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Sample records for radon prone areas stei

  1. Lung Cancer Attributable to Indoor Radon Exposures in Two Radon--Prone Areas, Stei (Romania) and Torrelodones (Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Dinu, Alexandra; Cosma, Constantin; Vasiliniuc, Stefan

    2009-05-22

    Radon and radon progeny are present indoors, in houses and others dwellings, representing the most important contribution to dose from natural sources of radiation. Most studies have demonstrated an increased risk of lung cancer at high concentration of radon for both smokers and nonsmokers. For medium and low concentrations which are the typical residential radon levels, recent researches have also demonstrated increased risks of lung cancer for people exposed. The work presents a comparative analysis of the radon exposure data in the two radon--prone areas, Stei, Transylvania, (Romania), in the near of old Romanian uranium mines and in the graniticmore » area of Torrelodones town, Sierra de Guadarrama (Spain). One important difference between the two studied areas is related to the houses built using uranium waste as construction material in Stei area. Measurements of indoor radon were performed in 280 dwellings (Romania) and 91 dwellings (Spain) by using nuclear track detectors, CR 39. The highest value measured in Stei area was 2650 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. and 366 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3} in the Spanish region. The results are compute with the BEIR VI report estimates using the age-duration model at an exposure rate below 2650 Bq{center_dot}m{sup -3}. A total of 233 lung cancer deaths were calculated in the Stei area for a period of 13 years (1994-2006), which is 116.82% higher than observed from the national statistics. In comparison, in Torrelodones area, a number of 276 deaths caused by lung cancer were estimated along a period of 13 years, which is 2.09 times higher than the number observed by authorities. This represents a significantly evidence that elevated risk can strongly be associated with cumulated radon exposure.« less

  2. Residential radon in Galicia: a cross-sectional study in a radon-prone area.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo-González, María; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Peón, Joaquín; Piñeiro, María; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2017-09-01

    Residential radon exposure is a major public health problem. It is the second greatest cause of lung cancer, after smoking, and the greatest in never-smokers. This study shows the indoor radon exposure distribution in Galicia and estimates the percentage of dwellings exceeding reference levels. It is based on 3245 residential radon measurements obtained from the Galician Radon Map project and from controls of two previous case-control studies on residential radon and lung cancer. Results show a high median residential radon concentration in Galicia (99 Bq m -3 ), with 49.3% of dwellings having a radon concentration above 100 Bq m -3 and 11.1% having a concentration above 300 Bq m -3 . Ourense and Pontevedra, located in South Galicia, are the provinces with the highest median indoor radon concentrations (137 Bq m -3 and 123.5 Bq m -3 , respectively). Results also show lower radon levels in progressively higher building storeys. These high residential radon concentrations confirm Galicia as a radon-prone area. A policy on radon should be developed and implemented in Galicia to minimize the residential radon exposure of the population.

  3. Nanomaterial containing wall paints can increase radon concentration in houses located in radon prone areas.

    PubMed

    Haghani, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Faghihi, R; Mehdizadeh, S; Moradgholi, J; Darvish, L; Fathi-Pour, E; Ansari, L; Ghanbar-Pour, M R

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, extensive technological advancements have made it possible to use nanopaints which show exciting properties. In IR Iran excessive radon levels (up to 3700 Bq m-3) have been reported in homes located in radon prone areas. Over the past decades, concerns have been raised about the risk posed by residential radon exposure. This study aims at investigating the effect of using nanomaterial containing wall paints on radon concentration in homes. Two wooden model houses were used in this study. Soil samples from Ramsar high background radiation areas were used for simulating the situation of a typical house in radon-prone areas. Conventional water-soluble wall paint was used for painting the walls of the 1st house model; while the 2nd house model was painted with the same wall paint with montmorillonitenanoclay. Three days after sealing the house models, radon level was measured by using a portable radon survey meter. The mean radon level inside the 1st house model (conventional paint) was 515.3 ± 17.8 Bq/m(3) while the mean radon concentration in the 2nd house model (nano-painted house model) was 570.8 ± 18.5 Bq/m(3). The difference between these means was statistically significant (P<0.001). To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation on the effect of nano-material containing wall paints on indoor radon concentrations.  It can be concluded that nano-material-containing wall paints should not be used in houses with wooden walls located in radon prone areas. Although the mechanism of this effect is not clearly known, decreased porosity in nano-paints might be a key factor in increasing the radon concentration in homes.

  4. Nanomaterial Containing Wall Paints Can Increase Radon Concentration in Houses Located in Radon Prone Areas

    PubMed Central

    Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Faghihi, R.; Mehdizadeh, S.; Moradgholi, J.; Darvish, L.; Fathi-Pour, E.; Ansari, L.; Ghanbar-pour, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, extensive technological advancements have made it possible to use nanopaints which show exciting properties. In IR Iran excessive radon levels (up to 3700 Bq m–3) have been reported in homes located in radon prone areas. Over the past decades, concerns have been raised about the risk posed by residential radon exposure. Objective: This study aims at investigating the effect of using nanomaterial containing wall paints on radon concentration in homes. Methods: Two wooden model houses were used in this study. Soil samples from Ramsar high background radiation areas were used for simulating the situation of a typical house in radon-prone areas. Conventional water-soluble wall paint was used for painting the walls of the 1st house model; while the 2nd house model was painted with the same wall paint with montmorillonitenanoclay. Results: Three days after sealing the house models, radon level was measured by using a portable radon survey meter. The mean radon level inside the 1st house model (conventional paint) was 515.3 ± 17.8 Bq/m3 while the mean radon concentration in the 2nd house model (nano-painted house model) was 570.8 ± 18.5 Bq/m3. The difference between these means was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first investigation on the effect of nano-material containing wall paints on indoor radon concentrations.  It can be concluded that nano-material-containing wall paints should not be used in houses with wooden walls located in radon prone areas. Although the mechanism of this effect is not clearly known, decreased porosity in nano-paints might be a key factor in increasing the radon concentration in homes. PMID:25505754

  5. Mapping radon-prone areas using γ-radiation dose rate and geological information.

    PubMed

    García-Talavera, M; García-Pérez, A; Rey, C; Ramos, L

    2013-09-01

    Identifying radon-prone areas is key to policies on the control of this environmental carcinogen. In the current paper, we present the methodology followed to delineate radon-prone areas in Spain. It combines information from indoor radon measurements with γ-radiation and geological maps. The advantage of the proposed approach is that it lessens the requirement for a high density of measurements by making use of commonly available information. It can be applied for an initial definition of radon-prone areas in countries committed to introducing a national radon policy or to improving existing radon maps in low population regions.

  6. Logistic regression model for detecting radon prone areas in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Elío, J; Crowley, Q; Scanlon, R; Hodgson, J; Long, S

    2017-12-01

    A new high spatial resolution radon risk map of Ireland has been developed, based on a combination of indoor radon measurements (n=31,910) and relevant geological information (i.e. Bedrock Geology, Quaternary Geology, soil permeability and aquifer type). Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of having an indoor radon concentration above the national reference level of 200Bqm -3 in Ireland. The four geological datasets evaluated were found to be statistically significant, and, based on combinations of these four variables, the predicted probabilities ranged from 0.57% to 75.5%. Results show that the Republic of Ireland may be divided in three main radon risk categories: High (HR), Medium (MR) and Low (LR). The probability of having an indoor radon concentration above 200Bqm -3 in each area was found to be 19%, 8% and 3%; respectively. In the Republic of Ireland, the population affected by radon concentrations above 200Bqm -3 is estimated at ca. 460k (about 10% of the total population). Of these, 57% (265k), 35% (160k) and 8% (35k) are in High, Medium and Low Risk Areas, respectively. Our results provide a high spatial resolution utility which permit customised radon-awareness information to be targeted at specific geographic areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of architectural style on indoor radon concentration in a radon prone area: A case study.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; García-Paniagua, J; Guillén, J; Montalbán, B

    2018-01-01

    Indoor radon is a major health concern as it is a known carcinogenic. Nowadays there is a trend towards a greater energy conservation in buildings, which is reflected in an increasing number of regulations. But, can this trend increase the indoor radon concentration? In this paper, we selected a radon prone area in Spain and focused on single-family dwellings constructed in a variety of architectural styles. These styles ranged from 1729 up to 2014, with varying construction techniques (from local resources to almost universally standard building materials) and regulations in force (from none to the Spanish regulation in force). The 226 Ra concentrations in soil and surface radon exhalation rates were rather similar in this area, mean values ranging 70-126Bq/kg and 49-100mBq/m 2 ·s, respectively. Indoor radon concentration was generally greater than the contribution from soil exhalation (surface exhalation rates), especially in New dwellings (1980-2014). Its concentration in dwellings built in the Traditional style (1729-1940) was significantly lower than in the new houses. This can be consequence of the air tightness of the dwellings as a consequence of the different regulations in force. In the period covered by the Traditional style, there was no regulation in force, and dwelling had loose air tight. Whereas in recent times, there are mandatory regulations assuring a better air tightness of the buildings. Refurbishment of Traditional dwellings also seems to increase the indoor radon concentration, as they must also comply with the regulations in force. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantile regression and Bayesian cluster detection to identify radon prone areas.

    PubMed

    Sarra, Annalina; Fontanella, Lara; Valentini, Pasquale; Palermi, Sergio

    2016-11-01

    Albeit the dominant source of radon in indoor environments is the geology of the territory, many studies have demonstrated that indoor radon concentrations also depend on dwelling-specific characteristics. Following a stepwise analysis, in this study we propose a combined approach to delineate radon prone areas. We first investigate the impact of various building covariates on indoor radon concentrations. To achieve a more complete picture of this association, we exploit the flexible formulation of a Bayesian spatial quantile regression, which is also equipped with parameters that controls the spatial dependence across data. The quantitative knowledge of the influence of each significant building-specific factor on the measured radon levels is employed to predict the radon concentrations that would have been found if the sampled buildings had possessed standard characteristics. Those normalised radon measures should reflect the geogenic radon potential of the underlying ground, which is a quantity directly related to the geological environment. The second stage of the analysis is aimed at identifying radon prone areas, and to this end, we adopt a Bayesian model for spatial cluster detection using as reference unit the building with standard characteristics. The case study is based on a data set of more than 2000 indoor radon measures, available for the Abruzzo region (Central Italy) and collected by the Agency of Environmental Protection of Abruzzo, during several indoor radon monitoring surveys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Testing radon mitigation techniques in a pilot house from Băiţa-Ştei radon prone area (Romania).

    PubMed

    Cosma, Constantin; Papp, Botond; Cucoş Dinu, Alexandra; Sainz, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    This work presents the implementation and testing of several radon mitigation techniques in a pilot house in the radon prone area of Băiţa-Ştei in NW part of Romania. Radon diagnostic investigations in the pilot house showed that the main source of radon was the building sub-soil and the soil near the house. The applied techniques were based on the depressurization and pressurization of the building sub-soil, on the combination of the soil depressurization system by an electric and an eolian fans. Also, there was made an application of a radon barrier membrane and a testing by the combination of the radon membrane by the soil depressurization system. Finally, the better obtained remedial efficiency was about 85%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Soil and building material as main sources of indoor radon in Băiţa-Ştei radon prone area (Romania).

    PubMed

    Cosma, Constantin; Cucoş-Dinu, Alexandra; Papp, Botond; Begy, Robert; Sainz, Carlos

    2013-02-01

    Radon contributes to over than 50% of the natural radiation dose received by people. In radon risk areas this contribution can be as high as 90-95%, leading to an exposure to natural radiation 5-10 times higher than normal. This work presents results from radon measurements (indoor, soil and exhalation from building materials) in Băiţa-Ştei, a former uranium exploitation area in NW Romania. In this region, indoor radon concentrations found were as high as 5000 Bq m(-3) and soil radon levels ranged from 20 to 500 kBq m(-3). An important contribution from building materials to indoor radon was also observed. Our results indicate two independent sources of indoor radon in the surveyed houses of this region. One source is coming from the soil and regular building materials, and the second source being uranium waste and local radium reached material used in building construction. The soil as source of indoor radon shows high radon potential in 80% of the investigated area. Some local building materials reveal high radon exhalation rate (up to 80 mBq kg(-1) h(-1) from a sandy-gravel material, ten times higher than normal material). These measurements were used for the radon risk classification of this area by combining the radon potential of the soil with the additional component from building materials. Our results indicate that Băiţa-Ştei area can be categorized as a radon prone area. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Implementing remediation measures against radon for houses located in Baita-Stei uraniferous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosma, Constantin; Cucos (Dinu), Alexandra; Papp, Botond; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Moldovan, Mircea; Burghele, Bety; Dumitru (Rusu), Oana; Begy, Robert; Dicu, Tiberius; Fulea, Dan; Cindea, Ciprian; Nita, Dan; Suciu, Liviu; Banciu, Gheorghe; Sainz, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Radon is the second cause after smoking, inducing lung cancer. Twenty one houses from the area of Băiţa-Ştei Old Uranium Mine (Romania) have been selected for remediation against radon, in the frame of the IRART project (2010-2013). The selection was performed from a batch of 303 houses (representing 58% of the total houses from Băita, Campani, Fînate and Nucet localities), following two campaigns of indoor radon measurements. Analysis of the preliminary data identified the targeted houses having initial indoor radon values between 800 - 2500 Bq m-3. The remediation techniques have been particularly selected for each house after detailed diagnostic measurements of indoor and outdoor radon, including subsoil, water supply and building materials, to identify the major radon source in each location. The different mitigation methods (e.g. pressurization, depressurization, aeolian extraction, antiradon membranes, isolation) were firstly tested for a representative pilot-house. The efficiency of the remediation strategy was estimated in each case based on the coefficient of remediation (R) through both continuous and integrated measurements: R=(Ci-Cf)/Cix100 where Ci and Cf are the radon concentrations before and after the remediation. The final results of the project showed that the applied mitigation techniques were appropriate for our purpose, leading to values of the coefficient of remediation/house in a range of 65.2-95.1%, with a medium value of 80.9%. Our results are comparable with the ones obtained in the RADPAR European Project (2009-2012), which involved 14 countries. The medium radon concentration (992 Bq m-3) of the 21 targeted houses was reduced to a value of 160 Bq m-3. Based on the TF-TR model for the estimation of radon exposure risk, the project implementation will reduce to half the lung cancer cases for the habitants of theses houses. Acknowledgements: The survey was supported by the Sectorial Operational Programme "Increase of Economic

  12. Definition of radon prone areas in Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy, using geostatistical tools.

    PubMed

    Cafaro, C; Bossew, P; Giovani, C; Garavaglia, M

    2014-12-01

    Studying the geographical distribution of indoor radon concentration, using geostatistical interpolation methods, has become common for predicting and estimating the risk to the population. Here we analyse the case of Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG), the north easternmost region of Italy. Mean value and standard deviation are, respectively, 153 Bq/m(3) and 183 Bq/m(3). The geometric mean value is 100 Bq/m(3). Spatial datasets of indoor radon concentrations are usually affected by clustering and apparent non-stationarity issues, which can eventually yield arguable results. The clustering of the present dataset seems to be non preferential. Therefore the areal estimations are not expected to be affected. Conversely, nothing can be said on the non stationarity issues and its effects. After discussing the correlation of geology with indoor radon concentration It appears they are created by the same geologic features influencing the mean and median values, and can't be eliminated via a map-based approach. To tackle these problems, in this work we deal with multiple definitions of RPA, but only in quaternary areas of FVG, using extensive simulation techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Indoor Radon Concentration Related to Different Radon Areas and Indoor Radon Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid; Šál, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    Indoor radon has been observed in the buildings at areas with different radon risk potential. Preventive measures are based on control of main potential radon sources (soil gas, building material and supplied water) to avoid building of new houses above recommended indoor radon level 200 Bq/m3. Radon risk (index) estimation of individual building site bedrock in case of new house siting and building protection according technical building code are obligatory. Remedial actions in buildings built at high radon risk areas were carried out principally by unforced ventilation and anti-radon insulation. Significant differences were found in the level of radon concentration between rooms where radon reduction techniques were designed and those where it was not designed. The mathematical model based on radon exhalation from soil has been developed to describe the physical processes determining indoor radon concentration. The model is focused on combined radon diffusion through the slab and advection through the gap from sub-slab soil. In this model, radon emanated from building materials is considered not having a significant contribution to indoor radon concentration. Dimensional analysis and Gauss-Newton nonlinear least squares parametric regression were used to simplify the problem, identify essential input variables and find parameter values. The presented verification case study is introduced for real buildings with respect to various underground construction types. Presented paper gives picture of possible mathematical approach to indoor radon concentration prediction.

  14. Strongest Earthquake-Prone Areas in Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzeboev, B. A.; Agayan, S. M.; Zharkikh, Yu. I.; Krasnoperov, R. I.; Barykina, Yu. V.

    2018-03-01

    The paper continues the series of our works on recognizing the areas prone to the strongest, strong, and significant earthquakes with the use of the Formalized Clustering And Zoning (FCAZ) intellectual clustering system. We recognized the zones prone to the probable emergence of epicenters of the strongest ( M ≥ 74/3) earthquakes on the Pacific Coast of Kamchatka. The FCAZ-zones are compared to the zones that were recognized in 1984 by the classical recognition method for Earthquake-Prone Areas (EPA) by transferring the criteria of high seismicity from the Andes mountain belt to the territory of Kamchatka. The FCAZ recognition was carried out with two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects of recognition.

  15. Preliminary lung cancer risk assessment of exposure to radon progeny for Transylvania, Romania.

    PubMed

    Truta-Popa, Lucia-Adina; Dinu, Alexandra; Dicu, Tiberius; Szacsvai, Kinga; Cosma, Constantin; Hofmann, Werner

    2010-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the lung cancer risk induced by exposures to radon progeny of people living in some areas of Transylvania, Romania. Indoor radon concentrations were measured in 667 dwellings of Stei area, Cluj, Bistrita-Nasaud, Sibiu, and Alba counties. Measurements were performed using CR-39 track detectors, exposed for a minimum of 3 mo. Average annual radon concentrations were 232, 114, 71, 62, and 161 Bq m for Stei area, Cluj, Bistrita-Nasaud, Sibiu, and Alba, respectively. The linear risk model of Darby was used to simulate the dose-effect relationship and relative lung cancer risk at low doses of alpha particles specific to residential radon exposures. Predicted relative risks at the measured exposure levels, together with information on the total number of reported lung cancer deaths and the number of people living in these regions, enabled us to estimate the fraction of lung cancer cases in each area that is attributable to radon. These percentages are 16.67% for Stei area, 9.09% for Cluj, 5.66% for Bistrita-Nasaud, 4.76% for Sibiu, and 12.28% for Alba county among lifetime non-smokers. Assuming that the smoking rates are similar for the investigated regions (10.72% smokers among men and 5.95% among women), around 64 to 69% of the total number of annual lung cancer deaths, stratified by sex, would be attributed to radon and occur among smoking male population, and around 35 to 44% would be attributed to radon and occur among smoking female population.

  16. Radon

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about radon, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Radon gas usually exists at very low levels outdoors, but the gas can accumulate in areas without adequate ventilation, such as underground mines or residential basements.

  17. RADON REDUCTION AND RADON RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report covers three tasks related to indoor radon: (1) the demonstration of radon reduction techniques in 8 houses in each of two uniquely different radon prone areas of the State of New York; (2) the evaluation and repair of 14 radon mitigation systems in houses mitigated 4 ...

  18. Cancer Mortality in Low Radon Spa Area

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yasuyo; Honjo, Satoshi; Kawamura, Hiroko; Koishi, Fumiko; Suzuki, Tomokazu; Hirohata, Tomio

    1994-01-01

    Recently lower mortality for cancers of all sites was reported among inhabitants in the Misasa spa area, where there is a high radon background. To clarify the effects of radon exposure on cancer mortality, the effects of a hot spring itself on cancer mortality was investigated in the Beppu spa area, which has only a low radon background, and adjacent control areas. For females, the mortalities for cancers of all sites, liver and lung were higher in Beppu than those for all Japan on the basis of the standardized mortality ratio (SMR), while the SMR for all cancers was lower in adjacent areas. For the male inhabitants in hoth areas the cancer mortalities of all sites were not significantly different from those of all Japan. When we directly compared the most typical spa areas in Beppu and an adjacent control area, a Poisson regression analysis did not show that the relative risk of dying from cancer of all sites was decreased in the spa areas. These results are thus consistent with the view that the lower cancer mortality in the Misasa spa area might be related to exposure to low levels of radon . PMID:7829388

  19. A COMPARISON OF WINTER SHORT-TERM AND ANNUAL AVERAGE RADON MEASUREMENTS IN BASEMENTS OF A RADON-PRONE REGION AND EVALUATION OF FURTHER RADON TESTING INDICATORS

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Nirmalla G.; Steck, Daniel J.; Field, R. William

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the temporal variability between basement winter short-term (7 to 10 days) and basement annual radon measurements. Other objectives were to test the short-term measurement’s diagnostic performance at two reference levels and to evaluate its ability to predict annual average basement radon concentrations. Electret ion chamber (short-term) and alpha track (annual) radon measurements were obtained by trained personnel in Iowa residences. Overall, the geometric mean of the short-term radon concentrations (199 Bq m−3) was slightly greater than the geometric mean of the annual radon concentrations (181 Bq m−3). Short-term tests incorrectly predicted that the basement annual radon concentrations would be below 148 Bq m−3 12% of the time and 2% of the time at 74 Bq m−3. The short-term and annual radon concentrations were strongly correlated (r=0.87, p<0.0001). The foundation wall material of the basement was the only significant factor to have an impact on the absolute difference between the short-term and annual measurements. The findings from this study provide evidence of a substantially lower likelihood of obtaining a false negative result from a single short-term test in a region with high indoor radon potential when the reference level is lowered to 74 Bq m−3. PMID:24670901

  20. Radon

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Home? Radon Guide for Tenants Builders and Contractors Radon-Resistant Construction Basics and Techniques EPA's Directory of Builders Resources for Builders and Contractors Radon Action Plans The National Radon Action Plan ( ...

  1. Enhancement of radon exposure in smoking areas.

    PubMed

    Abdel Ghany, Hayam A

    2007-06-01

    Radium-226 is a significant source of radon-222 which enters buildings through soil, construction materials or water supply. When cigarette smoke is present, the radon daughters attach to smoke particles. Thus, the alpha radiation to a smoker's lungs from the natural radon daughters is increased because of smoking. To investigate whether the cigarette tobacco itself is a potential source of indoor radon, the alpha potential energy exposure level contents of radon ((222)Rn, 3.82d) and Thoron ((220)Rn, 55.60s) were measured in 10 different cigarette tobacco samples using CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The results showed that the (222, 220)Rn concentrations in these samples ranged from 128 to 266 and 49 to 148 Bqm(-3), respectively. The radon concentrations emerged from all investigated samples were significantly higher than the background level. Also, the annual equivalent doses from the samples were determined. The mean values of the equivalent dose were 3.51 (0.89) and 1.44 (0.08) mSvy(-1), respectively. Measurement of the average indoor radon concentrations in 20 café rooms was, significantly, higher than 20 smoking-free residential houses. The result refers to the dual (chemical and radioactive) effect of smoking as a risk factor for lung cancer.

  2. Radon measurements in an area of tectonic zone: A case study in Central Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Mojzeš, Andrej; Marko, František; Porubčanová, Barbara; Bartošová, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    General overviews of the spatial distribution of radon and other natural radionuclides in the geological basement as commonly presented on regional or country maps tend to offer a low density of information, insufficient for gaining relevant knowledge of the environmental impact, especially in the areas of tectonic zones often assumed to be radon prone and therefore dangerous for the human population. An additional survey, employing radon measurements in soil and indoor air, was carried out seeking to provide a more detailed characterization of the expressive fault zone of the Malá Magura in the Horná Nitra region of Central Slovakia. Eventually, the results of soil 222 Rn volume activity measurements along two short profiles crossing the assumed fault line did not reveal any indication of active nature of local tectonics, but merely pointed to an existence of a zone of contact between different types of rocks. The results of indoor radon measurements in dwellings of two villages lying on the studied fault showed values that were lower than those commonly observed on the Slovak territory, ruling out any negative health impact on population. Nevertheless, in order to add new findings to an already well established study of geological structure of the region, the indoor radon data collected through a previous survey require a further analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Living in Prone Flooding Area: in Coastal Areas of Semarang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyas, W. P.

    2018-02-01

    When settlements are not able to provide a comfort area to live in, in this case because of a periodic threat of tidal flood coming to certain settlement areas, it is likely that the people still cannot leave the area. This paper explores the leading factors of the attachment of people to the areas, from economic, physical, social and psychological factors, including a place attachment. Therefore, the approach of the problem solution to tackle the tidal flooding in the areas should be also concern and have considerations relate to the factors.

  4. Estimation of residential radon exposure and definition of Radon Priority Areas based on expected lung cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Elío, J; Crowley, Q; Scanlon, R; Hodgson, J; Zgaga, L

    2018-05-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring gas, classified as a Class 1 human carcinogen, being the second most significant cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. A robust spatial definition of radon distribution in the built environment is therefore essential for understanding the relationship between radon exposure and its adverse health effects on the general population. Using Ireland as a case study, we present a methodology to estimate an average indoor radon concentration and calculate the expected radon-related lung cancer incidence. We use this approach to define Radon Priority Areas at the administrative level of Electoral Divisions (EDs). Geostatistical methods were applied to a data set of almost 32,000 indoor radon measurements, sampled in Ireland between 1992 and 2013. Average indoor radon concentrations by ED range from 21 to 338 Bq m -3 , corresponding to an effective dose ranging from 0.8 to 13.3 mSv y -1 respectively. Radon-related lung cancer incidence by ED was calculated using a dose-effect model giving between 15 and 239 cases per million people per year, depending on the ED. Based on these calculations, together with the population density, we estimate that of the approximately 2,300 lung cancer cases currently diagnosed in Ireland annually, about 280 may be directly linked to radon exposure. This figure does not account for the synergistic effect of radon exposure with other factors (e.g. tobacco smoking), so likely represents a minimum estimate. Our approach spatially defines areas with the expected highest incidence of radon-related lung cancer, even though indoor radon concentrations for these areas may be moderate or low. We therefore recommend that both indoor radon concentration and population density by small area are considered when establishing national radon action plans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An investigation into the knowledge and attitudes towards radon testing among residents in a high radon area.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Susan; Hevey, David; Menezes, Gerard

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of residents in the Castleisland area to radon. Castleisland in Co. Kerry was described as a high radon area following the discovery of a house in the area with radon levels 245 times that of the national reference level. Residents in this area were then asked to measure their homes for radon in the Castleisland radon survey. The uptake of this measurement was 17%. In order to investigate this response rate further, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to residents in the Castleisland area. This questionnaire measured the testing history of the participants, the reasons for testing/not testing, the factors important to them when considering having their home tested, radon knowledge and finally intentions to measure their home for radon. It was found that the main reason people do not test their home for radon is that they believe their home does not have a problem. Optimistic bias was thought to play a role here. The subjective norm component of the theory of planned behaviour was found to have a significant independent contribution in the variation in intentions to measure one's home for radon and this in turn could be targeted to increase uptake of radon measurement in the future.

  6. Radon

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home or Building? Radon forms naturally. Uranium in soil or rock breaks down to form radium, which ... lung cancer. Because radon comes from rock and soil, it can be found anywhere. Exposure to limited ...

  7. Radon

    MedlinePlus

    You can't see radon. And you can't smell it or taste it. But it may be a problem in your home. Radon comes from the natural breakdown of uranium in soil, rock, and water. Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer ...

  8. DTMs Assessment to the Definition of Shallow Landslides Prone Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago D.; Oka-Fiori, Chisato; Carvalho Vieira, Bianca; Montgomery, David R.

    2017-04-01

    Predictive methods have been developed, especially since the 1990s, to identify landslide prone areas. One of the examples it is the physically based model SHALSTAB (Shallow Landsliding Stability Model), that calculate the potential instability for shallow landslides based on topography and physical soil properties. Normally, in such applications in Brazil, the Digital Terrain Model (DTM), is obtained mainly from conventional contour lines. However, recently the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) system has been largely used in Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate different DTM's, generated from conventional data and LiDAR, and their influence in generating susceptibility maps to shallow landslides using SHALSTAB model. For that were analyzed the physical properties of soil, the response of the model when applying conventional topographical data and LiDAR's in the generation of DTM, and the shallow landslides susceptibility maps based on different topographical data. The selected area is in the urban perimeter of the municipality of Antonina (PR), affected by widespread landslides in March 2011. Among the results, it was evaluated different LiDAR data interpolation, using GIS tools, wherein the Triangulation/Natural Neighbor presented the best performance. It was also found that in one of evaluation indexes (Scars Concentration), the LiDAR derived DTM presented the best performance when compared with the one originated from contour lines, however, the Landslide Potential index, has presented a small increase. Consequently, it was possible to assess the DTM's, and the one derived from LiDAR improved very little the certitude percentage. It is also noted a gap in researches carried out in Brazil on the use of products generated from LiDAR data on geomorphological analysis.

  9. High Radon Areas and lung cancer prevalence: Evidence from Ireland.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Seraphim; Lyons, Seán; Nolan, Anne

    2018-02-01

    This paper examined the relationship between radon risk and lung cancer prevalence using a novel dataset combining spatially-coded survey data with a radon risk map. A logit model was employed to test for significant associations between a high risk of indoor radon and lung cancer prevalence using data on 5590 people aged 50+ from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) and radon risk data from Ireland's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The use of data at the individual level allowed a wide range of potentially confounding factors (such as smoking) to be included. Results indicate that those who lived in an area in which 10%-20% of households were above the national reference level (200 Bq/m 3 ) were 2.9-3.1 times more likely to report a lung cancer diagnosis relative to those who lived in areas in which less than 1% of households were above the national reference level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Residents in a High Radon Potential Geographic Area: Their Risk Perception and Attitude toward Testing and Mitigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferng, Shiaw-Fen; Lawson, Jay K.

    1996-01-01

    Results of a study in Boone County, Indiana--a high radon potential geographic area--show that residents' knowledge about radon is at a relatively superficial level. A significant correlation between radon knowledge and home radon tests is observed. Respondents chose the newspaper as the favorite medium through which to launch radon health…

  11. Lung cancer risk due to residential radon exposures: estimation and prevention.

    PubMed

    Truta, L A; Hofmann, W; Cosma, C

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies proved that cumulative exposure to radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, the world's most common cancer. The objectives of the present study are (i) to analyse lung cancer risk for chronic, low radon exposures based on the transformation frequency-tissue response (TF-TR) model formulated in terms of alpha particle hits in cell nuclei; (ii) to assess the percentage of attributable lung cancers in six areas of Transylvania where the radon concentration was measured and (iii) to point out the most efficient remediation measures tested on a pilot house in Stei, Romania. Simulations performed with the TF-TR model exhibit a linear dose-effect relationship for chronic, residential radon exposures. The fraction of lung cancer cases attributed to radon ranged from 9 to 28% for the investigated areas. Model predictions may represent a useful tool to complement epidemiological studies on lung cancer risk and to establish reasonable radiation protection regulations for human safety. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. 44 CFR 60.24 - Planning considerations for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.24 Section 60.24 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program CRITERIA FOR LAND MANAGEMENT AND USE Additional Considerations in Managing Flood-Prone...

  13. Measurement of radon concentration in some water samples belonging to some adjoining areas of Pathankot, Punjab

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ajay, E-mail: ajay782@rediffmail.com; Sharma, Sumit, E-mail: sumitshrm210@gmail.com

    The study of radon concentration was measured in some areas of Pathankot district, Punjab, India, from the health hazard point of view due to radon. The exposure to radon through drinking water is largely by inhalation and ingestion. RAD 7, an electronic solid state silicon detector (Durridgeco., USA) was used to measure the radon concentration in drinking water samples of the study area. The recorded values of radon concentration in these water samples are below the recommended limit by UNSCEAR and European commission. The recommended limit of radon concentration in water samples is 4 to 40 Bq/l given by UNSCEARmore » [1] and European commission has recommended the safe limit for radon concentration in water sample is 100 Bq/l [2].« less

  14. Measurement of radon concentration in some water samples belonging to some adjoining areas of Pathankot, Punjab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Sharma, Sumit

    2015-08-01

    The study of radon concentration was measured in some areas of Pathankot district, Punjab, India, from the health hazard point of view due to radon. The exposure to radon through drinking water is largely by inhalation and ingestion. RAD 7, an electronic solid state silicon detector (Durridgeco., USA) was used to measure the radon concentration in drinking water samples of the study area. The recorded values of radon concentration in these water samples are below the recommended limit by UNSCEAR and European commission. The recommended limit of radon concentration in water samples is 4 to 40 Bq/l given by UNSCEAR [1] and European commission has recommended the safe limit for radon concentration in water sample is 100 Bq/l [2].

  15. 44 CFR 60.22 - Planning considerations for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... community shall consider— (1) Preservation of the flood-prone areas for open space purposes; (2) Relocation... debris, to provide an added margin of safety against floods having a magnitude greater than the base...

  16. 44 CFR 60.22 - Planning considerations for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... community shall consider— (1) Preservation of the flood-prone areas for open space purposes; (2) Relocation... debris, to provide an added margin of safety against floods having a magnitude greater than the base...

  17. 44 CFR 60.22 - Planning considerations for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... community shall consider— (1) Preservation of the flood-prone areas for open space purposes; (2) Relocation... debris, to provide an added margin of safety against floods having a magnitude greater than the base...

  18. Results of simultaneous radon and thoron measurements in 33 metropolitan areas of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Bergman, Lauren; Falcomer, Renato; Whyte, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer after tobacco smoking. 222Rn (radon gas) and 220Rn (thoron gas) are the most common isotopes of radon. In order to assess thoron contribution to indoor radon and thoron exposure, a survey of residential radon and thoron concentrations was initiated in 2012 with ∼4000 homes in the 33 census metropolitan areas of Canada. The survey confirmed that indoor radon and thoron concentrations are not correlated and that thoron concentrations cannot be predicted from widely available radon information. The results showed that thoron contribution to the radiation dose varied from 0.5 to 6 % geographically. The study indicated that, on average, thoron contributes ∼3 % of the radiation dose due to indoor radon and thoron exposure in Canada. Even though the estimated average thoron concentration of 9 Bq m−3 (population weighted) in Canada is low, the average radon concentration of 96 Bq m−3 (population weighted) is more than double the worldwide average indoor radon concentration. It is clear that continued efforts are needed to further reduce the exposure and effectively reduce the number of lung cancers caused by radon. PMID:24748485

  19. Culture of fire and environmental education in wildfire-prone areas: current situation in Spain

    Treesearch

    Clara Quesada-Fernández; Daniel Quesada-Fernández

    2013-01-01

    The culture of fire in the context of climate change has become a complicated relationship between people and natural areas. The interaction between people and fire is not a new issue. The use of fire by humans in most aspects of life, especially in rural areas, together with rapid and haphazard growth of structures in wildfire-prone areas, has led...

  20. Radon Risk Communication Strategies: A Regional Story.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    Risk communication on the health effects of radon encounters many challenges and requires a variety of risk communication strategies and approaches. The concern over radon exposure and its health effects may vary according to people's level of knowledge and receptivity. Homeowners in radon-prone areas are usually more informed and have greater concern over those not living in radon-prone areas. The latter group is often found to be resistant to testing. In British Columbia as well as many other parts of the country, some homes have been lying outside of the radon-prone areas have radon levels above the Canadian guideline, which is the reason Health Canada recommends that all homes should be tested. Over the last five years, the Environment Health Program (EHP) of Health Canada in the British Columbia region has been using a variety of different approaches in their radon risk communications through social media, workshops, webinars, public forums, poster contests, radon distribution maps, public inquiries, tradeshows and conference events, and partnership with different jurisdictions and nongovernmental organizations. The valuable lessons learned from these approaches are discussed in this special report.

  1. Environmental Health Risk Assesement in Flood-prone Area in Tamangapa Sub-District Makassar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, Ibrahim Abdul; Basir, Basir

    2018-05-01

    Environmental health in Indonesia is still caution to concern, poor sanitation in Indonesia is characterized by the high incidence of infectious diseases in society. The society in flood-prone area has a high-risk exposure on the disease based on the environment because they live in disaster-prone area. This research aimed to describe the condition of sanitary facilities and risky behavior on public health in flood-prone areas in Manggala district particularly in Tamangapa sub-district of Makassar. This reserach uses an observation method with a descriptive approach. The data is processed by using SPSS and Arc View GIS applications. Environmental risk category is determined by the approach of Environmental Health Risk Assessment (EHRA). The results showed that the flood-prone area in RT 04 RW 06 was included in very high-risk category at 229 with an index value of environmental health risks 212-229. Meanwhile, RT 04 RW 05 was in the category of low risk in the amount of 155 with an index of 155-173. Environmental health hazards identified in Tamangapa flood-prone areas sub-district includes domestic sources of clean water, domestic wastewater, and household garbage.

  2. Flood hazard assessment in areas prone to flash flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvočka, Davor; Falconer, Roger A.; Bray, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Contemporary climate projections suggest that there will be an increase in the occurrence of high-intensity rainfall events in the future. These precipitation extremes are usually the main cause for the emergence of extreme flooding, such as flash flooding. Flash floods are among the most unpredictable, violent and fatal natural hazards in the world. Furthermore, it is expected that flash flooding will occur even more frequently in the future due to more frequent development of extreme weather events, which will greatly increase the danger to people caused by flash flooding. This being the case, there will be a need for high resolution flood hazard maps in areas susceptible to flash flooding. This study investigates what type of flood hazard assessment methods should be used for assessing the flood hazard to people caused by flash flooding. Two different types of flood hazard assessment methods were tested: (i) a widely used method based on an empirical analysis, and (ii) a new, physically based and experimentally calibrated method. Two flash flood events were considered herein, namely: the 2004 Boscastle flash flood and the 2007 Železniki flash flood. The results obtained in this study suggest that in the areas susceptible to extreme flooding, the flood hazard assessment should be conducted using methods based on a mechanics-based analysis. In comparison to standard flood hazard assessment methods, these physically based methods: (i) take into account all of the physical forces, which act on a human body in floodwater, (ii) successfully adapt to abrupt changes in the flow regime, which often occur for flash flood events, and (iii) rapidly assess a flood hazard index in a relatively short period of time.

  3. Recognition of strong earthquake-prone areas with a single learning class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvishiani, A. D.; Agayan, S. M.; Dzeboev, B. A.; Belov, I. O.

    2017-05-01

    This article presents a new Barrier recognition algorithm with learning, designed for recognition of earthquake-prone areas. In comparison to the Crust (Kora) algorithm, used by the classical EPA approach, the Barrier algorithm proceeds with learning just on one "pure" high-seismic class. The new algorithm operates in the space of absolute values of the geological-geophysical parameters of the objects. The algorithm is used for recognition of earthquake-prone areas with M ≥ 6.0 in the Caucasus region. Comparative analysis of the Crust and Barrier algorithms justifies their productive coherence.

  4. Flood-prone area maps of three sites along the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamke, Robert D.; Jones, Stanley H.

    1980-01-01

    Flood-prone areas in Alaska are delineated on aerial photographs for the Sagavanirktok River near Pump Station 3, Middle Fork Koyukuk River at Coldfoot, and Jim River near Pump Station 5. An analysis of available flood data and a description of recent flood evidence and maximum evident flood marks are included. (Kosco-USGS)

  5. Radon potential, geologic formations, and lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Andrews, William M.; Overfield, Bethany L.; Robertson, Heather; Wiggins, Amanda; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-01-01

    Objective Exposure to radon is associated with approximately 10% of U.S. lung cancer cases. Geologic rock units have varying concentrations of uranium, producing fluctuating amounts of radon. This exploratory study examined the spatial and statistical associations between radon values and geological formations to illustrate potential population-level lung cancer risk from radon exposure. Method This was a secondary data analysis of observed radon values collected in 1987 from homes (N = 309) in Kentucky and geologic rock formation data from the Kentucky Geological Survey. Radon value locations were plotted on digital geologic maps using ArcGIS and linked to specific geologic map units. Each map unit represented a package of different types of rock (e.g., limestone and/or shale). Log-transformed radon values and geologic formation categories were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Results Observed radon levels varied significantly by geologic formation category. Of the 14 geologic formation categories in north central Kentucky, four were associated with median radon levels, ranging from 8.10 to 2.75 pCi/L. Conclusion Radon potential maps that account for geologic factors and observed radon values may be superior to using observed radon values only. Knowing radon-prone areas could help target population-based lung cancer prevention interventions given the inequities that exist related to radon. PMID:26844090

  6. DEM-based Approaches for the Identification of Flood Prone Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samela, Caterina; Manfreda, Salvatore; Nardi, Fernando; Grimaldi, Salvatore; Roth, Giorgio; Sole, Aurelia

    2013-04-01

    The remarkable number of inundations that caused, in the last decades, thousands of deaths and huge economic losses, testifies the extreme vulnerability of many Countries to the flood hazard. As a matter of fact, human activities are often developed in the floodplains, creating conditions of extremely high risk. Terrain morphology plays an important role in understanding, modelling and analyzing the hydraulic behaviour of flood waves. Research during the last 10 years has shown that the delineation of flood prone areas can be carried out using fast methods that relay on basin geomorphologic features. In fact, the availability of new technologies to measure surface elevation (e.g., GPS, SAR, SAR interferometry, RADAR and LASER altimetry) has given a strong impulse to the development of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based approaches. The identification of the dominant topographic controls on the flood inundation process is a critical research question that we try to tackle with a comparative analysis of several techniques. We reviewed four different approaches for the morphological characterization of a river basin with the aim to provide a description of their performances and to identify their range of applicability. In particular, we explored the potential of the following tools. 1) The hydrogeomorphic method proposed by Nardi et al. (2006) which defines the flood prone areas according to the water level in the river network through the hydrogeomorphic theory. 2) The linear binary classifier proposed by Degiorgis et al. (2012) which allows distinguishing flood-prone areas using two features related to the location of the site under exam with respect to the nearest hazard source. The two features, proposed in the study, are the length of the path that hydrologically connects the location under exam to the nearest element of the drainage network and the difference in elevation between the cell under exam and the final point of the same path. 3) The method by

  7. LANDSAT imagery analysis: An aid for predicting landslide prone areas for highway construction. [in Arkansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H. C.; Grubbs, R. S.

    1975-01-01

    The most obvious landform features of geologic significance revealed on LANDSAT imagery are linear trends or lineaments. These trends were found to correspond, at least to a large degree, with unmapped faults or complex fracture zones. LANDSAT imagery analysis in northern Arkansas revealed a lineament complex which provides a remarkable correlation with landslide-prone areas along major highway routes. The weathering properties of various rock types, which are considered in designing stable cut slopes and drainage structures, appear to be adversely influenced by the location and trends of LANDSAT defined lineaments. Geologic interpretation of LANDSAT imagery, where applicable and utilized effectively, provides the highway engineer with a tool for predicting and evaluating landslide-prone areas.

  8. Grundwasserzufluss zum Steißlinger See und Folgen für die Wasserchemie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfedder, Benjamin; Peiffer, Stefan; Pöschke, Franziska; Spirkaneder, Andrea

    2018-06-01

    Groundwater can play an important role in lake water and chemical budgets. The aim of this study was to map and quantify groundwater discharge to Lake Steißlingen, a small lake in south-west Germany, using Rn as a natural groundwater tracer. 222Rn, nutrients, temperature and oxygen concentration were measured in depth profiles and in sediment-near water samples during April and June 2016. The spatial distribution of Rn activities (max. 944 Bq m-3) showed that groundwater discharges into the middle of the lake and along the northeastern shore from springs in the hypolimnion (11-14 m depth). Based on a Rn mass-balance groundwater accounts for 70% of the total water input (GWflux = 11 l s-1) to the lake. There were significant positive correlations between methane and nitrite with Rn activity, suggesting the groundwater as a common source. Overall the inflow of groundwater causes a deterioration in lake water quality.

  9. Farmers’s perception and strategies for the development of sustainable livelihoods in disaster prone areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anantanyu, S.; Suwarto; Suminah

    2018-03-01

    Empowerment is a strategy to develop and build economy and community in both physically and mentally. One effort is to help generate a plan for community development in disaster-prone areas. For that, this study aims to develop farmers profile, to describe farmer perception towards farming effort and to formulate the empowerment strategies in the development of sustainable livelihoods in disaster prone areas. This study uses mixed methods. Farmers population use in this study were live in two villages of landslides prone areas, that are Beruk and Wonorejo which belongs Jatiyoso Subdistrict Karanganyar regency (Central Java). In depth structured interview was conducted to 150 farmers under Focus Group Discussion (FGD) followed with. data analysis using SWOT analysis. The results showed level of farm management is in anxiety level, perception of farmers toward the availability of agricultural inputs is at a reasonable level and the agricultural information becomes the reduction factors. The result of QSPM matrix calculation through SWOT analysis on livelihood of agricultural, resulting some strategy according to the priority level that are development of conservation farming, strengthening the farmers capacity in agricultural products processing, strengthening farmer groups and improving the performance of agriculture extensionist.

  10. Radon monitoring and hazard prediction in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elio, Javier; Crowley, Quentin; Scanlon, Ray; Hodgson, Jim; Cooper, Mark; Long, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas which forms as a decay product from uranium. It is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation affecting the global population. When radon is inhaled, its short-lived decay products can interact with lung tissue leading to DNA damage and development of lung cancer. Ireland has among the highest levels of radon in Europe and eighth highest of an OECD survey of 29 countries. Every year some two hundred and fifty cases of lung cancer in Ireland are linked to radon exposure. This new research project will build upon previous efforts of radon monitoring in Ireland to construct a high-resolution radon hazard map. This will be achieved using recently available high-resolution airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (radiometric) and soil geochemistry data (http://www.tellus.ie/), indoor radon concentrations (http://www.epa.ie/radiation), and new direct measurement of soil radon. In this regard, legacy indoor radon concentrations will be correlated with soil U and Th concentrations and other geogenic data. This is a new approach since the vast majority of countries with a national radon monitoring programme rely on indoor radon measurements, or have a spatially limited dataset of soil radon measurements. Careful attention will be given to areas where an indicative high radon hazard based on geogenic factors does not match high indoor radon concentrations. Where such areas exist, it may imply that some parameter(s) in the predictive model does not match that of the environment. These areas will be subjected to measurement of radon soil gas using a combination of time averaged (passive) and time dependant (active) measurements in order to better understand factors affecting production, transport and accumulation of radon in the natural environment. Such mapping of radon-prone areas will ultimately help to inform when prevention and remediation measures are necessary, reducing the radon exposure of the population. Therefore, given

  11. Hydrological and hydraulic models for determination of flood-prone and flood inundation areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksoy, Hafzullah; Sadan Ozgur Kirca, Veysel; Burgan, Halil Ibrahim; Kellecioglu, Dorukhan

    2016-05-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are widely used in most studies on water resources. Especially, when the topography and geomorphology of study area are considered, GIS can ease the work load. Detailed data should be used in this kind of studies. Because of, either the complication of the models or the requirement of highly detailed data, model outputs can be obtained fast only with a good optimization. The aim in this study, firstly, is to determine flood-prone areas in a watershed by using a hydrological model considering two wetness indexes; the topographical wetness index, and the SAGA (System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses) wetness index. The wetness indexes were obtained in the Quantum GIS (QGIS) software by using the Digital Elevation Model of the study area. Flood-prone areas are determined by considering the wetness index maps of the watershed. As the second stage of this study, a hydraulic model, HEC-RAS, was executed to determine flood inundation areas under different return period-flood events. River network cross-sections required for this study were derived from highly detailed digital elevation models by QGIS. Also river hydraulic parameters were used in the hydraulic model. Modelling technology used in this study is made of freely available open source softwares. Based on case studies performed on watersheds in Turkey, it is concluded that results of such studies can be used for taking precaution measures against life and monetary losses due to floods in urban areas particularly.

  12. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Pairs of HCMM day-night thermal infrared (IR) data were selected during the 1978-79 winter to examine patterns of surface temperature and thermal inertia (TI) of peninsular Florida. The GOES and NOAA-6 thermal IR, as well as National Climatic Center temperatures and rainfall, were also used. The HCMM apparent thermal inertia (ATI) images closely corresponded to the general soil map of Florida, based on soil drainage classes. Areas with low ATI overlay well-drained soils, such as deep sands and drained organic soils, whereas with high ATI overlay areas with wetlands and bodies of water. The HCMM ATI images also corresponded well with GOES-detected winter nocturnal cold-prone areas. Use of HCMM data with Carlson's energy balance model showed both high moisture availability (MA) and high thermal inertia (TI) of wetland-type surfaces and low MA and low TI of upland, well-drained soils. Since soil areas with low TI develop higher temperatures during the day, then antecedent patterns of highest maximum daytime surface temperature can also be used to predict nocturnal cold-prone areas in Florida.

  13. Results of the radon measurements in the area of volcano Popocatepetl, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsarenko, Anatoliy; Yustis, Vsevolod; Grimalsky, Vladimir; Medina Pérez, Ivan Luis; Koshevaya, Svetlana; Villegas Cerón, Reyna Alejandra; Pérez Enríquez, Hector Roman; López Cruz Abeyro, Jose Antonio; Valdés Gonzáles, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    Anomaly variation of the concentration of radon measured in the area of the volcano Popocatepetl and their analysis are presented. Permanent observations in the different sites during December 2007 - December 2009 revealed certain stable tendency: the character of radon variation in Tlamacas station area differs essentially from the similar measurements in all the other sites. Thus, numerous gradual depressions of the radon concentration with duration from about 12 hours up to several days were detected there as possible response to the major and moderate volcano eruptions. In order to determine presumed peculiarities of the Tlamacas site we realized detailed study of the natural radioactivity near Tlamacas and surrounding area, combining measurements of the Radon concentration in 25 sites in the mentioned area with radioactive spectroscopy (K, U and Th) study. Obtained distributions of the Rn, K, U and Th permit us to surmise a possible existence of a hidden tectono-volcanic structure in the area of Tlamacas mountain with anomalously enhanced emanation of radon.

  14. Study of indoor radon and thoron progeny levels in surrounding areas of Nalbari, Assam, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, P. C.; Sarma, H.; Sarkar, Subir; Goswami, T. D.; Sarma, B. K.

    2009-07-01

    With the growing understanding of the role of radon and its daughter products as major sources of radiation exposure, the importance of large number of estimation of radon concentration in various parts of the country is realized. Inhalation of radon, thoron and their decay products is the major source of the total radioactive dose received by the human population from natural radiation. The indoor radon and thoron progeny levels in Nalbari area of Assam are studied by using the LR-115 (type II) Solid State Nuclear Track Detector in Plastic Twin Chamber dosimeter. Radon and thoron progeny levels in different types of dwellings for one full calendar year are presented in this paper. For Assam Type (A.T.) houses, indoor radon progeny concentrations vary from 0.17 to 0.64 mWL with an annual geometric mean of 0.27 mWL and that for Reinforced Cement Concrete (R.C.C.) houses vary from 0.22 mWL to 0.60 mWL with the annual geometric mean of 0.37 mWL. The thoron progeny levels in A.T. houses also vary from 0.01 to of 0.05 mWL with an annual geometric mean of 0.02 mWL and that for R.C.C. houses vary from 0.02 to 0.08 mWL with the annual geometric mean of 0.04 mWL.

  15. Radon soil gas measurements in a geological versatile region as basis to improve the prediction of areas with a high radon potential.

