Science.gov

Sample records for radium 213

  1. Determination of radium in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Franklin Butt; Johnson, J.O.

    1964-01-01

    Radium isotopes are common radioactive constituents of natural waters. The concentration of radium-226 in potable water is of particular significance because this isotope is generally considered the most hazardous of all radionuclides with respect to ingestion. The approximate concentration of radium-226 is determined after coprecipitating radium with barium sulfate. The short-lived daughters of radium are allowed to grow for 10-12 days, then the alpha activity of the precipitate is measured and compared with that of a precipitate containing a known amount of radium-226. Concentrations of the individual alpha-emitting isotopes of radium-223, radium-224, and radium-226, are determined by coprecipitating radium first with lead sulfate, then with barium chloride, and finally with barium sulfate. This final precipitate is initially free of other alpha-emitting nuclides, thus permitting the isotopic composition to be determined by measuring the growth and decay of the alpha activity of the precipitate.

  2. Radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, R.E.; Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated.

  3. The metabolism of radium-226 during pregnancy in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kshirsagar, S.G. )

    1990-06-01

    Metabolism of radium including the transfer to the fetus through the placenta was studied during three successive pregnancies 92, 155, and 213 days after injection of 226Ra in young female rats. The cumulative fecal and urinary excretions of 226Ra in a 213-day period following injection were about 30 and 15% injected dose (%ID), respectively, most of them occurring during the first 42 days. The excretions were similar in both the pregnant and control (unmated) rats. The whole-body burden of radium (mostly in the skeleton) determined by actual analysis of the entire body was similar in the two groups and was about 53, 48, and 44 %ID at the first, second, and third pregnancy, respectively. Pregnancy alone, therefore, did not significantly affect metabolism of radium. At 20 days of gestation the mean placental content of radium was 0.005, 0.0045, and 0.0036 %ID in the first, second, and third litter, respectively; the corresponding mean fetal content was 0.01, 0.008, and 0.005 %ID. The radium burden of the full-term neonate (21-22 days) was 0.014 and 0.011 %ID for the first and second delivery, respectively. The total amount calculated of radium transferred from the mother to the 8-10 fetuses in a litter did not exceed about 0.3% of the maternal content per each pregnancy. Comparison of the ratio of radium and calcium in the fetus and maternal skeleton shows that there is a Ra-Ca discrimination during their passage from the mother to the fetus.

  4. Malignancy from Radium

    PubMed Central

    Loutit, J. F.

    1970-01-01

    Human experience of the toxicity of radium acts as a guide for the setting of occupationally permissible levels for radioactive nucleides, especially bone-seekers. Reviewing the published statements and photomicrographs in early reports especially those of Martland (1931) one can make a case that malignancy was induced in bone-marrow (leukaemia, malignant myelosclerosis) as well as in bone (osteosarcoma) by radium, especially with large doses. Three case reports of radium intoxication in Britons are noted as compatible with this suggestion, after revised interpretation in two of them. ImagesFigs. 9-10Fig. 4Fig. 5Figs. 11-12Figs. 6-7Fig. 8Figs. 13-14 PMID:5271269

  5. Radium 226,228

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) Chemical Assessment Summary U.S . Environmental Protection Agency National Center for Environmental Assessment Radium 226,228 ; CASRN 7440 - 14 - 4 , Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a

  6. Modified determination of radium in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, F.B.; Thatcher, L.L.

    1957-01-01

    The proposed method embodies a barium sulfate carrier precipitation, filtration through molecular filter membranes, and collection of activity after prescribed aging period. The method is sufficiently accurate and precise to indicate the potability of water and for use in general studies of radium in chemical hydrology. Amounts of radium as low as 0.1 ????c. can be detected by using 1 -hour counting times. Radium-226 is used as the standard and the results indicate about 100 to 110 % of the activity of the alpha-emitting radium isotopes as radium-223, radium-224, and radium-226.

  7. Radiation dosimetry of a graphite moderated radium-beryllium source.

    PubMed

    Holden, Norman E; Reciniello, Richard N; Hu, Jih-Perng

    2004-05-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Sigma Pile is a radium-beryllium neutron source imbedded in a cube of graphite blocks. The pile is approximately 2.13 m on four sides and is 3.07 m high. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to determine the neutron and gamma-ray dose rates in the pile. Gamma-ray dose rate measurements have also been made in the air outside of the pile, while the radium-beryllium neutron source was being withdrawn from the pile. The Monte Carlo code has been used to calculate the coupled neutron-photon transport. Measured dose rates at various locations agreed with the calculated values within 5% to 15%.

  8. Determination of radium in water

    SciTech Connect

    Hohorst, F.A.; Huntley, M.W.; Hartenstein, S.D.

    1995-10-01

    These detailed work instructions (DWIs) are tailored for the analysis of radium-226 and radium-228 in drinking water supplies from ground water and surface water sources and composites derived from them. The instructions have been adapted from several sources, including a draft EPA method. One objective was to minimize the generation of mixed wastes. Quantitative determinations of actinium-228 are made at 911 keV. The minimum detection level (MDL) for the gamma spectrometric measurements at this energy vary with matrix, volume, geometry, detector, background, and counting statistics. The range of MDL`s for current detectors is 0.07 to 0.5 Bq/sample. Quantitative determinations of radium-226 are made by counting the high energy alpha particles which radium-226 progeny emit using liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The minimum detectable activity (MDA) is 3.8 E-3 Bq/sample. The maximum concentration which may be counted on available instruments without dilution is about 2 E + 5 Bq/sample. Typically, this determination of radium in a 2 L sample has a yield of 80%. If radium-228 is determined using a 16 h count after 50 h grow-in, the typical MDL is 1 E-9 to 8 E-9 {mu}Ci/mL (1 to 8 pCi/L). If radium-226 is determined using a 2.5 h count after 150 h grow-in, the typical MDA is about 1 E-10 {mu}Ci/mL (0. 1 pCi/L).

  9. Radium/Barium Waste Project

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, Allen K.; Ellefson, Mark D.; McDonald, Kent M.

    2015-06-25

    The treatment, shipping, and disposal of a highly radioactive radium/barium waste stream have presented a complex set of challenges requiring several years of effort. The project illustrates the difficulty and high cost of managing even small quantities of highly radioactive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-regulated waste. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research activities produced a Type B quantity of radium chloride low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in a number of small vials in a facility hot cell. The resulting waste management project involved a mock-up RCRA stabilization treatment, a failed in-cell treatment, a second, alternative RCRA treatment approach, coordinated regulatory variances and authorizations, alternative transportation authorizations, additional disposal facility approvals, and a final radiological stabilization process.

  10. Radium-226 content of beverages

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, J. )

    1989-11-01

    Radium contents of commercially obtained beer, wine, milk and mineral waters were measured. All distributions were log-normal with the following geometrical mean values: beer: 2.1 X 10(-2) Bq L-1; wine: 3.4 X 10(-2) Bq L-1; milk: 3 X 10(-3) Bq L-1; normal mineral water: 4.3 X 10(-2) L-1; medical mineral water: 9.4 X 10(-2) Bq L-1.

  11. ION-EXCHANGE METHOD FOR SEPARATING RADIUM FROM RADIUM-BARIUM MIXTURES

    DOEpatents

    Fuentevilla, M.E.

    1959-06-30

    An improved process is presented for separating radium from an aqueous feed solution containing radium and barium values and a complexing agent for these metals. In this process a feed solutlon containing radium and barium ions and a complexing agent for said ions ls cycled through an exchange zone in resins. The radiumenriched resin is then stripped of radium values to form a regeneration liquid, a portion of which is collected as an enriched product, the remaining portion being recycled to the exchange zone to further enrich the ion exchange resin in radium.

  12. REMOVAL OF RADIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water...

  13. REMOVAL OF RADIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water...

  14. Association of leukemia with radium groundwater contamination.

    PubMed

    Lyman, G H; Lyman, C G; Johnson, W

    1985-08-02

    Radiation exposure, including the ingestion of radium, has been causally associated with leukemia in man. Groundwater samples from 27 counties on or near Florida phosphate lands were found to exceed 5 pCi/L total radium in 12.4% of measurements. The incidence of leukemia was greater in those counties with high levels of radium contamination (greater than 10% of the samples contaminated) than in those with low levels of contamination. Rank correlation coefficients of .56 and .45 were observed between the radium contamination level and the incidence of total leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia, respectively. The standardized incidence density ratio for those in high-contamination counties was 1.5 for total leukemia and 2.0 for acute myeloid leukemia. Further investigation is necessary, however, before a causal relationship between groundwater radium content and human leukemia can be established.

  15. A brief history of Lord Rutherford's radium.

    PubMed

    Todd, Neil

    2014-09-20

    In this paper I give a brief summary of what is known about the acquisition, use and fate of the radium sources that were in the possession of Lord Rutherford during his lifetime. The account is written in two parts, corresponding to the periods from the discovery of radium in 1898 until his death in 1937 and then from 1937 until recent times. The history of Rutherford's radium closely shadows the history of radioactivity, the evolution of nuclear physics, the race for the bomb, and the development of the nuclear industry.

  16. A brief history of Lord Rutherford's radium

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I give a brief summary of what is known about the acquisition, use and fate of the radium sources that were in the possession of Lord Rutherford during his lifetime. The account is written in two parts, corresponding to the periods from the discovery of radium in 1898 until his death in 1937 and then from 1937 until recent times. The history of Rutherford's radium closely shadows the history of radioactivity, the evolution of nuclear physics, the race for the bomb, and the development of the nuclear industry. PMID:25254280

  17. Radium, Marie Curie and modern science.

    PubMed

    Langevin-Joliot, H

    1998-11-01

    In 1898, the discovery of two new elements, polonium and radium, reawakened interest in the topic of uranic rays discovered 2 years before by H. Becquerel. Radioactivity, a name coined by Marie Curie, became a major research field for decades. The contrasting personalities of Pierre Curie, already a first-rank physicist, and of the young Marie Curie-Sklodowska as they undertook their common work are described. It is shown how a well-chosen quantitative method and a systematic approach combining physics and chemistry led to the discovery within less than 1 year. The special role of radium and the determination of its atomic weight by Marie Curie followed by her long-term program for accumulating pure radium salts are emphasized. The first woman with a full professorship at a French University, Marie Curie created and managed the Radium Institute.

  18. Radium 223 dichloride for prostate cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Deshayes, Emmanuel; Roumiguie, Mathieu; Thibault, Constance; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Cachin, Florent; Hennequin, Christophe; Huglo, Damien; Rozet, François; Kassab-Chahmi, Diana; Rebillard, Xavier; Houédé, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignant disease in men. Several therapeutic agents have been approved during the last 10 years. Among them, radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo®) is a radioactive isotope that induces irreversible DNA double-strand breaks and consequently tumor cell death. Radium-223 dichloride is a calcium-mimetic agent that specifically targets bone lesions. Radium-223 dichloride has been approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases, without known visceral metastases. In this review, first we summarize the interplay between prostate tumor cells and bone microenvironment; then, we discuss radium-223 dichloride mechanism of action and present the results of the available clinical trials and future developments for this new drug. PMID:28919714

  19. Radium 223 dichloride for prostate cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Deshayes, Emmanuel; Roumiguie, Mathieu; Thibault, Constance; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Cachin, Florent; Hennequin, Christophe; Huglo, Damien; Rozet, François; Kassab-Chahmi, Diana; Rebillard, Xavier; Houédé, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignant disease in men. Several therapeutic agents have been approved during the last 10 years. Among them, radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo(®)) is a radioactive isotope that induces irreversible DNA double-strand breaks and consequently tumor cell death. Radium-223 dichloride is a calcium-mimetic agent that specifically targets bone lesions. Radium-223 dichloride has been approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases, without known visceral metastases. In this review, first we summarize the interplay between prostate tumor cells and bone microenvironment; then, we discuss radium-223 dichloride mechanism of action and present the results of the available clinical trials and future developments for this new drug.

  20. Radium-223 for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a phase III trial that compared radium-223 dichloride plus the best standard of care versus a placebo plus the best standard of care in men with metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  1. Personal characteristics relating to radium loss over a decade or more in radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Stebbings, J.H.; Jansen, A.; Kotek, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Personal habits and biological characteristics of 42 female Illinois radium workers first employed during the 1920s were analyzed in relationship to radium loss in late adult life. The 42 women met the criteria that they first were examined between 1957 and 1969 and are no longer employed, have had two or more radium body-burden measurements by gamma spectroscopy, 10-year minimum interval exists between initial and final measurements, and exhibit a RaC body burden in 1970 or later of greater than or equal to.137 kBQ. High radium body burdens are associated with decreased rates of radium elimination, as previously described. However, the most powerful predictor was coffee/tea consumption, increased consumption being associated with increased rates of radium elimination and explaining approx.35% of the variance. The effect persisted after deletion of smokers and subjects with x-ray evidence of bone damage. Weight/height ratios were positively associated with radium excretion. Individuals smoking cigarettes throughout the study period had significantly low rates of elimination of radium, similar to subjects with x-ray evidence of significant radiation-induced bone damage. Both smokers and subjects with x-ray evidence of radiation damage to bone had low weight/height ratios, suggesting that biological promoters of radiation damage to bone may exist. Rates of radium elimination were significantly associated with (linear) bone density, demonstrating that rates of loss of radium cannot be assumed to be independent of adult or postmenopausal bone density losses. Number of children and age of menopause did not have demonstrable effects on radium elimination. 9 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Development of solid radium-226 reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chessmore, R.B.; Engelder, P.R.; Sill, C.W.

    1983-11-01

    Radium-226 reference materials having a matrix similar to soil or tailings samples are not available in sufficient quantity for use by remedial-action contractors to calibrate their laboratory gamma-ray spectrometers. Such reference materials are needed to provide uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial-action contractors. A task, therefore, was undertaken to prepare about 200 pounds each of three different concentrations of radium-226 reference materials by diluting tailings with high-purity silica. Target values for radium-226 content were 50, 15, and 5 pCi/g. The radium-226 content of the reference materials was measured by C.W. Sill of EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, using a high- resolution alpha spectrometry technique standardized with National Bureau of Standards (NBS) standard 4961. A summary of this technique is provided in Appendix A of this report. An independent measurement of the radium-226 content was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (Bendix), Grand Junction, Colorado, using a high-resolution Ge(Li) detector, which was calibrated using the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) 100-A Series standards. The Ge(Li) detector has also been used to determine the radium-226 content in the calibration models at the Grand Junction facility; these models are used by remedial-action contractors for calibration of borehole logging gamma-ray probes. 8 references, 12 tables.

  3. Radium-226 and radium-228 in shallow ground water, southern New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Zoltan; dePaul, Vincent T.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of total radium (the sum of radium-226 and radium-228) and gross alpha-particle activities in drinking water that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) are known to cause cancer. Results of investigations by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) indicate that concentrations of total radium in water samples from 33 percent of 170 wells in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in southern New Jersey exceeded the MCL of 5 pCi/L (picocuries per liter) (fig. 1). Wells containing water in which concentrations of total radium were greater than the MCL typically are found where the Bridgeton Formation crops out, in or near an agricultural area, where ground water is acidic (pH less than 5), and where nitrate concentrations generally exceed 5 mg/L (milligrams per liter). Leaching of nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium from agricultural chemicals (fertilizer, lime) applied to cropland may increase the mobility of radium in ground water. Gross alphaparticle activities exceeded the USEPA MCL of 15 pCi/L in water from 14 percent of 127 wells. A statistically significant 2:1 ratio between gross alpha-particle activity and concentration of total radium indicates that gross alpha-particle activity can be used as a screening tool to predict the presence of water that may have a high total-radium concentration.

  4. Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Technologies Topics include: Introduction to Rad Chemistry, Summary of the Rad, Regulations Treatment Technology, and Disposal. The introductions cover atoms, ions, radium and uranium and the removal of radioac...

  5. Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Technologies Topics include: Introduction to Rad Chemistry, Summary of the Rad, Regulations Treatment Technology, and Disposal. The introductions cover atoms, ions, radium and uranium and the removal of radioac...

  6. Radium in man - 20 years later

    SciTech Connect

    Maletskos, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    In 1940, there was a need to set a standard for internal exposure to radium for the instrument industry that required luminous characters painted with radium paint. A committee was convened to review the existing information on the health effects of internal radium. Twenty-seven persons had been studied, seven with burdens of 0.5 {mu}g or less with no health effects and twenty with burdens of 1.2 {mu}g or more with health effects. The radium burden dividing the two groups was assumed at 1 {mu}g (an implied threshold), a safety factor of 10 was applied, and the internal radium standard was set at 0.1 {mu}g, a value that still stands today. Over the next five or six decades, about 2000 subjects were investigated, including many measurements on almost all the subjects. In the intervening years, several analyses of the data, available at each particular time, have been made with radical differences in interpretation.

  7. Radium in the environment: exposure pathways and health effects.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Buchner, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive element in the environment that can exist as several isotopes. Little information is available on the acute (short-term) non-cancer effects in humans. Radium exposure has resulted in acute leukopenia, anemia, necrosis of the jaw, and other effects. Cancer is the major effect of concern. Radium, via oral exposure, is known to cause bone, head, and nasal passage tumors in humans. The US Environmental Protection Agency has not classified radium for carcinogenicity.

  8. REMOVING RADIUM FROM WATER BY PLAIN AND TREATED ACTIVATED ALUMINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research determined the feasibility of using BaSO4-impregnated activated alumina and plain activated alumina for radium removal from groundwater by fixed-bed adsorption. The major factors influencing radium adsorption onto the two types of alumina were identified. The radium ...

  9. Removal of radium by ion-exchange from mine water

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jian-hua; Cheng Wei; Deng Jin-xun; Zhou Lei; Chang Jing-tao

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a method on removal of radium from uranium mine water. Resin IR-001 is used to absorb radium from mine water, eluted by saturated NaCl solution. Radium enriched in the eluate is then precipitated by BaCl{sub 2} solution, thereby removed effectively. (authors)

  10. REMOVING RADIUM FROM WATER BY PLAIN AND TREATED ACTIVATED ALUMINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research determined the feasibility of using BaSO4-impregnated activated alumina and plain activated alumina for radium removal from groundwater by fixed-bed adsorption. The major factors influencing radium adsorption onto the two types of alumina were identified. The radium ...

  11. Occurrence of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 in water of the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, southern New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Zoltan; dePaul, Vincent T.; Kraemer, Thomas F.; Parsa, Bahman

    2005-01-01

    Water in the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in the New Jersey Coastal Plain contains elevated concentrations (above 3 pCi/L (picocuries per liter)) of the alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide radium-224. Previously, water from the aquifer system had been found to contain radium-226 and radium-228. This observation is of concern because the previously undetected presence of radium-224 may pose an additional, quantifiable health risk that currently is not accounted for by the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 5 pCi/L for combined radium (the sum of radium-226 plus radium-228 is termed 'combined radium') in drinking water. Water samples were collected from a regional network of 88 wells for determination of concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228; gross alpha-particle activity; and concentrations of major ions and selected trace elements. Both gamma and alpha spectroscopic techniques were used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from <0.5 to 16.8 pCi/L (median 2.1 pCi/L, interquartile range 1.2-3.7 pCi/L). Concentrations of radium-226 and radium-228 in the same samples ranged from <0.5 to 17.4 pCi/L (median 1.7 pCi/L, interquartile range 0.9-2.9 pCi/L) and <0.5 to 12.8 pCi/L (median 1.6 pCi/L, interquartile range, 0.9-2.6 pCi/L), respectively. Concentrations of radium-224 typically were greater than those of the other two radium radionuclides, as evidenced by the highest median, third quartile, and maximum concentrations, as well as the highest concentration among the three radium radioisotopes in 52 (59 percent) of the 88 samples. Concentrations of 5.0 to 5.5 pCi/L of radium-224 result in a gross alpha-particle activity of about 15 pCi/L (the MCL) 36 to 48 hours, respectively, after sample collection when ingrowth of radium-224 progeny radionuclides is considered, even with the unlikely assumption that no other alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide is present in the water. Concentrations of 3.4 to 3.7 pCi/L radium-224

  12. Towards an EDM Measurement in Radium-225

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Matthew; Bailey, K.; Greene, J.; Holt, R.; Kalita, M.; Korsch, W.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T.; Parker, R.; Singh, J.

    2012-06-01

    The existence of an atomic electric dipole moment (EDM) would violate both the time and parity symmetries of nature, and so the measurement of one would give a valuable window into physics beyond the standard model. Here we describe recent progress towards measurement of the EDM of radium-225, which is expected to be abnormally large compared to other species. Neutral cold radium atoms are loaded from a magneto-optic trap into an optical dipole trap (ODT), which is mechanically translated to move the radium into the science region. We then transfer the atoms to a second, standing wave ODT suitable for the EDM measurement. In the near future, we plan to optically pump and observe nuclear spin precession. This research is supported by DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  13. Microbial accumulation of uranium, radium, and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; North, S.E.

    1981-05-01

    Diverse microbial species varied considerably in their ability to accumulate uranium, cesium, and radium. Mechanistic differences in uranium uptake by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were indicated. S. serevisiae exhibited a slow (hours) surface accumulation of uranium which was subject to environmental factors, while P. aeruginosa accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense intracellular deposits and did not appear to be affected by environmental parameters. Metabolism was not required for uranium uptake by either organism. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several species tested.

  14. Improving Radium-Based Tracer Techniques: Hydrologic Controls on Porewater Radium Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, A. L.; Wilson, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrologic variability influences coastal ecosystems and groundwater biogeochemistry on a range of temporal and spatial scales. Radium isotopes (223Ra, t1/2=11.1 d; 224Ra, t1/2=3.66 d; 226Ra, t1/2=1600 y; and 228Ra, t1/2=5.75 y) are excellent tracers of groundwater movement and discharge in coastal systems, but the accuracy of these tracers has been hindered by poor constraints on porewater radium activity. Porewater activities vary by as much as two orders of magnitude, creating a proportionally large uncertainty in radium-based estimates of coastal groundwater discharge. To determine the primary hydrologic factors that control porewater radium activity, a field and modeling study was performed at an island within North Inlet Salt Marsh in Georgetown, South Carolina. We chose this island because of its well-defined boundaries, the lack of a freshwater upland, its relatively constant elevated salinity, and its stable porewater chemistry (pH and redox). Vibracores collected across the site revealed marsh mud from 1 - 4m thick overlying sand. Porewater radium activity was measured in groundwater samples (wells screened at 1, 2, and 4m depth) and nearby surface water samples collected from November 2009 to February 2011. Water salinity, temperature, pH, and redox were also recorded. Sediment samples were collected from the top 10 cm of the marsh mud as well as from previously-collected sediment cores for analysis of bulk radium generation rates. Statistical analyses revealed no significant relationship (P > 0.05) between porewater radium activity and the known controls of salinity, pH, temperature, and redox. Spatial variations in radium were controlled by differences in groundwater residence time. Porewater radium activity decreased with depth by up to an order of magnitude and laterally by up to a factor of four. Vertical activity variations reflect the contrasting sediment grain size, permeability, and porewater residence time between marsh mud and underlying sand

  15. Radium Disposition Options for the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, D. L.; Thiel, E. C.; Seidel, B. R.

    2002-02-26

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed plans to disposition its excess nuclear materials, including radium-containing materials. Within DOE, there is no significant demand for radium at this time. However, DOE is exploring reuse options, including uses that may not exist at this time. The Nonactinide Isotopes and Sealed Sources Management Group (NISSMG) has identified 654 radium-containing items, and concluded that there are no remaining radium items that do not have a pathway to disposition. Unfortunately, most of these pathways end with disposal, whereas reuse would be preferable. DOE has a number of closure sites that must remove the radium at their sites as part of their closure activities. NISSMG suggests preserving the larger radium sources that can easily be manufactured into targets for future reuse, and disposing the other items. As alternatives to disposal, there exist reuse options for radium, especially in nuclear medicine. These options were identified by NISSMG. The NISSMG recommends that DOE set up receiver sites to store these radium materials until reuse options become available. The NISSMG recommends two pathways for dispositioning radium sources, depending on the activity and volume of material. Low activity radium sources can be managed as low level radioactive waste per DOE Order 5820.2A. Higher activity radium sources are more appropriate for reuse in nuclear medicine applications and other applications.

