.46 Field clerks. Local representatives known officially as “field clerks” are located in the various districts comprising that part...

  18. 25 CFR 213.46 - Field clerks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field clerks. 213.46 Section 213.46 Indians BUREAU OF... FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Removal of Restrictions § 213.46 Field clerks. Local representatives known officially as “field clerks” are located in the various districts comprising that part...

  19. 25 CFR 213.46 - Field clerks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Field clerks. 213.46 Section 213.46 Indians BUREAU OF... FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Removal of Restrictions § 213.46 Field clerks. Local representatives known officially as “field clerks” are located in the various districts comprising that part...

  20. 49 CFR 213.55 - Alinement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alinement. 213.55 Section 213.55 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.55 Alinement. Alinement may not deviate...

  1. 49 CFR 213.51 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 213.51 Section 213.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.51 Scope. This subpart prescribes requirements for...

  2. 49 CFR 213.63 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Track surface. 213.63 Section 213.63 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.63 Track surface. Each owner of...

  3. 49 CFR 213.53 - Gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gage. 213.53 Section 213.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.53 Gage. (a) Gage is measured between the heads of...

  4. 49 CFR 213.135 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switches. 213.135 Section 213.135 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.135 Switches. (a) Each stock rail must be securely seated in switch plates, but care shall be used to avoid canting the rail by overtightening the...

  5. 49 CFR 213.135 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switches. 213.135 Section 213.135 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.135 Switches. (a) Each stock rail must be securely seated in switch plates, but care shall be used to avoid canting the rail by overtightening the...

  6. 49 CFR 213.135 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switches. 213.135 Section 213.135 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.135 Switches. (a) Each stock rail must be securely seated in switch plates, but care shall be used to avoid canting the rail by overtightening the...

  7. 12 CFR 213.7 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 213.7 Section 213.7 Banks and... (REGULATION M) § 213.7 Advertising. (a) General rule. An advertisement for a consumer lease may state that a... paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall also state the following items: (i) That the transaction...

  8. 12 CFR 213.7 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 213.7 Section 213.7 Banks and... (REGULATION M) § 213.7 Advertising. (a) General rule. An advertisement for a consumer lease may state that a... paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall also state the following items: (i) That the transaction...

  9. 12 CFR 213.7 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 213.7 Section 213.7 Banks and... (REGULATION M) § 213.7 Advertising. (a) General rule. An advertisement for a consumer lease may state that a... paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall also state the following items: (i) That the transaction...

  10. 14 CFR 16.213 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... through other discovery methods permitted under this section; or (4) The method or scope of discovery... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 16.213 Section 16.213... PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 16.213 Discovery. (a)...

  11. 33 CFR 136.213 - Authorized claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorized claimants. 136.213 Section 136.213 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... PROCEDURES; DESIGNATION OF SOURCE; AND ADVERTISEMENT Procedures for Particular Claims § 136.213...

  12. 7 CFR 58.213 - Repackaging room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repackaging room. 58.213 Section 58.213 Agriculture... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Rooms and Compartments § 58.213 Repackaging room. A separate room shall be provided for the filling of small packages and...

  13. 50 CFR 21.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 21.3 Section 21.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING... (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Introduction § 21.3 Definitions. In addition to definitions contained...

  14. 7 CFR 1400.213 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military personnel. 1400.213 Section 1400.213... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.213 Military personnel. If a person is called to active duty in the military before a determination is made that the person...

  15. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  16. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  17. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  18. 22 CFR 213.9 - Written notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Written notice. 213.9 Section 213.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.9 Written notice. (a) When the billing official determines that a debt is owed USAID, he or she provides a written notice in...

  19. 22 CFR 213.9 - Written notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written notice. 213.9 Section 213.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.9 Written notice. (a) When the billing official determines that a debt is owed USAID, he or she provides a written notice in...

  20. 22 CFR 213.9 - Written notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Written notice. 213.9 Section 213.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.9 Written notice. (a) When the billing official determines that a debt is owed USAID, he or she provides a written notice in...

  1. 22 CFR 213.9 - Written notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Written notice. 213.9 Section 213.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.9 Written notice. (a) When the billing official determines that a debt is owed USAID, he or she provides a written notice in...

  2. 22 CFR 213.9 - Written notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Written notice. 213.9 Section 213.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.9 Written notice. (a) When the billing official determines that a debt is owed USAID, he or she provides a written notice in...

  3. 14 CFR 171.213 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 171.213 Section 171.213 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES VHF Marker Beacons § 171.213 Reports. The owner of each...

  4. 14 CFR 171.213 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports. 171.213 Section 171.213 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES VHF Marker Beacons § 171.213 Reports. The owner of each...

  5. 47 CFR 13.213 - COLEM qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false COLEM qualifications. 13.213 Section 13.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS Examination System § 13.213... more types of commercial radio operator licenses and/or endorsements; (d) Agree to assure that, for...

  6. 47 CFR 101.213 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 101.213 Section 101.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.213 Station identification. Stations in these services are...

  7. 47 CFR 101.213 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station identification. 101.213 Section 101.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.213 Station identification. Stations in these services are...

  8. 49 CFR 1542.213 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Training. 1542.213 Section 1542.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.213 Training....

  9. 49 CFR 1542.213 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training. 1542.213 Section 1542.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.213 Training....

  10. 49 CFR 1542.213 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Training. 1542.213 Section 1542.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.213 Training....

  11. 49 CFR 1542.213 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Training. 1542.213 Section 1542.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.213 Training....

  12. 47 CFR 90.213 - Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency stability. 90.213 Section 90.213... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.213 Frequency stability. (a) Unless noted elsewhere, transmitters used in the services governed by this part must have a minimum frequency...

  13. 47 CFR 90.213 - Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency stability. 90.213 Section 90.213... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.213 Frequency stability. (a) Unless noted elsewhere, transmitters used in the services governed by this part must have a minimum frequency...

  14. 47 CFR 90.213 - Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency stability. 90.213 Section 90.213... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.213 Frequency stability. (a) Unless noted elsewhere, transmitters used in the services governed by this part must have a minimum frequency...

  15. 47 CFR 90.213 - Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency stability. 90.213 Section 90.213... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.213 Frequency stability. (a) Unless noted elsewhere, transmitters used in the services governed by this part must have a minimum frequency...

  16. 47 CFR 90.213 - Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency stability. 90.213 Section 90.213... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.213 Frequency stability. (a) Unless noted elsewhere, transmitters used in the services governed by this part must have a minimum frequency...

  17. 49 CFR 213.2 - Preemptive effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preemptive effect. 213.2 Section 213.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS General § 213.2 Preemptive effect. Under 49 U.S.C....

  18. 7 CFR 1400.213 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Military personnel. 1400.213 Section 1400.213... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.213 Military personnel. If a person is called to active duty in the military before a determination is made that the person...

  19. 7 CFR 1400.213 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Military personnel. 1400.213 Section 1400.213... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.213 Military personnel. If a person is called to active duty in the military before a determination is made that the person...

  20. 7 CFR 1400.213 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Military personnel. 1400.213 Section 1400.213... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.213 Military personnel. If a person is called to active duty in the military before a determination is made that the person...

  1. 7 CFR 1400.213 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Military personnel. 1400.213 Section 1400.213... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.213 Military personnel. If a person is called to active duty in the military before a determination is made that the person...

  2. 49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions...

  3. 49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions...

  4. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  5. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  6. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  7. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  8. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  9. 49 CFR 213.135 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switches. 213.135 Section 213.135 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.135 Switches. (a) Each stock rail must be securely seated in switch plates, but care shall be used to avoid canting the rail by overtightening the...

  10. 49 CFR 213.135 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switches. 213.135 Section 213.135 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.135 Switches. (a) Each stock rail must be securely seated in switch plates, but care shall be used to avoid canting the rail by overtightening the...

  11. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  12. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  13. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  14. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  15. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  16. 7 CFR 1738.213 - Loan determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan determination. 1738.213 Section 1738.213... AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Application Review and Underwriting § 1738.213 Loan determination. (a) If the application meets all statutory and regulatory requirements and...

  17. 7 CFR 1738.213 - Loan determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loan determination. 1738.213 Section 1738.213... AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Application Review and Underwriting § 1738.213 Loan determination. (a) If the application meets all statutory and regulatory requirements and...

  18. 7 CFR 1738.213 - Loan determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan determination. 1738.213 Section 1738.213... AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Application Review and Underwriting § 1738.213 Loan determination. (a) If the application meets all statutory and regulatory requirements and...

  19. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except...

  20. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except...

  1. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except...

  2. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except...

  3. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except...

  4. 28 CFR 42.213 - Full hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Full hearing. 42.213 Section 42.213... Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.213 Full hearing. (a) At any time after notification of..., a State government or unit of general local government may request a hearing on the record...

  5. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Wells. 213.32 Section 213.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.32 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to drill and produce all wells necessary to offset or protect the leased land from drainage by wells on adjoining...

  6. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wells. 213.32 Section 213.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.32 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to drill and produce all wells necessary to offset or protect the leased land from drainage by wells on adjoining...

  7. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wells. 213.32 Section 213.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.32 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to drill and produce all wells necessary to offset or protect the leased land from drainage by wells on adjoining...

  8. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches,...

  9. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches,...

  10. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches,...

  11. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches,...

  12. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches,...

  13. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  14. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  15. 49 CFR 213.53 - Gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gage. 213.53 Section 213.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.53 Gage. (a) Gage is measured between the heads of...

  16. 49 CFR 213.55 - Alinement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alinement. 213.55 Section 213.55 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.55 Alinement. Alinement may not deviate...

  17. 49 CFR 213.51 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 213.51 Section 213.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.51 Scope. This subpart prescribes requirements for...

  18. 49 CFR 213.19 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information collection. 213.19 Section 213.19..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS General § 213.19 Information collection. (a) The information collection requirements of this part were reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget...

  19. 22 CFR 213.4 - Other remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other remedies. 213.4 Section 213.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.4 Other remedies. (a) This part does not supersede or require omission or duplication of administrative proceedings required...

  20. 49 CFR 1542.213 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training. 1542.213 Section 1542.213 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.213 Training. (a... training in accordance with TSA-approved curriculum specified in the security program. This curriculum...

  1. Port Radium Canada's Original Radium/Uranium Mine, The Complete Story of Canada's Historic Radium/Uranium Mine, 1932 to 2012 - 13159

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, Doug; Wiatzka, Gerd; Brown, Steve

    2013-07-01

    This paper provides the life story of Canada's original radium/uranium mine. In addition to the history of operations, it discusses the unique and successful approach used to identify the key issues and concerns associated with the former radium, uranium and silver mining property and the activities undertaken to define the remedial actions and subsequent remedial plan. The Port Radium Mine site, situated approximately 275 km north of Yellowknife on the east shore of Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories, was discovered in 1930 and underground mining began in 1932. The mine operated almost continuously from 1932 to 1982, initially for recovery of radium, then uranium and finally, for recovery of silver. Tailings production totaled an estimated 900,000 tons and 800,000 tons from uranium and silver processing operations respectively. In the early days of mining, Port Radium miners were exposed to radon and associated decay product levels (in Working Level Months of exposure - WLM) hundreds of times greater than modern standards. The experience of the Port Radium miners provides important contribution to understanding the risks from radon. While the uranium mine was originally decommissioned in the early 1960's, to the standards of the day, the community of Deline (formerly Fort Franklin) had concerns about residual contamination at the mine site and the potential effects arising from use of traditional lands. The Deline people were also concerned about the possible risks to Deline Dene arising from their work as ore carriers. In the late 1990's, the community of Deline brought these concerns to national attention and consequently, the Government of Canada and the community of Deline agreed to move forward in a collaborative manner to address these concerns. The approach agreed to was to establish the Canada-Deline Uranium Table (CDUT) to provide a joint process by which the people of Deline could have their concerns expressed and addressed. A great deal of work was

  2. Survival times of pre-1950 US women radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Stehney, A.F.

    1994-05-01

    Survival times of US women radium dial workers to the end of 1989 were examined by life table methods. Included were 1301 women rust employed before 1930 and 1242 first employed in 1930-1949. Expected numbers of deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for US white females. In the early group, 85 deaths from the well-known radium-induced cancers - bone sarcomas and head carcinomas - were observed, but only 724 deaths from aH other causes were observed vs 755 expected. Life shortening ({plus_minus}S.E.) of 1.8 {plus_minus}0.5 y compared to the general population of US white females was calculated from the time distribution of all deaths in the pre-1930 group. In the 1930--1949 group, 350 deaths were observed vs 343 expected and no bone sarcomas or head carcinomas occurred. Among women who survived at least 2 y after rust measurement of body radium, a significant excess of observed vs expected deaths was found only for radium intakes greater than 1.85 MBq of {sup 226}Ra + {sup 228}Ra, and no trend of deaths or reduction of life expectancy was found with length of employment.

  3. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-09-01

    Thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is described. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Radium-223 in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Winston; Sartor, Oliver; Pal, Sumanta K

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, docetaxel was approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). For the next several years, there was a lull in drug approvals. However, from 2010 onwards, 5 additional therapies have been approved on the basis of showing a survival benefit in phase III studies. These agents include sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide and (most recently) radium-223. Amongst radiopharmaceuticals currently used for advanced prostate cancer (e.g. samarium-153 and strontium-89), radium-223 possesses several unique properties. As an alpha-emitting compound, the agent produces a high-energy output over a short range, facilitating selective destruction of tissue within the bone in the region of osteoblastic lesions while sparing surrounding normal tissue. The current review will outline biological rationale for radium-223 and also provide an overview of preclinical and clinical development of the agent. Rational sequencing of radium-223 and combinations, in the increasingly complex landscape of mCRPC will be discussed, along with factors influencing clinical implementation.

  5. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR A CANDIDATE BUILDING MATERIALS RADIUM STANDARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a candidate building materials radium standard. It contains the standard and a summary of the technical basis for the standard. (NOTE: The Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP), sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and the...

  6. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-09-15

    Thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is described. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  7. Occurrence of Radium-224, Radium-226 and Radium-228 in Water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifers, the Englishtown Aquifer System, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands, Southwestern and South-Central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is the first regionally focused study of the presence of natural radioactivity in water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands. Geologic materials composing the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands previously have been reported to contain radioactive (uranium-enriched) phosphatic strata, which is common in deposits from some moderate-depth coastal marine environments. The decay of uranium and thorium gives rise to natural radioactivity and numerous radioactive progeny, including isotopes of radium. Naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, especially those of radium, are of concern because radium is a known human carcinogen and ingestion (especially in water used for drinking) can present appreciable health risks. A regional network in southwestern and south-central New Jersey of 39 wells completed in the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, the Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands was sampled for determination of gross alpha-particle activity; concentrations of radium radionuclides, major ions, and selected trace elements; and physical properties. Concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were determined for water from 28 of the 39 wells, whereas gross alpha-particle activity was determined for all 39. The alpha spectroscopic technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 2.7 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5pCi/L, and of radium-226, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.2 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5 pCi/L. The beta-counting technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-228. The concentration of radium-228 ranged from less than 0.5 to 4.3 pCi/L with a median of less than 0.5. Radium-228, when quantifiable, had the greatest concentration of the three radium

  8. 12 CFR 213.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 213.2 Section 213.2 Banks and... (REGULATION M) § 213.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this part the following definitions apply: (a) Act means the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) and the Consumer Leasing Act is chapter 5 of...