    PubMed

    Kabrt, Franz; Seidel, Claudia; Baumgartner, Andreas; Friedmann, Harry; Rechberger, Fabian; Schuff, Michael; Maringer, Franz Josef

    2014-07-01

    With the aim to predict the radon potential by geological data, radon soil gas measurements were made in a selected region in Styria, Austria. This region is characterised by mean indoor radon potentials of 130-280 Bq m(-3) and a high geological diversity. The distribution of the individual measuring sites was selected on the basis of geological aspects and the distribution of area settlements. In this work, the radon soil gas activity concentration and the soil permeability were measured at 100 sites, each with three single measurements. Furthermore, the local dose rate was determined and soil samples were taken at each site to determine the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. During two investigation periods, long-term soil gas radon measurements were made to study the time dependency of the radon activity concentration. All the results will be compared and investigated for correlation among each other to improve the prediction of areas with high radon potential. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Seismic hazard assessment and pattern recognition of earthquake prone areas in the Po Plain (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, Alexander; Peresan, Antonella; Soloviev, Alexander; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2014-05-01

    A systematic and quantitative assessment, capable of providing first-order consistent information about the sites where large earthquakes may occur, is crucial for the knowledgeable seismic hazard evaluation. The methodology for the pattern recognition of areas prone to large earthquakes is based on the morphostructural zoning method (MSZ), which employs topographic data and present-day tectonic structures for the mapping of earthquake-controlling structures (i.e. the nodes formed around lineaments intersections) and does not require the knowledge about past seismicity. The nodes are assumed to be characterized by a uniform set of topographic, geologic, and geophysical parameters; on the basis of such parameters the pattern recognition algorithm defines a classification rule to discriminate seismogenic and non-seismogenic nodes. This methodology has been successfully applied since the early 1970s in a number of regions worldwide, including California, where it permitted the identification of areas that have been subsequently struck by strong events and that previously were not considered prone to strong earthquakes. Recent studies on the Iberian Peninsula and the Rhone Valley, have demonstrated the applicability of MSZ to flat basins, with a relatively flat topography. In this study, the analysis is applied to the Po Plain (Northern Italy), an area characterized by a flat topography, to allow for the systematic identification of the nodes prone to earthquakes with magnitude larger or equal to M=5.0. The MSZ method differs from the standard morphostructural analysis where the term "lineament" is used to define the complex of alignments detectable on topographic maps or on satellite images. According to that definition the lineament is locally defined and the existence of the lineament does not depend on the surrounding areas. In MSZ, the primary element is the block - a relatively homogeneous area - while the lineament is a secondary element of the morphostructure

  17. Implementation of safety signage to ease transportation system in disaster prone area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikneswaran, M.; Raffiee, Rabiatul Adawiyah Ahmad; Yusof, Mohammed Alias; Yahya, Muhamad Azani; Subramaniam, S. Ananthan; Loong, Wong Wai; Othman, Maidiana; Galerial, Jessica

    2018-02-01

    The research is conducted to study the exact need of the signage at disaster prone area. The smart signage is needed to increase the safety, reduce the search and rescue time and finally will ease the help to arrive at the relieve center in any condition at any time without interruption. Signage implementation for disaster relief centers is still a foreign matter in Malaysia. The level of preparedness to the natural disaster mainly flood among our citizens is inadequate. Here the signage which usually used as a tool to help and protect the health and safety of the road users, employees and work place visitors. For many years, the signage has played its part miraculously to provide vivid information to the users in whatever condition. The signage also could be used as an indicator or information provider for the natural disaster victims to move to a safer place on time. Sometimes, the victims would not have sufficient time to safe themselves due to lack of information and time. Thus, it can be concluded that the signage at disaster prone area is vital.

  18. Radiation dose due to radon and thoron progeny inhalation in high-level natural radiation areas of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yasutaka; Tokonami, Shinji; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Kudo, Hiromi; Pornnumpa, Chanis; Nair, Raghu Ram K; Jayalekshmi, Padmavaty Amma; Sebastian, Paul; Akiba, Suminori

    2017-03-20

    In order to evaluate internal exposure to radon and thoron, concentrations for radon, thoron, and thoron progeny were measured for 259 dwellings located in high background radiation areas (HBRAs, outdoor external dose: 3-5 mGy y -1 ) and low background radiation areas (control areas, outdoor external dose: 1 mGy y -1 ) in Karunagappally Taluk, Kerala, India. The measurements were conducted using passive-type radon-thoron detectors and thoron progeny detectors over two six-month measurement periods from June 2010 to June 2011. The results showed no major differences in radon and thoron progeny concentrations between the HBRAs and the control areas. The geometric mean of the annual effective dose due to radon and thoron was calculated as 0.10 and 0.44 mSv, respectively. The doses were small, but not negligible compared with the external dose in the two areas.

  19. Comparison between flood prone areas' geomorphic features in the Abruzzo region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, D.; Giglioni, M.; Magnaldi, S.

    2017-07-01

    Flood risk maps are one of the main non-structural measures for risk mitigation, but, as the risk knowledge degree is directly proportional to the community interest and financial capability, many sites are devoid of flood inundation areas studies. Recently many authors have investigated the capability of flood prone areas individuation with geomorphological DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL(DEM) based approaches. These approaches highlight the role of geomorphic features derived from DEM, in this case slope, curvature, elevation, and topographic wetness index, to preliminary inundated areas' identification, without using hydraulic simulations. The present studies aim to analyze the geomorphic features of different hazard levels that lie under the identified inundated areas that have been carried out by the Abruzzo Region Basin Authority. The Aterno-Pescara and Foro river basins have been investigated. The results show that the characteristics of the flooded areas can be clearly distinguished from those of the entire basin,however, the difficultly of geomorphic features in individuatingthe areas of different hazard classifications is obvious.

  20. Social Capital and Disaster Preparedness Among Low Income Mexican Americans in a Disaster Prone Area

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Belinda M.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Lee, MinJae; Chen, Zhongxue; Raja, Sartaj Alam; Pope, Jennifer; Adams, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Examination of social capital and its relationship to disaster preparedness has grown in prominence partially due to world-wide need to effectively respond to terrorist attacks, viral epidemics, or natural disasters. Recent studies suggested that social capital may be related to a community’s ability to plan for and respond to such disasters. Few studies, however, have examined social capital constructs among low income populations living in disaster prone areas and accounted for the influence of social capital at the individual and community level. We examined social capital as measured by perceived fairness, perceived civic trust, perceived reciprocity and group membership. We undertook a multistage random cluster survey in three coastal counties in Texas (U.S.) noted for their high levels of poverty. Individuals from 3088 households provided data on social capital, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and self-reported level of preparedness for a hurricane. We used multivariable logistic regression to test potential associations between social capital measures and disaster preparedness. After adjusting for age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, education, employment, household income, acculturation, self-reported health, special needs persons in household, household size, and distance to the shore we found a higher prevalence of preparedness among individuals who reported the highest perception of fairness [AOR=3.12, 95% CI: (1.86, 5.21)] compared to those individuals who reported lowest perceptions of fairness. We also found a higher prevalence of preparedness [AOR= 2.06; 95% CI: (1.17, 3.62)] among individuals who reported highest perceptions of trust compared to individuals who reported lowest perceptions of trust. Perceived reciprocity and group membership were not associated with preparedness. These results extend previous findings on social capital and disaster preparedness and further characterize social capital’s presence among a low

  1. Social capital and disaster preparedness among low income Mexican Americans in a disaster prone area.

    PubMed

    Reininger, Belinda M; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Lee, Minjae; Chen, Zhongxue; Alam, Sartaj R; Pope, Jennifer; Adams, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Examination of social capital and its relationship to disaster preparedness has grown in prominence partially due to world-wide need to effectively respond to terrorist attacks, viral epidemics, or natural disasters. Recent studies suggested that social capital may be related to a community's ability to plan for and respond to such disasters. Few studies, however, have examined social capital constructs among low income populations living in disaster prone areas and accounted for the influence of social capital at the individual and community level. We examined social capital as measured by perceived fairness, perceived civic trust, perceived reciprocity and group membership. We undertook a multistage random cluster survey in three coastal counties in Texas (U.S.) noted for their high levels of poverty. Individuals from 3088 households provided data on social capital, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and self-reported level of preparedness for a hurricane. We used multivariable logistic regression to test potential associations between social capital measures and disaster preparedness. After adjusting for age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, education, employment, household income, acculturation, self-reported health, special needs persons in household, household size, and distance to the shore we found a higher prevalence of preparedness among individuals who reported the highest perception of fairness [AOR = 3.12, 95% CI: (1.86, 5.21)] compared to those individuals who reported lowest perceptions of fairness. We also found a higher prevalence of preparedness [AOR = 2.06; 95% CI: (1.17, 3.62)] among individuals who reported highest perceptions of trust compared to individuals who reported lowest perceptions of trust. Perceived reciprocity and group membership were not associated with preparedness. These results extend previous findings on social capital and disaster preparedness and further characterize social capital's presence among a low

  2. Variations of radon concentration in the atmosphere. Gamma dose rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, D. E.; Solecki, A. T.

    2018-02-01

    The purposes of research were following: observation and interpretation of variations of radon concentration in the atmosphere - vertical, seasonal, spatial and analysis of relation between average annual radon concentration and ground natural radiation and gamma dose rate. Moreover we wanted to check the occurrence of radon density currents and the possibility of radon accumulation at the foot of the spoil tip. The surveys were carried out in Okrzeszyn (SW Poland) in the area of the spoil tip formed during uranium mining that took place in 60's of 20th century. The measurements were carried out in 20 measurements points at three heights: 0.2 m, 1 m and 2 m a.g.l. using SSNTD LR-115. The survey lasted one year and detectors were exchanged at the beginning of every season. Uranium eU (ppm), thorium eTh (ppm) and potassium K (%) contents were measured using gamma ray spectrometer Exploranium RS-230, ambient gamma dose rate using radiometer RK-100. The average radon concentration on this area was 52.8 Bq m-3. The highest radon concentrations were noted during autumn and the lowest during winter. We observed vertical variations of radon concentration. Radon concentrations decreased with increase of height above ground level. The decrease of radon with increase of height a.g.l. had logarithmic character. Spatial variations of radon concentrations did not indicate the occurrence of radon density currents and accumulation of radon at the foot of the spoil tip. The analysis of relation between average radon concentrations and ground natural radiation (uranium and thorium content) or gamma dose rate revealed positive relation between those parameters. On the base of results mentioned above we suggested that gamma spectrometry measurements or even cheaper and simpler ambient gamma dose rate measurements can be a useful tool in determining radon prone areas. This should be confirmed by additional research.

  3. Childhood leukaemia in areas with different radon levels: a spatial and temporal analysis using GIS

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, S; Noorlind, B; Lofman, O

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the relation between exposure to ground radon levels and leukaemia among children using existing population and disease registers.
DESIGN—Ecological correlation study.
SETTING—The county of Östergötland in Sweden.
METHODS—Every child born in the county between 1979 and 1992 was mapped to the property centroid coordinates by linking addresses in the population and property registers. Population maps were overlaid with radon maps and exposure at birth and each subsequent year was quantified as high, normal, low or unknown. This was analysed with data from the tumour registry. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using the age and sex specific rates for Sweden for the year 1995.
RESULTS—90 malignancies occurred among 53 146 children (498 887 person years) who formed the study population. SMRs for acute lymphatic leukaemia (ALL) among children born in high, normal and low risk areas were 1.43, 1.17 and 0.25 respectively. The relative risk for the normal risk group and high risk group as compared with the low risk group was 4.64 (95% CI 1.29, 28.26) and 5.67 (95% CI 1.06, 42.27). The association between ALL and continued residence at normal or high risk areas showed a similar trend. No association between radon risk levels and any other malignancy was seen.
CONCLUSION—Children born in and staying at areas where the risk from ground radon has been classified as low are less likely to develop ALL than those born in areas classified as normal and high risk.


Keywords: leukaemia; cancer; radon; ionising radiation; Geographic Information Systems PMID:11027195

  4. Soil-Gas Radon Anomaly Map of an Unknown Fault Zone Area, Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udphuay, S.; Kaweewong, C.; Imurai, W.; Pondthai, P.

    2015-12-01

    Soil-gas radon concentration anomaly map was constructed to help detect an unknown subsurface fault location in San Sai District, Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand where a 5.1-magnitude earthquake took place in December 2006. It was suspected that this earthquake may have been associated with an unrecognized active fault in the area. In this study, soil-gas samples were collected from eighty-four measuring stations covering an area of approximately 50 km2. Radon in soil-gas samples was quantified using Scintrex Radon Detector, RDA-200. The samplings were conducted twice: during December 2014-January 2015 and March 2015-April 2015. The soil-gas radon map obtained from this study reveals linear NNW-SSE trend of high concentration. This anomaly corresponds to the direction of the prospective fault system interpreted from satellite images. The findings from this study support the existence of this unknown fault system. However a more detailed investigation should be conducted in order to confirm its geometry, orientation and lateral extent.

  5. Construction of an integrated social vulnerability index in urban areas prone to flash flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aroca-Jimenez, Estefania; Bodoque, Jose Maria; Garcia, Juan Antonio; Diez-Herrero, Andres

    2017-09-01

    Among the natural hazards, flash flooding is the leading cause of weather-related deaths. Flood risk management (FRM) in this context requires a comprehensive assessment of the social risk component. In this regard, integrated social vulnerability (ISV) can incorporate spatial distribution and contribution and the combined effect of exposure, sensitivity and resilience to total vulnerability, although these components are often disregarded. ISV is defined by the demographic and socio-economic characteristics that condition a population's capacity to cope with, resist and recover from risk and can be expressed as the integrated social vulnerability index (ISVI). This study describes a methodological approach towards constructing the ISVI in urban areas prone to flash flooding in Castilla y León (Castile and León, northern central Spain, 94 223 km2, 2 478 376 inhabitants). A hierarchical segmentation analysis (HSA) was performed prior to the principal components analysis (PCA), which helped to overcome the sample size limitation inherent in PCA. ISVI was obtained from weighting vulnerability factors based on the tolerance statistic. In addition, latent class cluster analysis (LCCA) was carried out to identify spatial patterns of vulnerability within the study area. Our results show that the ISVI has high spatial variability. Moreover, the source of vulnerability in each urban area cluster can be identified from LCCA. These findings make it possible to design tailor-made strategies for FRM, thereby increasing the efficiency of plans and policies and helping to reduce the cost of mitigation measures.

  6. The uncertainty in the radon hazard classification of areas as a function of the number of measurements.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, H; Baumgartner, A; Gruber, V; Kaineder, H; Maringer, F J; Ringer, W; Seidel, C

    2017-07-01

    The administration in many countries demands a classification of areas concerning their radon risk taking into account the requirements of the EU Basic Safety Standards. The wide variation of indoor radon concentrations in an area which is caused by different house construction, different living style and different geological situations introduces large uncertainties for any classification scheme. Therefore, it is of importance to estimate the size of the experimental coefficient of variation (relative standard deviation) of the parameter which is used to classify an area. Besides the time period of measurement it is the number of measurements which strongly influences this uncertainty and it is important to find a compromise between the economic possibilities and the needed confidence level. Some countries do not use pure measurement results for the classification of areas but use derived quantities, usually called radon potential, which should reduce the influence of house construction, living style etc. and should rather represent the geological situation of an area. Here, radon indoor measurements in nearly all homes in three municipalities and its conversion into a radon potential were used to determine the uncertainty of the mean radon potential of an area as a function of the number of investigated homes. It could be shown that the coefficient of variation scales like 1/√n with n the number of measured dwellings. The question how to deal with uncertainties when using a classification scheme for the radon risk is discussed and a general procedure is proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A model for assessing the systemic vulnerability in landslide prone areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascale, S.; Sdao, F.; Sole, A.

    2010-07-01

    The objectives of spatial planning should include the definition and assessment of possible mitigation strategies regarding the effects of natural hazards on the surrounding territory. Unfortunately, however, there is often a lack of adequate tools to provide necessary support to the local bodies responsible for land management. This paper deals with the conception, the development and the validation of an integrated numerical model for assessing systemic vulnerability in complex and urbanized landslide-prone areas. The proposed model considers this vulnerability not as a characteristic of a particular element at risk, but as a peculiarity of a complex territorial system, in which the elements are reciprocally linked in a functional way. It is an index of the tendency of a given territorial element to suffer damage (usually of a functional kind) due to its interconnections with other elements of the same territorial system. The innovative nature of this work also lies in the formalization of a procedure based on a network of influences for an adequate assessment of such "systemic" vulnerability. This approach can be used to obtain information which is useful, in any given situation of a territory hit by a landslide event, for the identification of the element which has suffered the most functional damage, ie the most "critical" element and the element which has the greatest repercussions on other elements of the system and thus a "decisive" role in the management of the emergency. This model was developed within a GIS system through the following phases: 1. the topological characterization of the territorial system studied and the assessment of the scenarios in terms of spatial landslide hazard. A statistical method, based on neural networks was proposed for the assessment of landslide hazard; 2. the analysis of the direct consequences of a scenario event on the system; 3. the definition of the assessment model of systemic vulnerability in landslide-prone areas. To

  8. Topographic data acquisition in tsunami-prone coastal area using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marfai, M. A.; Sunarto; Khakim, N.; Cahyadi, A.; Rosaji, F. S. C.; Fatchurohman, H.; Wibowo, Y. A.

    2018-04-01

    The southern coastal area of Java Island is one of the nine seismic gaps prone to tsunamis. The entire coastline in one of the regencies, Gunungkidul, is exposed to the subduction zone in the Indian Ocean. Also, the growing tourism industries in the regency increase its vulnerability, which places most of its areas at high risk of tsunamis. The same case applies to Kukup, i.e., one of the most well-known beaches in Gunungkidul. Structurally shaped cliffs that surround it experience intensive wave erosion process, but it has very minimum access for evacuation routes. Since tsunami modeling is a very advanced analysis, it requires an accurate topographic data. Therefore, the research aimed to generate the topographic data of Kukup Beach as the baseline in tsunami risk reduction analysis and disaster management. It used aerial photograph data, which was acquired using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The results showed that the aerial photographs captured by drone had accurate elevation and spatial resolution. Therefore, they are applicable for tsunami modeling and disaster management.

  9. Is environmental radon gas associated with the incidence of neurodegenerative conditions? A retrospective study of multiple sclerosis in radon affected areas in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J; Denman, Antony R; Campbell, Jackie; Crockett, Robin G M; Phillips, Paul S; Rogers, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    To test whether an association exists between radon gas concentration in the home and increased multiple sclerosis (MS) incidence, a retrospective study was undertaken of MS incidence in known areas of raised domestic radon concentration in England and Wales, using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) clinical research database. The study population comprised 20,140,498 person-years of clinical monitoring (males: 10,056,628: 49.93%; females: 10,083,870: 50.07%), representing a mean annual population of 2.5 million individuals. To allow for the possible latency of MS initiation following exposure, data extraction was limited to patients with at least five years registration history with the same GP practice before first diagnosis. Patient records were allocated to one of nine radon concentration bands depending on the average radon level in their postcode sector. MS incidence was analysed by searching for patients with first MS diagnosis over the eight calendar years 2005-2012 inclusive. 1512 new MS cases were diagnosed, 1070 females, 442 males, equivalent to raw incidence rates of 7.51, 10.61 and 4.40 per 10(5) person-years respectively, comparable to previously reported results. Of these new cases, 115 could be allocated to one of the radon bands representing high radon areas. Standardising to the UK 2010 population, excess relative risk (ERR) figures for MS were calculated for each radon band. Linear regression of ERR against mean band radon concentration shows a positive gradient of 0.22 per 100 Bq·m(-3) (R(2) = 0.25, p = 0.0961) when forced through the origin to represent a linear-no-threshold response. The null hypothesis falls inside the 95% confidence interval for the linear fit and therefore this fit is not statistically significant. We conclude that, despite THIN sampling around 5% of the population, insufficient data was available to confirm or refute the hypothesised association between MS incidence and radon concentration. Copyright © 2015. Published

  10. Swift delineation of flood-prone areas over large European regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares da Costa, Ricardo; Castellarin, Attilio; Manfreda, Salvatore; Samela, Caterina; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Mazzoli, Paolo; Luzzi, Valerio; Bagli, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    According to the European Environment Agency (EEA Report No 1/2016), a significant share of the European population is estimated to be living on or near a floodplain, with Italy having the highest population density in flood-prone areas among the countries analysed. This tendency, tied with event frequency and magnitude (e.g.: the 24/11/2016 floods in Italy) and the fact that river floods may occur at large scales and at a transboundary level, where data is often sparse, presents a challenge in flood-risk management. The availability of consistent flood hazard and risk maps during prevention, preparedness, response and recovery phases are a valuable and important step forward in improving the effectiveness, efficiency and robustness of evidence-based decision making. The present work aims at testing and discussing the usefulness of pattern recognition techniques based on geomorphologic indices (Manfreda et al., J. Hydrol. Eng., 2011, Degiorgis et al., J Hydrol., 2012, Samela et al., J. Hydrol. Eng., 2015) for the simplified mapping of river flood-prone areas at large scales. The techniques are applied to 25m Digital Elevation Models (DEM) of the Danube, Po and Severn river watersheds, obtained from the Copernicus data and information funded by the European Union - EU-DEM layers. Results are compared to the Pan-European flood hazard maps derived by Alfieri et al. (Hydrol. Proc., 2013) using a set of distributed hydrological (LISFLOOD, van der Knijff et al., Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci., 2010, employed within the European Flood Awareness System, www.efas.eu) and hydraulic models (LISFLOOD-FP, Bates and De Roo, J. Hydrol., 2000). Our study presents different calibration and cross-validation exercises of the DEM-based mapping algorithms to assess to which extent, and with which accuracy, they can be reproduced over different regions of Europe. This work is being developed under the System-Risk project (www.system-risk.eu) that received funding from the European Union

  11. Experimental study of effectiveness of four radon mitigation solutions, based on underground depressurization, tested in prototype housing built in a high radon area in Spain.

    PubMed

    Frutos Vázquez, Borja; Olaya Adán, Manuel; Quindós Poncela, Luis Santiago; Sainz Fernandez, Carlos; Fuente Merino, Ismael

    2011-04-01

    The present paper discusses the results of an empirical study of four approaches to reducing indoor radon concentrations based on depressurization techniques in underground sumps. The experiments were conducted in prototype housing built in an area of Spain where the average radon concentration at a depth of 1 m is 250 kBq m(-3). Sump effectiveness was analysed in two locations: underneath the basement, which involved cutting openings into the foundation, ground storey and roof slabs, and outside the basement walls, which entailed digging a pit alongside the building exterior. The effectiveness of both sumps was likewise tested with passive and forced ventilation methods. The systems proved to be highly efficient, lowering radon levels by 91-99%, except in the solution involving passive ventilation and the outside sump, where radon levels were reduced by 53-55%. At wind speeds of over 8 m/s, however, passive ventilation across an outside sump lowered radon levels by 95% due to a Venturi effect induced drop in pressure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of radon levels in soil and groundwater in the North Maladeta Fault area (Central Pyrenees) and their effects on indoor radon concentration in a thermal spa.

    PubMed

    Moreno, V; Bach, J; Zarroca, M; Font, Ll; Roqué, C; Linares, R

    2018-09-01

    Radon levels in the soil and groundwater in the North Maladeta Fault area (located in the Aran Valley sector, Central Pyrenees) are analysed from both geological and radiation protection perspectives. This area is characterized by the presence of two important normal faults: the North Maladeta fault (NMF) and the Tredós Fault (TF). Two primary aspects make this study interesting: (i) the NMF shows geomorphic evidence of neotectonic activity and (ii) the presence of a thermal spa, Banhs de Tredós, which exploits one of the several natural springs of the area and needs to be evaluated for radiation dosing from radon according to the European regulation on basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation. The average soil radon and thoron concentrations along a profile perpendicular to the two normal faults - 22 ± 3 kBq·m -3 and 34 ± 3 kBq·m -3 , respectively - are not high and can be compared to the radionuclide content of the granitic rocks of the area, 25 ± 4 Bq·kg -1 for 226 Ra and 38 ± 2 Bq·kg -1 for 224 Ra. However, the hypothesis that the normal faults are still active is supported by the presence of anomalies in both the soil radon and thoron levels that are unlikely to be of local origin together with the presence of similar anomalies in CO 2 fluxes and the fact that the highest groundwater radon values are located close to the normal faults. Additionally, groundwater 222 Rn data have complemented the hydrochemistry data, enabling researchers to better distinguish between water pathways in the granitic and non-granitic aquifers. Indoor radon levels in the spa vary within a wide range, [7-1664] Bq·m -3 because the groundwater used in the treatment rooms is the primary source of radon in the air. Tap water radon levels inside the spa present an average value of 50 ± 8 kBq·m -3 , which does not exceed the level stipulated by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) of 100 kBq·m -3 for water used for human

  13. Settlement preferences in the disaster-prone areas of Brantas River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariyani, S.

    2018-01-01

    Kota Lama is one of the urban villages in Malang city that has settlements along the Brantas River. Kota Lama experienced three landslides and flooding in 2015 and one in 2016. Those disasters caused the community to take action of post-disaster recovery, yet the people still choose to remain living in Kota Lama. Therefore, the study aims at determining the preferences of the citizens living in disaster-prone areas in Brantas River. The research used a factor analysis of 12 variables: 1) neighbourhood situation, 2) air condition, 3) relations between neighbours, 4) security, 5) location, 6) customs, 7) ethnic diversity, 8) the presence of social groups, 9) the community’s customs and habits, 10) proximity to the economic facilities, 11) adequate educational facilities, and 12) adequate medical/health facilities. The results show that two factors have been formed, namely Factor 1 (access) comprising variables of neighbourhood situation, air condition, relations between neighbours, location, ethnic diversity, the presence of a social group, supporting positive habits at home, close to the economic facilities, educational facilities, as well as medical facilities, and Factor 2 (assurance) consisting of customs and security.

  14. Social Participation and Disaster Risk Reduction Behaviors in Tsunami Prone Areas.

    PubMed

    Witvorapong, Nopphol; Muttarak, Raya; Pothisiri, Wiraporn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between social participation and disaster risk reduction actions. A survey of 557 households in tsunami prone areas in Phang Nga, Thailand was conducted following the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes. We use a multivariate probit model to jointly estimate the likelihood of undertaking three responses to earthquake and tsunami hazards (namely, (1) following disaster-related news closely, (2) preparing emergency kits and/or having a family emergency plan, and (3) having an intention to migrate) and community participation. We find that those who experienced losses from the 2004 tsunami are more likely to participate in community activities and respond to earthquake hazards. Compared to men, women are more likely to prepare emergency kits and/or have an emergency plan and have a greater intention to migrate. Living in a community with a higher proportion of women with tertiary education increases the probability of engaging in community activities and carrying out disaster risk reduction measures. Individuals who participate in village-based activities are 5.2% more likely to undertake all three risk reduction actions compared to those not engaging in community activities. This implies that encouraging participation in community activities can have positive externalities in disaster mitigation.

  15. Social Participation and Disaster Risk Reduction Behaviors in Tsunami Prone Areas

    PubMed Central

    Witvorapong, Nopphol; Muttarak, Raya; Pothisiri, Wiraporn

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the relationships between social participation and disaster risk reduction actions. A survey of 557 households in tsunami prone areas in Phang Nga, Thailand was conducted following the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes. We use a multivariate probit model to jointly estimate the likelihood of undertaking three responses to earthquake and tsunami hazards (namely, (1) following disaster-related news closely, (2) preparing emergency kits and/or having a family emergency plan, and (3) having an intention to migrate) and community participation. We find that those who experienced losses from the 2004 tsunami are more likely to participate in community activities and respond to earthquake hazards. Compared to men, women are more likely to prepare emergency kits and/or have an emergency plan and have a greater intention to migrate. Living in a community with a higher proportion of women with tertiary education increases the probability of engaging in community activities and carrying out disaster risk reduction measures. Individuals who participate in village-based activities are 5.2% more likely to undertake all three risk reduction actions compared to those not engaging in community activities. This implies that encouraging participation in community activities can have positive externalities in disaster mitigation. PMID:26153891

  16. A multidisciplinary methodological approach for slope stability assessment of an area prone to shallow landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordoni, Massimiliano; Meisina, Claudia; Valentino, Roberto; Bittelli, Marco; Battista Bischetti, Gian; Vercesi, Alberto; Chersich, Silvia; Giuseppina Persichillo, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall-induced shallow landslides are widespread slope instabilities phenomena in several hilly and mountainous contexts all over the world. Due to their high density of diffusion also in small areas, they can provoke important damages to terrains, infrastructures, buildings, and, sometimes, loss of human lives. Shallow landslides affect superficial soils of limited thickness (generally lower than 2 m), located above weathered or not bedrock levels. Their triggering mechanism is strictly linked to the hydrological response of the soils to rainfall events. Thus, it becomes fundamental a comprehensive analysis of the soil properties which can influence the susceptibility of a slope to shallow landslides. In this study, a multidisciplinary approach was followed for the characterization of the soils and the individuation of the triggering conditions in an area particularly prone to shallow failures, for slope stability assessment. This area corresponded to the hilly sector of North-Eastern Oltrepò Pavese (Lombardy Region, Northern Italy), where the density of shallow landslides is really high, reaching more than 36 landslides per km2. The soils of the study area were analyzed through a multidisciplinary characterization, which took into account for the main geotechnical, mechanical and mineralogical parameters and also for the main pedological features of the materials. This approach allowed for identifying the main features and the horizons which could influence the soil behavior in relation to the conditions that are preparatory to shallow landslides development. In a test-site slope, representative of the main geomorphological, geological and landslides distribution characteristics typical of the study area, a continuous in time monitoring of meteorological (rainfall amount, air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, net solar radiation, wind speed and direction) and hydrological (soil water content, pore water pressure) parameters was implemented. In

  17. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the systems; and (6) Require within flood-prone... infiltration of flood waters into the systems and discharges from the systems into flood waters and (ii) onsite...

  18. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the systems; and (6) Require within flood-prone... infiltration of flood waters into the systems and discharges from the systems into flood waters and (ii) onsite...

  19. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the systems; and (6) Require within flood-prone... infiltration of flood waters into the systems and discharges from the systems into flood waters and (ii) onsite...

  20. Childhood leukaemia in areas with different radon levels: a spatial and temporal analysis using GIS.

    PubMed

    Kohli, S; Noorlind Brage, H; Löfman, O

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate the relation between exposure to ground radon levels and leukaemia among children using existing population and disease registers. Ecological correlation study. The county of Ostergötland in Sweden. Every child born in the county between 1979 and 1992 was mapped to the property centroid coordinates by linking addresses in the population and property registers. Population maps were overlaid with radon maps and exposure at birth and each subsequent year was quantified as high, normal, low or unknown. This was analysed with data from the tumour registry. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated using the age and sex specific rates for Sweden for the year 1995. 90 malignancies occurred among 53 146 children (498 887 person years) who formed the study population. SMRs for acute lymphatic leukaemia (ALL) among children born in high, normal and low risk areas were 1.43, 1.17 and 0.25 respectively. The relative risk for the normal risk group and high risk group as compared with the low risk group was 4.64 (95% CI 1.29, 28.26) and 5. 67 (95% CI 1.06, 42.27). The association between ALL and continued residence at normal or high risk areas showed a similar trend. No association between radon risk levels and any other malignancy was seen. Children born in and staying at areas where the risk from ground radon has been classified as low are less likely to develop ALL than those born in areas classified as normal and high risk.

  1. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION...

  2. 44 CFR 60.5 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flood plain management criteria for flood-related erosion-prone areas. 60.5 Section 60.5 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION...

  3. Diurnal and seasonal variability of outdoor radon concentration in the area of the NRPI Prague.

    PubMed

    Jilek, K; Slezákova, M; Thomas, J

    2014-07-01

    In autumn 2010, an outdoor measuring station for measurement of atmospheric radon, gamma equivalent dose rate in the range of 100 nSv h(-1)-1 Sv h(-1) and proper meteorological parameters such as thermal air gradient, relative air humidity, wind speed and direction and solar radiation intensity was built in the area of the National Radiation Protection Institute vvi. The station was designed to be independent of an electrical network and enables on-line wireless transfer of all data. After introduction of the station, illustrations of its measurement properties and the results of measured diurnal and seasonal variability of atmospheric radon, based on annual continuous measurement using a high-volume scintillation cell at a height of 2.5 m above the ground, are presented. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Exposure to atmospheric radon.

    PubMed Central

    Steck, D J; Field, R W; Lynch, C F

    1999-01-01

    We measured radon (222Rn) concentrations in Iowa and Minnesota and found that unusually high annual average radon concentrations occur outdoors in portions of central North America. In some areas, outdoor concentrations exceed the national average indoor radon concentration. The general spatial patterns of outdoor radon and indoor radon are similar to the spatial distribution of radon progeny in the soil. Outdoor radon exposure in this region can be a substantial fraction of an individual's total radon exposure and is highly variable across the population. Estimated lifetime effective dose equivalents for the women participants in a radon-related lung cancer study varied by a factor of two at the median dose, 8 mSv, and ranged up to 60 mSv (6 rem). Failure to include these doses can reduce the statistical power of epidemiologic studies that examine the lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9924007

  5. 44 CFR 60.22 - Planning considerations for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... land in relation to the hazards involved, and (iii) does not increase the danger to human life; (2) Prohibit nonessential or improper installation of public utilities and public facilities in flood-prone... public purposes consistent with a policy of minimization of future property losses; (4) Acquisition of...

  6. Methods for delineating flood-prone areas in the Great Basin of Nevada and adjacent states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkham, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Great Basin is a region of about 210,000 square miles having no surface drainage to the ocean; it includes most of Nevada and parts of Utah, California, Oregon, Idaho, and Wyoming. The area is characterized by many parallel mountain ranges and valleys trending north-south. Stream channels usually are well defined and steep within the mountains, but on reaching the alluvial fan at the canyon mouth, they may diverge into numerous distributary channels, be discontinuous near the apex of the fan, or be deeply entrenched in the alluvial deposits. Larger rivers normally have well-defined channels to or across the valley floors, but all terminate at lakes or playas. Major floods occur in most parts of the Great Basin and result from snowmelt, frontal-storm rainfall, and localized convective rainfall. Snowmelt floods typically occur during April-June. Floods resulting from frontal rain and frontal rain on snow generally occur during November-March. Floods resulting from convective-type rainfall during localized thunderstorms occur most commonly during the summer months. Methods for delineating flood-prone areas are grouped into five general categories: Detailed, historical, analytical, physiographic, and reconnaissance. The detailed and historical methods are comprehensive methods; the analytical and physiographic are intermediate; and the reconnaissance method is only approximate. Other than the reconnaissance method, each method requires determination of a T-year discharge (the peak rate of flow during a flood with long-term average recurrence interval of T years) and T-year profile and the development of a flood-boundary map. The procedure is different, however, for each method. Appraisal of the applicability of each method included consideration of its technical soundness, limitations and uncertainties, ease of use, and costs in time and money. Of the five methods, the detailed method is probably the most accurate, though most expensive. It is applicable to

  7. Radon exhalation rate and natural radionuclide content in building materials of high background areas of Ramsar, Iran.

    PubMed

    Bavarnegin, E; Fathabadi, N; Vahabi Moghaddam, M; Vasheghani Farahani, M; Moradi, M; Babakhni, A

    2013-03-01

    Radon exhalation rates from building materials used in high background radiation areas (HBRA) of Ramsar were measured using an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container. Radon exhalation rates from these samples varied from below the lower detection limit up to 384 Bq.m(-2) h(-1). The (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents were also measured using a high resolution HPGe gamma- ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K content varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 86,400 Bq kg(-1), 187 Bq kg(-1) and 1350 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The linear correlation coefficient between radon exhalation rate and radium concentration was 0.90. The result of this survey shows that radon exhalation rate and radium content in some local stones used as basements are extremely high and these samples are main sources of indoor radon emanation as well as external gamma radiation from uranium series. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rural drinking water issues in India’s drought-prone area: a case of Maharashtra state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udmale, Parmeshwar; Ichikawa, Yutaka; Nakamura, Takashi; Shaowei, Ning; Ishidaira, Hiroshi; Kazama, Futaba

    2016-07-01

    Obtaining sufficient drinking water with acceptable quality under circumstances of lack, such as droughts, is a challenge in drought-prone areas of India. This study examined rural drinking water availability issues during a recent drought (2012) through 22 focus group discussions (FGDs) in a drought-prone catchment of India. Also, a small chemical water quality study was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of water for drinking purpose based on Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The drought that began in 2011 and further deteriorated water supplies in 2012 caused a rapid decline in reservoir storages and groundwater levels that led, in turn, to the failure of the public water supply systems in the Upper Bhima Catchment. Dried up and low-yield dug wells and borewells, tanker water deliveries from remote sources, untimely water deliveries, and degraded water quality were the major problems identified in the FGDs. In addition to severe drinking water scarcity during drought, the quality of the drinking water was found to be a major problem, and it apparently was neglected by local governments and users. Severe contamination of the drinking water with nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, and chlorides was found in the analyzed drinking water samples. Hence, in addition to the water scarcity, the results of this study point to an immediate need to investigate the problem of contaminated drinking water sources while designing relief measures for drought-prone areas of India.

  9. An updated review of case-control studies of lung cancer and indoor radon-Is indoor radon the risk factor for lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Sheen, Seungsoo; Lee, Keu Sung; Chung, Wou Young; Nam, Saeil; Kang, Dae Ryong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Smoking is definitely the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Radon ((222)Rn) is a natural gas produced from radium ((226)Ra) in the decay series of uranium ((238)U). Radon exposure is the second most common cause of lung cancer and the first risk factor for lung cancer in never-smokers. Case-control studies have provided epidemiological evidence of the causative relationship between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer. Twenty-four case-control study papers were found by our search strategy from the PubMed database. Among them, seven studies showed that indoor radon has a statistically significant association with lung cancer. The studies performed in radon-prone areas showed a more positive association between radon and lung cancer. Reviewed papers had inconsistent results on the dose-response relationship between indoor radon and lung cancer risk. Further refined case-control studies will be required to evaluate the relationship between radon and lung cancer. Sufficient study sample size, proper interview methods, valid and precise indoor radon measurement, wide range of indoor radon, and appropriate control of confounders such as smoking status should be considered in further case-control studies.

  10. InSAR imaging of volcanic deformation over cloud-prone areas - Aleutian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhong

    2007-01-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) is capable of measuring ground-surface deformation with centimeter-tosubcentimeter precision and spatial resolution of tens-of meters over a relatively large region. With its global coverage and all-weather imaging capability, INSAR is an important technique for measuring ground-surface deformation of volcanoes over cloud-prone and rainy regions such as the Aleutian Islands, where only less than 5 percent of optical imagery is usable due to inclement weather conditions. The spatial distribution of surface deformation data, derived from INSAR images, enables the construction of detailed mechanical models to enhance the study of magmatic processes. This paper reviews the basics of INSAR for volcanic deformation mapping and the INSAR studies of ten Aleutian volcanoes associated with both eruptive and noneruptive activity. These studies demonstrate that all-weather INSAR imaging can improve our understanding of how the Aleutian volcanoes work and enhance our capability to predict future eruptions and associated hazards.

  11. Spatial variation of radon and helium in soil gas vis-à-vis geology of area, NW Himalayas, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, S.; Bajwa, B.; Kumar, A.; Singh, S.; Walia, V.; Yang, T. F.

    2009-12-01

    In an effort to quantify the geological/lithological control on radon, helium soil gas potential and appraise the use of soil gas technique as a geological mapping tool, soil gas measurements were made, in some parts of Himachal Himalayas of NW Himalayan range, using soil gas grab sampling technique. More than 360 soil gas samples were collected from four different geological/lithologic rock units of the area under consideration. The collected soil gas samples were analyzed for radon and helium using RTM-2100 (SARAD) and Helium leak detector (ALCATEL) respectively. The observed values were then correlated with the geology/lithology of the study area. The study area is broadly divided into four different units on the basis of geology/lithology i.e. (A) Upper Shiwaliks (B) Middle & Lower Shiwaliks (C) Lesser Himalayan rocks (D) Higher Himalayan rocks. Significant differences in the soil gas concentrations among the geologic units were observed, where Lesser Himalayan rocks showing maximum concentrations of both radon (254 KBq/m3) and helium (5.46 ppm). Lesser Himalayan zone lies mainly between two major thrusts MBT and MCT running along the Himalayan trend, which still are tectonically active. It can be concluded from the present study that soil gases (radon and helium) can be used as a productive tool for geological mapping. These findings may have very important connation for health risk assessment of the area, since it has been shown that radon soil gas found in soils overlying basement rocks are the main source for indoor radon concentrations. Radioactive isotopes attach rapidly to atmospheric aerosols and can enter into a human body thus constitute significant hazard to human health.

  12. Radon potential mapping of the Tralee-Castleisland and Cavan areas (Ireland) based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry and geology.

    PubMed

    Appleton, J D; Doyle, E; Fenton, D; Organo, C

    2011-06-01

    The probability of homes in Ireland having high indoor radon concentrations is estimated on the basis of known in-house radon measurements averaged over 10 km × 10 km grid squares. The scope for using airborne gamma-ray spectrometer data for the Tralee-Castleisland area of county Kerry and county Cavan to predict the radon potential (RP) in two distinct areas of Ireland is evaluated in this study. Airborne data are compared statistically with in-house radon measurements in conjunction with geological and ground permeability data to establish linear regression models and produce radon potential maps. The best agreement between the percentage of dwellings exceeding the reference level (RL) for radon concentrations in Ireland (% > RL), estimated from indoor radon data, and modelled RP in the Tralee-Castleisland area is produced using models based on airborne gamma-ray spectrometry equivalent uranium (eU) and ground permeability data. Good agreement was obtained between the % > RL from indoor radon data and RP estimated from eU data in the Cavan area using terrain specific models. In both areas, RP maps derived from eU data are spatially more detailed than the published 10 km grid map. The results show the potential for using airborne radiometric data for producing RP maps.

  13. Intercomparison of DEM-based approaches for the identification of flood-prone areas in different geomorphologic and climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samela, Caterina; Nardi, Fernando; Grimaldi, Salvatore; De Paola, Francesco; Sole, Aurelia; Manfreda, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Floods represent the most critical natural hazard for many countries and their frequency appears to be increasing in recent times. The legal constraints of public administrators and the growing interest of private companies (e.g., insurance companies) in identifying the areas exposed to the flood risk, is determining the necessity of developing new tools for the risk classification over large areas. Nowadays, among the numerous hydrologic and hydraulic methods regularly used for practical applications, 2-D hydraulic modeling represents the most accurate approach for deriving detailed inundation maps. Nevertheless, data requirement for these modeling approaches is certainly onerous, limiting their applicability over large areas. On this issue, the terrain morphology may provide an extraordinary amount of information useful to detect areas that are particularly prone to serious flooding. In the present work, we compare the reliability of different DEM-derived quantitative morphologic descriptors in characterizing the relationships between geomorphic attributes and flood exposure. The tests are carried out using techniques of pattern classification, such as linear binary classifiers (Degiorgis et al., 2012), whose ability is evaluated through performance measures. Simple and composed morphologic features are taken into account. The morphological features are: the upslope contributing area (A), the local slope (S), the length of the path that hydrologically connects the location under exam to the nearest element of the drainage network (D), the difference in elevation between the cell under exam and the final point of the same path (H), the curvature (downtriangle2H). In addition to the mentioned features, the study takes into consideration a number of composed indices, such as: the modified topographic index (Manfreda et al., 2011), the downslope index (DI) proposed by Hjerdt et al. (2004), the ratio between the elevation difference H and the distance to the network D

  14. Air and radon pathways screenings methodologies for the next revision of the E-area PA

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, J. A.

    The strategic plan for the next E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility Performance Assessment includes recommended changes to the screening criteria used to reduce the number of radioisotopes that are to be considered in the air and radon pathways incorporated into the GoldSim® atmospheric release model (ARM). For the air pathway, a revised screening methodology was developed based on refinement of previous E-Area PA screening approaches and consideration of the strategic plan recommendations. The revised methodology has three sequential screening steps for each radioisotope: (1) volatility test using the Periodic Table of the Elements, (2) stability test based on half-life, and (3)more » stability test based on volatility as measured by the Henry’s Law constant for the assumed dominant gaseous species or vapor pressure in the case of tritiated water. Of the 1252 radioisotopes listed in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 107, only the 10 that satisfied all three steps of the revised screening methodology will be included in the ARM. They are: Ar-37, Ar-39, Ar-42, C-14, H-3, Hg-194, Hg-203, Kr-81, Kr-85, and Xe-127. For the radon pathway, a revised screening methodology was developed that also has three sequential steps: (1) identify all decay chains that terminate at Rn-222, (2) screen out parents that decay through U-238 because of its 4.5-billion-year primordial half-life, and (3) eliminate remaining parents whose half-life is shorter than one day. Of the 86 possible decay chains leading to Rn-222, six decay chains consist of 15 unique radioisotopes that will be incorporated into the ARM. The 15 radioisotopes are: U-238, Th-234, Pa-234m, Pu-238, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, Cf-246, Cm-242, Am-242m, Am-242, Np-238, Np-234, Pa-230, and Rn-222.« less

  15. Bagged neural network model for prediction of the mean indoor radon concentration in the municipalities in Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Timkova, Jana; Fojtikova, Ivana; Pacherova, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine radon-prone areas in the Czech Republic based on the measurements of indoor radon concentration and independent predictors (rock type and permeability of the bedrock, gamma dose rate, GPS coordinates and the average age of family houses). The relationship between the mean observed indoor radon concentrations in monitored areas (∼22% municipalities) and the independent predictors was modelled using a bagged neural network. Levels of mean indoor radon concentration in the unmonitored areas were predicted using the bagged neural network model fitted for the monitored areas. The propensity to increased indoor radon was determined by estimated probability of exceeding the action level of 300Bq/m 3 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Prone Protected Posture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    5K 2. METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23I 4...2. METHODOLOGY The first step required in this study was to characterize the prone protected posture. Basically, a man in the prone posture differs...reduction in the presented area of target personnel. Reference 6 contains a concise discussion of the methodology used to generate the shielding functions

  17. Areas prone to slow slip events impede earthquake rupture propagation and promote afterslip

    PubMed Central

    Rolandone, Frederique; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Mothes, Patricia A.; Jarrin, Paul; Vallée, Martin; Cubas, Nadaya; Hernandez, Stephen; Plain, Morgan; Vaca, Sandro; Font, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    At subduction zones, transient aseismic slip occurs either as afterslip following a large earthquake or as episodic slow slip events during the interseismic period. Afterslip and slow slip events are usually considered as distinct processes occurring on separate fault areas governed by different frictional properties. Continuous GPS (Global Positioning System) measurements following the 2016 Mw (moment magnitude) 7.8 Ecuador earthquake reveal that large and rapid afterslip developed at discrete areas of the megathrust that had previously hosted slow slip events. Regardless of whether they were locked or not before the earthquake, these areas appear to persistently release stress by aseismic slip throughout the earthquake cycle and outline the seismic rupture, an observation potentially leading to a better anticipation of future large earthquakes. PMID:29404404

  18. Areas prone to slow slip events impede earthquake rupture propagation and promote afterslip.

    PubMed

    Rolandone, Frederique; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Mothes, Patricia A; Jarrin, Paul; Vallée, Martin; Cubas, Nadaya; Hernandez, Stephen; Plain, Morgan; Vaca, Sandro; Font, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    At subduction zones, transient aseismic slip occurs either as afterslip following a large earthquake or as episodic slow slip events during the interseismic period. Afterslip and slow slip events are usually considered as distinct processes occurring on separate fault areas governed by different frictional properties. Continuous GPS (Global Positioning System) measurements following the 2016 M w (moment magnitude) 7.8 Ecuador earthquake reveal that large and rapid afterslip developed at discrete areas of the megathrust that had previously hosted slow slip events. Regardless of whether they were locked or not before the earthquake, these areas appear to persistently release stress by aseismic slip throughout the earthquake cycle and outline the seismic rupture, an observation potentially leading to a better anticipation of future large earthquakes.

  19. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... improvements, that fully enclosed areas below the lowest floor that are usable solely for parking of vehicles... that they permit the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters. (6) Require that manufactured homes that... building standards. Such enclosed space shall be useable solely for parking of vehicles, building access...

  20. 44 CFR 60.3 - Flood plain management criteria for flood-prone areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... improvements, that fully enclosed areas below the lowest floor that are usable solely for parking of vehicles... that they permit the automatic entry and exit of floodwaters. (6) Require that manufactured homes that... building standards. Such enclosed space shall be useable solely for parking of vehicles, building access...

  1. Remote sensing and GIS for mapping groundwater recharge and discharge areas in salinity prone catchments, southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tweed, Sarah O.; Leblanc, Marc; Webb, John A.; Lubczynski, Maciek W.

    2007-02-01

    Identifying groundwater recharge and discharge areas across catchments is critical for implementing effective strategies for salinity mitigation, surface-water and groundwater resource management, and ecosystem protection. In this study, a synergistic approach has been developed, which applies a combination of remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques to map groundwater recharge and discharge areas. This approach is applied to an unconfined basalt aquifer, in a salinity and drought prone region of southeastern Australia. The basalt aquifer covers ~11,500 km2 in an agriculturally intensive region. A review of local hydrogeological processes allowed a series of surface and subsurface indicators of groundwater recharge and discharge areas to be established. Various remote sensing and GIS techniques were then used to map these surface indicators including: terrain analysis, monitoring of vegetation activity, and mapping of infiltration capacity. All regions where groundwater is not discharging to the surface were considered potential recharge areas. This approach, applied systematically across a catchment, provides a framework for mapping recharge and discharge areas. A key component in assigning surface and subsurface indicators is the relevance to the dominant recharge and discharge processes occurring and the use of appropriate remote sensing and GIS techniques with the capacity to identify these processes.

  2. Stabilisation of bank slopes that are prone to liquefaction in ecologically sensitive areas.

    PubMed

    Nestler, P; Stoll, R D

    2001-01-01

    A consequence of lignite stripping in the Lusatia mining district (East Germany) is the backfilling of dumps that mainly consist of low-compacted fine and medium-grained sands. When the ground-water table, which had been lowered while stripping the coal, is rising again, these dumps might be affected by a settlement flow due to the liquefaction of soils. Common methods for stabilisation as, for instance, blasting or vibrator-jetting deep compaction, are not very useful in ecologically sensitive areas, where dumps have been afforested and embankment areas of residual lakes have developed into highly valuable biotopes. A new so-called air-impulse method in combination with directional horizontal drilling has been developed, which does not have a considerably negative impact on the vegetation during compaction. The experience gained during the first employment of this method at the lake "Katja", a residual lake of lignite stripping, is presented in this paper.

  3. Estimating vegetation vulnerability to detect areas prone to land degradation in the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imbrenda, Vito; Coluzzi, Rosa; D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Lanfredi, Maria; Simoniello, Tiziana

    2013-04-01

    Vegetation is one of the key components to study land degradation vulnerability because of the complex interactions and feedbacks that link it to soil. In the Mediterranean region, degradation phenomena are due to a mix of predisposing factors (thin soil horizons, low soil organic matter, increasing aridity, etc.) and bad management practices (overgrazing, deforestation, intensification of agriculture, tourism development). In particular, in areas threatened by degradation processes but still covered by vegetation, large scale soil condition evaluation is a hard task and the detection of stressed vegetation can be useful to identify on-going soil degradation phenomena and to reduce their impacts through interventions for recovery/rehabilitation. In this context the use of satellite time series can increase the efficacy and completeness of the land degradation assessment, providing precious information to understand vegetation dynamics. In order to estimate vulnerability levels in Basilicata (a Mediterranean region of Southern Italy) in the framework of PRO-LAND project (PO-FESR Basilicata 2007-2013), we crossed information on potential vegetation vulnerability with information on photosynthetic activity dynamics. Potential vegetation vulnerability represents the vulnerability related to the type of present cover in terms of fire risk, erosion protection, drought resistance and plant cover distribution. It was derived from an updated land cover map by separately analyzing each factor, and then by combining them to obtain concise information on the possible degradation exposure. The analysis of photosynthetic activity dynamics provides information on the status of vegetation, that is fundamental to discriminate the different vulnerability levels within the same land cover, i.e. the same potential vulnerability. For such a purpose, we analyzed a time series (2000-2010) of a satellite vegetation index (MODIS NDVI) with 250m resolution, available as 16-day composite

  4. Economic susceptibility of fire-prone landscapes in natural protected areas of the southern Andean Range.

    PubMed

    Molina, Juan Ramón; Moreno, Roberto; Castillo, Miguel; Rodríguez Y Silva, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    Large fires are the most important disturbances at landscape-level due to their ecological and socioeconomic impacts. This study aimed to develop an approach for the assessment of the socio-economic landscape susceptibility to fire. Our methodology focuses on the integration of economic components of landscape management based on contingent valuation method (CVM) and net-value change (NVC). This former component has been estimated using depreciation rates or changes on the number of arrivals to different natural protected areas after a large fire occurrence. Landscape susceptibility concept has been motivated by the need to assist fire prevention programs and environmental management. There was a remarkable variation in annual economic value attributed to each protected area based on the CVM scenario, ranging from 40,189-46,887$/year ("Tolhuaca National Park") to 241,000-341,953$/year ("Conguillio National Park"). We added landscape susceptibility using depreciation rates or tourist arrival decrease which varied from 2.04% (low fire intensity in "Tolhuaca National Park") to 76.67% (high fire intensity in "Conguillio National Park"). The integration of this approach and future studies about vegetation resilience should seek management strategies to increase economic efficiency in the fire prevention activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ovarian surface epithelium at the junction area contains a cancer-prone stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Hwang, Chang-Il; Cheng, Chieh-Yang; Michurina, Tatyana V; Enikolopov, Grigori; Nikitin, Alexander Yu

    2013-03-14

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States, but its pathogenesis is poorly understood. Some epithelial cancers are known to occur in transitional zones between two types of epithelium, whereas others have been shown to originate in epithelial tissue stem cells. The stem cell niche of the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), which is ruptured and regenerates during ovulation, has not yet been defined unequivocally. Here we identify the hilum region of the mouse ovary, the transitional (or junction) area between the OSE, mesothelium and tubal (oviductal) epithelium, as a previously unrecognized stem cell niche of the OSE. We find that cells of the hilum OSE are cycling slowly and express stem and/or progenitor cell markers ALDH1, LGR5, LEF1, CD133 and CK6B. These cells display long-term stem cell properties ex vivo and in vivo, as shown by our serial sphere generation and long-term lineage-tracing assays. Importantly, the hilum cells show increased transformation potential after inactivation of tumour suppressor genes Trp53 and Rb1, whose pathways are altered frequently in the most aggressive and common type of human EOC, high-grade serous adenocarcinoma. Our study supports experimentally the idea that susceptibility of transitional zones to malignant transformation may be explained by the presence of stem cell niches in those areas. Identification of a stem cell niche for the OSE may have important implications for understanding EOC pathogenesis.