  16. Bone sarcoma in humans induced by radium: A threshold response?

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    The radium 226 and radium 228 have induced malignancies in the skeleton (primarily bone sarcomas) of humans. They have also induced carcinomas in the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. There is no evidence that any leukemias or any other solid cancers have been induced by internally deposited radium. This paper discuses a study conducted on the dial painter population. This study made a concerted effort to verify, for each of the measured radium cases, the published values of the skeletal dose and the initial intake of radium. These were derived from body content measurements made some 40 years after the radium intake. Corrections to the assumed radium retention function resulted in a considerable number of dose changes. These changes have changed the shape of the dose response function. It now appears that the induction of bone sarcomas is a threshold process.

  17. Process for separation and preconcentration of radium from water

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, M.; Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Bartsch, R.A.

    1999-01-26

    A process for preconcentrating and separating radium from a contaminated solution containing at least water and radium includes the steps of adding a quantity of a water-soluble macrocyclic polyether to the contaminated solution to form a combined solution. An acid is added to the combined solution to form an acidic combined solution having an [H{sup +}] concentration of about 0.5M. The acidic combined solution is contacted with a sulfonic acid-based strong acid cation exchange medium or a organophilic sulfonic acid medium having a plurality of binding sites thereon to bind the radium thereto and to form a radium-depleted solution. The radium-depleted solution is separated from the strong acid cation exchange medium or organophilic sulfonic acid medium. The radium remaining bound to the exchange medium or organophilic reagent is then stripped from the exchange medium or organophilic medium and the activity of the radium is measured. 24 figs.

  18. Process for separation and preconcentration of radium from water

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip; Chiarizia, Renato; Bartsch, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    A process for preconcentrating and separating radium from a contaminated solution containing at least water and radium includes the steps of adding a quantity of a water-soluble macrocyclic polyether to the contaminated solution to form a combined solution. An acid is added to the combined solution to form an acidic combined solution having an ›H.sup.+ ! concentration of about 0.5M. The acidic combined solution is contacted with a sulfonic acid-based strong acid cation exchange medium or a organophilic sulfonic acid medium having a plurality of binding sites thereon to bind the radium thereto and to form a radium-depleted solution. The radium-depleted solution is separated from the strong acid cation exchange medium or organophilic sulfonic acid medium. The radium remaining bound to the exchange medium or organophilic reagent is then stripped from the exchange medium or organophilic medium and the activity of the radium is measured.

  19. REMEDIATION OF RADIUM FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of a physico-chemical separation process for the removal of radium from a sample of contaminated soil at the Ottawa, Illinois, site near Chicago. The size/activity distribution analyzed among the particles coarser tha...

  20. REMEDIATION OF RADIUM FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of a physico-chemical separation process for the removal of radium from a sample of contaminated soil at the Ottawa, Illinois, site near Chicago. The size/activity distribution analyzed among the particles coarser tha...

  1. The metabolism of radium in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, B. F.; Garner, R. J.

    1966-01-01

    1. The isotopes 45Ca and 224Ra were administered simultaneously, both orally and intravenously, to two pairs of cows. 2. The first pair of animals received large doses of 224Ra and 45Ca, which produced clinical and metabolic disturbances. 3. The second pair of animals received much smaller doses and showed no clinical disturbances. The mean recoveries in these animals of 45Ca and 224Ra in the 8 days after the oral administration were respectively: from faeces, 63·2 and 103·8%; from urine, 0·26 and 0·44%; from milk, 15·8 and 0·35% of the dose; and in the 8 days after intravenous administration: from faeces, 20·5 and 36·5%; from urine, 1·56 and 17·6%; from milk, 49·3 and 11·8% of the dose. 4. Calculation of discrimination factors shows that absorptive discrimination played the most important part in the overall discrimination between the calcium and radium in their passage from diet to milk, but that mammary discrimination plays a more important role than in the overall discrimination between calcium and strontium or barium. 5. In its treatment by the kidney radium is more like strontium than barium, but radium is actively secreted by the gut in the same way as barium. 6. In its skeletal metabolism radium is indistinguishable from calcium and strontium except in its rate of resorption, which is similar to that of barium. PMID:5964964

  2. Evaluation of salt marsh hydrology using radium as a tracer

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, M.S. ); Moore, W.S. )

    1993-05-01

    Radium isotopes provide unique and important information concerning water exchange in a salt marsh-tidal creek system. Seasonal radium data collected over five tidal cycles from a creek draining a South Carolina salt marsh, radium and thorium data from the adjacent marsh sediments, and interstitial water radium data from the drainage basin are modeled to yield residence times of water in the upper 10 cm of the marsh sediments ranging from less than one to twenty-six hours. Water residence times derived from chambers which directly measure the flux of Ra isotopes to the creek waters agree well with these calculated interstitial water turnover times. Dissolved radium activities in the tidal creek were greater during the summer than during other times of the year. The authors suspect that seasonal changes in the storage of organic carbon and rates of bioturbation lead to net reduction of radium carrier phases in the marsh sediments during the summer. 18 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Reverse osmosis separation of radium from dilute aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, K.S.; Sastri, V.S.

    1980-03-01

    Porous cellulose acetate membranes obtained from Osmonics Inc. were characterized in terms of pure water permeability constant, solute transport parameter, and mass transfer coefficient with aqueous sodium chloride solution as the reference system. Reverse osmosis separation behavior of radium-226 as nitrate, chloride, and sulfate salts was studied. Reverse osmosis method of removing radium-226 from aqueous solutions has been compared with other methods, and it has been shown to be one of the best methods for alleviating radium contamination problems.

  4. Radium isotopes in the lower Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, T. F.; Curwick, P. B.

    1991-02-01

    Radium isotopes have been measured in Mississippi River water at several locations between St. Francisville and Venice, Louisiana. Measured activities averaged 11.1 dpm/100 L (disintegrations per minute per 100 L) for dissolved 226Ra with a 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio of 1.04 and a 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio of 1.06 for the section of river above a phosphogypsum waste-discharge input. Down river from this site, the dissolved 226Ra activity averaged 22.4 dpm/100 L with a 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio of 0.55 and a 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio of 0.87. Chemical and isotopic reequilibration of the radium in the waste with that in the river water and suspended sediments occurs very rapidly. Fluxes of 226Ra are calculated to be 2.44×1014 dpm/yr (disintegrations per minute per year) for the main stem of the Mississippi during phosphogypsum disposal compared to 0.98×1014 dpm/yr when no phosphogypsum disposal is occurring. 28Ra flux is calculated to be 1.06×1014 dpm/yr during disposal and 1.01×1014 dpm/yr in the absence of disposal. The radium flux is estimated to be 45% in the dissolved state and 55% in the adsorbed state.

  5. Radon emanation from radium specific adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I; Maghrawy, Hamed B

    2010-01-01

    Pilot studies were undertaken to quantify the total activity of radon that is eluted following no-flow periods from several Ra-226 adsorbents loaded to near exhaustion. The adsorbents studied included two types of barium sulphate impregnated alumina (ABA-8000 and F-1) and Dowex MSC-1 resin treated by either barium hydroxide or barium chloride. In parallel, radium loaded plain activated aluminas and Dowex MSC-1 resin were similarly investigated. The results revealed that radon was quantitatively eluted during the first few bed volumes of column operation after no-flow periods. Although similar radon elution profiles were obtained, the position of the radon peak was found to vary and depended on the adsorbent type. Radon levels up to 24 and 14 kBq dm(-3) were measured after a rest period of 72h from radium exhausted Dowex MSC-1 treated with barium chloride and F-1 impregnated alumina with barium sulphate, respectively. The eluted radon values measured experimentally were compared to those calculated theoretically from accumulated radium quantities for the different media. For plain adsorbents, an agreement better than 10% was obtained. For treated resin-types a consistency within 30% but for impregnated alumina-types high discrepancy between respective values were obtained.

  6. Dosimetry of radium-223 and progeny

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Sgouros, G.

    1999-01-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived (11.4 d) alpha emitter with potential applications in radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Radium-223 can be complexed and linked to protein delivery molecules for specific tumor-cell targeting. It decays through a cascade of short-lived alpha- and beta-emitting daughters with emission of about 28 MeV of energy through complete decay. The first three alpha particles are essentially instantaneous. Photons associated with Ra-223 and progeny provide the means for tumor and normal-organ imaging and dosimetry. Two beta particles provide additional therapeutic value. Radium-223 may be produced economically and in sufficient amounts for widescale application. Many aspects of the chemistry of carrier-free isotope preparation, complexation, and linkage to the antibody have been developed and are being tested. The radiation dosimetry of a Ra-223-labeled antibody shows favorable tumor to normal tissue dose ratios for therapy. The 11.4-d half-life of Ra-223 allows sufficient time for immunoconjugate preparation, administration, and tumor localization by carrier antibodies before significant radiological decay takes place. If 0.01 percent of a 37 MBq (1 mCi) injection deposits in a one gram tumor mass, and if the activity is retained with a typical effective half-time (75 h), the absorbed dose will be 163 mGy MBq{sup {minus}1} (600 rad mCi{sup {minus}1}) administered. 49 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Radium-226 in wetland birds from Florida phosphate mines

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, O.B.; Marion, W.R.; O'Meara, T.E.; Roessler, C.E. )

    1989-10-01

    Radium-226 is a naturally-occurring radionuclide found in enhanced levels at Florida phosphate mines. We inventoried levels of radium-226 in the tissues of 4 wetland bird species from 2 mined and 2 umined areas in Florida. Bone tissues of wood duck (Aix sponsa), mottled duck (Anas fulvigula), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), and double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) colleted at phosphate mines contained more radium-226 than tissues from unmined areas. Radium-226 concentrations in these birds were within guidelines inferred from radiological standards designed for human protection and should not adversely affect bird populations.

  8. Radium in Humans: A Review of U.S. Studies.

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Rowland, R. E.

    1994-09-01

    This document was originally conceived as a description of the radium studies that took place at Argonne National Laboratory. It soon became evident, however, that to document the widespread use of radium, a brief review of the application of radium in medicine and in the US dial painting industry is required. Further, because the Argonne studies were not the only such efforts, brief overviews of the other radium programs are included. Even so, much material has been omitted. The extensive references included will allow the interested reader to find additional information. The effects of internally deposited radium in humans have been studied in this country for more than 75 years. Some 2,400 subjects have had their body contents of radium measured, and a majority of them have been followed for most of their adult lives, to understand and quantify the effects of radium. Many more individuals acquired radium internally but were never measured. Some of this group have been located and followed until death; in these cases the cause of death is known without a body content measurement. As a consequence of the efforts made to locate, measure, and follow exposed individuals, a great deal of information about the effects of radium is available. Nevertheless, great gaps remain in the knowledge of radium toxicity. The Argonne study is the largest every undertaken of the effects on humans of an internally deposited radioelement, in which the insult has been quantitated by actual measurements of the retained radioisotope. The study has now been terminated, even though more than 1,000 subjects with measured radium burdens are still alive. This document is written as a brief summary of current knowledge accumulated in this incomplete study.

  9. Radioactive artifacts: historical sources of modern radium contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Blaufox, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radium has been distributed in a wide variety of devices during the early part of this century. Antique objects containing significant amounts of radium turn up at flea markets, antique shows, and antique dealers, in a variety of locations. These objects include radium in devices which were used by legitimate medical practitioners for legitimate medical purposes such as therapy, as well as a wide variety of quack cures. These devices may contain anywhere from a few nanocuries to as much as several hundred microcuries of radium. In addition to medical sources, a large variety of scientific instruments utilize radium in luminous dials. These instruments include compasses, azimuth indicators, and virtually any object which might require some form of calibration. In addition, the consumer market utilized a large amount of radium in the production of wrist watches, pocket watches, and clocks with luminous dials. Some of these watches contained as much as 4.5 microCi of radium, and between 1913 and 1920 about 70 gm was produced for the manufacture of luminous compounds. In addition to the large amount of radium produced for scientific and consumer utilization, there were a number of materials produced which were claimed to contain radium but in fact did not, further adding to the confusion in this area. The wide availability of radium is a result of the public's great fascination with radioactivity during the early part of this century and a belief in its curative properties. A number of objects were produced in order to trap the emanations of radium in water for persons to drink in order to benefit from their healing effects. Since the late 20s and early 30s the public's attitude towards radiation has shifted 180 degrees and it is now considered an extremely dangerous and harmful material.

  10. [Radium in pharmacies! First Part : Pharmaceutical used of radium before the first World War].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile; Lefebvre, Thierry

    2012-02-01

    The authors present in this part the creation of first radioactiv drugs, since the discovery of radium to the first World War. They present the industrial and chemist Emile Armet de Lisle and the pharmacist Alexandre Antonin Jaboin, first manufacturers of those new way of treatment.

  11. [Radium in pharmacy! Second Part: Pharmaceutical used of radium during the inter-war years].

    PubMed

    Raynal, Cécile; Lefebvre, Thierry

    2012-05-01

    This article presents the raise of patent medicines composed of radium during the inter-war years. Because of a lack of regulation, this production was getting anarchistic. It is studied throught many documents from pharmaceutical laboratories wich are kept by the Curie' museum. Those laboratories would obtain certificates from Curie Institute, to show them in their advertisements.

  12. EVALUATING VARIOUS ADSORBENTS AND MEMBRANES FOR REMOVING RADIUM FROM GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies were conducted in Lemont, Ill., to evaluate specific adsorbents and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes for removing radium from groundwater. A radium-selective complexer and barium-sulfate-loaded alumina appeared to have the best potential for low-cost adsorption of ra...

  13. EVALUATING ION EXCHANGE FOR REMOVING RADIUM FROM GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article, the second in a series, focuses on the results of bench- and pilot-scale studies of ion exchange processes for radium removal from groundwater in Lemont, Ill. Batch and column studies indicated a very high resin selectivity for radium compared with common cations. E...

  14. EVALUATING ION EXCHANGE FOR REMOVING RADIUM FROM GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article, the second in a series, focuses on the results of bench- and pilot-scale studies of ion exchange processes for radium removal from groundwater in Lemont, Ill. Batch and column studies indicated a very high resin selectivity for radium compared with common cations. E...

  15. EVALUATING VARIOUS ADSORBENTS AND MEMBRANES FOR REMOVING RADIUM FROM GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies were conducted in Lemont, Ill., to evaluate specific adsorbents and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes for removing radium from groundwater. A radium-selective complexer and barium-sulfate-loaded alumina appeared to have the best potential for low-cost adsorption of ra...

  16. Rapid Radiochemical Method for Radium-226 in Building ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Fact Sheet Analysis Purpose: Qualitative analysis Technique: Alpha spectrometry Method Developed for: Radium-226 in building materials Method Selected for: SAM lists this method for qualitative analysis of radium-226 in concrete or brick building materials Summary of subject analytical method which will be posted to the SAM website to allow access to the method.

  17. Radium in humans: A review of U.S. studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    This document was originally conceived as a compilation of activities at Argonne National Laboratory that were directed toward the study of radium in humans. However, it soon became obvious that this was a very limited approach, because such a compilation would include no background on the widespread uses of radium in industry and in the medical profession, nor would it address the early history of the discovery of the hazards of radium. Such an approach would also ignore contributions to the study of radium effects made at other laboratories. This document now addresses these topics, in order to give an overall picture of what might be called the radium era, that period from the early part of this century, when radium was rapidly exploited as a tool and a medication, to the present time, when radium is not generally used and the study of its effects has been terminated. The appendix to this review lists all of the measured radium cases, a total of 2,403 individuals whose records were in the files at the end of 1990. For each case the route of exposure, the dates of exposure, the years of birth and death, the measured body content, the calculated intake and dose, and the cause of death have been listed. 165 refs.

  18. Marie and Pierre Curie and radium: history, mystery, and discovery.

    PubMed

    Mould, R F

    1999-09-01

    Commencing with Marie Curie's early life in Poland and the discovery of radium in the rue l'Homond "shed" in Paris in 1898, this paper includes some little known facts. It ends with some unusual uses of and claims for radium, and finally, because Medical Physics is an American journal, details are included of Marie Curie's two visits to the USA.

  19. Chemotherapy following radium-223 dichloride treatment in ALSYMPCA.

    PubMed

    Sartor, Oliver; Hoskin, Peter; Coleman, Robert E; Nilsson, Sten; Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Petrenciuc, Oana; Staudacher, Karin; Thuresson, Marcus; Parker, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Radium-223 prolongs overall survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and symptomatic bone metastases, regardless of prior docetaxel. Whether or not chemotherapy can be safely administered following radium-223 treatment is of clinical importance. An exploratory analysis of prospectively collected data, from the ALSYMPCA (ALpharadin in SYMptomatic Prostate CAncer) patient subgroup who received chemotherapy after radium-223 or placebo treatment, was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of chemotherapy following radium-223. In ALSYMPCA, CRPC patients with symptomatic bone metastases and no visceral metastases were randomized 2:1 to receive six injections of radium-223 (50 kBq/kg IV) or placebo plus best standard of care, stratified by prior docetaxel, baseline alkaline phosphatase, and current bisphosphonate use. In this exploratory analysis, chemotherapy agents administered following study treatment were identified; timing and duration were calculated. Hematologic safety was reviewed, and overall survival analyzed. Overall, 142 radium-223 and 64 placebo patients received subsequent chemotherapy; most common were docetaxel (70% radium-223, 72% placebo) and mitoxantrone (16% radium-223, 20% placebo). The majority of patients (61% radium-223, 58% placebo) had received prior docetaxel. Radium-223 patients started subsequent chemotherapy later than placebo patients; chemotherapy duration was similar between groups. In radium-223 and placebo patients receiving subsequent chemotherapy, median hematologic values (hemoglobin, neutrophils, and platelets) remained nearly constant up to 18 months following start of chemotherapy, regardless of prior docetaxel treatment. A low percentage of patients in both groups had grades 3-4 hematologic values (<10%). Platelet count decline, from last measurement before chemotherapy, was numerically greater in radium-223 versus placebo patients. Median overall survivals from start of chemotherapy were 16

  20. Radium Ra 223 dichloride in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Joung, J Y; Ha, Y S; Kim, I Y

    2013-08-01

    Radium Ra 223 dichloride (Xofigo®, formerly Alpharadin) is one of the representative α-particle-emitting isotopes that delivers radiation with a higher biological effect to a more localized area. Preclinical studies in mouse, rat and canine models have demonstrated that radium Ra 223 dichloride has a definite skeletal affinity and antitumor effect with a relatively low toxicity on bone marrow. More recently, in a large randomized phase III trial (ALSYMPCA), patients with bone metastasis and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) received six cycles of 50 kBq/kg of radium Ra 223 dichloride in 4-week intervals. In these men, radium Ra 223 dichloride improved the median overall survival by 3.6 months when compared to the placebo group. Collectively, these results suggest that radium Ra 223 dichloride is a promising candidate for managing bone metastases in patients with CRPC.

  1. Nasopharyngeal radium irradiation: The lessons of history.

    PubMed

    Graamans, Kees

    2017-02-01

    In the Netherlands, nasopharyngeal radium irradiation was started in 1945. The indications included refractory symptoms of otitis media with effusion and other adenoid-related disorders after adenoidectomy. It was considered a safe and effective therapy. Its use decreased sharply in 1958, following a worldwide media avalanche around the dramatic events in the treatment of a 5-year-old child in Utrecht, enhancing the widespread fear of radioactivity. This case history illustrates the powerful role of the media in medical decision-making.

  2. American Radium Society 92nd Annual Meeting.

    PubMed

    Jani, Ashesh B; Le, Quynh-Thu; Michalski, Jeff J; Sawaya, Raymond; Wilson, Lynn D

    2010-08-01

    We provide a summary of the 92nd Annual Meeting of the American Radium Society (ARS), the oldest organization devoted to the study of cancer. This May 2010 meeting included a postgraduate course/contouring laboratory, seven scientific sessions, two keynote lectures, one Janeway lecture, four Panel presentations, one debate, one satellite symposium and 107 poster presentations--details of each of these activities are provided. All of these academic activities revolved around the major meeting theme of 'Improved Outcomes Through Judicious Applications of Advanced Technology'.

  3. Controls on radium transport by adsorption to iron minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Wang, T.; Kocar, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    Radium is a naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are generated by uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal porewater flux leads to accumulation. These isotopes are used as natural tracers for estimating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], allowing for large scale estimation of GW fluxes into and out of the ocean [2]. They also represent a substantial hazard in wastewater produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release to surface and near-surface waters, and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a dominant pathway of radium retention in subsurface environments. For SGD studies, adsorption processes impact estimates of GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids mediates wastewater radium activities. Analysis of past sorption studies revealed large variability in partition coefficients [4], while examination of radium adsorption kinetics and surface complexation have only recently started [5]. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption and column experiments of radium with a suite of iron minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through artificial waters. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the transport and retention of radium. These results will provide critical information on the mineralogical controls on radium retention in subsurface environments, and will therefore improve predictions of radium groundwater transport in natural and contaminated systems. [1] Charette, M.A., Buesseler, K.O. & Andrews, J.E., Limnol. Oceanogr. (2001). [2] Moore, W.S., Ann. Rev. Mar. Sci. (2010). [3] Vengosh, A

  4. 18 CFR 385.213 - Answers (Rule 213).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Pleadings, Tariff and Rate Filings, Notices of Tariff or Rate Examination, Orders To Show Cause, Intervention, and Summary Disposition § 385.213 Answers (Rule 213). (a) Required or permitted. (1) Any respondent to a complaint or order to show...

  5. 18 CFR 385.213 - Answers (Rule 213).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Pleadings, Tariff and Rate Filings, Notices of Tariff or Rate Examination, Orders To Show Cause, Intervention, and Summary Disposition § 385.213 Answers (Rule 213). (a) Required or permitted. (1) Any respondent to a complaint or order to show...

  6. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing

  7. Microbial uptake of uranium, cesium, and radium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II; Parrott, J.R. Jr.; McWhirter, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of diverse microbial species to concentrate uranium, cesium, and radium was examined. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium to 10 to 15% of the dry cell weight. Only a fraction of the cells in a given population had visible uranium deposits in electron micrographs. While metabolism was not required for uranium uptake, mechanistic differences in the metal uptake process were indicated. Uranium accumulated slowly (hours) on the surface of S. cerevisiae and was subject to environmental factors (i.e., temperature, pH, interfering cations and anions). In contrast, P. aeruginosa and the mixed culture of denitrifying bacteria accumulated uranium rapidly (minutes) as dense, apparently random, intracellular deposits. This very rapid accumulation has prevented us from determining whether the uptake rate during the transient between the initial and equilibrium distribution of uranium is affected by environmental conditions. However, the final equilibrium distributions are not affected by those conditions which affect uptake by S. cerevisiae. Cesium and radium were concentrated to a considerably lesser extent than uranium by the several microbial species tested. The potential utility of microorganisms for the removal and concentration of these metals from nuclear processing wastes and several bioreactor designs for contacting microorganisms with contaminated waste streams will be discussed.