  9. Focal cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma following radium-223 extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Benjegerdes, Katie E.; Housewright, Chad D.

    2017-01-01

    Long-term sequelae due to extravasation of intravenous radioisotopes resulting in radiation injuries are rarely reported. As the use of radioactive isotopes for the treatment of osteoblastic metastases increases, information regarding the prevention, treatment, and long-term monitoring of suspected extravasation injury will become increasingly important. We present a patient with no previous history of skin cancer who developed an aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma at the site of prior radium-223 extravasation. We recommend that patients who experience extravasation of therapeutic radioisotopes be monitored by dermatologists for long-term sequelae. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma should be recognized as a rare but potential adverse event following cutaneous extravasation of radium-223 and is likely a side effect that is severely underreported. PMID:28127143

  10. PROCESS OF EXTRACTING URANIUM AND RADIUM FROM ORES

    DOEpatents

    Sawyer, C.W.; Handley, R.W.

    1959-07-14

    A process is presented for extracting uranium and radium values from a uranium ore which comprises leaching the ore with a ferric chloride solution at an elevated temperature of above 50 deg C and at a pH less than 4; separating the ore residue from the leaching solution by filtration; precipitating the excess ferric iron present at a pH of less than 5 by adding CaCO/sub 3/ to the filtrate; separating the precipitate by filtration; precipitating the uranium present in the filtrate at a Ph less than 6 by adding BaCO/sub 3/ to the filtrate; separating the precipitate by filtration; and precipitating the radium present in the filtrate by adding H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to the filtrate.

  11. Radium-223 dichloride in clinical practice: a review.

    PubMed

    Florimonte, Luigia; Dellavedova, Luca; Maffioli, Lorenzo Stefano

    2016-09-01

    The onset of skeletal metastases is typical of advanced-stage prostate cancer and requires a multidisciplinary approach to alleviate bone pain and try to delay disease progression. The current therapeutic armamentarium includes conventional analgesics, chemotherapeutic agents, immunotherapy, androgen-deprivation therapy, osteoclast inhibitors (bisphosphonates, denosumab), surgical interventions, external-beam radiotherapy and radionuclide metabolic therapy. Many studies in recent decades have demonstrated the efficacy of various radiopharmaceuticals, including strontium-89 and samarium-153, for palliation of pain from diffuse skeletal metastases, but no significant benefit in terms of disease progression and overall survival has been shown. The therapeutic landscape of metastatic skeletal cancer significantly changed after the introduction of radium-223, the first bone-homing radiopharmaceutical with disease-modifying properties. In this paper we extensively review the literature on the use of radium-223 dichloride in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  12. The Radium Terrors. Science Fiction and Radioactivity before the Bomb.

    PubMed

    Candela, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the collective imagination was fascinated and terrified by the discovery of radium. A scientific imagery sprang up around radioactivity and was disseminated by public lectures and newspaper articles discussing the ambiguous power of this strange substance. It was claimed that radium could be used to treat cholera, typhus and tuberculosis, but at the same time there were warnings that it could be used for military purposes. The media and the scientists themselves employed a rich vocabulary influenced by religion, alchemy and magic. The ambivalent power of radioactive elements exerted a great influence on science fiction novelists. This paper will examine some significant works published in Europe, America and Russia during the first decades of the 20th century and their role in the creation of the complex imagery of radioactivity that seized the public imagination long before the invention of the atomic bomb.

  13. Physicians, reformers and occupational disease: the discovery of radium poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.

    1987-01-01

    Teenage girls and young women, whose job it was to apply luminous paint containing radium to watches during World War I, were among the first industrial radiation poisoning victims in the United States. This paper recounts both the story of how their afflictions became recognized occupational diseases and of the tangled web of governmental-industrial-academic collusion (largely based on industrial funding of research and experts) which delayed this recognition. It shows how these industrial-academic arrangements led to the establishment of the major academic training programs in occupational medical and industrial hygiene still in existence. Using historical sources, this study provides evidence of moral lapses by medical researchers, including directly lying to the victims, withholding data on the true extent of illness and radiation contamination and of distorting evidence. The pivotal role of the Consumers League and of Dr. Alice Hamilton in establishing the truth of the radium dial painting poisonings is discussed.

  14. Neoplasms following childhood radium irradiation of the nasopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, D.P.; Comstock, G.W.; Matanoski, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen to 35 years after admission to a clinic for the prevention of deafness, no increased overall cancer risk could be detected among 904 persons who had been treated with nasopharyngeal radium irradiation when compared with the risk among 2,021 persons who were either treated surgically or not treated at all, although there were differences at specific sites. An increased risk of developing both benign and malignant head and neck tumors was found among irradiated persons. Whereas no one head and neck site showed a statistically significant excess, a slight excess of brain cancer occurred 15-20 years after radium treatment. No increase in thyroid cancer risk was observed, a result possibly attributable to the low radiation doses to this organ, and the relatively small population irradiated.

  15. Internal emitter limits for iodine, radium and radon daughters

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-08-15

    This paper identifies some of the issues which arise in the consideration of the derivation of new limits on exposure to internal emitters. Basic and secondary radiation protection limits are discussed. Terms are defined and applied to the limitation of risk from stochastic effects. Non-stochastic data for specific internal emitters (/sup 131/I and the radium isotopes) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative aspects of the limit setting problem. 65 references, 2 figures, 12 tables.

  16. Process for the removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same

    DOEpatents

    Scheitlin, F.M.

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of /sup 226/Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  17. Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Scheitlin, Frank M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  18. Romanian Experience in The Conditioning of Radium Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dogaru, Gh.; Dragolici, F.; Rotarescu, Gh.; Nicu, M.

    2008-07-01

    Ra{sup 226} first radionuclide separated from pitchblende in 1898 by Pierre and Marie Curie was successfully used in medicine, industry as in other fields being the only one available radionuclide till 1940 when were produced other radionuclides in accelerators. On long term the use of Ra{sup 226} sealed sources are not any more safe due to: the high specific activity, long half live, decays in Rn{sup 226} gas which increases the internal pressure of capsule leading in time to the leakage, the salts as raw materials from which the sealed sources are manufactured are soluble, there is a leak of information and records on the manufacture and operation. Based on this consideration in Romania regulatory authority did not authorized any more the use of these sealed sources [1]. The paper presents some aspects from Romanian experience related to the collection and conditioning of radium sealed sources. Data relating the radium inventory as well as the arrangements made in order to create a workshop for the conditioning of radium sources are presented. (authors)

  19. Indoor radon and lung cancer in the radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Neuberger, J.S.; Rundo, J.

    1996-12-31

    Internally deposited radium has long been known to have tumorigenic effects in the form of sarcomas of the bone and carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. However, the radium dial workers were also exposed to radiation hazards other than that occurring from ingestion of the radium paint, viz., external gamma radiation and elevated concentrations of airborne radon. The uranium miners were also exposed to high concentrations of radon in the 1950s and later, and numerous cases of lung cancer have occurred in that population. However, unlike the atmosphere in the uranium mines, the air in the dial painting plants was probably rather clean and perhaps not much different from the air in many houses. In view of the current concern over the possibility of lung cancer fin the general population being caused by radon (progeny) in houses, it is important to examine the mortality due to this usually fatal disease in the dial workers and to attempt to relate it to their exposure to radon, to the extent that this is possible.

  20. Restoring a neighborhood: Radium cleanup eases fears, rebuilds community

    SciTech Connect

    Ranney, C.A.; Gaddis, D.M. )

    1993-07-01

    Contaminated property is every homeowner's nightmare. That is even more true if the contamination is radioactive. But for the residents of the Monclair, West Orange, and Glen Ridge neighborhoods in Essex County, New Jersey, the nightmare became reality in the early 1980s. These three communities--representing some 750 modest, neatly kept homes--rested on radium-contaminated soils, the result of backfilling and dumping operations from 80 years ago. Residents first became alarmed in 1984, following regulatory action that triggered public awareness of excessive indoor radon gas readings, ambient gamma radiation 150 times normal levels and soil radium concentrations up to 2000 times greater than background. The worst contamination was limited to about 150 of the homes, but community concern--and the threat of the unknown--was tremendous. Not only were soils contaminated, but radon--a gas that forms during the decay of radium--with readings as high as 300 pCi/L in some homes was affecting air quality as well. Because both surficial and deeper soils were found to contain radioactive wastes, runoff and groundwater contamination was feared.

  1. Spent sealed radium sources conditioning in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Mourao, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    The management of spent sealed sources is considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) one of the greatest challenges faced by nuclear authorities today, especially in developing countries. One of the Agency`s initiatives to tackle this problem is the Spent Radium Sources Conditioning Project, a worldwide project relying on the regional co-operation between countries. A team from the Brazilian nuclear research institute Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) was chosen as the expert team to carry out the operations in Latin America; since December 1996 radium sources have been safely conditioned in Uruguay, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Ecuador and Paraguay. A Quality Assurance Program was established, encompassing the qualification of the capsule welding process, written operational procedures referring to all major steps of the operation, calibration of monitors and information retrievability. A 200L carbon steel drum-based packaging concept was used to condition the sources, its cavity being designed to receive the lead shield device containing stainless steel capsules with the radium sources. As a result of these operations, a total amount of 2,897 mg of needles, tubes, medical applicators, standard sources for calibration, lightning rods, secondary wastes and contaminated objects were stored in proper conditions and are now under control of the nuclear authorities of the visited countries.

  2. 49 CFR 571.213 - Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.213 Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems. S1. Scope. This...) The statement: “This child restraint system conforms to all applicable Federal motor vehicle safety... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems....

  3. 49 CFR 571.213 - Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.213 Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems. S1. Scope. This...) The statement: “This child restraint system conforms to all applicable Federal motor vehicle safety... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems....

  4. Elevated levels of radium-226 and radium-228 in marine sediments of the Norwegian Trench ("Norskrenna") and Skagerrak.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, M; Lepland, Aivo

    2012-10-01

    Oil and gas extraction activities discharge waters bearing radium isotopes which may potentially be transported to locations distant from the discharge point. Sediment cores from the Norwegian Trench and Skagerrak, potential sinks for North Sea discharges, were analyzed for the contents of these isotopes. All cores were such that data could be obtained from periods prior to and during extensive operations in the North Sea. Results indicate elevated levels of radium isotopes in upper sedimentary layers when compared to data for the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. Although diagenetic processes involving manganese cycling may be responsible for these enrichments, the data support previous work indicating a possible influence of North Sea discharges on sediments of the area. The results highlight the need for further work on elaborating background levels of these isotopes in the North Sea and related areas such that possible impacts of these discharges can be properly evaluated.

  5. Radium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of radium contamination in the environment. Topics examine the presence of radium in the food chain, soil, drinking water, and groundwater; disposal of contaminated waste solids; the contribution to radon pollution; and the effects of exposure on human health. Natural radium in geologic formations across the United States, and its role in contamination are discussed. Government regulations regarding radium in consumer products and drinking water are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Radium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of radium contamination in the environment. Topics examine the presence of radium in the food chain, soil, drinking water, and groundwater; disposal of contaminated waste solids; the contribution to radon pollution; and the effects of exposure on human health. Natural radium in geologic formations across the United States, and its role in contamination are discussed. Government regulations regarding radium in consumer products and drinking water are included. (Contains a minimum of 77 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Accumulation of radium in relation to some chemical analogues in Dicranopteris linearis.

    PubMed

    Chao, J H; Chuang, C Y

    2011-01-01

    This study elucidates the uptake and accumulation of radium in the field-growing fern Dicranopteris linearis by relating the radium concentration to some potential chemical analogues, including alkaline earth metals, rare earth elements, and some important heavy metals. Time-dependent accumulation of radium and these chemical analogues for D. linearis were described by the (228)Th/(228)Ra activity ratio, an index for inferring plant age. The correlation between radium and these elements was assessed by statistical analysis and used as a reference to elucidate the uptake and accumulation of radium in relation to the chemical analogues. Analytical and statistical results showed that the concentrations of alkaline earth metals (except for Mg) rare earth elements and some heavy metals in D. linearis increased linearly with plant age. These elements, exhibiting a similar accumulation pattern to radium and significant correlation coefficients with radium, were considered as the chemical analogues to radium. Additionally, the plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for radium and most of these analogues in D. linearis exceeded 1, consistent with the definition of hyper-accumulator plants.

  8. Distribution of radium in oil and gas industry wastes from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Omar, M; Ali, H M; Abu, M P; Kontol, K M; Ahmad, Z; Ahmad, S H S S; Sulaiman, I; Hamzah, R

    2004-05-01

    Radium concentrations in 470 samples of the various types of waste from oil and gas industries were analysed using gamma spectrometers. The results showed that the radium concentration varied within a wide range. The highest mean 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations of 114,300 and 130,120 Bq/kg, respectively, were measured in scales. Overall, 75% of the waste, mostly sludge and extraction residue lies within the normal range of radium concentration in soils of Malaysia. However, some platform sludge can have radium concentration up to 560 Bq/kg.

  9. 33 CFR 136.213 - Authorized claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authorized claimants. 136.213 Section 136.213 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  10. 49 CFR 213.365 - Visual inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.365... density commuter railroad lines where track time does not permit an on track vehicle inspection, and where... with the Guidebook required under § 213.353. (f) In track Classes 8 and 9, if no train traffic...

  11. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section 800.213 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS,...

  12. 25 CFR 213.40 - Cancellations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section 3 of the act of May 27, 1908 (35 Stat. 312). Removal of Restrictions ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cancellations. 213.40 Section 213.40 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS...

  13. 49 CFR 213.365 - Visual inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visual inspections. 213.365 Section 213.365... Visual inspections. (a) All track shall be visually inspected in accordance with the schedule prescribed..., electrical, and other track inspection devices may be used to supplement visual inspection. If a vehicle...

  14. 15 CFR 280.213 - Prehearing conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prehearing conference. 280.213 Section 280.213 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS...

  15. 49 CFR 234.213 - Grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grounds. 234.213 Section 234.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... internal to semiconductor-based memory; and (5) Common return wires of grounded common return single...

  16. 45 CFR 213.31 - Posthearing briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Posthearing briefs. 213.31 Section 213.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE...

  17. 45 CFR 213.31 - Posthearing briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Posthearing briefs. 213.31 Section 213.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE...

  18. 45 CFR 213.31 - Posthearing briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Posthearing briefs. 213.31 Section 213.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE...

  19. 45 CFR 213.28 - Official transcript.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Official transcript. 213.28 Section 213.28 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE...

  20. 48 CFR 52.213-2 - Invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Invoices. 52.213-2 Section 52.213-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  1. 12 CFR 21.3 - Security program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security program. 21.3 Section 21.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM SECURITY DEVICES AND PROCEDURES, REPORTS OF SUSPICIOUS ACTIVITIES, AND BANK SECRECY ACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAM Minimum Security Devices...

  2. 12 CFR 21.3 - Security program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security program. 21.3 Section 21.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM SECURITY DEVICES AND PROCEDURES, REPORTS OF SUSPICIOUS ACTIVITIES, AND BANK SECRECY ACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAM Minimum Security Devices...