  6. Study of storm surge trends in typhoon-prone coastal areas based on observations and surge-wave coupled simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xingru; Li, Mingjie; Yin, Baoshu; Yang, Dezhou; Yang, Hongwei

    2018-06-01

    This is a study of the storm surge trends in some of the typhoon-prone coastal areas of China. An unstructured-grid, storm surge-wave-tide coupled model was established for the coastal areas of Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong provinces. The coupled model has a high resolution in coastal areas, and the simulated results compared well with the in situ observations and satellite altimeter data. The typhoon-induced storm surges along the coast of the study areas were simulated based on the established coupled model for the past 20 years (1997-2016). The simulated results were used to analyze the trends of the storm surges in the study area. The extreme storm surge trends along the central coast of Fujian Province reached up to 0.06 m/y, significant at the 90% confidence level. The duration of the storm surges greater than 1.0 and 0.7 m had an increasing trend along the coastal area of northern Fujian Province, significant at confidence levels of 70%-91%. The simulated trends of the extreme storm surges were also validated by observations from two tide gauge stations. Further studies show that the correlation coefficient (RTE) between the duration of the storm surge greater than 1 m and the annual ENSO index can reach as high as 0.62, significant at the 99% confidence level. This occurred in a location where the storm surge trend was not significant. For the areas with significant increasing storm surge trends, RTE was small and not significant. This study identified the storm surge trends for the full complex coastline of the study area. These results are useful both for coastal management by the government and for coastal engineering design.

  7. Determination of vessel cross-sectional area by thresholding in Radon space

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu-Rong; Drew, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    The cross-sectional area of a blood vessel determines its resistance, and thus is a regulator of local blood flow. However, the cross-sections of penetrating vessels in the cortex can be non-circular, and dilation and constriction can change the shape of the vessels. We show that observed vessel shape changes can introduce large errors in flux calculations when using a single diameter measurement. Because of these shape changes, typical diameter measurement approaches, such as the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) that depend on a single diameter axis will generate erroneous results, especially when calculating flux. Here, we present an automated method—thresholding in Radon space (TiRS)—for determining the cross-sectional area of a convex object, such as a penetrating vessel observed with two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2PLSM). The thresholded image is transformed back to image space and contiguous pixels are segmented. The TiRS method is analogous to taking the FWHM across multiple axes and is more robust to noise and shape changes than FWHM and thresholding methods. We demonstrate the superior precision of the TiRS method with in vivo 2PLSM measurements of vessel diameter. PMID:24736890

  8. Natural distribution of environmental radon daughters in the different brain areas of an Alzheimer disease victim.

    PubMed

    Momcilović, Berislav; Lykken, Glenn I; Cooley, Marvin

    2006-09-11

    Radon is a ubiquitous noble gas in the environment and a primary source of harmful radiation exposure for humans; it decays in a cascade of daughters (RAD) by releasing the cell damaging high energy alpha particles. We studied natural distribution of RAD 210Po and 210Bi in the different parts of the postmortem brain of 86-year-old woman who had suffered from Alzheimer's disease (AD). A distinct brain map emerged, since RAD distribution was different among the analyzed brain areas. The highest RAD irradiation (mSv x year(-1)) occurred in the decreasing order of magnitude: amygdala (Amy) > hippocampus (Hip) > temporal lobe (Tem) approximately = frontal lobe (Fro) > occipital lobe (Occ) approximately = parietal lobe (Par) > substantia nigra (SN) > locus ceruleus (LC) approximately = nucleus basalis (NB); generally more RAD accumulated in the proteins than lipids of gray and white (gray > white) brain matter. Amy and Hip are particularly vulnerable brain structure targets to significant RAD internal radiation damage in AD (5.98 and 1.82 mSv x year(-1), respectively). Next, naturally occurring RAD radiation for Tem and Fro, then Occ and Par, and SN was an order of magnitude higher than that in LC and NB; the later was within RAD we observed previously in the healthy control brains. Naturally occurring environmental RAD exposure may dramatically enhance AD deterioration by selectively targeting brain areas of emotions (Amy) and memory (Hip).

  9. Natural distribution of environmental radon daughters in the different brain areas of an Alzheimer Disease victim

    PubMed Central

    Momčilović, Berislav; Lykken, Glenn I; Cooley, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    Background Radon is a ubiquitous noble gas in the environment and a primary source of harmful radiation exposure for humans; it decays in a cascade of daughters (RAD) by releasing the cell damaging high energy alpha particles. Results We studied natural distribution of RAD 210Po and 210Bi in the different parts of the postmortem brain of 86-year-old woman who had suffered from Alzheimer's disease (AD). A distinct brain map emerged, since RAD distribution was different among the analyzed brain areas. The highest RAD irradiation (mSv·year-1) occurred in the decreasing order of magnitude: amygdale (Amy) >> hippocampus (Hip) > temporal lobe (Tem) ~ frontal lobe (Fro) > occipital lobe (Occ) ~ parietal lobe (Par) > substantia nigra (SN) >> locus ceruleus (LC) ~ nucleus basalis (NB); generally more RAD accumulated in the proteins than lipids of gray and white (gray > white) brain matter. Amy and Hip are particularly vulnerable brain structure targets to significant RAD internal radiation damage in AD (5.98 and 1.82 mSv·year-1, respectively). Next, naturally occurring RAD radiation for Tem and Fro, then Occ and Par, and SN was an order of magnitude higher than that in LC and NB; the later was within RAD we observed previously in the healthy control brains. Conclusion Naturally occurring environmental RAD exposure may dramatically enhance AD deterioration by selectively targeting brain areas of emotions (Amy) and memory (Hip). PMID:16965619

  10. Ovarian surface epithelium at the junction area contains cancer-prone stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Hwang, Chang-Il; Cheng, Chieh-Yang; Michurina, Tatyana V.; Enikolopov, Grigori; Nikitin, Alexander Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fifth-leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States, but its pathogenesis is poorly understood 1-3. Some epithelial cancers are known to occur in transitional zones between two types of epithelium, while others have been shown to originate in epithelial tissue stem cells 4-6. The stem cell niche of the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), which is ruptured and regenerates during ovulation, has not yet been unequivocally defined. Here we identify the hilum region of the mouse ovary, the transitional/junction area between OSE, mesothelium and tubal (oviductal) epithelium as a previously unrecognized stem cell niche of the OSE. We find that cells of the hilum OSE are slowly-cycling and express stem/progenitor cell markers ALDH1, Lgr5, Lef1, CD133, and CK6b. These cells display long-term stem cell properties ex vivo and in vivo, as shown by our serial sphere generation and by long-term lineage tracing assays. Importantly, the hilum cells exhibit increased transformation potential after inactivation of tumour suppressor genes Trp53 and Rb1, whose pathways are frequently altered in the most aggressive and common type of human EOC, high-grade serous adenocarcinoma 7,8. Our study experimentally supports the notion that susceptibility of transitional zones to malignant transformation may be explained by the presence of stem cell niches in those areas. Identification of a stem cell niche for the OSE may have important implications for understanding EOC pathogenesis. PMID:23467088

  11. Environmentally Friendly Solution to Ground Hazards in Design of Bridges in Earthquake Prone Areas Using Timber Piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Bridges are major elements of infrastructure in all societies. Their safety and continued serviceability guaranties the transportation and emergency access in urban and rural areas. However, these important structures are subject to earthquake induced damages in structure and foundations. The basic approach to the proper support of foundations are a) distribution of imposed loads to foundation in a way they can resist those loads without excessive settlement and failure; b) modification of foundation ground with various available methods; and c) combination of "a" and "b". The engineers has to face the task of designing the foundations meeting all safely and serviceability criteria but sometimes when there are numerous environmental and financial constrains, the use of some traditional methods become inevitable. This paper explains the application of timber piles to improve ground resistance to liquefaction and to secure the abutments of short to medium length bridges in an earthquake/liquefaction prone area in Bohol Island, Philippines. The limitations of using the common ground improvement methods (i.e., injection, dynamic compaction) because of either environmental or financial concerns along with the abundance of timber in the area made the engineers to use a network of timber piles behind the backwalls of the bridge abutments. The suggested timber pile network is simulated by numerical methods and its safety is examined. The results show that the compaction caused by driving of the piles and bearing capacity provided by timbers reduce the settlement and lateral movements due to service and earthquake induced loads.

  12. Geostatistical simulations for radon indoor with a nested model including the housing factor.

    PubMed

    Cafaro, C; Giovani, C; Garavaglia, M

    2016-01-01

    The radon prone areas definition is matter of many researches in radioecology, since radon is considered a leading cause of lung tumours, therefore the authorities ask for support to develop an appropriate sanitary prevention strategy. In this paper, we use geostatistical tools to elaborate a definition accounting for some of the available information about the dwellings. Co-kriging is the proper interpolator used in geostatistics to refine the predictions by using external covariates. In advance, co-kriging is not guaranteed to improve significantly the results obtained by applying the common lognormal kriging. Here, instead, such multivariate approach leads to reduce the cross-validation residual variance to an extent which is deemed as satisfying. Furthermore, with the application of Monte Carlo simulations, the paradigm provides a more conservative radon prone areas definition than the one previously made by lognormal kriging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The population in China’s earthquake-prone areas has increased by over 32 million along with rapid urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chunyang; Huang, Qingxu; Dou, Yinyin; Tu, Wei; Liu, Jifu

    2016-07-01

    Accurate assessments of the population exposed to seismic hazard are crucial in seismic risk mapping. Recent rapid urbanization in China has resulted in substantial changes in the size and structure of the population exposed to seismic hazard. Using the latest population census data and seismic maps, this work investigated spatiotemporal changes in the exposure of the population in the most seismically hazardous areas (MSHAs) in China from 1990 to 2010. In the context of rapid urbanization and massive rural-to-urban migration, nearly one-tenth of the Chinese population in 2010 lived in MSHAs. From 1990 to 2010, the MSHA population increased by 32.53 million at a significantly higher rate of change (33.6%) than the national average rate (17.7%). The elderly population in MSHAs increased by 81.4%, which is much higher than the group’s national growth rate of 58.9%. Greater attention should be paid to the demographic changes in earthquake-prone areas in China.

  14. Estimating SGD flux in the Pingtung Plain coastal area by using Radon and Radium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Chang, Yao; Chieh Su, Chih

    2015-04-01

    In the past two decades, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway to transport material into coastal area. Our study area is located at Pingtung Plain which is the second largest plain in Taiwan with three major rivers, including Gaoping, Donggang and Linbian Rivers, flow through the plain. The Gaoping River, which has the largest drainage area, flows throughout the central part of the plain. The Pingtung Plain composed by four aquifers in different depths (0, 50, 100, and 200 m) and each layer extends to coastal area. Groundwater is an important water resource for local agriculture and aquaculture. However, the long-term over-pumping induced subsidence problem makes salinization at some coastal area. Some previous studies pointed out the SGD accounts for 80% or more of the mass of freshwater in Fangshan coast, depends on salinity and stable isotopes research. In this study, the radioactive tracers, Radon (222Rn, T1/2=3.8 d) and short-lived Ra isotopes (223Ra, T1/2=11.4 d & 224Ra, T1/2=3.6 d) are used in tracing SGD off the Pingtung Plain. During 2013 to 2014, the terrestrial water samples were collected from Gaoping, Donggang, Linbian Rivers and springs in different seasons. We also conducted two coastal waters cruises by using R/V Ocean Researcher 3 (OR3-1768 and 1799 cruises in May and September 2014). Continuous 222Rn was measured by RAD7 equipped with RAD-AQUA system and large volume (20 L) seawater samples were collected by CTD/Rosette water sampler with Niskin sterile bottles. Water samples were flow through Mn-fiber (flow rate < 1 LPM) to concentrate the Ra isotopes, and counted via RaDeCC system. In spatial variation, our result shows the excess 224Ra in the downstream of Gaoping River (2.39 dpm 100L-1) is higher than upstream (1.09 dpm 100L-1). It indicates the groundwater input may play an important role at the downstream of Gaoping River. For temporal variation, excess 224Ra in the Gaoping River are higher in wet

  15. Radon concentration of waters in Greece and Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, D.; Vogiannis, E.; Louizi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Alpha Guard are connected via plastic radon proof tubes. Forced degassing of radon gas is performed by circulating the air in the set up with the use of a pump. Water sampling (to avoid radon escape) was driven by a strict protocol. Water taps were opened for 10 minutes before drawing the sample. Glass storage vessels of 200 to 1000 ml, with adjustment glass stoppers with standard NS 29/32 grounding, as well as sealing rings and granted security clamps for taper grounding, were completely filled slowly and immediately closed (to avoid the formation of air bubbles). Similar procedure (except tap opening) was followed for underground and surface waters. Laboratory measurements were performed at least one hour after drawing the sample in order to assure the full decay of any thoron content and to the minimum achievable time interval, so as the radon content to be the highest possible to allow higher precision. For the measurement the glass stopper was removed and immediately exchanged with the degassing cap. Afterwards water quantity was reduced to about half and measured. From the measurements, the mean annual equivalent dose rate (aEDr) delivered to stomach due to ingestion and the contribution to aEDr due to inhalation of radon in drinking water were calculated as using the EURATOM 2001 dose conversion factor (0.00144 mSv/Bq). Radon concentrations in drinking waters ranged between (1.1+/-0.5) Bq/L and (15+/4) Bq/L. Only three samples collected from the radon prone area of Arnea Chalkidikis presented high radon concentrations (120+/20 Bq/L, 320+/-40 Bq/L, 410+/-50 Bq/L). Radon concentrations in underground waters ranged between (1.2+/-0.7) Bq/L and (14.7+/-1.1) Bq/L. The corresponding concentration range in surface waters was (2.7+/-0.8) Bq/L and (24+/-6) Bq/L. The radon concentrations in thermal waters (some of which are used for drinking) were quite higher (in the range of (220+/-20) to (340+/-40) Bq/L). In both countries, no correlation of radon in underground waters

  16. MCNPX evaluation of gamma spectrometry results in high radon concentration areas.

    PubMed

    Thinová, L; Solc, J

    2014-07-01

    The radon concentration in underground workplaces may reach tens of thousands of Bq m(-3). A simple MCNPXTM Monte Carlo (MC) model of a cave was developed to estimate the influence of radon on the in situ gamma spectrometry results in various geometries and radon concentrations. The detector total count rate was obtained as the sum of the individual count rates due to 214Bi in the air, radon in the walls and deposition of radon daughters on surfaces. The MC model was then modified and used in the natural conditions of the Mladeč Caves, Czech Republic. The content of 226Ra was calculated from laboratory gamma spectrometry measurements, and the concentrations of unattached and attached 214Bi were measured using the FRITRA4 device (SMM-Prague). We present a comparison of the experimental results with results calculated by the MCNPXTM model of the Gamma Surveyor spectrometry probe (GF Instruments) with a 3″×3″ NaI(Tl) detector and a 2″×2″ BGO detector. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The cost effectiveness of radon mitigation in existing German dwellings--a decision theoretic analysis.

    PubMed

    Haucke, Florian

    2010-11-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring inert radioactive gas found in soils and rocks that can accumulate in dwellings, and is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. This study aims to analyze the cost effectiveness of different intervention strategies to reduce radon concentrations in existing German dwellings. The cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) was conducted as a scenario analysis, where each scenario represents a specific regulatory regime. A decision theoretic model was developed, which reflects accepted recommendations for radon screening and mitigation and uses most up-to-date data on radon distribution and relative risks. The model was programmed to account for compliance with respect to the single steps of radon intervention, as well as data on the sensitivity/specificity of radon tests. A societal perspective was adopted to calculate costs and effects. All scenarios were calculated for different action levels. Cost effectiveness was measured in costs per averted case of lung cancer, costs per life year gained and costs per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Univariate and multivariate deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (SA) were performed. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses were based on Monte Carlo simulations with 5000 model runs. The results show that legal regulations with mandatory screening and mitigation for indoor radon levels >100 Bq/m(3) are most cost effective. Incremental cost effectiveness compared to the no mitigation base case is 25,181 euro (95% CI: 7371 euro-90,593 euro) per QALY gained. Other intervention strategies focussing primarily on the personal responsibility for screening and/or mitigative actions show considerably worse cost effectiveness ratios. However, targeting radon intervention to radon-prone areas is significantly more cost effective. Most of the uncertainty that surrounds the results can be ascribed to the relative risk of radon exposure. It can be concluded that in the light of

  18. Impacts of dyke development in flood prone areas in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta to downstream flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanh Triet Nguyen, Van; Dung Nguyen, Viet; Fujii, Hideto; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2017-04-01

    Flooding in the Mekong Delta is an annual phenomenon causing inundation of large parts of the delta. This flooding is vital for the geomorphological stability of the delta, but is also the backbone of the highly productive agro-economy. However, extraordinary high floods are on the other hand a major hazard for the millions of people living in the delta. Therefore large scale developments of hydraulic structures took place in the Vietnamese part of the delta in the last decades. Particularly in the areas prone to deep and long lasting inundations many flood protection structures, mainly dykes, were built. These structures enable a blocking of inundation in large parts of these areas and by this the cropping of a third crop per year during the flood season. However, these structures are frequently blamed for increasing water levels in the areas downstream. Thus this study aimed at the investigation and attribution of changes in flood hazard in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) due to high-dyke construction in deep flood prone areas, mainly in An Giang and Dong Thap provinces. This analysis started with the estimation of monotonic trends at key gauging stations in the delta: Kratie at the apex of the Mekong delta; Tan Chau and Chau Doc in the VMD just upstream of the areas with high-dyke construction; and Can Tho and My Thuan, located downstream of the high-dyke areas. The tests were undertaken assuming different magnitudes of errors in the data using historical records from 1978 - 2015, using the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimation. The obtained trends were thus tested for robustness against data errors. In order to obtain a better understanding of trends in the flood dynamics, the tests are performed on both flood peak and flood duration. In addition, the Pettitt test was applied to identify step changes in the water level data at 4 gauge stations located in the VMD. After the trend analysis, the impacts of high-dyke development were quantified with the

  19. LiDAR and IFSAR-Based Flood Inundation Model Estimates for Flood-Prone Areas of Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. C.; Goldade, M. M.; Kastens, J.; Dobbs, K. E.; Macpherson, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme flood events are not unusual in semi-arid to hyper-arid regions of the world, and Afghanistan is no exception. Recent flashfloods and flashflood-induced landslides took nearly 100 lives and destroyed or damaged nearly 2000 homes in 12 villages within Guzargah-e-Nur district of Baghlan province in northeastern Afghanistan. With available satellite imagery, flood-water inundation estimation can be accomplished remotely, thereby providing a means to reduce the impact of such flood events by improving shared situational awareness during major flood events. Satellite orbital considerations, weather, cost, data licensing restrictions, and other issues can often complicate the acquisition of appropriately timed imagery. Given the need for tools to supplement imagery where not available, complement imagery when it is available, and bridge the gap between imagery based flood mapping and traditional hydrodynamic modeling approaches, we have developed a topographic floodplain model (FLDPLN), which has been used to identify and map river valley floodplains with elevation data ranging from 90-m SRTM to 1-m LiDAR. Floodplain "depth to flood" (DTF) databases generated by FLDPLN are completely seamless and modular. FLDPLN has been applied in Afghanistan to flood-prone areas along the northern and southern flanks of the Hindu Kush mountain range to generate a continuum of 1-m increment flood-event models up to 10 m in depth. Elevation data used in this application of FLDPLN included high-resolution, drone-acquired LiDAR (~1 m) and IFSAR (5 m; INTERMAP). Validation of the model has been accomplished using the best available satellite-derived flood inundation maps, such as those issued by Unitar's Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT). Results provide a quantitative approach to evaluating the potential risk to urban/village infrastructure as well as to irrigation systems, agricultural fields and archaeological sites.

  20. Radon: The Silent Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffel, Jennifer

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the public health dangers associated with radon exposure in homes and schools. In addition, testing and corrective efforts by federal and state agencies are discussed. A map indicating areas in the U.S. with potentially high radon levels is included. (IAH)

  1. Geophysical and physical measurements applied to characterize an area prone to quick clay landslides in SW Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas-Romero, Silvia; Malehmir, Alireza; Snowball, Ian; Lougheed, Bryan C.; Hellqvist, Magnus

    2014-05-01

    The study of quick clay landslides in Nordic countries, such as Sweden and Norway, is wide and varied. However, the occurrence of catastrophes like those in Munkedal, Sweden, in 2006, demands a more complete characterization of these materials and their extensiveness. The objectives of this research are mainly focused on obtaining information about the properties and behavior of quick clays in an area prone to landslides in southwestern Sweden. Two fieldwork campaigns were carried out in 2011 and 2013, using methods such as 2D and 3D P-wave and S-wave seismic, geoelectrics, controlled-source and radio-magnetotellurics, ground gravity, as well as downhole geophysics (measuring fluid temperature and conductivity, gamma radiation, sonic velocity and resistivity) performed in three boreholes located in the study area. Drill cores recovered using the SONIC technique provided samples for paleontological information, as well as laboratory measurements of physical properties of the subsurface materials to a maximum subsurface depth of about 60 m. The laboratory measurements included grain size analysis, mineral magnetic properties, electric conductivity, pH, salinity, total dissolved solids, x-ray fluorescence (XRF), and a reconnaissance study of the fossil content. A correlation study of the downhole geophysical measurements, 2D seismic sections located at the intersection with the boreholes and the sample observations indicated that the presence of quick clays is associated with contacts with coarse-grained materials. Although the PVC casing of the boreholes interferes with the sonic and resistivity measurements, the perforated parts of the PVC casing show significant changes. The most important variations in magnetic susceptibility and conductivity mostly coincide with these coarse-grained layers, supporting the seismic data. Coarse-grained layers are characterized by enhanced magnetic susceptibility and conductivity. Grain size analysis results on subsamples from the

  2. Impacts of dyke development in flood prone areas in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta to downstream flood hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanh Triet Nguyen, Van; Dung Nguyen, Viet; Fujii, Hideto; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    The Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) plays an important role in food security and socio-economic development of the country. Being a low-lying coastal region, the VMD is particularly susceptible to both riverine and tidal floods, which provide, on (the) one hand, the basis for the rich agricultural production and the livelihood of the people, but on the other hand pose a considerable hazard depending on the severity of the floods. But despite of potentially hazardous flood, the area remain active as a rice granary due to its nutrient-rich soils and sediment input, and dense waterways, canals and the long standing experience of the population living with floods. In response to both farmers' requests and governmental plans, the construction of flood protection infrastructure in the delta progressed rapidly in the last twenty years, notably at areas prone to deep flooding, i.e. the Plain of Reeds (PoR) and Long Xuyen Quadrangle (LXQ). Triple rice cropping becomes possible in farmlands enclosed by "full-dykes", i.e. dykes strong and high enough to prevent flooding of the flood plains for most of the floods. In these protected flood plains rice can be grown even during the peak flood period (September to November). However, little is known about the possibly (and already alleged) negative impacts of this fully flood protection measure to downstream areas. This study aims at quantifying how the flood regime in the lower part of the VMD (e.g. Can Tho, My Thuan, …) has been changed in the last 2 recent "big flood" events of 2000 and 2011 due to the construction of the full-dyke system in the upper part. First, an evaluation of 35 years of daily water level data was performed in order to detect trends at key gauging stations: Kratie: upper boundary of the Delta, Tan Chau and Chau Doc: areas with full-dyke construction, Can Tho and My Thuan: downstream. Results from the Mann-Kendall (MK) test show a decreasing trend of the annual maximum water level at 3 stations Kratie, Tan

  3. Long-term measurements of residential radon, thoron, and thoron progeny concentrations around the Chhatrapur placer deposit, a high background radiation area in Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yasutaka; Prasad, Ganesh; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Vidya Sagar, Devulapalli; Ramola, Rakesh Chand; Tokonami, Shinji

    2016-10-01

    The Chhatrapur placer deposit is found in a high background radiation area which has been recently identified on the southeastern coast of India. Previously, some geochemical studies of this area were carried out to assess external dose from radionuclides-bearing heavy mineral sands. In this study, radon, thoron and thoron progeny concentrations were measured in about 100 dwellings during three seasons (autumn-winter, summer, and rainy) in a 10- to 12-month period and annual doses due to inhalation of them were evaluated. The measurements were made by passive-type radon-thoron discriminative detectors and thoron progeny detectors in which solid state nuclear track detectors were deployed. The results show that radon and thoron concentrations differ by one order of magnitude depending on exposure periods, while thoron progeny concentration is nearly constant throughout the year. Since thorium-rich sand is distributed in the studied area, exposure to thoron is equal to, or exceeds, exposure to radon and is not negligible for dose evaluation. Based on the measurements, doses due to inhalation of radon and thoron are evaluated as 0.1-1.6 mSv y -1 and 0.2-3.8 mSv y -1 , respectively. The total dose is 0.8-4.6 mSv y -1 , which is the same order of magnitude as the worldwide value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental observation and modelling of rock - water interaction in a landslide-prone loess area of Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udvardi, Beatrix; Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Freiler, Ágnes; Kónya, Péter; Jerabek, Csaba; Pálfi, Éva; Kovács, István; Nagy, Péter; Halupka, Gábor

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that water from precipitation or other sources (e.g. groundwater, river) contributes to the triggering of landslides by means of infiltration into the slope, which causes an increase in the pore pressure and a reduction in the strength of the involved material. The physical failure is commonly coupled with chemical changes in landslides due the fact that soluble components dissolve in the pore water and others precipitate during rock-water interaction. Thus the composition of sediments and water chemistry are used jointly as indicators of the development of landslides. Rock-water interaction, however, takes a long time, and depends on hydrology and geochemistry of the landslide area; therefore, many researchers have focused on numerical simulation and laboratory experiment for setting up a landslide early warning system. Since water chemistry can change over time in landslides due to the seasonal rainfall pattern, groundwater fluctuation and flood events, the intensity of rock-water interaction (e.g. dissolution, precipitation) may also vary. Thus, the physicochemical processes cannot be elucidated precisely without understanding both the solution evolution and the mineral alteration in landslides. From this aspect, field survey, mineralogical (XRD, FTIR, DTG) and chemical measurements (ICP-OES), and geochemical modelling (PHREEQC) were conducted in a landslide-prone loess area along the River Danube (Hungary). Water from the River Danube and three springs were sampled during four field campaigns at Kulcs over a year. Additionally, landslide deposits including sliding surface and secondary precipitations were collected at Kulcs and Dunaújváros. In combination with previous hydrochemical analyses of the area and average rainfall composition of Hungary, it is possible to model the kinetic dissolution and precipitation of minerals during rainfall events and flooding periods of the river. The chemistry of springs shows that the Mg-Ca-HCO3 facies with

  5. Soil gas radon-thoron monitoring in Dharamsala area of north-west Himalayas, India using solid state nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitender; Gupta, Vikash; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh

    2013-10-01

    The study described here is based on the measurements of soil gas radon-thoron concentrations performed at Dharamsala region of north-west (NW) Himalayas, India. The study area is tectonically and environmentally significant and shows the features of ductile shear zone due to the presence of distinct thrust planes. Solid state nuclear track detectors (LR-115 films) have been used for the soil gas radon-thoron monitoring. Twenty five radon-thoron discriminators with LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of about 50 cm in the study areas. The recorded radon concentration varies from 1593 to 13570 Bq/m3 with an average value of 5292 Bq/m3. The recorded thoron concentration varies from 223 to 2920 Bq/m3 with an average value of 901 Bq/m3. The anomalous value of radon-thoron has been observed near to the faults like main boundary thrust (MBT and MBT2) as well as neotectonic lineaments in the region.

  6. The newest international trend about regulation of indoor radon.

    PubMed

    Bochicchio, Francesco

    2011-07-01

    On the basis of recent epidemiological findings, many international and national organisations have revised their recommendations and regulations on radon exposure in dwellings and workplaces, or are in the process to do it. In particular, new recommendations and regulations were recently published (or are going to be) by World Health Organization, Nordic Countries, International Commission on Radiological Protection, International, Atomic Energy Agency (and the other international organisations sponsoring the International Basic Safety Standards), European Commission. Although with some differences, these new documents recommend lower radon concentrations in indoor air, especially in dwellings, compared with previous ones. Moreover, preventive measures in all new buildings are more and more considered as one of the most cost-effective way to reduce the radon-related lung cancers, compared with previous approach restricting preventive measures in radon-prone areas only. A comprehensive national action plan, involving several national and local authorities, is generally considered a necessary tool to deal with the many complex actions needed to reduce the risk from radon exposure in an effective way.

  7. Mapping of risk prone areas of kala-azar (Visceral leishmaniasis) in parts of Bihar State, India: an RS and GIS approach.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, S; Srinivas, T; Palit, A; Kar, S K; Battacharya, S K

    2006-09-01

    The kala-azar fever (Visceral leishmaniasis) is continuing unabated in India for over a century, now being largely confined to the eastern part of India mainly in Bihar state and to some extent in its bordering states like West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh. Two study sites namely Patepur block in Vaishali district with high endemicity in northern part and Lohardagga block in Lohardagga district with absolute non-endemicity in southern part of Bihar were selected for the study with the following objectives : (i) to study the macro-ecosystem in relation to distribution of vector -Phlebotomus argentipes; (ii) to identify/map the risk prone areas or villages in a block for quick remedial measures; and (iii) to make use of satellite remote sensing and GIS to demonstrate the utility for rapid assessment of landuse/landcover and their relation with the incidence of kalaazar leading to the mapping of risk prone areas. Indian Remote Sensing (IRS)-1D LISS III satellite data for the periods of March and November 2000 were analysed in Silicon graphic image processing system using ERDAS software. False color composites (FCC) were generated and landuse/landcover was assessed using Maximum likelihood supervised classification techniques based on ground truth training sets. During the study the GIS functions are used to quantify the remotely sensed landscape proportions of 5 km2 buffer surrounding each known group of villages of high occurrence of sandflies in endemic and nonendemic study sites. Instead of traditional ground based survey methods to vector surveillance, the present study used a combination of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) approach to develop landscape predictors of sandfly abundance-an indicator of human vector contact and as a measure of risk prone areas. Statistical analysis using the remotely sensed landscape variables showed that rural villages surrounded by higher proportion of transitional swamps with soft stemmed edible plants and

  8. Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.

    1984-04-01

    Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor ofmore » radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.« less

  9. The Austrian radon activities on the way to the national radon action plan.

    PubMed

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Haider, W

    2014-07-01

    Based on the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS), all EU member states will be obliged to design a strategy to address long-term risks from radon exposure, which is laid down in the 'national radon action plan'. In Austria, the National Radon Centre is responsible for the development of the action plan. This paper presents the current and planned radon protection activities on the way to establish the radon action plan--like the national radon database, the definition of radon risk areas by improving the existing radon map, as well as strategies and activities to increase the radon awareness of the public and decision-makers and to involve the building sector. The impact of and the need for actions caused by the BSS requirements on the Austrian radon legislation, strategy and programme are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Indoor radon, geogenic radon surrogates and geology - Investigations on their correlation.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, H; Baumgartner, A; Bernreiter, M; Gräser, J; Gruber, V; Kabrt, F; Kaineder, H; Maringer, F J; Ringer, W; Seidel, C; Wurm, G

    2017-01-01

    The indoor radon concentration was measured in most houses in a couple of municipalities in Austria. At the same time the activity concentration of radium in soil, the soil gas radon concentration, the permeability of the ground and the ambient dose equivalent rate were also measured and the geological situations (geological units) were recorded too. From the indoor radon concentration and different house and living parameters a radon potential (Austrian radon potential) was derived which should represent the radon concentration in a standard room. Another radon potential (Neznal radon potential) was calculated from the soil gas radon concentration and the permeability. The aim of the investigation was to correlate all the different variables and to test if the use of surrogate data (e.g. geological information, ambient dose equivalent rate, etc.) can be used to judge the radon risk for an area without performing numerous indoor measurements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of radon/thoron exhalation rates and gamma-ray dose rate in granite areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Prasad, G; Ishikawa, T; Hosoda, M; Sahoo, S K; Kavasi, N; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S; Uchida, S

    2012-11-01

    Radon and thoron exhalation rates and gamma-ray dose rate in different places in Hiroshima Prefecture were measured. Exhalation rates were measured using an accumulation chamber method. The radon exhalation rate was found to vary from 3 to 37 mBq m(-2) s(-1), while the thoron exhalation rate ranged from 40 to 3330 mBq m(-2) s(-1). The highest radon exhalation rate (37 mBq m(-2) s(-1)) and gamma-ray dose rate (92 nGy h(-1)) were found in the same city (Kure City). In Kure City, indoor radon and thoron concentrations were previously measured at nine selected houses using a radon-thoron discriminative detector (Raduet). The indoor radon concentrations varied from 16 to 78 Bq m(-3), which was higher than the average value in Japan (15.5 Bq m(-3)). The indoor thoron concentration ranged from ND (not detected: below a detection limit of approximately 10 Bq m(-3)) to 314 Bq m(-3). The results suggest that radon exhalation rate from the ground is an influential factor for indoor radon concentration.

  12. Possible connection between the East Asian summer monsoon and a swing of the haze-fog-prone area in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qian; Cao, Ziqi; Sheng, Lifang; Diao, Yina; Wang, Wencai; Zhou, Yang; Qiu, Jingyi

    2018-05-01

    The summer monsoon has recently been hypothesized to influence haze-fog events over China, but the detailed processes involved have yet to be determined. In the present study, we found that the haze-fog-prone area swings over eastern China during boreal summer (May to September), coinciding with the movement of the subtropical monsoon convergence belt (hereinafter referred to simply as the "convergence belt"). Further investigation showed that the convergence belt modulates the spatial distribution of the haze-fog-prone area by altering the regional atmospheric conditions. When the warm and wet summer monsoon air mass pushes northwards and meets with cold air, a frontal zone (namely, the convergence belt) forms. The ascent of warm and wet air along the front strengthens the atmospheric stability ahead of the frontal zone, while the descent of cold and dry air weakens the vertical diffusion at the same place. These processes result in an asymmetric distribution of haze-fog along the convergence belt. Based on the criterion of absolute stability and downdraft, these atmospheric conditions favorable for haze-fog are able to identify 57-79% of haze-fog-prone stations, and the anticipation accuracy is 61-71%. After considering the influence of air pollutants on haze-fog occurrence, the anticipation accuracy rises to 78-79%. Our study reveals a connection between local haze-fog weather phenomena and regional atmospheric conditions and large-scale circulation, and demonstrates one possible mechanism for how the summer monsoon influences the distribution of haze-fog in eastern China.

  13. Diurnal variations of radon and thoron activity concentrations and effective doses in dwellings in Niška Banja, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vaupotič, J; Streil, T; Tokonami, S; Žunic, Z S

    2013-12-01

    In Niška Banja, a spa town in a radon-prone area in southern Serbia, radon ((222)Rn) and thoron ((220)Rn) activity concentrations were measured continuously for one day in indoor air of 10 dwellings with a SARAD RTM 2010-2 Radon/Thoron Monitor, and equilibrium factor between radon and its decay products and the fraction of unattached radon decay products with a SARAD EQF 3020-2 Equilibrium Factor Monitor. Radon concentration in winter time ranged from 26 to 73 100 Bq m(-3) and that of thoron, from 10 to 8650 Bq m(-3). In the same period, equilibrium factor and the unattached fraction varied in the range of 0.08 to 0.90 and 0.01 to 0.27, respectively. One-day effective doses were calculated and were in winter conditions from 4 to 2599 μSv d(-1) for radon and from 0.2 to 73 μSv d(-1) for thoron.

  14. Preliminary Study of Ground Movement in Prone Landslide Area by Means of MAI InSAR A Case Study: Ciloto, West Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayati, Noorlaila; Riedel, Björn; Niemeier, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Ciloto is one of the most prone landslide hazard areas in Indonesia. Several landslides in 2012 and 2013 had been recorded in Ciloto and damaged infrastructure around the area. Investigating the history of ground movement along slope area before the landslide happened could support the hazard mitigation in the future. Considering to an efficient surveying method, space-borne SAR processing is the one appropriate way to monitor the phenomenon in past years. The purpose of this study is detecting ground movement using multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar images. We use 13 ALOS PALSAR images from 2007 to 2009 with combination Fine Beam Single (FBS) and Fine Beam Double (FBD) polarization to investigate the slow movement on slope topography. MAI (Multiple Aperture Interferometry) InSAR method is used to analyze the ground movement from both line-of-sight and along-track direction. We split the synthetic aperture into two-looking aperture so that along-track displacement could be created by the difference of forward-backward looking interferograms. With integration of both methods, we could more precisely detect the movement in prone landslide area and achieve two measurements produced by the same interferogram. However, InSAR requires smaller baseline and good temporal baseline between master and slave images to avoid decorellation. There are only several pairs that meet the condition of proper length and temporal baseline indeed the location is also on the agriculture area where is mostly covered by vegetation. The result for two years observation shows that there is insignificant slow movement along slope surface in Ciloto with -2 - -7 cm in range looks or line of sight and 9-40 cm in along track direction. Based on geometry SAR , the most visible detecting of displacement is on the north-west area due to utilization of ascending SAR images.

  15. Radon as a tracer to characterize the interactions between groundwater and surface water around the ground source heat pump system in riverside area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Lee, Seong-Sun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2016-04-01

    The interaction characteristics between groundwater and surface water was examined by using Radon-222 at Han River Environmental Research Center (HRERC) in Korea where a geothermal resource using indirect open loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) has been developed. For designing a high efficiency performance of the open loop system in shallow aquifer, the riverside area was selected for great advantage of full capacity of well. From this reason groundwater properties of the study site can be easily influenced by influx of surrounding Han River. Therefore, 12 groundwater wells were used for monitoring radon concentration and groundwater level with fluctuation of river stage from May, 2014 to Apr., 2015. The short term monitoring data showed that the radon concentration was changed in accordance with flow meter data which was reflected well by the river stage fluctuation. The spatial distribution of radon concentration from long term monitoring data was also found to be affected by water level fluctuation by nearby dam activity and seasonal effect such as heavy rainfall and groundwater pumping. The estimated residence time indicates that river flows to the study site change its direction according to the combined effect of river stage and groundwater hydrology. In the linear regression of the values, flow velocities were yielded around 0.04 to 0.25 m/day which were similar to flow meter data. These results reveal that Radon-222 can be used as an appropriate environmental tracer in examining the characteristics of interaction in consideration of fluctuating river flow on operation of GSHP in the riverside area. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development and Application in Riversides (Geowater+) in "Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology Innovation C05)" of the MOLIT and the KAIA in Korea.

  16. Increased shedding of microvesicles from intimal smooth muscle cells in athero-prone areas of the human aorta: implications for understanding of the predisease stage.

    PubMed

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether a change in the content of matrix microvesicles might occur at the preatherosclerotic stage. Applying quantitative electron microscopic and immunohistochemical analyses, two areas of grossly normal segments of the thoracic aorta were compared: atherosclerosis-prone (AP) areas, situated at the dorsal aspect of the aorta along the rows of intercostal branch origins, and atherosclerosis-resistant (AR) areas, situated at the corresponding sites of the ventral aspect of the aorta. The electron microscopic analysis showed that there were 1.4 times more microvesicles in AP areas than AR areas (p = 0.019). It was found that matrix microvesicles originated as a result of blebbing and shedding of surface membranes of smooth muscle cells. A quantitative analysis of the expression of ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6), which is known to be involved in membrane trafficking and microvesicle formation, showed that ARF6 expression was 1.3 times higher in AP areas than that in AR areas (p = 0.006). There was a positive correlation between the content of matrix microparticles and the expression of ARF6 by intimal smooth muscle cells (r = 0.61; p < 0.0001). The present study supports the concept that alterations of the arterial intima occur at the predisease stage. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. UV imaging reveals facial areas that are prone to skin cancer are disproportionately missed during sunscreen application.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Harry; Hassanin, Kareem; Troughton, Lee D; Czanner, Gabriela; Zheng, Yalin; McCormick, Austin G; Hamill, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    Application of sunscreen is a widely used mechanism for protecting skin from the harmful effects of UV light. However, protection can only be achieved through effective application, and areas that are routinely missed are likely at increased risk of UV damage. Here we sought to determine if specific areas of the face are missed during routine sunscreen application, and whether provision of public health information is sufficient to improve coverage. To investigate this, 57 participants were imaged with a UV sensitive camera before and after sunscreen application: first visit; minimal pre-instruction, second visit; provided with a public health information statement. Images were scored using a custom automated image analysis process designed to identify areas of high UV reflectance, i.e. missed during sunscreen application, and analysed for 5% significance. Analyses revealed eyelid and periorbital regions to be disproportionately missed during routine sunscreen application (median 14% missed in eyelid region vs 7% in rest of face, p<0.01). Provision of health information caused a significant improvement in coverage to eyelid areas in general however, the medial canthal area was still frequently missed. These data reveal that a public health announcement-type intervention could be effective at improving coverage of high risk areas of the face, however high risk areas are likely to remain unprotected therefore other mechanisms of sun protection should be widely promoted such as UV blocking sunglasses.

  18. UV imaging reveals facial areas that are prone to skin cancer are disproportionately missed during sunscreen application

    PubMed Central

    Troughton, Lee D.; Czanner, Gabriela; Zheng, Yalin; McCormick, Austin G.

    2017-01-01

    Application of sunscreen is a widely used mechanism for protecting skin from the harmful effects of UV light. However, protection can only be achieved through effective application, and areas that are routinely missed are likely at increased risk of UV damage. Here we sought to determine if specific areas of the face are missed during routine sunscreen application, and whether provision of public health information is sufficient to improve coverage. To investigate this, 57 participants were imaged with a UV sensitive camera before and after sunscreen application: first visit; minimal pre-instruction, second visit; provided with a public health information statement. Images were scored using a custom automated image analysis process designed to identify areas of high UV reflectance, i.e. missed during sunscreen application, and analysed for 5% significance. Analyses revealed eyelid and periorbital regions to be disproportionately missed during routine sunscreen application (median 14% missed in eyelid region vs 7% in rest of face, p<0.01). Provision of health information caused a significant improvement in coverage to eyelid areas in general however, the medial canthal area was still frequently missed. These data reveal that a public health announcement-type intervention could be effective at improving coverage of high risk areas of the face, however high risk areas are likely to remain unprotected therefore other mechanisms of sun protection should be widely promoted such as UV blocking sunglasses. PMID:28968413

  19. RADON MITIGATION STUDIES: NASHVILLE DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an EPA radon mitigation demonstration project involving 14 houses in the Nashville, TN, area with indoor radon levels of 5.6-47.6 pCi/L, using a variety of techniques, designed to be the most cost effective methods possible to implement, and yet adequa...

  20. Application of the principal component analysis (PCA) to HVSR data aimed at the seismic characterization of earthquake prone areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolucci, Enrico; Lunedei, Enrico; Albarello, Dario

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we propose a procedure based on principal component analysis on data sets consisting of many horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR or H/V) curves obtained by single-station ambient vibration acquisitions. This kind of analysis aimed at the seismic characterization of the investigated area by identifying sites characterized by similar HVSR curves. It also allows to extract the typical HVSR patterns of the explored area and to establish their relative importance, providing an estimate of the level of heterogeneity under the seismic point of view. In this way, an automatic explorative seismic characterization of the area becomes possible by only considering ambient vibration data. This also implies that the relevant outcomes can be safely compared with other available information (geological data, borehole measurements, etc.) without any conceptual trade-off. The whole algorithm is remarkably fast: on a common personal computer, the processing time takes few seconds for a data set including 100-200 HVSR measurements. The procedure has been tested in three study areas in the Central-Northern Italy characterized by different geological settings. Outcomes demonstrate that this technique is effective and well correlates with most significant seismostratigraphical heterogeneities present in each of the study areas.

  1. Researching Radon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucidi, Louis; Mecca, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students examined the physics, chemistry, and geology of radon and used available technology to measure radon concentrations in their homes. Uses the inquiry process, analytical skills, communication skills, content knowledge, and production of authentic products for student assessment. (YDS)

  2. Application of artificial neural network to predict clay sensitivity in a high landslide prone area using CPTu data- A case study in Southwest of Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahri, Abbas; Mousavinaseri, Mahsasadat; Naderi, Shima; Espersson, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in many areas of engineering, in particular to geotechnical engineering problems such as site characterization has demonstrated some degree of success. The present paper aims to evaluate the feasibility of several various types of ANN models to predict the clay sensitivity of soft clays form piezocone penetration test data (CPTu). To get the aim, a research database of CPTu data of 70 test points around the Göta River near the Lilli Edet in the southwest of Sweden which is a high prone land slide area were collected and considered as input for ANNs. For training algorithms the quick propagation, conjugate gradient descent, quasi-Newton, limited memory quasi-Newton and Levenberg-Marquardt were developed tested and trained using the CPTu data to provide a comparison between the results of field investigation and ANN models to estimate the clay sensitivity. The reason of using the clay sensitivity parameter in this study is due to its relation to landslides in Sweden.A special high sensitive clay namely quick clay is considered as the main responsible for experienced landslides in Sweden which has high sensitivity and prone to slide. The training and testing program was started with 3-2-1 ANN architecture structure. By testing and trying several various architecture structures and changing the hidden layer in order to have a higher output resolution the 3-4-4-3-1 architecture structure for ANN in this study was confirmed. The tested algorithm showed that increasing the hidden layers up to 4 layers in ANN can improve the results and the 3-4-4-3-1 architecture structure ANNs for prediction of clay sensitivity represent reliable and reasonable response. The obtained results showed that the conjugate gradient descent algorithm with R2=0.897 has the best performance among the tested algorithms. Keywords: clay sensitivity, landslide, Artificial Neural Network

  3. Development of a decision support system for small reservoir irrigation systems in rainfed and drought prone areas.

    PubMed

    Balderama, Orlando F

    2010-01-01

    An integrated computer program called Cropping System and Water Management Model (CSWM) with a three-step feature (expert system-simulation-optimization) was developed to address a range of decision support for rainfed farming, i.e. crop selection, scheduling and optimisation. The system was used for agricultural planning with emphasis on sustainable agriculture in the rainfed areas through the use of small farm reservoirs for increased production and resource conservation and management. The application of the model was carried out using crop, soil, and climate and water resource data from the Philippines. Primarily, four sets of data representing the different rainfall classification of the country were collected, analysed, and used as input in the model. Simulations were also done on date of planting, probabilities of wet and dry period and with various capacities of the water reservoir used for supplemental irrigation. Through the analysis, useful information was obtained to determine suitable crops in the region, cropping schedule and pattern appropriate to the specific climate conditions. In addition, optimisation of the use of the land and water resources can be achieved in areas partly irrigated by small reservoirs.

  4. Application of a distributed hydrological model to the design of a road inundation warning system for flash flood prone areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versini, P.-A.; Gaume, E.; Andrieu, H.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an initial prototype of a distributed hydrological model used to map possible road inundations in a region frequently exposed to severe flash floods: the Gard region (South of France). The prototype has been tested in a pseudo real-time mode on five recent flash flood events for which actual road inundations have been inventoried. The results are promising: close to 100% probability of detection of actual inundations, inundations detected before they were reported by the road management field teams with a false alarm ratios not exceeding 30%. This specific case study differs from the standard applications of rainfall-runoff models to produce flood forecasts, focussed on a single or a limited number of gauged river cross sections. It illustrates that, despite their lack of accuracy, hydro-meteorological forecasts based on rainfall-runoff models, especially distributed models, contain valuable information for flood event management. The possible consequences of landslides, debris flows and local erosion processes, sometimes associated with flash floods, were not considered at this stage of development of the prototype. They are limited in the Gard region but should be taken into account in future developments of the approach to implement it efficiently in other areas more exposed to these phenomena such as the Alpine area.

  5. Effects of land-use changes on landslides in a landslide-prone area (Ardesen, Rize, NE Turkey).

    PubMed

    Karsli, F; Atasoy, M; Yalcin, A; Reis, S; Demir, O; Gokceoglu, C

    2009-09-01

    Various natural hazards such as landslides, avalanches, floods and debris flows can result in enormous property damages and human casualties in Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. Mountainous topographic character and high frequency of heavy rain are the main factors for landslide occurrence in Ardesen, Rize. For this reason, the main target of the present study is to evaluate the landslide hazards using a sequence of historical aerial photographs in Ardesen (Rize), Turkey, by Photogrammetry and Geographical Information System (GIS). Landslide locations in the study area were identified by interpretation of aerial photographs dated in 1973 and 2002, and by field surveys. In the study, the selected factors conditioning landslides are lithology, slope gradient, slope aspect, vegetation cover, land class, climate, rainfall and proximity to roads. These factors were considered as effective on the occurrence of landslides. The areas under landslide threat were analyzed and mapped considering the landslide conditioning factors. Some of the conditioning factors were investigated and estimated by employing visual interpretation of aerial photos and topographic data. The results showed that the slope, lithology, terrain roughness, proximity to roads, and the cover type played important roles on landslide occurrence. The results also showed that degree of landslides was affected by the number of houses constructed in the region. As a consequence, the method employed in the study provides important benefits for landslide hazard mitigation efforts, because a combination of both photogrammetric techniques and GIS is presented.

  6. Identification of Critical Erosion Prone Areas and Computation of Sediment Yield Using Remote Sensing and GIS: A Case Study on Sarada River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundara Kumar, P.; Venkata Praveen, T.; Anjanaya Prasad, M.; Santha Rao, P.

    2018-06-01

    The two most important resources blessed by nature to the mankind are land and water. Undoubtedly, these gifts have to be conserved and maintained with unflinching efforts from every one of us for an effective environmental and ecological balance. The efforts and energy of water resources engineers and conservationists are going in this direction to conserve these precious resources of nature. The present study is an attempt to develop suitable methodology to facilitate decision makers to conserve the resources and also reflects the cause mentioned above has been presented here. The main focus of this study is to identify the critical prone areas for soil erosion and computation of sediment yield in a small basin using Universal Soil Loss Equation and Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE) respectively. The developed model has been applied on Sarada river basin which has a drainage area of 1252.99 km2. This river is located in Andhra Pradesh State (AP), India. The basin has been divided into micro basins for effective estimation and also for precise identification of the areas that are prone to soil erosion. Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems tools were used to generate and spatially organize the data that is required for soil erosion modeling. It was found that the micro basins with very severe soil erosion are consisting of hilly areas with high topographic factor and 38.01% of the study area has the rate erosion more than 20 t/ha/year and hence requires an immediate attention from the soil conservation point of view. In this study region, though there is one discharge measuring gauge station available at Anakapalli but there is no sediment yield gauging means available to compute the sediment yield. Therefore, to arrive at the suspended-sediment concentration was a challenge task. In the present study the sediment measurement has been carried out with an instrument (DH-48), sediment sampling equipment as per IS: 4890-1968, has been used

  7. Spatially distributed flood forecasting in flash flood prone areas: Application to road network supervision in Southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naulin, J.-P.; Payrastre, O.; Gaume, E.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryAccurate flood forecasts are critical to an efficient flood event management strategy. Until now, hydro-meteorological forecasts have mainly been used to establish early-warnings in France (meteorological and flood vigilance maps) or over the world (flash-flood guidances). These forecasts are typically limited either to the main streams covered by the flood forecasting services or to watersheds with specific assets like check dams, which in most cases are well gauged river sections, thus leaving aside large parts of the territory. This paper presents a distributed hydro-meteorological forecasting approach, which makes use of the high spatial and temporal resolution rainfall estimates that are now available, to provide information at ungauged sites. The proposed system intended to detect road inundation risks had initially been developed and tested in areas of limited size. This paper presents the extension of such a system to an entire region (i.e. the Gard region in Southern France), including over 2000 crossing points between rivers and roads and its validation with respect to a large data set of actual reported road inundations observed during recent flash flood events. These initial validation results appear to be most promising. The eventual proposed tool would provide the necessary information for flood event management services to identify the areas at risk and adopt appropriate safety and rescue measures: i.e. pre-positioning of rescue equipment, interruption of the traffic on the exposed roads and determination of safe access or evacuation routes. Moreover, beyond the specific application to the supervision of a road network, the research undertaken herein also provides results for the performance of hydro-meteorological forecasts on ungauged headwaters.