  8. Effective radium-226 concentration in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Frédéric; Perrier, Frédéric; Moreira, Manuel; Zanda, Brigitte; Rochette, Pierre; Teitler, Yoram

    2017-07-01

    The analysis of noble gases in meteorites provides constraints on the early solar system and the pre-solar nebula. This requires a better characterization and understanding of the capture, production, and release of noble gases in meteorites. The knowledge of transfer properties of noble gases for each individual meteorite could benefit from using radon-222, radioactive daughter of radium-226. The radon-222 emanating power is commonly quantified by the effective radium-226 concentration (ECRa), the product of the bulk radium-226 concentration and of the emanation coefficient E, which represents the probability of one decaying radium-226 to inject one radon-222 into the free porous network. Owing to a non-destructive, high-sensitivity accumulation method based on long photomultiplier counting sessions, we are now able to measure ECRa of meteorite samples, which usually have mass smaller than 15 g and ECRa < 0.5 Bq kg-1. We report here the results obtained from 41 different meteorites, based on 129 measurements on 70 samples using two variants of our method, showing satisfactory repeatability and a detection limit below 10-2 Bq kg-1 for a sample mass of 1 g. While two meteorites remain below detection level, we obtain for 39 meteorites heterogeneous ECRa values with mean (min-max range) of ca. 0.1 (0.018-1.30) Bq kg-1. Carbonaceous chondrites exhibit the largest ECRa values and eucrites the smallest. Such values are smaller than typical values from most terrestrial rocks, but comparable with those from Archean rocks (mean of ca. 0.18 Bq kg-1), an end-member of terrestrial rocks. Using uranium concentration from the literature, E is inferred from ECRa for all the meteorite samples. Values of E for meteorites (mean 40 ± 4%) are higher than E values for Archean rocks and reported values for lunar and Martian soils. Exceptionally large E values likely suggest that the 238U-226Ra pair would not be at equilibrium in most meteorites and that uranium and/or radium are most

  9. American radium engenders telecurie therapy during World War I.

    PubMed

    Robison, R

    2000-06-01

    From 1899 to 1912 there was a European monopoly controlling the sale of radium for cancer therapy. This trust was finally broken, albeit only temporarily, in 1912/13 by American entrepreneurs J. Flannery, H. Kelly, and J. Douglas. Joe Flannery was a former mortician turned mining magnate. Dr. Howard Kelly was the renowned gynecological surgeon at Johns Hopkins Hospital and Medical School who defied tradition by maintaining his own private hospital. Professor James Douglas was the Arizona copper king who helped support Memorial Hospital in New York City as America's first cancer hospital. During 1913-1916 surgeons Howard Kelly (Baltimore) and H. H. Janeway (Memorial Hospital) began using radium and radon for the treatment of deep seated cancers. Their technique required placement of the sources several centimeters away from the skin surface. As this new concept, telecurie therapy, resulted in a significant decrease in dose rate, it was necessary for both surgeons to have several grams of radium, costing $180000/gram, in their possession. Fortunately, Kelly and Janeway were the sole beneficiaries of a radium mining company, the National Radium Institute, from 1913 to 1916. With this unique American source of radium and with Europe otherwise preoccupied, these two American surgeons pioneered megavoltage telecurie therapy, using the 1.2 MeV gamma rays of "mass radium."

  10. Radithor and the era of mild radium therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Macklis, R.M. )

    1990-08-01

    Soon after the discovery of radium, a school of practitioners arose who were interested primarily in the physiological rather than the tumoricidal powers of this new radioactive element. This treatment philosophy was called mild radium therapy and involved the oral or parenteral administration of microgram quantities of radium and its daughter isotopes, often as cures for rheumatic diseases, hypertension, and metabolic disorders. Manufacturers of patent medicines responded to this market by producing a variety of over-the-counter radioactive preparations including pills, elixirs, and salves. One such nostrum was Radithor, a popular and expensive mixture of radium 226 and radium 228 in distilled water. Radithor was advertised as an effective treatment for over 150 endocrinologic diseases, especially lassitude and sexual impotence. Over 400,000 bottles, each containing over 2 muCi (74 kBq) of radium, were apparently marketed and sold worldwide between 1925 and 1930. The death of the Pittsburgh millionaire sportsman Eben M. Byers, who was an avid Radithor user, by radium poisoning in 1932 brought an end to this era and prompted the development of regulatory controls for all radiopharmaceuticals.

  11. History of the determination of radium in man since 1915

    SciTech Connect

    Rundo, J.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of radium in man can be traced back to experiments in 1915 when volunteers were injected with, or ingested, solutions of a radium salt, and the excreta were analyzed for radium. However, the first direct demonstrations of the presence of radium in vivo years after exposure were reported in 1925 by Martland et al. A few years later, Schlundt et al. repeated Martland's types of measurements with a Wulf-Hess electroscope, in an attempt to be quantitative. Data on the excretion rate of radium were published by Schlundt and Failla in 1931. The results of an investigation by the US Public Health Service of the health aspects of radium dial painting were published in three papers in 1933. In the second of these, Ives et al. reported results for 40 subjects who showed gamma-ray results of 1 {mu}g radium (i.e., retained radon) or more. There was a major improvement in sensitivity in 1937 when Evans described the use of a Geiger-Mueller detector and the metre-arc geometry. Ten years later, Hess and McNiff published details of an ionization chamber method that did permit such levels to be determined. In the early 1950s, three groups described the first equipments for the assay of radioactivity in the human body that could detect the radiation from the naturally radioactive potassium content. In 1955, the introduction by Marinelli et al. of the sodium iodide crystal as gamma-ray detector revolutionized the assay of radium (and all other gamma-ray emitters) in vivo. These factors have all contributed to a steady decrease in the lower limit of detection of radium in man that was roughly exponential from 1929 to the mid-1950s with a half-period of a little over 3 years. 36 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Predicting radium availability and uptake from soil properties.

    PubMed

    Vandenhove, H; Van Hees, M

    2007-09-01

    The results of a potted soil experiment to determine the soil and plant factors ruling radium availability and uptake by ryegrass and clover are described. Nine soils with distinct soil characteristics were spiked with 226 Ra. They were thoroughly characterized and the solid liquid partitioning coefficient, Kd, was determined. Kd ranged from 38 l kg(-1) to 446 l kg(-1) (average: 188+/-156 l kg(-1)) and was linearly related to cation exchange capacity (CEC) and organic matter (OM) content. The soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) was significantly affected by the chemical properties of the soils and ranged from 0.054 kg kg(-1) to 0.719 kg kg(-1) for ryegrass and from 0.034 kg kg(-1) to 1.494 kg kg(-1) for clover. Overall, no significant difference in TF between ryegrass and clover was observed. TF was related to Kd, to CEC, OM (for ryegrass only when excluding one soil) and the calcium concentration in the soil solution (for both plants if excluding one soil). Radium flux were calculated from the radium concentration in the soil solution and the evapotranspiration, to predict total radium uptake derived from shoot radium concentration and biomass yield. It was found that radium uptake could be predicted from the radium flux (R2=0.61 and 0.83 for ryegrass and clover, respectively). Higher predictability (R2=0.70 and 0.91 for ryegrass and clover, respectively) was obtained when relating total radium uptake to a radium flow considering competition effects at the root surface by bivalent cations.

  13. Early radium experiments in Guadalajara, M'exico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Alba Martínez, Durruty Jesús

    2005-04-01

    In April 01, 1904, two catholic lay priests, Severo D'iaz Galindo and Jos'e Mar'ia Arreola Mendoza, performed firsts Radium experiments in Guadalajara, M'exico, just after Radium experiments realized in Mexico City by Prof. Luis G. Le'on. Results of such experiences where published in the Bolet'in Eclesi'astico y Cient'ifico del Arzobispado de Guadalajara/ (Eclesiastic and Scientific Bulletin of the Guadalajara Archbishopric), here is show this paper and some of the first Radium plates obtained. Scientific and educational situation in Guadalajara is described and how both persons became founders of the modern scientific activity in the city.

  14. Distribution of radium and plutonium in human bone

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents aspects of current and recent work on the distribution of radium and plutonium near the surfaces of human bone and applications of the data. Included are sections on methods, surface deposit thickness, radium distribution near the endosteal surface, the use of alpha spectrometry in conjunction with autoradiography, radium distribution in the mastoid, and factors affecting plutonium specific activity. Emphasis is placed on the alpha spectrometry technique because of its usefulness and its recent application to problems of local dosimetry. 19 references, 14 figures, 6 tables.

  15. 48 CFR 213.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.302 Section 213.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Acquisition Methods 213.302 Purchase orders. ...

  16. Radium dial watches, a potentially hazardous legacy?

    PubMed

    Gillmore, Gavin K; Crockett, Robin; Denman, Tony; Flowers, Alan; Harris, Richard

    2012-09-15

    This study re-examines the risk to health from radium ((226)Ra) dial watches. Ambient dose equivalent rates have been measured for fifteen pocket watches giving results of up to 30 μSv h(-1) at a distance of 2 cm taken with a series 1000 mini-rad from the front face (arithmetic mean ambient dose equivalent for pocket watches being 13.2 μSv h(-1)). A pocket compass gave rise to a similar ambient dose equivalent rate, of 20 μSv h(-1), to the pocket watches, with its cover open. Eighteen wristwatches have also been assessed, but their dose rates are generally much lower (the arithmetic mean being 3.0 μSv h(-1)), although the highest ambient dose equivalent rate noted was 20 μSv h(-1). A phantom experiment using a TLD suggested an effective dose equivalent of 2.2 mSv/y from a 1 μCi (37 kBq) radium dial worn for 16 h/day throughout the year (dose rate 0.375 μSv h(-1)). For this condition we estimated maximum skin dose for our pocket watches as 16 mSv per year, with effective doses of 5.1 mSv and 1.169 mSv when worn in vest and trouser pockets respectively. This assumes exposure from the back of the watch which is generally around 60-67% of that from the front. The maximum skin dose from a wristwatch was 14 mSv, with 4.2 mSv effective dose in vest pocket. Radium ((226)Ra) decays to the radioactive gas radon ((222)Rn), and atmospheric radon concentration measurements taken around a pocket watch in a small sealed glass sphere recorded 18,728 B qm(-3). All watches were placed in a room with a RAD7 real-time radon detector. Radon concentration average was 259±9 Bq m(-3) over 16 h, compared to background average over 24h of 1.02 Bq m(-3). Over 6 weeks highs of the order of 2000 Bq m(-3) were routinely recorded when the heating/ventilation system in the room was operating at reduced rates, peaking at over 3000 Bq m(-3) on several occasions. Estimates of the activity of (226)Ra in the watches ranged from 0.063 to 1.063 μCi (2.31 to 39.31 kBq) for pocket watches and

  17. Why the radium wasn't found.

    PubMed

    Rosen, R

    2000-08-01

    Although this search for lost radium tubes was conducted some forty years ago, the lessons deduced in this report are still relevant today. The origin of the loss and five stages of the search, which turned out to be unsuccessful, are described in detail. These included monitoring the hospital incinerator, its ash, residential pathways, the municipal rubbish tip, the hospital theatre and its drains, and the hospital environs. Incidentally, the searcher nearly became a victim of quicksand, and a false lead was attributed to the use of uranium coloring agent in the wall tiles of the hospital theatre. The deduced lessons include the necessity for users of sealed radioactive sources to have adequately trained staff; to follow an accredited code of practice; to have ready access to a radiation survey meter; to have a suitable storage safe and a meticulously maintained source register. Some advice is given about the conduct of a search and desirable personal attributes of a proficient searcher.

  18. Biosorption of uranium, radium, and cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Some fundamental aspects of the biosorption of metals by microbial cells were investigated. These studies were carried out in conjunction with efforts to develop a process to utilize microbial cells as biosorbents for the removal of radionuclides from waste streams generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. It was felt that an understanding of the mechanism(s) of metal uptake would potentially enable the enhancement of the metal uptake phenomenon through environmental or genetic manipulation of the microorganisms. Also presented are the results of a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of /sup 137/cesium and /sup 226/radium from existing waste solutions. The studies were directed primarily at a characterization of uranium uptake by the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  19. Historic development and medical use of nasopharyngeal radium irradiation treatments.

    PubMed

    Proctor, D F

    1996-11-01

    Nasopharyngeal radium irradiation was a medical treatment that replaced eustachian tube inflation and was itself replaced by tympanotomy tubes. Research and development began in 1924 when Samuel J. Crowe was awarded funds to develop an otologic research laboratory. He observed that recurring adenoids and serous otitis were associated with childhood deafness. In collaboration with Curtis Burnam, he developed a nasopharyngeal radon applicator in the 1930s. This was modified in the 1940s to a nasopharyngeal radium applicator, which had a much longer half-life and did not need treatment lengths recalculated twice each day. Numerous reports on the clinical use of nasopharyngeal radium irradiation in the United States were published. Papers have cautioned against possible dangers of nasopharyngeal radium irradiation, but there have been no substantiated reports. This report ends with three concluding suggestions for research.

  20. Alpha emitter radium-223 and survival in metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Parker, C; Nilsson, S; Heinrich, D; Helle, S I; O'Sullivan, J M; Fosså, S D; Chodacki, A; Wiechno, P; Logue, J; Seke, M; Widmark, A; Johannessen, D C; Hoskin, P; Bottomley, D; James, N D; Solberg, A; Syndikus, I; Kliment, J; Wedel, S; Boehmer, S; Dall'Oglio, M; Franzén, L; Coleman, R; Vogelzang, N J; O'Bryan-Tear, C G; Staudacher, K; Garcia-Vargas, J; Shan, M; Bruland, Ø S; Sartor, O

    2013-07-18

    Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223), an alpha emitter, selectively targets bone metastases with alpha particles. We assessed the efficacy and safety of radium-223 as compared with placebo, in addition to the best standard of care, in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases. In our phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we randomly assigned 921 patients who had received, were not eligible to receive, or declined docetaxel, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive six injections of radium-223 (at a dose of 50 kBq per kilogram of body weight intravenously) or matching placebo; one injection was administered every 4 weeks. In addition, all patients received the best standard of care. The primary end point was overall survival. The main secondary efficacy end points included time to the first symptomatic skeletal event and various biochemical end points. A prespecified interim analysis, conducted when 314 deaths had occurred, assessed the effect of radium-223 versus placebo on survival. An updated analysis, when 528 deaths had occurred, was performed before crossover from placebo to radium-223. At the interim analysis, which involved 809 patients, radium-223, as compared with placebo, significantly improved overall survival (median, 14.0 months vs. 11.2 months; hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 0.88; two-sided P=0.002). The updated analysis involving 921 patients confirmed the radium-223 survival benefit (median, 14.9 months vs. 11.3 months; hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.83; P<0.001). Assessments of all main secondary efficacy end points also showed a benefit of radium-233 as compared with placebo. Radium-223 was associated with low myelosuppression rates and fewer adverse events. In this study, which was terminated for efficacy at the prespecified interim analysis, radium-223 improved overall survival. (Funded by Algeta and Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals; ALSYMPCA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00699751.).

  1. History of the determination of radium in man since 1915

    SciTech Connect

    Rundo, J.

    1993-12-31

    In 1915, volunteers were injected with, or ingested, solutions of a radium salt, and the excreta were analysed for radium, but the first direct demonstrations of the presence of radium in vivo years after exposure were reported in 1925; they were also able to demonstrate the presence of radon isotopes in the exhaled breath. In 1929, radium levels were reported in six living persons based on a calibration that was derived from measurements on a seventh who subsequently died and whose partial skeleton was analysed. In 1933 results were reported for 40 subjects who showed gamma-ray results of 1 {mu}g radium (i.e., retained radon) or more. There was an improvement in sensitivity by a order of magnitude in 1937 with the use of a Geiger-Mueller detector and the metre-arc geometry; the method was still incapable of measuring radium at the {open_quotes}tolerance dose{close_quotes} of 0.1 {mu}g. Ten years later, details of an ionization chamber method were published that did permit such levels to be determined. In the early 1950s, three groups independently described the use of long high-pressure ionization chambers that were sensitive enough to detect the radiation from the naturally radioactive potassium content of the human body. In 1955, the introduction of sodium iodide as gamma-ray detector, with its high detection efficiency and spectrometric capabilities, and of large organic scintillators, revolutionized the assay of radium (and all other gamma-ray emitters) in vivo. The lower limit of detection of radium in man showed a steady decrease that was roughly exponential from 1929 to the mid-1950s with a half-period of a little more than 3 y.

  2. Practical guide to the use of radium 223 dichloride.

    PubMed

    Den, Robert B; Doyle, Laura A; Knudsen, Karen E

    2014-04-01

    Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals have been used for decades in the palliation of pain from bone metastases emerging from prostate cancer. Recent clinical evidence has demonstrated an improved survival in men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with radium 223. A review of the literature was performed to identify the role of radiopharmaceuticals in the management of prostate cancer. We focused on prospective trials in order to identify the highest level of evidence describing this therapy. Further, we focused on providing a clinical guide for the use of radium 223. The phase III ALSYMPCA trial which compared radium 223 to placebo in men with symptomatic CRPC demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in median overall survival of 3.6 months and an improvement in time to first skeletal related event. There were higher rates of myelosuppression and diarrhea with radium 223, however, no clinically meaningful differences in the frequency of grade 3 or 4 adverse events were observed between the study groups. Radium 223 is a safe and effective therapy in men with symptomatic CRPC providing a survival advantage on par with novel antiandrogens, CYP-17 inhibitors, and chemotherapy. Radium 223 has huge potential in combination strategies as well as for use earlier in the natural history of metastatic prostate cancer.

  3. Radium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of radium contamination in the environment. Topics include the presence of radium in drinking water and groundwater, removal techniques, bioaccumulation, natural sources of contamination, containment of contaminated waste solids, contribution to radon pollution, and radium as a pollutant in mine tailings and phosphate mining operations. Methods of radium analysis, and health hazards from radium exposure are discussed. Government regulations regarding radium in consumer products and drinking water are described. (Contains a minimum of 95 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Intermittent Elevated Radium Concentrations in Coastal Plain Groundwater of South Carolina, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, Miles; Millings, Margaret; Noonkester, Jay

    2005-09-22

    To learn the cause of intermittent radium concentrations in groundwater of Coastal Plain aquifers, 31 groundwater wells in South Carolina, U.S.A. were sampled for radium and other geochemical parameters. Sediments cored from near the well screens were also sampled to examine any relationship between sediment properties and radium concentration in the groundwater. Elevated radium concentrations only occurred in groundwater with low electrical conductivity and pH values below 6.3. The adsorption edge for radium on hematite--a major surface active mineral in these aquifers--is at a pH value of about 6. Near this value, small changes in pH can result in significant adsorption or desorption of radium. In groundwater with initially low alkalinity, small intermittent decreases in partial pressure of carbon dioxide in groundwater cause decreases in pH and desorption of radium. The result is intermittent elevated radium concentrations.

  5. EPA Method 903.1: Radium-226 in Drinking Water Radon Emanation Technique

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAM lists this method to provide for the analysis of drinking water samples that contain Radium-226, and is based on the emanation and scintillation counting of Radon-222, the immediate decay product of Radium-226.

  6. Radium-223 dichloride for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Turner, Philip Geoffrey; O'Sullivan, Joe

    2014-10-01

    Bone metastases are a frequent complication of many malignancies and are particularly common in metastatic prostate cancer, where they are associated with a high degree of morbidity. Until recently, treatments relied on palliative bone targeting measures with no proven survival-prolonging action or on systemic agents with general anti-prostate cancer activity but significant toxicities. Radium-223 dichloride is a bone-seeking, α-emitting, radionuclide that has recently been licensed in the US and Europe for the treatment of men with castration-resistant prostate cancer, bone metastases and no known visceral metastases. Radium-223 is the first bone-seeking radionuclide therapy proven to result in increased overall survival versus placebo. The existing market of bone-targeted agents is reviewed before considering what radium-223 adds by examining its pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy and safety data. Initial relevant papers were identified by searching PubMed using combinations of the terms, 'Radium', 'Prostatic neoplasms', 'Bone', 'Neoplasm metastasis'. Consideration is given to further preclinical work needed into the mechanism of action of radium-223 and future clinical directions of the drug including combinations with other agents.

  7. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-01-01

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  8. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-12-31

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  9. Principal aquifers can contribute radium to sources of drinking water under certain geochemical conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, Zoltan; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Hancock, Tracy Connell

    2012-01-01

    What are the most important factors affecting dissolved radium concentrations in principal aquifers used for drinking water in the United States? Study results reveal where radium was detected and how rock type and chemical processes control radium occurrence. Knowledge of the geochemical conditions may help water-resource managers anticipate where radium may be elevated in groundwater and minimize exposure to radium, which contributes to cancer risk. Summary of Major Findings: * Concentrations of radium in principal aquifers used for drinking water throughout the United States generally were below 5 picocuries per liter (pCi/L), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for combined radium - radium-226 (Ra-226) plus radium-228 (Ra-228) - in public water supplies. About 3 percent of sampled wells had combined radium concentrations greater than the MCL. * Elevated concentrations of combined radium were more common in groundwater in the eastern and central United States than in other regions of the Nation. About 98 percent of the wells that contained combined radium at concentrations greater than the MCL were east of the High Plains. * The highest concentrations of combined radium were in the Mid-Continent and Ozark Plateau Cambro-Ordovician aquifer system and the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer system. More than 20 percent of sampled wells in these aquifers had combined radium concentrations that were greater than or equal to the MCL. * Concentrations of Ra-226 correlated with those of Ra-228. Radium-226 and Ra-228 occur most frequently together in unconsolidated sand aquifers, and their presence is strongly linked to groundwater chemistry. * Three common geochemical factors are associated with the highest radium concentrations in groundwater: (1) oxygen-poor water, (2) acidic conditions (low pH), and (3) high concentrations of dissolved solids.

  10. RADIUM REMOVAL FROM WATER MANGANESE DIOXIDE ADSORP- TION AND DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study reveals that radium adsorption onto precipitated MnO2 followed by diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration is a very effective treatment process for radium-contaminated water. Radium removals in the range of 80% to 97% were observed for performed MnO2 feed concentrations of 0...

  11. RADIUM REMOVAL FROM WATER MANGANESE DIOXIDE ADSORP- TION AND DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study reveals that radium adsorption onto precipitated MnO2 followed by diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration is a very effective treatment process for radium-contaminated water. Radium removals in the range of 80% to 97% were observed for performed MnO2 feed concentrations of 0...

  12. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. The provisions of this subpart C...

  13. Advisory Report on the Health Effects of Radium 226 in Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Inst. for Environmental Quality, Chicago.

    Examined are the health effects of law concentrations of the radioactive isotope Radium-226 in drinking water. Contents include discussions of the physical properties of radium, biological and metabolic effects, health effects of exposure to Radium-226, and populations at risk. Appendices provide more technical information including equations,…

  14. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. The provisions of this subpart C...

  15. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. The provisions of this subpart C...

  16. Advisory Report on the Health Effects of Radium 226 in Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Inst. for Environmental Quality, Chicago.

    Examined are the health effects of law concentrations of the radioactive isotope Radium-226 in drinking water. Contents include discussions of the physical properties of radium, biological and metabolic effects, health effects of exposure to Radium-226, and populations at risk. Appendices provide more technical information including equations,…

  17. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. The provisions of this subpart C are applicable to...

  18. 40 CFR 440.30 - Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. 440.30 Section 440.30 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Uranium, Radium and Vanadium Ores Subcategory § 440.30 Applicability; description of the uranium, radium and vanadium ores subcategory. The provisions of this subpart C are applicable to...

  19. Isotopic generator for bismuth-212 and lead-212 from radium

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W.; Friedman, Arnold M.; Hines, John

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing radionuclides of bismuth-212 and lead-212. Thorium-228 and carrier solution starting material is input to a radiologically contained portion of an isotopic generator system, and radium-224 is separated from thorium-228 which is retained by a strongly basic anion exchange column. The separated radium-224 is transferred to an accessible, strongly acidic cationic exchange column. The cationic column retains the radium-224, and natural radioactive decay generates bismuth-212 and lead-212. The cationic exchange column can also be separated from the contained portion of the system and utilized without the extraordinary safety measures necessary in the contained portion. Furthermore, the cationic exchange column provides over a relatively long time period the short lived lead-212 and bismuth-212 radionuclides which are useful for a variety of medical therapies.