  3. 12 CFR 21.3 - Security program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Security program. 21.3 Section 21.3 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM SECURITY DEVICES AND PROCEDURES, REPORTS OF SUSPICIOUS ACTIVITIES, AND BANK SECRECY ACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAM Minimum Security Devices...

  4. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  5. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  6. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  7. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  8. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  9. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  10. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  11. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  12. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  13. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each owner of the track to which this subpart applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the...

  14. 7 CFR 1260.213 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal. 1260.213 Section 1260.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH...

  15. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section... SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A § 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3161(a). Appointments may not exceed 3 years, but...

  16. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section... SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A § 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3161(a). Appointments may not exceed 3 years, but...

  17. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section... SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A § 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3161(a). Appointments may not exceed 3 years, but...

  18. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section... SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A § 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3161(a). Appointments may not exceed 3 years, but...

  19. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section... SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A § 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3161(a). Appointments may not exceed 3 years, but...

  20. 10 CFR 1021.213 - Rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rulemaking. 1021.213 Section 1021.213 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES DOE Decisionmaking... regulation, and as soon as environmental effects can be meaningfully evaluated. (c) DOE shall include...

  1. 42 CFR 456.213 - Confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Confidentiality. 456.213 Section 456.213 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Ur...

  2. 42 CFR 456.213 - Confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality. 456.213 Section 456.213 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Ur...

  3. 40 CFR 408.213 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 408.213 Section 408.213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory §...

  4. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 213

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M.S.

    2007-03-15

    Evaluated spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented for all nuclei with mass number A = 213. This evaluation for A = 213 supersedes the earlier one by Y.A. Akovali (1992Ak01), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 66, 237 (1992)

  5. 10 CFR 21.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 21.3 Section 21.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...: Basic component. (1)(i) When applied to nuclear power plants licensed under 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter, basic component means a structure, system, or component, or part thereof that affects...

  6. 10 CFR 21.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 21.3 Section 21.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY...: Basic component. (1)(i) When applied to nuclear power plants licensed under 10 CFR part 50 or part 52 of this chapter, basic component means a structure, system, or component, or part thereof that affects...

  7. 49 CFR 213.351 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.351 Section 213.351... Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for the rail on which it is applied. (b) If a joint bar is cracked,...

  8. 49 CFR 213.351 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.351 Section 213.351... Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for the rail on which it is applied. (b) If a joint bar is cracked,...

  9. 33 CFR 136.213 - Authorized claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authorized claimants. 136.213 Section 136.213 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  10. 33 CFR 136.213 - Authorized claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authorized claimants. 136.213 Section 136.213 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  11. 33 CFR 136.213 - Authorized claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authorized claimants. 136.213 Section 136.213 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  12. 36 CFR 2.13 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fires. 2.13 Section 2.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE... results in the burning of property, real property or park resources, or creates a public safety hazard....

  13. 36 CFR 2.13 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fires. 2.13 Section 2.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE... results in the burning of property, real property or park resources, or creates a public safety hazard....

  14. 7 CFR 920.213 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 920.213 Section 920.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  15. 7 CFR 920.213 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment rate. 920.213 Section 920.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  16. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Al-Hwaiti, M. S.; Budahn, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived 226Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (??SD) of 226Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ?? 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (< 10%) of 226Ra in the finer (< 53 ??m) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of 226Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the 226Ra. 226Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (< 10 ??m) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. ?? 2010 US Government.

  17. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Robert A; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad S; Budahn, James R; Ranville, James F

    2011-04-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived (226)Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (±SD) of (226)Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ± 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (<10%) of (226)Ra in the finer (<53 μm) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of (226)Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the (226)Ra. (226)Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (<10 μm) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles.

  18. Radium isotopes in the Orinoco estuary and Eastern Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.S.; Todd, J.F. )

    1993-02-15

    Radium isotopes provide a means of identifying the source of freshened waters in the ocean and determining the time elapsed since these waters were in the estuary. The authors present evidence that during April, waters from the Amazon mixing zone pass within 50 km of the mouth of the Orinoco River. These Amazon waters are characterized by a lower [sup 228]Ra/[sup 226]Ra activity ratio (AR) than are waters from the Orinoco at similar salinities. During autumn, the increased discharge of the Orinoco displaces the freshened Amazon waters seaward, yet the two can be distinguished clearly. Within the Caribbean Sea, waters of Orinoco origin carry a characteristic radium signature including excess activities of [sup 224]Ra. This isotope may be used to estimate the time elapsed since the waters were removed from contact with sediments. Current speeds based on [sup 224]Ra dating ranged from 15 to 33 cm/s during April. The radium isotopes also provide an assessment of sediment mixing in the estuary. During low discharge (April), considerable mixing of older sediment by physical or biological processes or dredging maintained high activities of [sup 228]Ra in the estuary and produced the highest [sup 228]Ra/[sup 226]Ra AR's yet measured in any estuary. During high discharge (September), a large fraction of the [sup 228]Ra was derived from desorption from fresh sediment rather than mixing of older sediments. Activities of [sup 224]Ra were high in the estuary during both high and low discharge, indicating that considerable mixing of recently introduced sediment must occur during each period. During April, [sup 224]Ra and [sup 228]Ra activities in the water were about equal, indicating that most of the sediment being resuspended had been stored in the estuary long enough to reestablish radioactive equilibrium in the [sup 232]Th decay series (i.e., 20 years). 19 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF c19441950 c19441950 POSTU.S. RADIUM ADDITION ADDITIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF c1944-1950 c1944-1950 POST-U.S. RADIUM ADDITION ADDITIONS TO PAINT APPLICATION BUILDING (RIGHT) AND CRYSTALLIZATION LABORATORY (LEFT) - United States Radium Corporation, 422-432 Alden Street, Orange, Essex County, NJ

  20. 40 CFR 61.207 - Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Radium-226 sampling and measurement... for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.207 Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures... § 61.206, the owner or operator of a phosphogypsum stack shall measure the average...

  1. 40 CFR 61.207 - Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radium-226 sampling and measurement... for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.207 Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures... § 61.206, the owner or operator of a phosphogypsum stack shall measure the average...

  2. Enhancing radium solubilization in soils by citrate, EDTA, and EDDS chelating amendments.

    PubMed

    Prieto, C; Lozano, J C; Blanco Rodríguez, P; Tomé, F Vera

    2013-04-15

    The effect of three chelating agents (citrate, EDTA, and EDDS) on the solubilization of radium from a granitic soil was studied systematically, considering different soil pH values, chelating agent concentrations, and leaching times. For all the chelating agents tested, the amount of radium leached proved to be strongly dependent on the pH of the substrate: only for acidic conditions did the amount of radium released increase significantly relative to the controls. Under the best conditions, the radium released from the amended soil was greater by factors of 20 in the case of citrate, 18 for EDTA, and 14 for EDDS. The greatest improvement in the release of radium was obtained for the citrate amendment at the highest concentration tested (50 mmol kg(-1)). A slightly lower amount of radium was leached with EDTA at 5 mmol kg(-1) soil, but the solubilization over time was very different from that observed with citrate or EDDS. With EDTA, a maximum in radium leaching was reached on the first day after amendment, while with citrate, the maximum was attained on the fourth day. With EDDS, radium leaching increased slightly but steadily with time (until the sixth day), but the net effect for the period tested was the lowest of the three reagents.

  3. 40 CFR 61.207 - Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radium-226 sampling and measurement... for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.207 Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures... § 61.206, the owner or operator of a phosphogypsum stack shall measure the average...

  4. 40 CFR 61.207 - Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Radium-226 sampling and measurement... for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.207 Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures... § 61.206, the owner or operator of a phosphogypsum stack shall measure the average...

  5. 40 CFR 61.207 - Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Radium-226 sampling and measurement... for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.207 Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures... § 61.206, the owner or operator of a phosphogypsum stack shall measure the average...

  6. Occurrence of natural radium-226 radioactivity in ground water of Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1985-01-01

    Water that contains radium-226 radioactivity in excess of the 5.0-picocurie-per-liter limit set in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations was found in the majority of wells sampled throughout Sarasota County. Highest levels were found areally near the coast or near rivers and vertically in the Tamiami-upper Hawthorn aquifer where semiconsolidated phosphate pebbles occur. Analysis of data suggests that part of the radium-226 in ground water of Sarasota County is dissolved by alpha particle recoil. In slightly mineralized water, radium-226 concentrations are decreased by ion exchange or sorption. In more mineralized water, other ions compete with radium-226 for ion exchange or sorption sites. Dissolution of minerals containing radium-226 by mineralized water probably contributes a significant fraction of the dissolved radium-226. Two types of mineralized water were present in Sarasota County. One type is a marine-like water, presumably associated with saltwater encroachment in coastal areas; the other is a calcium magnesium strontium surfate bicarbonate type. In general, water that contains high radium-226 radioactivities also contains too much water hardness or dissolved solids to be used for public supply without treatment that would also reduce radium-226 radioactivities. (USGS)

  7. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. 32.57 Section 32.57... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of...

  8. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a...

  9. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. 32.57 Section 32.57... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of...

  10. 10 CFR 31.12 - General license for certain items and self-luminous products containing radium-226.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... products containing radium-226. 31.12 Section 31.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL DOMESTIC... containing radium-226. (a) A general license is hereby issued to any person to acquire, receive, possess, use..., radium-226 contained in the following products manufactured prior to November 30, 2007. (1)...

  11. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a...

  12. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a...

  13. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a...

  14. 10 CFR 31.12 - General license for certain items and self-luminous products containing radium-226.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... products containing radium-226. 31.12 Section 31.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL DOMESTIC... containing radium-226. (a) A general license is hereby issued to any person to acquire, receive, possess, use..., radium-226 contained in the following products manufactured prior to November 30, 2007. (1)...

  15. 10 CFR 31.12 - General license for certain items and self-luminous products containing radium-226.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... products containing radium-226. 31.12 Section 31.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL DOMESTIC... containing radium-226. (a) A general license is hereby issued to any person to acquire, receive, possess, use..., radium-226 contained in the following products manufactured prior to November 30, 2007. (1)...

  16. 10 CFR 31.12 - General license for certain items and self-luminous products containing radium-226.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... products containing radium-226. 31.12 Section 31.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL DOMESTIC... containing radium-226. (a) A general license is hereby issued to any person to acquire, receive, possess, use..., radium-226 contained in the following products manufactured prior to November 30, 2007. (1)...

  17. 10 CFR 31.12 - General license for certain items and self-luminous products containing radium-226.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... products containing radium-226. 31.12 Section 31.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL DOMESTIC... containing radium-226. (a) A general license is hereby issued to any person to acquire, receive, possess, use..., radium-226 contained in the following products manufactured prior to November 30, 2007. (1)...

  18. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a...

  19. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. 32.57 Section 32.57... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of...

  20. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. 32.57 Section 32.57... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of...

  1. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. 32.57 Section 32.57... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of...

  2. Radium-223 dichloride for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: the urologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Shore, Neal D

    2015-04-01

    Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223) is an important therapeutic option for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, symptomatic bone metastases, and no visceral disease. The unique mechanism of action of this first-in-class alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical underlies its favorable safety profile and low incidence of myelosuppression. In the pivotal phase 3 ALpharadin in SYMptomatic Prostate CAncer Patients study, radium-223 reduced the risk of death by 30% and prolonged time to first symptomatic skeletal event by 5.8 months. This article summarizes current guidelines and clinical studies that led to the approval of radium-223 as an overall survival therapy, and discusses the urologist's perspective on using radium-223 in clinical practice.

  3. [Radium therapy in a county hospital on the island of Mors, Denmark].

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Ib; Topp, Sven W

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark it was decided early in the 20th century that therapy with radium should be restricted to major centres in the three largest cities, Copenhagen, Aarhus and Odense. In the northern part of Jutland the chief surgeon of Nykøbing Mors Hospital, Jacob Nordentoft (1881-1954), had studied radium treatment in Hamburg with Albers-Schönberg and in Paris with Marie Curie, and he had used radium in his private clinic since 1910. Naturally he wanted to continue this when he became chief in Nykøbing in 1922. As he was denied this the 22,000 inhabitants of this small island in 1931 collected 28,790 Danish Crowns for him as a birthday present and afterwards he could buy 94 mg pure radium from Belgium. With this amount he established a Radium Centre which lasted for 30 years.

  4. 24 CFR 213.252 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES COOPERATIVE HOUSING MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations-Projects § 213.252 Definitions. The...

  5. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.32 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to drill and... such wells to the number necessary, in his opinion, to insure reasonable diligence in the...

  6. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.32 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to drill and... such wells to the number necessary, in his opinion, to insure reasonable diligence in the...

  7. 49 CFR 213.369 - Inspection records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... system be designed such that the integrity of each record maintained through appropriate levels of... subsequent inspections. (f) Each vehicle/track interaction safety record required under § 213.333 (g), and...

  8. The radium legacy: Contaminated land and the committed effective dose from the ingestion of radium contaminated materials.

    PubMed

    Tyler, A N; Dale, P; Copplestone, D; Bradley, S; Ewen, H; McGuire, C; Scott, E M

    2013-09-01

    The manufacture and use of radium in the early to mid-20th century within industrial, medicinal and recreational products have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites across a number of countries with notable examples in the USA and Europe. These sites, represent a significant number of unregulated sources of potential radiological exposure that have collectively and hitherto not been well characterised. In 2007, the Radioactive Contaminated Land (RCL) Regulations came into force in the UK, providing the statutory guidance for regulators to classify and deal with RCL. Here we report on results derived from digestion experiments to estimate committed effective dose, a key aspect of the RCL Regulations, from the ingestion of radium contaminated sources that can be found in the environment. This case study includes particles, clinker and artefacts that arise from past military activities on a site that was once an airfield at Dalgety Bay on the Firth of Forth, UK. Since 2011 the number of radium contaminated finds has increased by one order of magnitude on the foreshore areas of Dalgety Bay. The increase in finds may in large part be attributed to a change in monitoring practice. A subsample of sixty sources was selected, on the basis of their activity and dimensions, and subjected to digestion in simulated stomach and lower intestine solutions. The study demonstrated that more radium-226 ((226)Ra) and lead-210 ((210)Pb; driven by Polonium solubility) are dissolved from sources in artificial 'stomach' solutions compared with 'lower intestine' solutions. The combined 'gut' solubility for (226)Ra and apparent (210)Pb varied from less than 1% to up to 35% ICRP 72 conversion factors were used to convert the activities measured in solution to committed effective dose. A little over 10% of the sources tested dissolved sufficient radioactivity to result in 100mSv committed effective dose to an infant. Using the solubility of 35% as a worst case, minimum source

  9. Radium-223 dichloride therapy in breast cancer with osseous metastases.

    PubMed

    Takalkar, Amol; Paryani, Bhavna; Adams, Scott; Subbiah, Vivek

    2015-11-18

    Osseous metastases occur frequently in patients with breast cancer. Few options exist for bone targeted therapy for hormone refractory patients with breast cancer with progressive bone metastases. We present a case of breast cancer with osseous metastases but no visceral metastases. The patient had been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and hormonal therapy, but still had extensive symptomatic osseous metastases. She received radium-223 dichloride, a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for castration resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases. She tolerated the therapy well with no significant adverse effects. She had an excellent response with significant pain relief obviating need for regular analgaesics. Her tumour markers also dropped significantly. Osseous metastases assessed with F-18 fluorodeoxy glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) and F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) bone PET/CT) scans at baseline, after two and six cycles, also showed interval improvement in the lesions. Radium-223 dichloride could potentially be a safe and useful therapeutic option in this setting.