  8. Saturation sampling for spatial variation in multiple air pollutants across an inversion-prone metropolitan area of complex terrain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Characterizing intra-urban variation in air quality is important for epidemiological investigation of health outcomes and disparities. To date, however, few studies have been designed to capture spatial variation during select hours of the day, or to examine the roles of meteorology and complex terrain in shaping intra-urban exposure gradients. Methods We designed a spatial saturation monitoring study to target local air pollution sources, and to understand the role of topography and temperature inversions on fine-scale pollution variation by systematically allocating sampling locations across gradients in key local emissions sources (vehicle traffic, industrial facilities) and topography (elevation) in the Pittsburgh area. Street-level integrated samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) were collected during morning rush and probable inversion hours (6-11 AM), during summer and winter. We hypothesized that pollution concentrations would be: 1) higher under inversion conditions, 2) exacerbated in lower-elevation areas, and 3) vary by season. Results During July - August 2011 and January - March 2012, we observed wide spatial and seasonal variability in pollution concentrations, exceeding the range measured at regulatory monitors. We identified elevated concentrations of multiple pollutants at lower-elevation sites, and a positive association between inversion frequency and NO2 concentration. We examined temporal adjustment methods for deriving seasonal concentration estimates, and found that the appropriate reference temporal trend differs between pollutants. Conclusions Our time-stratified spatial saturation approach found some evidence for modification of inversion-concentration relationships by topography, and provided useful insights for refining and interpreting GIS-based pollution source indicators for Land Use Regression modeling. PMID:24735818

  9. Saturation sampling for spatial variation in multiple air pollutants across an inversion-prone metropolitan area of complex terrain.

    PubMed

    Shmool, Jessie Lc; Michanowicz, Drew R; Cambal, Leah; Tunno, Brett; Howell, Jeffery; Gillooly, Sara; Roper, Courtney; Tripathy, Sheila; Chubb, Lauren G; Eisl, Holger M; Gorczynski, John E; Holguin, Fernando E; Shields, Kyra Naumoff; Clougherty, Jane E

    2014-04-16

    Characterizing intra-urban variation in air quality is important for epidemiological investigation of health outcomes and disparities. To date, however, few studies have been designed to capture spatial variation during select hours of the day, or to examine the roles of meteorology and complex terrain in shaping intra-urban exposure gradients. We designed a spatial saturation monitoring study to target local air pollution sources, and to understand the role of topography and temperature inversions on fine-scale pollution variation by systematically allocating sampling locations across gradients in key local emissions sources (vehicle traffic, industrial facilities) and topography (elevation) in the Pittsburgh area. Street-level integrated samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3) were collected during morning rush and probable inversion hours (6-11 AM), during summer and winter. We hypothesized that pollution concentrations would be: 1) higher under inversion conditions, 2) exacerbated in lower-elevation areas, and 3) vary by season. During July - August 2011 and January - March 2012, we observed wide spatial and seasonal variability in pollution concentrations, exceeding the range measured at regulatory monitors. We identified elevated concentrations of multiple pollutants at lower-elevation sites, and a positive association between inversion frequency and NO2 concentration. We examined temporal adjustment methods for deriving seasonal concentration estimates, and found that the appropriate reference temporal trend differs between pollutants. Our time-stratified spatial saturation approach found some evidence for modification of inversion-concentration relationships by topography, and provided useful insights for refining and interpreting GIS-based pollution source indicators for Land Use Regression modeling.

  10. Application of wildfire simulation methods to assess wildfire exposure in a Mediterranean fire-prone area (Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salis, M.; Ager, A.; Arca, B.; Finney, M.; Bacciu, V. M.; Spano, D.; Duce, P.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of fire spread and behavior are dependent on interactions among climate, topography, vegetation and fire suppression efforts (Pyne et al. 1996; Viegas 2006; Falk et al. 2007). Humans also play a key role in determining frequency and spatial distribution of ignitions (Bar Massada et al, 2011), and thus influence fire regimes as well. The growing incidence of catastrophic wildfires has led to substantial losses for important ecological and human values within many areas of the Mediterranean basin (Moreno et al. 1998; Mouillot et al. 2005; Viegas et al. 2006a; Riaño et al. 2007). The growing fire risk issue has led to many new programs and policies of fuel management and risk mitigation by environmental and fire agencies. However, risk-based methodologies to help identify areas characterized by high potential losses and prioritize fuel management have been lacking for the region. Formal risk assessment requires the joint consideration of likelihood, intensity, and susceptibility, the product of which estimates the chance of a specific loss (Brillinger 2003; Society of Risk Analysis, 2006). Quantifying fire risk therefore requires estimates of a) the probability of a specific location burning at a specific intensity and location, and b) the resulting change in financial or ecological value (Finney 2005; Scott 2006). When large fires are the primary cause of damage, the application of this risk formulation requires modeling fire spread to capture landscape properties that affect burn probability. Recently, the incorporation of large fire spread into risk assessment systems has become feasible with the development of high performance fire simulation systems (Finney et al. 2011) that permit the simulation of hundreds of thousands of fires to generate fine scale maps of burn probability, flame length, and fire size, while considering the combined effects of weather, fuels, and topography (Finney 2002; Andrews et al. 2007; Ager and Finney 2009

  11. Participatory Evaluation of Monitoring and Modeling of Sustainable Land Management Technologies in Areas Prone to Land Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, L. C.; Fleskens, L.; Reed, M. S.; de Vente, J.; Zengin, M.

    2014-11-01

    Examples of sustainable land management (SLM) exist throughout the world. In many cases, SLM has largely evolved through local traditional practices and incremental experimentation rather than being adopted on the basis of scientific evidence. This means that SLM technologies are often only adopted across small areas. The DESIRE (DESertIfication mitigation and REmediation of degraded land) project combined local traditional knowledge on SLM with empirical evaluation of SLM technologies. The purpose of this was to evaluate and select options for dissemination in 16 sites across 12 countries. It involved (i) an initial workshop to evaluate stakeholder priorities (reported elsewhere), (ii) field trials/empirical modeling, and then, (iii) further stakeholder evaluation workshops. This paper focuses on workshops in which stakeholders evaluated the performance of SLM technologies based on the scientific monitoring and modeling results from 15 study sites. It analyses workshop outcomes to evaluate how scientific results affected stakeholders' perceptions of local SLM technologies. It also assessed the potential of this participatory approach in facilitating wider acceptance and implementation of SLM. In several sites, stakeholder preferences for SLM technologies changed as a consequence of empirical measurements and modeling assessments of each technology. Two workshop examples are presented in depth to: (a) explore the scientific results that triggered stakeholders to change their views; and (b) discuss stakeholders' suggestions on how the adoption of SLM technologies could be up-scaled. The overall multi-stakeholder participatory approach taken is then evaluated. It is concluded that to facilitate broad-scale adoption of SLM technologies, de-contextualized, scientific generalisations must be given local context; scientific findings must be viewed alongside traditional beliefs and both scrutinized with equal rigor; and the knowledge of all kinds of experts must be

  12. Geophysical characterization of areas prone to quick-clay landslides using radio-magnetotelluric and seismic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shunguo; Malehmir, Alireza; Bastani, Mehrdad

    2016-05-01

    Landslides attributed to quick clays have not only considerable influences on surface geomorphology, they have caused delays in transportation systems, environmental problems and human fatalities, especially in Scandinavia and North America. If the subsurface distributions of quick clays are known, potential damages can be mitigated and the triggers of landslides can better be studied and understood. For this purpose, new radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) and seismic data were acquired in an area near the Göta River in southwest Sweden that contains quick clays and associated landslides. High-resolution data along 4 new lines, in total 3.8 km long, were acquired and merged with earlier acquired data from the site. Velocity and resistivity models derived from first breaks and RMT data were used to delineate subsurface geology, in particular the bedrock surface and coarse-grained materials that overlay the bedrock. The latter often are found underlying quick clays at the site. Comparably high-resistivity and sometimes high-velocity regions within marine clays are attributed to a combination of leached salt from marine clays or potential quick clays and coarse-grained materials. The resistivity and tomographic velocity models suggest a much larger role of the coarse-grained materials at the site than previously thought, but they also suggest two different scenarios for triggering quick-clay landslides at the site. These scenarios are related to the erosion of the riverbank, increased pore-pressure and surface topography when close to the river and human activity when away from the river and where bowl-shaped bedrock surrounds the sediments.

  13. Prediflood: A French research project aiming at developing a road submersion warning system for flash flood prone areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naulin, J. P.; Payrastre, O.; Gaume, E.; Delrieu, G.; Arnaud, P.; Lutoff, C.; Vincendon, B.

    2010-09-01

    Accurate flood forecasts are crucial for an efficient flood event management. Until now, hydro-meteorological forecasts have been mainly used for early-warnings in France (Meteorological and flood vigilance maps) or over the world (Flash-flood guidances). Forecasts are also often limited to the main streams or to specific watersheds with particular assets like hydropower dams, leaving aside large parts of the territory. Distributed hydro-meteorological forecasting models, able to take advantage of the now available high spatial and temporal resolution rainfall measurements, are promising tools for anticipating and quantifying the short term consequences of storm events all over a region. They would be very useful, especially in regions frequently affected by severe storms with complex spatio-temporal patterns. They would provide the necessary information for flood event management services to identify the areas at risk and to take the appropriate safety and rescue measures: prepositioning of rescue means, stopping of the traffic on exposed roads, determination of safe accesses or evacuation routes. Some preliminary tests conducted by the LCPC within the European project FLOODsite have shown encouraging results of a distributed hydro-meteorological forecasting model. It seems possible, despite the limits of the available rainfall measurements and the shortcomings of the rainfall-runoff models, to deliver distributed forecasts of possible local flood consequences - road submersion risk rating at about 5000 different locations over the Gard department in the tested case - with an acceptable level of accuracy. The PreDiFlood project (http://heberge.lcpc.fr/prediflood/) aims at consolidating and extending these first results with the objective to conduct pre-operational tests with possible end-users at the end of the project. Such a tool will not replace, but complement existing flood forecasting approaches in time and space domains that have not been covered until now

  14. Radon exposure in uranium mining industry vs. exposure in tourist caves.

    PubMed

    Quindós Poncela, L; Fernández Navarro, P; Sainz Fernández, C; Gómez Arozamena, J; Bordonoba Perez, M

    2004-01-01

    There is a fairly general consensus among health physicists and radiation professionals that exposure to radon progeny is the largest and most variable contribution to the population's exposure to natural sources of radiation. However, this exposure is the subject of continuing debate concerning the validity of risk assessment and recommendations on how to act in radon-prone areas. The purpose of this contribution is to situate the radon issue in Spain in two very different settings. The first is a uranium mining industry located in Saelices el Chico (Salamanca), which is under strict control of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). We have measured radon concentrations in different workplaces in this mine over a five-year period. The second setting comprises four tourist caves, three of which are located in the province of Cantabria and the fourth on the Canary Island of Lanzarote. These caves are not subject to any administrative control of radiation exposure. Measured air 222Rn concentrations were used to estimate annual effective doses due to radon inhalation in the two settings, and dose values were found to be from 2 to 10 times lower in the uranium mine than in the tourist caves. These results were analysed in the context of the new European Basic Safety Standards Directive (EU-BSS, 1996).

  15. Measuring the past 20 years of urban-rural land growth in flood-prone areas in the developed Taihu Lake watershed, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Weizhong

    2017-03-01

    There is growing interest in using the urban landscape for stormwater management studies, where land patterns and processes can be important controls for the sustainability of urban development and planning. This paper proposes an original index of Major Hazard Oriented Level (MHOL) and investigates the structure distribution, driving factors, and controlling suggestions of urban-rural land growth in flood-prone areas in the Taihu Lake watershed, China. The MHOL of incremental urban-rural land increased from M 31.51 during the years 1985-1995 to M 38.37 during the years 1995-2010 (M for medium structure distribution, and the number for high-hazard value). The index shows that urban-rural land was distributed uniformly in flood hazard levels and tended to move rapidly to high-hazard areas, where 72.68% of incremental urban-rural land was aggregated maximally in new urban districts along the Huning traffic line and the Yangtze River. Thus, the current accelerating growth of new urban districts could account for the ampliative exposure to high-hazard areas. New districts are driven by the powerful link between land financial benefits and political achievements for local governments and the past unsustainable process of "single objective" oriented planning. The correlation categorical analysis of the current development intensity and carrying capacity of hydrological ecosystems for sub-basins was used to determine four types of development areas and provide decision makers with indications on the future watershed-scale subdivision of Major Function Oriented Zoning implemented by the Chinese government.

  16. The effect of prone positioning in acute respiratory distress syndrome or acute lung injury: a meta-analysis. Areas of uncertainty and recommendations for research.

    PubMed

    Abroug, Fekri; Ouanes-Besbes, Lamia; Elatrous, Souheil; Brochard, Laurent

    2008-06-01

    To compare the effects of ventilation in prone and in supine position in patients with acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS). Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BioMedCentral, PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase (to November 2007), with additional information from authors. From selected randomised controlled trials comparing positioning in ALI/ARDS we extracted data concerning study design, disease severity, clinical outcomes, and adverse events. Five trials including 1,372 patients met the inclusion criteria for mortality analysis; one trial was added to assess the effects on acquisition of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The included trials were significantly underpowered and enrolled patients with varying severity. Prone positioning duration and mechanical ventilation strategy were not standardised across studies. Using a fixed-effects model, we did not find a significant effect of prone positioning (proning) on mortality (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.77-1.22). The PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio increased significantly more with proning (weighted means difference 25 mmHg, p < 0.00001). Proning was associated with a non-significant 23% reduction in the odds of VAP (p=0.09), and with no increase in major adverse airway complications: OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.71-1.43. Length of intensive care unit stay was marginally and not significantly increased by proning. Prone position is not associated with a significant reduction in mortality from ALI/ARDS despite a significant increase in PaO(2)/FiO(2), is safe, and tends to decrease VAP. Published studies exhibit substantial clinical heterogeneity, suggesting that an adequately sized study optimising the duration of proning and ventilation strategy is warranted to enable definitive conclusions to be drawn.

  17. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida. [The Everglades agricultural area, Lake Okeechobee, and the Suwanee River basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Chen, E.; Martsolf, J. D.; Jones, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    Transparencies, prints, and computer compatible tapes of temperature differential and thermal inertia for the winter of 1978 to 1979 were obtained. Thermal inertial differences in the South Florida depicted include: drained organic soils of the Everglades agricultural area, undrained organic soils of the managed water conservation areas of the South Florida water management district, the urbanized area around Miami, Lake Okeechobee, and the mineral soil west of the Everglades agricultural area. The range of wetlands and uplands conditions within the Suwanee River basin was also identified. It is shown that the combination of wetlands uplands surface features of Florida yield a wide range of surface temperatures related to wetness of the surface features.

  18. Factors Affecting Radon Concentration in Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sharif, Abdel-Latif; Abdelrahman, Y. S.

    2001-03-01

    The dangers to the human health upon exposure to radon and its daughter products is the main motivation behind the vast number of studies performed to find the concentration of radon in our living environment, including our houses. The presence of radon and its daughter products in houses are due to various sources including building materials and the soil under the houses. Many factors affect radon concentration in our houses, the elevation above ground level,ventilation, building materials and room usage being among these factors. In our paper, we discuss the effect of elevation above ground level, room usage and ventilation on the Radon concentration in houses. The faculty residences of the Mu'tah University (Jordan) were chosen in our study. Our results showed that the concentration of radon decreases with elevation. Ventilation rate was also found to affect radon concentration, where low concentrations observed for areas with good ventilation.

  19. Radon Testing for Safe Schools Act. Report (To Accompany S. 1697) from the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works.

    This report was written to accompany the Radon Testing for Safe Schools Act (S.1697), a bill that provides for radon testing of schools located in high risk radon areas and provides limited financial assistance to schools for mitigation of high levels of radon. A description of radon, its harmful effects, and the radon levels detected in schools…

  20. Landslide susceptibility mapping for a landslide-prone area (Findikli, NE of Turkey) by likelihood-frequency ratio and weighted linear combination models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgun, Aykut; Dag, Serhat; Bulut, Fikri

    2008-05-01

    Landslides are very common natural problems in the Black Sea Region of Turkey due to the steep topography, improper use of land cover and adverse climatic conditions for landslides. In the western part of region, many studies have been carried out especially in the last decade for landslide susceptibility mapping using different evaluation methods such as deterministic approach, landslide distribution, qualitative, statistical and distribution-free analyses. The purpose of this study is to produce landslide susceptibility maps of a landslide-prone area (Findikli district, Rize) located at the eastern part of the Black Sea Region of Turkey by likelihood frequency ratio (LRM) model and weighted linear combination (WLC) model and to compare the results obtained. For this purpose, landslide inventory map of the area were prepared for the years of 1983 and 1995 by detailed field surveys and aerial-photography studies. Slope angle, slope aspect, lithology, distance from drainage lines, distance from roads and the land-cover of the study area are considered as the landslide-conditioning parameters. The differences between the susceptibility maps derived by the LRM and the WLC models are relatively minor when broad-based classifications are taken into account. However, the WLC map showed more details but the other map produced by LRM model produced weak results. The reason for this result is considered to be the fact that the majority of pixels in the LRM map have high values than the WLC-derived susceptibility map. In order to validate the two susceptibility maps, both of them were compared with the landslide inventory map. Although the landslides do not exist in the very high susceptibility class of the both maps, 79% of the landslides fall into the high and very high susceptibility zones of the WLC map while this is 49% for the LRM map. This shows that the WLC model exhibited higher performance than the LRM model.

  1. [Assessment on the ability of emergency response at the county center for disease control and prevention level in flooding-prone areas].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zeng, Guang

    2006-02-01

    To establish a comprehensive assessment model on the ability of emergency response within the public health system in flooding-prone areas. A hierarchy process theory was used to establish the initial assessing framework. Delphi method was used to screen and choose the ultimate indicators and their weights before an assessment model was set up under the 'synthetic scored method' to assess the ability of the emergency response among twenty county public health units. We then used the 'analysis of variation (ANOVA)' methodology to test the feasibility of distinguishing the ability of emergency response among different county health units and correlation analysis was used to assess the independence of indicators in the assessing model. A comprehensive model was then established including twenty first-class indicators and fifty-six second-class indicators and the degree of ability to emergency response with flooding of public health units was evaluated. There were five public health units having higher, ten having moderate but five with lower levels on emergency response. The assessment model was proved to be a good method in differentiating the ability of public health units, using independent indicators. The assessment model which we established seemed to be practical and reliable.

  2. A study on the correlation between soil radon potential and average indoor radon potential in Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Ford, Ken L

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to indoor radon is identified as the main source of natural radiation exposure to the population. Since radon in homes originates mainly from soil gas radon, it is of public interest to study the correlation between radon in soil and radon indoors in different geographic locations. From 2007 to 2010, a total of 1070 sites were surveyed for soil gas radon and soil permeability. Among the sites surveyed, 430 sites were in 14 cities where indoor radon information is available from residential radon and thoron surveys conducted in recent years. It is observed that indoor radon potential (percentage of homes above 200 Bq m -3 ; range from 1.5% to 42%) correlates reasonably well with soil radon potential (SRP: an index proportional to soil gas radon concentration and soil permeability; average SRP ranged from 8 to 26). In five cities where in-situ soil permeability was measured at more than 20 sites, a strong correlation (R 2  = 0.68 for linear regression and R 2  = 0.81 for non-linear regression) was observed between indoor radon potential and soil radon potential. This summary report shows that soil gas radon measurement is a practical and useful predictor of indoor radon potential in a geographic area, and may be useful for making decisions around prioritizing activities to manage population exposure and future land-use planning. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application Of Two Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Tomography Method For Delineating Cavities And Flowpath In Sinkhole Prone Area Of Armala Valley, Pokhara, Western Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhusal, U. C.; Dwivedi, S.; Ghimire, H.; Ulak, P. D.; Khatiwada, B.; Rijal, M. L.; Neupane, Y.; Aryal, S.; Pandey, D.; Gautam, A.; Mishra, S.

    2017-12-01

    Sudden release of turbid groundwater through piping in the Kali Khola and subsequent formation of over one hundred twenty sinkholes since 18 November, 2013 to May, 2014 in Armala Valley in northern part of Pokhara created havoc to the local residents. The main objective of the work is to investigate subsurface anomalies so as to locate the subsurface cavities, groundwater movement and areas prone to sinkholes formation in the area. Findings of the several studies and observations carried out in area by the authors and preventive measures carried out by Department of Water Induced Disaster Management are presented in the paper. To fulfill the objective 2D-Electrical Resistivity Tomography Survey was carried out at sixty five profiles with minimum electrode spacing from 1 m to 5 m on different profiles using WDJD-4 Resistivity meter. Res2Dinv Software was used for processing and interpretation of the acquired data. Geological mapping, preparation of columnar section of the sinkholes and river bank were conducted. Hand auguring, tracer test and topography survey were also carried out in the area. Different geophysical anomalies were identified in 2D-ERT survey which indicates the presence of compositional difference in layered sediments, undulations in depositional pattern with top humus layer of thickness 0.5 m, loose unconsolidated gravel layer 0.5 m - 4 m and clayey silt/silty clay layer upto 75 m depth. The cavities were found both in clayey silt layer and gravel layer with size ranging from 1-2 m to 10-12 m in depth and 2 m-10 m in diameter either empty or water filled depending on locations. Fifteen cavities that were detected during survey were excavated and immediately filled up. Three major and four minor groundwater flow paths were detected which has been later confirmed by tracer test, formation of new sinkholes along the path and during excavation for construction of underground structures for blocking the underground flow. Major flow path was detected at

  4. Radon detection

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-01-25

    A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element is described. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding. 3 figures.

  5. Radon detection

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A detector for atmospheric radon using a long range alpha detector as its sensing element. An electrostatic filter removes ions from ambient air, while allowing radon atoms to pass into a decay cavity. Here, radon atoms are allowed to decay, creating air ions. These air ions are drawn by a fan through a second electrostatic filter which can be activated or deactivated, and into the long range alpha detector. With the second electrostatic filter activated, no air ions are allowed to pass, and the signal output from the long range alpha detector consists of only the electronic background. With the second electrostatic filter deactivated, air ions and cosmic rays will be detected. The cosmic ray contribution can be minimized by shielding.

  6. Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations.

    PubMed

    Barros, Nirmalla; Field, Dan W; Steck, Daniel J; Field, R William

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the radon concentration at a particular home, or outdoor location, was a poor predictor of the radon concentration at a nearby workplace. Overall, 9.6 and 9.9 % of homes and workplace, respectively, exhibited radon concentrations of ≥148 Bq m(-3). Because of the percentage of workplace with elevated radon concentrations, the results suggest that additional surveys of workplace radon concentrations are needed, especially in areas of high radon potential, to assess the contribution of workplace radon exposure to an individual's overall radon exposure. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Comparative survey of outdoor, residential and workplace radon concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Nirmalla; Field, Dan W.; Steck, Daniel J.; Field, R. William

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated radon concentrations in above-ground (i.e. first floor) workplace in Missouri and compared them with above-ground radon concentrations in nearby homes and outdoor locations. This study also examined the potential utility of using home and outdoor radon concentrations to predict the radon concentration at a nearby workplace (e.g. county agencies and schools). Even though workplace radon concentrations were not statistically different from home radon concentrations, the radon concentration at a particular home, or outdoor location, was a poor predictor of the radon concentration at a nearby workplace. Overall, 9.6 and 9.9 % of homes and workplace, respectively, exhibited radon concentrations of ≥148 Bq m−3. Because of the percentage of workplace with elevated radon concentrations, the results suggest that additional surveys of workplace radon concentrations are needed, especially in areas of high radon potential, to assess the contribution of workplace radon exposure to an individual's overall radon exposure. PMID:24936021

  8. Radon 222

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Radon 222 ; CASRN 14859 - 67 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  9. Radon Testing in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Schools may be a significant source of radon exposure for children and staff. Describes radon detection kits and technologies, when to use them, and what action to take given the results of a radon test. (MLF)

  10. Radon: The Invisible Invader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Leader, 1987

    1987-01-01

    A brief background on indoor radon and the health risks associated with radon exposure, with special emphasis on nonresidential buildings. One school district's experience in radon testing and monitoring is included. (MLF)

  11. Radon in Schools

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radon Measurement in Schools Radon Prevention in the Design and Construction of Schools and Other Large Buildings ( ... techniques and quality assurance to address complicated building designs and specialized airflow. Protocols for Measuring Radon and ...

  12. Managing Radon in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA recommends testing all schools for radon. As part of an effective IAQ management program, schools can take simple steps to test for radon and reduce risks to occupants if high radon levels are found.

  13. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  14. Using a multi-method approach based on soil radon deficit, resistivity, and induced polarization measurements to monitor non-aqueous phase liquid contamination in two study areas in Italy and India.

    PubMed

    Castelluccio, Mauro; Agrahari, Sudha; De Simone, Gabriele; Pompilj, Francesca; Lucchetti, Carlo; Sengupta, Debashish; Galli, Gianfranco; Friello, Pierluigi; Curatolo, Pierpaolo; Giorgi, Riccardo; Tuccimei, Paola

    2018-05-01

    Geochemical and geophysical surveys employing radon deficit, resistivity, and induced polarization (IP) measurements were undertaken on soil contaminated with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in two different sites in India and in Italy. Radon deficit, validated through the comparison with average soil radon in reference unpolluted areas, shows the extension of contamination in the upper part of the unsaturated aquifers. In site 1 (Italy), the spill is not recent. A residual film of kerosene covers soil grains, inhibiting their chargeability and reducing electrical resistivity difference with background unpolluted areas. No correlation between the two parameters is observed. Soil volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentration is not linked with radon deficit, supporting the old age of the spillage. NAPL pollution in sites 2a and 2b (India) is more recent and probably still active, as demonstrated by higher values of electrical resistivity. A good correlation with IP values suggests that NAPL is still distributed as droplets or as a continuous phase in the pores, strengthening the scenario of a fresh spill or leakage. Residual fraction of gasoline in the pore space of sites 2a and 2b is respectively 1.5 and 11.8 kg per cubic meter of terrain. This estimation is referred to the shallower portion of the unsaturated aquifer. Electrical resistivity is still very high indicating that the gasoline has not been strongly degraded yet. Temperature and soil water content influence differently radon deficit in the three areas, reducing soil radon concentration and partly masking the deficit in sites 2a and 2b.

  15. Inhalation exposures due to radon and thoron ((222)Rn and (220)Rn): Do they differ in high and normal background radiation areas in India?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B K; Prajith, R; Rout, R P; Jalaluddin, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-09-01

    In India, High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) due to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil (thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium), are located along some parts of the coastal tracts viz. the coastal belt of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Odisha. It is conjectured that these deposits will result in higher emissions of radon isotopes ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) and their daughter products as compared to Normal Background Radiation Areas (NBRAs). While the annual external dose rates contributed by gamma radiations in these areas are about 5-10 times higher, the extent of increase in the inhalation dose rates attributable to (222)Rn and (220)Rn and their decay products is not well quantified. Towards this, systematic indoor surveys were conducted wherein simultaneous measurements of time integrated (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay product concentrations was carried out in around 800 houses in the HBRAs of Kerala and Odisha to estimate the inhalation doses. All gas measurements were carried out using pin-hole cup dosimeters while the progeny measurements were with samplers and systems based on the Direct radon/thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). To corroborate these passive measurements of decay products concentrations, active sampling was also carried out in a few houses. The results of the surveys provide a strong evidence to conclude that the inhalation doses due to (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay products in these HBRAs are in the same range as observed in the NBRAs in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radon measurement and mitigation activity in Finland.

    PubMed

    Valmari, T; Arvela, H; Reisbacka, H; Holmgren, O

    2014-07-01

    Radon prevention, measurement and mitigation activities have been increasing in Finland during the 2000s. Nowadays, many municipal authorities, especially those located in high-radon areas, require radon prevention measures. This has activated radon measurements. Owners of new houses having radon piping installed under the floor slab are the most active group to measure and reduce the found high-radon values. Their radon awareness is apparently better than on the average, and the existing piping makes it easier and cheaper to reduce the radon levels. Local campaigns involving invitation flyers mailed to the residents have been a cost-effective means to activate measurements of older houses. So far 116,611 dwellings in low-rise residential buildings have been measured. At least 15% of the 16,860 dwellings found to exceed the reference level of 400 Bq m(-3) had their indoor radon level reduced below that. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Experimental assessment of indoor radon and soil gas variability: the RADON project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, S. M.; Pereira, A. J. S. C.; Neves, L. J. P. F.; Steinitz, G.; Zafrir, H.; Donner, R.; Woith, H.

    2012-04-01

    Radon is a radioactive noble gas naturally present in the environment, particularly in soils derived from rocks with high uranium content. Radon is formed by alpha decay from radium within solid mineral grains, but can migrate via diffusion and/or advection into the air space of soils, as well as into groundwater and the atmosphere. The exhalation of radon from the pore space of porous materials into the atmosphere of indoor environments is well known to cause adverse health effects due to the inhalation of radon's short-lived decay products. The danger to human health is particularly acute in the case of poorly ventilated dwellings located in geographical areas of high radon potential. The RADON project, funded by the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT), aims to evaluate the temporal variability of radon in the soil and atmosphere and to examine the influence of meteorological effects in radon concentration. For that purpose an experimental monitoring station is being installed in an undisturbed dwelling located in a region of high radon potential near the old uranium mine of Urgeiriça (central Portugal). The rationale of the project, the set-up of the experimental radon monitoring station, and preliminary monitoring results will be presented.

  18. Comparison study and thoron interference test of different radon monitors.

    PubMed

    Sumesh, C G; Kumar, A Vinod; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

    2013-03-01

    A comparison study and thoron interference test for different continuous radon monitors were carried out. The comparison study includes three passive diffusion monitors [one pulse ionisation chamber based-Alpha Guard and two silicon semi-conductor based-Radon Scout Plus (RSP)] and one silicon semi-conductor-based active radon thoron discriminating monitor--RAD 7. Radon emanation standard, supplied by National Institute of Science and Technology, has been utilised for the comparison study to qualify the calibration of the continuous radon monitors. All the instruments showed good agreement with the estimated radon concentration using (226)Ra/(222)Rn emanation standard. It was found that the active radon monitoring system is having a higher initial response towards the transient radon concentration than the passive radon monitors studied. The instruments measuring radon concentration without energy discrimination are likely to have some sensitivity towards the thoron concentration. Thus, thoron interference study was carried out in the above monitors. Nine percent interference in measured radon concentration in the Alpha Guard monitor and 4 % interference in the semi-conductor-based RSP monitors was observed. Study indicates that the interference of thoron in radon monitors depends on the area of diffusion of gas, volume of detection and sensitivity factor.

  19. Radon Resources for Home Buyers and Sellers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Research Centers Radon Contact Us Share Radon Resources for Home Buyers and Sellers Radon Protection: Buying ... Radon-Resistant New Construction Radon and Real Estate Resources Home Buyer's/Seller's Guide to Radon Consumer's Guide ...

  20. A Geostatistical Approach to Assess the Spatial Association between Indoor Radon Concentration, Geological Features and Building Characteristics: The Case of Lombardy, Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Borgoni, Riccardo; Tritto, Valeria; Bigliotto, Carlo; de Bartolo, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Radon is a natural gas known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure and second to smoking, a major leading cause of lung cancer. The main source of radon is the soil, but the gas can enter buildings in many different ways and reach high indoor concentrations. Monitoring surveys have been promoted in many countries in order to assess the exposure of people to radon. In this paper, two complementary aspects are investigated. Firstly, we mapped indoor radon concentration in a large and inhomogeneous region using a geostatistical approach which borrows strength from the geologic nature of the soil. Secondly, knowing that geologic and anthropogenic factors, such as building characteristics, can foster the gas to flow into a building or protect against this, we evaluated these effects through a multiple regression model which takes into account the spatial correlation of the data. This allows us to rank different building typologies, identified by architectonic and geological characteristics, according to their proneness to radon. Our results suggest the opportunity to differentiate construction requirements in a large and inhomogeneous area, as the one considered in this paper, according to different places and provide a method to identify those dwellings which should be monitored more carefully. PMID:21655128

  1. A geostatistical approach to assess the spatial association between indoor radon concentration, geological features and building characteristics: the case of Lombardy, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Borgoni, Riccardo; Tritto, Valeria; Bigliotto, Carlo; de Bartolo, Daniela

    2011-05-01

    Radon is a natural gas known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure and second to smoking, a major leading cause of lung cancer. The main source of radon is the soil, but the gas can enter buildings in many different ways and reach high indoor concentrations. Monitoring surveys have been promoted in many countries in order to assess the exposure of people to radon. In this paper, two complementary aspects are investigated. Firstly, we mapped indoor radon concentration in a large and inhomogeneous region using a geostatistical approach which borrows strength from the geologic nature of the soil. Secondly, knowing that geologic and anthropogenic factors, such as building characteristics, can foster the gas to flow into a building or protect against this, we evaluated these effects through a multiple regression model which takes into account the spatial correlation of the data. This allows us to rank different building typologies, identified by architectonic and geological characteristics, according to their proneness to radon. Our results suggest the opportunity to differentiate construction requirements in a large and inhomogeneous area, as the one considered in this paper, according to different places and provide a method to identify those dwellings which should be monitored more carefully.

  2. STUDY OF RADON FLUX FROM SOIL IN BUDHAKEDAR REGION USING SRM.

    PubMed

    Bourai, A A; Aswal, Sunita; Kandari, Tushar; Kumar, Shiv; Joshi, Veena; Sahoo, B K; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the radon flux rate of the soil is measured using portable radon monitor (scintillation radon monitor) in the Budhakedar region of District Tehri, India. The study area falls along a fault zone named Main Central Thrust, which is relatively rich in radium-bearing minerals. Radon flux rate from the soil is one of the most important factors for the evaluation of environmental radon levels. The earlier studies in the Budhakedar region shows a high level of radon (>4000 Bq m -3 ). Hence, it is important to measure the radon flux rate. The aim of the present study is to calculate the average estimate of the surface radon flux rate as well as the effective mass exhalation rate. A positive correlation of 0.54 was found between radon flux rate and radon mass exhalation rate. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Comparative Measurements of Radon Concentration in Soil Using Passive and Active Methods in High Level Natural Radiation Area (HLNRA) of Ramsar

    PubMed Central

    Amanat, B; Kardan, M R; Faghihi, R; Hosseini Pooya, S M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radon and its daughters are amongst the most important sources of natural exposure in the world. Soil is one of the significant sources of radon/thoron due to both radium and thorium so that the emanated thoron from it may cause increased uncertainties in radon measurements. Recently, a diffusion chamber has been designed and optimized for passive discriminative measurements of radon/thoron concentrations in soil. Objective: In order to evaluate the capability of the passive method, some comparative measurements (with active methods) have been performed. Method: The method is based upon measurements by a diffusion chamber, including two Lexan polycarbonate SSNTDs, which can discriminate the emanated radon/thorn from the soil by delay method. The comparative measurements have been done in ten selected points of HLNRA of Ramsar in Iran. The linear regression and correlation between the results of two methods have been studied. Results: The results show that the radon concentrations are within the range of 12.1 to 165 kBq/m3 values. The correlation between the results of active and passive methods was measured by 0.99 value. As well, the thoron concentrations have been measured between 1.9 to 29.5 kBq/m3 values at the points. Conclusion: The sensitivity as well as the strong correlation with active measurements shows that the new low-cost passive method is appropriate for accurate seasonal measurements of radon and thoron concentration in soil. PMID:25505760

  4. Creating Geologically Based Radon Potential Maps for Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overfield, B.; Hahn, E.; Wiggins, A.; Andrews, W. M., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Radon potential in the United States, Kentucky in particular, has historically been communicated using a single hazard level for each county; however, physical phenomena are not controlled by administrative boundaries, so single-value county maps do not reflect the significant variations in radon potential in each county. A more accurate approach uses bedrock geology as a predictive tool. A team of nurses, health educators, statisticians, and geologists partnered to create 120 county maps showing spatial variations in radon potential by intersecting residential radon test kit results (N = 60,000) with a statewide 1:24,000-scale bedrock geology coverage to determine statistically valid radon-potential estimates for each geologic unit. Maps using geology as a predictive tool for radon potential are inherently more detailed than single-value county maps. This mapping project revealed that areas in central and south-central Kentucky with the highest radon potential are underlain by shales and karstic limestones.

  5. Radon Detection and Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David

    2004-11-01

    One of the daughter products of the naturally occuring U 238 decay chain is the colorless, odorless, inert gas radon. The daughter products of the radon, from Po 218 through Po 214, can remain in the lungs after breathing radon that has diffused into the atmosphere. Radon testing of homes before sale or purchase is necessary in many parts of the U.S. Testing can be accomplished by the simple procedure of exposing a canister of activated charcoal to the ambient air. Radon atoms in the air are adsorbed onto the surface of the charcoal, which is then sealed in the canister. Gamma rays of the daughter products of the radon, in particular Pb 214 and Bi 214, can then be detected in low background counting system. Radon remediation procedures are encouraged for radon activities in the air greater than 4 pCi/L.

  6. Radon Guide for Tenants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This guide is for people who rent their apartments or houses. The guide explains what radon is, and how to find out if there is a radon problem in your home. The guide also talks about what you can do if there are high radon levels in your home.

  7. Indoor radon and childhood leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises the epidemiological literature on domestic exposure to radon and risk for childhood leukaemia. The results of 12 ecological studies show a consistent pattern of higher incidence and mortality rates for childhood leukaemia in areas with higher average indoor radon concentrations. Although the results of such studies are useful to generate hypotheses, they must be interpreted with caution, as the data were aggregated and analysed for geographical areas and not for individuals. The seven available case-control studies of childhood leukaemia with measurement of radon concentrations in the residences of cases and controls gave mixed results, however, with some indication of a weak (relative risk < 2) association with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The epidemiological evidence to date suggests that an association between indoor exposure to radon and childhood leukaemia might exist, but is weak. More case-control studies are needed, with sufficient statistical power to detect weak associations and based on designs and methods that minimise misclassification of exposure and provide a high participation rate and low potential selection bias.

  8. The radon indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelsson, L.

    2005-11-01

    The radon indicator is an efficient instrument for measuring the radon daughter concentrations in a house or dwelling. Physics or environmental science students could build a radon indicator as a student project. Another possibility would be to use a radon indicator in a student investigation of radon levels in different houses. Finally the radon indicator is an excellent device for producing a radioactive source, free of charge, for the study of α-, β- and γ-radiation. The half-life of the activity collected is approximately 40 min. The radon indicator makes use of an electrostatic method by which charged particles are drawn to a small aluminium plate with a high negative voltage (-5 kV), thus creating a strong electric field between the plate and a surrounding copper wire. The radioactivity on the plate is subsequently measured by a GM-counter and the result calculated in Bq m-3. The collecting time is just 5.5 min and therefore the instrument is only suitable for use in a short-time method for indicating the radon concentration. An improved diagram, ground-radon and/or wall-radon in houses, is presented on the basis of the author's measurements recorded with the radon indicator over many years. This diagram is very useful when discussing how to reduce radiation levels in homes.

  9. Radon in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Weiffenbach, C; Anderson, H A

    2000-11-01

    Owners of about 15% to 20% of the homes in Wisconsin have tested their indoor air for the carcinogenic gas radon. Five percent to 10% of homes have year-average main-floor radon levels that exceed the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) exposure guideline, and they are found in most regions of the state. Attempting to retroactively seal foundations to keep radon from the ground out of a home is largely ineffective. However, a soil-depressurization radon mitigation system is highly effective for existing houses, and new homes can easily be built radon-resistant. As the number of homeowners obtaining needed repairs increases, significant lung cancer risk reduction is being achieved in a voluntary, non-regulatory setting. In coming years, as radon in community drinking water supplies becomes regulated under the federal 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act, the "multimedia" option of the act may result in additional attention to mitigation of radon in indoor air.

  10. Mapping the geogenic radon potential of the eastern Canary Islands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiano, Jesús G.; Alonso, Hector; Arnedo, Miguel. A.; Tejera, Alicia; Martel, Pablo; Gil, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Rafael; González, Jonay

    2014-05-01

    using a calibrated nomogram. As results, maps of radon in soils have been developed for the three islands to identify areas where may appear high activity concentrations of radon due to natural sources. Finally to determine the radon potential of soils analyzed we applied a procedure to classify the radon areas in several levels of risk using the measured values of radon activity concentration and soil permeability. Acknowledgments: This work was financed by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) through a grant in its R&D program 2009 and by the European Development Fund (ERDF) through a research project program 2007 granted by Canary Agency for Research, Innovation and Information Society (ACIISI) of the Canary Islands.

  11. Radon Exposure: Using the Spectrum of Prevention Framework to Increase Healthcare Provider Awareness.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Jane; Gibson, Phillip; Allen, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    The radioactive properties of radon have been known for decades, but the risks of exposure have been understated in most professional healthcare curriculums. Healthcare providers in areas with low levels of radon exposure may not consider radon to be a main source of concern in the development of lung and other cancers. Just as nurses counsel patients to avoid tobacco exposure, they should advocate that patients have their homes tested for radon. This article aims to increase radon awareness and address opportunities for providers to work toward various objectives to reduce radon exposure.
.

  12. Vegetation fire proneness in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Mário; Aranha, José; Amraoui, Malik

    2015-04-01

    Fire selectivity has been studied for vegetation classes in terms of fire frequency and fire size in a few European regions. This analysis is often performed along with other landscape variables such as topography, distance to roads and towns. These studies aims to assess the landscape sensitivity to forest fires in peri-urban areas and land cover changes, to define landscape management guidelines and policies based on the relationships between landscape and fires in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the objectives of this study includes the: (i) analysis of the spatial and temporal variability statistics within Europe; and, (ii) the identification and characterization of the vegetated land cover classes affected by fires; and, (iii) to propose a fire proneness index. The datasets used in the present study comprises: Corine Land Cover (CLC) maps for 2000 and 2006 (CLC2000, CLC2006) and burned area (BA) perimeters, from 2000 to 2013 in Europe, provided by the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS). The CLC is a part of the European Commission programme to COoRdinate INformation on the Environment (Corine) and it provides consistent, reliable and comparable information on land cover across Europe. Both the CLC and EFFIS datasets were combined using geostatistics and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques to access the spatial and temporal evolution of the types of shrubs and forest affected by fires. Obtained results confirms the usefulness and efficiency of the land cover classification scheme and fire proneness index which allows to quantify and to compare the propensity of vegetation classes and countries to fire. As expected, differences between northern and southern Europe are notorious in what concern to land cover distribution, fire incidence and fire proneness of vegetation cover classes. This work was supported by national funds by FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology, under the project PEst-OE/AGR/UI4033/2014 and by

  13. Uranium in Holocene valley-fill sediments, and uranium, radon, and helium in waters, Lake Tahoe-Carson Range area, Nevada and California, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Zielinski, R.A.; Been, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Uraniferous Holocene sediments occur in the Carson Range of Nevada and California, U.S.A., between Lake Tahoe and Carson Valley. The hosts for the uranium include peat and interbedded organic-rich sand, silt, and mud that underly valley floors, fens, and marshes along stream valleys between the crest of the range and the edge of Lake Tahoe. The known uranium accumulations extend along the Carson Range from the area just southeast of South Lake Tahoe northward to the area just east of Carson City; however, they almost certainly continue beyond the study area to the north, west, and south. Due to the young age of the accumulations, uranium in them is in gross disequilibrium with its highly radioactive daughter products. These accumulations have thus escaped discovery with radiation detection equipment in the past. The uranium content of these sediments approaches 0.6 percent; however, the average is in the range of 300-500 ppm. Waters associated with these sediments locally contain as much as 177 ppb uranium. Modest levels of helium and radon also occur in these waters. Uraniferous waters are clearly entering the private and public water supply systems in some parts of the study area; however, it is not known how much uranium is reaching users of these water supplies. Many of the waters sampled in the study area exceed the published health effects guidance level of the Environmental Protection Agency. Regulatory standards for uranium in waters have not been published, however. Much uranium is stored in the sediments along these stream valleys. Estimates for a marsh and a fen along one drainage are 24,000 and 15,000 kg, respectively. The potential effects of man-induced environmental changes on the uranium are uncertain. Laboratory studies of uraniferous sediment rich in organic matter may allow us to evaluate the potential of liberating uranium from such sediments and creating transient increases in the level of uranium moving in water in the natural environment

  14. Assessing exposure to granite countertops--Part 2: Radon.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; Minegishi, Taeko; Myatt, Theodore A; Stewart, James H; McCarthy, John F; Macintosh, David L

    2010-05-01

    Radon gas ((222)Rn) is a natural constituent of the environment and a risk factor for lung cancer that we are exposed to as a result of radioactive decay of radium ((226)Ra) in stone and soil. Granite countertops, in particular, have received recent media attention regarding their potential to emit radon. Radon flux was measured on 39 full slabs of granite from 27 different varieties to evaluate the potential for exposure and examine determinants of radon flux. Flux was measured at up to six pre-selected locations on each slab and also at areas identified as potentially enriched after a full-slab scan using a Geiger-Muller detector. Predicted indoor radon concentrations were estimated from the measured radon flux using the CONTAM indoor air quality model. Whole-slab average emissions ranged from less than limit of detection to 79.4 Bq/m(2)/h (median 3.9 Bq/m(2)/h), similar to the range reported in the literature for convenience samples of small granite pieces. Modeled indoor radon concentrations were less than the average outdoor radon concentration (14.8 Bq/m(3); 0.4 pCi/l) and average indoor radon concentrations (48 Bq/m(3); 1.3 pCi/l) found in the United States. Significant within-slab variability was observed for stones on the higher end of whole slab radon emissions, underscoring the limitations of drawing conclusions from discrete samples.

  15. Atmosphere purification of radon and radon daughter elements

    DOEpatents

    Stein, L.

    1974-01-01

    A method of removing radon and radon daughter elements from an atmosphere containing these elements by passing the atmosphere through a bed of fluorinating compound whereby the radon and radon daughters are oxidized to their respective fluorides is discussed. These fluorides adhere to the fluorinating compound and are thus removed from the atmosphere which may then be recirculated. A method for recovering radon and separating radon from its daughter elements is also described. (Official Gazette)

  16. Indoor Radon: The Deadliest Pollutant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the origin, occurrence, and effects of radon gas. Cites studies which attribute 5,000 to 20,000 deaths per year to radon exposure and the synergistic effect between radon and smoking. Explains ways to reduce risks. (RT)

  17. Radon exposure and leukaemia in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Viel, J F

    1993-08-01

    Positive associations between leukaemia and radon concentrations have been observed in England, Scotland and Wales, and Canada. Results of a similar study for the populations of 41 French administrative areas ('départements') are reported for 1984-1986. The average indoor radon and gamma ray concentrations per 'département' range from 12 to 147 Bq.m-3 and from 28 to 142 nG.h-1, respectively. Acute lymphoid leukaemia mortality rate is similar to the national level, whereas an excess of acute myeloid leukaemia deaths is observed. According to Poisson regression models and modified tests for partial correlation, acute myeloid leukaemia mortality is significantly and positively related to indoor radon concentration whether or not adjustment is made for indoor gamma ray dose, socioeconomic status and linear gradient. This result reinforces the evidence that indoor exposure to high levels of radon is a leukaemic environmental hazard.

  18. A quantitative analysis of microcirculation in sore-prone pressure areas on conventional and pressure relief hospital mattresses using laser Doppler flowmetry and tissue spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Rothenberger, Jens; Krauss, Sabrina; Held, Manuel; Bender, Dominik; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Constantinescu, Mihai Adrian; Jaminet, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Pressure ulcers are associated with severe impairment for the patients and high economic load. With this study we wanted to gain more insight to the skin perfusion dynamics due to external loading. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of different types of pressure relief mattresses. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Perfusion dynamics of the sacral and the heel area were assessed using the O2C-device, which combines a laser light, to determine blood flow, and white light to determine the relative amount of hemoglobin. Three mattresses were evaluated compared to a hard surface: a standard hospital foam mattress bed, a visco-elastic foam mattress, and an air-fluidized bed. In the heel area, only the air-fluidized bed was able to maintain the blood circulation (mean blood flow of 13.6 ± 6 versus 3.9 ± 3 AU and mean relative amount of hemoglobin of 44.0 ± 14 versus 32.7 ± 12 AU.) In the sacral area, all used mattresses revealed an improvement of blood circulation compared to the hard surface. The results of this study form a more precise pattern of perfusion changes due to external loading on various pressure relief mattresses. This knowledge may reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers and may be an influencing factor in pressure relief mattress selection. Copyright © 2014 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radon assay and purification techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Simgen, Hardy

    Radon is a source of background in many astroparticle physics experiments searching for rare low energy events. In this paper an overview about radon in the field is given including radon detection techniques, radon sources and material screening with respect to radon emanation. Finally, also the problem of long-lived radioactive {sup 222}Rn-daughters and the question of gas purification from radon is addressed.

  20. Radon assay and purification techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simgen, Hardy

    2013-08-01

    Radon is a source of background in many astroparticle physics experiments searching for rare low energy events. In this paper an overview about radon in the field is given including radon detection techniques, radon sources and material screening with respect to radon emanation. Finally, also the problem of long-lived radioactive 222Rn-daughters and the question of gas purification from radon is addressed.

  1. Landslide susceptibility modeling in a landslide prone area in Mazandarn Province, north of Iran: a comparison between GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Rossi, Mauro

    2017-10-01

    Landslides are identified as one of the most important natural hazards in many areas throughout the world. The essential purpose of this study is to compare general linear model (GLM), general additive model (GAM), multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS), and modified analytical hierarchy process (M-AHP) models and assessment of their performances for landslide susceptibility modeling in the west of Mazandaran Province, Iran. First, landslides were identified by interpreting aerial photographs, and extensive field works. In total, 153 landslides were identified in the study area. Among these, 105 landslides were randomly selected as training data (i.e. used in the models training) and the remaining 48 (30 %) cases were used for the validation (i.e. used in the models validation). Afterward, based on a deep literature review on 220 scientific papers (period between 2005 and 2012), eleven conditioning factors including lithology, land use, distance from rivers, distance from roads, distance from faults, slope angle, slope aspect, altitude, topographic wetness index (TWI), plan curvature, and profile curvature were selected. The Certainty Factor (CF) model was used for managing uncertainty in rule-based systems and evaluation of the correlation between the dependent (landslides) and independent variables. Finally, the landslide susceptibility zonation was produced using GLM, GAM, MARS, and M-AHP models. For evaluation of the models, the area under the curve (AUC) method was used and both success and prediction rate curves were calculated. The evaluation of models for GLM, GAM, and MARS showed 90.50, 88.90, and 82.10 % for training data and 77.52, 70.49, and 78.17 % for validation data, respectively. Furthermore, The AUC value of the produced landslide susceptibility map using M-AHP showed a training value of 77.82 % and validation value of 82.77 % accuracy. Based on the overall assessments, the proposed approaches showed reasonable results for landslide

  2. Risk of leukaemia or cancer in the central nervous system among children living in an area with high indoor radon concentrations: results from a cohort study in Norway.