  20. Application of zeolites for radium removal from mine water.

    PubMed

    Chałupnik, Stanisław; Franus, Wojciech; Wysocka, Małgorzata; Gzyl, Grzegorz

    2013-11-01

    For removal of radium from saline waters in Upper Silesian mines, several methods of purification have been developed. The most efficient one is based on application of barium chloride, which was implemented in full technical scale in two Polish coal mines several years ago. Very good results of purification have been achieved-the removal efficiency exceeding 95% of the initial activity. Another possibility for the removal of different ions from salty waters and brines is the application of zeolites. We found that technique as a very promising method for removal of not only radium isotopes from mine waters but also other ions (barium, iron, manganese). Treatment of several various water samples has been done to assess the removal efficiency for natural radionuclides. Preliminary results show very good effects for radium isotopes as well as for barium ions. In the paper, a short description of laboratory results of the purification of mine waters with application of synthetic zeolites is presented.

  1. Radium-223 Therapy of Bone Metastases in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Sten

    2016-11-01

    Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to the bone, often resulting in painful skeletal events, reduced quality of life, and reduced survival. Radium-223 is a first-in-class alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical that has proven to prolong overall survival, delay time to symptomatic skeletal events, and improve quality of life in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases and no visceral metastases. Radium-223 provides survival benefit to patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and symptomatic bone metastases, regardless of prior docetaxel use. This article gives an overview of the development of radium-223 from the first-in-human trial to current status. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Improving Radium-based Estimates of Submarine Groundwater Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, A. L.; Wilson, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater discharge is vital for the exchange of solutes between salt marshes and estuaries, and radium isotopes are frequently used as tracers of groundwater flow paths and discharge in coastal systems. Considerable spatial and temporal variability in porewater radium activity has hindered the accuracy of this tracer. In porewater, radium activity is a complex function of production by parent isotopes in and grain size of the aquifer material, individual decay rates, porewater salinity, temperature, redox- and pH-dependent adsorption and desorption, sediment Fe- and Mn-oxide/hydroxide coatings, and groundwater transport (advection and dispersion). In order to resolve the primary factors controlling porewater radium activity in an intertidal salt marsh, where high salinity and reducing conditions prevail, and sediment oxide coatings vary from winter to summer, a field and modeling study was conducted at a salt marsh island within North Inlet Salt Marsh, Georgetown, South Carolina. This site was previously developed as part of a larger study to understand the links between salt marsh groundwater dynamics and acute marsh dieback. Porewater and surface water samples were collected from November 2009 - February 2011. Shallow sediment samples were collected in winter and summer 2010, and deeper sediments were split from cores collected during site development. Measurements of water temperature, salinity, mV, and pH were taken in the field, and radium isotopes were measured via delayed-coincidence counter or gamma spectrometry. Surface-bound sediment radium activity was determined by desorption experiments. Iron and manganese oxide coatings on surface sediments were isolated through a sequential leaching process, and the leachate analyzed via ICP-AES. Finally, a 3-D groundwater flow model was developed using SUTRA, a U.S.G.S. numerical model, which was modified to account for changes in total stress resulting from tidal loading of the marsh surface and for complex

  3. 7 CFR 3565.213 - Geographic distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic distribution. 3565.213 Section 3565.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.213 Geographic distribution....

  4. 49 CFR 213.37 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.37 Section 213.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Roadbed § 213.37 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on...

  5. 49 CFR 213.321 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.321 Section 213.321 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.321 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on or immediately adjacent to roadbed shall be controlled so that...

  6. 49 CFR 213.37 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.37 Section 213.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Roadbed § 213.37 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on...

  7. 49 CFR 213.321 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.321 Section 213.321 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.321 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on or immediately adjacent to roadbed shall be controlled so that...

  8. 49 CFR 213.37 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.37 Section 213.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Roadbed § 213.37 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on...

  9. 49 CFR 213.321 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.321 Section 213.321 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.321 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on or immediately adjacent to roadbed shall be controlled so that...

  10. 49 CFR 213.37 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.37 Section 213.37 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Roadbed § 213.37 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on...

  11. 49 CFR 213.321 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vegetation. 213.321 Section 213.321 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.321 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on or immediately adjacent to roadbed shall be controlled so that...

  12. 49 CFR 372.213 - Pueblo, CO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pueblo, CO. 372.213 Section 372.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.213 Pueblo, CO. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part...

  13. 49 CFR 372.213 - Pueblo, CO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pueblo, CO. 372.213 Section 372.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.213 Pueblo, CO. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part...

  14. 49 CFR 372.213 - Pueblo, CO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pueblo, CO. 372.213 Section 372.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.213 Pueblo, CO. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part...

  15. 49 CFR 372.213 - Pueblo, CO.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pueblo, CO. 372.213 Section 372.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION... TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.213 Pueblo, CO. The zone adjacent to, and commercially a part...

  16. 47 CFR 213.8 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Implementation. 213.8 Section 213.8 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.8 Implementation. Federal departments and agencies are...

  17. 47 CFR 213.3 - Cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cancellation. 213.3 Section 213.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.3 Cancellation. This circular cancels: (a) Attachments...

  18. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following precedence...

  19. 49 CFR 213.63 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Track surface. 213.63 Section 213.63 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.63 Track surface. Each owner of the...

  20. 49 CFR 213.53 - Gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gage. 213.53 Section 213.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.53 Gage. (a) Gage is measured between the heads of the...

  1. 49 CFR 213.53 - Gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gage. 213.53 Section 213.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.53 Gage. (a) Gage is measured between the heads of the...

  2. 49 CFR 213.53 - Gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gage. 213.53 Section 213.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.53 Gage. (a) Gage is measured between the heads of the...

  3. 49 CFR 213.63 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Track surface. 213.63 Section 213.63 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.63 Track surface. (a) Except as...

  4. 49 CFR 213.53 - Gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gage. 213.53 Section 213.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.53 Gage. (a) Gage is measured between the heads of the...

  5. 49 CFR 213.51 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope. 213.51 Section 213.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.51 Scope. This subpart prescribes requirements for the...

  6. 49 CFR 213.51 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope. 213.51 Section 213.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.51 Scope. This subpart prescribes requirements for the...

  7. 49 CFR 213.51 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope. 213.51 Section 213.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.51 Scope. This subpart prescribes requirements for the...

  8. 49 CFR 213.55 - Alinement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alinement. 213.55 Section 213.55 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.55 Alinement. Alinement may not deviate from...

  9. 49 CFR 213.55 - Alinement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alinement. 213.55 Section 213.55 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.55 Alinement. Alinement may not deviate from...

  10. 49 CFR 213.55 - Track alinement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Track alinement. 213.55 Section 213.55 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.55 Track alinement. (a) Except as...

  11. 49 CFR 213.63 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Track surface. 213.63 Section 213.63 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.63 Track surface. Each owner of the...

  12. 49 CFR 213.63 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Track surface. 213.63 Section 213.63 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.63 Track surface. (a) Except as...

  13. 49 CFR 213.63 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track surface. 213.63 Section 213.63 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.63 Track surface. Each owner of the...

  14. 49 CFR 213.55 - Track alinement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Track alinement. 213.55 Section 213.55 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.55 Track alinement. (a) Except as...

  15. 49 CFR 213.51 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 213.51 Section 213.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.51 Scope. This subpart prescribes requirements for the...

  16. 28 CFR 42.213 - Full hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Full hearing. 42.213 Section 42.213... Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.213 Full hearing. (a) At any time after notification of..., a State government or unit of general local government may request a hearing on the record...

  17. 7 CFR 1738.213 - Loan determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Loan determination. 1738.213 Section 1738.213... AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Application Review and Underwriting § 1738.213 Loan determination. (a) If the application meets all statutory and regulatory requirements and...

  18. 7 CFR 1738.213 - Loan determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loan determination. 1738.213 Section 1738.213... AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Application Review and Underwriting § 1738.213 Loan determination. (a) If the application meets all statutory and regulatory requirements and...

  19. 7 CFR 1738.213 - Loan determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan determination. 1738.213 Section 1738.213... AGRICULTURE RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Application Review and Underwriting § 1738.213 Loan determination. (a) If the application meets all statutory and regulatory requirements and...

  20. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1) Aliens...

  1. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1) Aliens...

  2. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1) Aliens...

  3. 32 CFR 213.4 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy. 213.4 Section 213.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SUPPORT FOR NON-FEDERAL ENTITIES AUTHORIZED TO OPERATE ON DOD INSTALLATIONS § 213.4 Policy. It is DoD policy that...

  4. 22 CFR 213.9 - Written notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written notice. 213.9 Section 213.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.9 Written notice. (a) When the billing official determines that a debt is owed USAID, he or she provides a written notice in the...

  5. 47 CFR 90.213 - Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequency stability. 90.213 Section 90.213... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.213 Frequency stability. (a) Unless noted elsewhere, transmitters used in the services governed by this part must have a minimum frequency stability...

  6. 47 CFR 90.213 - Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequency stability. 90.213 Section 90.213... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.213 Frequency stability. (a) Unless noted elsewhere, transmitters used in the services governed by this part must have a minimum frequency stability...

  7. 47 CFR 90.213 - Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequency stability. 90.213 Section 90.213... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.213 Frequency stability. (a) Unless noted elsewhere, transmitters used in the services governed by this part must have a minimum frequency stability...

  8. 47 CFR 90.213 - Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency stability. 90.213 Section 90.213... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.213 Frequency stability. (a) Unless noted elsewhere, transmitters used in the services governed by this part must have a minimum frequency stability...

  9. 47 CFR 90.213 - Frequency stability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequency stability. 90.213 Section 90.213... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.213 Frequency stability. (a) Unless noted elsewhere, transmitters used in the services governed by this part must have a minimum frequency stability...

  10. 49 CFR 209.213 - Appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appeal. 209.213 Section 209.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Compliance Orders § 209.213 Appeal. (a) Any party aggrieved...

  11. 49 CFR 209.213 - Appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appeal. 209.213 Section 209.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Compliance Orders § 209.213 Appeal. (a) Any party aggrieved...

  12. 49 CFR 209.213 - Appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appeal. 209.213 Section 209.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Compliance Orders § 209.213 Appeal. (a) Any party aggrieved...

  13. 49 CFR 209.213 - Appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appeal. 209.213 Section 209.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Compliance Orders § 209.213 Appeal. (a) Any party aggrieved...

  14. 49 CFR 209.213 - Appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appeal. 209.213 Section 209.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Compliance Orders § 209.213 Appeal. (a) Any party aggrieved...

  15. 12 CFR 213.8 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention. 213.8 Section 213.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) § 213.8 Record retention. A lessor shall retain evidence of compliance with the requirements...

  16. 12 CFR 213.8 - Record retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention. 213.8 Section 213.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CONSUMER LEASING (REGULATION M) § 213.8 Record retention. A lessor shall retain evidence of compliance with the requirements...

  17. 49 CFR 213.3 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application. 213.3 Section 213.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS General § 213.3 Application. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of...

  18. 47 CFR 101.213 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 101.213 Section 101.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.213 Station identification. Stations in these services are exempt...

  19. 47 CFR 101.213 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Station identification. 101.213 Section 101.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.213 Station identification. Stations in these services are exempt...

  20. 20 CFR 498.213 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Motions. 498.213 Section 498.213 Employees... § 498.213 Motions. (a) An application to the ALJ for an order or ruling will be by motion. Motions will... the ALJ and served on all other parties. (b) Except for motions made during a prehearing conference or...

  1. 20 CFR 498.213 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Motions. 498.213 Section 498.213 Employees... § 498.213 Motions. (a) An application to the ALJ for an order or ruling will be by motion. Motions will... the ALJ and served on all other parties. (b) Except for motions made during a prehearing conference or...

  2. 20 CFR 498.213 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Motions. 498.213 Section 498.213 Employees... § 498.213 Motions. (a) An application to the ALJ for an order or ruling will be by motion. Motions will... the ALJ and served on all other parties. (b) Except for motions made during a prehearing conference or...

  3. 20 CFR 498.213 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Motions. 498.213 Section 498.213 Employees... § 498.213 Motions. (a) An application to the ALJ for an order or ruling will be by motion. Motions will... the ALJ and served on all other parties. (b) Except for motions made during a prehearing conference or...

  4. 20 CFR 498.213 - Motions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Motions. 498.213 Section 498.213 Employees... § 498.213 Motions. (a) An application to the ALJ for an order or ruling will be by motion. Motions will... the ALJ and served on all other parties. (b) Except for motions made during a prehearing conference or...

  5. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to...

  6. 49 CFR 213.135 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switches. 213.135 Section 213.135 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.135 Switches. (a) Each stock rail must be securely seated in switch plates, but care shall be used to avoid canting the rail by overtightening the...

  7. 49 CFR 213.135 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switches. 213.135 Section 213.135 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.135 Switches. (a) Each stock rail must be securely seated in switch plates, but care shall be used to avoid canting the rail by overtightening the...

  8. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  9. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  10. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  11. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  12. 29 CFR 780.213 - Produce business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Produce business. 780.213 Section 780.213 Labor Regulations... Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.213 Produce business. In some instances, hatcheries also engage in the produce business as such and commingle with the culled eggs and chickens other eggs...

  13. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to...

  14. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to...

  15. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to...

  16. 25 CFR 213.13 - Inherited lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inherited lands. 213.13 Section 213.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.13 Inherited lands. Except to...

  17. 49 CFR 213.15 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Penalties. 213.15 Section 213.15 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS General § 213.15 Penalties. (a) Any person who violates any requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at...

  18. 32 CFR 213.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 213.5 Section 213.5 National... SUPPORT FOR NON-FEDERAL ENTITIES AUTHORIZED TO OPERATE ON DOD INSTALLATIONS § 213.5 Responsibilities. (a... of non-Federal entities on DoD installations. (3) Assign responsibilities to the DoD Components...

  19. 49 CFR 213.15 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Penalties. 213.15 Section 213.15 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS General § 213.15 Penalties. (a) Any person who violates any requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least...

  20. 49 CFR 213.15 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Penalties. 213.15 Section 213.15 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS General § 213.15 Penalties. (a) Any person who violates any requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least...

  1. 49 CFR 213.15 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Penalties. 213.15 Section 213.15 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS General § 213.15 Penalties. (a) Any person who violates any requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least...

  2. 49 CFR 213.15 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Penalties. 213.15 Section 213.15 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS General § 213.15 Penalties. (a) Any person who violates any requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least...

  3. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches, or...

  4. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches, or...

  5. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches, or...

  6. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches, or...

  7. 49 CFR 213.137 - Frogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frogs. 213.137 Section 213.137 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.137 Frogs. (a) The flangeway depth measured from a plane across the wheel-bearing area of a frog on Class 1 track shall not be less than 13/8 inches, or...

  8. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  9. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  10. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  11. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  12. 28 CFR 21.3 - Aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliens. 21.3 Section 21.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE WITNESS FEES § 21.3 Aliens. (a) Aliens entitled to payment of $30 per day. The following aliens are entitled to witness fees and allowances provided in § 21.4: (1)...

  13. 42 CFR 59.213 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 59.213 Section 59.213 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Grants for Family Planning Service Training § 59.213 ...

  14. 14 CFR 213.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 213.4 Section 213.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TERMS, CONDITIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF FOREIGN AIR CARRIER PERMITS § 213.4 ...

  15. 14 CFR 213.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 213.4 Section 213.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TERMS, CONDITIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF FOREIGN AIR CARRIER PERMITS § 213.4 ...

  16. 14 CFR 213.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 213.4 Section 213.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TERMS, CONDITIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF FOREIGN AIR CARRIER PERMITS § 213.4 ...

  17. 14 CFR 213.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 213.4 Section 213.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TERMS, CONDITIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF FOREIGN AIR CARRIER PERMITS § 213.4 ...

  18. 14 CFR 213.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 213.4 Section 213.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TERMS, CONDITIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF FOREIGN AIR CARRIER PERMITS § 213.4 ...

  19. 47 CFR 213.0 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authority. 213.0 Section 213.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.0 Authority. (a) The voice and message...

  20. 47 CFR 213.8 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Implementation. 213.8 Section 213.8 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.8 Implementation. Federal departments and agencies...

  1. 47 CFR 213.7 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Policies. 213.7 Section 213.7 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.7 Policies. (a) Calls and messages in each...

  2. 47 CFR 213.3 - Cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cancellation. 213.3 Section 213.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.3 Cancellation. This circular cancels: (a)...

  3. 47 CFR 213.8 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Implementation. 213.8 Section 213.8 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.8 Implementation. Federal departments and agencies...

  4. 47 CFR 213.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope. 213.2 Section 213.2 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.2 Scope. The precedence system contained herein...

  5. 47 CFR 213.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope. 213.2 Section 213.2 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.2 Scope. The precedence system contained herein...

  6. 47 CFR 213.3 - Cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cancellation. 213.3 Section 213.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.3 Cancellation. This circular cancels: (a)...

  7. 47 CFR 213.8 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Implementation. 213.8 Section 213.8 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.8 Implementation. Federal departments and agencies...

  8. 47 CFR 213.3 - Cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cancellation. 213.3 Section 213.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.3 Cancellation. This circular cancels: (a)...

  9. 47 CFR 213.3 - Cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cancellation. 213.3 Section 213.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.3 Cancellation. This circular cancels: (a)...

  10. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  11. 47 CFR 213.0 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authority. 213.0 Section 213.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.0 Authority. (a) The voice and message...

  12. 47 CFR 213.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope. 213.2 Section 213.2 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.2 Scope. The precedence system contained herein...

  13. 47 CFR 213.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope. 213.2 Section 213.2 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.2 Scope. The precedence system contained herein...

  14. 47 CFR 213.6 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Criteria. 213.6 Section 213.6 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.6 Criteria. (a) Flash, Flash Emergency. (1) This is...

  15. 47 CFR 213.7 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Policies. 213.7 Section 213.7 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.7 Policies. (a) Calls and messages in each...

  16. 47 CFR 213.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 213.4 Section 213.4 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.4 Definitions. As used herein: (a)...

  17. 47 CFR 213.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 213.4 Section 213.4 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.4 Definitions. As used herein: (a)...

  18. 47 CFR 213.4 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 213.4 Section 213.4 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.4 Definitions. As used herein: (a)...

  19. 47 CFR 213.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 213.2 Section 213.2 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.2 Scope. The precedence system contained herein...

  20. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  1. 47 CFR 213.0 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authority. 213.0 Section 213.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.0 Authority. (a) The voice and message...

  2. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  3. 47 CFR 213.0 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authority. 213.0 Section 213.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.0 Authority. (a) The voice and message...

  4. 47 CFR 213.5 - Precedence designators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Precedence designators. 213.5 Section 213.5 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.5 Precedence designators. (a) The following...

  5. 47 CFR 213.8 - Implementation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Implementation. 213.8 Section 213.8 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.8 Implementation. Federal departments and agencies...

  6. 47 CFR 213.6 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Criteria. 213.6 Section 213.6 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.6 Criteria. (a) Flash, Flash Emergency. (1) This is...

  7. 47 CFR 213.6 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Criteria. 213.6 Section 213.6 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.6 Criteria. (a) Flash, Flash Emergency. (1) This is...

  8. 25 CFR 213.46 - Field clerks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Field clerks. 213.46 Section 213.46 Indians BUREAU OF... FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Removal of Restrictions § 213.46 Field clerks. Local representatives known officially as “field clerks” are located in the various districts comprising that part...

  9. 25 CFR 213.46 - Field clerks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Field clerks. 213.46 Section 213.46 Indians BUREAU OF... FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Removal of Restrictions § 213.46 Field clerks. Local representatives known officially as “field clerks” are located in the various districts comprising that part...

  10. 25 CFR 213.46 - Field clerks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Field clerks. 213.46 Section 213.46 Indians BUREAU OF... FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Removal of Restrictions § 213.46 Field clerks. Local representatives known officially as “field clerks” are located in the various districts comprising that part...

  11. 25 CFR 213.46 - Field clerks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field clerks. 213.46 Section 213.46 Indians BUREAU OF... FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Removal of Restrictions § 213.46 Field clerks. Local representatives known officially as “field clerks” are located in the various districts comprising that part...

  12. 25 CFR 213.46 - Field clerks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Field clerks. 213.46 Section 213.46 Indians BUREAU OF... FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Removal of Restrictions § 213.46 Field clerks. Local representatives known officially as “field clerks” are located in the various districts comprising that part...

  13. 49 CFR 213.2 - Preemptive effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preemptive effect. 213.2 Section 213.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS General § 213.2 Preemptive effect. Under 49 U.S.C....

  14. 7 CFR 1400.213 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Military personnel. 1400.213 Section 1400.213... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.213 Military personnel. If a person is called to active duty in the military before a determination is made that the person...

  15. 7 CFR 1400.213 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Military personnel. 1400.213 Section 1400.213... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.213 Military personnel. If a person is called to active duty in the military before a determination is made that the person...

  16. 7 CFR 1400.213 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Military personnel. 1400.213 Section 1400.213... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.213 Military personnel. If a person is called to active duty in the military before a determination is made that the person...

  17. 7 CFR 1400.213 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Military personnel. 1400.213 Section 1400.213... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.213 Military personnel. If a person is called to active duty in the military before a determination is made that the person...

  18. 49 CFR 1542.213 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Training. 1542.213 Section 1542.213 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.213 Training. (a... training in accordance with TSA-approved curriculum specified in the security program. This curriculum must...

  19. 49 CFR 1542.213 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Training. 1542.213 Section 1542.213 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.213 Training. (a... training in accordance with TSA-approved curriculum specified in the security program. This curriculum must...

  20. 49 CFR 1542.213 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Training. 1542.213 Section 1542.213 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.213 Training. (a... training in accordance with TSA-approved curriculum specified in the security program. This curriculum must...

  1. 49 CFR 1542.213 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training. 1542.213 Section 1542.213 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.213 Training. (a... training in accordance with TSA-approved curriculum specified in the security program. This curriculum must...

  2. 36 CFR 2.13 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fires. 2.13 Section 2.13... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.13 Fires. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Lighting or maintaining a fire, except in designated areas or receptacles and under conditions that may be established...

  3. 36 CFR 2.13 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fires. 2.13 Section 2.13... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.13 Fires. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Lighting or maintaining a fire, except in designated areas or receptacles and under conditions that may be established...

  4. 36 CFR 2.13 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fires. 2.13 Section 2.13... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.13 Fires. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Lighting or maintaining a fire, except in designated areas or receptacles and under conditions that may be established...

  5. 12 CFR 21.3 - Security program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security program. 21.3 Section 21.3 Banks and..., REPORTS OF SUSPICIOUS ACTIVITIES, AND BANK SECRECY ACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAM Minimum Security Devices and Procedures § 21.3 Security program. (a) Contents of security program. The security program shall: (1...

  6. 14 CFR 171.213 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports. 171.213 Section 171.213... FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES VHF Marker Beacons § 171.213 Reports. The owner of each facility to which this subpart applies shall make the following reports, at the times indicated, to the...

  7. 14 CFR 171.213 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 171.213 Section 171.213 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES VHF Marker Beacons § 171.213 Reports. The owner of each facility...

  8. 14 CFR 171.213 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports. 171.213 Section 171.213 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES VHF Marker Beacons § 171.213 Reports. The owner of each facility...

  9. 47 CFR 13.213 - COLEM qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false COLEM qualifications. 13.213 Section 13.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS Examination System § 13.213... more types of commercial radio operator licenses and/or endorsements; (d) Agree to assure that, for...

  10. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5 track where timber crossties are in use there shall be tie plates under the running rails on at least eight of...