  10. Modeling radium distribution in coastal aquifers during sea level changes: The Dead Sea case

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiro, Yael; Yechieli, Yoseph; Voss, Clifford I.; Starinsky, Abraham; Weinstein, Yishai

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to studying the behavior of radium isotopes in a coastal aquifer. In order to simulate radium isotope distributions in the dynamic flow field of the Dead Sea aquifer, a multi-species density dependent flow model (SUTRA-MS) was used. Field data show that the activity of 226Ra decreases from 140 to 60 dpm/L upon entering the aquifer from the Dead Sea, and then further decreases linearly due to mixing with Ra-poor fresh water. On the other hand, an increase is observed in the activity of the shorter-lived isotopes (up to 52 dpm/L 224Ra and 31 dpm/L 223Ra), which are relatively low in Dead Sea water (up to 2.5 dpm/L 224Ra and 0.5 dpm/L 223Ra). The activities of the short lived radium isotopes also decrease with decreasing salinity, which is due to the effect of salinity on the adsorption of radium. The relationship between 224Ra and salinity suggests that the adsorption partition coefficient (K) is linearly related to salinity. Simulations of the steady-state conditions, show that the distance where equilibrium activity is attained for each radium isotope is affected by the isotope half-life, K and the groundwater velocity, resulting in a longer distance for the long-lived radium isotopes. K affects the radium distribution in transient conditions, especially that of the long-lived radium isotopes. The transient conditions in the Dead Sea system, with a 1 m/yr lake level drop, together with the radium field data, constrains K to be relatively low (226Ra cannot be explained by adsorption, and it is better explained by removal via coprecipitation, probably with barite or celestine.

  11. Occurrence of mammary tumors in beagls given radium-226

    SciTech Connect

    Bruenger, F.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Miller, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Angus, W.; Huth, D.A.

    1994-06-01

    A total of 128 primary mammary tumors (66 of them malignant) occurred in 35 female beagles injected with {sup 226}Ra at eight dose levels ranging from 0.2 to 440 kBq/kg body mass as young adults, while a total of 156 mammary tumors (57 of them malignant) were seen in 46 female control beagles not given any radioactivity. Sixty-three of 65 control dogs and 59 of 61 dogs given {sup 226}Ra survived the minimum age for diagnosis of mammary tumors of 3.75 years. Based on the observed age-dependent tumor incidence rates in the controls and on the corresponding number of dog-years at risk, the total number of observed malignant tumors in the radium group was statistically greater than the number of expected malignant tumors (66 observed vs 34 expected, P < 0.005). There was no such difference for the benign tumors. Cox regression analysis indicated no increased risk for the first tumor occurrence in irradiated dogs. Cox regression analysis of the multivariate risk sets showed no significantly increased risk for the occurrence of benign tumors but a statistically higher risk of 1.66 with a confidence interval of 1.15-2.40 for the occurrence of malignant tumors. The increased risk was dependent on dose, but a dependence on the frequency of previous occurrence of mammary tumors could not be confirmed. Censoring ovariectomized dogs at time of surgery decreased the relative risks slightly but did not alter the significance. Exposure to diagnostic X rays with cumulative exposures below 0.2 Gy had no effect on tumor formation. It is unknown whether the increased risk for malignant mammary tumors was due to some initial deposition of radium in sensitive tissue, a possible irradiation of fatty mammary tissue from transient radon {yields} polonium deposition, or a general effect of the overall radium deposition on the immune system of the dogs that lowered their resistance to formation of mammary tumors. 27 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. 49 CFR 571.213 - Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.213 Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems. Link to an amendment... the manufacturer with respect to the system by the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, as...) The statement: “This child restraint system conforms to all applicable Federal motor vehicle...

  13. 49 CFR 571.213 - Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.213 Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems. Link to an amendment... the manufacturer with respect to the system by the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, as...) The statement: “This child restraint system conforms to all applicable Federal motor vehicle...

  14. 49 CFR 571.213 - Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.213 Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems. S1. Scope. This... the manufacturer with respect to the system by the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, as... restraint system conforms to all applicable Federal motor vehicle safety standards.” (f) One of...

  15. Degree of accuracy in determining the nuclear electric quadrupole moment of radium

    SciTech Connect

    Bieron, Jacek; Pyykkoe, Pekka

    2005-03-01

    The multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) model has been employed to calculate the atomic expectation values responsible for the hyperfine splittings of the 7s7p {sup 3}P{sub 1,2} and {sup 1}P{sub 1} levels of radium. Calculated electric field gradients, together with the experimental electric quadrupole hyperfine structure constants, allow us to extract a nuclear electric quadrupole moment Q({sup 223}Ra) of 1.21(0.03) barn. This value is in good agreement with the semiempirical determination based on neutral radium hyperfine and fine structure, but differs from the latest result from an alkali-like radium ion.

  16. Statistical Analysis of Elevated Radium and Gross Alpha Measurement in the Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    TUCKFIELD, RICHARD

    2004-04-12

    In 2002, radium 226 and 228 measurements elevated above the 5 pCi/L groundwater protection standard (GWPS) and gross alpha measurements above the 15 pCi/L GWPS were noticed in several groundwater monitoring wells at the SRS Sanitary Landfill. An additional four quarters of confirmatory measurements for Ra in the SLF groundwater were taken during 2003 as directed by the SC Department of Health and Environmental Control. Elevated radium concentrations in groundwater of the Aiken County area are a common occurrence. Price and Michel (1990) compiled radium concentrations in drinking water wells of this area and showed several instances of the concentrations exceeding the regulatory limit. Ra226 is an alpha emitter and contributes much of the natural alpha radioactivity found in uncontaminated groundwater. Thus, the elevated radium concentrations are usually accompanied by elevated gross alpha concentrations. Appendix A2 indicates that this is the case at the SLF where Ra226 accounts for almost all elevated gross alpha.

  17. Alpha-emitter radium-223 in the management of solid tumors: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Sten

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastases, which are commonly seen in patients with advanced cancers, are a major cause of skeletal events, disability, and death. Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223; Xofigo, formerly Alpharadin), a first-in-class, alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical that selectively targets bone metastases with high-energy short-range alpha-particles, has been approved for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral metastases. Approval is based on results of the randomized phase III trial Alpharadin in Symptomatic Prostate Cancer (ALSYMPCA), in which radium-223 prolonged overall survival and time to first symptomatic skeletal event versus placebo among patients with CRPC with symptomatic bone metastases and was generally well tolerated, with low myelosuppression rates and manageable gastrointestinal adverse events. Long-term follow-up of the ALSYMPCA safety population showed that the incidence of myelosuppression remained low among patients treated with radium-223, with no additional safety issues of acute myelogenous leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, or primary bone cancer within approximately 1.5 years after treatment. The radium-223 overall survival benefit and low toxicity make it an effective, well-tolerated, and novel treatment option for CRPC and symptomatic bone metastases and opens the possibility of exploring radium-223 in the treatment of bone metastases from other cancers. A phase I clinical trial of patients with breast and prostate cancer with skeletal metastases demonstrated that radium-223 was safe and well tolerated at all therapeutically relevant dosages. Moreover, a phase IIa trial of patients with advanced breast cancer and progressive bone-dominant disease demonstrated that radium-223 targeted areas of increased bone metabolism and showed biologic activity.

  18. Calculations of energy levels and lifetimes of low-lying states of barium and radium

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Ginges, J. S. M.

    2006-03-15

    We use the configuration-interaction method and many-body perturbation theory to perform accurate calculations of energy levels, transition amplitudes, and lifetimes of low-lying states of barium and radium. Calculations for radium are needed for the planning of measurements of parity- and time-invariance-violating effects which are strongly enhanced in this atom. Calculations for barium are used to control the accuracy of the calculations.

  19. Treatment scheme for controlling the migration of radium from a tailings impoundment

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.

    1985-02-01

    Under sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Uranium Research and Recovery Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has investigated the use of various neutralizing reagents and techniques to attenuate the movement of contaminants associated with acidic uranium mill tailings. The objective of this study was to identify those contaminants which are not effectively attenuated by common neutralization methods and to develop alternative control measures. Of those contaminants associated with uranium mill tailings which were identified as not being effectively immobilized by tailings neutralization, radium imposes an important environmental concern in terms of potential groundwater contamination. Control or attenuation of radium is of special concern primarily due to its radiological health implications. For that reason, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has implemented strict guidelines governing the maximum allowable concentration in drinking waters. Current EPA guidelines call for total radium activities not to exceed 5 pCi/L. Due to the high activity of soluble radium in the acidic uranium mill tailings environment (several hundred to several thousand pCi/L), specific ion removal procedures were investigated for use in attenuating radium in order to prevent future groundwater contamination. Results of these investigations led to the development of a tailings additive comprised of a mixture of hydrated lime and barium chloride, which, when added to acidic tailings, can reduce the amount of leachable radium escaping a designated tailings impoundment. In laboratory verification tests, this radium specific tailings treatment reduced the effluent solution activity of radium by three orders of magnitude, from >3500 pCi/L to 1.7 pCi/L, in comparison with untreated acidic tailings.

  20. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals as targeted agents of osteosarcoma: samarium-153-EDTMP and radium-223.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter M; Subbiah, Vivek; Rohren, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a cancer characterized by formation of bone by malignant cells. Routine bone scan imaging with Tc-99m-MDP is done at diagnosis to evaluate primary tumor uptake and check for bone metastases. At time of relapse the Tc-99m-MDP bone scan also provides a specific means to assess formation of bone by malignant osteosarcoma cells and the potential for bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals to deliver radioactivity directly into osteoblastic osteosarcoma lesions. This chapter will review and compare a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical that emits beta-particles, samarium-153-EDTMP, with an alpha-particle emitter, radium-223. The charged alpha particles from radium-223 have far more mass and energy than beta particles (electrons) from Sm-153-EDTMP. Because radium-223 has less marrow toxicity and more radiobiological effectiveness, especially if inside the bone forming cancer cell than samarium-153-EDTMP, radium-223 may have greater potential to become widely used against osteosarcoma as a targeted therapy. Radium-223 also has more potential to be used with chemotherapy against osteosarcoma and bone metastases. Because osteosarcoma makes bone and radium-223 acts like calcium, this radiopharmaceutical could possibly become a new targeted means to achieve safe and effective reduction of tumor burden as well as facilitate better surgery and/or radiotherapy for difficult to resect large, or metastatic tumors.

  1. Conditioning Operation by an Encapsulation and Shielding of Spent Sealed Radium Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Il-Sik Kang; Dae-Seok Hong; Kil-Jeong Kim; Jong-Sik Shon; Kwon-Pyo Hong

    2006-07-01

    In order to avoid accidents that could result from an improper storage of spent radium sources, it is necessary to condition and store them safely. The program for a safe conditioning of spent radium sources by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) has been established to assist the developing countries. The main object of this paper is to summarize the technology that was adapted by the IAEA for the conditioning of spent radium sources in the national inventory of Ra-226 sources in member states and the actions performed by the Korean expert team as a part of the IAEA's project titled as 'Radium Conditioning in Southeastern Asia'. The whole inventory of the spent radium sources of 8,671.13 mCi was safely conditioned by the Korean expert team according to the guidelines under the supervision of the IAEA's technical officer. The 1,821 sources of spent radium were encapsulated, welded, and conditioned into 18 concrete-shielded drums. (authors)

  2. 7 CFR 62.213 - Official identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions Service § 62.213 Official identification. The following, as shown in figure 1, constitutes official identification to show product or services produced under an approved USDA, Process Verified... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  3. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For...

  4. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For...

  5. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For...

  6. 19 CFR 213.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.2 Definitions. (a) Office. The Trade Remedy Assistance Office (hereinafter Office... advice to interested parties concerning the remedies and benefits available under the trade...

  7. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  8. 49 CFR 213.37 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Roadbed § 213.37 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on or immediately adjacent to roadbed shall be controlled so that it does not— (a) Become a fire hazard to track-carrying structures; (b) Obstruct visibility of railroad signs and signals: (1) Along the right-of-way,...

  9. 49 CFR 213.321 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.321 Vegetation... does not— (a) Become a fire hazard to track-carrying structures; (b) Obstruct visibility of railroad signs and signals: (1) Along the right of way, and (2) At highway-rail crossings; (c) Interfere...

  10. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For...

  11. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For...

  12. 49 CFR 213.335 - Crossties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.335 Crossties. (a... track shall have— (1) A sufficient number of crossties which in combination provide effective support... non-concrete tie construction, each 39 foot segment of Class 6 track shall have fourteen...

  13. 49 CFR 213.109 - Crossties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.109 Crossties. (a) Crossties shall be made of a material to which rail can be securely fastened. (b) Each 39 foot segment of track shall have— (1) A...) Each 39 foot segment of: Class 1 track shall have five crossties; Classes 2 and 3 track shall...

  14. 49 CFR 213.335 - Crossties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.335 Crossties. (a... track shall have— (1) A sufficient number of crossties which in combination provide effective support... non-concrete tie construction, each 39 foot segment of Class 6 track shall have fourteen...

  15. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  16. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  17. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  18. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  19. 25 CFR 213.40 - Cancellations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.40 Cancellations. (a) When, in the opinion... or of the applicable regulations, or if mining operations are conducted wastefully and without regard to good mining practice, the Secretary of the Interior shall have the right at any time after 30...

  20. 25 CFR 213.40 - Cancellations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.40 Cancellations. (a) When, in the opinion... or of the applicable regulations, or if mining operations are conducted wastefully and without regard to good mining practice, the Secretary of the Interior shall have the right at any time after 30...

  1. 25 CFR 213.15 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.15 Bonds. (a) Lessee shall furnish with each mining lease a bond (Form 5-154b), and an assignee of a lease shall furnish with each assignment a... if, in his opinion, the circumstances warrant and the interests of the Indian landowners are...

  2. 25 CFR 213.15 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.15 Bonds. (a) Lessee shall furnish with each mining lease a bond (Form 5-154b), and an assignee of a lease shall furnish with each assignment a... if, in his opinion, the circumstances warrant and the interests of the Indian landowners are...

  3. 42 CFR 2.13 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... referral facility, and if the acknowledgement does not reveal that the patient is an alcohol or drug abuser... CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.13 Confidentiality restrictions... place where only alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment, or referral is provided may be...

  4. 42 CFR 2.13 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.13 Confidentiality restrictions... place where only alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment, or referral is provided may be acknowledged... facility if the facility is not publicy identified as only an alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment...

  5. 8 CFR 213a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: Domicile means the place where... intending immigrants. The “household income” may not, however, include the income of an intending immigrant, unless the intending immigrant is either the sponsor's spouse or has the same principal residence as...

  6. 8 CFR 213a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: Domicile means the place where... intending immigrants. The “household income” may not, however, include the income of an intending immigrant, unless the intending immigrant is either the sponsor's spouse or has the same principal residence as...

  7. 8 CFR 213a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: Domicile means the place where... Support Contract Between Sponsor and Household Member, on behalf of the sponsor and intending immigrants. The “household income” may not, however, include the income of an intending immigrant, unless...

  8. 8 CFR 213a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: Domicile means the place where... Support Contract Between Sponsor and Household Member, on behalf of the sponsor and intending immigrants. The “household income” may not, however, include the income of an intending immigrant, unless...