    PubMed

    Del Risco Kollerud, R; Blaasaas, K G; Claussen, B

    2014-09-23

    Over the past few years, there has been growing interest in assessing the relationship between exposure to radon at home and the risk of childhood cancer. Previous studies have produced conflicting results, probably because of limitations assessing radon exposure, too few cancer cases and poorly documented health statistics. We used a cohort approach of 0-15-year-old children to examine whether residential radon exposure was associated with childhood leukaemia and cancer in the central nervous system in the Oslo region. The study was based on Norwegian population registers and identified cancer cases from The Cancer Registry of Norway. The residence of every child was geo-coded and assigned a radon exposure. In all, 712 674 children were followed from 1967 to 2009 from birth to date of cancer diagnosis, death, emigration or 15 years of age. A total of 864 cancer cases were identified, 437 children got leukaemia and 427 got cancer in the central nervous system.Conclusions or interpretation:No association was found for childhood leukaemia. An elevated nonsignificant risk for cancer in the central nervous system was observed. This association should be interpreted with caution owing to the crude exposure assessment and possibilities of confounding.

  3. Risk of leukaemia or cancer in the central nervous system among children living in an area with high indoor radon concentrations: results from a cohort study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Del Risco Kollerud, R; Blaasaas, K G; Claussen, B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past few years, there has been growing interest in assessing the relationship between exposure to radon at home and the risk of childhood cancer. Previous studies have produced conflicting results, probably because of limitations assessing radon exposure, too few cancer cases and poorly documented health statistics. Methods: We used a cohort approach of 0–15-year-old children to examine whether residential radon exposure was associated with childhood leukaemia and cancer in the central nervous system in the Oslo region. The study was based on Norwegian population registers and identified cancer cases from The Cancer Registry of Norway. The residence of every child was geo-coded and assigned a radon exposure. Results: In all, 712 674 children were followed from 1967 to 2009 from birth to date of cancer diagnosis, death, emigration or 15 years of age. A total of 864 cancer cases were identified, 437 children got leukaemia and 427 got cancer in the central nervous system. Conclusions or interpretation: No association was found for childhood leukaemia. An elevated nonsignificant risk for cancer in the central nervous system was observed. This association should be interpreted with caution owing to the crude exposure assessment and possibilities of confounding. PMID:25117818

  4. Towards spatially distributed flood forecasts in flash flood prone areas: application to the supervision of a road network in the South of France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naulin, Jean-Philippe; Payrastre, Olivier; Gaume, Eric; Delrieu, Guy

    2013-04-01

    Accurate flood forecasts are crucial for an efficient flood event management. Until now, hydro-meteorological forecasts have been mainly used for early-warnings in France (Meteorological and flood vigilance maps) or over the world (Flash-flood guidances). These forecasts are generally limited to the main streams covered by the flood forecasting services or to specific watersheds with particular assets like check dams which are in most cases well gauged river sections, leaving aside large parts of the territory. A distributed hydro-meteorological forecasting approach will be presented, able to take advantage of the high spatial and temporal resolution rainfall estimates that are now available to provide information at ungauged sites. The proposed system aiming at detecting road inundation risks had been initially developed and tested in areas of limited size. Its extension to a whole region (the Gard region in the South of France) will be presented, including over 2000 crossing points between rivers and roads and its validation against a large data set of actually reported road inundations observed during recent flash-flood events. These first validation results appear promising. Such a tool would provide the necessary information for flood event management services to identify the areas at risk and to take the appropriate safety and rescue measures: pre-positioning of rescue means, stopping of the traffic on exposed roads, determination of safe accesses or evacuation routes. Moreover, beyond the specific application to the supervision of a road network, this work provides also results concerning the performances of hydro-meteorological forecasts for ungauged headwaters.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A RADON PROTECTION MAP FOR LARGE BUILDINGS IN FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of a radon protection map to show from soil and geological features the areas of Florida that require different levels of Radon protection for large building construction. The map was proposed as a basis for implementing radon-protective const...

  6. Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) for monitoring earthquake prone areas by satellite TIR observations: The case of 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake (Taiwan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzano, N.; Filizzola, C.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2015-12-01

    For more than 13 years a multi-temporal data-analysis method, named Robust Satellite Techniques (RST), has been being applied to satellite Thermal InfraRed (TIR) monitoring of seismically active regions. It gives a clear definition of a TIR anomaly within a validation/confutation scheme devoted to verify if detected anomalies can be associated or not to the time and location of the occurrence of major earthquakes. In this scheme, the confutation part (i.e. verifying if similar anomalies do not occur in the absence of a significant seismic activity) assumes a role even much important than the usual validation component devoted to verify the presence of anomalous signal transients before (or in association with) specific seismic events. Since 2001, RST approach has been being used to study tens of earthquakes with a wide range of magnitudes (from 4.0 to 7.9) occurred in different continents and in various geo-tectonic settings. In this paper such a long term experience is exploited in order to give a quantitative definition of a significant sequence of TIR anomalies (SSTA) in terms of the required space-time continuity constraints (persistence), identifying also the different typologies of known spurious sequences of TIR anomalies that have to be excluded from the following validation steps. On the same basis, taking also into account for the physical models proposed for justifying the existence of a correlation between TIR anomalies and earthquakes occurrence, specific validation rules (in line with the ones used by the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability - CSEP - Project) have been defined to drive the validation process. In this work, such an approach is applied for the first time to a long-term dataset of night-time GMS-5/VISSR (Geostationary Meteorological Satellite/Visible and Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer) TIR measurements, comparing SSTAs and earthquakes with M > 4 which occurred in a wide area around Taiwan, in the month of September of

  7. Recent land-use and land-cover changes and its driving factors in a fire-prone area of southwestern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Viedma, Olga; Moreno, José M; Güngöroglu, Cumhur; Cosgun, Ufuk; Kavgacı, Ali

    2017-07-15

    During the last decades, contrasted trends in forest fires among countries around the Mediterranean basin have been observed. In the northern/western countries, Land Use-Land Cover (LULC) changes led to more hazardous landscapes, with consequent increases in fires. This contrasted with fire trends in southern/eastern countries. The recent incidence of large fires in some of the latter prompted the question of whether they are now following the path of their neighbors decades earlier. In this study, we investigated recent LULC changes in southwestern Turkey, focusing on those that could affect fire, and the factors driving them. To this end, LULC maps at different time steps (1975, 1990, 2000 and 2010) were obtained from Landsat images, together with relevant socioeconomic data. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) were applied to assess the effects of socioeconomic and geophysical factors on the dominant LULC changes over time. Over the whole period studied, the most important LULC changes were deforestation followed by afforestation. Deforestation was positively related to high livestock density and proximity to villages and increased forest interfaces with other LULC types. We found no evidence that LULC changes were making the landscape more hazardous as there was a net decrease in fuels biomass and the landscape became more fragmented over time. However, despite the area being heavily used and relatively fragmented, large fires can occur driven by severe weather. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. More Than Fear Induction: Toward an Understanding of People's Motivation to Be Well-Prepared for Emergencies in Flood-Prone Areas.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Joop; Botzen, W J Wouter; Terpstra, Teun

    2015-03-01

    This article examines the extent and manner to which evaluations of flood-related precautions are affected by an individual's motivation and perception of context. It argues that the relationship between risk perception and flood risk preparedness can be fruitfully specified in terms of vulnerability and efficacy if these concepts are put into the perspective of prevention-focused motivation. This relationship was empirically examined in a risk communication experiment in a delta area of the Netherlands (n = 1,887). Prevention-focused motivation was induced by contextualized risk information. The results showed that prevention-focused individuals were more sensitive to the relevance of potential precautions for satisfying their needs in the context they found themselves in. The needs included, but were not limited to, fear reduction. Due to the heterogeneity of the residents, the evaluations reflected individual differences in the intensity and the selectivity of precautionary processes. Four types of persons could be distinguished according to their evaluation of precautionary measures: a high-scoring minority, two more selective types, and a low-scoring minority. For policymakers and risk communicators it is vital to consider the nature of prevention motivation and the context in which it is likely to be high. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. How prepared individuals and communities are for evacuation in tsunami-prone areas in Europe? Findings from the ASTARTE EU Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, Franck; Grancher, Delphine; Goeldner-Gianella, Lydie; Karanci, Nuray; Dogulu, Nilay; Kanoglu, Utku; Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano; Papageorgiou, Antonia; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Constantin, Angela; Moldovan, Iren; El Mouraouah, Azelarab; Benchekroun, Sabah; Birouk, Abdelouahad

    2016-04-01

    Understanding social vulnerability to tsunamis provides risk managers with the required information to determine whether individuals have the capacity to evacuate, and therefore to take mitigation measures to protect their communities. In the frame of the EU programme ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), we conducted a questionnaire-based survey among 1,661 people from 41 nationalities living in, working in, or visiting 10 Test Sites from 9 different countries. The questions, which have been translated in 11 languages, focused on tsunami hazard awareness, risk perception, and knowledge of the existing warning systems. Our results confirm our initial hypothesis that low attention is paid in Europe to tsunami risk. Among all type of hazards, either natural or not, tsunami rank first in only one site (Lyngen fjord in Norway), rank third in 3 other sites (Eforie Nord in Romania, Nice and Istanbul), rank 4 in Gulluk Bay, 5 in Sines and Heraklion, and 10 in Siracusa (Sicily) and San Jordi (Balearic Islands). Whatever the respondent's status (i.e. local population, local authorities, or tourists), earthquakes and drawdown of the sea are cited as tsunami warning signs by 43% and 39% of the respondents, respectively. Therefore self-evacuation is not expected for more than half of the population. Considering that most European countries have no early warning system for tsunamis, a disaster is likely to happen in any coastal area exposed to this specific hazard. Furthermore, knowledge of past tsunami events is also very limited: only 22% of people stated that a tsunami has occurred in the past, whereas a deadly tsunami occurs every century in the Mediterranean Sea (e.g. in AD 365, 1660, 1672 or 1956 in the eastern part, 1908, 1979 or 2003 in the western part), and high tsunami waves devastated the Portugal and Moroccan coasts in 1755. Despite this lack of knowledge and awareness of past events, 62% of the respondents think that the site of

  10. Radon exhalation rates from building materials using electret ion chamber radon monitors in accumulators.

    PubMed

    Kotrappa, Payasada; Stieff, Frederick

    2009-08-01

    An electret ion chamber (EIC) radon monitor in a sealed accumulator measures the integrated average radon concentration at the end of the accumulation duration. Theoretical equations have been derived to relate such radon concentrations (Bq m(-3) ) to the radon emanation rate (Bq d(-1)) from building materials enclosed in the accumulator. As an illustration, a 4-L sealable glass jar has been used as an accumulator to calculate the radon emanation rate from different granite samples. The radon emanation rate was converted into radon flux (Bq mm(-2) d(-1)) by dividing the emanation rate by surface area of the sample. Fluxes measured on typical, commercially available granites ranged from 20-30 Bq m(-2) d(-1). These results are similar to the results reported in the literature. The lower limit of detection for a 2-d measurement works out to be 7 Bq m(-2) d(-1). Equations derived can also be used for other sealable accumulators and other integrating detectors, such as alpha track detectors.

  11. Atmosphere purification of radon and radon daughter elements

    DOEpatents

    Stein, L.

    1973-12-11

    A method for purifying an atmosphere of radon and radon daughter elements which may be contained therein by contacting the atmosphere with a fluorinating solution, whereby the radon and radon daughters are oxidized to their respective fluorides is discussed. The fluorides dissolve in the fluorinating solutlon and are removed from the atmosphere, which may then be recirculated. (Official Gazette)

  12. Radon exposures in a Jerusalem public school.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, E D; Neeman, E; Fischer, I; Berdugo, M; Westin, J B; Kleinstern, J; Margaliot, M

    1997-01-01

    In December 1995, ambient radon levels exceeding 10,000 Bq/m3 were measured in a basement shelter workroom of a multilevel East Talpiot, Jerusalem, public elementary school (six grades, 600 students). The measurements were taken after cancers (breast and multiple myeloma) were diagnosed in two workers who spent their workdays in basement rooms. The school was located on a hill that geologic maps show to be rich in phosphate deposits, which are a recognized source for radon gas and its daughter products. Levels exceeding 1000,000 Bq/m3 were measured at the mouth of a pipe in the basement shelter workroom, the major point of radon entry. The school was closed and charcoal and electret ion chamber detectors were used to carry out repeated 5-day measurements in all rooms in the multilevel building over a period of several months. Radon concentrations were generally higher in rooms in the four levels of the building that were below ground level. There were some ground-level rooms in the building in which levels reached up to 1300 Bq/m3. In rooms above ground level, however, peak levels did not exceed 300 Bq/m3. Exposure control based on sealing and positive pressure ventilation was inadequate. These findings suggested that radon diffused from highly contaminated basement and ground-floor rooms to other areas of the building and that sealing off the source may have led to reaccumulation of radon beneath the building. Later, subslab venting of below-ground radon pockets to the outside air was followed by more sustained reductions in indoor radon levels to levels below 75 Bq/m3. Even so, radon accumulated in certain rooms when the building was closed. This sentinel episode called attention to the need for a national radon policy requiring threshold exposure levels for response and control. A uniform nationwide standard for school buildings below 75 Bq/m3 level was suggested after considering prudent avoidance, the controversies over risk assessment of prolonged low

  13. Citizen's Guide to Radon: The Guide to Protecting Yourself and Your Family from Radon

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radon: The Guide to Protecting Yourself and Your Family from Radon Contains basic information about Radon in ... Radon Zones and State Contact Information Individuals and Families Radon Publications Home Buyers and Sellers Builders and ...

  14. LARGE BUILDING RADON MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes information on how bilding systems -- especially the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system -- inclurence radon entry into large buildings and can be used to mitigate radon problems. It addresses the fundamentals of large building HVAC syst...

  15. Community Development in Drought-Prone Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belakere, Ramegowda; Jayaramaiah, K. M.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 100 farmers and 120 government development workers in India showed that farmers felt seeds, fertilizer, and relief employment were inadequate, while livestock feeding and soil/water conservation were helpful government interventions for drought. A large gap appeared between farmers' and government workers' perceptions of the…

  16. Accident proneness : a research review.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-05-01

    Accident proneness is a concept that refers to an enduring or stable personality characteristic that predisposes an individual toward having accidents (Haddon, Suchman, and Klein, 1964). The concept is controversial and has sustained a lively debate ...

  17. Annual variation in the atmospheric radon concentration in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Yasuoka, Yumi; Omori, Yasutaka; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Sanada, Tetsuya; Muto, Jun; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Homma, Yoshimi; Ihara, Hayato; Kubota, Kazuhito; Mukai, Takahiro

    2015-08-01

    Anomalous atmospheric variations in radon related to earthquakes have been observed in hourly exhaust-monitoring data from radioisotope institutes in Japan. The extraction of seismic anomalous radon variations would be greatly aided by understanding the normal pattern of variation in radon concentrations. Using atmospheric daily minimum radon concentration data from five sampling sites, we show that a sinusoidal regression curve can be fitted to the data. In addition, we identify areas where the atmospheric radon variation is significantly affected by the variation in atmospheric turbulence and the onshore-offshore pattern of Asian monsoons. Furthermore, by comparing the sinusoidal regression curve for the normal annual (seasonal) variations at the five sites to the sinusoidal regression curve for a previously published dataset of radon values at the five Japanese prefectures, we can estimate the normal annual variation pattern. By fitting sinusoidal regression curves to the previously published dataset containing sites in all Japanese prefectures, we find that 72% of the Japanese prefectures satisfy the requirements of the sinusoidal regression curve pattern. Using the normal annual variation pattern of atmospheric daily minimum radon concentration data, these prefectures are suitable areas for obtaining anomalous radon variations related to earthquakes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radon mitigation in domestic properties and its health implications--a comparison between during-construction and post-construction radon reduction.

    PubMed

    Groves-Kirkby, C J; Denman, A R; Phillips, P S; Crockett, R G M; Woolridge, A C; Tornberg, R

    2006-05-01

    Although United Kingdom (UK) Building Regulations applicable to houses constructed since 1992 in Radon Affected Areas address the health issues arising from the presence of radon in domestic properties and specify the installation of radon-mitigation measures during construction, no legislative requirement currently exists for monitoring the effectiveness of such remediation once construction is completed and the houses are occupied. To assess the relative effectiveness of During-Construction radon reduction and Post-Construction remediation, radon concentration data from houses constructed before and after 1992 in Northamptonshire, UK, a designated Radon Affected Area, was analysed. Post-Construction remediation of 73 pre-1992 houses using conventional fan-assisted sump technology proved to be extremely effective, with radon concentrations reduced to the Action Level, or below, in all cases. Of 64 houses constructed since 1992 in a well-defined geographical area, and known to have had radon-barrier membranes installed during construction, 11% exhibited radon concentrations in excess of the Action Level. This compares with the estimated average for all houses in the same area of 17%, suggesting that, in some 60% of the houses surveyed, installation of a membrane has not resulted in reduction of mean annual radon concentrations to below the Action Level. Detailed comparison of the two data sets reveals marked differences in the degree of mitigation achieved by remediation. There is therefore an ongoing need for research to resolve definitively the issue of radon mitigation and to define truly effective anti-radon measures, readily installed in domestic properties at the time of construction. It is therefore recommended that mandatory testing be introduced for all new houses in Radon Affected Areas.

  19. Measurement of Radon Concentration in Selected Houses in Ibadan, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usikalu, M. R.; Olatinwo, V.; Akpochafor, M.; Aweda, M. A.; Giannini, G.; Massimo, V.

    2017-05-01

    Radon is a natural radioactive gas without colour or odour and tasteless. The World Health Organization (WHO) grouped radon as a human lung carcinogen. For this reason, there has been a lot of interest on the effects of radon exposure to people all over the world and Nigeria is no exception. The aim of this study is to investigate the radon concentration in selected houses in three local government areas of Ibadan. The indoor radon was measured in both mud and brick houses. Fifty houses were considered from the three Local government areas. A calibrated portable continuous radon monitor type (RAD7) manufactured by Durridge company was used for the measurement. A distance of 100 to 200 m was maintained between houses in all the locations. The living room was kept closed during the measurements. The mean radon concentration measured in Egbeda is 10.54 ±1.30 Bqm -3; Lagelu is 16.90 ± 6.31 Bqm -3 and Ona-Ara is 17.95 ± 1.72 Bqm -3. The mean value of the annual absorbed dose and annual effective dose for the locations in the three local government areas was 0.19 mSvy-1 and 0.48 mSvy-1 respectively. The radon concentration for location 10 in Ono-Ara local government exceeded the recommended limit. However, the overall average indoor radon concentration of the three local governments was found to be lower than the world average value of 40 Bqm -3. Hence, there is need for proper awareness about the danger of radon accumulation in dwelling places.

  20. Laterality, spatial abilities, and accident proneness.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.

  1. First Map of Residential Indoor Radon Measurements in Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, M; Aliyev, C S; Feyzullayev, A A; Baghirli, R J; Veliyeva, F F; Pampuri, L; Valsangiacomo, C; Tollefsen, T; Cinelli, G

    2017-06-15

    This article describes results of the first measurements of indoor radon concentrations in Azerbaijan, including description of the methodology and the mathematical and statistical processing of the results obtained. Measured radon concentrations varied considerably: from almost radon-free houses to around 1100 Bq m-3. However, only ~7% of the total number of measurements exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations. Based on these data, maps of the distribution of volumetric activity and elevated indoor radon concentrations in Azerbaijan were created. These maps reflect a mosaic character of distribution of radon and enhanced values that are confined to seismically active areas at the intersection of an active West Caspian fault with sub-latitudinal faults along the Great and Lesser Caucasus and the Talysh mountains. Spatial correlation of radon and temperature behavior is also described. The data gathered on residential indoor radon have been integrated into the European Indoor Radon Map. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. [Patients' exposure to electromagnetic fields and radon in radon spas].

    PubMed

    Politański, Piotr; Olszewski, Jerzy; Mamrot, Paweł; Mariańska, Mlagda; Zmyślony, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Many patients of physiotherapeutic facilities using therapeutic radon are also referred to other treatments involving the use of electromagnetic field (EMF). However, in the light of the theory of EMF influence on free radicals, it is still an open question whether, application of EMF shortly after the radon treatment may alter the biological effects of radon or EMF. The aim of the study was to determine how large is the group of patients exposed to radon and EMF in Poland, and how high is the exposure of these patients to analyzed factors. The results of the study are to be used in the future assessment of the combined effects of radon and EMF in radon spas. Based on the statistical data and interviews held in the major Polish radon spas, the analysis of treatment structure was performed and exposure to radon and EMF was assessed by measuring radon concentrations and characteristic values of exposure to EMF. More than 8000 people per year are subjected to combined exposure to radon and EMF. Significant differences were found between measured radon concentrations (they ranged from approximately 61 kBq/m3 for inhalations with inhaler to only 290 Bq/m3 for graduation towers, p = 0.049) and EMF intensities corresponded to those observed in hazardous and dangerous zones for occupational exposure. The results of the study showed significant differences between radon concentrations during various radon treatments. There is a need to develop clear and universal procedures for the application of radon or radon combined with EMF in radon spas. The effects of patients' exposure to radon, especially combined with EMF need to be further studied.

  3. The mathematical model of radon-222 accumulation in underground mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimshin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Necessity to control underground mine air radon level arises during building and operating mines as well as auto and railway tunnels including those for metros. Calculation of underground mine air radon level can be fulfilled for estimation of potential radon danger of area for underground structure building. In this work the new mathematical model of radon accumulation in underground mines has been suggested. It takes into consideration underground mine dimensions, air exchange factor and soils ability to emanate radon. The following assumptions have been taken for model development. It is assumed that underground mine is a cylinder of length L and of base area S. Due to ventilation atmosphere air of volume activity Catm, is coming in through one cylinder base and is going out of volume activity Cind from underground mine. Diffusion radon flux is coming in through side surfaces of underground mine. The sources of this flux are radium-226 atoms distributed evenly in rock. For simplification of the task it considered possible to disregard radon emanation by loosened rock and underground waters. As a result of solution of the radon diffusion equation the following expression for calculation of radon volume activity in underground space air has been got: 2·r0 ·λv ·Catm-·l·K0(r0/l)-+D-·K1(r0/l)·C0- Cind = 2·(λ+ λv)·r0 ·l·K0 (r0/l)+ D ·K1(r0/l) . The following designations are used in this expression: Kν(r) - the second genus modified Bessel's function, C0 - equilibrium radon volume activity in soil air, l - diffusion radon length in soil, D - radon diffusion factor, r0 - radius of underground tunnel, λv - factor of air exchange. Expression found may be used for calculation of the minimum factor of necessary air exchange for ensuring safe radon levels in underground spaces. With this worked out model expected levels of radon volume activity were calculated for air in the second metro line underground spaces in the city of Yekaterinburg, Russia.

  4. Boredom proneness in pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Blaszczynski, A; McConaghy, N; Frankova, A

    1990-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that pathological gamblers seek stimulation as a means of reducing aversive under-aroused states of boredom and/or depression, the Beck Depression Inventory, Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale and a Boredom Proneness Scale were administered to 48 diagnosed pathological gamblers and a control group of 40 family physician patients. Analyses of variance showed pathological gamblers obtained significantly higher boredom proneness and depression scores than those of controls. That the Boredom Proneness Scale failed to correlate with the Zuckerman Boredom Susceptibility subscale suggested the two measure differing dimensions. Results indicated the possible existence of three subtypes of pathological gamblers, one group characterized by boredom, another by depression, and a third by a mixture of both depression and boredom.

  5. Recommendations for Radon Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report, undertaken upon the initiative of the Radiation Advisory Committee, is the first Science Advisory Board report to look at the entire field of radon research and the contribution additional scientific understanding can make on EPA's policies.

  6. RADON DIAGNOSTICS FOR SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a systematic approach to conducting radondiagnostics in schools. t provides those with radon mitigationexperience in houses with an understanding of the major differencesbetween schools and houses and how these differences influenceradon diagnostics in schools...

  7. Health Risk of Radon

    MedlinePlus

    ... related lung cancer in women. Top of Page Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VI Report: "The ... of Sciences' (NAS) latest report on radon, the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VI Report (1999). ...

  8. Influence of meteorological parameters on the soil radon (Rn222) emanation in Kutch, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sushanta Ku; Katlamudi, Madhusudhanarao; Shaji, Jerin P; Murali Krishna, K S; Udaya Lakshmi, G

    2018-02-02

    The soil radon (Rn 222 ) and thoron (Rn 220 ) concentrations recorded at Badargadh and Desalpar observatories in the Kutch region of Gujarat, India, have been analyzed to study the sources of the radon emissions, earthquake precursors, and the influence of meteorological parameters on radon emission. Radon and meteorological parameters were recorded using Radon Monitor RMT 1688-2 at these two stations. We used the radon data during February 21, 2011 to June 8, 2011, for Badargadh and March 2, 2011 to May 19, 2011, for the Desalpar station with a sampling interval of 10 min. It is observed that the radon concentrations at Desalpar varies between 781 and 4320 Bq m -3 with an average value of 2499 Bq m -3 , whereas thoron varies between 191 and 2017 Bq m -3 with an average value of 1433.69 Bq m -3 . The radon concentration at Badargadh varies between 264 and 2221 Bq m -3 with an average value of 1135.4 Bq m -3 , whereas thoron varies between 97 and 556 Bq m -3 . To understand how the meteorological parameters influence radon emanation, the radon and other meteorological parameters were correlated with linear regression analysis. Here, it was observed that radon and temperature are negatively correlated whereas radon and other two parameters, i.e., humidity and pressure are positively correlated. The cross correlogram also ascertains similar relationships between radon and other parameters. Further, the ratio between radon and thoron has been analyzed to determine the deep or shallow source of the radon emanation in the study area. These results revealed that the ratio radon/thoron enhanced during this period which indicates the deeper source contribution is prominent. Incidentally, all the local earthquakes occurred with a focal depth of 18-25 km at the lower crust in this region. We observed the rise in the concentrations of radon and the ratio radon/thoron at Badargadh station before the occurrence of the local earthquakes on 29th March 2011 (M 3

  9. Radon Levels in Nurseries and Primary Schools in Bragança District-Preliminary Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sousa, S I V; Branco, P T B S; Nunes, R A O; Alvim-Ferraz, M C M; Martins, F G

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has been associated with radon concentration even at low levels such as those found in dwellings. This study aimed to (i) determine radon diurnal variations in three nurseries and one primary school in the Bragança district (north of Portugal) and (ii) compare radon concentrations with legislated standards and assess the legislated procedures. Radon was measured in three nurseries and a primary school in a rural area with nongranite soil. Measurements were performed continuously to examine differences between occupation and nonoccupation periods. Indoor temperature and relative humidity were also measured continuously. A great variability was found in radon concentrations between the microenvironments examined. Radon concentrations surpassed by severalfold the recommended guidelines and thresholds, and excessive levels of health concern were sporadically found (361.5-753.5 Bq m(-3)). Thus, it is of importance to perform a national campaign on radon measurements and to reduce exposure.

  10. The use of mapped geology as a predictor of radon potential in Norway.

    PubMed

    Watson, Robin J; Smethurst, Mark A; Ganerød, Guri V; Finne, Ingvild; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2017-01-01

    Radon exposure is considered to cause several hundred fatalities from lung-cancer each year in Norway. A national map identifying areas which are likely to be exposed to elevated radon concentrations would be a useful tool for decision-making authorities, and would be particularly important in areas where only few indoor radon measurements exist. An earlier Norwegian study (Smethurst et al. 2008) produced radon hazard maps by examining the relationship between airborne gamma-ray spectrometry, bedrock and drift geology, and indoor radon. The study was limited to the Oslo region where substantial indoor radon and airborne equivalent uranium datasets were available, and did not attempt to test the statistical significance of relationships, or to quantify the confidence of its predictions. While it can be anticipated that airborne measurements may have useful predictive power for indoor radon, airborne measurement coverage in Norway is at present sparse; to provide national coverage of radon hazard estimates, a good understanding of the relationship between geology and indoor radon is therefore important. In this work we use a new enlarged (n = 34,563) form of the indoor radon dataset with national coverage, and we use it to examine the relationship between geology and indoor radon concentrations. We use this relationship to characterise geological classes by their radon potential, and we produce a national radon hazard map which includes confidence limits on the likelihood of areas having elevated radon concentrations, and which covers the whole of mainland Norway, even areas where little or no indoor radon data are available. We find that bedrock and drift geology classes can account for around 40% of the total observed variation in radon potential. We test geology-based predictions of RP (radon potential) against locally-derived estimates of RP, and produce classification matrices with kappa values in the range 0.37-0.56. Our classifier has high predictive value

  11. [Radon risk in healthcare facilities: environmental monitoring and effective dose].

    PubMed

    Cammarota, B; Cascone, Maria Teresa; De Paola, L; Schillirò, F; Del Prete, U

    2009-01-01

    Radon, the second cause of lung cancer after smoking (WHO- IARC), is a natural, radioactive gas, which originates from the soil and pollutes indoor air, especially in closed or underground spaces. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of radon gas, its effective dose, and the measurement of microclimatic degrees C; U.R. % and air velocity in non-academic intensive care units of public hospitals in the Naples area. The annual average concentrations of radon gas were detected with EIC type ionization electret chambers, type LLT with exposure over four 3-month periods. The concentrations varied for all health facilities between 186 and 1191 Bq/m3. Overall, the effective dose of exposure to radon gas of 3mSv/a recommended by Italian legislation was never exceeded. The concentration of radon gas showed a decreasing trend starting from the areas below ground level to those on higher floors; such concentrations were also influenced by natural and artificial ventilation of the rooms, building materials used for walls, and by the state of maintenance and improvements of the building (insulation of floors and walls). The data obtained confirmed the increased concentration of radionuclides in the yellow tuff of volcanic origin in the Campania Region and the resulting rate of release of radon gas, whereas the reinforced concrete structure (a hospital located on the hillside), which had the lowest values, proved to provide good insulation against penetration and accumulation of radon gas.

  12. Effects of air exchange property of passive-type radon-thoron discriminative detectors on performance of radon and thoron measurements.

    PubMed

    Omori, Y; Janik, M; Sorimachi, A; Ishikawa, T; Tokonami, S

    2012-11-01

    Pairs of diffusion chambers with different air exchange rates are used in a large-scale survey to determine radon and thoron, separately. When they are enclosed in radon-proof bags for keeping after the exposure, since radon does not escape out immediately from the low-diffusion chamber, it leads to further exposure in the bags and disturbs the estimation of radon and thoron concentrations. In this study, the effects of the different air exchange properties of the radon-thoron discriminative detectors with CR-39 chips on the estimations of radon and thoron concentrations were investigated. The commercially available and frequently used detectors, Raduet, are examined in this study. The result shows that radon escapes out in 10 h. When degassing is not enough after the exposure in a calibration experiment or high-background radiation area, the residual radon causes the overestimation of the radon concentration and increase in the uncertainty in the thoron concentration, i.e. a low-performance quality of radon and thoron measurements.

  13. The physical behavior and geologic control of radon in mountain streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Allen S.

    1956-01-01

    Radon measurement were made in several small, turbulent mountain streams in the Wasatch Mountains near Salt Lake City and Ogden, Utah, to determine the relationship between the distribution of radon and its geologic environment. In this area, the distribution of radon in streams can be sued to locate points where relatively large amounts of radon-bearing ground water enter the stream, although other evidence of spring activity may be lacking. These points of influence ground water are marked by abrupt increases (as much as two orders of magnitude within a distance of 50 feet) in the radon content of the stream waters. The excess radon in the stream water is then rapidly lost to the atmosphere through stream turbulence. The rate of radon dissipation is an exponential function, of different slopes, with respect to distance of streamflow, and depend upon the rate and volume of streamflow, and the gradient and nature of the stream channel. The higher radon concentration can be generally related to specific stratigraphic horizons in several different drainage area. Thus, lithologic units which act as the primary aquifers can be identifies. In one area, thrust faults were found to control he influx of ground water into the stream. Estimates, based on radon concentration in stream and related spring waters, can also be made of the major increments of addition of ground water to streamflow where conventional methods such as stream gaging are not practical. The radon in the waters studied was found to be almost completely unsupported by radium in solution.

  14. RESIDENTIAL RADON AND BIRTH DEFECTS: A POPULATION-BASED ASSESSMENT

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Peter H; Lee, MinJae; Lupo, Philip J; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Cortez, Ruben K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Associations have been reported between maternal radiation exposure and birth defects. No such studies were found on radon. Our objective was to determine if there is an association between living in areas with higher radon levels and birth defects. METHODS The Texas Birth Defects Registry provided data on all birth defects from 1999–2009 from the entire state. Mean radon levels by geologic region came from the Texas Indoor Radon Survey. The association between radon and birth defects was estimated using multilevel mixed effect Poisson regression. RESULTS Birth defects overall were not associated with residential radon levels. Of the 100 other birth defect groups with at least 500 cases, 14 were significantly elevated in areas with high mean radon level in crude analyses, and 9 after adjustment for confounders. Cleft lip with/without cleft palate had an adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of 1.16 per 1 picoCurie/liter (pCi/l) increase in exposure to region mean radon, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08, 1.26. Cystic hygroma / lymphangioma had an aPR of 1.22 per 1 pCi/l increase, 95% CI 1.02, 1.46. Other associations were suggested but not as consistent: three skeletal defects, Down syndrome, other specified anomalies of the brain, and other specified anomalies of the bladder and urethra. CONCLUSIONS In the first study of residential radon and birth defects, we found associations with cleft lip w/wo cleft palate and cystic hygroma / lymphangioma. Other associations were suggested. The ecological nature of this study and multiple comparisons suggest that our results be interpreted with caution. PMID:25846606

  15. The Correlation between Radon Emission Concentration and Subsurface Geological Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntoro, Yudi; Setiawan, Herru L.; Wijayanti, Teni; Haerudin, Nandi

    2018-03-01

    Exploration activities with standard methods have already encountered many obstacles in the field. Geological survey is often difficult to find outcrop because they are covered by vegetation, alluvial layer or as a result of urban development and housing. Seismic method requires a large expense and licensing in the use of dynamite is complicated. Method of gravity requires the operator to go back (looping) to the starting point. Given some of these constraints, therefore it needs a solution in the form of new method that can work more efficiently with less cost. Several studies in various countries have shown a correlation between the presence of hydrocarbons and Radon gas concentration in the earth surface. By utilizing the properties of Radon that can migrate to the surface, the value of Radon concentration in the surface is suggested to provide information about the subsurface structure condition. Radon is the only radioactive substance that gas-phased at atmospheric temperature. It is very abundant in the earth mantle. The vast differences of temperatures and pressures between the mantle and the earth crust cause the convection flow toward earth surface. Radon in gas phase will be carried by convection flow to the surface. The quantity of convection currents depend on the porosity and permeability of rocks where Radon travels within, so that Radon concentration in the earth surface delineates the porosity and permeability of subsurface rock layers. Some measurements were carried out at several locations with various subsurface geological conditions, including proven oil fields, proven geothermal field, and frontier area as a comparison. These measurements show that the average and the background concentration threshold in the proven oil field (11,200 Bq/m3) and proven geothermal field (7,820 Bq/m3) is much higher than the quantity in frontier area (329 and 1,620 Bq/m3). Radon concentration in the earth surface is correlated with the presence of geological

  16. Low-cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, William B.; Francisco, Paul W.; Merrin, Zachary

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofits conducted a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation and living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois, area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity measurements. Blower door and zone pressure diagnostics were conducted at each house. The treatments consisted of using air-sealing foams at the underside of the floor that separated the living space frommore » the foundation and providing duct sealing on the ductwork that is situated in the foundation area. The hypothesis was that air sealing the floor system that separated the foundation from the living space should better isolate the living space from the foundation; this isolation should lead to less radon entering the living space from the foundation. If the hypothesis had been proven, retrofit energy-efficiency programs may have chosen to adopt these isolation methods for enhanced radon protection to the living space.« less

  17. Radon: Counseling patients about risk

    SciTech Connect

    Birrer, R.B.

    Exposure to radon and its decay products has increased as the United States has changed from an outdoor society to a largely indoor society. Radon, which is found primarily in the soil, enters houses and buildings through cracks, holes and pipes in foundation walls and floors. Although radon is suspected of being a significant cause of lung cancer, comparisons with other risk factors cannot yet be made. Radon levels in the home can be measured with commercially available kits. Guidelines for reducing the amount of radon in a home are provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.18 references.

  18. Anomalous radon emission as precursor of medium to strong earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Anomalous radon (Rn222) emissions enhanced by forthcoming earthquakes is considered to be a precursory phenomenon related to an increased geotectonic activity in seismic areas. Rock microfracturing in the Earth's crust preceding a seismic rupture may cause local surface deformation fields, rock dislocations, charged particle generation and motion, electrical conductivity changes, radon and other gases emission, fluid diffusion, electrokinetic, piezomagnetic and piezoelectric effects as well as climate fluctuations. Space-time anomalies of radon gas emitted in underground water, soil and near the ground air weeks to days in the epicentral areas can be associated with the strain stress changes that occurred before the occurrence of medium and strong earthquakes. This paper aims to investigate temporal variations of radon concentration levels in air near or in the ground by the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) CR-39 and LR-115 in relation with some important seismic events recorded in Vrancea region, Romania.

  19. An assessment of radon in groundwater in New York State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, Stephen B.; Eckhardt, David A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: A set of 317 samples collected from wells throughout New York State (excluding Long Island) from 2003 through 2008 was used to assess the distribution of radon gas in drinking water. Previous studies have documented high concentrations of radon in groundwater from granitic and metamorphic bedrock, but there have been only limited characterizations of radon in water from sedimentary rock and unconsolidated sand-and-gravel deposits in New York. Approximately 8% of the samples from bedrock wells exceed 89 Bq L-1 (eight times the proposed regulatory limit), but only 2% of samples from sand-and-gravel wells exceed 44 Bq L-1. Specific metamorphic and sedimentary rock formations in New York are associated with the high radon concentrations, indicating that specific areas of New York could be targeted with efforts to reduce the risk of exposure to radon in groundwater. Additionally, radon in groundwater from the sand-and-gravel aquifers was found to be directly correlated to radon in indoor air when assessed by county.

  20. Indoor radon mapping and its relation to geology in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minda, Mihály; Tóth, György; Horváth, István; Barnet, Ivan; Hámori, Krisztián; Tóth, Eszter

    2009-04-01

    Indoor radon mapping may show stronger dependence on geological formations if the measured homes are one-storied houses with no basement. In Hungary, 17,244 homes were investigated on the yearly average of indoor radon concentrations; among these homes, there were 6,154, one-storied, no-basement houses. In Hungary, 21 geological units were created relevant for indoor radon index characterized by lithology, the position of the ground water table, and the gas permeability. Maps were drawn of different topography (counties, grid, geological units) and different values (maximum, mean, indoor radon indexes). A kind of standardization of houses was that only the one-storied, no-basement ones were chosen, but from geological point of view some more information was gained when the wall materials (bricks or adobe) were also taken into account. (“Adobe” is made of clay and straw in Hungary, and not burned as brick, just dried on sunshine). Enhanced indoor radon values can be observed on the bedrock of Cenozoic volcanic rocks and their eroded materials deposited on the local alluvial valleys. Another group with relatively increased indoor radon values can be connected to granite bodies. The grid method is useful for covering large state or even continental areas. For practical public use and detailed radon risk mapping geological or administrative unit-systems could yield more reasonable and useful results.

  1. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    PubMed

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed.

  2. What Teachers Should Know about Radon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Clifford; Throckmorton, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Attempts to clear up misunderstandings about radon and outlines information teachers can convey to their students. Includes a brief history of radon, health threats posed by radon, methods to measure radon quantities, homeowner risks and preventative actions, and a glossary of radon terms. (MDH)

  3. Radon assay for SNO+

    SciTech Connect

    Rumleskie, Janet

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  4. Radon assay for SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumleskie, Janet

    2015-12-01

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  5. Radon and thoron concentrations in public workplaces in Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Sami H; Akber, Riaz A

    2015-06-01

    Radon and thoron are radioactive gases that can emanate from soil and building materials, and it can accumulate in indoor environments. The concentrations of radon and thoron in the air from various workplace categories in Brisbane, Australia were measured using an active method. The average radon and thoron concentrations for all workplace categories were 10.5 ± 11.3 and 8.2 ± 1.4 Bq m(-3), respectively. The highest radon concentration was detected in a confined area, 86.6 ± 6.0 Bq m(-3), while the maximum thoron level was found in a storage room, 78.1 ± 14.0 Bq m(-3). At each site, the concentrations of radon and thoron were measured at two heights, 5 cm and 120 cm above the floor. The effect of the measurement heights on the concentration level was significant in the case of thoron. The monitoring of radon and thoron concentrations showed a lower radon concentration during work hours than at other times of the day. This can be attributed to the ventilation systems, including the air conditioner and natural ventilation, which normally operate during work hours. The diurnal variation was less observed in the case of thoron, as the change in its concentration during and after the working hours was insignificant. The study also investigated the influence of the floor level and flooring type on indoor radon and thoron concentrations. The elevated levels of radon and thoron were largely found in basements and ground floor levels and in rooms with concrete flooring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radon emanation from backfilled mill tailings in underground uranium mine.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekananda; Patnaik, R Lokeswara; Sethy, Narendra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Coarser mill tailings used as backfill to stabilize the stoped out areas in underground uranium mines is a potential source of radon contamination. This paper presents the quantitative assessment of radon emanation from the backfilled tailings in Jaduguda mine, India using a cylindrical accumulator. Some of the important parameters such as (226)Ra activity concentration, bulk density, bulk porosity, moisture content and radon emanation factor of the tailings affecting radon emanation were determined in the laboratory. The study revealed that the radon emanation rate of the tailings varied in the range of 0.12-7.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1) with geometric mean of 1.01 Bq m(-2) s(-1) and geometric standard deviation of 3.39. An increase in radon emanation rate was noticed up to a moisture saturation of 0.09 in the tailings, after which the emanation rate gradually started declining with saturation due to low diffusion coefficient of radon in the saturated tailings. Radon emanation factor of the tailings varied in the range of 0.08-0.23 with the mean value of 0.21. The emanation factor of the tailings with moisture saturation level over 0.09 was found to be about three times higher than that of the absolutely dry tailings. The empirical relationship obtained between (222)Rn emanation rate and (226)Ra activity concentration of the tailings indicated a significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.95, p < 0.001). This relationship may be useful for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the backfill material of similar nature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radon in the Exhaled Air of Patients in Radon Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lettner, Herbert; Hubmer, Alexander; Hofmann, Werner; Landrichinger, Julia; Gaisberger, Martin; Winkler-Heil, Renate

    2017-11-01

    In the Gastein valley, numerous facilities use radon for the treatment of various diseases either by exposure to radon in air or in radon rich thermal water. In this study, six test persons were exposed to radon thermal water in a bathtub and the time-dependent radon activity concentration in the exhaled air was recorded. At temperatures between 38°C and 40°C, the radon activity concentration in the water was about 900 kBq/m3 in a total volume of 600 l, where the patients were exposed for 20 min, while continuously sampling the exhaled air during the bathing and 20 min thereafter. After entering the bath, the exhaled radon activity concentration rapidly increased, reaching some kind of saturation after 20 min exposure. The radon activity concentration in the exhaled air was about 8000 Bq/m3 at the maximum, with higher concentrations for male test persons. The total radon transfer from water to the exhaled air was between 480 and 1000 Bq, which is equivalent to 0.08% and 0.2% of the radon in the water. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Evaluation of radon occurrence in groundwater from 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania, 1986–2015, with application to potential radon exposure from groundwater and indoor air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gross, Eliza L.

    2017-05-11

    Physiographic Province, had a median radon concentration greater than the EPA proposed AMCL of 4,000 pCi/L. Median concentrations of radon in groundwater and indoor air were determined to differ significantly among the geologic units (Kruskal-Wallis test, significance probability, p<0.001), and Tukey’s test indicated that radon concentrations in groundwater and indoor air in the Peters Creek Schist (Xpc) were significantly higher than those in the other units. Also, the Peters Creek Schist (Xpc) was determined to be the area with highest potential of radon exposure from groundwater and indoor air and one of two units with the highest percentage of population assumed to be using domestic self-supplied water (81 percent), which puts the population at greater potential of exposure to radon from groundwater.Potential radon exposure determined from classification of geologic units by median radon concentrations in groundwater and indoor air according to proposed and recommended regulatory limits is useful for drawing general conclusions about the presence, variation, and potential radon exposure in specific geologic units, but the associated data and maps have limitations. The aggregated indoor air radon data have spatial accuracy limitations owing to imprecision of geocoded test locations. In addition, the associated data describing geologic units and the public water supplier’s service areas have spatial and interpretation accuracy limitations. As a result, data and maps associated with this report are not recommended for use in predicting individual concentrations at specific sites nor for use as a decision-making tool for property owners to decide whether to test for radon concentrations at specific locations. Instead, the data and maps are meant to promote awareness regarding potential radon exposure in Pennsylvania and to point out data gaps that exist throughout the State.

  9. Contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Harley, N; Samet, J M; Cross, F T; Hess, T; Muller, J; Thomas, D

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews studies on the contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer and proposes recommendations for further research, particularly a national radon survey. The steady-state outdoor radon concentration averages 200 pCi/m3, and indoor levels are about 4 times higher. The primary source of radon in homes is the underlying soil; entry depends on multiple variables and reduced ventilation for energy conservation increases indoor radon levels. Occupational exposures are expressed in units of radon daughter potential energy concentration or working level (WL). Cumulative exposure is the product of the working level and the time exposed. The unit for cumulative exposure is the working level month (WLM). The occupational standard for radon exposure is 4 WLM/year, and 2 WLM/year has been suggested as a guideline for remedial action in homes. Epidemiologic studies show that miners with cumulative radon daughter exposures somewhat below 100 WLM have excess lung cancer mortality. Some 3% to 8% of miners studied have developed lung cancer attributable to radon daughters. All of the underground mining studies show an increased risk of lung cancer with radon daughter exposure. All cell types of lung cancer increased with radon exposure. If radon and smoking act in a multiplicative manner, then the risk for smokers could be 10 times that for nonsmokers. The potential risk of lung cancer appears to be between 1 and 2 per 10,000/WLM, which yields a significant number of lung cancers as some 220 million persons in the United States are exposed on average to 10 to 20 WLM/lifetime. PMID:3830103

  10. Analysis of radon reduction and ventilation systems in uranium mines in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng-hua; Li, Xian-jie

    2012-09-01

    Mine ventilation is the most important way of reducing radon in uranium mines. At present, the radon and radon progeny levels in Chinese uranium mines where the cut and fill stoping method is used are 3-5 times higher than those in foreign uranium mines, as there is not much difference in the investments for ventilation protection between Chinese uranium mines and international advanced uranium mines with compaction methodology. In this paper, through the analysis of radon reduction and ventilation systems in Chinese uranium mines and the comparison of advantages and disadvantages between a variety of ventilation systems in terms of radon control, the authors try to illustrate the reasons for the higher radon and radon progeny levels in Chinese uranium mines and put forward some problems in three areas, namely the theory of radon control and ventilation systems, radon reduction ventilation measures and ventilation management. For these problems, this paper puts forward some proposals regarding some aspects, such as strengthening scrutiny, verifying and monitoring the practical situation, making clear ventilation plans, strictly following the mining sequence, promoting training of ventilation staff, enhancing ventilation system management, developing radon reduction ventilation technology, purchasing ventilation equipment as soon as possible in the future, and so on.

  11. Publications about Radon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no known safe level of exposure to radon. EPA strongly recommends that you fix your home if your test shows 4 picocuries (pCi/L) or more. These publications and resources will provide you with the information you need to fix your home.

  12. EML indoor radon workshop, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    George, A.C.; Lowder, W.; Fisenne, I.

    1983-07-01

    A workshop on indoor radon, held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) on November 30 and December 1, 1982, covered recent developments in radon daughter research and development. Thirty papers were presented dealing with standardization and quality assurance measurement methods, surveys, measurements strategy, physical mechanisms of radon and radon daughter transport and development of guidance standards for indoor exposures. The workshop concluded with a planning session that identified the following needs: (1) national and international intercomparisons of techniques for measuring radon and radon daughter concentrations, working level and radon exhalation flux density; (2) development and refinement of practical measurement techniquesmore » for thoron and its daughter products; (3) quantitative definition of the sources of indoor radon and the mechanisms of transport into structures; (4) better knowledge of the physical properties of radon daughters; (5) more complete and accurate data on the population exposure to radon, which can only be met by broadly based surveys; and (6) more international cooperation and information exchange among countries with major research programs.« less

  13. RESIDENTIAL RADON RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION FEATURE SELECTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a proposed residential radon resistant construction feature selection system. The features consist of engineered barriers to reduce radon entry and accumulation indoors. The proposed Florida standards require radon resistant features in proportion to regional...

  14. Indoor radon variations in central Iran and its geostatistical map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, Kamal; Mokhtari, Javad

    2015-02-01

    We present the results of 2 year indoor radon survey in 10 cities of Yazd province in Central Iran (covering an area of 80,000 km2). We used passive diffusive samplers with LATEX polycarbonate films as Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD). This study carried out in central Iran where there are major minerals and uranium mines. Our results indicate that despite few extraordinary high concentrations, average annual concentrations of indoor radon are within ICRP guidelines. When geostatistical spatial distribution of radon mapped onto geographical features of the province it was observed that risk of high radon concentration increases near the Saqand, Bafq, Harat and Abarkooh cities, this depended on the elevation and vicinity of the ores and mines.

  15. Treatment of ARDS With Prone Positioning.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Eric L; Beitler, Jeremy R; Prisk, G Kim; Malhotra, Atul

    2017-01-01

    Prone positioning was first proposed in the 1970s as a method to improve gas exchange in ARDS. Subsequent observations of dramatic improvement in oxygenation with simple patient rotation motivated the next several decades of research. This work elucidated the physiological mechanisms underlying changes in gas exchange and respiratory mechanics with prone ventilation. However, translating physiological improvements into a clinical benefit has proved challenging; several contemporary trials showed no major clinical benefits with prone positioning. By optimizing patient selection and treatment protocols, the recent Proning Severe ARDS Patients (PROSEVA) trial demonstrated a significant mortality benefit with prone ventilation. This trial, and subsequent meta-analyses, support the role of prone positioning as an effective therapy to reduce mortality in severe ARDS, particularly when applied early with other lung-protective strategies. This review discusses the physiological principles, clinical evidence, and practical application of prone ventilation in ARDS. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Radon testing in schools in New York State: a 20-year summary.

    PubMed

    Kitto, Michael

    2014-11-01

    For nearly 20 years the Department of Health has conducted programs to assist in the measurement and reduction of indoor radon concentrations in 186 schools located primarily in Zone 1 areas of New York State. Although many schools had few or no rooms containing radon above 148 Bq/m(3), some rooms had >740 Bq/m(3) and remediation techniques were utilized to reduce exposure. Short-term radon measurements in the schools showed little correlation to basement and first-floor radon results from single-family homes in the towns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Compact anti-radon facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fajt, L.; Kouba, P.; Mamedov, F.

    Suppression of radon background is one of main tasks in ultra-low background experiments. The most promising technique for suppression of radon is its adsorption on charcoal. Within the frame of the NEMO-3 experiment, radon trapping facility (RTF) was installed in Modane underground laboratory in 2004. Based on long-term experience with this facility a new compact transportable anti-radon facility was constructed in cooperation among IEAP CTU, SÚRO and ATEKO company. The device provides 20m{sup 3}/h of purified air (air radon activity at the output ∼10mBq/m{sup 3}). The basic features and preliminary results of anti-radon device testing are presented.

  18. Radon emanation during compression, fracturing and heating of granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pili, E.; Nicolas, A.; Girault, F.; Schubnel, A.; Fortin, J.; Passelègue, F. X.; Richon, P.