  11. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5 track where timber crossties are in use there shall be tie plates under the running rails on at least eight of...

  12. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5 track where timber crossties are in use there shall be tie plates under the running rails on at least eight of...

  13. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5 track where timber crossties are in use there shall be tie plates under the running rails on at least eight of...

  14. 49 CFR 213.123 - Tie plates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tie plates. 213.123 Section 213.123 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.123 Tie plates. (a) In Classes 3 through 5 track where timber crossties are in use there shall be tie plates under the running rails on at least eight of...

  15. 49 CFR 213.135 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switches. 213.135 Section 213.135 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.135 Switches. (a) Each stock rail must be securely seated in switch plates, but care shall be used to avoid canting the rail by overtightening the...

  16. 49 CFR 213.135 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switches. 213.135 Section 213.135 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.135 Switches. (a) Each stock rail must be securely seated in switch plates, but care shall be used to avoid canting the rail by overtightening the...

  17. 49 CFR 213.135 - Switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switches. 213.135 Section 213.135 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.135 Switches. (a) Each stock rail must be securely seated in switch plates, but care shall be used to avoid canting the rail by overtightening the...

  18. 12 CFR 213.7 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 213.7 Section 213.7 Banks and... (REGULATION M) § 213.7 Advertising. (a) General rule. An advertisement for a consumer lease may state that a... paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall also state the following items: (i) That the transaction...

  19. 12 CFR 213.7 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 213.7 Section 213.7 Banks and... (REGULATION M) § 213.7 Advertising. (a) General rule. An advertisement for a consumer lease may state that a... paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall also state the following items: (i) That the transaction...

  20. 12 CFR 213.7 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 213.7 Section 213.7 Banks and... (REGULATION M) § 213.7 Advertising. (a) General rule. An advertisement for a consumer lease may state that a... paragraph (d)(1) of this section shall also state the following items: (i) That the transaction...

  1. 22 CFR 213.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 213.2 Section 213.2 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.2 Definitions. (a... States or a person or entity with legal responsibility for assuming the debtor's obligation....

  2. 50 CFR 21.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 21.3 Section 21.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING... (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD PERMITS Introduction § 21.3 Definitions. In addition to definitions contained...

  3. 14 CFR 16.213 - Discovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... through other discovery methods permitted under this section; or (4) The method or scope of discovery... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 16.213 Section 16.213... PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 16.213 Discovery. (a)...

  4. 47 CFR 101.213 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Station identification. 101.213 Section 101.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.213 Station identification. Stations in these services are...

  5. 47 CFR 101.213 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Station identification. 101.213 Section 101.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.213 Station identification. Stations in these services are...

  6. 47 CFR 101.213 - Station identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Station identification. 101.213 Section 101.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.213 Station identification. Stations in these services are...

  7. 14 CFR 171.213 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports. 171.213 Section 171.213 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES VHF Marker Beacons § 171.213 Reports. The owner of each...

  8. 14 CFR 171.213 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports. 171.213 Section 171.213 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) NAVIGATIONAL FACILITIES NON-FEDERAL NAVIGATION FACILITIES VHF Marker Beacons § 171.213 Reports. The owner of each...

  9. 42 CFR 456.213 - Confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality. 456.213 Section 456.213 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...: Informational Requirements § 456.213 Confidentiality. The UR plan must provide that the identities of individual...

  10. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  11. 22 CFR 213.5 - Fraud claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fraud claims. 213.5 Section 213.5 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.5 Fraud claims. (a) The CFO will refer claims involving fraud, the presentation of a false claim, or misrepresentation on the...

  12. 49 CFR 213.19 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information collection. 213.19 Section 213.19..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS General § 213.19 Information collection. (a) The information collection requirements of this part were reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget...

  13. 45 CFR 213.31 - Posthearing briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Posthearing briefs. 213.31 Section 213.31 Public..., Decisions § 213.31 Posthearing briefs. The presiding officer shall fix the time for filing posthearings briefs, which may contain proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law, and, if permitted, reply...

  14. 20 CFR 802.213 - Reply briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reply briefs. 802.213 Section 802.213... Procedures Initial Processing § 802.213 Reply briefs. (a) Within 20 days after the receipt of a brief... upon whom it was served may file a brief, memorandum, or other statement in reply to it. (b) Arguments...

  15. 47 CFR 76.213 - Lotteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lotteries. 76.213 Section 76.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.213 Lotteries. (a) No cable television system operator...

  16. 47 CFR 76.213 - Lotteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lotteries. 76.213 Section 76.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.213 Lotteries. (a) No cable television system operator...

  17. 47 CFR 76.213 - Lotteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lotteries. 76.213 Section 76.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.213 Lotteries. (a) No cable television system operator...

  18. 47 CFR 76.213 - Lotteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lotteries. 76.213 Section 76.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.213 Lotteries. (a) No cable television system operator...

  19. 47 CFR 76.213 - Lotteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lotteries. 76.213 Section 76.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.213 Lotteries. (a) No cable television system operator...

  20. 7 CFR 1400.213 - Military personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military personnel. 1400.213 Section 1400.213... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.213 Military personnel. If a person is called to active duty in the military before a determination is made that the person is...

  1. 49 CFR 213.53 - Gage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gage. 213.53 Section 213.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.53 Gage. (a) Gage is measured between the heads of...

  2. 49 CFR 213.55 - Alinement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alinement. 213.55 Section 213.55 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.55 Alinement. Alinement may not deviate...

  3. 49 CFR 213.51 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 213.51 Section 213.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.51 Scope. This subpart prescribes requirements for...

  4. 49 CFR 1542.213 - Training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training. 1542.213 Section 1542.213 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Operations § 1542.213 Training. (a... training in accordance with TSA-approved curriculum specified in the security program. This curriculum...

  5. 25 CFR 213.39 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Stipulations. 213.39 Section 213.39 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.39 Stipulations. The lessee under any...

  6. 25 CFR 213.40 - Cancellations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cancellations. 213.40 Section 213.40 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.40 Cancellations. (a) When, in the opinion...

  7. 25 CFR 213.40 - Cancellations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cancellations. 213.40 Section 213.40 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.40 Cancellations. (a) When, in the opinion...

  8. 25 CFR 213.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Definitions. 213.1 Section 213.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING § 213.1 Definitions. Area Director. The term “Area Director” in this...

  9. 25 CFR 213.40 - Cancellations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cancellations. 213.40 Section 213.40 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.40 Cancellations. (a) When, in the opinion...

  10. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wells. 213.32 Section 213.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.32 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to drill and...

  11. 25 CFR 213.37 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Penalties. 213.37 Section 213.37 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.37 Penalties. Failure of the lessee to comply with...

  12. 25 CFR 213.39 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stipulations. 213.39 Section 213.39 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.39 Stipulations. The lessee under any...

  13. 25 CFR 213.37 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penalties. 213.37 Section 213.37 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.37 Penalties. Failure of the lessee to comply with...

  14. 25 CFR 213.39 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stipulations. 213.39 Section 213.39 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.39 Stipulations. The lessee under any...

  15. 25 CFR 213.37 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penalties. 213.37 Section 213.37 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.37 Penalties. Failure of the lessee to comply with...

  16. 25 CFR 213.39 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stipulations. 213.39 Section 213.39 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.39 Stipulations. The lessee under any...

  17. 25 CFR 213.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 213.1 Section 213.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING § 213.1 Definitions. Area Director. The term “Area Director” in this...

  18. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Wells. 213.32 Section 213.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.32 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to drill and...

  19. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wells. 213.32 Section 213.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.32 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to drill and...

  20. 25 CFR 213.40 - Cancellations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cancellations. 213.40 Section 213.40 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.40 Cancellations. (a) When, in the opinion...

  1. 25 CFR 213.40 - Cancellations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cancellations. 213.40 Section 213.40 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.40 Cancellations. (a) When, in the opinion...

  2. 25 CFR 213.39 - Stipulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stipulations. 213.39 Section 213.39 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.39 Stipulations. The lessee under any...

  3. 25 CFR 213.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 213.1 Section 213.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING § 213.1 Definitions. Area Director. The term “Area Director” in this...

  4. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wells. 213.32 Section 213.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.32 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to drill and...

  5. 25 CFR 213.37 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penalties. 213.37 Section 213.37 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.37 Penalties. Failure of the lessee to comply with...

  6. 25 CFR 213.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 213.1 Section 213.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING § 213.1 Definitions. Area Director. The term “Area Director” in this...

  7. 25 CFR 213.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 213.1 Section 213.1 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING § 213.1 Definitions. Area Director. The term “Area Director” in this...

  8. 25 CFR 213.37 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalties. 213.37 Section 213.37 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.37 Penalties. Failure of the lessee to comply with...

  9. 49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for...

  10. 49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for...

  11. 49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for...

  12. 49 CFR 213.121 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.121 Section 213.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.121 Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for...

  13. 22 CFR 213.9 - Written notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Written notice. 213.9 Section 213.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.9 Written notice. (a) When the billing official determines that a debt is owed USAID, he or she provides a written notice in the...

  14. 22 CFR 213.9 - Written notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Written notice. 213.9 Section 213.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.9 Written notice. (a) When the billing official determines that a debt is owed USAID, he or she provides a written notice in the...

  15. 22 CFR 213.9 - Written notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Written notice. 213.9 Section 213.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.9 Written notice. (a) When the billing official determines that a debt is owed USAID, he or she provides a written notice in the...

  16. 22 CFR 213.9 - Written notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Written notice. 213.9 Section 213.9 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION Collection § 213.9 Written notice. (a) When the billing official determines that a debt is owed USAID, he or she provides a written notice in the...

  17. 25 CFR 213.32 - Wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wells. 213.32 Section 213.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.32 Wells. The lessee shall agree (a) to drill and produce all wells necessary to offset or protect the leased land from drainage by wells on adjoining...

  18. 22 CFR 213.4 - Other remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other remedies. 213.4 Section 213.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION General § 213.4 Other remedies. (a) This part does not supersede or require omission or duplication of administrative proceedings required...

  19. Prevalence of technical mesothorium in self-luminous compounds used by New Jersey radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, A.T.; Holtzmann, R.B.; Rundo, J.

    1994-05-01

    Forty-five sealed glass ampoules containing samples of radium dial paint prepared by the US Radium Corporation (USRC) and used by New Jersey dial workers in the period 1915--1928, were analyzed for radium-226 and radium-228 activity by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Radium-228 was found to be the dominant activating agent at the probable time of use in most of the sampled paints in which the ratio of radium-228 to radium-226 activity was determinable, the calculated radium-228 to radium-226 activity ratio in 1920 in these ranging from 7.2 to 10 (median 8.4), indicating that radium element chemically separated from commercialthorium ores (technical mesothorium) was used as the activator. Published isotopic activity ratios in USRC dial-paint samples that were appreciably in excess of those we found are shown invariably to be due to errors in calculation. Our results and information in the early literature suggested the hypothesis that dial paints used at USRC before July 1919 were activated with isotopically pure radium-226 whereas compounds used thereafter until the year 1925 were activated with technical mesothorium- Isotopic activity ratios predicted by the hypothesis compared well with median ratios observed in two groups of former workers. We conclude that inaccuracies in dates of hire and termination at USRC might well be the principal source of uncertainty in estimates of skeletal dose for former workers in whom the isotopic activity ratio has not been measured.

  20. Port Radium Canada's Original Radium/Uranium Mine, The Complete Story of Canada's Historic Radium/Uranium Mine, 1932 to 2012 - 13159

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, Doug; Wiatzka, Gerd; Brown, Steve

    2013-07-01

    This paper provides the life story of Canada's original radium/uranium mine. In addition to the history of operations, it discusses the unique and successful approach used to identify the key issues and concerns associated with the former radium, uranium and silver mining property and the activities undertaken to define the remedial actions and subsequent remedial plan. The Port Radium Mine site, situated approximately 275 km north of Yellowknife on the east shore of Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories, was discovered in 1930 and underground mining began in 1932. The mine operated almost continuously from 1932 to 1982, initially for recovery of radium, then uranium and finally, for recovery of silver. Tailings production totaled an estimated 900,000 tons and 800,000 tons from uranium and silver processing operations respectively. In the early days of mining, Port Radium miners were exposed to radon and associated decay product levels (in Working Level Months of exposure - WLM) hundreds of times greater than modern standards. The experience of the Port Radium miners provides important contribution to understanding the risks from radon. While the uranium mine was originally decommissioned in the early 1960's, to the standards of the day, the community of Deline (formerly Fort Franklin) had concerns about residual contamination at the mine site and the potential effects arising from use of traditional lands. The Deline people were also concerned about the possible risks to Deline Dene arising from their work as ore carriers. In the late 1990's, the community of Deline brought these concerns to national attention and consequently, the Government of Canada and the community of Deline agreed to move forward in a collaborative manner to address these concerns. The approach agreed to was to establish the Canada-Deline Uranium Table (CDUT) to provide a joint process by which the people of Deline could have their concerns expressed and addressed. A great deal of work was

  1. Radium in the Dead Sea: a possible tracer for the duration of meromixis

    SciTech Connect

    Stiller, M.; Chung, Y.C.

    1984-05-01

    Three profiles of /sup 226/Ra in the meromictic Dead Sea measured during 1963-1978 indicate that the radium activities in the upper water mass were higher than in the lower water mass. All three profiles indicate a similar radium inventory. The age of the meromictic structure is estimated by a model which requires that the radium inventory of the lake be at a steady state, that sometime in the past the radium profile of the lake had been uniform and that the contemporaneous profiles of radium have been built up by inflows of radium solely into the upper water mass, while the monimolimnion is relict, isolated, and loses radium only by radioactive decay. Supporting evidence is presented suggesting that the above conditions may be fulfilled.

  2. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-09-01

    Thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is described. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  3. Discovery of the astatine, radon, francium, and radium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, C.; Thoennessen, M.

    2013-09-15

    Thirty-nine astatine, thirty-nine radon, thirty-five francium, and thirty-four radium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is described. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR A CANDIDATE BUILDING MATERIALS RADIUM STANDARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a candidate building materials radium standard. It contains the standard and a summary of the technical basis for the standard. (NOTE: The Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP), sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and the...

  5. Radium-223 in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Winston; Sartor, Oliver; Pal, Sumanta K

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, docetaxel was approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). For the next several years, there was a lull in drug approvals. However, from 2010 onwards, 5 additional therapies have been approved on the basis of showing a survival benefit in phase III studies. These agents include sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide and (most recently) radium-223. Amongst radiopharmaceuticals currently used for advanced prostate cancer (e.g. samarium-153 and strontium-89), radium-223 possesses several unique properties. As an alpha-emitting compound, the agent produces a high-energy output over a short range, facilitating selective destruction of tissue within the bone in the region of osteoblastic lesions while sparing surrounding normal tissue. The current review will outline biological rationale for radium-223 and also provide an overview of preclinical and clinical development of the agent. Rational sequencing of radium-223 and combinations, in the increasingly complex landscape of mCRPC will be discussed, along with factors influencing clinical implementation.

  6. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR A CANDIDATE BUILDING MATERIALS RADIUM STANDARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the technical basis for a candidate building materials radium standard. It contains the standard and a summary of the technical basis for the standard. (NOTE: The Florida Radon Research Program (FRRP), sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and the...

  7. Survival times of pre-1950 US women radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Stehney, A.F.

    1994-05-01

    Survival times of US women radium dial workers to the end of 1989 were examined by life table methods. Included were 1301 women rust employed before 1930 and 1242 first employed in 1930-1949. Expected numbers of deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for US white females. In the early group, 85 deaths from the well-known radium-induced cancers - bone sarcomas and head carcinomas - were observed, but only 724 deaths from aH other causes were observed vs 755 expected. Life shortening ({plus_minus}S.E.) of 1.8 {plus_minus}0.5 y compared to the general population of US white females was calculated from the time distribution of all deaths in the pre-1930 group. In the 1930--1949 group, 350 deaths were observed vs 343 expected and no bone sarcomas or head carcinomas occurred. Among women who survived at least 2 y after rust measurement of body radium, a significant excess of observed vs expected deaths was found only for radium intakes greater than 1.85 MBq of {sup 226}Ra + {sup 228}Ra, and no trend of deaths or reduction of life expectancy was found with length of employment.

  8. Radium-223 for the treatment of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Shaista; Parker, Christopher

    2013-03-01

    Bone metastases cause significant morbidity and mortality in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Until recently, treatment options have been limited, but now six drugs are known to extend life expectancy, with docetaxel the current standard first-line cytotoxic therapy. Phase III studies have also shown a survival advantage for sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide and radium-223 . Radium-223 is unique among these agents, as the only bone-directed therapy shown to prolong survival in CRPC. This review covers the current standard of care for CRPC and recent drug developments that have demonstrated a survival benefit. It focuses on bone-directed therapies, in particular radium-223, the first-in-class alpha-emitting radionuclide and discusses the pivotal studies to date. A PubMed search using the keywords below was performed. Radium-223 is set to become a new standard of care for the treatment of bony metastatic CRPC. It improves both survival and quality of life, delays skeletal events and is well tolerated. Its optimal use in the evolving treatment strategies for men with CRPC and bone metastases is yet to be determined.

  9. Radium-223 in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Winston; Sartor, Oliver; Pal, Sumanta K

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, docetaxel was approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). For the next several years, there was a lull in drug approvals. However, from 2010 onwards, 5 additional therapies have been approved on the basis of showing a survival benefit in phase III studies. These agents include sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide and (most recently) radium-223. Amongst radiopharmaceuticals currently used for advanced prostate cancer (e.g. samarium-153 and strontium-89), radium-223 possesses several unique properties. As an alpha-emitting compound, the agent produces a high-energy output over a short range, facilitating selective destruction of tissue within the bone in the region of osteoblastic lesions while sparing surrounding normal tissue. The current review will outline biological rationale for radium-223 and also provide an overview of preclinical and clinical development of the agent. Rational sequencing of radium-223 and combinations, in the increasingly complex landscape of mCRPC will be discussed, along with factors influencing clinical implementation. PMID:24713838

  10. Occurrence of Radium-224, Radium-226 and Radium-228 in Water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel Aquifers, the Englishtown Aquifer System, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands, Southwestern and South-Central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    dePaul, Vincent T.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is the first regionally focused study of the presence of natural radioactivity in water from the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands. Geologic materials composing the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands previously have been reported to contain radioactive (uranium-enriched) phosphatic strata, which is common in deposits from some moderate-depth coastal marine environments. The decay of uranium and thorium gives rise to natural radioactivity and numerous radioactive progeny, including isotopes of radium. Naturally occurring radioactive isotopes, especially those of radium, are of concern because radium is a known human carcinogen and ingestion (especially in water used for drinking) can present appreciable health risks. A regional network in southwestern and south-central New Jersey of 39 wells completed in the Vincentown and Wenonah-Mount Laurel aquifers, the Englishtown aquifer system, and the Hornerstown and Red Bank Sands was sampled for determination of gross alpha-particle activity; concentrations of radium radionuclides, major ions, and selected trace elements; and physical properties. Concentrations of radium-224, radium-226, and radium-228 were determined for water from 28 of the 39 wells, whereas gross alpha-particle activity was determined for all 39. The alpha spectroscopic technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-224, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 2.7 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5pCi/L, and of radium-226, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 3.2 pCi/L with a median concentration of less than 0.5 pCi/L. The beta-counting technique was used to determine concentrations of radium-228. The concentration of radium-228 ranged from less than 0.5 to 4.3 pCi/L with a median of less than 0.5. Radium-228, when quantifiable, had the greatest concentration of the three radium

  11. Process for the removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same

    DOEpatents

    Scheitlin, F.M.

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of /sup 226/Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  12. Removal of radium from acidic solutions containing same by adsorption on coal fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Scheitlin, Frank M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a process for the removal of radium from acidic aqueous solutions. In one aspect, the invention is a process for removing radium from an inorganic-acid solution. The process comprises contacting the solution with coal fly ash to effect adsorption of the radium on the ash. The radium-containing ash then is separated from the solution. The process is simple, comparatively inexpensive, and efficient. High radium-distribution coefficients are obtained even at room temperature. Coal fly ash is an inexpensive, acid-resistant, high-surface-area material which is available in large quantities throughout the United States. The invention is applicable, for example, to the recovery of .sup.226 Ra from nitric acid solutions which have been used to leach radium from uranium-mill tailings.

  13. Physicians, reformers and occupational disease: the discovery of radium poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.

    1987-01-01

    Teenage girls and young women, whose job it was to apply luminous paint containing radium to watches during World War I, were among the first industrial radiation poisoning victims in the United States. This paper recounts both the story of how their afflictions became recognized occupational diseases and of the tangled web of governmental-industrial-academic collusion (largely based on industrial funding of research and experts) which delayed this recognition. It shows how these industrial-academic arrangements led to the establishment of the major academic training programs in occupational medical and industrial hygiene still in existence. Using historical sources, this study provides evidence of moral lapses by medical researchers, including directly lying to the victims, withholding data on the true extent of illness and radiation contamination and of distorting evidence. The pivotal role of the Consumers League and of Dr. Alice Hamilton in establishing the truth of the radium dial painting poisonings is discussed.

  14. The Radium Terrors. Science Fiction and Radioactivity before the Bomb.

    PubMed

    Candela, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the collective imagination was fascinated and terrified by the discovery of radium. A scientific imagery sprang up around radioactivity and was disseminated by public lectures and newspaper articles discussing the ambiguous power of this strange substance. It was claimed that radium could be used to treat cholera, typhus and tuberculosis, but at the same time there were warnings that it could be used for military purposes. The media and the scientists themselves employed a rich vocabulary influenced by religion, alchemy and magic. The ambivalent power of radioactive elements exerted a great influence on science fiction novelists. This paper will examine some significant works published in Europe, America and Russia during the first decades of the 20th century and their role in the creation of the complex imagery of radioactivity that seized the public imagination long before the invention of the atomic bomb.

  15. PROCESS OF EXTRACTING URANIUM AND RADIUM FROM ORES

    DOEpatents

    Sawyer, C.W.; Handley, R.W.

    1959-07-14

    A process is presented for extracting uranium and radium values from a uranium ore which comprises leaching the ore with a ferric chloride solution at an elevated temperature of above 50 deg C and at a pH less than 4; separating the ore residue from the leaching solution by filtration; precipitating the excess ferric iron present at a pH of less than 5 by adding CaCO/sub 3/ to the filtrate; separating the precipitate by filtration; precipitating the uranium present in the filtrate at a Ph less than 6 by adding BaCO/sub 3/ to the filtrate; separating the precipitate by filtration; and precipitating the radium present in the filtrate by adding H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to the filtrate.

  16. Radium-223 dichloride in clinical practice: a review.

    PubMed

    Florimonte, Luigia; Dellavedova, Luca; Maffioli, Lorenzo Stefano

    2016-09-01

    The onset of skeletal metastases is typical of advanced-stage prostate cancer and requires a multidisciplinary approach to alleviate bone pain and try to delay disease progression. The current therapeutic armamentarium includes conventional analgesics, chemotherapeutic agents, immunotherapy, androgen-deprivation therapy, osteoclast inhibitors (bisphosphonates, denosumab), surgical interventions, external-beam radiotherapy and radionuclide metabolic therapy. Many studies in recent decades have demonstrated the efficacy of various radiopharmaceuticals, including strontium-89 and samarium-153, for palliation of pain from diffuse skeletal metastases, but no significant benefit in terms of disease progression and overall survival has been shown. The therapeutic landscape of metastatic skeletal cancer significantly changed after the introduction of radium-223, the first bone-homing radiopharmaceutical with disease-modifying properties. In this paper we extensively review the literature on the use of radium-223 dichloride in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  17. Focal cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma following radium-223 extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Benjegerdes, Katie E.; Housewright, Chad D.