  9. 8 CFR 213a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... BEHALF OF IMMIGRANTS § 213a.1 Definitions. As used in this part, the term: Domicile means the place where... intending immigrants. The “household income” may not, however, include the income of an intending immigrant, unless the intending immigrant is either the sponsor's spouse or has the same principal residence as...

  10. 15 CFR 280.213 - Prehearing conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS FASTENER QUALITY Enforcement § 280.213 Prehearing conference. (a) The administrative law judge, on his or her own... administrative law judge may order the conference proceedings to be recorded electronically or taken by...

  11. 15 CFR 280.213 - Prehearing conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS FASTENER QUALITY Enforcement § 280.213 Prehearing conference. (a) The administrative law judge, on his or her own... administrative law judge may order the conference proceedings to be recorded electronically or taken by...

  12. 42 CFR 2.13 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... only if the patient's written consent is obtained in accordance with subpart C of these regulations or... CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.13 Confidentiality restrictions. (a) General. The patient records to which these regulations apply may be disclosed or used only...

  13. 42 CFR 2.13 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... only if the patient's written consent is obtained in accordance with subpart C of these regulations or... CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.13 Confidentiality restrictions. (a) General. The patient records to which these regulations apply may be disclosed or used only...

  14. 42 CFR 2.13 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... only if the patient's written consent is obtained in accordance with subpart C of these regulations or... CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.13 Confidentiality restrictions. (a) General. The patient records to which these regulations apply may be disclosed or used only...

  15. 3. Oblique view of 213 Division Street, looking northeast, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Oblique view of 213 Division Street, looking northeast, showing rear (west) facade and south side, 215 Division Street is visible at left and Fairbanks Company appears at right - 213 Division Street (House), Rome, Floyd County, GA

  16. Decay of the N =126 , 213Fr nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pragati, Deo, A. Y.; Podolyák, Zs.; Walker, P. M.; Algora, A.; Rubio, B.; Agramunt, J.; Fraile, L. M.; Al-Dahan, N.; Alkhomashi, N.; Briz, J. A.; Aguado, M. E. Estevez; Farrelly, G.; Gelletly, W.; Herlert, A.; Köster, U.; Maira, A.

    2016-12-01

    γ rays following the EC/β+ and α decay of the N = 126, 213Fr nucleus have been observed at the CERN isotope separator on-line (ISOLDE) facility with the help of γ -ray and conversion-electron spectroscopy. These γ rays establish several hitherto unknown excited states in 213Rn. Also, five new α -decay branches from the 213Fr ground state have been discovered. Shell model calculations have been performed to understand the newly observed states in 213Rn.

  17. 36 CFR 21.3 - Use of thermal water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of thermal water. 21.3 Section 21.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.3 Use of thermal water. (a) The use of the...

  18. 29 CFR 825.213 - Employer recovery of benefit costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employer recovery of benefit costs. 825.213 Section 825.213... Leave Act § 825.213 Employer recovery of benefit costs. (a) In addition to the circumstances discussed... not unpaid, recovery of health insurance premiums does not apply to such paid leave. (e) The...

  19. 47 CFR 97.213 - Telecommand of an amateur station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Telecommand of an amateur station. 97.213 Section 97.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.213 Telecommand of an amateur station. An...

  20. 47 CFR 97.213 - Telecommand of an amateur station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Telecommand of an amateur station. 97.213 Section 97.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.213 Telecommand of an amateur station. An...

  1. 47 CFR 97.213 - Telecommand of an amateur station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Telecommand of an amateur station. 97.213 Section 97.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.213 Telecommand of an amateur station. An...

  2. 47 CFR 97.213 - Telecommand of an amateur station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Telecommand of an amateur station. 97.213 Section 97.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.213 Telecommand of an amateur station. An...

  3. 47 CFR 97.213 - Telecommand of an amateur station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Telecommand of an amateur station. 97.213 Section 97.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Special Operations § 97.213 Telecommand of an amateur station. An...

  4. 49 CFR 382.213 - Controlled substance use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Controlled substance use. 382.213 Section 382.213... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.213 Controlled substance use. (a) No driver shall report...

  5. 7 CFR 1280.213 - Investment of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investment of funds. 1280.213 Section 1280.213... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses § 1280.213 Investment of funds. The... the United States. Income from any such investment may be used for any purpose for which the...

  6. 7 CFR 1280.213 - Investment of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment of funds. 1280.213 Section 1280.213... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Expenses § 1280.213 Investment of funds. The... the United States. Income from any such investment may be used for any purpose for which the...

  7. 24 CFR 213.266a - Insurance fund obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AUTHORITIES COOPERATIVE HOUSING MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations-Projects § 213.266a... obligation either of the Cooperative Management Housing Insurance Fund or of the General Insurance Fund. The... 213(a)(1) of the Act or under section 213(a)(3) if the project has been acquired by a...

  8. 25 CFR 213.2 - Applications for leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications for leases. 213.2 Section 213.2 Indians... MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.2 Applications for leases. Applications for leases should be made to the Area Director....

  9. 47 CFR 36.213 - Network access services revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Network access services revenues. 36.213 Section 36.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Income Accounts Operating Revenues § 36.213 Network access services revenues. (a) End User...

  10. 49 CFR 213.122 - Torch cut rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.122 Section 213.122..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.122 Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used in Classes 3 through...

  11. 49 CFR 213.122 - Torch cut rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Torch cut rail. 213.122 Section 213.122..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.122 Torch cut rail. (a) Except as a temporary repair in emergency situations no rail having a torch cut end shall be used in Classes 3 through...

  12. 40 CFR 180.213 - Simazine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....213 Section 180.213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.213....20 Corn, pop, stover 0.25 Corn, sweet, forage 0.20 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed...

  13. 40 CFR 180.213 - Simazine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....213 Section 180.213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.213....20 Corn, pop, stover 0.25 Corn, sweet, forage 0.20 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed...

  14. 40 CFR 180.213 - Simazine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....213 Section 180.213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.213....20 Corn, pop, stover 0.25 Corn, sweet, forage 0.20 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed...

  15. 40 CFR 180.213 - Simazine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....213 Section 180.213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.213....20 Corn, pop, stover 0.25 Corn, sweet, forage 0.20 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed...

  16. 40 CFR 180.213 - Simazine; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....213 Section 180.213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.213....20 Corn, pop, stover 0.25 Corn, sweet, forage 0.20 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed...

  17. 46 CFR 109.213 - Emergency training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency training and drills. 109.213 Section 109.213 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.213 Emergency training and drills. (a) Training...

  18. 7 CFR 2.13 - Status of prior delegations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Status of prior delegations. 2.13 Section 2.13 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE... Agriculture § 2.13 Status of prior delegations. Nothing in this part shall affect the bylaws of the...

  19. 7 CFR 2.13 - Status of prior delegations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Status of prior delegations. 2.13 Section 2.13 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY BY THE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE... Agriculture § 2.13 Status of prior delegations. Nothing in this part shall affect the bylaws of the...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 213 - Federal Enforcement Agencies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Enforcement Agencies B Appendix B to... CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) Pt. 213, App. B Appendix B to Part 213—Federal Enforcement Agencies The following list indicates which federal agency enforces Regulation M (12 CFR Part 213) for particular...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 213 - Federal Enforcement Agencies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Enforcement Agencies B Appendix B to... CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) Pt. 213, App. B Appendix B to Part 213—Federal Enforcement Agencies The following list indicates which federal agency enforces Regulation M (12 CFR Part 213) for particular...

  2. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 213 - Federal Enforcement Agencies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal Enforcement Agencies B Appendix B to... CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) Pt. 213, App. B Appendix B to Part 213—Federal Enforcement Agencies The following list indicates which federal agency enforces Regulation M (12 CFR part 213) for particular...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 213 - Federal Enforcement Agencies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Enforcement Agencies B Appendix B to... CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) Pt. 213, App. B Appendix B to Part 213—Federal Enforcement Agencies The following list indicates which federal agency enforces Regulation M (12 CFR Part 213) for particular...

  4. 46 CFR 10.213 - National Driver Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Driver Register. 10.213 Section 10.213 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MERCHANT MARINER CREDENTIAL General Requirements for All Merchant Mariner Credentials § 10.213 National Driver Register....

  5. 46 CFR 10.213 - National Driver Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Driver Register. 10.213 Section 10.213 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MERCHANT MARINER CREDENTIAL General Requirements for All Merchant Mariner Credentials § 10.213 National Driver Register....

  6. 46 CFR 10.213 - National Driver Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Driver Register. 10.213 Section 10.213 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MERCHANT MARINER CREDENTIAL General Requirements for All Merchant Mariner Credentials § 10.213 National Driver Register....

  7. 46 CFR 10.213 - National Driver Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National Driver Register. 10.213 Section 10.213 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN MERCHANT MARINER CREDENTIAL General Requirements for All Merchant Mariner Credentials § 10.213 National Driver Register....

  8. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... field facilities. 157.213 Section 157.213 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... of the Natural Gas Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.213 Underground storage field... storage reservoir and caprock; (2) The latest isopach and structural maps of the storage field,...

  9. 18 CFR 157.213 - Underground storage field facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... field facilities. 157.213 Section 157.213 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... of the Natural Gas Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.213 Underground storage field... storage reservoir and caprock; (2) The latest isopach and structural maps of the storage field,...

  10. 49 CFR 213.59 - Elevation of curved track; runoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Elevation of curved track; runoff. 213.59 Section 213.59 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.59 Elevation of...

  11. 30 CFR 75.213 - Roof support removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Roof support removal. 75.213 Section 75.213... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Roof Support § 75.213 Roof support removal. (a)(1) All persons who perform the work of removing permanent roof supports shall be supervised by a...

  12. 22 CFR 213.29 - Suspension-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension-general. 213.29 Section 213.29 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Suspension or Termination of Collection Action § 213.29 Suspension—general. The CFO may suspend or terminate the Agency's...

  13. 47 CFR 15.213 - Cable locating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cable locating equipment. 15.213 Section 15.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.213 Cable locating equipment. An intentional radiator used as cable locating equipment, as defined in §...

  14. 47 CFR 15.213 - Cable locating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cable locating equipment. 15.213 Section 15.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.213 Cable locating equipment. An intentional radiator used as cable locating equipment, as defined in §...

  15. 47 CFR 15.213 - Cable locating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cable locating equipment. 15.213 Section 15.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.213 Cable locating equipment. An intentional radiator used as cable locating equipment, as defined in §...

  16. 47 CFR 15.213 - Cable locating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cable locating equipment. 15.213 Section 15.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.213 Cable locating equipment. An intentional radiator used as cable locating equipment, as defined in §...

  17. 47 CFR 15.213 - Cable locating equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cable locating equipment. 15.213 Section 15.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Intentional Radiators § 15.213 Cable locating equipment. An intentional radiator used as cable locating equipment, as defined in §...

  18. 45 CFR 213.27 - Unsponsored written material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Unsponsored written material. 213.27 Section 213.27... § 213.27 Unsponsored written material. Letters expressing views or urging action and other unsponsored written material regarding matters in issue in a hearing will be placed in the correspondence section...

  19. 45 CFR 213.27 - Unsponsored written material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unsponsored written material. 213.27 Section 213... Procedures § 213.27 Unsponsored written material. Letters expressing views or urging action and other unsponsored written material regarding matters in issue in a hearing will be placed in the...

  20. 41 CFR 101-29.213 - Commercial product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Commercial product. 101-29.213 Section 101-29.213 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.213 Commercial product. A commercial product is any item, component,...

  1. 41 CFR 101-29.213 - Commercial product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Commercial product. 101-29.213 Section 101-29.213 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... DESCRIPTIONS 29.2-Definitions § 101-29.213 Commercial product. A commercial product is any item, component,...

  2. 19 CFR 213.5 - Access to Commission resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Access to Commission resources. 213.5 Section 213... IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.5 Access to Commission resources. Commission resources, in addition to the Office's resources, are available to an eligible small business to the same extent as...

  3. 19 CFR 213.5 - Access to Commission resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Access to Commission resources. 213.5 Section 213... IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.5 Access to Commission resources. Commission resources, in addition to the Office's resources, are available to an eligible small business to the same extent as...

  4. 19 CFR 213.5 - Access to Commission resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Access to Commission resources. 213.5 Section 213... IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.5 Access to Commission resources. Commission resources, in addition to the Office's resources, are available to an eligible small business to the same extent as...

  5. 19 CFR 213.5 - Access to Commission resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Access to Commission resources. 213.5 Section 213... IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.5 Access to Commission resources. Commission resources, in addition to the Office's resources, are available to an eligible small business to the same extent as...

  6. 19 CFR 213.5 - Access to Commission resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Access to Commission resources. 213.5 Section 213... IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.5 Access to Commission resources. Commission resources, in addition to the Office's resources, are available to an eligible small business to the same extent as...

  7. 45 CFR 213.26 - Exclusion from hearing for misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exclusion from hearing for misconduct. 213.26 Section 213.26 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE... REQUIREMENTS Hearing Procedures § 213.26 Exclusion from hearing for misconduct. Disrespectful, disorderly,...

  8. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locomotive manufacturing information. 229.213 Section 229.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Design Requirements § 229.213 Locomotive manufacturing information. (a) Each railroad operating...

  9. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locomotive manufacturing information. 229.213 Section 229.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Design Requirements § 229.213 Locomotive manufacturing information. (a) Each railroad operating...

  10. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locomotive manufacturing information. 229.213 Section 229.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Design Requirements § 229.213 Locomotive manufacturing information. (a) Each railroad operating...

  11. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locomotive manufacturing information. 229.213 Section 229.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Design Requirements § 229.213 Locomotive manufacturing information. (a) Each railroad operating...

  12. 49 CFR 229.213 - Locomotive manufacturing information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive manufacturing information. 229.213 Section 229.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Design Requirements § 229.213 Locomotive manufacturing information. (a) Each railroad operating...

  13. 25 CFR 213.30 - Permission to start operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permission to start operations. 213.30 Section 213.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.30 Permission to start operations. No operations will be permitted...

  14. 24 CFR 213.267 - Effect of insurance endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of insurance endorsement. 213.267 Section 213.267 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... AUTHORITIES COOPERATIVE HOUSING MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations-Projects § 213.267...

  15. 22 CFR 213.27 - Joint and several liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Joint and several liability. 213.27 Section 213.27 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Compromise of Debts § 213.27 Joint and several liability. When two or more debtors are jointly and severally liable,...

  16. 22 CFR 213.27 - Joint and several liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Joint and several liability. 213.27 Section 213.27 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Compromise of Debts § 213.27 Joint and several liability. When two or more debtors are jointly and severally liable,...

  17. 22 CFR 213.27 - Joint and several liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Joint and several liability. 213.27 Section 213.27 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Compromise of Debts § 213.27 Joint and several liability. When two or more debtors are jointly and severally liable,...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 213 - Federal Enforcement Agencies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal Enforcement Agencies B Appendix B to Part 213 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) Pt. 213, App. B Appendix B to Part 213—Federal Enforcement Agencies...

  19. 10 CFR 1015.213 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Analysis of costs. 1015.213 Section 1015.213 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Standards for the Administrative Collection of Claims § 1015.213 Analysis of costs. DOE will prepare periodic comparisons of...