    2013-12-01

    Radon emanation during compression, fracturing and heating of granites É. Pili1,2, A. Nicolas3, F. Girault3, A. Schubnel3, J. Fortin3, F. Passelègue3, P. Richon1 1CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon, France 2Institut de Physique du Globe, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 1 rue Jussieu, F-75005 Paris, France 3Ecole Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris, France Precursory radon emissions have been reported previously in various seismically active areas. Nevertheless such observations, only partially understood, are the subject of much skepticism. Radon-222 is a radioactive gas, daughter of radium-226 from alpha-decay in the uranium-238 decay chain that is naturally present in rocks and soils. Its escape is facilitated by preferential pathways such as fractures. Its half-life is 3.8 days only. As a consequence, radon may accumulate during short period only, and is thought to be released prior, during and after earthquakes as stress is discharged and new fluid pathways are made available. However, the physical processes involved in radon emanation during stress variations remain mostly unknown in the field and poorly studied in the laboratory. Here, we investigate radon emanation from various granite samples: Isla Craig, Westerly, La Peyratte and various leucogranites. Radon emanation and diffusion length, measured first on intact samples, are compared with measurements performed after heating at 850°C. Despite extensive thermal fracturing, radon emanation decreases irreversibly after heating compared to intact sample, and the higher the heating temperature the smaller the radon emanation. This is explained by the disappearance of water-film at grain boundaries, which plays an important role in radon percolation through the porous space, and then, at higher temperatures, by dehydration and melting of biotites where radium is concentrated. The recoil range of radon is likely shorter in melted biotites than in intact ones. The effect of mechanical fracturing on radon

  19. Use of a geographic information system (GIS) for targeting radon screening programs in South Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Kearfott, Kimberlee J.; Whetstone, Zachary D.; Rafique Mir, Khwaja M.

    2016-01-01

    Because 222Rn is a progeny of 238U, the relative abundance of uranium may be used to predict the areas that have the potential for high indoor radon concentration and therefore determine the best areas to conduct future surveys. Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software was used to construct maps of South Dakota that included levels of uranium concentrations in soil and stream water and uranium deposits. Maps of existing populations and the types of land were also generated. Existing data about average indoor radon levels by county taken from a databank were included for consideration. Although the soil and stream data and existing recorded average indoor radon levels were sparse, it was determined that the most likely locations of elevated indoor radon would be in the northwest and southwest corners of the state. Indoor radon levels were only available for 9 out of 66 counties in South Dakota. This sparcity of data precluded a study of correlation of radon to geological features, but further motivates the need for more testing in the state. Only actual measurements should be used to determine levels of indoor radon because of the strong roles home construction and localized geology play in radon concentration. However, the data visualization method demonstrated here is potentially useful for directing resources relating to radon screening campaigns. PMID:26472478

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDATE HOUSES FOR NORTH FLORIDA PORTION OF THE FLORIDA RADON MITIGATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to locate candidate houses for a proposed radon mitigation research and demonstration project in North Florida. he effort involved: 1) identification of target geographical areas, 2) radon monitoring in identified clusters, and 3) house charact...

  1. Variation with socioeconomic status of indoor radon levels in Great Britain: The less affluent have less radon.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Gerald M; Miles, Jon C H; Rees, David; Wakeford, Richard; Bunch, Kathryn J; Vincent, Tim J; Little, Mark P

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate a strong correlation between domestic radon levels and socio-economic status (SES) in Great Britain, so that radon levels in homes of people with lower SES are, on average, only about two thirds of those of the more affluent. This trend is apparent using small area measures of SES and also using individual social classes. The reasons for these differences are not known with certainty, but may be connected with greater underpressure in warmer and better-sealed dwellings. There is also a variation of indoor radon levels with the design of the house (detached, terraced, etc.). In part this is probably an effect of SES, but it appears to have other causes as well. Data from other countries are also reviewed, and broadly similar effects seen in the United States for SES, and in other European countries for detached vs other types of housing. Because of correlations with smoking, this tendency for the lower SES groups to experience lower radon levels may underlie the negative association between radon levels and lung cancer rates in a well-known ecological study based on US Counties. Those conducting epidemiological studies of radon should be alert for this effect and control adequately for SES. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterizing long-term radon concentration changes in a geothermal area for correlation with volcanic earthquakes and reservoir temperatures: A case study from Mt. Aso, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Katsuaki; Yoshinaga, Tohru; Asaue, Hisafumi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize in detail the temporal changes in Rn (radon-222) concentration in soil gases near fumaroles and clarify its correlation with volcanic earthquakes and temperatures in two geothermal reservoirs. Mt. Aso crater in southwest Japan, which has two reservoirs on its western side estimated by magnetotelluric survey to be at about 2 km in depth, was selected for this study. For the long-term survey, the α scintillation counter method was used weekly for 12.5 years at the three hot springs within a 2-km range. Rn concentrations were calculated using the CRAS method, a calculation method that considers radioactive equilibrium or nonequilibrium state of the soil gas. Rn concentrations generally showed similar fluctuation patterns among the sites. CRAS was used as a new indicator for evaluating the age of the soil gas. This age corresponds to the elapsed time determined from the generation of Rn based on the measurement of the numbers of atoms of Rn and its daughter 218Po at the start of measurement. In comparing the Rn data with the history of earthquakes in the Aso caldera, volcanic seismicity was identified as a major controlling factor in the sudden increase and decrease in Rn concentration as a function of age. For more precise detections of change, Rn concentrations were measured continuously at one site by pumping soil gas from a borehole and using an ionization chamber over 2.5 years. Five chemical components (He, H2, N2, CH4, and CO2) were then measured by gas chromatography at 1-week intervals. Because Rn concentrations are affected strongly by atmospheric temperatures, the residual components were obtained by subtracting the trend of the components from the original data. Chemical component data were used to estimate the temperature and pressure in the reservoir at the site; temperatures ranged from 229 to 280 °C, (average 265 °C, average pressure 80 MPa). Residual Rn concentrations showed a clear correlation with

  3. Indoor radon regulation using tabulated values of temporal radon variation.

    PubMed

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Kovler, Konstantin

    2018-03-01

    Mass measurements of indoor radon concentrations have been conducted for about 30 years. In most of the countries, a national reference/action/limit level is adopted, limiting the annual average indoor radon (AAIR) concentration. However, until now, there is no single and generally accepted international protocol for determining the AAIR with a known confidence interval, based on measurements of different durations. Obviously, as the duration of measurements increases, the uncertainty of the AAIR estimation decreases. The lack of the information about the confidence interval of the determined AAIR level does not allow correct comparison with the radon reference level. This greatly complicates development of an effective indoor radon measurement protocol and strategy. The paper proposes a general principle of indoor radon regulation, based on the simple criteria widely used in metrology, and introduces a new parameter - coefficient of temporal radon variation K V (t) that depends on the measurement duration and determines the uncertainty of the AAIR. An algorithm for determining K V (t) based on the results of annual continuous radon monitoring in experimental rooms is proposed. Included are indoor radon activity concentrations and equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) of radon progeny. The monitoring was conducted in 10 selected experimental rooms located in 7 buildings, mainly in the Moscow region (Russia), from 2006 to 2013. The experimental and tabulated values of K V (t) and also the values of the coefficient of temporal EEC variation depending on the mode and duration of the measurements were obtained. The recommendations to improve the efficiency and reliability of indoor radon regulation are given. The importance of taking into account the geological factors is discussed. The representativity of the results of the study is estimated and the approach for their verification is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. APPLICATION OF RADON REDUCTION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is intended to aid homeowners and contractors in diagnosing and solving indoor radon problems. It will also be useful to State and Federal regulatory officials and many other persons who provide advice on the selection, design and operation of radon reduction methods...

  5. MEASUREMENT OF INDOOR RADON-THORON IN AIR AND EXHALATION FROM SOIL IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF WESTERN HARYANA, INDIA.

    PubMed

    Mann, Nisha; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Sushil; Chauhan, R P

    2016-10-01

    Measurement of indoor radon and thoron is important because the inhalation of radon-thoron and their daughters contributes more than 50 % of the total dose from natural sources. One of the important parameters to find out the contribution of soil and building materials towards indoor radon is radon exhalation rates, which can be used for estimation of indoor radon levels. The indoor radon and thoron levels from the air and radon exhalation rates from soil samples collected from two districts (Hisar and Fatehabad) of Western Haryana are measured using pin-hole-based radon-thoron dosimeter and LR-115 solid-state nuclear track detector by canister technique. The results show that the indoor radon and thoron levels from Hisar district varied from 11 to 112 and 11 to 80 Bq m -3 , while for Fatehabad district from 5 to 24 and 59 to 105 Bq m -3 , respectively, in summer season. In winter season, indoor radon and thoron levels from Hisar district varied from 15 to 43 and 32 to 102 Bq m -3 , while for Fatehabad district from 18 to 31 and 11 to 80 Bq m -3 , respectively. The indoor radon levels of 95 % locations lie well below the limit recommended by International Commission of Radiation Protection, 2011. The radon mass exhalation rate varied from 6 to 56 mBq kg -1 h -1 The radon mass exhalation rates from the soil samples were lower than the worldwide average, i.e. 56 mBq kg -1 h -1 There exists a poor correlation between indoor radon and exhalation rates. More investigations of measurement of radionuclide contents from rock and stone of study area can improve the understanding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. [Knowledge about radon and its associated risk perception in France].

    PubMed

    Beck, F; Richard, J B; Deutsch, A; Benmarhnia, T; Pirard, P; Roudier, C; Peretti-Watel, P

    2013-12-01

    Radon exposure is a major environmental risk in health. It remains badly known by the general population. It is the second cause of lung cancer, after tobacco smoking. The aim of this cross-sectional general population survey was to describe radon exposure risk knowledge and the socioeconomic factors related to this knowledge. The Cancer Barometer survey 2010 questioned the French population about its knowledge of radon as such and as health risk factor. This survey was a two-stage random sampling with computer-assisted telephone interview that was performed from April 3, 2010 to August 7, 2010 on a sample of 3,359 people aged 15 to 75 years old. Among people aged 15 to 75 years old, only one in five knows that radon is a natural gas coming from the ground. This knowledge is more frequent among people living in an area that is directly concerned by radon, among men and increases with age, with the level of education and the level of income. Radon risk remains still widely underestimated by the general public, including in areas concerned by this risk. When people were confronted with radon exposure, few intended to remedy by improving their home. The success of prevention initiatives implies the support and the collaboration of various national and local actors. To improve their impact for the prevention of lung cancers, it could be more effective to couple these actions with prevention messages on tobacco. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Radon Sampling, Building 54, Nellis AFB, NV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-13

    BEF) performed radon testing in response to a concern of elevated radon levels in Building 54. The building was previously remediated to reduce the... TESTING METHODOLOGY: a. Test Scenario: Building 54 was chosen to test for radon gas levels. Radon detectors were placed in the test ...Consultative Letter 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 22-24 March 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Radon Sampling, Building 54, Nellis AFB, NV 5a. CONTRACT

  8. Field evaluations of digital radon detectors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Falcomer, Renato; Walker, Bill

    2007-11-01

    Recently, digital radon detectors were made available on the market for homeowners at a cost comparable to that charged by some service providers for a single radon test. Digital radon detectors provide an easy and less expensive way for homeowners to monitor radon levels in their homes. In order to answer a frequently asked question regarding the performance of such low-cost electronic radon detectors, field evaluations were conducted. Evaluation results are reported here.

  9. A combined analysis of North American case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Krewski, Daniel; Lubin, Jay H; Zielinski, Jan M; Alavanja, Michael; Catalan, Vanessa S; Field, R William; Klotz, Judith B; Létourneau, Ernest G; Lynch, Charles F; Lyon, Joseph L; Sandler, Dale P; Schoenberg, Janet B; Steck, Daniel J; Stolwijk, Jan A; Weinberg, Clarice; Wilcox, Homer B

    2006-04-01

    Cohort studies have consistently shown underground miners exposed to high levels of radon to be at excess risk of lung cancer, and extrapolations based on those results indicate that residential radon may be responsible for nearly 10-15% of all lung cancer deaths per year in the United States. However, case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer have provided ambiguous evidence of radon lung cancer risks. Regardless, alpha-particle emissions from the short-lived radioactive radon decay products can damage cellular DNA. The possibility that a demonstrated lung carcinogen may be present in large numbers of homes raises a serious public health concern. Thus, a systematic analysis of pooled data from all North American residential radon studies was undertaken to provide a more direct characterization of the public health risk posed by prolonged radon exposure. To evaluate the risk associated with prolonged residential radon exposure, a combined analysis of the primary data from seven large scale case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer risk was conducted. The combined data set included a total of 4081 cases and 5281 controls, representing the largest aggregation of data on residential radon and lung cancer conducted to date. Residential radon concentrations were determined primarily by a-track detectors placed in the living areas of homes of the study subjects in order to obtain an integrated 1-yr average radon concentration in indoor air. Conditional likelihood regression was used to estimate the excess risk of lung cancer due to residential radon exposure, with adjustment for attained age, sex, study, smoking factors, residential mobility, and completeness of radon measurements. Although the main analyses were based on the combined data set as a whole, we also considered subsets of the data considered to have more accurate radon dosimetry. This included a subset of the data involving 3662 cases and 4966 controls with a-track radon

  10. Boredom proneness in a psychiatric inpatient population.

    PubMed

    Newell, Susan E; Harries, Priscilla; Ayers, Susan

    2012-09-01

    Boredom has been reported as a common experience for service users of acute psychiatric wards. It has been associated with negative mental and physical health. Research has yet to show what factors are associated with boredom proneness within the acute psychiatric population. (1) To investigate the distribution of boredom proneness in a population of mentally ill inpatients according to age, gender, diagnosis, Mental Health Act status and length of stay in hospital. (2) To test the hypothesis that boredom proneness is negatively correlated with autonomous activity levels. Two self-report questionnaires were used with 55 inpatients of acute psychiatric wards: the Boredom Proneness Scale (Farmer & Sundberg, 1986) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond & Snaith, 1983). Questions were also asked about individuals' activity engagement during their current admission. Data on age, gender, diagnosis, ethnicity, Mental Health Act status and length of stay were collected from case notes. The highest incidence of boredom proneness was in participants with depression. Those detained under the Mental Health Act appeared less boredom prone than those admitted voluntarily. Boredom proneness was not associated with age, gender or length of stay. There was an association between engagement in more autonomous activities and lower boredom proneness.

  11. Mapping variation in radon potential both between and within geological units.

    PubMed

    Miles, J C H; Appleton, J D

    2005-09-01

    Previously, the potential for high radon levels in UK houses has been mapped either on the basis of grouping the results of radon measurements in houses by grid squares or by geological units. In both cases, lognormal modelling of the distribution of radon concentrations was applied to allow the estimated proportion of houses above the UK radon Action Level (AL, 200 Bq m(-3)) to be mapped. This paper describes a method of combining the grid square and geological mapping methods to give more accurate maps than either method can provide separately. The land area is first divided up using a combination of bedrock and superficial geological characteristics derived from digital geological map data. Each different combination of geological characteristics may appear at the land surface in many discontinuous locations across the country. HPA has a database of over 430,000 houses in which long-term measurements of radon concentration have been made, and whose locations are accurately known. Each of these measurements is allocated to the appropriate bedrock--superficial geological combination underlying it. Taking each geological combination in turn, the spatial variation of radon potential is mapped, treating the combination as if it were continuous over the land area. All of the maps of radon potential within different geological combinations are then combined to produce a map of variation in radon potential over the whole land surface.

  12. Effects of radon mitigation vs smoking cessation in reducing radon-related risk of lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, D; Warner, K E; Courant, P N

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is to provide smokers with information on the relative benefits of mitigating radon and quitting smoking in reducing radon-related lung cancer risk. METHODS: The standard radon risk model, linked with models characterizing residential radon exposure and patterns of moving to new homes, was used to estimate the risk reduction produced by remediating high-radon homes, quitting smoking, or both. RESULTS: Quitting smoking reduces lung cancer risk from radon more than does reduction of radon exposure itself. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers should understand that, in addition to producing other health benefits, quitting smoking dominates strategies to deal with the problem posed by radon. PMID:9585753

  13. Mapping the geogenic radon potential: methodology and spatial analysis for central Hungary.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Katalin Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Horváth, Ákos; Szabó, Csaba

    2014-03-01

    A detailed geogenic radon potential (GRP) mapping based on field soil gas radon and soil gas permeability measurements was carried out in this study. A conventional continuous variable approach was used in this study for GRP determination and to test its applicability to the selected area of Hungary. Spatial pattern of soil gas radon concentration, soil permeability and GRP and the relationship between geological formations and these parameters were studied by performing detailed spatial analysis. Exploratory data analysis revealed that higher soil gas radon activity concentration and GRP characterizes the mountains and hills than the plains. The highest values were found in the proluvial-deluvial sediments, rock debris on the downhill slopes eroded from hills. Among the Quaternary sediments, which characterize the study area, the fluvial sediment has the highest values, which are also located in the hilly areas. The lowest values were found in the plain areas covered by drift sand, fluvioeolic sand, fluvial sand and loess. As a conclusion, radon is related to the sediment cycle in the study area. A geogenic radon risk map was created, which assists human health risk assessment and risk reduction since it indicates the potential of the source of indoor radon. The map shows that low and medium geogenic radon potential characterizes the study area in central Hungary. High risk occurs only locally. The results reveal that Quaternary sediments are inhomogeneous from a radon point of view, fluvial sediment has medium GRP, whereas the other rock formations such as drift sand, fluioeolic sand, fluvial sand and loess, found in the study area, have low GRP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intercomparison of retrospective radon detectors.

    PubMed Central

    Field, R W; Steck, D J; Parkhurst, M A; Mahaffey, J A; Alavanja, M C

    1999-01-01

    We performed both a laboratory and a field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, (210)Pb, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha-emission of a (210)Pb-decay product, (210)Po. The detector's track density generation rate (tracks per square centimeter per hour) is proportional to the surface alpha-activity. In the absence of other strong sources of alpha-emission in the glass, the implanted surface alpha-activity should be proportional to the accumulated (210)Po, and hence to the cumulative radon gas exposure. The goals of the intercomparison were to a) perform collocated measurements using two different glass-based retrospective radon detectors in a controlled laboratory environment to compare their relative response to implanted polonium in the absence of environmental variation, b) perform collocated measurements using two different retrospective radon progeny detectors in a variety of residential settings to compare their detection of glass-implanted polonium activities, and c) examine the correlation between track density rates and contemporary radon gas concentrations. The laboratory results suggested that the materials and methods used by the studies produced similar track densities in detectors exposed to the same implanted (210)Po activity. The field phase of the intercomparison found excellent agreement between the track density rates for the two types of retrospective detectors. The correlation between the track density rates and direct contemporary radon concentration measurements was relatively high, considering that no adjustments were performed to account for either the residential depositional environment or glass surface type

  15. Intercomparison of retrospective radon detectors.

    PubMed

    Field, R W; Steck, D J; Parkhurst, M A; Mahaffey, J A; Alavanja, M C

    1999-11-01

    We performed both a laboratory and a field intercomparison of two novel glass-based retrospective radon detectors previously used in major radon case-control studies performed in Missouri and Iowa. The new detectors estimate retrospective residential radon exposure from the accumulation of a long-lived radon decay product, (210)Pb, in glass. The detectors use track registration material in direct contact with glass surfaces to measure the alpha-emission of a (210)Pb-decay product, (210)Po. The detector's track density generation rate (tracks per square centimeter per hour) is proportional to the surface alpha-activity. In the absence of other strong sources of alpha-emission in the glass, the implanted surface alpha-activity should be proportional to the accumulated (210)Po, and hence to the cumulative radon gas exposure. The goals of the intercomparison were to a) perform collocated measurements using two different glass-based retrospective radon detectors in a controlled laboratory environment to compare their relative response to implanted polonium in the absence of environmental variation, b) perform collocated measurements using two different retrospective radon progeny detectors in a variety of residential settings to compare their detection of glass-implanted polonium activities, and c) examine the correlation between track density rates and contemporary radon gas concentrations. The laboratory results suggested that the materials and methods used by the studies produced similar track densities in detectors exposed to the same implanted (210)Po activity. The field phase of the intercomparison found excellent agreement between the track density rates for the two types of retrospective detectors. The correlation between the track density rates and direct contemporary radon concentration measurements was relatively high, considering that no adjustments were performed to account for either the residential depositional environment or glass surface type

  16. Guidance on Radon Resistant Construction and Radon Mitigation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Unnumbered Letter regarding radon gas mitigation applies to all housing and community facilities, low-rise buildings and dwellings for the mentioned programs. Its intention is to guide staff to best serve our borrowers and protect their health.

  17. Emanation of radon from household granite.

    PubMed

    Kitto, Michael E; Haines, Douglas K; Arauzo, Hernando Diaz

    2009-04-01

    Emanation of radon (222Rn) from granite used for countertops and mantels was measured with continuous and integrating radon monitors. Each of the 24 granite samples emitted a measurable amount of radon. Of the two analytical methods that utilized electret-based detectors, one measured the flux of radon from the granite surfaces, and the other one measured radon levels in a glass jar containing granite cores. Additional methods that were applied utilized alpha-scintillation cells and a continuous radon monitor. Measured radon flux from the granites ranged from 2 to 310 mBq m-2 s-1, with most granites emitting <20 mBq m-2 s-1. Emanation of radon from granites encapsulated in airtight containers produced equilibrium concentrations ranging from <0.01 to 11 Bq kg-1 when alpha-scintillation cells were used, and from <0.01 to 4.0 Bq kg-1 when the continuous radon monitor was used.

  18. Soil radon survey to assess NAPL contamination from an ancient spill. Do kerosene vapors affect radon partition ?

    PubMed

    De Simone, Gabriele; Lucchetti, Carlo; Pompilj, Francesca; Galli, Gianfranco; Tuccimei, Paola; Curatolo, Pierpaolo; Giorgi, Riccardo

    2017-05-01

    A soil radon-deficit survey was carried out in a site polluted with kerosene (Rome, Italy) in winter 2016 to assess the contamination due to the NAPL residual component in the vadose zone and to investigate the role of the vapor plume. Radon is indeed more soluble in the residual NAPL than in air or water, but laboratory experiments demonstrated that it is also preferentially partitioned in the NAPL vapors that transport it and may influence soil radon distribution patterns. Specific experimental configurations were designed and applied to a 31-station grid to test this hypothesis; two RAD7 radon monitors were placed in-series and connected to the top of a hollow probe driven up to 80-cm depth; the first instrument was directly attached to the probe and received humid soil gas, which was counted and then conveyed to the second monitor through a desiccant (drierite) cylinder capturing moisture and eventually the NAPL volatile component plus the radon dissolved in vapors. The values from the two instruments were cross-calibrated through specifically designed laboratory experiments and compared. The results are in agreement within the error range, so the presence of significant NAPL vapors, eventually absorbed by drierite, was ruled out. This is in agreement with low concentrations of soil VOCs. Accordingly, the radon-deficit is ascribed to the residual NAPL in the soil pores, as shown very well also by the obtained maps. Preferential areas of radon-deficit were recognised, as in previous surveys. An average estimate of 21 L (17 Kg) of residual NAPL per cubic meter of terrain is provided on the basis of original calculations, developed from published equations. A comparison with direct determination of total hydrocarbon concentration (23 kg per cubic meter of terrain) is provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Long-term radon concentrations estimated from 210Po embedded in glass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lively, R.S.; Steck, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Measured surface-alpha activity on glass exposed in radon chambers and houses has a linear correlation to the integrated radon exposure. Experimental results in chambers and houses have been obtained on glass exposed to radon concentrations between 100 Bq m-3 and 9 MBq m-3 for periods of a few days to several years. Theoretical calculations support the experimental results through a model that predicts the fractions of airborne activity that deposit and become embedded or adsorbed. The combination of measured activity and calculated embedded fraction for a given deposition environment can be applied to most indoor areas and produces a better estimate for lifetime radon exposure than estimates based on short-term indoor radon measurements.

  20. 30 CFR 57.5046 - Protection against radon gas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection against radon gas. 57.5046 Section... Protection against radon gas. Where radon daughter concentrations exceed 10 WL, respirator protection against radon gas shall be provided in addition to protection against radon daughters. Protection against radon...

  1. Modeling Joint Exposures and Health Outcomes for Cumulative Risk Assessment: The Case of Radon and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Chahine, Teresa; Schultz, Bradley D.; Zartarian, Valerie G.; Xue, Jianping; Subramanian, SV; Levy, Jonathan I.

    2011-01-01

    Community-based cumulative risk assessment requires characterization of exposures to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors, with consideration of how the non-chemical stressors may influence risks from chemical stressors. Residential radon provides an interesting case example, given its large attributable risk, effect modification due to smoking, and significant variability in radon concentrations and smoking patterns. In spite of this fact, no study to date has estimated geographic and sociodemographic patterns of both radon and smoking in a manner that would allow for inclusion of radon in community-based cumulative risk assessment. In this study, we apply multi-level regression models to explain variability in radon based on housing characteristics and geological variables, and construct a regression model predicting housing characteristics using U.S. Census data. Multi-level regression models of smoking based on predictors common to the housing model allow us to link the exposures. We estimate county-average lifetime lung cancer risks from radon ranging from 0.15 to 1.8 in 100, with high-risk clusters in areas and for subpopulations with high predicted radon and smoking rates. Our findings demonstrate the viability of screening-level assessment to characterize patterns of lung cancer risk from radon, with an approach that can be generalized to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors. PMID:22016710

  2. Evaluation and equity audit of the domestic radon programme in England.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chow, Yimmy; Meara, Jill; Green, Martyn

    2011-09-01

    The U.K. has a radon programme to limit the radon risk to health. This involves advice on protective measures in new buildings, technical guidance on their installation, encouragement of radon measurements and remediation in existing dwellings in high radon areas. We have audited the radon programme at the level of individual homes to identify factors that influence the likelihood of remediation. 49% of the householders responded to our survey and 30% of the respondents stated that they had done some remediation to reduce the indoor radon levels. We found that householders with higher incomes and higher socio-economic status are more likely than others to remediate. Householders are less likely to remediate if they have one of the following: living in a property with a high radon concentration, current smokers in the dwelling, being unemployed or an unskilled worker, long length of time living in that property or elderly (65+ years) living by themselves. Householders appeared to be more likely to remediate if they considered the information on radon and its risk to be very clear and useful. This emphasises the importance of communication with householders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radon and lung cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, E S; Kelly, A E; Teutsch, S M; Thacker, S B; Garbe, P L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the cost-effectiveness of general and targeted strategies for residential radon testing and mitigation in the United States. METHODS: A decision-tree model was used to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of preventing radon-associated deaths from lung cancer. RESULTS: For a radon threshold of 4 pCi/L, the estimated costs to prevent 1 lung cancer death are about $3 million (154 lung cancer deaths prevented), or $480,000 per life-year saved, based on universal radon screening and mitigation, and about $2 million (104 lung cancer deaths prevented), or $330,000 per life-year saved, if testing and mitigation are confined to geographic areas at high risk for radon exposure. For mitigation undertaken after a single screening test and after a second confirmatory test, the estimated costs are about $920,000 and $520,000, respectively, to prevent a lung cancer death with universal screening and $130,000 and $80,000 per life-year for high risk screening. The numbers of preventable lung cancer deaths are 811 and 527 for universal and targeted approaches, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest possible alternatives to current recommendations. PMID:10076484

  4. Constraining radon backgrounds in LZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, E. H.; Busenitz, J.; Edberg, T. K.; Ghag, C.; Hall, C.; Leonard, R.; Lesko, K.; Liu, X.; Meng, Y.; Piepke, A.; Schnee, R. W.

    2018-01-01

    The LZ dark matter detector, like many other rare-event searches, will suffer from backgrounds due to the radioactive decay of radon daughters. In order to achieve its science goals, the concentration of radon within the xenon should not exceed 2 µBq/kg, or 20 mBq total within its 10 tonnes. The LZ collaboration is in the midst of a program to screen all significant components in contact with the xenon. The four institutions involved in this effort have begun sharing two cross-calibration sources to ensure consistent measurement results across multiple distinct devices. We present here five preliminary screening results, some mitigation strategies that will reduce the amount of radon produced by the most problematic components, and a summary of the current estimate of radon emanation throughout the detector. This best estimate totals < 17.3 mBq, sufficiently low to meet the detector's science goals.

  5. A Physician's Guide to Radon

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This booklet has been developed for physicians by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in consultation with the American Medical Association (AMA). Its purpose is to enlist physicians in the national effort to inform the American public about radon.

  6. Portable apparatus for the measurement of environmental radon and thoron

    DOEpatents

    Negro, Vincent C.

    2001-01-01

    The radometer is a portable instrument for the measurement of the concentration of atmospheric radon/thoron in a test area. A constant velocity pump pulls the air from the outside at a constant flow rate. If the air is too moist, some or all of the sample is passed through a desiccant filter prior to encountering an electrostatic filter. The electrostatic filter prevents any charged particles from entering the sampling chamber. Once the sample has entered the chamber, the progeny of the decay of radon/thoron are collected on a detector and measured. The measured data is compiled by a computer and displayed.

  7. [Reduction of pressure sores during prone positioning of ventilated intensive care patients by the prone-head support system: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Prebio, Michael; Katz-Papatheophilou, Elfriede; Heindl, Werner; Gelbmann, Herbert; Burghuber, Otto C

    2005-02-01

    Prone positioning in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome is a well-known method to improve oxygenation. The aim of our study was to evaluate a new device for prone positioning, the prone-head support system (PHS system), with regard to reduction of cutaneous pressure sores. In a pilot study we randomized 8 patients with ARDS in two groups: 180 degrees standard prone positioning (group without mask) and prone positioning with the PHS system (group with mask). The PHS system consists of a facemask support, which is connected to an adapted air suspension bed. The patients of both groups were intermittently proned for several days. We evaluated the pressure sores on head and neck before turning the patients prone for the first time and after each period of prone positioning. We documented the quantity, the size, the type and the localization of the pressure sores. There was no significant difference in the mean duration of prone positioning (27.1+/-14.7 hours in the group with mask versus 24.5+/-18.7 h in the group without mask). In the group with mask there were 1.5+/-0.8 new pressure sores by each proning, whereas in the group without mask there were 2.37+/-1.6 new pressure sores, which was lower, but not significantly. The overall area of pressure sores (798 mm2 versus 3184 mm2, p=0.004), the area of pressure sores per patient (199.5+/-104.7 mm2 versus 796+/-478 mm2, p=0.03) and the increase of the area of pressure sores per proning (79.8+/-52.0 mm2 versus 398.0+/-214.3 mm2, p=0.004) were significantly lower in the group with mask in comparison to the group without mask. The lips were the most effected localization in both groups. The pressure sores in the group with mask were less severe and showed a homogenous distribution in comparison to the group without mask. Blisters dominated in the group with mask in comparison to erosions, necrosis and ulcers in the group without mask. The PHS system with its face mask is able to reduce the extent and the

  8. The Concept of Accident Proneness: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Froggatt, Peter; Smiley, James A.

    1964-01-01

    The term accident proneness was coined by psychological research workers in 1926. Since then its concept—that certain individuals are always more likely than others to sustain accidents, even though exposed to equal risk—has been questioned but seldom seriously challenged. This article describes much of the work and theory on which this concept is based, details the difficulties encountered in obtaining valid information and the interpretative errors that can arise from the examination of imperfect data, and explains why accident proneness became so readily accepted as an explanation of the facts. A recent hypothesis of accident causation, namely that a person's accident liability may vary from time to time, is outlined, and the respective abilities of this and of accident proneness to accord with data from the more reliable literature are examined. The authors conclude that the hypothesis of individual variation in liability is more realistic and in better agreement with the data than is accident proneness. PMID:14106130

  9. The perceived health risks of indoor radon gas and overhead powerlines: a comparative multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Poortinga, Wouter; Cox, Patrick; Pidgeon, Nick F

    2008-02-01

    Radon and overhead powerlines are two radiation risk cases that have raised varying levels of concern among the general public and experts. Despite both involving radiation-a typically feared and unseen health hazard-individuals' perceptions of the two risk cases may invoke rather different factors. We examined individual and geographic-contextual factors influencing public perceptions of the health risks of indoor radon gas and overhead powerlines in a comparative research design, utilizing a postal questionnaire with 1,528 members of the general public (response rate 28%) and multilevel modeling techniques. This study found that beliefs about the two risk cases mainly differed according to the level of "exposure"-defined here in terms of spatial proximity. We argue that there are two alternative explanations for this pattern of findings: that risk perception itself varies directly with proximity, or that risk is more salient to concerned people in the exposed areas. We also found that while people living in high radon areas are more concerned about the risks of indoor radon gas, they find these risks more acceptable and have more trust in authorities. These results might reflect the positive effects of successive radon campaigns in high radon areas, which may have raised awareness and concern, and at the same time may have helped to increase trust by showing that the government takes the health risks of indoor radon gas seriously, suggesting that genuine risk communication initiatives may have positive impacts on trust in risk management institutions.

  10. Radon abate: Who should pay

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Z.P.

    Radon is blamed for thousands of deaths from lung cancer annually. This radioactive gas most often seeps into buildings through structural defects. The cost of protecting tenants and homeowners from the health risks of radon adds to the cost of housing, particularly for those who can least afford it. Tenants and people whose homes need repair are at higher risk for radon exposure than are people living in well-constructed and well-maintained homes. Renters are at particular risk, says Joseph Laquatra, associate professor of design and environmental analysis, because they are powerless to implement radon mitigation. Moreover, they could be hurtmore » financially if landlords were forced to upgrade buildings in an attempt to reduce radon levels. [open quotes]A balance has to be struck,[close quotes] Laquatra says, [open quotes]between making rental units safer and not reducing the availability of affordable housing for people with low incomes.[close quotes] In a study of housing in central and western New York State, Laquatra and Peter Chi, professor of consumer economics and housing, found that up to 66 percent of rental units had excessive radon levels, versus 41 percent of owner-occupied homes costing less than $40,000 and 36 percent of homes worth more than $40,000.« less

  11. Association of School District Policies for Radon Testing and Radon-Resistant New Construction Practices with Indoor Radon Zones.

    PubMed

    Foster, Stephanie; Everett Jones, Sherry

    2016-12-13

    Radon is a naturally occurring, colorless, odorless, and tasteless radioactive gas. Without testing, its presence is unknown. Using nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study, we examined whether the prevalence of school district policies for radon testing and for radon-resistant new construction practices varied by district location in relation to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Map of Radon Zones. Among school districts located in counties with high predicted average indoor radon, 42.4% had policies for radon testing and 37.5% had policies for radon-resistant new construction practices. These findings suggest a critical need for improved awareness among policy makers regarding potential radon exposure for both students and school staff.

  12. Association of School District Policies for Radon Testing and Radon-Resistant New Construction Practices with Indoor Radon Zones

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Stephanie; Everett Jones, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring, colorless, odorless, and tasteless radioactive gas. Without testing, its presence is unknown. Using nationally representative data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study, we examined whether the prevalence of school district policies for radon testing and for radon-resistant new construction practices varied by district location in relation to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Map of Radon Zones. Among school districts located in counties with high predicted average indoor radon, 42.4% had policies for radon testing and 37.5% had policies for radon-resistant new construction practices. These findings suggest a critical need for improved awareness among policy makers regarding potential radon exposure for both students and school staff. PMID:27983613

  13. RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 1: TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of radon reduction and radon-resistant construction demonstrations in New York. The existing house evaluation demonstrated radon mitigation techniques where indoor radon concentrations exceeded 4 pCi/L. Results demonstrated that sealing all accessible fou...

  14. Radon-222 and its parent radionuclides in groundwater from two study areas in New Jersey and Maryland, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, R.B.; Johnson, S.L.; Briggs, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    A study of groundwater chemistry and radionuclide mobility in New Jersey and Maryland was conducted to investigate natural processes that control the mobility of radionuclides in the water-rock system. Groundwater was sampled from two geological units in New Jersey and from six in Maryland. The water sampled was from aquifiers in fractured metamorphic rocks of varying composition and metamorphic grade. In both areas, groundwater chemistry was affected most by aquifier mineralogy and lithology; concentrations of total dissolved U, 226Ra and 222Rn were similarly affected. In evey sample for which measurements were made, dissolved Utotal and 226Ra were present in much lower concentrations than 222Rn when expressed in terms of their radioactivity. On the other hand, the total amount of 222Rn that could be produced in these rocks, given their U contents, is much higher than the concentrations observed in groundwater. Thus, the emanating efficiencies of the aquifer rocks studied must be near 10% or less. Such low emanating efficiencies require that a fraction of the 226Ra in the rock be located close to the water-rock interface so that 222Rn, when produced, can be rapidly and efficiently transferred to the aqueous phase. This condition is established when a similar fraction of the U is in a readily leachable position. No known U or Ra solids were supersaturated in any of the samples. Thus, adsorption processes probably play a role in limiting mobilities of Utotal and 226Ra. Concentrations of Utotal and 226Ra found in the water samples are comparable to those found in experimental studies of adsorption onto mineral surfaces. ?? 1991.

  15. Caves, mines and subterranean spaces: hazard and risk from exposure to radon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, R. G. M.; Gillmore, G. K.

    2009-04-01

    areas (via spoil heaps, settlement lagoons etc. containing uranium and radium). We here present an overview of the potential hazard presented by radon in subterranean spaces and by metalliferous mining activities. We also present some speculation as to evidence of (pre-) historic exposure to radon which might potentially exist in archaeological remains and oral traditions. Keywords: radon; caves; metalliferous mining; cave-dwellers; archaeologists.

  16. Map showing radon potential of rocks and soils in Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, James K.; Schumann, R. Randall; Owen, Douglass E.; Thurman, Nelson; Duval, Joseph S.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1984, indoor radon has gained national attention as a significant health hazard in the United States. Radon is a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas derived from uranium by radioactive decay. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) now projects that 5,000 to 20,000 lung-cancer deaths per year may be attributed to the long-term exposure to indoor radon and its radioactive decay products. Indoor radon has been previously recognized as a health hazard associated with uranium-bearing mill tailings or building materials, but it was not until December 1984 that some natural soils and rocks were found to be sources of indoor radon at levels comparable to those in uranium mines. It is now suspected that elevated indoor radon levels are far more widespread than initially though. The EPA considers 4 picoCuries of radon per liter of air (pCi/L) as the level (in a year-round measurement) at which actions ought to be taken to lower the concentration of indoor radon. All soils and rocks contain measurable amounts of uranium, which generate measurable amounts of radon. Certain soils and rocks, however, have a greater potential to cause indoor radon problems than others because (1) they have a higher uranium content and thus can generate higher levels of radon in soil gas (gas that occupies the pores of the soil), and (2) the permeability of the sol or rack is sufficiently high that radon-bearing soil gas can flow freely and move indoors through the foundation of the structure. This study was designed to demonstrate the correlation between the geologic environment and indoor radon levels and to demonstrate a method of assessment that could be used by other informed workers in areas of their interest. A parallel study by Gundersen and others (1988) of the radon potential of rocks and soils in Montgomery County, Md., used somewhat different methods of assessment because the data available for and assessment of Montgomery County differed.

  17. Comparison of urinary excretion of radon from the human body before and after radon bath therapy.

    PubMed

    Kávási, Norbert; Kovács, Tibor; Somlai, János; Jobbágy, Viktor; Nagy, Katalin; Deák, Eszter; Berhés, István; Bender, Tamás; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji

    2011-07-01

    Theoretically, the human body absorbs radon through the lungs and the skin and excretes it through the lungs and the excretory organs during radon bath therapy. To check this theory, the radon concentrations in urine samples were compared before and after radon bath therapy. During the therapy, the geometric mean (GM) and the geometric standard deviation of the radon concentration in air and in the bath water were 979 Bq m(-3), 1.58 and 73.6 Bq dm(-3), 1.1, respectively. Since radon was detected in each urine sample (GM around 3.0 Bq dm(-3)), urinary excretion of radon was confirmed. The results of this study can neither reject nor confirm the hypothesis of radon absorption through the skin. A 15 times higher increment of inhaled radon level did not cause significant changes in radon of urine samples.

  18. Lung cancer deaths from indoor radon and the cost effectiveness and potential of policies to reduce them

    PubMed Central

    Read, Simon; McGale, Paul; Darby, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the number of deaths from lung cancer related to radon in the home and to explore the cost effectiveness of alternative policies to control indoor radon and their potential to reduce lung cancer mortality. Design Cost effectiveness analysis. Setting United Kingdom. Data sources Epidemiological data on risks from indoor radon and from smoking, vital statistics on deaths from lung cancer, survey information on effectiveness and costs of radon prevention and remediation. Main outcome measures Estimated number of deaths from lung cancer related to indoor radon, lifetime risks of death from lung cancer before and after various potential interventions to control radon, the cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained from different policies for control of radon, and the potential of those policies to reduce lung cancer mortality. Results The mean radon concentration in UK homes is 21 becquerels per cubic metre (Bq/m3). Each year around 1100 deaths from lung cancer (3.3% of all deaths from lung cancer) are related to radon in the home. Over 85% of these arise from radon concentrations below 100 Bq/m3 and most are caused jointly by radon and active smoking. Current policy requiring basic measures to prevent radon in new homes in selected areas is highly cost effective, and such measures would remain cost effective if extended to the entire UK, with a cost per QALY gained of £11 400 ( €12 200; $16 913). Current policy identifying and remediating existing homes with high radon levels is, however, neither cost effective (cost per QALY gained £36 800) nor effective in reducing lung cancer mortality. Conclusions Policies requiring basic preventive measures against radon in all new homes throughout the UK would be cost effective and could complement existing policies to reduce smoking. Policies involving remedial work on existing homes with high radon levels cannot prevent most radon related deaths, as these are caused by moderate exposure

  19. Lung cancer deaths from indoor radon and the cost effectiveness and potential of policies to reduce them.

    PubMed

    Gray, Alastair; Read, Simon; McGale, Paul; Darby, Sarah

    2009-01-06

    To determine the number of deaths from lung cancer related to radon in the home and to explore the cost effectiveness of alternative policies to control indoor radon and their potential to reduce lung cancer mortality. Cost effectiveness analysis. United Kingdom. Epidemiological data on risks from indoor radon and from smoking, vital statistics on deaths from lung cancer, survey information on effectiveness and costs of radon prevention and remediation. Estimated number of deaths from lung cancer related to indoor radon, lifetime risks of death from lung cancer before and after various potential interventions to control radon, the cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained from different policies for control of radon, and the potential of those policies to reduce lung cancer mortality. The mean radon concentration in UK homes is 21 becquerels per cubic metre (Bq/m(3)). Each year around 1100 deaths from lung cancer (3.3% of all deaths from lung cancer) are related to radon in the home. Over 85% of these arise from radon concentrations below 100 Bq/m(3) and most are caused jointly by radon and active smoking. Current policy requiring basic measures to prevent radon in new homes in selected areas is highly cost effective, and such measures would remain cost effective if extended to the entire UK, with a cost per QALY gained of pound11,400 ( euro12 200; $16,913). Current policy identifying and remediating existing homes with high radon levels is, however, neither cost effective (cost per QALY gained pound36,800) nor effective in reducing lung cancer mortality. Policies requiring basic preventive measures against radon in all new homes throughout the UK would be cost effective and could complement existing policies to reduce smoking. Policies involving remedial work on existing homes with high radon levels cannot prevent most radon related deaths, as these are caused by moderate exposure in many homes. These conclusions are likely to apply to most developed

  20. Residential radon exposure and adult acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Law, G R; Kane, E V; Roman, E; Smith, A; Cartwright, R

    2000-05-27

    Exposure to radioactive radon gas in homes, from natural sources, is an important public-health issue for many countries. We found no association between household exposure to radon and leukaemia in adults in the UK.

  1. An overview of Ireland's National Radon Policy.

    PubMed

    Long, S; Fenton, D

    2011-05-01

    In Ireland radon is a significant public health issue and is linked to 150-200 lung cancer deaths each year. Irish National Radon Policy aims to reduce individual risk by identifying and remediating buildings with high radon concentrations and also to reduce collective dose through radon prevention as required by revised building regulations. Achievements to date are significant and include the completion of the National Radon Survey, the testing of every school in Ireland, the on-going testing of social housing, collaboration between the public health and radiation protection authorities and the inclusion of radon in inspections of workplaces. However, this work now needs to be drawn together centrally to comprehensively address the radon problem. The RPII and the relevant central governing department, the Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government are currently working to constitute a group of key experts from relevant public authorities to drive the development of a National Radon Control Strategy.

  2. Update of Ireland's national average indoor radon concentration - Application of a new survey protocol.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, A; Murphy, P; Pollard, D; Fenton, D

    2017-04-01

    In 2002, a National Radon Survey (NRS) in Ireland established that the geographically weighted national average indoor radon concentration was 89 Bq m -3 . Since then a number of developments have taken place which are likely to have impacted on the national average radon level. Key among these was the introduction of amending Building Regulations in 1998 requiring radon preventive measures in new buildings in High Radon Areas (HRAs). In 2014, the Irish Government adopted the National Radon Control Strategy (NRCS) for Ireland. A knowledge gap identified in the NRCS was to update the national average for Ireland given the developments since 2002. The updated national average would also be used as a baseline metric to assess the effectiveness of the NRCS over time. A new national survey protocol was required that would measure radon in a sample of homes representative of radon risk and geographical location. The design of the survey protocol took into account that it is not feasible to repeat the 11,319 measurements carried out for the 2002 NRS due to time and resource constraints. However, the existence of that comprehensive survey allowed for a new protocol to be developed, involving measurements carried out in unbiased randomly selected volunteer homes. This paper sets out the development and application of that survey protocol. The results of the 2015 survey showed that the current national average indoor radon concentration for homes in Ireland is 77 Bq m -3 , a decrease from the 89 Bq m -3 reported in the 2002 NRS. Analysis of the results by build date demonstrate that the introduction of the amending Building Regulations in 1998 have led to a reduction in the average indoor radon level in Ireland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 2014 ICHLNRRA intercomparison of radon/thoron gas and radon short-lived decay products measuring instruments in the NRPI Prague.

    PubMed

    Jílek, K; Timková, J

    2015-06-01

    During the Eighth International Conference on High Levels of Natural Radiation and Radon Areas held in autumn 2014 at Prague, the third intercomparison of radon/thoron gas and radon short-lived decay products measurement instruments was organised by and held at the Natural Radiation Division of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI; SÚRO v.v.i.) in Prague. The intercomparison was newly focussed also on continuous monitors with active sampling adapters capable to distinguish radon/thoron gas in their mix field.The results of radon gas measurements carried out in the big NRPI radon chamber indicated very well an average deviation of up to 5 % from the reference NRPI value for 80 % of all the exposed instruments. The results of equilibrium equivalent concentration continuous monitors indicated an average deviation of up to 5 % from the reference NRPI value for 40 % of all the exposed instruments and their ~8-10 % shift compared with the NRPI. The results of investigated ambient conditions upon response of exposed continuous monitors indicated influence of aerosol changes upon response of radon monitors with an active air sampling adapters through the filter, only. The exposures of both radon/thoron gas discriminative continuous monitors and passive detectors have been indicated inconsistent results: on one hand, their excellent agreement up to several per cent for both the gases, and on the other hand, systematic unsatisfactory differences up to 40 %. Additional radon/thoron exercises are recommended to improve both the instruments themselves and quality of their operators. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A study of Monitoring and Mapping for Radon-Concentration Distribution in Gyeongju - 12201

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Chan Hee; Lee, Jung Min; Jang, So Young

    Radon is one of the most important contributors to the radiation exposure in humans. This study measured the indoor radon concentrations at the 17 elementary school auditoriums that were sampled from those in the city of Gyeongju, Korea. The reason that an elementary school was selected as a measurement object is that many students and teachers stay for a long time in a day and it's easy to identify the characteristics of the auditorium building such as the essential building. The measurement shows that most of the indoor radon concentrations at the 17 elementary school auditoriums did not exceed 148more » Bq/m{sup 3} that is the action level recommended by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This study measured the indoor radon concentrations at the elementary school auditoriums in Gyeongju. The measurements were analyzed according to the bedrock type and the time intervals per day. In this study, it was found that the indoor radon concentrations over off-duty hours were generally higher that those over on-duty hours, and the indoor radon concentration in the area whose bedrock is volcanic rock was higher than those in the area of the other types of bedrock. As mentioned above, attention has to be paid to an elementary school since many young students and teachers stay for more 6 hours a day at it. Hence, it is necessary to continuously monitor and properly manage the indoor radon concentrations in the elementary schools. (authors)« less

  5. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-07

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the 'cave factor' 1.5. The value of 'cave factor' which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5more » for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free {sup 218}Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the

  6. Radon Dose Determination for Cave Guides in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thinova, Lenka; Rovenska, Katerina

    2008-08-01

    According to recommended approach there are six (from total of twelve) open-to-public caves in Czech Republic, reaching near to an effective lung-dose of 6mSv/year. A conservative approach for estimating the potential effective lung-dose in caves (or underground) is based on two season's measurements, using solid state alpha track detector (Kodak in plastic diffusion chamber). The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose, in agreement with the ICRP65 recommendation, using the "cave factor" 1.5. The value of "cave factor" which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached/attached ratio (6.5 : 93.5 for residential places, 13.6 : 86.4 for caves due to lower concentration of free aerosols) and on the equilibrium factor. Thus conversion factor is 1.5 times higher in comparison with ICRP 65. Is this correct? Because a more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies, or on restricting the time workers stay underground, a series of measurement was initiated in 2003 with the aim to specify input data, computation and errors in effective dose assessment in each one of the evaluated caves separately. The enhancement of personal dosimetry for underground work places includes a study of the given questions, from the following points of view in each cave: continual radon measurement; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of free 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoil and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; determination of the free fraction from continual unattached and attached fraction measurement (grid and filter); thoron measurement. Air flow measurements provide very interesting information about the origin of

  7. Radon as a natural tracer for underwater cave exploration and hypogenic cave formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csondor, Katalin; Erőss, Anita; Horváth, Ákos; Szieberth, Dénes

    2017-04-01

    Using 222Rn as a natural tracer is a novel approach in underwater cave exploration and in the research of active hypogenic caves. The research area, the Molnár János cave is one of the largest caves of an unique hypogenic karst system, the Buda Thermal Karst (Budapest, Hungary). The cave system is mainly characterized by water-filled passages. The cave is located at one of the main discharge areas of the Buda Thermal Karst and the major outflow point of the waters of the cave system is the Boltív spring, which feeds the artificial Malom Lake. Previous complex hydrogeological studies and radon measurements in the cave system and in the spring established the highest radon concentration (71 Bq/L, where the average is 44 Bq/L) in the springwater. The origin of radon was identified in the form of iron-hydroxide containing biofilms, which form by mixing of waters and efficiently adsorb radium from the thermal water component and cause local radon anomalies. Since mixing of waters is responsible for the formation of the cave as well, these iron-hydroxide containing biofilms and consequently high radon concentrations mark the active cave forming zones. The aim of the study was to use the radon as a natural tracer to locate active mixing and cave forming zones. Based on previous radon measurements it is supposed that the active mixing and cave forming zone has to be close to the spring, since the highest radon concentration was measured there. Therefore, the radon activity concentration mapping was carried out with the help of divers and involving that part of the cave which closest to the spring. Based on our measurements the highest radon concentration (84 Bq/L) ever was achieved in the springwater. Based on the radon concentration distribution direct connection and active karst conduit was established between the spring and the deepest room of the researched part of the cave, which was verified by artificial tracer as well. However, the distribution of radon in the

  8. Radon Risk Perception and Testing: Sociodemographic Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Michael T.; Warner, Kenneth E.

    1994-01-01

    Using information from the 1990 National Health Interview Survey, examined beliefs regarding radon and radon-testing activities among different sociodemographic groups. Results suggest relatively superficial knowledge regarding radon, and little testing, within the survey population. Significantly less knowledge was observed among female and…

  9. Reducing Radon in Schools: A Team Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligman, Bryan K.; Fisher, Eugene J.

    This document presents the process of radon diagnostics and mitigation in schools to help educators determine the best way to reduce elevated radon levels found in a school. The guidebook is designed to guide school leaders through the process of measuring radon levels, selecting the best mitigation strategy, and directing the efforts of a…

  10. RADON GENERATION AND TRANSPORT THROUGH CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of radon generation and transport through Florida residential concretes for their contribution to indoor radon concentrations. Radium concentrations in the 11 concretes tested were all <2.5 pCi/g and radon emanation coefficients were all...