    2017-01-01

    Long-term sequelae due to extravasation of intravenous radioisotopes resulting in radiation injuries are rarely reported. As the use of radioactive isotopes for the treatment of osteoblastic metastases increases, information regarding the prevention, treatment, and long-term monitoring of suspected extravasation injury will become increasingly important. We present a patient with no previous history of skin cancer who developed an aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma at the site of prior radium-223 extravasation. We recommend that patients who experience extravasation of therapeutic radioisotopes be monitored by dermatologists for long-term sequelae. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma should be recognized as a rare but potential adverse event following cutaneous extravasation of radium-223 and is likely a side effect that is severely underreported. PMID:28127143

  18. Neoplasms following childhood radium irradiation of the nasopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, D.P.; Comstock, G.W.; Matanoski, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Eighteen to 35 years after admission to a clinic for the prevention of deafness, no increased overall cancer risk could be detected among 904 persons who had been treated with nasopharyngeal radium irradiation when compared with the risk among 2,021 persons who were either treated surgically or not treated at all, although there were differences at specific sites. An increased risk of developing both benign and malignant head and neck tumors was found among irradiated persons. Whereas no one head and neck site showed a statistically significant excess, a slight excess of brain cancer occurred 15-20 years after radium treatment. No increase in thyroid cancer risk was observed, a result possibly attributable to the low radiation doses to this organ, and the relatively small population irradiated.

  19. 12 CFR 213.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 213.2 Section 213.2 Banks and... (REGULATION M) § 213.2 Definitions. For the purposes of this part the following definitions apply: (a) Act means the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) and the Consumer Leasing Act is chapter 5 of...

  20. Internal emitter limits for iodine, radium and radon daughters

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-08-15

    This paper identifies some of the issues which arise in the consideration of the derivation of new limits on exposure to internal emitters. Basic and secondary radiation protection limits are discussed. Terms are defined and applied to the limitation of risk from stochastic effects. Non-stochastic data for specific internal emitters (/sup 131/I and the radium isotopes) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative aspects of the limit setting problem. 65 references, 2 figures, 12 tables.

  1. Restoring a neighborhood: Radium cleanup eases fears, rebuilds community

    SciTech Connect

    Ranney, C.A.; Gaddis, D.M. )

    1993-07-01

    Contaminated property is every homeowner's nightmare. That is even more true if the contamination is radioactive. But for the residents of the Monclair, West Orange, and Glen Ridge neighborhoods in Essex County, New Jersey, the nightmare became reality in the early 1980s. These three communities--representing some 750 modest, neatly kept homes--rested on radium-contaminated soils, the result of backfilling and dumping operations from 80 years ago. Residents first became alarmed in 1984, following regulatory action that triggered public awareness of excessive indoor radon gas readings, ambient gamma radiation 150 times normal levels and soil radium concentrations up to 2000 times greater than background. The worst contamination was limited to about 150 of the homes, but community concern--and the threat of the unknown--was tremendous. Not only were soils contaminated, but radon--a gas that forms during the decay of radium--with readings as high as 300 pCi/L in some homes was affecting air quality as well. Because both surficial and deeper soils were found to contain radioactive wastes, runoff and groundwater contamination was feared.

  2. Indoor radon and lung cancer in the radium dial workers

    SciTech Connect

    Neuberger, J.S.; Rundo, J.

    1996-12-31

    Internally deposited radium has long been known to have tumorigenic effects in the form of sarcomas of the bone and carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells. However, the radium dial workers were also exposed to radiation hazards other than that occurring from ingestion of the radium paint, viz., external gamma radiation and elevated concentrations of airborne radon. The uranium miners were also exposed to high concentrations of radon in the 1950s and later, and numerous cases of lung cancer have occurred in that population. However, unlike the atmosphere in the uranium mines, the air in the dial painting plants was probably rather clean and perhaps not much different from the air in many houses. In view of the current concern over the possibility of lung cancer fin the general population being caused by radon (progeny) in houses, it is important to examine the mortality due to this usually fatal disease in the dial workers and to attempt to relate it to their exposure to radon, to the extent that this is possible.

  3. Romanian Experience in The Conditioning of Radium Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dogaru, Gh.; Dragolici, F.; Rotarescu, Gh.; Nicu, M.

    2008-07-01

    Ra{sup 226} first radionuclide separated from pitchblende in 1898 by Pierre and Marie Curie was successfully used in medicine, industry as in other fields being the only one available radionuclide till 1940 when were produced other radionuclides in accelerators. On long term the use of Ra{sup 226} sealed sources are not any more safe due to: the high specific activity, long half live, decays in Rn{sup 226} gas which increases the internal pressure of capsule leading in time to the leakage, the salts as raw materials from which the sealed sources are manufactured are soluble, there is a leak of information and records on the manufacture and operation. Based on this consideration in Romania regulatory authority did not authorized any more the use of these sealed sources [1]. The paper presents some aspects from Romanian experience related to the collection and conditioning of radium sealed sources. Data relating the radium inventory as well as the arrangements made in order to create a workshop for the conditioning of radium sources are presented. (authors)

  4. Spent sealed radium sources conditioning in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Mourao, R.P.

    1999-06-01

    The management of spent sealed sources is considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) one of the greatest challenges faced by nuclear authorities today, especially in developing countries. One of the Agency`s initiatives to tackle this problem is the Spent Radium Sources Conditioning Project, a worldwide project relying on the regional co-operation between countries. A team from the Brazilian nuclear research institute Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) was chosen as the expert team to carry out the operations in Latin America; since December 1996 radium sources have been safely conditioned in Uruguay, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Ecuador and Paraguay. A Quality Assurance Program was established, encompassing the qualification of the capsule welding process, written operational procedures referring to all major steps of the operation, calibration of monitors and information retrievability. A 200L carbon steel drum-based packaging concept was used to condition the sources, its cavity being designed to receive the lead shield device containing stainless steel capsules with the radium sources. As a result of these operations, a total amount of 2,897 mg of needles, tubes, medical applicators, standard sources for calibration, lightning rods, secondary wastes and contaminated objects were stored in proper conditions and are now under control of the nuclear authorities of the visited countries.

  5. Radium and radium-daughter nuclides in carbonates: a brief overview of strategies for determining chronologies.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Sabine; Cochran, J Kirk

    2010-07-01

    Radium isotopes have been used extensively to trace the movement of groundwater as well as oceanic water masses, but these radionuclides (and their daughters) are also useful chronometers for the determination of the time scales of other Earth and environmental processes. The purpose of this overview is to present the application of Ra and Ra daughters in the dating of carbonates. We show that the choice of dating method (decay of excess radionuclide or ingrowth of daughter) depends strongly on the parent/daughter activity ratios in the water in which the carbonate was precipitated. Thus freshly precipitated carbonates uniformly show excesses of 226Ra relative to its parent 230Th, and 226Ra decay can provide ages of carbonates over Holocene time scales. In contrast, carbonates are precipitated in waters of greatly varying 210Pb/226Ra. Corals, deep-sea hydrothermal vent clams and the shelled cephalopod Nautilus live in waters with significant dissolved 210Pb and all show excesses of 210Pb in their carbonate. Bivalve molluscs from nearshore and coastal waters, and carbonates deposited from groundwater environments (e.g. travertines) in which 210Pb is efficiently scavenged from solution, show deficiencies of 210Pb relative to 226Ra. In contrast, fish otoliths strongly discriminate against 210Pb regardless of the environment in which the fish lives. Deficiencies of 228Th relative to 228Ra are common in all carbonates. Useful time ranges for the 210Pb/226Ra and 228Th/228Ra chronometers are approximately 100 y and approximately 10 y, respectively. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of radium contamination in the environment. Topics examine the presence of radium in the food chain, soil, drinking water, and groundwater; disposal of contaminated waste solids; the contribution to radon pollution; and the effects of exposure on human health. Natural radium in geologic formations across the United States, and its role in contamination are discussed. Government regulations regarding radium in consumer products and drinking water are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Radium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of radium contamination in the environment. Topics examine the presence of radium in the food chain, soil, drinking water, and groundwater; disposal of contaminated waste solids; the contribution to radon pollution; and the effects of exposure on human health. Natural radium in geologic formations across the United States, and its role in contamination are discussed. Government regulations regarding radium in consumer products and drinking water are included. (Contains a minimum of 77 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Accumulation of radium in relation to some chemical analogues in Dicranopteris linearis.

    PubMed

    Chao, J H; Chuang, C Y

    2011-01-01

    This study elucidates the uptake and accumulation of radium in the field-growing fern Dicranopteris linearis by relating the radium concentration to some potential chemical analogues, including alkaline earth metals, rare earth elements, and some important heavy metals. Time-dependent accumulation of radium and these chemical analogues for D. linearis were described by the (228)Th/(228)Ra activity ratio, an index for inferring plant age. The correlation between radium and these elements was assessed by statistical analysis and used as a reference to elucidate the uptake and accumulation of radium in relation to the chemical analogues. Analytical and statistical results showed that the concentrations of alkaline earth metals (except for Mg) rare earth elements and some heavy metals in D. linearis increased linearly with plant age. These elements, exhibiting a similar accumulation pattern to radium and significant correlation coefficients with radium, were considered as the chemical analogues to radium. Additionally, the plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for radium and most of these analogues in D. linearis exceeded 1, consistent with the definition of hyper-accumulator plants.

  9. Nursing management of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer undergoing radium-223 dichloride treatment.

    PubMed

    Delacruz, Anthony; Arauz, Gabrielle; Curley, Tracy; Lindo, Amabella; Jensen, Trine

    2015-04-01

    Radium-223 dichloride, or radium-223, is a first-in-class alpha emitter that selectively targets bone metastases with high-energy, short-range alpha particles and is approved for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), symptomatic bone metastases, and no known visceral metastatic disease. Nurses are essential in educating patients about radium-223. This article provides oncology nurses with information from the randomized phase III Alpharadin in Symptomatic Prostate Cancer (ALSYMPCA) trial, as well as important handling, administration, and safety details unique to radium-223. Data from the ALSYMPCA trial and related published information on radium-223 were reviewed. Radium-223 is the only alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical that has been shown to improve overall survival in patients with CRPC, as demonstrated in the ALSYMPCA trial. In addition, radium-223 delays time to first symptomatic skeletal event, and it is well tolerated with a low incidence of myelosuppression and gastrointestinal adverse events. Delivered on an outpatient basis, radium-223 requires universal precautions for handling and administration. Because of the potential for additive myelosuppression, the concomitant use of radium-223 with chemotherapy, other systemic radioisotopes, or hemibody external radiation therapy is not recommended.

  10. Radium contamination in the environment. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the ecological impact of radium contamination in the environment. Topics examine the presence of radium in the food chain, soil, and drinking and groundwater; disposal of contaminated waste solids; the contribution to radon pollution; and the effects of exposure on human health. Natural radium in geologic formations across the United States, and its role in contamination are discussed. Government regulations regarding radium in consumer products and drinking water are included. (Contains a minimum of 105 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Distribution of radium in oil and gas industry wastes from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Omar, M; Ali, H M; Abu, M P; Kontol, K M; Ahmad, Z; Ahmad, S H S S; Sulaiman, I; Hamzah, R

    2004-05-01

    Radium concentrations in 470 samples of the various types of waste from oil and gas industries were analysed using gamma spectrometers. The results showed that the radium concentration varied within a wide range. The highest mean 226Ra and 228Ra concentrations of 114,300 and 130,120 Bq/kg, respectively, were measured in scales. Overall, 75% of the waste, mostly sludge and extraction residue lies within the normal range of radium concentration in soils of Malaysia. However, some platform sludge can have radium concentration up to 560 Bq/kg.

  12. Elevated levels of radium-226 and radium-228 in marine sediments of the Norwegian Trench ("Norskrenna") and Skagerrak.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, M; Lepland, Aivo

    2012-10-01

    Oil and gas extraction activities discharge waters bearing radium isotopes which may potentially be transported to locations distant from the discharge point. Sediment cores from the Norwegian Trench and Skagerrak, potential sinks for North Sea discharges, were analyzed for the contents of these isotopes. All cores were such that data could be obtained from periods prior to and during extensive operations in the North Sea. Results indicate elevated levels of radium isotopes in upper sedimentary layers when compared to data for the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. Although diagenetic processes involving manganese cycling may be responsible for these enrichments, the data support previous work indicating a possible influence of North Sea discharges on sediments of the area. The results highlight the need for further work on elaborating background levels of these isotopes in the North Sea and related areas such that possible impacts of these discharges can be properly evaluated.

  13. 47 CFR 213.7 - Policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policies. 213.7 Section 213.7 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC..., the user should first attempt to complete the call in the normal manner. In the event the user is...

  14. 49 CFR 213.365 - Visual inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.365... density commuter railroad lines where track time does not permit an on track vehicle inspection, and where... with the Guidebook required under § 213.353. (f) In track Classes 8 and 9, if no train traffic...

  15. 10 CFR 1021.213 - Rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rulemaking. 1021.213 Section 1021.213 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES DOE Decisionmaking... regulation, and as soon as environmental effects can be meaningfully evaluated. (c) DOE shall include...

  16. 47 CFR 213.0 - Authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority. 213.0 Section 213.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC... Communications Act of 1934, as amended, and delegated to the National Security Council by Executive Order 12046...

  17. 36 CFR 2.13 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fires. 2.13 Section 2.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE... results in the burning of property, real property or park resources, or creates a public safety hazard....

  18. 36 CFR 2.13 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fires. 2.13 Section 2.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE... results in the burning of property, real property or park resources, or creates a public safety hazard....

  19. 40 CFR 408.213 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true 408.213 Section 408.213 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Alaskan Conventional Bottom Fish Processing Subcategory §...

  20. Nuclear Data Sheets for A = 213

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M.S.

    2007-03-15

    Evaluated spectroscopic data and level schemes from radioactive decay and nuclear reaction studies are presented for all nuclei with mass number A = 213. This evaluation for A = 213 supersedes the earlier one by Y.A. Akovali (1992Ak01), published in Nuclear Data Sheets 66, 237 (1992)

  1. 33 CFR 136.213 - Authorized claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authorized claimants. 136.213 Section 136.213 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS...

  2. 33 CFR 136.213 - Authorized claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authorized claimants. 136.213 Section 136.213 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS...

  3. 33 CFR 136.213 - Authorized claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authorized claimants. 136.213 Section 136.213 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; CLAIMS...

  4. 50 CFR 300.213 - Vessel information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vessel information. 300.213 Section 300... REGULATIONS Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species § 300.213 Vessel information... information about the vessel and its ownership and operation, and the authorized fishing activities, including...

  5. 32 CFR 213.3 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition. 213.3 Section 213.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SUPPORT FOR... entities. A non-Federal entity is generally a self-sustaining, non-Federal person or organization...

  6. 32 CFR 213.3 - Definition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition. 213.3 Section 213.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SUPPORT FOR... entities. A non-Federal entity is generally a self-sustaining, non-Federal person or organization...

  7. 7 CFR 1260.213 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal. 1260.213 Section 1260.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH...

  8. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section... SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A § 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3161(a). Appointments may not exceed 3 years, but...

  9. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section... SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A § 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3161(a). Appointments may not exceed 3 years, but...

  10. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section... SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A § 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3161(a). Appointments may not exceed 3 years, but...

  11. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section... SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A § 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3161(a). Appointments may not exceed 3 years, but...

  12. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section... SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A § 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3161(a). Appointments may not exceed 3 years, but...

  13. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  14. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  15. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  16. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.213 Foreign government. The term foreign government means any government or body exercising governmental functions, other than the United States Government or...

  17. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each owner of the track to which this subpart applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the...

  18. 10 CFR 1021.213 - Rulemaking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rulemaking. 1021.213 Section 1021.213 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES DOE Decisionmaking... regulation, and as soon as environmental effects can be meaningfully evaluated. (c) DOE shall include any...

  19. 45 CFR 213.31 - Posthearing briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Posthearing briefs. 213.31 Section 213.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE...

  20. 45 CFR 213.31 - Posthearing briefs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Posthearing briefs. 213.31 Section 213.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE...

  1. 45 CFR 213.28 - Official transcript.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Official transcript. 213.28 Section 213.28 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE...

  2. 31 CFR 800.213 - Foreign government.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foreign government. 800.213 Section 800.213 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND...

  3. 33 CFR 136.213 - Authorized claimants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authorized claimants. 136.213 Section 136.213 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND;...

  4. 25 CFR 213.9 - Noncontiguous tracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... No lease will be approved covering two or more noncontiguous tracts of land, but in such case a lease... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noncontiguous tracts. 213.9 Section 213.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF...

  5. 49 CFR 234.213 - Grounds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grounds. 234.213 Section 234.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... internal to semiconductor-based memory; and (5) Common return wires of grounded common return single...

  6. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each owner of the track to which this subpart applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the following...

  7. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each owner of the track to which this subpart applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the following...

  8. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  9. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  10. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  11. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  12. 45 CFR 213.25 - Evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 213.25 Section 213.25 Public Welfare... Evidence. (a) Testimony. Testimony shall be given orally under oath or affirmation by witnesses at the... hearing if the presiding officer so requires. (c) Rules of evidence. Technical rules of evidence shall...

  13. 48 CFR 52.213-2 - Invoices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Invoices. 52.213-2 Section 52.213-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  14. 49 CFR 199.213 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false [Reserved] 199.213 Section 199.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse...

  15. 49 CFR 199.213 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 199.213 Section 199.213 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention...

  16. 48 CFR 213.7002 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.7002... Acquisition Procedures Under the 8(a) Program 213.7002 Purchase orders. The contracting officer need not obtain a contractor's written acceptance of a purchase order or modification of a purchase order for an...

  17. 25 CFR 213.10 - Lessor's signature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lessor's signature. 213.10 Section 213.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF RESTRICTED LANDS OF... persons, one of whom must be a U.S. Government employee (such as field clerk, postmaster, U.S...

  18. 49 CFR 213.365 - Visual inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visual inspections. 213.365 Section 213.365... Visual inspections. (a) All track shall be visually inspected in accordance with the schedule prescribed..., electrical, and other track inspection devices may be used to supplement visual inspection. If a vehicle...

  19. 42 CFR 456.213 - Confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Confidentiality. 456.213 Section 456.213 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Ur Plan...

  20. 42 CFR 456.213 - Confidentiality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Confidentiality. 456.213 Section 456.213 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Utilization Control: Mental Hospitals Ur Plan...

  1. 7 CFR 920.213 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 920.213 Section 920.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  2. 7 CFR 920.213 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment rate. 920.213 Section 920.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN...

  3. 49 CFR 213.351 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.351 Section 213.351... Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for the rail on which it is applied. (b) If a joint bar is cracked, broken...

  4. 49 CFR 213.351 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.351 Section 213.351... Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for the rail on which it is applied. (b) If a joint bar is cracked, broken...

  5. 49 CFR 213.351 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.351 Section 213.351... Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for the rail on which it is applied. (b) If a joint bar is cracked, broken...

  6. 49 CFR 213.351 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.351 Section 213.351... Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for the rail on which it is applied. (b) If a joint bar is cracked, broken...

  7. 49 CFR 213.351 - Rail joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rail joints. 213.351 Section 213.351... Rail joints. (a) Each rail joint, insulated joint, and compromise joint shall be of a structurally sound design and dimensions for the rail on which it is applied. (b) If a joint bar is cracked, broken...

  8. Occurrence of natural radium-226 radioactivity in ground water of Sarasota County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.L.; Sutcliffe, Horace

    1985-01-01

    Water that contains radium-226 radioactivity in excess of the 5.0-picocurie-per-liter limit set in the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations was found in the majority of wells sampled throughout Sarasota County. Highest levels were found areally near the coast or near rivers and vertically in the Tamiami-upper Hawthorn aquifer where semiconsolidated phosphate pebbles occur. Analysis of data suggests that part of the radium-226 in ground water of Sarasota County is dissolved by alpha particle recoil. In slightly mineralized water, radium-226 concentrations are decreased by ion exchange or sorption. In more mineralized water, other ions compete with radium-226 for ion exchange or sorption sites. Dissolution of minerals containing radium-226 by mineralized water probably contributes a significant fraction of the dissolved radium-226. Two types of mineralized water were present in Sarasota County. One type is a marine-like water, presumably associated with saltwater encroachment in coastal areas; the other is a calcium magnesium strontium surfate bicarbonate type. In general, water that contains high radium-226 radioactivities also contains too much water hardness or dissolved solids to be used for public supply without treatment that would also reduce radium-226 radioactivities. (USGS)

  9. Radium in the Dead Sea: a possible tracer for the duration of meromixis

    SciTech Connect

    Stiller, M.; Chung, Y.C.

    1984-05-01

    Three profiles of /sup 226/Ra in the meromictic Dead Sea measured during 1963-1978 indicate that the radium activities in the upper water mass were higher than in the lower water mass. All three profiles indicate a similar radium inventory. The Jordan inflow is not the primary source of radium to the Dead Sea. Mineral springs and submerged seepages are probably more important contributors. The age of the meromictic structure is estimated by a model which requires that the radium inventory of the lake be at a steady state, that sometime in the past the radium profile of the lake had been uniform (when either the lake was monomictic or an overturn had ended an earlier meromictic phase) and that the contemporaneous profiles of radium have been built up by inflows of radium solely into the upper water mass, while the monimolimnion is relict, isolated, and loses radium only by radioactive decay. Supporting evidence is presented suggesting that the above conditions may be fulfilled. Thus, it is possible to estimate that the Dead Sea was meromictic for about 300 years before the turnover in 1979. From tentative balances of the Dead Sea dissolved salts it is shown that a previous overturn might have occured at a lower lake level than in 1979.

  10. VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF c19441950 c19441950 POSTU.S. RADIUM ADDITION ADDITIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO NORTHEAST OF c1944-1950 c1944-1950 POST-U.S. RADIUM ADDITION ADDITIONS TO PAINT APPLICATION BUILDING (RIGHT) AND CRYSTALLIZATION LABORATORY (LEFT) - United States Radium Corporation, 422-432 Alden Street, Orange, Essex County, NJ

  11. 40 CFR 61.207 - Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Radium-226 sampling and measurement... for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.207 Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures... § 61.206, the owner or operator of a phosphogypsum stack shall measure the average...

  12. 40 CFR 61.207 - Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Radium-226 sampling and measurement... for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.207 Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures... § 61.206, the owner or operator of a phosphogypsum stack shall measure the average...

  13. Enhancing radium solubilization in soils by citrate, EDTA, and EDDS chelating amendments.

    PubMed

    Prieto, C; Lozano, J C; Blanco Rodríguez, P; Tomé, F Vera

    2013-04-15

    The effect of three chelating agents (citrate, EDTA, and EDDS) on the solubilization of radium from a granitic soil was studied systematically, considering different soil pH values, chelating agent concentrations, and leaching times. For all the chelating agents tested, the amount of radium leached proved to be strongly dependent on the pH of the substrate: only for acidic conditions did the amount of radium released increase significantly relative to the controls. Under the best conditions, the radium released from the amended soil was greater by factors of 20 in the case of citrate, 18 for EDTA, and 14 for EDDS. The greatest improvement in the release of radium was obtained for the citrate amendment at the highest concentration tested (50 mmol kg(-1)). A slightly lower amount of radium was leached with EDTA at 5 mmol kg(-1) soil, but the solubilization over time was very different from that observed with citrate or EDDS. With EDTA, a maximum in radium leaching was reached on the first day after amendment, while with citrate, the maximum was attained on the fourth day. With EDDS, radium leaching increased slightly but steadily with time (until the sixth day), but the net effect for the period tested was the lowest of the three reagents.

  14. 40 CFR 61.207 - Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Radium-226 sampling and measurement... for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.207 Radium-226 sampling and measurement procedures... § 61.206, the owner or operator of a phosphogypsum stack shall measure the average...