  20. 10 CFR 1015.213 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Analysis of costs. 1015.213 Section 1015.213 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Standards for the Administrative Collection of Claims § 1015.213 Analysis of costs. DOE will prepare periodic comparisons of...

  1. 12 CFR 213.9 - Relation to state laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relation to state laws. 213.9 Section 213.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) § 213.9 Relation to state laws. (a) Inconsistent state law. A state law that...

  2. 22 CFR 213.15 - Use of credit reporting bureaus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of credit reporting bureaus. 213.15 Section 213.15 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.15..., address, taxpayer identification number and any other information necessary to establish the identity...

  3. 49 CFR 213.141 - Self-guarded frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Self-guarded frogs. 213.141 Section 213.141..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.141 Self-guarded frogs. (a) The raised guard on a self-guarded frog shall not be worn more than three-eighths of an inch. (b) If...

  4. 49 CFR 213.141 - Self-guarded frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Self-guarded frogs. 213.141 Section 213.141..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.141 Self-guarded frogs. (a) The raised guard on a self-guarded frog shall not be worn more than three-eighths of an inch. (b) If...

  5. 49 CFR 213.141 - Self-guarded frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-guarded frogs. 213.141 Section 213.141..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.141 Self-guarded frogs. (a) The raised guard on a self-guarded frog shall not be worn more than three-eighths of an inch. (b) If...

  6. 49 CFR 213.141 - Self-guarded frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-guarded frogs. 213.141 Section 213.141..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.141 Self-guarded frogs. (a) The raised guard on a self-guarded frog shall not be worn more than three-eighths of an inch. (b) If...

  7. 49 CFR 213.141 - Self-guarded frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Self-guarded frogs. 213.141 Section 213.141..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.141 Self-guarded frogs. (a) The raised guard on a self-guarded frog shall not be worn more than three-eighths of an inch. (b) If...

  8. 12 CFR 213.9 - Relation to state laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relation to state laws. 213.9 Section 213.9... LEASING (REGULATION M) § 213.9 Relation to state laws. (a) Inconsistent state law. A state law that is... a lessor cannot comply with a state law without violating a provision of this part, the state law...

  9. 46 CFR 109.213 - Emergency training and drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency training and drills. 109.213 Section 109.213... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.213 Emergency training and drills. (a) Training materials. Abandonment training material must be on board each unit. The training material must consist either of...

  10. 49 CFR 213.59 - Elevation of curved track; runoff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevation of curved track; runoff. 213.59 Section 213.59 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.59 Elevation of...

  11. 22 CFR 213.8 - Collection-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection-general. 213.8 Section 213.8 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.8 Collection—general. (a... to reduce debt delinquencies. Collection actions may include sending written demands to the...

  12. 22 CFR 213.17 - Liquidation of collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquidation of collateral. 213.17 Section 213.17 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.17... circumstances require judicial foreclosure. However, collection from other businesses, including liquidation...

  13. 49 CFR 213.345 - Vehicle qualification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vehicle qualification testing. 213.345 Section 213... Higher § 213.345 Vehicle qualification testing. (a) All rolling stock types which operate at Class 6... demonstrate that the vehicle dynamic response to track alinement and geometry variations are within...

  14. 49 CFR 213.345 - Vehicle qualification testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vehicle qualification testing. 213.345 Section 213... Higher § 213.345 Vehicle qualification testing. (a) All rolling stock types which operate at Class 6... demonstrate that the vehicle dynamic response to track alinement and geometry variations are within...

  15. 36 CFR 21.3 - Use of thermal water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of thermal water. 21.3 Section 21.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.3 Use of thermal water. (a) The use of the...

  16. 30 CFR 77.213 - Draw-off tunnel escapeways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Draw-off tunnel escapeways. 77.213 Section 77.213 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.213 Draw-off...

  17. 30 CFR 77.213 - Draw-off tunnel escapeways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Draw-off tunnel escapeways. 77.213 Section 77.213 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.213 Draw-off...

  18. 30 CFR 77.213 - Draw-off tunnel escapeways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Draw-off tunnel escapeways. 77.213 Section 77.213 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.213 Draw-off...

  19. 30 CFR 77.213 - Draw-off tunnel escapeways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Draw-off tunnel escapeways. 77.213 Section 77.213 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.213 Draw-off...

  20. 30 CFR 77.213 - Draw-off tunnel escapeways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Draw-off tunnel escapeways. 77.213 Section 77.213 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.213 Draw-off...

  1. Radium and radon in Charlotte Harbor Estuary, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Kraemer, T.F.; McPherson, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    Radium-226 and 222Rn activities are greater in the estuarine waters of northern Charlotte Harbor and the lower tidal Peace and Myakka Rivers, Florida, than in either the freshwater reaches of the rivers or waters of the lower estuary and the Gulf of Mexico. The activity of 226Ra in the tidal rivers increases with decreasing river inflow, with a maximum value of 548 dpm 1001-1 measured in the tidal Myakka River. The source of the high activity of 226Ra and 222Rn is predominantly ground water inflow. Because of the large ground water input, the contribution of 226Ra from suspended and bottom sediments is a smaller fraction of the total 226Ra input than in many other estuaries. Although ground water 226Ra activity in the area varies widely, we estimate that artesian ground water inflow to the tidal rivers is similar in magnitude to the flow of the rivers above the tidal reach during the dry season. ?? 1990.

  2. Modeling radium and radon transport through soil and vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozak, J.A.; Reeves, H.W.; Lewis, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    A one-dimensional flow and transport model was developed to describe the movement of two fluid phases, gas and water, within a porous medium and the transport of 226Ra and 222Rn within and between these two phases. Included in this model is the vegetative uptake of water and aqueous 226Ra and 222Rn that can be extracted from the soil via the transpiration stream. The mathematical model is formulated through a set of phase balance equations and a set of species balance equations. Mass exchange, sink terms and the dependence of physical properties upon phase composition couple the two sets of equations. Numerical solution of each set, with iteration between the sets, is carried out leading to a set-iterative compositional model. The Petrov-Galerkin finite element approach is used to allow for upstream weighting if required for a given simulation. Mass lumping improves solution convergence and stability behavior. The resulting numerical model was applied to four problems and was found to produce accurate, mass conservative solutions when compared to published experimental and numerical results and theoretical column experiments. Preliminary results suggest that the model can be used as an investigative tool to determine the feasibility of phytoremediating radium and radon-contaminated soil. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Therapy of bone metastases with radium-223. German guidelines].

    PubMed

    Pöppel, Thorsten D; Andreeff, Michael; Becherer, Alexander; Bockisch, Andreas; Fricke, Eva; Geworski, Lilli; Heinzel, Alexander; Krause, Bernd J; Krause, Thomas; Mitterhauser, Markus; Scheidhauer, Klemens; Schenck, Marcus; Sonnenschein, Wilfried; Gabriel, Michael

    2016-09-26

    This document describes the guideline for therapy of bone metastases with radium-223 ((223)Ra) published by the Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften in Germany (AWMF) under the auspices of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin (DGN), Östereichische Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin (OGN), and Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin (SGNM). This guidance is based on an interdisciplinary consensus. These recommendations are a prerequisite for the quality management in the treatment of patients with bone metastases from prostate cancer using (223)Ra. They are aimed at guiding nuclear medicine specialists in selecting candidates to receive therapy and to deliver the treatment in a safe and effective manner. The document contains background information and definitions. It covers the rationale, indications and contraindications for therapy with (223)Ra. Essential topics are the requirements for institutions performing the therapy, which patient data have to be available prior to performance of therapy, and how treatment has to be carried out technically and organisationally. Moreover, essential elements of follow-up and aftercare are specified. As a matter of principle, the treatment inclusive aftercare has to be realised in close cooperation with the involved medical disciplines.

  4. Mineral composition and heavy metal contamination of sediments originating from radium rich formation water.

    PubMed

    Bzowski, Zbigniew; Michalik, Bogusław

    2015-03-01

    Radium rich formation water is often associated with fossil fuels as crude oil, natural gas and hard coal. As a result of fossil fuels exploitation high amount of such water is released into environment. In spite of the high radium content such waters create a serious radiation risk neither to humans nor biota directly. First and foremost due to very high mineralization they are not drinkable at all. But after discharge chemical and physical conditions are substantially changed and sediments which additionally concentrated radium are arising. Due to features of technological processes such phenomenon is very intensive in underground coal mining where huge volume of such water must be pumped into surface in order to keep underground galleries dry. Slightly different situation occurs in oil rigs, but finally also huge volume of so called process water is pumped into environment. Regardless their origin arising sediments often contain activity concentration of radium isotopes exceeding the clearance levels set for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (Council Directive, 2013). The analysis of metals and minerals content showed that besides radioactivity such sediments contain high amount of metals geochemically similar to radium as barium, strontium and lead. Correlation analysis proved that main mechanism leading to sediment creation is co-precipitation radium with these metals as a sulfate. The absorption on clay minerals is negligible even when barium is not present in significant quantities. Owing to very low solubility of sulfates radium accumulated in this way should not migrate into environment in the neighborhood of a site where such sediment were deposited.

  5. Co-precipitation of radium with barium and strontium sulfate and its impact on the fate of radium during treatment of produced water from unconventional gas extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tieyuan; Gregory, Kelvin; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D

    2014-04-15

    Radium occurs in flowback and produced waters from hydraulic fracturing for unconventional gas extraction along with high concentrations of barium and strontium and elevated salinity. Radium is often removed from this wastewater by co-precipitation with barium or other alkaline earth metals. The distribution equation for Ra in the precipitate is derived from the equilibrium of the lattice replacement reaction (inclusion) between the Ra(2+) ion and the carrier ions (e.g., Ba(2+) and Sr(2+)) in aqueous and solid phases and is often applied to describe the fate of radium in these systems. Although the theoretical distribution coefficient for Ra-SrSO4 (Kd = 237) is much larger than that for Ra-BaSO4 (Kd = 1.54), previous studies have focused on Ra-BaSO4 equilibrium. This study evaluates the equilibria and kinetics of co-precipitation reactions in Ra-Ba-SO4 and Ra-Sr-SO4 binary systems and the Ra-Ba-Sr-SO4 ternary system under varying ionic strength (IS) conditions that are representative of brines generated during unconventional gas extraction. Results show that radium removal generally follows the theoretical distribution law in binary systems and is enhanced in the Ra-Ba-SO4 system and restrained in the Ra-Sr-SO4 system by high IS. However, the experimental distribution coefficient (Kd') varies widely and cannot be accurately described by the distribution equation, which depends on IS, kinetics of carrier precipitation and does not account for radium removal by adsorption. Radium removal in the ternary system is controlled by the co-precipitation of Ra-Ba-SO4, which is attributed to the rapid BaSO4 nucleation rate and closer ionic radii of Ra(2+) with Ba(2+) than with Sr(2+). Carrier (i.e., barite) recycling during water treatment was shown to be effective in enhancing radium removal even after co-precipitation was completed. Calculations based on experimental results show that Ra levels in the precipitate generated in centralized waste treatment facilities far

  6. Radium-226 and calcium uptake by crops grown in mixtures of sand and cay tailings from phosphate mining

    SciTech Connect

    Million, J.B.; Sartain, J.B.; Gonzalez, R.X.; Carrier, W.D. III

    1994-07-01

    Radium-226 is a naturally occurring radionuclide found in reclaimed clay and sand tailing from phosphate mining. Field studies were conducted to investigate the effects of sand/clay ratio (SCR), Ca supplement and organic amendments on the {sup 226}Ra concentration in turnip, banana pepper, cabbage, yellow squash, mustard, and alfalfa. For vegetables, treatment effects included SCR (2:1, 4:1, 6:1, and 8:1), phosphogypsum (PG) 0,22, and 134 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}, and peat 0,100, and 200 Mg ha{sup {minus}1}. For alfalfa grown in a 1:1 SCR mixture, treatments included organic amendments (control, peat, sewage slude, sawdust, composted sewage sludge, composted garbage and humate) applied at 44.8 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} (2.2 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} for humate). Plant {sup 226}Ra concentration tended to be higher in the 4:1 than in the 2:1 SCR mix but this depended on the crop an d the season. Organic amendments and PG had no effect (p<0.05) on the {sup 226}Ra concentration in vegetables and alfalfa. Mean {sup 226}Ra concentration in plant tissues ranged from 3.4 Bq kg{sup {minus}1} in banana pepper fruit to 31.1 Bq kg{sup {minus}1}. A quadratic relationship based on 631 observations was observed between {sup 226}Ra and Ca concentration in plant tissues. The {sup 226}Ra/Ca ratio in plant tissues ranged from 0.85 to 2.13 kBq {sup 226}Ra kg{sup {minus}1} Ca and decreased with increasing plant {sup 226}Ra. Results indicated that wide differences in plant {sup 226}Ca concentration were related more to differences in plant Ca levels than to soil factors. 21 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  7. Retention of radium from thermal waters on sand filters and adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Elejalde, C; Herranz, M; Idoeta, R; Legarda, F; Romero, F; Baeza, A

    2007-06-18

    This study was focussed on laboratory experiences of retention of radium from one thermal water on sand filters and adsorbents, trying to find an easy method for the elimination in drinkable waters polluted with this natural radio-nuclide. A thermal water from Cantabria (Spain) was selected for this work. Retention experiences were made with columns of 35 mm of diameter containing 15 cm layers of washed river sand or 4 cm layers of zeolite A3, passing known volumes of thermal water at flows between 4 and 40 ml/min with control of the retained radium by determining the amount in the water after the treatment. The statistical analysis of data suggests that retention depends on the flow and the volume passed through the columns. As additional adsorbents were used kaolin and a clay rich in illite. Jar-test experiences were made agitating known weights of adsorbents with the selected thermal water, with addition of flocculants and determination of radium in filtrated water after the treatment. Data suggest that retention is related to the weight of adsorbent used, but important quantities of radium seem remain in solution for higher amounts of adsorbents, according to the statistical treatment of data. The elution of retained radium from columns or adsorbents, previously used in experiences, should be the aim of a future research.

  8. Natural radium and radon tracers to quantify water exchange and movement in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Christopher G.; Baskaran, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Radon and radium isotopes are routinely used to quantify exchange rates between different hydrologic reservoirs. Since their recognition as oceanic tracers in the 1960s, both radon and radium have been used to examine processes such as air-sea exchange, deep oceanic mixing, benthic inputs, and many others. Recently, the application of radon-222 and the radium-quartet (223,224,226,228Ra) as coastal tracers has seen a revelation with the growing interest in coastal groundwater dynamics. The enrichment of these isotopes in benthic fluids including groundwater makes both radium and radon ideal tracers of coastal benthic processes (e.g. submarine groundwater discharge). In this chapter we review traditional and recent advances in the application of radon and radium isotopes to understand mixing and exchange between various hydrologic reservoirs, specifically: (1) atmosphere and ocean, (2) deep and shallow oceanic water masses, (3) coastal groundwater/benthic pore waters and surface ocean, and (4) aquifer-lakes. While the isotopes themselves and their distribution in the environment provide qualitative information about the exchange processes, it is mixing/exchange and transport models for these isotopes that provide specific quantitative information about these processes. Brief introductions of these models and mixing parameters are provided for both historical and more recent studies.