  11. Is Your School Safe from Radon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Radon is a natural, chemically inert, radioactive gas that can seep to the surface from underground rocks. As many as 20,000 lung cancer deaths in the U.S. each year may be radon-caused. Screening a school for radon is not difficult and may be done on weekends. It's safer for students and staff to test and be sure. (MLH)

  12. Cognitive and affective predictors of boredom proneness.

    PubMed

    Isacescu, Julia; Struk, Andriy Anatolievich; Danckert, James

    2017-12-01

    Boredom proneness has been linked to various forms of cognitive and affective dysregulation including poor self-control and mind-wandering (MW), as well as depression and aggression. As such, understanding boredom and the associated cognitive and affective components of the experience, represents an important first step in combatting the consequences of boredom for psychological well-being. We surveyed 1928 undergraduate students on measures of boredom proneness, self-control, MW, depression and aggression to investigate how these constructs were related. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that self-control operated as a strong negative predictor of boredom proneness. Finally, when controlling for age and self-control, we observed large decreases in the magnitudes of the relationships between boredom proneness and our other measures of interest. Together, these results imply a strong relationship between boredom proneness and cognitive and affective dysregulation, and show that individual levels of self-control can account for the lion's share of variance in the relationships between boredom, cognition, and affect.

  13. Comparison of radon doses based on different radon monitoring approaches.

    PubMed

    Vaupotič, Janja; Smrekar, Nataša; Žunić, Zora S

    2017-04-01

    In 43 places (23 schools, 3 kindergartens, 16 offices and one dwelling), indoor radon has been monitored as an intercomparison experiment, using α-scintillation cells (SC - Jožef Stefan Institute, Slovenia), various kinds of solid state nuclear track detectors (KfK - Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany; UFO - National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan; RET - University College Dublin, Ireland) and active electronic devices (EQF, Sarad, Germany). At the same place, the radon levels and, consequently, the effective doses obtained with different radon devices differed substantially (by a factor of 2 or more), and no regularity was observed as regards which detector would show a higher or lower dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A radon progeny deposition model

    SciTech Connect

    Rielage, Keith; Elliott, Steven R; Hime, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    The next generation low-background detectors operating underground aim for unprecedented low levels of radioactive backgrounds. Although the radioactive decays of airborne radon (particularly {sup 222}Rn) and its subsequent progeny present in an experiment are potential backgrounds, also problematic is the deposition of radon progeny on detector materials. Exposure to radon at any stage of assembly of an experiment can result in surface contamination by progeny supported by the long half life (22 y) of {sup 210}Pb on sensitive locations of a detector. An understanding of the potential surface contamination from deposition will enable requirements of radon-reduced air and clean roommore » environments for the assembly of low background experiments. It is known that there are a number of environmental factors that govern the deposition of progeny onto surfaces. However, existing models have not explored the impact of some environmental factors important for low background experiments. A test stand has been constructed to deposit radon progeny on various surfaces under a controlled environment in order to develop a deposition model. Results from this test stand and the resulting deposition model are presented.« less

  15. Preliminary Monitoring of Soil gas Radon in Potentially Active Faults, San Sai District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pondthai, P.; Udphuay, S.

    2013-05-01

    The magnitude of 5.1 Mw earthquake occurred in San Sai District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand in December 2006 was considered an uncommon event due to the fact that there was no statistical record of such significant earthquake in the area. Therefore the earthquake might have been associated with a potentially active fault zone within the area. The objective of this study is to measure soil gas radon across this unknown fault zone within the Chiang Mai Basin, northern Thailand. Two profiles traversing the expected fault zone of soil gas radon measurements have been monitored, using TASTRAK solid state track nuclear detectors (SSNTDs). Radon signals from three periods of measurement show a distinctive consistent spatial distribution pattern. Anomalous radon areas along the profiles are connected to fault locations previously interpreted from other geophysical survey results. The increased radon signal changes from the radon background level with the signal-to-background ratio above 3 are considered anomalous. Such pattern of radon anomaly supports the existence of the faults. The radon measurement, therefore is a powerful technique in mapping active fault zone.

  16. Radon and temperature as tracer of geothermal flow system: application to Arxan geothermal system, Northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, X.; Shao, J.; Cui, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, hydrogeological and hydrochemical investigations were applied to explain geothermal system factors controlling groundwater mineralization in Arxan geothermal system, Northeastern China. Geothermal water samples were collected from different locations (thermal baths and wells). Radon concentrations of water samples representing different water types and depths were controlled using RAD7. In addition to radon concentration, physical parameters such as temperature (T), pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and TDS were measured in situ, while major ions were analyzed in laboratory. Temperature spatial variability in the study area was described using kriging interpolation method. Hydrochemical analysis and thermal parameters suggest two distinct hydrogeological systems. The first type was dominated by a moderate temperature (25 41°C) with a chemical facies Na-HCO3, which characterizes Jurassic deep water. The second water type was characterized by Ca.Na-HCO3 type with a temperature <25 °C and represents the shallow aquifer. Superficial aquifer displays higher radon concentration (37 to 130 Bq/L), while deep groundwater from Jurassic aquifer shows relatively a low radon concentration (6 to 57.4 Bq/L). Seasonal and geographical variations of radon give insight into the processes controlling radon activities in the Arxan groundwater. Radon concentrations along with spatial distribution of water temperature reveal the existence of vertical communication between shallow aquifer and deep Jurassic aquifer through vertical faults and fractures system, the emanation of radon from thermal water and groundwater is controlled by the geological structure of the area. Furthermore, the knowledge and conclusion demonstrates that combined use of radon and temperature as tracers can give insight into the characteristics of geological structure and geothermal flow system.

  17. Self-esteem and delusion proneness.

    PubMed

    Warman, Debbie M; Lysaker, Paul H; Luedtke, Brandi; Martin, Joel M

    2010-06-01

    The present study was an examination of global self-esteem and various types of unusual beliefs in a nonclinical population. Individuals with no history of psychotic disorder (N = 121) completed a measure of delusion-proneness and also a measure of self-esteem. Results indicated high delusion prone individuals had lower self-esteem than low delusion prone individuals (p = 0.044). In addition, higher levels of paranoid ideation and suspiciousness were associated with lower self-esteem (p < 0.001). Significant, yet smaller relationships also emerged between low self-esteem and higher levels of beliefs related to thought disturbances, catastrophic ideation/thought broadcasting, and ideation of reference/influence. The significance of these findings as they relate to theories of delusion formation is discussed.

  18. Ethnic and gender differences in boredom proneness

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, G.S.; Morales,

    1996-02-01

    Although boredom may exhibit many shared elements, culturally specific attitudes have also been found to exist. The present paper investigated boredom proneness among African-American college students. Data from 120 participants on the Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale was analyzed and compared to cross-cultural participants. African-American females scored significantly higher than African-American males. Scores were presented from two other studies to show a comparative look at boredom proneness in five other ethnic groups. African-American females are the only female ethnic group to score higher on the BP Scale than their male counterparts. Additionally, overall African-Americans, were found to have higher BP scoresmore » than their Western counterparts.« less

  19. Anomalous radon emission as precursor of medium to strong earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Zoran, Maria

    Anomalous radon (Rn{sup 222}) emissions enhanced by forthcoming earthquakes is considered to be a precursory phenomenon related to an increased geotectonic activity in seismic areas. Rock microfracturing in the Earth’s crust preceding a seismic rupture may cause local surface deformation fields, rock dislocations, charged particle generation and motion, electrical conductivity changes, radon and other gases emission, fluid diffusion, electrokinetic, piezomagnetic and piezoelectric effects as well as climate fluctuations. Space-time anomalies of radon gas emitted in underground water, soil and near the ground air weeks to days in the epicentral areas can be associated with the strain stress changes that occurredmore » before the occurrence of medium and strong earthquakes. This paper aims to investigate temporal variations of radon concentration levels in air near or in the ground by the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) CR-39 and LR-115 in relation with some important seismic events recorded in Vrancea region, Romania.« less

  20. The prevalence of boredom proneness and depression among profoundly deaf residential school adolescents.

    PubMed

    Watt, J D; Davis, F E

    1991-12-01

    We investigated boredom proneness and depression among 50 profoundly deaf residential school adolescents using the Boredom Proneness (BP) scale and a version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) that has been modified for use with deaf subjects. Consistent with previous research, the deaf students had a significantly higher incidence of depression than the hearing students. In addition, the deaf students were found to be significantly more boredom prone than the hearing subjects. The results suggest that deafness not only increases a person's vulnerability to mild levels of depression, but also tends to augment one's tendency toward experiencing boredom. Implications for educational settings and areas for future research are discussed.

  1. Comprehensive survey of household radon gas levels and risk factors in southern Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Fintan K.T.; Zarezadeh, Siavash; Dumais, Colin D.; Dumais, Karin; MacQueen, Renata; Clement, Fiona; Goodarzi, Aaron A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The inhalation of naturally occurring radon (222Rn) gas from indoor air exposes lung tissue to α-particle bombardment, a highly mutagenic form of ionizing radiation that damages DNA and increases the lifetime risk of lung cancer. We analyzed household radon concentrations and risk factors in southern Alberta, including Calgary, the third-largest Canadian metropolis. Methods: A total of 2382 residential homes (2018 in Calgary and 364 in surrounding townships) from an area encompassing 82% of the southern Alberta population were tested for radon, per Health Canada guidelines, for at least 90 days (median 103 d) between 2013 and 2016. Participants also provided home metrics (construction year, build type, foundation type, and floor and room of deployment of the radon detector) via an online survey. Homes that were subsequently remediated were retested to determine the efficacy of radon reduction techniques in the region. Results: The average indoor air radon level was 126 Bq/m3, which equates to an effective absorbed radiation dose of 3.2 mSv/yr. A total of 1135 homes (47.6%) had levels of 100 Bq/m3 or higher, and 295 homes (12.4%) had levels of 200 Bq/m3 or higher; the range was less than 15 Bq/m3 to 3441 Bq/m3. Homes built in 1992 or later had radon levels 31.5% higher, on average, than older homes (mean 142 Bq/m3 v. 108 Bq/m3). For 90 homes with an average radon level of 575 Bq/m3 before mitigation, radon suppression successfully reduced levels to an average of 32.5 Bq/m3. Interpretation: Our findings show that radon exposure is a genuine public health concern in southern Alberta, suggest that modern building practices are associated with increased indoor air radon accumulation, legitimatize efforts to understand the consequences of radon exposure to the public, and suggest that radon testing and mitigation are likely to be impactful cancer prevention strategies. PMID:28401142

  2. Lung-cancer reduction from smoking cessation and radon remediation: a preliminary cost-analysis in Northamptonshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Groves-Kirkby, C J; Timson, K; Shield, G; Denman, A R; Rogers, S; Phillips, P S

    2011-02-01

    Domestic radon levels in parts of the United Kingdom are sufficiently high as to increase the risk of lung-cancer among residents. Public health campaigns in the county of Northamptonshire, a designated radon Affected Area with 6.3% of homes having average radon levels in excess of the UK Action Level of 200 Bq m(-3), have encouraged householders to test for radon and then, if indicated to be necessary, to carry out remediation in their homes. These campaigns have been only partially successful, since to date only 40% of Northamptonshire houses have been tested, and only 15% of those householders finding raised levels have proceeded to remediate. Those who remediate have been shown to have smaller families, to be older, and to include fewer smokers than the average population, suggesting that current strategies to reduce domestic radon exposure are not reaching those most at risk. During 2004-2005, the NHS Stop-Smoking Services in Northamptonshire assisted 2847 smokers to quit to the 4-week stage, the 15% (435) of these 4-week quitters remaining quitters at 1year forming the subjects of a retrospective study considering whether smoking cessation campaigns contribute significantly to radon risk reduction. Quantitative assessment of the risk of lung-cancer among the study population, from knowledge of the individuals' age, gender, and smoking habits, together with the radon levels in their homes, demonstrates that smoking cessation programmes have significant added value in reducing the incidence of lung-cancer in radon Affected Areas, and contribute a substantially greater health benefit at a lower cost than the alternative strategy of reducing radon levels in the smokers' homes, while they remain smokers. Both radon remediation and smoking cessation programmes are very cost effective in Northamptonshire, with smoking cessation being significantly more cost effective, and these are potentially valuable programmes to drive health improvements through promotion of the

  3. Indoor radon survey in Visegrad countries.

    PubMed

    Műllerová, Monika; Kozak, Krzysztof; Kovács, Tibor; Smetanová, Iveta; Csordás, Anita; Grzadziel, Dominik; Holý, Karol; Mazur, Jadwiga; Moravcsík, Attila; Neznal, Martin; Neznal, Matej

    2016-04-01

    The indoor radon measurements were carried out in 123 residential buildings and 33 schools in Visegrad countries (Slovakia, Hungary and Poland). In 13.2% of rooms radon concentration exceeded 300Bqm(-3), the reference value recommended in the Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM. Indoor radon in houses shows the typical radon behavior, with a minimum in the summer and a maximum in the winter season, whereas in 32% of schools the maximum indoor radon was reached in the summer months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isometric elbow extensors strength in supine- and prone-lying positions.

    PubMed

    Abdelzaher, Ibrahim E; Ababneh, Anas F; Alzyoud, Jehad M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare isometric strength of elbow extensors measured in supine- and prone-lying positions at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees. Twenty-two male subjects under single-blind procedures participated in the study. Each subject participated in both supine-lying and prone-lying measuring protocols. Calibrated cable tensiometer was used to measure isometric strength of the right elbow extensors and a biofeedback electromyography was used to assure no substitution movements from shoulder girdle muscles. The mean values of isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees were 11.1  ±  4.2 kg and 13.1  ±  4.6 kg, while those measured from prone-lying position were 9.9  ±  3.6 kg and 12  ±  4.2 kg, respectively. There is statistical significant difference between the isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees compared to that measured from prone-lying position (p  <  0.05). The results suggest that in manual muscle testing starting position can affect the isometric strength of elbow extensors since supine-lying starting position is better than prone-lying starting position.

  5. Variation of the unattached fraction of radon progeny and its contribution to radon exposure.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lu; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Qiuju

    2016-06-01

    The unattached fraction of radon progeny is one of the most important factors for radon exposure evaluation through the dosimetric approach. To better understand its level and variation in the real environment, a series of field measurements were carried out indoors and outdoors, and radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was also measured. The dose contribution of unattached radon progeny was evaluated in addition. The results show that no clear variation trend of the unattached fraction of radon progeny is observed in an indoor or outdoor environment. The average unattached fraction of radon progeny for the indoors and outdoors are (8.7  ±  1.6)% and (9.7  ±  2.1)%, respectively. The dose contribution of unattached radon progeny to total radon exposure is some 38.8% in an indoor environment, suggesting the importance of the evaluation on unattached radon progeny.

  6. Risk-Reduction Strategies to Expand Radon Care Planning with Vulnerable Groups

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Laura S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States and the leading cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers. Residential radon is the cause of approximately 21,000 U.S. lung cancer deaths each year. Dangerous levels of radon are just as likely to be found in low-rise apartments and townhomes as single-family homes in the same area. The preferred radon mitigation strategy can be expensive and requires structural modifications to the home. The public health nurse (PHN) needs a collection of low-cost alternatives when working with low-income families or families who rent their homes. Method A review of the literature was performed to identify evidence-based methods to reduce radon risk with vulnerable populations. Results Fourteen recommendations for radon risk reduction were categorized into four strategies. Nine additional activities for raising awareness and increasing testing were also included. Discussion The results pair the PHN with practical interventions and the underlying rationale to develop radon careplans with vulnerable families across housing types. The PHN has both the competence and the access to help families reduce their exposure to this potent carcinogen. PMID:24547763

  7. Radon entry into basements: Approach, experimental structures, and instrumentation of the small structures research project

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Modera, M.P.; Sextro, R.G.

    1992-02-01

    We describe the experimental approach, structures, and instrumentation of a research project on radon generation and transport in soil and entry into basements. The overall approach is to construct small precisely-fabricated basements in areas of different geology and climate, to control the pressures and ventilation rates in the structures, and to monitor radon concentrations and other relevant parameters over a period of one year or more. Two nearly air-tight structures have been constructed at the first site. The floor of each structure contains adjustable-width slots that serve as the only significant pathway for advective entry of radon. A layer ofmore » gravel underlays the floor of one structure; otherwise they are identical. The structures are instrumented for continuous or periodic monitoring of soil, structural, and meteorological parameters that affect radon entry. The pressure difference that drives advective radon entry can be maintained constant or varied over time. Soil gas and radon entry rates and associated parameters, such as soil gas pressures and radon concentrations, have been monitored for a range of steady-state and time-varying pressure differences between the interior of the structure and the soil. Examples of the experimentally-measured pressure and permeability fields in the soil around a structure are presented and discussed.« less

  8. Residential Radon Exposure and Incidence of Childhood Lymphoma in Texas, 1995–2011

    PubMed Central

    Peckham, Erin C.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Danysh, Heather E.; Lubega, Joseph; Langlois, Peter H.; Lupo, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    There is warranted interest in assessing the association between residential radon exposure and the risk of childhood cancer. We sought to evaluate the association between residential radon exposure and the incidence of childhood lymphoma in Texas. The Texas Cancer Registry (n = 2147) provided case information for the period 1995–2011. Denominator data were obtained from the United States Census. Regional arithmetic mean radon concentrations were obtained from the Texas Indoor Radon Survey and linked to residence at diagnosis. Exposure was assessed categorically: ≤25th percentile (reference), >25th to ≤50th percentile, >50th to ≤75th percentile, and >75th percentile. Negative binomial regression generated adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We evaluated lymphoma overall and by subtype: Hodgkin (HL; n = 1248), Non-Hodgkin excluding Burkitt (non-BL NHL; n = 658), Burkitt (BL; n = 241), and Diffuse Large B-cell (DLBCL; n = 315). There was no evidence that residential radon exposure was positively associated with lymphoma overall, HL, or BL. Areas with radon concentrations >75th percentile had a marginal increase in DLBCL incidence (aIRR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.03–2.91). In one of the largest studies of residential radon exposure and the incidence of childhood lymphoma, we found little evidence to suggest a positive or negative association; an observation consistent with previous studies. PMID:26404336

  9. Risk-reduction strategies to expand radon care planning with vulnerable groups.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Laura S

    2014-01-01

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States and the leading cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers. Residential radon is the cause of approximately 21,000 U.S. lung cancer deaths each year. Dangerous levels of radon are just as likely to be found in low-rise apartments and townhomes as single-family homes in the same area. The preferred radon mitigation strategy can be expensive and requires structural modifications to the home. The public health nurse (PHN) needs a collection of low-cost alternatives when working with low-income families or families who rent their homes. A review of the literature was performed to identify evidence-based methods to reduce radon risk with vulnerable populations. Fourteen recommendations for radon risk reduction were categorized into four strategies. Nine additional activities for raising awareness and increasing testing were also included. The results pair the PHN with practical interventions and the underlying rationale to develop radon careplans with vulnerable families across housing types. The PHN has both the competence and the access to help families reduce their exposure to this potent carcinogen. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Residential Radon Exposure and Incidence of Childhood Lymphoma in Texas, 1995-2011.

    PubMed

    Peckham, Erin C; Scheurer, Michael E; Danysh, Heather E; Lubega, Joseph; Langlois, Peter H; Lupo, Philip J

    2015-09-25

    There is warranted interest in assessing the association between residential radon exposure and the risk of childhood cancer. We sought to evaluate the association between residential radon exposure and the incidence of childhood lymphoma in Texas. The Texas Cancer Registry (n = 2147) provided case information for the period 1995-2011. Denominator data were obtained from the United States Census. Regional arithmetic mean radon concentrations were obtained from the Texas Indoor Radon Survey and linked to residence at diagnosis. Exposure was assessed categorically: ≤25th percentile (reference), >25th to ≤50th percentile, >50th to ≤75th percentile, and >75th percentile. Negative binomial regression generated adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We evaluated lymphoma overall and by subtype: Hodgkin (HL; n = 1248), Non-Hodgkin excluding Burkitt (non-BL NHL; n = 658), Burkitt (BL; n = 241), and Diffuse Large B-cell (DLBCL; n = 315). There was no evidence that residential radon exposure was positively associated with lymphoma overall, HL, or BL. Areas with radon concentrations >75th percentile had a marginal increase in DLBCL incidence (aIRR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.03-2.91). In one of the largest studies of residential radon exposure and the incidence of childhood lymphoma, we found little evidence to suggest a positive or negative association; an observation consistent with previous studies.

  11. Soil gas radon concentrations measurements in terms of great soil groups.

    PubMed

    Içhedef, Mutlu; Saç, Müslim Murat; Camgöz, Berkay; Bolca, Mustafa; Harmanşah, Çoşkun

    2013-12-01

    In this study, soil gas radon concentrations were investigated according to locations, horizontal soil layers and great soil groups around Tuzla Fault, Seferihisar-İzmir. Great soil groups are a category that described the horizontal soil layers under soil classification system and distributions of radon concentration in the great soil groups are firstly determined by the present study. According to the obtained results, it has been showed that the radon concentrations in the Koluvial soil group are higher than the other soil groups in the region. Also significant differences on location in same great soil group were determined. The radon concentrations in the Koluvial soil groups were measured with respect to soil layers structures (A, B, C1, and C2). It has been observed that the values increase with depth of soil (C2>C1>B>A). The main reason may be due to the meteorological factors that have limited effect on radon escape from deep layers. Although fault lines pass thought the study area radon concentrations were varied location to location, layer to layer and great group to great group. The study shows that a detailed location description should be performed before soil radon measurements for earthquake predictions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, Jr., G. Harold

    1993-01-01

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  13. Automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor

    DOEpatents

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1993-01-12

    An automatically processed alpha-track radon monitor is provided which includes a housing having an aperture allowing radon entry, and a filter that excludes the entry of radon daughters into the housing. A flexible track registration material is located within the housing that records alpha-particle emissions from the decay of radon and radon daughters inside the housing. The flexible track registration material is capable of being spliced such that the registration material from a plurality of monitors can be spliced into a single strip to facilitate automatic processing of the registration material from the plurality of monitors. A process for the automatic counting of radon registered by a radon monitor is also provided.

  14. Dropout Proneness in Appalachia. Research Series 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mink, Oscar G.; Barker, Laurence W.

    Two aids used in the identification of potential dropouts are examined. The Mink Scale (a teacher-rated scale) is based on classification of social, psychological, and educational forces related to dropout proneness: (1) academic ability and performance, (2) negative identification with education, (3) family and socioeconomic status, and (4)…

  15. Improving the RST Approach for Earthquake Prone Areas Monitoring: Results of Correlation Analysis among Significant Sequences of TIR Anomalies and Earthquakes (M>4) occurred in Italy during 2004-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, V.; Coviello, I.; Filizzola, C.; Genzano, N.; Lisi, M.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.

    2015-12-01

    Looking toward the assessment of a multi-parametric system for dynamically updating seismic hazard estimates and earthquake short term (from days to weeks) forecast, a preliminary step is to identify those parameters (chemical, physical, biological, etc.) whose anomalous variations can be, to some extent, associated to the complex process of preparation of a big earthquake. Among the different parameters, the fluctuations of Earth's thermally emitted radiation, as measured by sensors on board of satellite system operating in the Thermal Infra-Red (TIR) spectral range, have been proposed since long time as potential earthquake precursors. Since 2001, a general approach called Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) has been used to discriminate anomalous thermal signals, possibly associated to seismic activity from normal fluctuations of Earth's thermal emission related to other causes (e.g. meteorological) independent on the earthquake occurrence. Thanks to its full exportability on different satellite packages, RST has been implemented on TIR images acquired by polar (e.g. NOAA-AVHRR, EOS-MODIS) and geostationary (e.g. MSG-SEVIRI, NOAA-GOES/W, GMS-5/VISSR) satellite sensors, in order to verify the presence (or absence) of TIR anomalies in presence (absence) of earthquakes (with M>4) in different seismogenic areas around the world (e.g. Italy, Turkey, Greece, California, Taiwan, etc.).In this paper, a refined RST (Robust Satellite Techniques) data analysis approach and RETIRA (Robust Estimator of TIR Anomalies) index were used to identify Significant Sequences of TIR Anomalies (SSTAs) during eleven years (from May 2004 to December 2014) of TIR satellite records, collected over Italy by the geostationary satellite sensor MSG-SEVIRI. On the basis of specific validation rules (mainly based on physical models and results obtained by applying RST approach to several earthquakes all around the world) the level of space-time correlation among SSTAs and earthquakes (with M≥4

  16. Radon gamma-ray spectrometry with YAP:Ce scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plastino, Wolfango; De Felice, Pierino; de Notaristefani, Francesco

    2002-06-01

    The detection properties of a YAP:Ce scintillator (YAlO 3:Ce crystal) optically coupled to a Hamamatsu H5784 photomultiplier with standard bialkali photocathode have been analyzed. In particular, the application to radon and radon-daughters gamma-ray spectrometry was investigated. The crystal response has been studied under severe extreme conditions to simulate environments of geophysical interest, particularly those found in geothermal and volcanic areas. Tests in water up to a temperature of 100°C and in acids solutions such as HCl (37%), H 2SO 4 (48%) and HNO 3 (65%) have been performed. The measurements with standard radon sources provided by the National Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiations (ENEA) have emphasized the non-hygroscopic properties of the scintillator and a small dependence of the light yield on temperature and HNO 3. The data collected in this first step of our research have pointed out that the YAP:Ce scintillator can allow high response stability for radon gamma-ray spectrometry in environments with large temperature gradients and high acid concentrations.

  17. Radon exposure and tumors of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Dacosta-Urbieta, Ana; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Kelsey, Karl T

    2017-03-15

    To review the published evidence of links between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors through a systematic review of the scientific literature. We performed a thorough bibliographic search in Medline (PubMed) and EMBASE. We combined MeSH (Medical Subject Heading) terms and free text. We developed a purpose-designed scale to assess the quality of the included manuscripts. We have included 18 studies, 8 performed on miners, 3 on the general population and 7 on children, and the results have been structured using this classification. The results are inconclusive. An association between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors has been observed in some studies on miners, but not in others. The results observed in the general adult population and in children are also mixed, with some research evincing a statistically significant association and others showing no effect. We cannot conclude that there is a relationship between radon exposure and central nervous system tumors. The available studies are extremely heterogeneous in terms of design and populations studied. Further research is needed in this topic, particularly in the general population residing in areas with high levels of radon. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental radon exposure and childhood leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jian; Qin, Liqiang; Cao, Yi; Li, Jianxiang; Zhang, Jie; Nie, Jihua; An, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that animal and human epidemiological studies confirmed a link between radon exposure in homes and increased risk of lung cancer in general population, other types of cancers induced by radon, such as leukemia, have not been consistently demonstrated. The aim of this review was to summarize data published thus far from ecological and case-control studies in exposed populations, taking into account radon dose estimation and evidence of radon-induced genotoxicity, in an effort to clarify the correlation between home radon exposure and incidence of childhood leukemia. Among 12 ecological studies, 11 reported a positive association between radon levels and elevated frequency of childhood leukemia, with 8 being significant. In conjunction with ecological studies, several case-control studies on indoor radon exposure and childhood leukemia were examined, and most investigations indicated a weak association with only a few showing significance. A major source of uncertainty in radon risk assessment is radon dose estimate. Methods for radon exposure measurement in homes of children are one of the factors that affect the risk estimates in a case-control study. The effects of radon-induced genetic damage were studied both in vitro and in vivo using genetic endpoints including chromosomal aberration (CA), micronuclei (MN) formation, gene mutation, and deletions and insertions. By applying a meta-analysis, an increased risk of childhood leukemia induced by indoor radon exposure was noted for overall leukemia and for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Data thus indicated an association between environmental radon exposure and elevated leukemia incidence, but more evidence is required in both human investigations and animal mechanistic research before this assumption may be confirmed with certainty.

  19. Short-term radon activity concentration changes along the Underground Educational Tourist Route in the Old Uranium Mine in Kletno (Sudety Mts., SW Poland).

    PubMed

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia

    2014-09-01

    Short-term (222)Rn activity concentration changes along the Underground Educational Tourist Route in the Old Uranium Mine in Kletno were studied, based on continuous measurements conducted between 16 May 2008 and 15 May 2010. The results were analysed in the context of numbers of visitors arriving at the facility in particular seasons and the time per day spent inside by staff and visitors. This choice was based on partially published earlier findings (Fijałkowska-Lichwa and Przylibski, 2011). Results for the year 2009 were analysed in depth, because it is the only period of observation covering a full calendar year. The year 2009 was also chosen for detailed analysis of short-term radon concentration changes, because in each period of this year (hour, month, season) fluctuations of noted values were the most visible. Attention has been paid to three crucial issues linked to the occurrence and behaviour of radon and to the radiological protection of workers and visitors at the tourist route in Kletno. The object of study is a complex of workings in a former uranium mine situated within a metamorphic rock complex in the most radon-prone area in Poland. The facility has been equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, which is turned on after the closing time and at the end of the working day for the visitor service staff, i.e. after 6 p.m. Short-term radon activity concentration changes along the Underground Educational Tourist Route in the Old Uranium Mine in Kletno are related to the activity of the facility's mechanical ventilation. Its inactivity in the daytime results in the fact that the highest values of (222)Rn activity concentration are observed at the time when the facility is open to visitors, i.e. between 10 a.m. and 6 p.m. The improper usage of the mechanical ventilation system is responsible for the extremely unfavourable working conditions, which persist in the facility for practically all year. The absence of appropriate radiological protection

  20. Radiation Protection. Measurement of radioactivity in the environment - Air- radon 222. A proposed ISO standard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, G.; Woods, M.

    2009-04-01

    Radon isotopes (222, 220, 219) are radioactive gases produced by the disintegration of radium isotopes 226, 224 and 223, which are decay products of uranium238, thorium232 and uranium235 respectively. All are found in the earth's crust. Solid elements, also radioactive, are produced by radon disintegration. Radon is classed as a rare gas in the periodic table of elements, along with helium, argon, neon, krypton and xenon. When disintegrating, radon emits alpha particles and generates solid decay products, which are also radioactive (polonium, bismuth, lead etc.). The potential danger of radon lies in its solid decay products rather than the gas itself. Whether or not they are attached aerosols, radon decay products can be inhaled and deposited in the bronchopulmonary tree to varying depths according to their size. Radon today is considered to be the main source of human exposure to natural radiation. At the international level, radon accounts for 52% of global average exposure to natural radiation. Isotope 222 (48%) is far more significant than isotope 220 (4%), whilst isotope 219 is considered as negligible. Exposure to radon varies considerably from one region to another, depending on factors such as weather conditions, and underlying geology. Activity concentration can therefore vary by a factor of 10 or even a 100 from one period of time to the next and from one area to another. There are many ways of measuring the radon 222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products. Measuring techniques fall into three categories: - spot measurement methods; continuous measurement; integrated measurement. The proposed ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) document suggests guidelines for measuring radon222 activity concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of its short-lived decay products in a free (environment) and confined (buildings) atmosphere. The target date for availability of

  1. Radon estimation in water resources of Mandi - Dharamshala region of Himachal Pradesh, India for health risk assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gulshan; Kumari, Punam; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Arvind; Prasher, Sangeeta; Dhar, Sunil

    2017-07-01

    The present study deals with the radon estimation in 40 water samples collected from different natural resources and radium content in the soils of Mandi-Dharamshala Region. Radon concentration is determined by using RAD-7 detector and radium contents of the soil in vicinity of water resources is as well measured by using LR-115 type - II detector, which is further correlated with radon concentration in water samples. The potential health risks related with 222Rn have also been estimated. The results show that the radon concentrations within the range of 1.51 to 22.7Bq/l with an average value of 5.93 Bq/l for all type of water samples taken from study area. The radon concentration in water samples is found lower than 100Bq/l, the exposure limit of radon in water recommended by the World Health Organization. The calculated average effective dose of radon received by the people of study area is 0.022 mSv/y with maximum of 0.083 mSv/y and minimum 0.0056 mSv/y. The total effective dose in all sites of the studied area is found to be within the safe limit (0.1 mSv/year) recommended by World Health Organization. The average value of radium content in the soil of study area is 6.326 Bq/kg.

  2. Radon/radon daughter environmental chamber located in the northwest end of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Radon/radon daughter environmental chamber located in the northwest end of building. VIEW LOOKING WEST - Department of Energy, Grand Junction Office, Building No. 32, 2597 B3/4 Road, Grand Junction, Mesa County, CO

  3. SOIL GAS RADON MEASUREMENT AROUND FAULT LINES ON THE WESTERN SECTION OF THE NORTH ANATOLIAN FAULT ZONE IN TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Yakut, Hakan; Tabar, Emre; Yildirim, Eray; Zenginerler, Zemine; Ertugral, Filiz; Demirci, Nilufer

    2017-04-15

    Soil gas radon activity measurements were made around the western section of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. In the study, the variation of radon concentration at 12 different locations along the fault line was monitored by using LR-115 (solid-state nuclear track detectors) detectors for 12-monthly periods. Twelve radon stations were determined in the study region, and in each station, LR-115 films were installed in the borehole of ∼50 cm. The recorded radon concentration varies from 29 to 7059 Bqm-3 with an average value of 1930 Bqm-3. The influence of meteorological parameters such as temperature, pressure, total rainfall and humidity on soil radon concentrations in the study area was also investigated. The positive and poor correlation was observed between average value of 222Rn concentration and temperature. There is a reverse proportion between radon level with other meteorological factors (humidity, pressure and rainfall). The results show that the measured soil gas radon activity concentration shows seasonal variation in a highly permeable sandy-gravelly soil with definite seasons without obvious long transitional periods. The summer (from June 2013 to September 2013) is characterised by 1.8 times higher average soil gas radon activity concentration (median is 2.372 kBqm-3) than the winter (from December 2012 to March 2013) (median is 1.298 kBqm-3). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Spanish experience on the design of radon surveys based on the use of geogenic information.

    PubMed

    Sainz Fernández, C; Quindós Poncela, L S; Fernández Villar, A; Fuente Merino, I; Gutierrez-Villanueva, J L; Celaya González, S; Quindós López, L; Quindós López, J; Fernández, E; Remondo Tejerina, J; Martín Matarranz, J L; García Talavera, M

    2017-01-01

    One of the requirements of the recently approved EU-BSS (European Basic Safety Standards Directive, EURATOM, 2013) is the design and implementation of national radon action plans in the member states (Annex XVIII). Such plans require radon surveys. The analysis of indoor radon data is supported by the existing knowledge about geogenic radiation. With this aim, we used the terrestrial gamma dose rate data from the MARNA project. In addition, we considered other criterion regarding the surface of Spain, population, permeability of rocks, uranium and radium contain in soils because currently no data are available related to soil radon gas concentration and permeability in Spain. Given that, a Spanish radon map was produced which will be part of the European Indoor Radon Map and a component of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation. The map indicates geographical areas with high probability of finding high indoor radon concentrations. This information will support legislation regarding prevention of radon entry both in dwellings and workplaces. In addition, the map will serve as a tool for the development of strategies at all levels: individual dwellings, local, regional and national administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effectiveness of radon preventive and remedial measures in Irish homes.

    PubMed

    Long, S; Fenton, D; Cremin, M; Morgan, A

    2013-03-01

    It is estimated that approximately 100 000 Irish homes have radon concentrations above the reference level of 200 Bq m(-3). To minimise the number of new homes with this problem, building regulations require that all new homes built since July 1998 in high radon areas are installed with radon barriers during construction. Measurements on local authority homes in a number of high radon areas have allowed the impact of these new regulations to be assessed. In County Cork a reduction of up to 70% in the mean radon concentration was observed in homes built since 1998 relative to those built before this date. A reduction in both the number of homes exceeding the reference level and the maximum concentration measured in homes was also measured. Homes exceeding the reference level were remediated with the use of an active sump. The results of this remedial work are also presented and show that the mean reduction in radon concentration achieved was 92%.

  6. Measurement of radon concentration in water using the portable radon survey meter.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, S; Mori, N; Shimo, M; Fukushi, M; Ohnuma, S

    2011-07-01

    A measurement method for measuring radon in water using the portable radon survey meter (RnSM) was developed. The container with propeller was used to stir the water samples and release radon from the water into the air in a sample box of the RnSM. In this method, the measurement of error would be <20 %, when the radon concentration in the mineral water was >20 Bq l(-1).

  7. Mapping the radon potential of the united states: Examples from the Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gundersen, L.C.S.; Schumann, R.R.; ,

    1997-01-01

    The geologic radon potential of the United States was recently assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Results indicate that approximately 33% of the U.S. population lives within geologic provinces where the average indoor radon levels have the potential to be greater than 4 pCi/L (147 Bq/m3). Rock types most commonly associated with high indoor radon include: 1) Uraniferous metamorphosed sediments, volcanics, and granite intrusives, especially those that are highly deformed or sheared. 2) Glacial deposits derived from uranium-bearing rocks and sediments. 3) Carboniferous, black shales. 4) Soils derived from carbonate rock, especially in karstic terrain. 5) Uraniferous fluvial, deltaic, marine, and lacustrine deposits. Different geologic terrains of the eastern United States illustrate some of the problems inherent in correlating indoor radon with geology. The Central and Southern Appalachian Highlands of the eastern United States have not been glaciated and most soils there are saprolitic, derived directly from the underlying bedrock. Regression analyses of bedrock geologic and radon parameters yield positive correlations (R > 0.5 to 0.9) and indicate that bedrock geology can account for a significant portion of the indoor radon variation. In glaciated areas of the United States such as the northern Appalachian Highlands and Appalachian Plateau, the correlation of bedrock geology to indoor radon is obscured or is positive only in certain cases. In these glaciated areas of the country, it is the type, composition, thickness, and permeability of glacial deposits, rather than the bedrock geology, that controls the radon source.

  8. Residential radon and cancer mortality in Galicia, Spain.

    PubMed

    López-Abente, Gonzalo; Núñez, Olivier; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Barros-Dios, Juan M; Martín-Méndez, Iván; Bel-Lan, Alejandro; Locutura, Juan; Quindós, Luis; Sainz, Carlos; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Residential radon exposure is a serious public health concern, and as such appears in the recommendations of European Code Against Cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the association between residential radon levels and mortality due to different types of cancer, using misaligned data analysis techniques. Mortality data (observed cases) for each of the 313 Galician municipalities were drawn from the records of the National Statistics Institute for the study period (1999-2008). Expected cases were computed using Galician mortality rates for 14 types of malignant tumors as reference, with a total of 56,385 deaths due to the tumors analyzed. The effect estimates of indoor radon (3371 sampling points) were adjusted for sociodemographic variables, altitude, and arsenic topsoil levels (1069 sampling points), using spatial/geostatistical models fitted with stochastic partial differential equations and integrated nested Laplace approximations. These models are capable of processing misaligned data. The results showed a statistical association between indoor radon and lung, stomach and brain cancer in women in Galicia. Apart from lung cancer (relative risk (RR)=1.09), in which a twofold increase in radon exposure led to a 9% rise in mortality, the association was particularly relevant in stomach (RR=1.17) and brain cancer (RR=1.28). Further analytical epidemiologic studies are needed to confirm these results, and an assessment should be made of the advisability of implementing interventions targeting such exposure in higher-risk areas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling of indoor radon concentration from radon exhalation rates of building materials and validation through measurements.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Chauhan, R P; Joshi, Manish; Sahoo, B K

    2014-01-01

    Building materials are the second major source of indoor radon after soil. The contribution of building materials towards indoor radon depends upon the radium content and exhalation rates and can be used as a primary index for radon levels in the dwellings. The radon flux data from the building materials was used for calculation of the indoor radon concentrations and doses by many researchers using one and two dimensional model suggested by various researchers. In addition to radium content, the radon wall flux from a surface strongly depends upon the radon diffusion length (L) and thickness of the wall (2d). In the present work the indoor radon concentrations from the measured radon exhalation rate of building materials calculated using different models available in literature and validation of models was made through measurement. The variation in the predicted radon flux from different models was compared with d/L value for wall and roofs of different dwellings. The results showed that the radon concentrations predicted by models agree with experimental value. The applicability of different model with d/L ratio was discussed. The work aims to select a more appropriate and general model among available models in literature for the prediction of indoor radon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Radon in indoor air of primary schools: determinant factors, their variability and effective dose.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Rufo, João; Moreira, André; de Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo; Pereira, Alcides

    2016-04-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas, abundant in granitic areas, such as in the city of Porto at the north-east of Portugal. This gas is a recognized carcinogenic agent, being appointed by the World Health Organization as the leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The aim of this preliminary survey was to determine indoor radon concentrations in public primary schools, to analyse the main factors influencing their indoor concentration levels and to estimate the effective dose in students and teachers in primary schools. Radon concentrations were measured in 45 classrooms from 13 public primary schools located in Porto, using CR-39 passive radon detectors for about 2-month period. In all schools, radon concentrations ranged from 56 to 889 Bq/m(3) (mean = 197 Bq/m(3)). The results showed that the limit of 100 Bq/m(3) established by WHO IAQ guidelines was exceeded in 92 % of the measurements, as well as 8 % of the measurements exceeded the limit of 400 Bq/m(3) established by the national legislation. Moreover, the mean annual effective dose was calculated as 1.25 mSv/y (ranging between 0.58 and 3.07 mSv/y), which is below the action level (3-10 mSv). The considerable variability of radon concentration observed between and within floors indicates a need to monitor concentrations in several rooms for each floor. A single radon detector for each room can be used, provided that the measurement error is considerably lower than variability of radon concentration between rooms. The results of the present survey will provide useful baseline data for adopting safety measures and dealing effectively with radiation emergencies. In particular, radon remediation techniques should be used in buildings located in the highest radon risk areas of Portugal. The results obtained in the current study concerning radon levels and their variations will be useful to optimize the design of future research surveys.

  11. Radon and monocytic leukaemia in England.

    PubMed Central

    Eatough, J P; Henshaw, D L

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between the standardised registration ratio (SRR) for monocytic leukaemia and the radon concentration by county in England was investigated. Leukaemia data were obtained from the OPCS and cover the age range 0-74 years and the period 1975-86. Radon concentrations were obtained from a recent National Radiological Protection Board report. A significant correlation was observed between the SRR for monocytic leukaemia and the radon concentration by county. PMID:8120509

  12. Radon and monocytic leukaemia in England.

    PubMed

    Eatough, J P; Henshaw, D L

    1993-12-01

    The relationship between the standardised registration ratio (SRR) for monocytic leukaemia and the radon concentration by county in England was investigated. Leukaemia data were obtained from the OPCS and cover the age range 0-74 years and the period 1975-86. Radon concentrations were obtained from a recent National Radiological Protection Board report. A significant correlation was observed between the SRR for monocytic leukaemia and the radon concentration by county.

  13. The distribution of indoor radon in Transylvania (Romania) - influence of the natural and anthropogenic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucos Dinu, Alexandra; Baciu, Calin; Dicu, Tiberius; Papp, Botond; Moldovan, Mircea; Bety Burghele, Denissa; Tenter, Ancuta; Szacsvai, Kinga

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to radon in homes and workplaces is now recognized as the most important natural factor in causing lung cancer. Radon activity is usually higher in buildings than in the outside atmosphere, as it may be released from building materials and soil beneath the constructions, and the concentration builds-up indoor, due to the low air renewal rates. Indoor radon levels can vary from one to multiple orders of magnitude over time and space, as it depends on several natural and anthropogenic factors, such us the radon concentration in soil under the construction, the weather conditions, the degree of containment in the areas where individuals are exposed, building materials, outside air, tap water and even city gas, the architecture, equipment (chimney, mechanical ventilation systems, etc.), the environmental parameters of the building (temperature, pressure, etc.), and on the occupants' lifestyle. The study presents the distribution of indoor radon in Transylvania, Romania, together with the measurements of radon in soil and soil water. Indoor radon measurements were performed by using CR-39 track detectors exposed for 3 months on ground-floor level of dwellings, according to the NRPB Measurement Protocol. Radon concentrations in soil and water were measured using the LUK3C device. A complete map was plotted at the date, based on 3300 indoor radon measurements, covering an area of about 42% of the Romanian territory. The indoor radon concentrations ranged from 5 to 3287 Bq m-3, with an updated preliminary arithmetic mean of 179 Bq m-3, and a geometric mean of 122 Bq m-3. In about 11% of the investigated grid cells the indoor radon concentrations exceed the threshold of 300 Bq m-3. The soil gas radon concentration varies from 0.8 to 169 kBq m-3, with a geometric mean of 26 kBq m-3. For water samples, the results show radon concentrations within the range of 0.3 - 352.2 kBq m-3, with a geometric mean of 7.7 Bq L-1. A weak correlation between the three sets of values

  14. Reduction of Radon Progeny in Indoor Air.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    arises from indoor radon is due * 4 to inhalation of the short-lived radon daughters Ra-A, Ra-B, and Ra-C. These decay products are formed from the alpha...concentrations of radon daughters 40 ’ in an air sample from the gross alpha counting of a filter 50 ’ in accordance with the modified Tsivoglou method. 60 ’ 70...8217 The modified Tsivoglou method may be found in " Measurement 80 ’ of Radon Daughters in Air," Health Physics, 23, : pp7S3-789 90 ’ (19𔃼). 95 100 The

  15. Potential health effects of indoor radon exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Radford, E P

    1985-01-01

    Radon-222 is a ubiquitous noble gas arising from decay of radium-226 normally present in the earth's crust. Alpha radiation from inhaled short-lived daughters of radon readily irradiates human bronchial epithelium, and there is now good evidence of excess risk of lung cancer in underground miners exposed to higher concentrations. In homes, radon levels are highly variable, showing approximately log-normal distributions and often a small fraction of homes with high concentrations of radon and radon daughters. Factors affecting indoor concentrations include type of bedrock under dwellings, house foundation characteristics, radon dissolved in artesian water, and ventilation and degree of air movement in living spaces. Despite much recent work, exposures to radon daughters by the general public are not well defined. From application of risk assessments in miners to home conditions, it appears that about 25% or more of lung cancers among nonsmokers over the age of 60, and about 5% in smokers, may be attributable to exposure to radon daughters at home. It may be necessary to take remedial action to reduce this hazard in those dwellings with elevated levels of radon, and new construction should take account of this problem. PMID:4085431

  16. Earth, wind, and fire: Wildfire risk perceptions in a hurricane-prone environment

    Treesearch

    Soren M. Newman; Matthew S. Carroll; Pamela J. Jakes; Daniel R. Williams; Lorie L. Higgins

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire is one of several potential disturbances that could have extraordinary impacts on individuals and communities in fire-prone areas. In this article we describe disturbance risk perceptions from interviews with residents in three Florida communities that face significant wildfire and hurricane risk. Although they live in areas characterized by emergency managers...

  17. 'Radon Concentration Survey in Inner Rooms from Deputy Chamber and National Congress-Brasilia/DF'

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoli, Ieda Gomes; Cardozo, Katia Maria; Azevedo Gouvea, Vandir de

    2008-08-07

    Radon gas has been monitored in many environments such as rural and urban houses, high natural radioactivity areas and underground mining regions. Nevertheless few data are reported in literature about studies in state buildings. So we get in touch with these buildings managers, where work the Deputy Chamber and the National Congress in Brasilia--DF, in order to obtain radon data in these state buildings, so representative for brazilian people. In order to make a preliminary scanning of radon concentration in these buildings, it was put in selected points, radon nuclear track passive detectors type SSNTD, specifically polycarbonate Lexan, which weremore » exposed for periods from two to five months. Afterwards they were sent to Nuclear Engineering Institute in Rio de Janeiro for analysis of {sup 222}Rn contents. Derived values, whose average value was about 73 Bq/m{sup 3}, were all under maximum permissible limits for radon 200 Bq/m{sup 3}, established by International Comission on Radiological Protection--ICRP 65, for inner environments of houses and state buildings. This work has been coordinated by CNEN Office in Braselia with effective participation of Nuclear Engineering Institute from CNEN--RJ, that has worked since beginning of april 2004, supplying and analysing radon detectors.« less

  18. Radon Outgassing in the Casa Diablo Region, Long Valley Caldera, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adarkwah, N.; Cuff, K.

    2003-12-01

    A radon outgassing survey has been conducted in the Casa Diablo region of the Long Valley Caldera. The Long Valley Caldera (LVC) is an active volcanic system situated along the eastern front of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in east-central California. The survey was centered in an area .4 km northwest of the Casa Diablo geothermal power plant, located along the southwestern-most rim of the caldera?s resurgent dome. Results from previous radon emission studies in LVC indicate that high degrees of outgassing occur in association with relatively narrow networks of unsealed fractures (Cuff, et al., 2000 and Hoyos, et al., 2001). These fracture networks act as pathways for radon and other gases generated at depth as they migrate toward the surface. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether or not a relationship exists between radon emissions in the current survey area and that in a previously surveyed area approximately .8 km west of the geothermal plant. To accomplish this, we measured radon concentration in soil-gas at 35 separate sites. These sites were located within a 140 by 100 meter grid, with 20 meter spacing between each sample site. A radon outgassing map was then created using measured concentration values along with longitude and latitude values for each sample location. Geologic maps of the area were also analyzed and compared with radon outgassing maps. Analysis of these maps indicates that radon outgassing occurs through a set of crisscrossing fractures, trending southwest-northeast and northwest-southeast respectively. The northwest trending fractures are related to mapped normal faults in the area, while those with a southwest-northeast orientation are associated with an unmapped zone of faulting that is roughly perpendicular to the other faults. The latter set of fractures has a trend similar to that discovered in the previously surveyed area to the west. In both areas the highest readings were in excess of three times background

  19. Current Suicide Proneness and Past Suicidal Behavior in Adjudicated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2008-01-01

    Youth recently assigned to probation (n = 233) were assessed for current suicide proneness, depression, and hopelessness, as well as for recent suicide ideation, previous suicide ideation, or suicide attempt(s). The Life Attitudes Schedule-Short Form (LAS-SF) was used to assess suicide proneness. As per the LAS-SF, suicide proneness was defined…

  20. FOLLOW-UP ANNUAL ALPHA-TRACK MONITORING IN 40 EASTERN PENNSYLVANIA HOUSES WITH INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS (DECEMBER 1988 - DECEMBER 1989)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of 12-month-long alpha-track detector (ATD) measurements of indoor radon concentrations, between December 1988 and December 1989 in the living areas of 38 of 40 houses where radon reduction techniques had been installed 2-4 years earlier in a previous EPA...

  1. Radon as an Anthropogenic Indoor Air Pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Crockett, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Radon is generally regarded as a naturally occurring radiological hazard but we report here measurements of significant, hazardous radon concentrations that arise from man-made sources, including granite ornaments/artefacts, uranium glass and glazed objects as well radium dial watches. This presentation concerns an examination and assessment of health risks from radium and uranium found in historical artefacts, many of which were once viewed as everyday items, and the radon that emanates from them. Such objects were very popular in industrialised countries such as the USA, UK and European countries) particularly between and including the two World Wars but are still readily available. A watch collection examined gave rise to a hazardous radon concentration of 13.24 kBq•m-3 approximately 67 times the Domestic Action Level of 200 Bq•m-3.The results for an aircraft altimeter are comparable to those of the watches, indicating radon activity equivalent to several watches, and also indicate an equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room ca. 33 times the UK domestic Action Level. Results from a granite block indicate a radon emanation of 19.7 Bq•kg-1, but the indicated equilibrium concentration in the 16.3 m3 room is only ca. 1.7% of the UK domestic Action Level. Uranium-glazed crockery and green uranium glass were scoped for radon activity. The former yielded a radon concentration of ca. 44 Bq•m-3 in a small (7 L) sealed container. The latter yielded a lower radon concentration in a larger (125 L) sealed container of ca. 6 Bq•m-3. This is barely above the background radon concentration in the laboratory, which was typically ca. 1-2 Bq•m-3. Individual items then are capable of giving rise to radon concentrations in excess of the UK Domestic Action Level in rooms in houses, particularly if poorly ventilated. We highlight the gap in the remediation protocols, which are focused on preventing radon entering buildings from outside, with regard to internally

  2. Boredom proneness: its relationship to positive and negative affect.

    PubMed

    Vodanovich, S J; Verner, K M; Gilbride, T V

    1991-12-01

    170 undergraduate students completed the Boredom Proneness Scale by Farmer and Sundberg and the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist by Zuckerman and Lubin. Significant negative relationships were found between boredom proneness and negative affect scores (i.e., Depression, Hostility, Anxiety). Significant positive correlations also obtained between boredom proneness and positive affect (i.e., Positive Affect, Sensation Seeking). The correlations between boredom proneness "subscales" and positive and negative affect were congruent with those obtained using total boredom proneness scores. Implications for counseling are discussed.