  15. 10 CFR 31.12 - General license for certain items and self-luminous products containing radium-226.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... products containing radium-226. 31.12 Section 31.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL DOMESTIC... containing radium-226. (a) A general license is hereby issued to any person to acquire, receive, possess, use..., radium-226 contained in the following products manufactured prior to November 30, 2007. (1)...

  16. 10 CFR 31.12 - General license for certain items and self-luminous products containing radium-226.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... products containing radium-226. 31.12 Section 31.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL DOMESTIC... containing radium-226. (a) A general license is hereby issued to any person to acquire, receive, possess, use..., radium-226 contained in the following products manufactured prior to November 30, 2007. (1)...

  17. 10 CFR 31.12 - General license for certain items and self-luminous products containing radium-226.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... products containing radium-226. 31.12 Section 31.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL DOMESTIC... containing radium-226. (a) A general license is hereby issued to any person to acquire, receive, possess, use..., radium-226 contained in the following products manufactured prior to November 30, 2007. (1)...

  18. 10 CFR 31.12 - General license for certain items and self-luminous products containing radium-226.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... products containing radium-226. 31.12 Section 31.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL DOMESTIC... containing radium-226. (a) A general license is hereby issued to any person to acquire, receive, possess, use..., radium-226 contained in the following products manufactured prior to November 30, 2007. (1)...

  19. 10 CFR 31.12 - General license for certain items and self-luminous products containing radium-226.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... products containing radium-226. 31.12 Section 31.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL DOMESTIC... containing radium-226. (a) A general license is hereby issued to any person to acquire, receive, possess, use..., radium-226 contained in the following products manufactured prior to November 30, 2007. (1)...

  20. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. 32.57 Section 32.57... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of this...

  1. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a non...

  2. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. 32.57 Section 32.57... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of this...

  3. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a non...

  4. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a non...

  5. 10 CFR 32.57 - Calibration or reference sources containing americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. 32.57 Section 32.57... americium-241 or radium-226: Requirements for license to manufacture or initially transfer. An application... containing americium-241 or radium-226, for distribution to persons generally licensed under § 31.8 of this...

  6. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a non...

  7. 10 CFR 31.8 - Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or... BYPRODUCT MATERIAL § 31.8 Americium-241 and radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources. (a..., americium-241 or radium-226 in the form of calibration or reference sources: (1) Any person in a non...

  8. Radium isotopes in the Orinoco estuary and Eastern Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.S.; Todd, J.F. )

    1993-02-15

    Radium isotopes provide a means of identifying the source of freshened waters in the ocean and determining the time elapsed since these waters were in the estuary. The authors present evidence that during April, waters from the Amazon mixing zone pass within 50 km of the mouth of the Orinoco River. These Amazon waters are characterized by a lower [sup 228]Ra/[sup 226]Ra activity ratio (AR) than are waters from the Orinoco at similar salinities. During autumn, the increased discharge of the Orinoco displaces the freshened Amazon waters seaward, yet the two can be distinguished clearly. Within the Caribbean Sea, waters of Orinoco origin carry a characteristic radium signature including excess activities of [sup 224]Ra. This isotope may be used to estimate the time elapsed since the waters were removed from contact with sediments. Current speeds based on [sup 224]Ra dating ranged from 15 to 33 cm/s during April. The radium isotopes also provide an assessment of sediment mixing in the estuary. During low discharge (April), considerable mixing of older sediment by physical or biological processes or dredging maintained high activities of [sup 228]Ra in the estuary and produced the highest [sup 228]Ra/[sup 226]Ra AR's yet measured in any estuary. During high discharge (September), a large fraction of the [sup 228]Ra was derived from desorption from fresh sediment rather than mixing of older sediments. Activities of [sup 224]Ra were high in the estuary during both high and low discharge, indicating that considerable mixing of recently introduced sediment must occur during each period. During April, [sup 224]Ra and [sup 228]Ra activities in the water were about equal, indicating that most of the sediment being resuspended had been stored in the estuary long enough to reestablish radioactive equilibrium in the [sup 232]Th decay series (i.e., 20 years). 19 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Robert A; Al-Hwaiti, Mohammad S; Budahn, James R; Ranville, James F

    2011-04-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived (226)Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (±SD) of (226)Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ± 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (<10%) of (226)Ra in the finer (<53 μm) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of (226)Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the (226)Ra. (226)Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (<10 μm) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles.

  10. Radionuclides, trace elements, and radium residence in phosphogypsum of Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Al-Hwaiti, M. S.; Budahn, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Voluminous stockpiles of phosphogypsum (PG) generated during the wet process production of phosphoric acid are stored at many sites around the world and pose problems for their safe storage, disposal, or utilization. A major concern is the elevated concentration of long-lived 226Ra (half-life = 1,600 years) inherited from the processed phosphate rock. Knowledge of the abundance and mode-of-occurrence of radium (Ra) in PG is critical for accurate prediction of Ra leachability and radon (Rn) emanation, and for prediction of radiation-exposure pathways to workers and to the public. The mean (??SD) of 226Ra concentrations in ten samples of Jordan PG is 601 ?? 98 Bq/kg, which falls near the midrange of values reported for PG samples collected worldwide. Jordan PG generally shows no analytically significant enrichment (< 10%) of 226Ra in the finer (< 53 ??m) grain size fraction. Phosphogypsum samples collected from two industrial sites with different sources of phosphate rock feedstock show consistent differences in concentration of 226Ra and rare earth elements, and also consistent trends of enrichment in these elements with increasing age of PG. Water-insoluble residues from Jordan PG constitute <10% of PG mass but contain 30-65% of the 226Ra. 226Ra correlates closely with Ba in the water-insoluble residues. Uniformly tiny (< 10 ??m) grains of barite (barium sulfate) observed with scanning electron microscopy have crystal morphologies that indicate their formation during the wet process. Barite is a well-documented and efficient scavenger of Ra from solution and is also very insoluble in water and mineral acids. Radium-bearing barite in PG influences the environmental mobility of radium and the radiation-exposure pathways near PG stockpiles. ?? 2010 US Government.

  11. Radium-223 dichloride for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: the urologist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Shore, Neal D

    2015-04-01

    Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223) is an important therapeutic option for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, symptomatic bone metastases, and no visceral disease. The unique mechanism of action of this first-in-class alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical underlies its favorable safety profile and low incidence of myelosuppression. In the pivotal phase 3 ALpharadin in SYMptomatic Prostate CAncer Patients study, radium-223 reduced the risk of death by 30% and prolonged time to first symptomatic skeletal event by 5.8 months. This article summarizes current guidelines and clinical studies that led to the approval of radium-223 as an overall survival therapy, and discusses the urologist's perspective on using radium-223 in clinical practice.

  12. [Radium therapy in a county hospital on the island of Mors, Denmark].

    PubMed

    Søgaard, Ib; Topp, Sven W

    2010-01-01

    In Denmark it was decided early in the 20th century that therapy with radium should be restricted to major centres in the three largest cities, Copenhagen, Aarhus and Odense. In the northern part of Jutland the chief surgeon of Nykøbing Mors Hospital, Jacob Nordentoft (1881-1954), had studied radium treatment in Hamburg with Albers-Schönberg and in Paris with Marie Curie, and he had used radium in his private clinic since 1910. Naturally he wanted to continue this when he became chief in Nykøbing in 1922. As he was denied this the 22,000 inhabitants of this small island in 1931 collected 28,790 Danish Crowns for him as a birthday present and afterwards he could buy 94 mg pure radium from Belgium. With this amount he established a Radium Centre which lasted for 30 years.

  13. Radium and barium in the Amazon River system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.S.; Edmond, J.M.

    1984-03-20

    Data for /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra in the Amazon River system show that the activity of each radium isotope is strongly correlated with barium concentrations. Two trends are apparent, one for rivers which drain shield areas and another for all other rivers. These data suggest that there has been extensive fractionation of U, Th, and Ba during weathering in the Amazon basin. The /sup 226/Ra data fit a flux model for the major ions indicating that /sup 226/Ra behaves conservatively along the main channel of the Amazon River.

  14. Dutch Economic Value of Radium-223 in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Peters, Michel L; de Meijer, Claudine; Wyndaele, Dirk; Noordzij, Walter; Leliveld-Kors, Annemarie M; van den Bosch, Joan; van den Berg, Pieter H; Baka, Agni; Gaultney, Jennifer G

    2017-09-02

    The treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has changed with the introduction of radium-223, cabazitaxel, abiraterone and enzalutamide. To assess value for money, their cost effectiveness in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel from the Dutch societal perspective was investigated. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted using efficacy, symptomatic skeletal-related event and safety data obtained from indirect treatment comparisons. Missing skeletal-related event data for cabazitaxel were conservatively assumed to be identical to radium-223. A Markov model combined these clinical inputs with Dutch-specific resource use and costs for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treatment from a societal perspective. Total quality-adjusted life-years and costs in 2017 euros were calculated over a 5-year (lifetime) time horizon. Radium-223 resulted in €6092 and €4465 lower costs and 0.02 and 0.01 higher quality-adjusted life-years compared with abiraterone and cabazitaxel, respectively, demonstrating dominance of radium-223. Sensitivity analyses reveal a 64% (54%) chance of radium-223 being cost effective compared with abiraterone (cabazitaxel) at the informal €80,000 willingness-to-pay threshold. Compared with enzalutamide, radium-223 resulted in slightly lower quality-adjusted life-years (-0.06) and €7390 lower costs, revealing a 61% chance of radium-223 being cost effective compared with enzalutamide. The lower costs of radium-223 compared with abiraterone and enzalutamide are driven by lower drug costs and prevention of expensive skeletal-related events. Compared with cabazitaxel, the lower costs of radium-223 are driven by lower costs of the drug, administration and adverse events. Radium-223 may be a less costly treatment strategy offering similar gains in health benefits compared with abiraterone, cabazitaxel and enzalutamide in patients with metastatic castration

  15. The radium legacy: Contaminated land and the committed effective dose from the ingestion of radium contaminated materials.

    PubMed

    Tyler, A N; Dale, P; Copplestone, D; Bradley, S; Ewen, H; McGuire, C; Scott, E M

    2013-09-01

    The manufacture and use of radium in the early to mid-20th century within industrial, medicinal and recreational products have resulted in a large number of contaminated sites across a number of countries with notable examples in the USA and Europe. These sites, represent a significant number of unregulated sources of potential radiological exposure that have collectively and hitherto not been well characterised. In 2007, the Radioactive Contaminated Land (RCL) Regulations came into force in the UK, providing the statutory guidance for regulators to classify and deal with RCL. Here we report on results derived from digestion experiments to estimate committed effective dose, a key aspect of the RCL Regulations, from the ingestion of radium contaminated sources that can be found in the environment. This case study includes particles, clinker and artefacts that arise from past military activities on a site that was once an airfield at Dalgety Bay on the Firth of Forth, UK. Since 2011 the number of radium contaminated finds has increased by one order of magnitude on the foreshore areas of Dalgety Bay. The increase in finds may in large part be attributed to a change in monitoring practice. A subsample of sixty sources was selected, on the basis of their activity and dimensions, and subjected to digestion in simulated stomach and lower intestine solutions. The study demonstrated that more radium-226 ((226)Ra) and lead-210 ((210)Pb; driven by Polonium solubility) are dissolved from sources in artificial 'stomach' solutions compared with 'lower intestine' solutions. The combined 'gut' solubility for (226)Ra and apparent (210)Pb varied from less than 1% to up to 35% ICRP 72 conversion factors were used to convert the activities measured in solution to committed effective dose. A little over 10% of the sources tested dissolved sufficient radioactivity to result in 100mSv committed effective dose to an infant. Using the solubility of 35% as a worst case, minimum source

  16. 7 CFR 1430.213 - Reconstitutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.213 Reconstitutions. (a) A dairy operation receiving MILC benefits may reorganize or...

  17. 7 CFR 1430.213 - Reconstitutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.213 Reconstitutions. (a) A dairy operation receiving MILC benefits may reorganize or...

  18. 7 CFR 1430.213 - Reconstitutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.213 Reconstitutions. (a) A dairy operation receiving MILC benefits may reorganize or...

  19. 7 CFR 1430.213 - Reconstitutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.213 Reconstitutions. (a) A dairy operation receiving MILC benefits may reorganize or...

  20. 7 CFR 1430.213 - Reconstitutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.213 Reconstitutions. (a) A dairy operation receiving MILC benefits may reorganize or...

  1. 24 CFR 213.252 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES COOPERATIVE HOUSING MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations-Projects § 213.252 Definitions. The...

  2. 49 CFR 213.369 - Inspection records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... system be designed such that the integrity of each record maintained through appropriate levels of... subsequent inspections. (f) Each vehicle/track interaction safety record required under § 213.333 (g), and...

  3. Radium-223 dichloride therapy in breast cancer with osseous metastases.

    PubMed

    Takalkar, Amol; Paryani, Bhavna; Adams, Scott; Subbiah, Vivek

    2015-11-18

    Osseous metastases occur frequently in patients with breast cancer. Few options exist for bone targeted therapy for hormone refractory patients with breast cancer with progressive bone metastases. We present a case of breast cancer with osseous metastases but no visceral metastases. The patient had been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and hormonal therapy, but still had extensive symptomatic osseous metastases. She received radium-223 dichloride, a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for castration resistant prostate cancer with bone metastases. She tolerated the therapy well with no significant adverse effects. She had an excellent response with significant pain relief obviating need for regular analgaesics. Her tumour markers also dropped significantly. Osseous metastases assessed with F-18 fluorodeoxy glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) and F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) bone PET/CT) scans at baseline, after two and six cycles, also showed interval improvement in the lesions. Radium-223 dichloride could potentially be a safe and useful therapeutic option in this setting.

  4. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of radium-223 in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yeku, Oladapo; Slovin, Susan F

    2015-05-01

    Prostate cancer metastatic to bone is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Bone pain and other skeletal events negatively impact the quality of life in patients who might otherwise be functioning well. As such, there has been intense interest in the development of strategies and pharmaceuticals to address this problem. The authors reviewed the current literature for articles relevant to metastatic prostate cancer, clinical radiopharmaceuticals, castrate-resistant prostate cancer and development of Radium-223 . The authors have referenced primary literature, clinical trials and relevant review articles that summarize the history, development and current utilization of radiopharmaceuticals for management of bone metastases from prostate cancer. Radium-223 is the first radiopharmaceutical with an overall survival benefit approved for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, symptomatic bone metastasis and no known visceral metastatic disease. The additional benefit of clinically significant improved overall survival should lead to exploration of whether this agent can be used earlier in the treatment algorithm or combined with chemotherapy or androgen deprivation therapy. An individualized approach needs to be tailored to each patient based on their overall symptoms, disease burden, hematologic profile and goals of care.

  5. Data on uranium and radium in ground water in the United States, 1954 to 1957

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, R.C.; Barker, F.B.

    1962-01-01

    This report is one of a series resulting from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey to determine the occurrence and distribution of naturally radioactive substances in water. From 1954-57 uranium and radium concentrations were determined in 561 samples, mainly of ground water, having wide geologic and geographic distribution. These concentrations, together with data on the hydrologic and geologic environment, the beta-gamma activity, and the chemical characteristics of each sample, are tabulated by States.The conterminous United States was subdivided into 10 geotectonic regions to facilitate statistical interpretation of the occurrence of uranium and radium in fresh water in approximately homogeneous geologic provinces. For each geotectonic region, the range and median were determined for the concentrations of radium and uranium; for regions from which sufficient data were available, log-normal frequency distribution curves were calculated and superimposed on histograms of radium and uranium concentrations in the samples. An "anomaly threshold" is suggested for both radioelements for each region analyzed statistically. The western stable region had the greatest median and highest "anomaly threshold" for uranium. This region also had the highest "anomaly threshold" for radium, but the largest median for radium was found for samples collected in the Ozark-Ouachita system. The median concentration for uranium was lowest for the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain and the Pacific orogenic belt. This latter region also had the lowest median-radium content.

  6. Adsorption of radium and barium on goethite and ferrihydrite: A kinetic and surface complexation modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajih, M.; Bryan, N. D.; Livens, F. R.; Vaughan, D. J.; Descostes, M.; Phrommavanh, V.; Nos, J.; Morris, K.

    2014-12-01

    Radium and barium uptake onto ferrihydrite and goethite have been studied in the concentration range 1 nM to 5 mM and from pH 4 to 10, to develop a model to predict radium behaviour in legacy uranium mining wastes. For ferrihydrite, uptake of Ra2+ at nM concentrations was strong at pH >7. At higher concentrations, Ba2+ sorption to ferrihydrite was slightly weaker than that of Ra2+. Experiments with goethite showed weaker binding for both metal ions in all systems. The interactions of radium with both ferrihydrite and goethite are fully reversible. The behaviour of radium during transformation of ferrihydrite to goethite has been studied, and no evidence for irreversible incorporation within the goethite lattice was found; radium uptake to goethite was the same, whether or not it was present during its formation. Calcium competed with radium for ferrihydrite sorption only at high calcium concentrations (>10 mM). Barium is a more effective competitor, and a concentration of 1 mM reduced radium sorption. Sediment samples from a legacy uranium mining site have been analysed, and the in situ Rd values are consistent with radium uptake by surface coatings of ferrihydrite or goethite like phases. Surface complexation models have been developed for radium sorption to ferrihydrite and goethite which simulate the experimental data successfully. In both cases, approaches based on a single surface functional group and tetradentate binding sites simulated the data successfully. These data could be used in underpinning the safety case for legacy mining sites.

  7. Modeling radium distribution in coastal aquifers during sea level changes: The Dead Sea case

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiro, Yael; Yechieli, Yoseph; Voss, Clifford I.; Starinsky, Abraham; Weinstein, Yishai

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to studying the behavior of radium isotopes in a coastal aquifer. In order to simulate radium isotope distributions in the dynamic flow field of the Dead Sea aquifer, a multi-species density dependent flow model (SUTRA-MS) was used. Field data show that the activity of 226Ra decreases from 140 to 60 dpm/L upon entering the aquifer from the Dead Sea, and then further decreases linearly due to mixing with Ra-poor fresh water. On the other hand, an increase is observed in the activity of the shorter-lived isotopes (up to 52 dpm/L 224Ra and 31 dpm/L 223Ra), which are relatively low in Dead Sea water (up to 2.5 dpm/L 224Ra and 0.5 dpm/L 223Ra). The activities of the short lived radium isotopes also decrease with decreasing salinity, which is due to the effect of salinity on the adsorption of radium. The relationship between 224Ra and salinity suggests that the adsorption partition coefficient (K) is linearly related to salinity. Simulations of the steady-state conditions, show that the distance where equilibrium activity is attained for each radium isotope is affected by the isotope half-life, K and the groundwater velocity, resulting in a longer distance for the long-lived radium isotopes. K affects the radium distribution in transient conditions, especially that of the long-lived radium isotopes. The transient conditions in the Dead Sea system, with a 1 m/yr lake level drop, together with the radium field data, constrains K to be relatively low (226Ra cannot be explained by adsorption, and it is better explained by removal via coprecipitation, probably with barite or celestine.

  8. Degree of accuracy in determining the nuclear electric quadrupole moment of radium

    SciTech Connect

    Bieron, Jacek; Pyykkoe, Pekka

    2005-03-01

    The multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) model has been employed to calculate the atomic expectation values responsible for the hyperfine splittings of the 7s7p {sup 3}P{sub 1,2} and {sup 1}P{sub 1} levels of radium. Calculated electric field gradients, together with the experimental electric quadrupole hyperfine structure constants, allow us to extract a nuclear electric quadrupole moment Q({sup 223}Ra) of 1.21(0.03) barn. This value is in good agreement with the semiempirical determination based on neutral radium hyperfine and fine structure, but differs from the latest result from an alkali-like radium ion.

  9. Compilation of Spectroscopic Data of Radium (Ra I and Ra II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammalapati, U.; Jungmann, K.; Willmann, L.

    2016-03-01

    Energy levels, wavelengths, lifetimes, and hyperfine structure constants for the isotopes of the first and second spectra of radium, Ra I and Ra II, have been compiled. Wavelengths and wavenumbers are tabulated for 226Ra and for other Ra isotopes. Isotope shifts and hyperfine structure constants of even and odd-A isotopes of neutral radium atom and singly ionized radium are included. Experimental lifetimes of the states for both neutral and ionic Ra are also added, where available. The information is beneficial for present and future experiments aimed at different physics motivations using neutral Ra and singly ionized Ra.

  10. Occurrence of mammary tumors in beagls given radium-226

    SciTech Connect

    Bruenger, F.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Miller, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.; Angus, W.; Huth, D.A.

    1994-06-01

    A total of 128 primary mammary tumors (66 of them malignant) occurred in 35 female beagles injected with {sup 226}Ra at eight dose levels ranging from 0.2 to 440 kBq/kg body mass as young adults, while a total of 156 mammary tumors (57 of them malignant) were seen in 46 female control beagles not given any radioactivity. Sixty-three of 65 control dogs and 59 of 61 dogs given {sup 226}Ra survived the minimum age for diagnosis of mammary tumors of 3.75 years. Based on the observed age-dependent tumor incidence rates in the controls and on the corresponding number of dog-years at risk, the total number of observed malignant tumors in the radium group was statistically greater than the number of expected malignant tumors (66 observed vs 34 expected, P < 0.005). There was no such difference for the benign tumors. Cox regression analysis indicated no increased risk for the first tumor occurrence in irradiated dogs. Cox regression analysis of the multivariate risk sets showed no significantly increased risk for the occurrence of benign tumors but a statistically higher risk of 1.66 with a confidence interval of 1.15-2.40 for the occurrence of malignant tumors. The increased risk was dependent on dose, but a dependence on the frequency of previous occurrence of mammary tumors could not be confirmed. Censoring ovariectomized dogs at time of surgery decreased the relative risks slightly but did not alter the significance. Exposure to diagnostic X rays with cumulative exposures below 0.2 Gy had no effect on tumor formation. It is unknown whether the increased risk for malignant mammary tumors was due to some initial deposition of radium in sensitive tissue, a possible irradiation of fatty mammary tissue from transient radon {yields} polonium deposition, or a general effect of the overall radium deposition on the immune system of the dogs that lowered their resistance to formation of mammary tumors. 27 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Radium equivalent activity in the light of UNSCEAR report.

    PubMed

    Tufail, Muhammad

    2012-09-01

    Radium equivalent activity (Ra ( eq )) has been in practice for the last 40 years for the assessment of radiological hazard of radioactivity in environmental materials. The in-practice model for the calculation of the Ra ( eq ) has been critically reviewed in the light of the UNSCEAR 2000 report. Annual effective dose (E) values of (232)Th and (40)K were found to be not equal to that of (226)Ra derived from the activity concentrations of these radionuclides used in the expression for the Ra ( eq ). Therefore, a modified model has been proposed for the determination of the Ra ( eq ) for outdoor external exposure to gamma rays. The relation between the E and Ra ( eq ) has been explored. It is recommended that while describing the radiological hazard of the materials containing radioactivity, there should be no need to calculate the Ra ( eq ) if the E has already been determined or vice versa.

  12. Radium Isotopes in Nubian Aquifer Groundwater, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherif, M. I.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent of natural radioactivity from Ra isotopes in groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) in northeast Africa. Activities of long-lived Ra isotopes (226Ra and 228Ra) were analyzed in 40 groundwater samples from the NSAS in the Western Desert of Egypt; including Baharyia, Farafra, Dakhla, and Kharga Oases. The activities of 226Ra and 228Ra ranged from 0.012 Bq/L to 1.512 Bq/L and from 0.012 Bq/L to 2.136 Bq/L, respectively. High activities of Ra isotopes, up to 2000% higher than the USEPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 0.185 Bq/L (combined 226Ra + 228Ra) for drinking water were measured in groundwater from some locations. Groundwater samples from Bahariya Oasis had the highest activities of Ra isotopes among the samples collected. No correlation between salinity and Ra activities was observed. The two radium isotopes are highly correlated in most samples with a 228Ra/226Ra activity ratio ranging from 1.04 to 3.12 and a median of 2.08; this indicates a high Th/U ratio in the aquifer materials. The weak correlation between Ra activities and salinity indicates that adsorption/desorption processes are not the primary mechanism of Ra release to groundwater. Recoil input of Ra from the aquifer rocks may be the dominant input mechanism. These results indicate that groundwater within the Western Desert must be used with caution for domestic and agricultural purposes, and radium removal may be necessary before water is used for human consumption.