  9. A study of radium bioaccumulation in freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, in the Magela Creek catchment, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Brazier, Jenny; Humphrey, Chris; Ryan, Bruce; Esparon, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Freshwater mussels, Velesunio angasi, along Magela Creek in Australia's Northern Territory were examined to study radionuclide activities in mussel flesh and to investigate whether the Ranger Uranium mine is contributing to the radium loads in mussels downstream of the mine. Radium loads in mussels of the same age were highest in Bowerbird Billabong, located 20 km upstream of the mine site. Variations in the ratio of [Ra]:[Ca] in filtered water at the sampling sites accounted for the variations found in mussel radium loads with natural increases in calcium (Ca) in surface waters in a downstream gradient along the Magela Creek catchment gradually reducing radium uptake in mussels. At Mudginberri Billabong, 12 km downstream of the mine, concentration factors for radium have not significantly changed over the past 25 years since the mine commenced operations and this, coupled with a gradual decrease of the (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratios observed along the catchment, indicates that the (226)Ra accumulated in mussels is of natural rather than mine origin. The (228)Th/(228)Ra ratio has been used to model radium uptake and a radium biological half-life in mussels of approximately 13 years has been determined. The long biological half-life and the low Ca concentrations in the water account for the high radium concentration factor of 30,000-60,000 measured in mussels from the Magela Creek catchment.

  10. ''Normal'' tissues from humans exposed to radium contain an alteration in the c-mos locus

    SciTech Connect

    Huberman, E.; Schlenker, R.A.; Hardwick, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The structures of a number of human proto-oncogenes from persons with internal systemic exposure to radium were analyzed by restriction enzyme digestion and southern blotting of their DNA. Two extra c-mos Eco R1 restriction-fragment-length bands of 5.0 kb and 5.5 kb were found in tissue DNA from six of seven individuals. The extra c-mos bands were detected in DNA from many, but not all, of the tissues of the individuals exposed to radium. Our results suggest that the c-mos restriction-fragment-length alterations (RFLA) found in individuals exposed to radium were induced rather than inherited, are epigenetic in origin, and most likely result from changes in the methylation of bases surrounding the single exon of the c-mos proto-oncogene. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Isotopic generator for bismuth-212 and lead-212 based on radium

    DOEpatents

    Hines, J.J.; Atcher, R.W.; Friedman, A.M.

    1985-01-30

    Disclosed are method and apparatus for providing radionuclides of bismuth-212 and lead-212. Thorium-228 and carrier solution starting material is input to a radiologically contained portion of an isotopic generator system, and radium-224 is separated from thorium-228 which is retained by a strongly basic anion exchange column. The separated radium-224 is transferred to an accessible, strongly acidic cationic exchange column. The cationic column retains the radium-224, and natural radioactive decay generates bismuth-212 and lead-212. The cationic exchange column can also be separated from the contained portion of the system and utilized without the extraordinary safety measures necessary in the contained portion. Furthermore, the cationic exchange column provides over a relatively long time period the short lived lead-212 and bismuth-212 radionuclides which are useful for a variety of medical therapies.

  12. Calculation of energy levels and transition amplitudes for barium and radium.

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Physics; Univ. of New South Wales

    2007-01-01

    The radium atom is a promising system for studying parity and time invariance violating weak interactions. However, available experimental spectroscopic data for radium are insufficient for designing an optimal experimental setup. We calculate the energy levels and transition amplitudes for radium states of significant interest. Forty states corresponding to all possible configurations consisting of the 7s, 7p and 6d single-electron states as well as the states of the 7s8s, 7s8p and 7s7d configurations have been calculated. The energies of ten of these states corresponding to the 6d{sup 2}, 7s8s, 7p{sup 2} and 6d7p configurations are not known from experiment. Calculations for barium are used to control the accuracy.

  13. Reconnaissance water sampling for radium-226 in central and northern Florida, December 1974-March 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, G.A.; Hutchinson, C.B.

    1976-01-01

    Analyses of 115 water samples collected from December 1974 through March 1976 in eight Florida Counties indicated that 22 samples (19 percent) had radium-226 activities equal to or in excess of 3 piC/liter (picocuries per liter), the concentration limit recommended for drinking water by the U.S. Public Health Service. The maximum radium-226 activity was 90 piC/liter in water from a shallow well in Polk County. The sampling reconnaissance was generally limited to areas of active phosphate mining and areas of undisturbed phosphate deposits. Most of the sampling was from water wells. Thirteen surface-water samples were collected in the Peace River drainage basin. The maximum radium-226 detected in surface-water samples was 3.6 piC/liter in Little Charlie Creek at State Road 664A in Hardee County. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Standards of radium-226: from Marie Curie to the International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology.

    PubMed

    Coursey, B M; Collé, R; Coursey, J S

    2002-01-01

    In the early part of the 20th century, the pioneers of radioactivity research, led by Marie Curie, Ernest Rutherford and Stefan Meyer, formed a Commission internationale des étalons de radium. The Commission made arrangements for the preparation and intercomparisons of the international standards of radium, which were identified as the Paris standard and the Vienna standard. Otto Hönigschmid from Vienna prepared a first set of international secondary standards in 1912 and a second set in 1934. In both instances, these secondary standards were compared by gamma-ray measurements with the Paris and Vienna standards. The usage of these international standards of radium in the 20th century is described.

  15. Human-health effects of radium: an epidemiolgic perspective of research at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbings, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The topic of health effects of radium has recently been considerably broadened by the identification of multiple myeloma as a specific outcome of bone-seeking radionuclides, and by evidence that the incidence of breast cancer may be significantly increased by radium exposure. All soft-tissue tumors are now suspect, especially leukemias. Concepts of dose-response need to be broadened to include the concept of risk factors, or, if one prefers, of susceptible subgroups. Biological factors relating to radium uptake and retention require study, as do risk factors modifying risk of both the clasical tumors, osteosarcoma and nasal sinus/mastoid, and the more recently suspect soft-tissue tumors. The history, organization, and current research activities in epidemiology at Argonne National Laboratory are described, and findings of the last decade and a half reviewed. Plans for future research are briefly discussed.

  16. Sustainable agricultural use of natural water sources containing elevated radium activity.

    PubMed

    Tripler, Effi; Haquin, Gustavo; Koch, Jean; Yehuda, Zehava; Shani, Uri

    2014-06-01

    Relatively elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra and (224)Ra) are found in two main aquifers in the arid southern part of Israel, in activity concentrations frequently exceeding the limits set in the drinking water quality regulations. We aimed to explore the environmental implications of using water containing Ra for irrigation. Several crops (cucumbers, melons, radish, lettuce, alfalfa and wheat), grown in weighing lysimeters were irrigated at 3 levels of (226)Ra activity concentration: Low Radium Water (LRW)<0.04 Bq L(-1); High Radium Water (HRW) at 1.8 Bq L(-1) and (3) Radium Enriched Water (REW) at 50 times the concentration in HRW. The HYDRUS 1-D software package was used to simulate the long-term (226)Ra distribution in a soil irrigated with HRW for 15 years. Radium uptake by plants was found to be controlled by its activity in the irrigation water and in the soil solution, the physical properties of the soil and the potential evapotranspiration. The (226)Ra apeared to accumulate mainly in the leaves of crops following the evapotranspiration current, while its accumulation in the edible parts (fruits and roots) was minimal. The simulation of 15 years of crop irrigation by HYDERUS 1-D, showed a low Ra activity concentration in the soil solution of the root zone and a limited downward mobility. It was therefore concluded that the crops investigated in this study can be irrigated with the natural occurring activity concentration of (226)Ra of 0.6-1.6 Bq L(-1). This should be accompanied by a continuous monitoring of radium in the edible parts of the crops.

  17. Determination of radon and radium concentrations in drinking water samples around the city of Kutahya.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Latife; Cetinkaya, Hakan; Murat Saç, Müslim; Içhedef, Mutlu

    2013-08-01

    The concentration of radium and radon has been determined in drinking water samples collected from various locations of Kutahya city, Turkey. The water samples are taken from public water sources and tap water, with the collector chamber method used to measure the radon and radium concentration. The radon concentration ranges between 0.1 and 48.6±1.7 Bq l(-1), while the radium concentration varies from a minimum detectable activity of <0.02-0.7±0.2 Bq l(-1) in Kutahya city. In addition to the radon and radium levels, parameters such as pH, conductivity and temperature of the water, humidity, pressure, elevation and the coordinates of the sampling points have also been measured and recorded. The annual effective dose from radon and radium due to typical water usage has been calculated. The resulting contribution to the annual effective dose due to radon ingestion varies between 0.3 and 124.2 μSv y(-1); the contribution to the annual effective dose due to radium ingestion varies between 0 and 143.3 μSv y(-1); the dose contribution to the stomach due to radon ingestion varies between 0.03 and 14.9 μSv y(-1). The dose contribution due to radon inhalation ranges between 0.3 and 122.5 μSv y(-1), assuming a typical transfer of radon in water to the air. For the overwhelming majority of the Kutahya population, it is determined that the average radiation exposure from drinking water is less than 73.6 µSv y(-1).

  18. Radium and uranium concentrations and associated hydrogeochemistry in ground water in southwestern Pueblo County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felmlee, J. Karen; Cadigan, Robert Allen

    1979-01-01

    Radium and uranium concentrations in water from 37 wells tapping the aquifer system of the Dakota Sandstone and Purgatoire Formation in southwestern Pueblo County, Colorado, have a wide range of values and define several areas of high radioactivity in the ground water. Radium ranges from 0.3 to 420 picocuries per liter and has a median value of 8.8, and uranium ranges from 0.02 to 180 micrograms per liter and has a median value of 2.4. Radon concentrations, measured in 32 of the 37 wells, range from less than 100 picocuries per liter to as much as 27,000 and have a median value of 580. Relationships among the radioactive elements and 28 other geochemical parameters were studied by using correlation coefficients and R-mode factor analysis. Five factor groups were determined to represent major influences on water chemistry: (1) short-term solution reactions, (2) oxidation reactions, (3) hydrolysis reactions, (4) uranium distribution, and (5) long-term solution reactions. Uranium concentrations are most strongly influenced by oxidation reactions but also are affected by solution reactions and distribution of uranium in the rocks of the aquifer system. Radon and radium concentrations are mostly controlled by uranium distribution; radium also shows a moderate negative relationship with oxidation. To explain the statistical and spatial relationships among the parameters, a model was developed involving the selective leaching of uranium-bearing phases and metal sulfides which occur in discontinuous zones in sandstone and shale. When reducing conditions prevail, uranium is immobile, but radium can be taken into solution. When faults and associated fractured rocks allow oxidizing conditions to dominate, uranium can be taken into solution; radium can also be taken into solution, or it may become immobilized by coprecipitation with iron and manganese oxides or with barite. Several areas within the study area are discussed in terms of the model.

  19. RADIUM IN MARYLAND COASTAL PLAIN GROUND WATER: AN EMERGING ISSUE RESULTING FROM A MULTI-AGENCY STUDY OF CARCINGENS IN WELL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, radium-226 plus radium-228 concentrations as high as 66 picocuries per liter were detected in domestic well-water samples from the (Cretaceous) Potomac Group and Magothy Formation in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. Furthermore, radium-224 was found to be a major component...

  20. Study of water mixing in the coastal waters of the western Taiwan Strait based on radium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Men, Wu; Jiang, Yuwu; Liu, Guangshan; Wang, Fenfen; Zhang, Yusheng

    2016-02-01

    Radium is considered to be a useful tracer for studying the physical processes of seawater. In this work, three naturally occurring radium isotopes, (224)Raex, (226)Ra and (228)Ra, were measured in the coastal zone of the western Taiwan Strait during the summer seasons. Based on the distributions of the three radium isotopes and the salinity, we conclude that the water mixing pattern in the study area in summer consists of diluted water flowing from the Jiulong River to the open sea towards the east and southeast, and open sea seawater flowing inward from south to north. The submarine ground water discharges in the estuarine region, as suggested by the radium and salinity data. The residence times of the Jiulong River estuary, ranging from 7 to 49 d, were estimated using the radium isotope pairs (224)Raex and (226)Ra.

  1. Radium concentration and radon exhalation measurements using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azam, A.; Naqvi, A. H.; Srivastava, D. S.

    1995-12-01

    The “Track-Etch” technique using LR-115 type II plastic track detectors has been employed for measuring the radium content and radon exhalation rates of different types of building materials. Among the eight materials studied it was found that fine aggregates (Badarpur) show the greatest radon exhalation, whereas portland cement produces minimum values of radon exhalation. Experimentally-measured values of the “effective radium content” (in Bq kg-1) their “mass exhalation” rates (in Bq kg-1d-1) and “surface exhalation” rates (in Bq m-2d-1 ) are reported.

  2. Experimental study of radium partitioning between anorthite and melt at 1 atm

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S; Burnett, D; Asimow, P; Phinney, D; Hutcheon, I

    2007-03-08

    We present the first experimental radium mineral/melt partitioning data, specifically between anorthite and a CMAS melt at atmospheric pressure. Ion microprobe measurement of coexisting anorthite and glass phases produces a molar D{sub Ra} = 0.040 {+-} 0.006 and D{sub Ra}/D{sub Ba} = 0.23 {+-} 0.05 at 1400 C. Our results indicate that lattice strain partitioning models fit the divalent (Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) partition coefficient data of this study well, supporting previous work on crustal melting and magma chamber dynamics that has relied on such models to approximate radium partitioning behavior in the absence of experimentally determined values.

  3. Radium 223: how can we optimize this new tool for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer?

    PubMed

    Dorff, Tanya Barauskas; Gross, Mitchell E

    2015-01-01

    Radium 223 is an alpha-emitting intravenous radiotherapy approved for the treatment of men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The approved indication covers men with pain from bony metastatic disease and no visceral involvement; however, questions remain as to optimal patient selection and timing of this treatment relative to other life-extending therapies for mCRPC. Limited data exist to guide clinicians on how to position radium 223 in the therapeutic sequence, however, some theoretical considerations and data derived from the ALSYMPCA trial populations pre- and postdocetaxel will be outlined. Subgroup analyses may provide some insight into patient selection.

  4. Central nervous system tumors and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1988-01-01

    Among the female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of brain or central nervous system tumors. A significant excess did appear, however, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumors outside the brain was observed, and is consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, which are coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. 12 refs., 11 tabs.

  5. Effective radium concentration in agricultural versus forest topsoils.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Frédéric; Girault, Frédéric; Bouquerel, Hélène; Bollinger, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Effective radium-226 activity concentration (ECRa), the radon-222 source term, was measured in the laboratory with 724 topsoil samples collected over a ∼110 km(2) area located ∼20 km south of Paris, France. More than 2100 radon accumulation experiments were performed, with radon concentration measured using scintillation flasks, leading to relative uncertainties on ECRa varying from 10% for ECRa = 2 Bq⋅kg(-1) to less than 6% for ECRa > 5 Bq⋅kg(-1). Small-scale dispersion, studied at one location with 12 samples, and systematically at 100 locations with three topsoils separated by 1 m, was of the order of 7%, demonstrating that a single soil sample is reasonably representative. Agricultural topsoils (n = 540) had an average (arithmetic) ECRa of 8.09 ± 0.11 Bq⋅kg(-1), and a range from 2.80 ± 0.22 to 19.5 ± 1.1 Bq⋅kg(-1), while forest topsoils (n = 184), with an average of 3.21 ± 0.14 Bq⋅kg(-1) and a range from 0.45 ± 0.12 to 9.09 ± 0.55 Bq⋅kg(-1), showed a clear systematic reduction of ECRa when compared with the closest agricultural soil sample. Large-scale organization of ECRa was impressive for agricultural topsoils, with homogeneous domains of several kilometers size, characterized by smooth variations smaller than 10%. These patches emerged despite heavy human remodeling; they are controlled by the main geographical units, but do not necessarily coincide with them. Valleys were characterized by larger dispersion and less organization. This study illustrates how biosphere and anthroposphere modify the soil distribution inherited from geological processes, an important baseline needed for the study of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the observed depletion of forest topsoils suggests an atmospheric radon signature of deforestation.

  6. Dosimetric characterization of two radium sources for retrospective dosimetry studies

    SciTech Connect

    Candela-Juan, C.; Karlsson, M.; Lundell, M.; Ballester, F.; Tedgren, Å. Carlsson

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: During the first part of the 20th century, {sup 226}Ra was the most used radionuclide for brachytherapy. Retrospective accurate dosimetry, coupled with patient follow up, is important for advancing knowledge on long-term radiation effects. The purpose of this work was to dosimetrically characterize two {sup 226}Ra sources, commonly used in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century, for retrospective dose–effect studies. Methods: An 8 mg {sup 226}Ra tube and a 10 mg {sup 226}Ra needle, used at Radiumhemmet (Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden), from 1925 to the 1960s, were modeled in two independent Monte Carlo (MC) radiation transport codes: GEANT4 and MCNP5. Absorbed dose and collision kerma around the two sources were obtained, from which the TG-43 parameters were derived for the secular equilibrium state. Furthermore, results from this dosimetric formalism were compared with results from a MC simulation with a superficial mould constituted by five needles inside a glass casing, placed over a water phantom, trying to mimic a typical clinical setup. Calculated absorbed doses using the TG-43 formalism were also compared with previously reported measurements and calculations based on the Sievert integral. Finally, the dose rate at large distances from a {sup 226}Ra point-like-source placed in the center of 1 m radius water sphere was calculated with GEANT4. Results: TG-43 parameters [including g{sub L}(r), F(r, θ), Λ, and s{sub K}] have been uploaded in spreadsheets as additional material, and the fitting parameters of a mathematical curve that provides the dose rate between 10 and 60 cm from the source have been provided. Results from TG-43 formalism are consistent within the treatment volume with those of a MC simulation of a typical clinical scenario. Comparisons with reported measurements made with thermoluminescent dosimeters show differences up to 13% along the transverse axis of the radium needle. It has been estimated that

  7. Cancer mortality following radium treatment for uterine bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Inskip, P.D.; Monson, R.R.; Wagoner, J.K.; Stovall, M.; Davis, F.G.; Kleinerman, R.A.; Boice, J.D. Jr. )

    1990-09-01

    Cancer mortality in relation to radiation dose was evaluated among 4153 women treated with intrauterine radium (226Ra) capsules for benign gynecologic bleeding disorders between 1925 and 1965. Average follow up was 26.5 years (maximum = 59.9 years). Overall, 2763 deaths were observed versus 2687 expected based on U.S. mortality rates (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 1.03). Deaths due to cancer, however, were increased (SMR = 1.30), especially cancers of organs close to the radiation source. For organs receiving greater than 5 Gy, excess mortality of 100 to 110% was noted for cancers of the uterus and bladder 10 or more years following irradiation, while a deficit was seen for cancer of the cervix, one of the few malignancies not previously shown to be caused by ionizing radiation. Part of the excess of uterine cancer, however, may have been due to the underlying gynecologic disorders being treated. Among cancers of organs receiving average or local doses of 1 to 4 Gy, excesses of 30 to 100% were found for leukemia and cancers of the colon and genital organs other than uterus; no excess was seen for rectal or bone cancer. Among organs typically receiving 0.1 to 0.3 Gy, a deficit was recorded for cancers of the liver, gall bladder, and bile ducts combined, death due to stomach cancer occurred at close to the expected rate, a 30% excess was noted for kidney cancer (based on eight deaths), and there was a 60% excess of pancreatic cancer among 10-year survivors, but little evidence of dose-response. Estimates of the excess relative risk per Gray were 0.006 for uterus, 0.4 for other genital organs, 0.5 for colon, 0.2 for bladder, and 1.9 for leukemia. Contrary to findings for other populations treated by pelvic irradiation, a deficit of breast cancer was not observed (SMR = 1.0). Dose to the ovaries may have been insufficient to protect against breast cancer.

  8. 36 CFR 21.3 - Use of thermal water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of thermal water. 21.3 Section 21.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.3 Use of thermal water. (a) The use of the thermal waters of Hot Springs National Park,...

  9. 36 CFR 21.3 - Use of thermal water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of thermal water. 21.3 Section 21.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.3 Use of thermal water. (a) The use of the thermal waters of Hot Springs National Park,...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 213 - Model Forms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model Forms A Appendix A to Part 213 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) Pt. 213, App. A Appendix A to Part 213—Model Forms A-1Model Open-End or Finance Vehicle Lease Disclosures A-2Model Closed-End or...

  11. 36 CFR 21.3 - Use of thermal water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of thermal water. 21.3 Section 21.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HOT SPRINGS NATIONAL PARK; BATHHOUSE REGULATIONS § 21.3 Use of thermal water. (a) The use of the thermal waters of Hot Springs National Park,...

  12. Process and apparatus for the production of BI-213 cations

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Hines, John J.; Chiarizia, Renato; Dietz, Mark

    1998-01-01

    A process for producing substantially impurity-free Bi-213 cations is disclosed. An aqueous acid feed solution containing Ac-225 cations is contacted with an ion exchange medium to bind the Ac-225 cations and form an Ac-225-laden ion exchange medium. The bound Ac-225 incubates on the ion exchange medium to form Bi-213 cations by radioactive decay. The Bi-213 cations are then recovered from the Ac-225-laden ion exchange medium to form a substantially impurity-free aqueous Bi-213 cation acid solution. An apparatus for carrying out this process is also disclosed.

  13. Process and apparatus for the production of Bi-213 cations

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Hines, J.J.; Chiarizia, R.; Dietz, M.

    1998-12-29

    A process for producing substantially impurity-free Bi-213 cations is disclosed. An aqueous acid feed solution containing Ac-225 cations is contacted with an ion exchange medium to bind the Ac-225 cations and form an Ac-225-laden ion exchange medium. The bound Ac-225 incubates on the ion exchange medium to form Bi-213 cations by radioactive decay. The Bi-213 cations are then recovered from the Ac-225-laden ion exchange medium to form a substantially impurity-free aqueous Bi-213 cation acid solution. An apparatus for carrying out this process is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  14. Radon and radium concentration in water from North-West of Romania and the estimated doses.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, M; Benea, V; Niţă, D C; Papp, B; Burghele, B D; Bican-Brişan, N; Cosma, C

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, the measurements of radon were carried out using the LUK-VR system based on radon gas measurements with Lucas cells. The radium concentration in water was determined, with the same device, immediately after was established the radon equilibrium with radium. The results presented here are from a survey carried out in the N-W region of Transylvania (Romania) in which were investigated the radon concentrations in natural (spring, well and surface) and drinking (tap) waters. The results showed radon concentrations within the range of 0.4-187.3 Bq l(-1) with an average value of 15.9 Bq l(-1) whereas radium concentration varied between 0.05 and 0.825 Bq l(-1) with an average value of 0.087 Bq l(-1) for all types of water covered within this survey. The corresponding annual effective ingestion dose due to radon and radium from water was determined from drinking water used by the population inhabiting the area.

  15. From the Lost Radium Files: Misadventures in the Absence of Training, Regulation, and Accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Aronowitz, Jesse N.; Lubenau, Joel O.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Radium was the foundation of brachytherapy in the early decades of the 20th century. Despite being a most precious and perilous substance, it was mislaid with surprising frequency. This essay explores how it was lost, the efforts taken to recover it, and measures instituted to prevent mishandling. Methods and Materials: Review of contemporary literature, government publications, archives, and lay press. Results: Radium is a particularly dangerous substance because of its long half-life, its gaseous daughter (radon), and the high-energy emissions of its decay products. Despite the hazard, it was unregulated for most of the century. Any physician could obtain and administer it, and protocols for safe handling were generally lacking. Change came with appreciation of the danger, regulation, mandated training, and the institution of a culture of accountability. Unfortunately, careless management of medical radionuclides remains a global hazard. Conclusion: Responsible stewardship of radioactive material was not a high priority, for practitioners or the federal government, for much of the 20{sup th} century. As a result, large quantities of radium had gone astray, possibly subjecting the general public to continued radiation exposure. Lessons from the radium era remain relevant, as medical radionuclides are still mishandled.

  16. Multiple myeloma, leukemia, and breast cancer among the US radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbings, J.H.; Lucas, H.F.; Stehney, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    The relationships of radium exposure to mortality from multiple myeloma, leukemia, and breast cancer were studied in three cohorts of female dial workers defined by year of first employment. Mortality was compared with that expected from US white female rates, with and without adjustment for local mortality rates. Dose-response relationships of these cancers to systemic intake of radium were determined in workers whose body burdens had been measured in vivo since 1955. Incident cases of multiple myeloma occurred in the pre-1930 cohort; however, analyses of body burdens and durations of employment suggest that external radiation was more likely to have been responsible than was internal radium. Leukemia incidence and mortality have not been elevated overall among the female dial workers, either in the pre-1930 or the post-1930 cohorts, but cases have tended to occur early and in subjects with higher body burdens. Extensive analyses of breast cancer data have uncovered several observations weighing against a causal interpretation of the association between radium and breast cancer.

  17. Retention of Radium-225 and Its Daughter Radioisotopes in Bone

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Garland, Marc A; Kennel, Steve J

    2008-01-01

    The natural bone seeking tendency of Ra+2, similar to the other alkali metal ions, coupled with the short range high LET of -particle emissions are an ideal combination for localized therapy, and recently 11.4 d 223Ra has been studied for therapy of bone tumors in rats and humans [1,2]. Actinium-225 is also an attractive radioisotope for endo-radiotherapy in a single decay chain from 225Ac, over 26 MeV (~70% of total) is carried by four - particles ranging in energy from 5.7 to 8.4 MeV [3,4]. Although Ac+3 does not home naturally to bone (rather to liver) [5,6], its parent, 225Ra ( -, t1/2 = 15 d), can be used as an in vivo source for 225Ac. A pivotal question for the 225Ra/225Ac in vivo generator system is whether translocation of the daughter nuclei occurs prior to or following the uptake of 225Ra by the bone. In order to assess potential collateral damage to soft tissue organs it is essential to quantitate the extent to which 225Ac is retained in organs following the uptake of 225Ra. We have attempted to answer these questions by investigating the extent of translocation of 225Ac and 213Bi, two daughter radioisotopes of 225Ra, following retention of initially pure 225Ra in bone in normal mice.

  18. Radium-223 dichloride: a review of its use in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Matt; McCormack, Paul L

    2014-04-01

    Radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo®; formerly Alpharadin™) [hereafter referred to as radium-223] is a first-in-class alpha particle-emitting radiopharmaceutical that has recently been approved for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral metastatic disease. Radium-223 is a calcium mimetic, which targets bone, delivering cytotoxic radiation to the sites of bone metastases. In the recently reported Alpharadin™ in Symptomatic Prostate Cancer (ALSYMPCA) phase III study, radium-223 was associated with significantly improved overall survival compared with placebo, making it the first bone-targeted CRPC therapy for which an overall survival benefit has been demonstrated. The ALSYMPCA study also demonstrated the beneficial effects of radium-223 on disease-related symptomatic skeletal events, pain and health-related quality of life. Radium-223 was generally well tolerated, being associated with low rates of myelosuppression and generally mild gastrointestinal adverse events. Thus, radium-223 is a valuable addition to the treatment options for this poor-prognosis population.

  19. Radium-226 in vegetation and substrates at inactive uranium mill sites

    SciTech Connect

    Marple, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study of the content of radium-226 in plants growing on inactive uranium mill tailings sites in the Four Corners Region of the southwestern United States and in plants grown under greenhouse conditions with minimal surficial contamination are reported. Field plant samples and associated substrates were analyzed from two carbonate tailings sites in the Grants Mineral Belt of New Mexico. Radium activities in air-cleaned samples ranged from 5 to 368 pCi/g (dry weight) depending on species and location: activities in plants growing on local soils averaged 1.0 pCi/g. The talings and local soils contain 140 to 1400 pCi/g and 2.1 pCi/g, respectively. An evaluation of cleaning methods on selected samples showed that from 17 to 79% of the radium activity measured in air-cleaned samples was due to surficial contamination, which varied with species and location. A survey of 18 inactive uranium mill sites in the Four Corners Region was performed. Radium activity in plant tissues from nine species ranged from 2 to 210 pCi/g on bare tailings and from 0.3 to 30 pCi/g on covered tailings The radium content in most of the soil overburdens on the covered tailings piles was 10 to 17 pCi/g. An experiment was performed to measure radium-226 uptake by two species grown on tailings covered with a shallow (5 cm) soil layer. A grass, Sporobolus airoides (alkali sacaton) and a shrub, Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush), were studied. The tailings were a mixture of sands and slimes from a carbonate pile. The tailings treatments were plants grown in a soil cover over tailings; the controls were plants grown only in soil. Three soil types, dune sand, clay loam, and loam, were used. The radium activity of the plant tissue from the tailings treatment compared to that of the appropriate control was 1 to 19 times greater for the grass and 4 to 27 times greater for the shrub.

  20. Accumulation of radium in sediments from continued disposal of produced water and hydraulic fracturing flowback water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, N. R.; Menio, E. C.; Landis, J. D.; Vengosh, A.; Lauer, N.; Harkness, J.; Kondash, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent public interest in high volume slickwater hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) has drawn increased interest in wastewater management practices by the public, researchers, industry, and regulators. The management of wastes, including both fluids and solids, poses many engineering challenges, including elevated total dissolved solids and elevated activities of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). One management option for wastewater in particular, which is used in western Pennsylvania, USA, is treatment at centralized waste treatment facilities [1]. Previous studies conducted from 2010-2012 indicated that one centralized facility, the Josephine Brine Treatment facility, removed the majority of radium from produced water and hydraulic fracturing flowback fluid (HFFF) during treatment, but low activities of radium remained in treated effluent and were discharged to surface water [2]. Despite the treatment process and radium reduction, high activities (200 times higher than upstream/background) accumulated in stream sediments at the point of effluent discharge. Here we present new results from sampling conducted at two additional centralized waste treatment facilities (Franklin Brine Treatment and Hart Brine Treatment facilities) and Josephine Brine Treatment facility conducted in June 2014. Preliminary results indicate radium is released to surface water at very low (<50 pCi/L) to non-detectable activities, however; radium continues to accumulate in sediments surrounding the area of effluent release. Combined, the data indicate that 1) radium continues to be released to surface water streams in western Pennsylvania despite oil and gas operators voluntary ban on treatment and disposal of HFFF in centralized waste treatment facilities, 2) radium accumulation in sediments occurred at multiple brine treatment facilities and is not isolated to a single accidental release of contaminants or a single facility. [1] Wilson, J. M. and J. M. VanBriesen (2012). "Oil and