  13. Statistical Analysis of Elevated Radium and Gross Alpha Measurement in the Sanitary Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    TUCKFIELD, RICHARD

    2004-04-12

    In 2002, radium 226 and 228 measurements elevated above the 5 pCi/L groundwater protection standard (GWPS) and gross alpha measurements above the 15 pCi/L GWPS were noticed in several groundwater monitoring wells at the SRS Sanitary Landfill. An additional four quarters of confirmatory measurements for Ra in the SLF groundwater were taken during 2003 as directed by the SC Department of Health and Environmental Control. Elevated radium concentrations in groundwater of the Aiken County area are a common occurrence. Price and Michel (1990) compiled radium concentrations in drinking water wells of this area and showed several instances of the concentrations exceeding the regulatory limit. Ra226 is an alpha emitter and contributes much of the natural alpha radioactivity found in uncontaminated groundwater. Thus, the elevated radium concentrations are usually accompanied by elevated gross alpha concentrations. Appendix A2 indicates that this is the case at the SLF where Ra226 accounts for almost all elevated gross alpha.

  14. Hematologic Toxicity of Concurrent Administration of Radium-223 and Next-generation Antiandrogen Therapies.

    PubMed

    Dan, Tu D; Eldredge-Hindy, Harriet B; Hoffman-Censits, Jean; Lin, Jianqing; Kelly, William K; Gomella, Leonard G; Lallas, Costas D; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Hurwitz, Mark D; Dicker, Adam P; Den, Robert B

    2017-08-01

    Radium-223 is a first-in-class radiopharmaceutical recently approved for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer in patients with symptomatic bone metastases. Initial studies investigating Radium-223 primarily used nonsteroidal first-generation antiandrogens. Since that time, newer antiandrogen therapies have demonstrated improved survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. It has been suggested that the rational combination of these newly approved agents with Radium-223 may lead to improved response rates and clinical outcomes. Currently, there is lack of information regarding the safety of concurrent administration of these agents with radiopharmaceuticals. Here, we report on hematologic toxicity findings from our institution in patients receiving concurrent Radium-223 and next-generation antiandrogen therapies with either enzalutamide or abiraterone. In a retrospective study, we analyzed patients who received Radium-223 as part of an early-access trial, and following FDA approval in May 2013, patients receiving Radium-223 as part of standard care. Radium-223 was given at standard dosing of 50 kBq/kg each month for 6 total cycles. Complete blood counts were performed before treatment monthly and following each injection. Blood counts from patients receiving Radium alone and concurrently with next-generation antiandrogens were compared. To date, 25 total patients were analyzed, with a median of 5 monthly doses received per patient. Fourteen patients received concurrent therapy during monthly Radium-223 with either enzalutamide (n=8) or abiraterone (n=6). Six patients expired due to disease progression. Two patients discontinued treatment due to grade 3 myelosuppression. For patients receiving either Radium alone and with concurrent next-generation antiandrogen therapy, there did not appear to be any statistically significant differences between initial and nadir blood counts. Mean change from initial neutrophil count to nadir was

  15. Dosing, administration, and safety of radium-223: How I do it.

    PubMed

    Dan, Tu D; Doyle, Laura; Raval, Amar J; Pridjian, Andrew; Gomella, Leonard G; Den, Robert B

    2016-06-01

    Radium-223 dichloride is a first-in-class bone-directed radiopharmaceutical that has been shown to prolong survival in men with metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Unlike other radiopharmaceuticals, radium-223 uniquely uses alpha-emission to deliver high intensity, short range cytoxic treatments resulting in minimal myelosuppression. Following the results of the ALSYMPCA trial, radium-223 (Xofigo) was FDA approved in the United States in May 2013 and approved by Health Canada in December 2013 for the treatment of mCRPC with symptomatic bone metastases and no visceral disease. This 'How I do it' article describes the background of radium 223 as well as the methods and techniques that our institution uses for safe and effective administration and notes the subtle differences when administering the drug in Canada.

  16. Determination of radium-226 in aqueous solutions by alpha-spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Morvan, K; Andres, Y; Mokili, B; Abbe, J C

    2001-09-01

    The new European legislation imposes a lower threshold for radioactivity in drinking water. This requires the development of more sensitive and reliable analytical methods. This work presents an improved alpha-spectrometric technique to determine the radium-226 activity in aqueous solution relying on the radium adsorption onto a thin manganese oxide layer followed by alpha-measurement. The preparation of the MnO2 deposit has been optimized as well as the radium adsorption conditions. Detection threshold and limit of 5 and 10 mBq x L(-1), respectively, with a 10% (95% confidence) uncertainty are currently reached. This paper reports on the overall technique and on its application to assess the radium-226 activity in 28 French mineral waters. In addition, the gross alpha- and beta-activities have been evaluated using proportional counting while the uranium concentrations were derived from ICPMS.

  17. Treatment scheme for controlling the migration of radium from a tailings impoundment

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.

    1985-02-01

    Under sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Uranium Research and Recovery Program, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has investigated the use of various neutralizing reagents and techniques to attenuate the movement of contaminants associated with acidic uranium mill tailings. The objective of this study was to identify those contaminants which are not effectively attenuated by common neutralization methods and to develop alternative control measures. Of those contaminants associated with uranium mill tailings which were identified as not being effectively immobilized by tailings neutralization, radium imposes an important environmental concern in terms of potential groundwater contamination. Control or attenuation of radium is of special concern primarily due to its radiological health implications. For that reason, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has implemented strict guidelines governing the maximum allowable concentration in drinking waters. Current EPA guidelines call for total radium activities not to exceed 5 pCi/L. Due to the high activity of soluble radium in the acidic uranium mill tailings environment (several hundred to several thousand pCi/L), specific ion removal procedures were investigated for use in attenuating radium in order to prevent future groundwater contamination. Results of these investigations led to the development of a tailings additive comprised of a mixture of hydrated lime and barium chloride, which, when added to acidic tailings, can reduce the amount of leachable radium escaping a designated tailings impoundment. In laboratory verification tests, this radium specific tailings treatment reduced the effluent solution activity of radium by three orders of magnitude, from >3500 pCi/L to 1.7 pCi/L, in comparison with untreated acidic tailings.

  18. Alpha-emitter radium-223 in the management of solid tumors: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Sten

    2014-01-01

    Bone metastases, which are commonly seen in patients with advanced cancers, are a major cause of skeletal events, disability, and death. Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223; Xofigo, formerly Alpharadin), a first-in-class, alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical that selectively targets bone metastases with high-energy short-range alpha-particles, has been approved for the treatment of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) with symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral metastases. Approval is based on results of the randomized phase III trial Alpharadin in Symptomatic Prostate Cancer (ALSYMPCA), in which radium-223 prolonged overall survival and time to first symptomatic skeletal event versus placebo among patients with CRPC with symptomatic bone metastases and was generally well tolerated, with low myelosuppression rates and manageable gastrointestinal adverse events. Long-term follow-up of the ALSYMPCA safety population showed that the incidence of myelosuppression remained low among patients treated with radium-223, with no additional safety issues of acute myelogenous leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, aplastic anemia, or primary bone cancer within approximately 1.5 years after treatment. The radium-223 overall survival benefit and low toxicity make it an effective, well-tolerated, and novel treatment option for CRPC and symptomatic bone metastases and opens the possibility of exploring radium-223 in the treatment of bone metastases from other cancers. A phase I clinical trial of patients with breast and prostate cancer with skeletal metastases demonstrated that radium-223 was safe and well tolerated at all therapeutically relevant dosages. Moreover, a phase IIa trial of patients with advanced breast cancer and progressive bone-dominant disease demonstrated that radium-223 targeted areas of increased bone metabolism and showed biologic activity.

  19. Calculations of energy levels and lifetimes of low-lying states of barium and radium

    SciTech Connect

    Dzuba, V. A.; Ginges, J. S. M.

    2006-03-15

    We use the configuration-interaction method and many-body perturbation theory to perform accurate calculations of energy levels, transition amplitudes, and lifetimes of low-lying states of barium and radium. Calculations for radium are needed for the planning of measurements of parity- and time-invariance-violating effects which are strongly enhanced in this atom. Calculations for barium are used to control the accuracy of the calculations.

  20. Availability of radium isotopes and heavy metals from scales and tailings of Polish hard coal mining.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Karsten; Michalik, Boguslaw; Wiegand, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Radium and heavy metal contaminated tailings and scales resulting from Polish hard coal mining were investigated for their mobilisation potential by using leaching methods. The main focus is set on a three-step extraction procedure proposed by BCR (Bureau Communautaire de Référence, now Standards Measurements and Testing Programme) of the European Union, which was used for investigating the availability of radium isotopes. In addition, the results of a Polish extraction procedure for the heavy metals' water solubility are presented for rough comparison. After a special treatment, the BCR-reagents were measured by gamma-spectrometry to define their radium activity concentrations; the heavy metal content in the water soluble fractions was determined by ICP-AES. The samples were collected at two different sites influenced by the discharge of pit water from hard coal mining. The tailings were taken from a former tailing pond, which now is no longer in use, but the settled material is still present. At another abandoned and meanwhile flooded tailing pond, the scales were scraped from the inside of a discharge tube. The results obtained show that there is different leaching behaviour between the radium isotopes. The tailings being characterised by surface adsorbed radium provide up to 25% of the initial (226)Ra content, (228)Ra is altogether leached up to 15%. The scales comprise stable radiobaryte (Ba[Ra]SO(4)) and can be considered as being unable to provide radium isotopes, since no trace of radium dissolution was observed. The leaching behaviour of heavy metals is similar to that of radium. Mn, Ni and Zn are dissolved by water from the tailings; the scales do not provide any.

  1. Dose-response relationships for female radium dial workers: A new look

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, R.E.

    1994-05-01

    The values of initial systemic intake and of skeletal dose for all of the U.S. radium cases have recently been revised. This revision was required following the demonstrations by Rundo and by Keane that humans who were exposed to radium as adults lost radium at a rate that depended on the quantity of radium originally deposited within their bodies. These new values have been used to define new dose-response relationships for both the bone sarcomas and the carcinomas arising in the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells induced by internally deposited radium. The population examined was employed in the U.S. dial painting industry prior to 1950 and consisted of 1530 female dial workers for whom radium body burden measurements were available. By the end of 1990, 46 cases of bone sarcomas and 19 cases of head carcinomas had been diagnosed in this cohort. The head carcinoma incidence can be adequately fitted by a simple linear function, as was found in previous analyses. The bone sarcoma cases were previously fitted by a dose-squared-exponential function. With the revised values of systemic intake, the sarcoma results could not be satisfactorily fitted with this expression. When the exponent on D was increased to larger values, excellent fits were obtained.

  2. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals as targeted agents of osteosarcoma: samarium-153-EDTMP and radium-223.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter M; Subbiah, Vivek; Rohren, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a cancer characterized by formation of bone by malignant cells. Routine bone scan imaging with Tc-99m-MDP is done at diagnosis to evaluate primary tumor uptake and check for bone metastases. At time of relapse the Tc-99m-MDP bone scan also provides a specific means to assess formation of bone by malignant osteosarcoma cells and the potential for bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals to deliver radioactivity directly into osteoblastic osteosarcoma lesions. This chapter will review and compare a bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical that emits beta-particles, samarium-153-EDTMP, with an alpha-particle emitter, radium-223. The charged alpha particles from radium-223 have far more mass and energy than beta particles (electrons) from Sm-153-EDTMP. Because radium-223 has less marrow toxicity and more radiobiological effectiveness, especially if inside the bone forming cancer cell than samarium-153-EDTMP, radium-223 may have greater potential to become widely used against osteosarcoma as a targeted therapy. Radium-223 also has more potential to be used with chemotherapy against osteosarcoma and bone metastases. Because osteosarcoma makes bone and radium-223 acts like calcium, this radiopharmaceutical could possibly become a new targeted means to achieve safe and effective reduction of tumor burden as well as facilitate better surgery and/or radiotherapy for difficult to resect large, or metastatic tumors.

  3. Conditioning Operation by an Encapsulation and Shielding of Spent Sealed Radium Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Il-Sik Kang; Dae-Seok Hong; Kil-Jeong Kim; Jong-Sik Shon; Kwon-Pyo Hong

    2006-07-01

    In order to avoid accidents that could result from an improper storage of spent radium sources, it is necessary to condition and store them safely. The program for a safe conditioning of spent radium sources by the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) has been established to assist the developing countries. The main object of this paper is to summarize the technology that was adapted by the IAEA for the conditioning of spent radium sources in the national inventory of Ra-226 sources in member states and the actions performed by the Korean expert team as a part of the IAEA's project titled as 'Radium Conditioning in Southeastern Asia'. The whole inventory of the spent radium sources of 8,671.13 mCi was safely conditioned by the Korean expert team according to the guidelines under the supervision of the IAEA's technical officer. The 1,821 sources of spent radium were encapsulated, welded, and conditioned into 18 concrete-shielded drums. (authors)

  4. Radium-223 dichloride for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer with symptomatic bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Vogelzang, Nicholas J

    2017-08-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is associated with the development of bone metastases, increased mortality, and a reduction in the patient's quality of life (QOL). The management of metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) has rapidly evolved over the past decade, with a number of available therapeutic agents improving overall survival. Radium-223 dichloride (radium-223), the first targeted alpha therapy, improves survival accompanied by QOL benefits with a favorable safety profile. It is approved in over 40 countries for the treatment of patients with CRPC with symptomatic bone metastases and no known visceral metastatic disease. Areas covered: The current management of CRPC in men with bone metastases, and in particular the role of radium-223 in this setting, is reviewed and discussed. A search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed literature and major meetings was conducted. Expert commentary: In treating patients with mCRPC, the best sequencing and/or combination of radium-223 with other agents has yet to be fully elucidated. The role of radium-223 in treating patients with hormone-sensitive metastatic prostate cancer who are candidates for chemotherapy should also be investigated in well-designed trials. The ability to tailor radium-223 therapy to both the clinical and genetic profiles of CRPC patients would be a promising development.

  5. Meeting Report From the Prostate Cancer Foundation Scientific Working Group on Radium-223.

    PubMed

    Miyahira, Andrea K; Morris, Michael; Soule, Howard R

    2017-02-01

    The Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) convened a Scientific Working Group Meeting on Radium-223 on September 8, 2016, at The Sidney Kimmel Center for Prostate and Urologic Cancers, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The meeting was attended by 18 investigators with expertise in radium-223, bone biology, molecular imaging, biomarkers, and prostate cancer clinical trials. The goal of this meeting was to discuss the known and unknown surroundings the therapeutic effects of the bone targeting agent radium-223, in bone metastatic prostate cancer therapy, and to outline the most critical studies needed to improve the clinical use of this agent. Three major topic areas were discussed: (1) the basic science of radium; (2) immuno-adjuvant properties of radium therapy; and (3) high impact clinical trials and correlative science. This article reviews the major topics discussed at the meeting for the purpose of accelerating studies that will improve the use of radium-223 in the treatment of prostate cancer patients. Prostate 77:245-254, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The safety and efficacy of radium-223 dichloride for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James M; Parker, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    A number of drugs have been shown to extend life expectancy in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Skeletal related events (SREs) secondary to bone metastases cause significant morbidity for men with CRPC. The α-emitting radiopharmaceutical radium-223 dichloride has been shown to improve overall survival, time to symptomatic skeletal events (SSEs) and quality of life in CRPC. The development of radium-223 from pre-clinical studies to the evidence of efficacy and safety from a phase 3 trial is discussed as well as its pharmacokinetics and metabolism. The integration of radium-223 into routine care for patients with advanced prostate cancer is included including a comparison with other agents in this setting. Expert commentary: The risk/benefit ratio for radium-223 is very similar to that of other agents used in the CRPC setting and is a treatment option for men unsuitable for cytotoxic chemotherapy because of comorbidities. The ALSYMPCA trial demonstrated an improvement in SSEs with radium-223. This is a clinically relevant end-point as not all radiologically-detected SREs are apparent to patients. The correct sequencing of the life-prolonging treatments available to men with CRPC is subject to debate. Radium-223 therapy should be considered before the development of visceral metastases. Drug-combination studies are underway.

  7. 7 CFR 62.213 - Official identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions Service § 62.213 Official identification. The following, as shown in figure 1, constitutes official identification to show product or services produced under an approved USDA, Process Verified... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  8. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For purposes...

  9. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For purposes...

  10. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For purposes...

  11. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For purposes...

  12. 42 CFR 2.13 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.13 Confidentiality restrictions... place where only alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment, or referral is provided may be acknowledged... facility if the facility is not publicy identified as only an alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment or...

  13. 32 CFR 213.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUPPORT FOR NON-FEDERAL ENTITIES AUTHORIZED TO OPERATE ON DOD INSTALLATIONS § 213.5 Responsibilities. (a... policy matters and Office of the Secretary of Defense oversight of non-Federal entities on DoD... of non-Federal entities on DoD installations. (3) Assign responsibilities to the DoD Components to...

  14. 19 CFR 213.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE TRADE REMEDY ASSISTANCE § 213.2 Definitions. (a) Office. The Trade Remedy Assistance Office (hereinafter Office... Trade Remedy Assistance Office, U.S. International Trade Commission, 500 E Street SW., Washington, DC...

  15. 14 CFR 213.6 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TERMS, CONDITIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF FOREIGN AIR CARRIER PERMITS § 213.6 Compliance. Any violation by the foreign air carrier of applicable provisions of Subtitle VII of Title 49 of the U.S. Code or of orders, rules or regulations issued thereunder, or of the terms, conditions or limitations...

  16. 14 CFR 213.6 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TERMS, CONDITIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF FOREIGN AIR CARRIER PERMITS § 213.6 Compliance. Any violation by the foreign air carrier of applicable provisions of Subtitle VII of Title 49 of the U.S. Code or of orders, rules or regulations issued thereunder, or of the terms, conditions or limitations...

  17. 14 CFR 213.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TERMS, CONDITIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF FOREIGN AIR CARRIER PERMITS § 213.1 Applicability. This regulation sets forth terms, conditions, and limitations applicable to foreign air carrier permits issued... air transportation. Unless such permits or the orders issuing such permits otherwise provide, the...

  18. 14 CFR 213.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TERMS, CONDITIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF FOREIGN AIR CARRIER PERMITS § 213.1 Applicability. This regulation sets forth terms, conditions, and limitations applicable to foreign air carrier permits issued... air transportation. Unless such permits or the orders issuing such permits otherwise provide, the...

  19. 14 CFR 213.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TERMS, CONDITIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF FOREIGN AIR CARRIER PERMITS § 213.1 Applicability. This regulation sets forth terms, conditions, and limitations applicable to foreign air carrier permits issued... air transportation. Unless such permits or the orders issuing such permits otherwise provide, the...

  20. 14 CFR 213.6 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TERMS, CONDITIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF FOREIGN AIR CARRIER PERMITS § 213.6 Compliance. Any violation by the foreign air carrier of applicable provisions of Subtitle VII of Title 49 of the U.S. Code or of orders, rules or regulations issued thereunder, or of the terms, conditions or limitations...

  1. 14 CFR 213.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TERMS, CONDITIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF FOREIGN AIR CARRIER PERMITS § 213.1 Applicability. This regulation sets forth terms, conditions, and limitations applicable to foreign air carrier permits issued... air transportation. Unless such permits or the orders issuing such permits otherwise provide, the...

  2. 14 CFR 213.6 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TERMS, CONDITIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF FOREIGN AIR CARRIER PERMITS § 213.6 Compliance. Any violation by the foreign air carrier of applicable provisions of Subtitle VII of Title 49 of the U.S. Code or of orders, rules or regulations issued thereunder, or of the terms, conditions or limitations...

  3. 14 CFR 213.6 - Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TERMS, CONDITIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF FOREIGN AIR CARRIER PERMITS § 213.6 Compliance. Any violation by the foreign air carrier of applicable provisions of Subtitle VII of Title 49 of the U.S. Code or of orders, rules or regulations issued thereunder, or of the terms, conditions or limitations...

  4. 14 CFR 213.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TERMS, CONDITIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF FOREIGN AIR CARRIER PERMITS § 213.1 Applicability. This regulation sets forth terms, conditions, and limitations applicable to foreign air carrier permits issued... air transportation. Unless such permits or the orders issuing such permits otherwise provide, the...

  5. 49 CFR 213.37 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Roadbed § 213.37 Vegetation. Vegetation on railroad property which is on or immediately adjacent to roadbed shall be controlled so that it does not— (a) Become a fire hazard to track-carrying structures; (b) Obstruct visibility of railroad signs and signals: (1) Along the right-of-way,...

  6. 49 CFR 213.321 - Vegetation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.321 Vegetation... does not— (a) Become a fire hazard to track-carrying structures; (b) Obstruct visibility of railroad signs and signals: (1) Along the right of way, and (2) At highway-rail crossings; (c) Interfere...

  7. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.359 Track stiffness. (a) Track shall have a sufficient vertical strength to withstand the maximum vehicle loads generated at maximum permissible train speeds, cant deficiencies and surface defects. For...

  8. 25 CFR 213.15 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.15 Bonds. (a) Lessee shall furnish with each mining lease a bond (Form 5-154b), and an assignee of a lease shall furnish with each assignment a... if, in his opinion, the circumstances warrant and the interests of the Indian landowners are...

  9. 25 CFR 213.15 - Bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING How to Acquire Leases § 213.15 Bonds. (a) Lessee shall furnish with each mining lease a bond (Form 5-154b), and an assignee of a lease shall furnish with each assignment a... if, in his opinion, the circumstances warrant and the interests of the Indian landowners are...

  10. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural significance...

  11. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural significance...

  12. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural significance...

  13. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural significance...

  14. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural significance...

  15. 49 CFR 213.335 - Crossties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.335 Crossties. (a... track shall have— (1) A sufficient number of crossties which in combination provide effective support... non-concrete tie construction, each 39 foot segment of Class 6 track shall have fourteen...

  16. 49 CFR 213.109 - Crossties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.109 Crossties. (a) Crossties shall be made of a material to which rail can be securely fastened. (b) Each 39 foot segment of track shall have— (1) A...) Each 39 foot segment of: Class 1 track shall have five crossties; Classes 2 and 3 track shall...

  17. 42 CFR 2.13 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... only if the patient's written consent is obtained in accordance with subpart C of these regulations or... CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.13 Confidentiality restrictions. (a) General. The patient records to which these regulations apply may be disclosed or used only...

  18. 42 CFR 2.13 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... only if the patient's written consent is obtained in accordance with subpart C of these regulations or... CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.13 Confidentiality restrictions. (a) General. The patient records to which these regulations apply may be disclosed or used only...

  19. 42 CFR 2.13 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... only if the patient's written consent is obtained in accordance with subpart C of these regulations or... CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.13 Confidentiality restrictions. (a) General. The patient records to which these regulations apply may be disclosed or used only...

  20. 32 CFR 552.213 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Installation of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland § 552.213 Policy. (a) Aberdeen Proving Ground is a non-public forum and is open for expensive activity only under certain circumstances. Aberdeen Proving Ground is a..., and other official business. (b) On Aberdeen Proving Ground, except for activities authorized under 5...