  3. Radon in harvested rainwater at the household level, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Al Zabadi, Hamzeh; Saffarini, Ghassan

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess Radon concentration in the harvested rainwater (HRW) at the household level in Yatta area, Palestine. HRW is mainly used for drinking as it is the major source of water for domestic uses due to water scarcity. Ninety HRW samples from the household cisterns were collected from six localities (a town and five villages) and Radon concentrations were measured. The samples were randomly collected from different households to represent the Yatta area. Fifteen samples were collected from each locality at the same day. RAD7 device was used for analysis and each sample was measured in duplicate. Radon concentrations ranged from 0.037 to 0.26 Bq/L with a mean ± standard deviation of 0.14 ± 0.06 Bq/L. The estimated annual effective radiation doses for babies, children and adults were all far below the maximum limit of 5 mSvy -1 set by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 40 CFR 61.203 - Radon monitoring and compliance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radon monitoring and compliance... for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.203 Radon monitoring and compliance procedures. (a..., each owner or operator of an inactive phosphogypsum stack shall test the stack for radon-222 flux in...

  5. Hidden Hazards of Radon: Scanning the Country for Problem Locations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundersen, Linda C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the geology of the radon problem in the United States and suggests how homeowners can cope with the radio active gas. Vignettes illustrate how and where radon is produced beneath the earth's surface, testing sites and procedures for radon in houses, and locations for potential radon problems across the United States. (MCO)

  6. SITE-SPECIFIC MEASUREMENTS OF RESIDENTIAL RADON PROTECTION CATEGORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a series of benchmark measurements of soil radon potential at seven Florida sites and compares the measurements with regional estimates of radon potential from the Florida radon protection map. The measurements and map were developed under the Florida Radon R...

  7. 40 CFR 61.203 - Radon monitoring and compliance procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Radon monitoring and compliance... for Radon Emissions From Phosphogypsum Stacks § 61.203 Radon monitoring and compliance procedures. (a..., each owner or operator of an inactive phosphogypsum stack shall test the stack for radon-222 flux in...

  8. Find a Radon Test Kit or Measurement and Mitigation Professional

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find a qualified radon service professional to fix or mitigate your home. If you have questions about a radon, you should contact your state radon contact and/or contact one or both of the two privately-run National Radon Proficiency Programs

  9. Radon Measurement in Schools. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other major national and international scientific organizations have concluded that radon is a human carcinogen and a serious environmental health problem. The EPA has conducted extensive research on the presence and measurement of radon in schools. This report provides school administrators and…

  10. Radon Reduction Methods: A Homeowner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying the effectiveness of various ways to reduce high concentrations of radon in houses. This booklet was produced to share what has been learned with those whose radon problems demand immediate action. The booklet describes nine methods that have been tested successfully--by EPA and/or other…

  11. Removal of Radon from Household Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    By far, the greatest risk to health from radon occurs when the gas enters the house from underlying soil and is inhaled. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is studying ways to reduce radon in houses, including methods to remove the gas from water to prevent its release in houses when the water is used. While this research has not…

  12. TEST CELL STUDIES OF RADON ENTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to contrast the effectiveness of slab-in-stem wall (SSW) with floating slab (FS) construction practices, to measure radon transport and entry for model testing, to develop protocols relevant to depressurized radon measurements, and to determine...

  13. Radon Measurements in Schools: An Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation Programs.

    Radon-222 is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, radioactive gas that occurs naturally in soil, rocks, underground water, and air. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other scientific organizations have identified an increased risk of lung cancer associated with exposure to elevated levels of radon in homes. Schools in many…

  14. Filtering of the Radon transform to enhance linear signal features via wavelet pyramid decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meckley, John R.

    1995-09-01

    The information content in many signal processing applications can be reduced to a set of linear features in a 2D signal transform. Examples include the narrowband lines in a spectrogram, ship wakes in a synthetic aperture radar image, and blood vessels in a medical computer-aided tomography scan. The line integrals that generate the values of the projections of the Radon transform can be characterized as a bank of matched filters for linear features. This localization of energy in the Radon transform for linear features can be exploited to enhance these features and to reduce noise by filtering the Radon transform with a filter explicitly designed to pass only linear features, and then reconstructing a new 2D signal by inverting the new filtered Radon transform (i.e., via filtered backprojection). Previously used methods for filtering the Radon transform include Fourier based filtering (a 2D elliptical Gaussian linear filter) and a nonlinear filter ((Radon xfrm)**y with y >= 2.0). Both of these techniques suffer from the mismatch of the filter response to the true functional form of the Radon transform of a line. The Radon transform of a line is not a point but is a function of the Radon variables (rho, theta) and the total line energy. This mismatch leads to artifacts in the reconstructed image and a reduction in achievable processing gain. The Radon transform for a line is computed as a function of angle and offset (rho, theta) and the line length. The 2D wavelet coefficients are then compared for the Haar wavelets and the Daubechies wavelets. These filter responses are used as frequency filters for the Radon transform. The filtering is performed on the wavelet pyramid decomposition of the Radon transform by detecting the most likely positions of lines in the transform and then by convolving the local area with the appropriate response and zeroing the pyramid coefficients outside of the response area. The response area is defined to contain 95% of the total

  15. Poster - 34: Clinical Implementation of Prone Breast Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Runqing; Fleming, Katrina; Kobeleva, Sofya

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Prone breast treatment is used to reduce acute and late toxicities for large or pendulous breast patients. This study developed and implemented the clinical workflow of prone breast radiotherapy treatment. Methods: Varian kVue Access360™ Prone Breast Couchtop was used as prone breast board. The treatment planning (TP)is performed in Eclipse TP system. TP comparisons between supine deep inspiration breathing hold (DIBH) and prone breast; prone forward field-in-field (FinF) planning and inverse IMRT planning were performed and discussed. For the daily setup, breast coverage was assessed in the room using light field and MV imaging was used at day 1more » and weekly. Results: The first ten patients are CT scanned and planned both supine and prone. The coverage was all excellent for supine DIBH plan and prone breast plan. The plan in the prone position demonstrated improvements in lung sparing comparing to the DIBH plan. Both forward FinF plan and inverse IMRT plan achieved acceptable coverage of the breast, and heart dose is comparable. Considering the daily setup variations and MLC leakage, forward FinF plan was recommended for routine clinical use. The procedure has been tested in phantom and patients were treated clinically. Conclusions: Prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. The workflow for prone breast radiation therapy has been developed and the technique is ready to treat patients.« less

  16. An indoor radon survey of the X-ray rooms of Mexico City hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Juarez, Faustino; Reyes, Pedro G.; Espinosa, Guillermo

    This paper presents the results of measurements of indoor radon concentrations in the X-ray rooms of a selection of hospitals in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The metropolitan area of Mexico City is Mexico's largest metropolitan area by population; the number of patients requiring the use of X-rays is also the highest. An understanding of indoor radon concentrations in X-ray rooms is necessary for the estimation of the radiological risk to which patients, radiologists and medical technicians are exposed. The indoor radon concentrations were monitored for a period of six months using nuclear track detectors (NTD) consisting of amore » closed-end cup system with CR-39 (Lantrack Registered-Sign ) polycarbonate as detector material. The indoor radon concentrations were found to be between 75 and 170 Bq m{sup -3}, below the USEPA-recommended indoor radon action level for working places of 400 Bq m{sup -3}. It is hoped that the results of this study will contribute to the establishment of recommended action levels by the Mexican regulatory authorities responsible for nuclear safety.« less

  17. A complete low cost radon detection system.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, A; Barlas, E; Emirhan, E; Kutlu, Ç; Ozben, C S

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring the (222)Rn activity through the 1200 km long Northern Anatolian fault line, for the purpose of earthquake precursory, requires large number of cost effective radon detectors. We have designed, produced and successfully tested a low cost radon detection system (a radon monitor). In the detector circuit of this monitor, First Sensor PS100-7-CER-2 windowless PIN photodiode and a custom made transempedence/shaping amplifier were used. In order to collect the naturally ionized radon progeny to the surface of the PIN photodiode, a potential of 3500 V was applied between the conductive hemi-spherical shell and the PIN photodiode. In addition to the count rate of the radon progeny, absolute pressure, humidity and temperature were logged during the measurements. A GSM modem was integrated to the system for transferring the measurements from the remote locations to the data process center. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Individual differences in posterior cortical volume correlate with proneness to pride and gratitude.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Roland; Garrido, Griselda; Moll, Jorge; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-11-01

    Proneness to specific moral sentiments (e.g. pride, gratitude, guilt, indignation) has been linked with individual variations in functional MRI (fMRI) response within anterior brain regions whose lesion leads to inappropriate behaviour. However, the role of structural anatomical differences in rendering individuals prone to particular moral sentiments relative to others is unknown. Here, we investigated grey matter volumes (VBM8) and proneness to specific moral sentiments on a well-controlled experimental task in healthy individuals. Individuals with smaller cuneus, and precuneus volumes were more pride-prone, whereas those with larger right inferior temporal volumes experienced gratitude more readily. Although the primary analysis detected no associations with guilt- or indignation-proneness, subgenual cingulate fMRI responses to guilt were negatively correlated with grey matter volumes in the left superior temporal sulcus and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (right >left). This shows that individual variations in functional activations within critical areas for moral sentiments were not due to grey matter volume differences in the same areas. Grey matter volume differences between healthy individuals may nevertheless play an important role by affecting posterior cortical brain systems that are non-critical but supportive for the experience of specific moral sentiments. This may be of particular relevance when their experience depends on visuo-spatial elaboration. Published by Oxford University Press 2013. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Individual differences in posterior cortical volume correlate with proneness to pride and gratitude

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, Roland; Garrido, Griselda; Moll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Proneness to specific moral sentiments (e.g. pride, gratitude, guilt, indignation) has been linked with individual variations in functional MRI (fMRI) response within anterior brain regions whose lesion leads to inappropriate behaviour. However, the role of structural anatomical differences in rendering individuals prone to particular moral sentiments relative to others is unknown. Here, we investigated grey matter volumes (VBM8) and proneness to specific moral sentiments on a well-controlled experimental task in healthy individuals. Individuals with smaller cuneus, and precuneus volumes were more pride-prone, whereas those with larger right inferior temporal volumes experienced gratitude more readily. Although the primary analysis detected no associations with guilt- or indignation-proneness, subgenual cingulate fMRI responses to guilt were negatively correlated with grey matter volumes in the left superior temporal sulcus and anterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (right >left). This shows that individual variations in functional activations within critical areas for moral sentiments were not due to grey matter volume differences in the same areas. Grey matter volume differences between healthy individuals may nevertheless play an important role by affecting posterior cortical brain systems that are non-critical but supportive for the experience of specific moral sentiments. This may be of particular relevance when their experience depends on visuo-spatial elaboration. PMID:24106333

  20. Novel method of measurement of radon exhalation from building materials.

    PubMed

    Awhida, A; Ujić, P; Vukanac, I; Đurašević, M; Kandić, A; Čeliković, I; Lončar, B; Kolarž, P

    2016-11-01

    In the era of the energy saving policy (i.e. more air tight doors and windows), the radon exhaled from building materials tends to increase its concentration in indoor air, which increases the importance of the measurement of radon exhalation from building materials. This manuscript presents a novel method of the radon exhalation measurement using only a HPGe detector or any other gamma spectrometer. Comparing it with the already used methods of radon exhalation measurements, this method provides the measurement of the emanation coefficient, the radon diffusion length and the radon exhalation rate, all within the same measurement, which additionally defines material's radon protective properties. Furthermore it does not necessitate additional equipment for radon or radon exhalation measurement, which simplifies measurement technique, and thus potentially facilitates introduction of legal obligation for radon exhalation determination in building materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A statewide investigation of geographic lung cancer incidence patterns and radon exposure in a low-smoking population.

    PubMed

    Ou, Judy Y; Fowler, Brynn; Ding, Qian; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Pappas, Lisa; Boucher, Kenneth; Akerley, Wallace; Wu, Yelena; Kaphingst, Kimberly; Harding, Garrett; Kepka, Deanna

    2018-01-31

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in Utah despite having the nation's lowest smoking rate. Radon exposure and differences in lung cancer incidence between nonmetropolitan and metropolitan areas may explain this phenomenon. We compared smoking-adjusted lung cancer incidence rates between nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties by predicted indoor radon level, sex, and cancer stage. We also compared lung cancer incidence by county classification between Utah and all SEER sites. SEER*Stat provided annual age-adjusted rates per 100,000 from 1991 to 2010 for each Utah county and all other SEER sites. County classification, stage, and sex were obtained from SEER*Stat. Smoking was obtained from Environmental Public Health Tracking estimates by Ortega et al. EPA provided low (< 2 pCi/L), moderate (2-4 pCi/L), and high (> 4 pCi/L) indoor radon levels for each county. Poisson models calculated overall, cancer stage, and sex-specific rates and p-values for smoking-adjusted and unadjusted models. LOESS smoothed trend lines compared incidence rates between Utah and all SEER sites by county classification. All metropolitan counties had moderate radon levels; 12 (63%) of the 19 nonmetropolitan counties had moderate predicted radon levels and 7 (37%) had high predicted radon levels. Lung cancer incidence rates were higher in nonmetropolitan counties than metropolitan counties (34.8 vs 29.7 per 100,000, respectively). Incidence of distant stage cancers was significantly higher in nonmetropolitan counties after controlling for smoking (16.7 vs 15.4, p = 0.02*). Incidence rates in metropolitan, moderate radon and nonmetropolitan, moderate radon counties were similar. Nonmetropolitan, high radon counties had a significantly higher incidence of lung cancer compared to nonmetropolitan, moderate radon counties after adjustment for smoking (41.7 vs 29.2, p < 0.0001*). Lung cancer incidence patterns in Utah were opposite of metropolitan

  2. 76 FR 72006 - Draft Interim Staff Guidance: Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    .... Discussion Uranium recovery facility licensees, including in-situ recovery facilities and conventional... Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon Progeny in Air and Demonstrations of Compliance AGENCY... Staff Guidance, ``Evaluations of Uranium Recovery Facility Surveys of Radon and Radon Progeny in Air and...

  3. Diffusion of radon through concrete block walls: A significant source of indoor radon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lively, R.S.; Goldberg, L.F.

    1999-01-01

    Basement modules located in southern Minnesota have been the site of continuous radon and environmental measurements during heating seasons since 1993. Concentrations of radon within the basement modules ranged from 70 Bq.m-3 to over 4000 Bq.m-3 between November to April during the three measurement periods. In the soil gas for the same times, concentrations of radon ranged between 25,000 and 70,000 Bq.m-3. Levels of radon within the basement modules changed by factors of five or more within 24 h, in concert with pressure gradients of 4 to 20 Pa that developed between the basement modules and their surroundings. Diffusion is identified as the principal method by which radon is transferred into and out of the basement modules, and appears to be relatively independent of insulating materials and vapour retarders. The variability of radon and correlations with differential pressure gradients may be related to air currents in the block walls and soil that interrupt radon diffusing inward. This yields a net decrease of radon in the basement modules by decay and outward diffusion. Levels of radon within the basement modules increase when the pressure differential is zero and air flow ceases, allowing diffusion gradients to be re-established. Radon levels in both the soil and the basement modules then increase until an equilibrium is achieved.

  4. Anomalous changes in atmospheric radon concentration before and after the 2011 northern Wakayama Earthquake (Mj 5.5).

    PubMed

    Goto, Mikako; Yasuoka, Yumi; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Muto, Jun; Omori, Yasutaka; Ihara, Hayato; Mukai, Takahiro

    2017-04-28

    A significant increase in atmospheric radon concentration was observed in the area around the epicentre before and after the occurrence of the shallow inland earthquake in the northern Wakayama Prefecture on 5 July 2011 (Mj 5.5, depth 7 km) in Japan. The seismic activity in the sampling site was evaluated to identify that this earthquake was the largest near the sampling site during the observation period. To determine whether this was an anomalous change, the atmospheric daily minimum radon concentration measured for a 13-year period was analysed. When the residual radon concentration values without the seasonal radon variation and the linear trend was > 3 standard deviations of the residual radon variation corresponding to the normal period, the values were deemed as anomalous. As a result, an anomalous increase in radon concentration was determined before and after the earthquake. In conclusion, anomalous change related to earthquakes with at least Mj 5.5 can be detected by monitoring atmospheric radon near the epicentre. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Soil radon as a possible earthquake precursor: Preliminary results from Ileia (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petraki, Ermioni; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Louizi, Anna; Zisos, Athanasios

    2010-05-01

    into AG at a rate of 1 L/min. Pumping is performed via a 1-m soil probe to minimize meteorological influences and a 25-m radon proof 25-mm tube to avoid simultaneous measurement of soil 220Rn. Proper dust and moisture filters are employed. Radon is monitored every 10 minutes. This interval can be reduced to 1 minute, however with lower accuracy and data storage capacity. For comparison purposes, calibrated passive radon dosimeters based on CR-39 Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD's) were periodically installed and exposed to soil radon in 50 cm holes were dug near the 1-m probe. The exposures lasted 1-2 weeks. Afterwards, the SSNTD's were removed, etched and measured via standard methods (optical microscopy track counting). The period of comparison measurements was 6 months. Continuous monitoring and passive measurements were cross-calibrated and found to provide similar estimates of mean soil radon concentration. Active techniques are much more precise and quick, however, they indicated the necessity of periodical checks for the pumping and measurement status, especially after strong rainfalls.The mean soil radon concentration was found fairly constant (~ 25-30 kBq m-3). Numerous soil radon concentration anomalies were detected. These were arbitrarily corresponded in terms of magnitude and duration to seismic events of the near area. All detected anomalies were sudden, significantly (p

  6. Radon Assessment of Occupational Facilities, Homestead ARB, FL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-21

    electrets is directly measured and used to calculate radon levels. The radon detectors were placed in the test locations for greater than 90 days in...of USAFSAM’s radon analysis. A proficiency test was last performed and passed on 18 July 2012. (2) Blanks: Six field blanks were used during the...voltage. 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: a. All 46 facilities tested had radon concentrations below the action limit of 4 pCi/L; no radon

  7. The Effects of Radon Exposure on Physical and Psychological Health

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-15

    by inhaled radon-222 at various equilibriums with radon daughters . In E. Karbe & J. F. Parke (Eds.) Experimental lung cancer. Carcinogenesis and...Relationship between the ’̂’°Pb content of teeth and exposure to radon and radon daughters . Health Physics. 47. 253-262. 49 Cohen, B. L. & Gromicko, N...ore dust, radon daughters , and diesel oil exhaust fumes in hamsters and dogs (Report No. DNL—2744). Richland, WA: Batelle Pacific Northwest

  8. Temporal variations of radon in soil related to earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Planinić, J; Radolić, V; Lazanin, Z

    2001-08-01

    A radon detector with LR-115 nuclear track film was constructed for radon concentration measurements in soil. Temporal radon variations, as well as the barometric pressure, precipitation and temperature were measured for two years. Negative correlation between radon concentration in soil and barometric pressure was found. For some of the recorded earthquakes that occurred during the observation period, soil radon anomalies may be noticed one month before the quakes.

  9. Radon in the soil air of Estonia.

    PubMed

    Petersell, Valter; Täht-Kok, Krista; Karimov, Mark; Milvek, Heli; Nirgi, Siim; Raha, Margus; Saarik, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Several investigations in Estonia during 1996¬-1999 have shown that permissible level (200 Bq/m 3 ) of radon (222Rn) in indoor air is exceeded in 33% of the inspected dwellings. This makes Estonia one of the five countries with highest radon risk in Europe (Fig 1). Due to correlation between the soil radon risk level and radon concentration in houses, small scale radon risk mapping of soil air was carried out (one study point per 70-100 km 2 ). It turned out that one-third of Estonian mainland has high radon risk potential, where radon concentration in soil air exceeds safe limit of 50 kBq/m 3 . In order to estimate radon content in soil air, two different methods developed in Sweden were used simultaneously. Besides measuring radon content from soil air at the depth of 80 cm with an emanometer (RnM), maximum potential content of radon in soil (RnG) was estimated based on the rate of eU (226Ra) concentration in soil, which was acquired by using gamma-ray spectrometer. Mapping and following studies revealed that simultaneously measured RnG and RnM in study points may often differ. To inspect the cause, several monitoring points were set up in places with different geological conditions. It appeared that unlike the RnG content, which remains close to average level in repeated measurements, the RnM content may differ more than three times periodically. After continuous observations it turned out that concentration of directly measured radon depended on various factors being mostly controlled by mineral composition of soil, properties of topsoil as well as different factors influencing aeration of soil. The results of Rn monitoring show that reliable level of radon risk in Estonian soils can only be acquired by using calculated Rn-concentration in soil air based on eU content and directly measured radon content of soil air in combination with interpreting specific geological and geochemical situations in the study points. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Analysis of Radon and Radon Progeny in Residences: Factors that Affect Their Amounts and Methods of Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    figures 6 - 14 a plot of the radon daughters concentration versua the Electronic Air Cleener operation time is shown. The variations in the daughter...34Uncertainties in the Measurement of Airborne Radon Daughters ," Health Physics, 39, 943-955 (1980). 4. Cliff, K.D. and others. "Radon Daughter Exposures in...Radon and Radon Daughters in Canadian Homes," Health Physics, 39: 285-289 (1980). 25. Nero, A.V. "Indoor Radiation Exposures from Rn-222 and its

  11. Applicability of radon emanometry in lithologically discontinuous sites contaminated by organic chemicals.

    PubMed

    De Miguel, Eduardo; Barrio-Parra, Fernando; Elío, Javier; Izquierdo-Díaz, Miguel; García-González, Jerónimo Emilio; Mazadiego, Luis Felipe; Medina, Rafael

    2018-06-02

    The applicability of radon ( 222 Rn) measurements to delineate non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) contamination in subsoil is discussed at a site with lithological discontinuities through a blind test. Three alpha spectroscopy monitors were used to measure radon in soil air in a 25,000-m 2 area, following a regular sampling design with a 20-m 2 grid. Repeatability and reproducibility of the results were assessed by means of duplicate measurements in six sampling positions. Furthermore, three points not affected by oil spills were sampled to estimate radon background concentration in soil air. Data histograms, Q-Q plots, variograms, and cluster analysis allowed to recognize two data populations, associated with the possible path of a fault and a lithological discontinuity. Even though the concentration of radon in soil air was dominated by this discontinuity, the characterization of the background emanation in each lithological unit allowed to distinguish areas potentially affected by NAPL, thus justifying the application of radon emanometry as a screening technique for the delineation of NAPL plumes in sites with lithological discontinuities.

  12. Impact of haze-fog days to radon progeny equilibrium factor and discussion of related factors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Changsong; Shang, Bing; Zhang, Qingzhao; Cui, Hongxing; Wu, Yunyun; Deng, Jun

    2015-11-01

    The equilibrium factor F between radon and its short-lived progenies is an important parameter to estimate radon exposure of humans. Therefore, indoor and outdoor concentrations of radon and its short-lived radon progeny were measured in Beijing area using a continuously measuring device, in an effort to obtain information on the F value. The results showed that the mean values of F were 0.58 ± 0.13 (0.25-0.95, n = 305) and 0.52 ± 0.12 (0.31-0.91, n = 64) for indoor and outdoor, respectively. The indoor F value during haze-fog days was higher than the typical value of 0.4 recommended by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and it was also higher than the values of 0.47 and 0.49 reported in the literature. A positive correlation was observed between indoor F values and PM2.5 concentrations (R (2) = 0.71). Since 2013, owing to frequent heavy haze-fog events in Beijing and surrounding areas, the number of the days with severe pollution remains at a high level. Future studies on the impact of the ambient fine particulate matter on indoor radon progeny equilibrium factor F could be important.

  13. Radon, Smoking, and Lung Cancer: The Need to Refocus Radon Control Policy

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, David; Philbert, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, and the risk is significantly higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. More than 85% of radon-induced lung cancer deaths are among smokers. The most powerful approach for reducing the public health burden of radon is shaped by 2 overarching principles: public communication efforts that promote residential radon testing and remediation will be the most cost effective if they are primarily directed at current and former smokers; and focusing on smoking prevention and cessation is the optimal strategy for reducing radon-induced lung cancer in terms of both public health gains and economic efficiency. Tobacco control policy is the most promising route to the public health goals of radon control policy. PMID:23327258

  14. Radon, smoking, and lung cancer: the need to refocus radon control policy.

    PubMed

    Lantz, Paula M; Mendez, David; Philbert, Martin A

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, and the risk is significantly higher for smokers than for nonsmokers. More than 85% of radon-induced lung cancer deaths are among smokers. The most powerful approach for reducing the public health burden of radon is shaped by 2 overarching principles: public communication efforts that promote residential radon testing and remediation will be the most cost effective if they are primarily directed at current and former smokers; and focusing on smoking prevention and cessation is the optimal strategy for reducing radon-induced lung cancer in terms of both public health gains and economic efficiency. Tobacco control policy is the most promising route to the public health goals of radon control policy.

  15. Indoor Radon Exposure in Italian Schools

    PubMed Central

    Castiglia, Paolo; Piana, Andrea; Salis, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to assess radon concentration in schoolrooms in a city located in the midwest of Italy. Methods: A two-phase environmental study was carried out in 19 school buildings of 16 primary, secondary, and tertiary schools. Results: Median (interquartile range—IQR) indoor radon concentration in schoolrooms was 91.6 (45.0–140.3) Bq/m3. The highest (median 952.8 Bq/m3) radon concentration was found in one (3.6%) classroom, located in a building of a primary school whose median concentration was 185 Bq/m3. Radon concentration was significantly correlated with the number of students and teachers, foundation wall construction material, and with the absence of underground floors. A geopedological survey was performed close to the building with highest radon level, showing the presence of granite and tonalithic granodiorite in the soil. Conclusions: Radon levels should be routinely assessed where individuals live or work. Schools are susceptible targets, because of childhood stay and the long daily stay of occupants. Low-cost interventions, such as implementation of natural air ventilation and school maintenance, can reduce radon levels, limiting individual exposure. PMID:29652857

  16. Orphan radon daughters at Denver Radium site

    SciTech Connect

    Holub, R.F.; Droullard, R.F.; Davis, T.H.

    During 18 mo of sampling airborne radioactively at a National Priority List ({open_quotes}Superfund{close_quotes}) site in metroPOlitan Denver, Bureau of mines personnel discovered radon daughters that are not supported by the parent radon gas. We refer to them as {open_quotes}orphan{close_quotes} daughters because the parent, radon, is not present in sufficient concentration to support the measured daughter products. Measurements of the {open_quotes}orphan{close_quotes} daughters were made continuously, using the Bureau-developed radon and working-level (radon-daughter) monitors. The data showed high equilibrium ratios, ranging from 0.7 to 3.5, for long periods of time. Repeated, high-volume, 15-min grab samples were made, using the modified Tsivoglou method,more » to measure radon daughters, to which thoron daughters contributed 26 {+-} 12%. On average 28 {+-} 6% of the particulate activity was contributed by thoron daughters. Most samples were mixtures in which the {sup 218}Po concentration was lower than that of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi, in agreement with the high-equilibrium factors obtained from the continuous sampling data. In view of the short half-life of radon progeny, we conclude that the source of the orphan daughters is not far from the Superfund sites. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood at this time, but we will discuss its possible significance in evaluating population doses.« less

  17. Regional and Detailed Survey for Radon Activities in Soil-Gas and Groundwater in the Okchon Zone, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je, H.-K.; Chon, H.-T.

    2012-04-01

    The Okchon zone in Korea provides a typical example of natural geological materials enriched in potentially toxic elements including uranium which is parent nuclide for radon gas. For the purpose of radon radioactivity risk assessment, making the map of radon risk grade from Okchon zone, regional and detailed field surveys were carried out during 3 years. The study area is located in the central part of Korea, called the Okchon zone (about 5,100 km2), which occur in a 80km wide, northeast-trending belt that extends across the Korean Peninsula. The Okchon zone is underlain by metasedimentary rocks of unknown age that are composed mainly of black slate, phyllite, shale, and limestone. The three research areas (defined as Boeun, Chungju, and Nonsan) for detailed survey were selected from the results of regional survey. Results of detailed radon survey indicated a wide range of radon activities for soil-gases (148-1,843 pCi/L) and ground waters (23-5,540 pCi/L). About 15 percent of soil-gas samples exceeded 1,000 pCi/L and 84 percent of ground water samples exceeded the MCL (maximum contaminant level) of drinking water, 300 pCi/L, which proposed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1999. For detailed survey, radon activities of soil-gas and ground water were classified as bedrock geology, based on 1/50,000 geological map and field research. For soil-gas measurements, mean values of radon activity from black slate-shale (789 pCi/L) were highest among the other base rocks. And for groundwater measurements, mean value of radon activities were decreased in the order of granite (1,345 pCi/L) > black shale-slate (915 pCi/L) > metasediments (617 pCi/L). Result of indoor radon measurement from detailed survey areas showed that about 50% of houses exceeded the indoor guideline, 4 pCi/L. For the radon risk assessment in indoor environment showed that probability of lung cancer risk from the houses located on the granite base rock (3.0×10-2) was highest among the other

  18. Seasonal emanation of radon at Ghuttu, northwest Himalaya: Differentiation of atmospheric temperature and pressure influences.

    PubMed

    Kamra, Leena

    2015-11-01

    Continuous monitoring of radon along with meteorological parameters has been carried out in a seismically active area of Garhwal region, northwest Himalaya, within the frame work of earthquake precursory research. Radon measurements are carried out by using a gamma ray detector installed in the air column at a depth of 10m in a 68m deep borehole. The analysis of long time series for 2006-2012 shows strong seasonal variability masked by diurnal and multi-day variations. Isolation of a seasonal cycle by minimising short-time by 31 day running average shows a strong seasonal variation with unambiguous dependence on atmospheric temperature and pressure. The seasonal characteristics of radon concentrations are positively correlated to atmospheric temperature (R=0.95) and negatively correlated to atmospheric pressure (R=-0.82). The temperature and pressure variation in their annual progressions are negatively correlated. The calculations of partial correlation coefficient permit us to conclude that atmospheric temperature plays a dominant role in controlling the variability of radon in borehole, 71% of the variability in radon arises from the variation in atmospheric temperature and about 6% of the variability is contributed by atmospheric pressure. The influence of pressure variations in an annual cycle appears to be a pseudo-effect, resulting from the negative correlation between temperature and pressure variations. Incorporation of these results explains the varying and even contradictory claims regarding the influence of the pressure variability on radon changes in the published literature. Temperature dependence, facilitated by the temperature gradient in the borehole, controls the transportation of radon from the deep interior to the surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Additional contamination when radon is in excess.

    PubMed

    Martín Sánchez, A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Ruano Sánchez, A B; Naranjo Correa, F L

    2013-11-01

    A study of the behavior of the (222)Rn progeny on clothes, skin and hair has been performed in a place with very high radon concentration. In the past, radon concentration was established to be about 32 kBq/m(3) in a very high humidity environment inside a tourist cave in Extremadura (Spain). The results show that (222)Rn daughters are adhered on clothes, skin and hair, adding some radioactive concentration to that due to radon and its progeny existing in the breathable air. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Review of high-sensitivity Radon studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G.; Simgen, H.

    2017-10-01

    A challenge in many present cutting-edge particle physics experiments is the stringent requirements in terms of radioactive background. In peculiar, the prevention of Radon, a radioactive noble gas, which occurs from ambient air and it is also released by emanation from the omnipresent progenitor Radium. In this paper we review various high-sensitivity Radon detection techniques and approaches, applied in the experiments looking for rare nuclear processes happening at low energies. They allow to identify, quantitatively measure and finally suppress the numerous sources of Radon in the detectors’ components and plants.

  1. False CAM alarms from radon fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Robert

    2003-11-01

    The root cause of many false continuous air monitor (CAM) alarms is revealed for CAMs that use constant spectral shape assumptions in transuranic (TRU) alpha activity determination algorithms. This paper shows that when atmospheric radon levels continually decrease and bottom out at a minimum level, reduced false TRU count rates are not only expected but measured. Similarly, when the radon levels continually increase to a maximum level, elevated false TRU count rates were measured as predicted. The basis for expecting this dependence on changes in radon levels is discussed.

  2. Soil radon and electromagnetic anomalies before the Ileia(Greece) M6.8 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, D.; Vogiannis, E.; Louizi, A.; Zisos, A.

    2009-04-01

    Radon (222Rn) is a radioactive gas generated by the decay of the naturally occurring 238U series. It is considered very important from radiological point of view, since it accounts for more than half of the natural exposure of the general public. Radon has been used as trace gas in several studies of Earth, hydrogeology and atmosphere, due to its 3.82-day half-life (which allows migration at long distances) and its alpha decay (which enables low level of detection). It has been accounted in the search of earthquake precursors, volcanic processes, fluid circulation in karstic sources and in the study of natural ventilation of underground cavities. Radon anomalies impending great earthquakes have been observed in groundwater, thermal waters soil gas and in underground tunnels. Ileia is a very active tectonic site located in SW Greece, dominated by extensional active seismicity structures (e.g. Alfeios, Neda, Melpeia, Kiparissia-Aetos). Its instrumental and felt seismicity is very high, with more than 600 earthquakes of magnitude greater than 4.0 R in the last 100 years two of which occurred during the last 15 years and were very destructive (5.8 R on 26/3/93 and 6.8 R on 8/6/08 respectively). Hence, it is an area benefiting from the installation of a geophysical monitoring station, where radon exhalation associated with the accumulation or release of tectonic strain can be studied. In the aforementioned consensus, a station for the surveillance of soil radon has been installed in Kardamas Ileias, 3 km south from Amaliada which is the second highly populated city. The station consists of a high precision (calibration certified) active instrument (Alpha Guard-AG, Genitron Ltd.), equipped with an appropriate unit designed for pumping and measurement of radon in soil gas (Soil gas Unit, Genitron Ltd.). Soil radon is driven into AG via a 1-m probe (to minimize meteorological influences) and a 25-m radon proof 25-mm tube (to avoid simultaneous measurement of soil 220Rn

  3. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan

    Measurements of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the {sup 226}Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based onmore » the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m{sup −3} to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m{sup −3} to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m{sup −3}, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m{sup −3} to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m{sup −3}, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m{sup −3} to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m{sup −3} and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m{sup −3} to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m{sup −3}, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m{sup −3} and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were

  4. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of radon gas (222Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the 226Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m-3 to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m-3, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m-3 to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m-3, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m-3 to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m-3, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m-3 to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m-3 and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m-3 to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m-3, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m-3, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m-3, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m-3 and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m-3, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m-3 proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0.15 kg and 0.25 kg. Whereas

  5. Determining the radon exhalation rate from a gold mine tailings dump by measuring the gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Ongori, Joash N; Lindsay, Robert; Newman, Richard T; Maleka, Peane P

    2015-02-01

    The mining activities taking place in Gauteng province, South Africa have caused millions of tons of rocks to be taken from underground to be milled and processed to extract gold. The uranium bearing tailings are placed in an estimated 250 dumps covering a total area of about 7000 ha. These tailings dumps contain considerable amounts of radium and have therefore been identified as large sources of radon. The size of these dumps make traditional radon exhalation measurements time consuming and it is difficult to get representative measurements for the whole dump. In this work radon exhalation measurements from the non-operational Kloof mine dump have been performed by measuring the gamma radiation from the dump fairly accurately over an area of more than 1 km(2). Radon exhalation from the mine dump have been inferred from this by laboratory-based and in-situ gamma measurements. Thirty four soil samples were collected at depths of 30 cm and 50 cm. The weighted average activity concentrations in the soil samples were 308 ± 7 Bq kg(-1), 255 ± 5 Bq kg(-1) and 18 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, (40)K and (232)Th, respectively. The MEDUSA (Multi-Element Detector for Underwater Sediment Activity) γ-ray detection system was used for field measurements. The radium concentrations were then used with soil parameters to obtain the radon flux using different approaches such as the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) formula. Another technique the MEDUSA Laboratory Technique (MELT) was developed to map radon exhalation based on (1) recognising that radon exhalation does not affect (40)K and (232)Th activity concentrations and (2) that the ratio of the activity concentration of the field (MEDUSA) to the laboratory (HPGe) for (238)U and (40)K or (238)U and (232)Th will give a measure of the radon exhalation at a particular location in the dump. The average, normalised radon flux was found to be 0.12 ± 0.02 Bq m(-2) s(-1) for the mine dump. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Neglected children, shame-proneness, and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David S; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Neglected children may be at increased risk for depressive symptoms. This study examines shame-proneness as an outcome of child neglect and as a potential explanatory variable in the relation between neglect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 children (52 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] allegation of neglect) seen at age 7. Neglected children reported more shame-proneness and more depressive symptoms than comparison children. Guilt-proneness, in contrast, was unrelated to neglect and depressive symptoms, indicating specificity for shame-proneness. The potential role of shame as a process variable that can help explain how some neglected children exhibit depressive symptoms is discussed.

  7. Peripheral blood antigen presenting cell responses in otitis-prone and non-otitis-prone infants.

    PubMed

    Surendran, Naveen; Nicolosi, Ted; Kaur, Ravinder; Pichichero, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Stringently defined otitis-prone (sOP) children represent a new classification of the otitis-prone condition. Previous studies showed dysfunction in Ab, B-cell memory and T-cell memory responses. We sought to determine whether there are defects in numbers, phenotype and/or function of professional APC in the peripheral blood of sOP infants. APC phenotypic counts, MHC II expression and intracellular cytokine levels were determined in response to TLR7/8 (R848) stimulation by flow cytometry. Innate immune mRNA expression was measured using RT-PCR and cytokines were measured using Luminex technology. Significant (P < 0.05) increases in the phenotypic counts of monocytes and conventional dendritic cells but not plasmacytoid DCs were observed in sOP compared with non-otitis-prone (NOP) age-matched infants. No significant differences in APC activation or function were observed. Expression of various TLRs, intracellular signaling molecules and downstream cytokines was also not found to be significantly different between sOP and NOP infants. Higher numbers of APCs in sOP infants suggest the possibility of a persistent mucosal inflammatory status. Transcriptional and cytokine profiles of PBMCs among sOP infants suggest their systemic innate responses are not different compared to NOP infants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. A Pilot Study to Examine Exposure to Residential Radon in Under-Sampled Census Tracts of DeKalb County, Georgia, in 2015.

    PubMed

    Stauber, Christine E; Dai, Dajun; Chan, Sydney R; Diem, Jeremy E; Weaver, Scott R; Rothenberg, Richard

    2017-03-22

    While DeKalb County, Georgia, offers free radon screening for all eligible residents, portions of the county remain relatively under-sampled. This pilot study focused on 10% of the census tracts in the county with the lowest proportion of radon testing; most were in southern DeKalb County. In total, 217 households were recruited and homes were tested for indoor radon concentrations on the lowest livable floor over an eight-week period from March-May 2015. Tract-level characteristics were examined to understand the differences in socio-demographic and economic factors between the pilot study area and the rest of the county. The pilot study tracts had a higher proportion of African Americans compared to the rest of DeKalb County (82% versus 47%). Radon was detected above 11.1 Bq/m³ (0.3 pCi/L) in 73% of the indoor samples and 4% of samples were above 148 Bq/m³ (4 pCi/L). Having a basement was the strongest predictive factor for detectable and hazardous levels of radon. Radon screening can identify problems and spur homeowners to remediate but more research should be done to identify why screening rates vary across the county and how that varies with radon levels in homes to reduce radon exposure.

  9. A Pilot Study to Examine Exposure to Residential Radon in Under-Sampled Census Tracts of DeKalb County, Georgia, in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Stauber, Christine E.; Dai, Dajun; Chan, Sydney R.; Diem, Jeremy E.; Weaver, Scott R.; Rothenberg, Richard

    2017-01-01

    While DeKalb County, Georgia, offers free radon screening for all eligible residents, portions of the county remain relatively under-sampled. This pilot study focused on 10% of the census tracts in the county with the lowest proportion of radon testing; most were in southern DeKalb County. In total, 217 households were recruited and homes were tested for indoor radon concentrations on the lowest livable floor over an eight-week period from March–May 2015. Tract-level characteristics were examined to understand the differences in socio-demographic and economic factors between the pilot study area and the rest of the county. The pilot study tracts had a higher proportion of African Americans compared to the rest of DeKalb County (82% versus 47%). Radon was detected above 11.1 Bq/m3 (0.3 pCi/L) in 73% of the indoor samples and 4% of samples were above 148 Bq/m3 (4 pCi/L). Having a basement was the strongest predictive factor for detectable and hazardous levels of radon. Radon screening can identify problems and spur homeowners to remediate but more research should be done to identify why screening rates vary across the county and how that varies with radon levels in homes to reduce radon exposure. PMID:28327511

  10. Radon exhalation and radiometric prospecting on rocks associated with Cu-U mineralizations in the Singhbhum shear zone, Bihar.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, D; Kumar, R; Singh, A K; Prasad, R

    2001-12-01

    The Singhbhum thrust belt is a 200 km long arcuate orogenic belt in Bihar, eastern India. The huge mineral resources, viz. copper, uranium, magnetite, apatite and molybdenite, etc., make it significant from an economic as well as a geological point of view. The belt hosts three types of mineralization: sulphides of copper and other metals, uranium oxides and apatite-magnetite. Several distinct geological episodes are responsible for the evolution of mineralization and the thrust zone itself. Extensive and reliable radiometric prospecting and assaying have been carried out by us for the past 5 years from Dhobani in the east to Turamdih in the west of the Singhbhum shear zone. The present work indicates uranium mineralization in the Pathargora-Rakha area presently being mined for copper and also within areas in the vicinity of Bhatin. Studies on radon emanation have also been undertaken in some parts of the shear zone which indicate reasonably high radon emanation of the soils and rocks studied. This suggests the need for regular monitoring and suitable controls on the mine environment (air quality) and its vicinity. Radon emanation studies coupled with gamma-ray spectrometry and the subsequent modelling of the radiometric and radon measurements will help in the application of radon as a geophysical tracer in exploration of radioactive ore bodies and in radon risk assessment as well as in delineating active and passive faults and even in petroleum exploration.

  11. Geohydrologic, geochemical, and geologic controls on the occurrence of radon in ground water near Conifer, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, E.; Poeter, E.; Wanty, R.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated studies of geohydrology, geochemistry, and geology of crystalline rocks in the vicinity of Conifer, Colorado, reveal that radon concentrations do not correlate with variations in concentrations of other dissolved species. Concentrations of major ions show systematic variations along selected groundwater flowpaths, whereas radon concentrations are dependent on local geochemical and geologic phenomena (such as localized uranium concentration in the rock or the presence of faults or folds). When radon enters the flow system, concentrations do not increase along flowpaths because its decay rate is fast relative to groundwater flow rates. Radon-222 is not in secular equilibrium with 238U and 226Ra in the water. Therefore, most of the 238U and 226Ra necessary to support the waterborne 222Rn must be present locally in the rock. High concentrations of dissolved radon are not found in zones of high transmissivity, and transmissivity is not correlated with rock type in the study area. A higher transmissivity can be indicative of higher water-volume to rock-surface-area ratios, which could effectively dilute 222Rn entering the water and/or may indicate that emanated radon is carried away more rapidly. Water samples collected from individual wells over periods of several months showed significant fluctuations in the dissolved 222Rn content. This fluctuation may be controlled by changes in the contributions of water-producing zones within the well resulting from seasonal fluctuations of the water table and/or pumping stresses. ?? 1991.

  12. A preliminary study for conducting a rational assessment of radon exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyung-Jin; Kang, Dae-Ryoung; Go, Sang-Baek; Park, Tae-Hyun; Park, Si-Hyun; Kwak, Jung-Eun; Lee, Cheol-Min

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the factors that go into a highly reliable estimate of radon exposure levels for use in setting up the case-control study. To this end, the present study conducted a multi-faceted investigation of the distribution of radon concentrations in the bedrooms and living rooms of 400 households in the target areas during the winter months from December 2014 to February 2015. We determined that taking the mean value of the radon concentration levels detected in the bedroom and living room as the representative value of residential concentration is appropriate, given the usability of previous research data and the difference in the concentration levels between the two. In terms of detector placement, we found that detectors should not inconvenience residents or be affected by an air current. Further, we found that housing type should distinguish between regular housing (single-detached, row, and multiplex housing) and apartments but that the building type was not a key factor in the assessment of radon exposure levels. Houses should be classified into those constructed with soil (red clay) and those with constructed with general building materials for the assessment of radon exposure levels.

  13. Radon survey and soil gamma doses in primary schools of Batman, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Damla, Nevzat; Aldemir, Kamuran

    2014-06-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate levels of indoor radon and gamma doses in 42 primary schools located in Batman, southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. Indoor radon measurements were carried out using CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detector-based radon dosimeters. The overall mean annual (222)Rn activity in the surveyed area was found to be 49 Bq m(-3) (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 0.25 mSv). However, in one of the districts (Besiri) the maximum radon value turned out to be 307 Bq m(-3). The estimated annual effective doses are less than the recommended action level (3-10 mSv). It is found that the radon concentration decreases with increasing floor number. The concentrations of natural and artificial radioisotopes were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy for soil samples collected in close vicinity of the studied schools. The mean gamma activity concentrations in the soil samples were 31, 25, 329 and 12 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs, respectively. The radiological parameters such as the absorbed dose rate in air and the annual effective dose equivalent were calculated. These radiological parameters were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended values.

  14. Radon in Soil Gas Above Bedrock Fracture Sets at the Shepley’s Hill Superfund Site

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Giles; T.L. McLing; M.V. Carpenter

    2012-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) recently provided technical support for ongoing environmental remediation activities at the Shepley’s Hill remediation site near Devens, MA (Figure 1). The technical support was requested as follow-on work to an initial screening level radiation survey conducted in 2008. The purpose of the original study was to assess the efficacy of the INL-developed Backpack Sodium Iodide System (BaSIS) for detecting elevated areas of natural radioactivity due to the decay of radon-222 gases emanating from the underlying fracture sets. Although the results from the initial study were mixed, the BaSIS radiation surveys did confirm that exposed bedrockmore » outcrops have higher natural radioactivity than the surficial soils, thus a high potential for detecting elevated levels of radon and/or radon daughter products. (INL 2009) The short count times associated with the BaSIS measurements limited the ability of the system to respond to elevated levels of radioactivity from a subsurface source, in this instance radon gas emanating from fracture sets. Thus, it was postulated that a different methodology be employed to directly detect the radon in the soil gases. The CR-39 particle track detectors were investigated through an extensive literature and technology search. The relatively long deployment or “detection” time of several days, as well as the sensitivity of the measurement and robustness of the detectors made the CR-39 technology promising for deployment at the Shepley’s Hill site.« less

  15. Measurement of Radon in Indoor Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Daniel M.; Simolunas, Glenn

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment to teach the principles of air sampling, gamma ray spectroscopy, nuclear decay, and radioactive equilibrium. Analyzes radon by carbon adsorption and gamma ray counting. Provides methodology and rate of decay equations. (MVL)

  16. Radon in earth-sheltered structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    Radon concentration in the indoor air of six residential and three non-residential earth-sheltered buildings in eastern Colorado was monitored quarterly over a nine-month period using passive, integrating detectors. Average radon concentrations during the three-month sampling periods ranged from about 1 to 9 pCi/L, although one building, a poorly ventilated storage bunker, had concentrations as high as 39 pCi/L. These radon concentrations are somewhat greater than those typically reported for conventional buildings (around 1 pCi/L); but they are of the same order of magnitude as radon concentrations reported for energy-efficient buildings which are not earth-sheltered. ?? 1984.

  17. Optical detection of radon decay in air

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Johan; Ihantola, Sakari; Peräjärvi, Kari; Toivonen, Harri; Toivonen, Juha

    2016-01-01

    An optical radon detection method is presented. Radon decay is directly measured by observing the secondary radiolumines cence light that alpha particles excite in air, and the selectivity of coincident photon detection is further enhanced with online pulse-shape analysis. The sensitivity of a demonstration device was 6.5 cps/Bq/l and the minimum detectable concentration was 12 Bq/m3 with a 1 h integration time. The presented technique paves the way for optical approaches in rapid radon detec tion, and it can be applied beyond radon to the analysis of any alpha-active sample which can be placed in the measurement chamber. PMID:26867800

  18. Naturally Occurring Radon and 120(h) transfers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains a discussion regarding how the presence of naturally occurring radon on closing military bases affects the United States' ability to transfer parcels under §120(h) (3) and §120(h) (4).

  19. Health Effects of High Radon Environments in Central Europe: Another Test for the LNT Hypothesis?

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Among the various “natural laboratories” of high natural or technical enhanced natural radiation environments in the world such as Kerala (India), Brazil, Ramsar (Iran), etc., the areas in and around the Central European Ore Mountains (Erzgebirge) in the southern parts of former East Germany, but also including parts of Thuringia, northern Bohemia (now Czech Republic), and northeastern Bavaria, are still relatively little known internationally. Although this area played a central role in the history of radioactivity and radiation effects on humans over centuries, most of the valuable earlier results have not been published in English or quotable according to the current rules in the scientific literature and therefore are not generally known internationally. During the years 1945 to 1989, this area was one of the world’s most important uranium mining areas, providing the former Soviet Union with 300,000 tons of uranium for its military programs. Most data related to health effects of radon and other carcinogenic agents on miners and residents became available only during the years after German reunification. Many of the studies are still unpublished, or more or less internal reports. By now, substantial studies have been performed on the previously unavailable data about the miners and the population, providing valuable insights that are, to a large degree, in disagreement with the opinion of various international bodies assuming an increase of lung cancer risk in the order of 10% for each 100 Bq/m3 (or doubling for 1000 Bq/m3), even for small residential radon concentrations. At the same time, other studies focusing on never-smokers show little or no effects of residential radon exposures. Experiments in medical clinics using radon on a large scale as a therapeutic against various rheumatic and arthritic disease demonstrated in randomized double-blind studies the effectiveness of such treatments. The main purpose of this review is to critically examine

  20. [The types of macrophages in the central lymph of rabbits during the use of radon baths].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A V

    1995-01-01

    Three types of macrophages circulating in central lymph were revealed by original method of lymph getting from rabbits. Type I has common morphological properties, type II and III are described in central lymph for the first time. Processes and protrusion are present in these types. Macrophages with processes are called by the author dendritic macrophages. They get into contact with lymphocytes. Type II and III macrophages number increases after radon balneotreatment in proportion with radon content, which is connected with radon effect on the skin receptor area, where intraepithelial macrophages are located. The latter are the precursors of dendritic cells of the other types and are the main antigen-presenting cells in the initial phase of the immune response.

  1. Radon in thermal waters in south-east part of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Nikolov, Jovana; Todorović, Nataša; Bikit, Ištvan; Pantić, Tanja Petrović; Forkapić, Sofija; Mrđa, Dušan; Bikit, Kristina

    2014-07-01

    There are several occurrences of thermal waters in the south-eastern part of Serbia, which are originating from igneous and metamorphic rocks. These waters are mainly used in balneology, but some of them are used for drinking purposes and in water supply to heat buildings, for greenhouses and to irrigate land. In this region, there is the well-known Niška banja spa, which has elevated levels of radon. Water samples were examined from other spas in the south-eastern part of Serbia in order to determine radon activity concentration. A detailed discussion of a possible correlation between determined radon activity concentration and the geology of this area is also given. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. [Experimental study on the influence of natural and artificial ventilation on indoor radon concentration].

    PubMed

    Remetti, R; Gigante, G E

    2010-01-01

    The study presents the results of a campaign of measurements on the daily radon concentration using a Genitron Alpha Guard spectrometer. All the measurements have been intended to highlight the radon concentration variability during the 24 hours of the day and trying to find correlations with other ambient parameters such as temperature and pressure or local conditions such as the presence or not of a forced ventilation system. The main part of the measurements have been carried in the area of the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of the Department of Basic and Applied Sciences for Engineering of "Sapienza" University of Rome. Results show a rapid rise of radon concentration in the night, when the artificial ventilation system was off and with door and windows closed. In the morning, after the opening of door and windows, the concentration falls down abruptly. With artificial ventilation system in function concentration never reaches significant values.

  3. Removal of Invasive Fire-Prone Grasses to Increase Training Lands in the Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Boone Kauffman. U.S. Forest Service. Pacific Northwest Research Center. Hilo . Hawaii . SWCA, Inc. 39 SWCA also acknowledges Amy Brown Curtis...Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), Marine Corps Training Area Bellows (MCTAB), Army installations Makua Valley, Schofield Barracks, Pohakuloa Training...Area, the Hawaii Army National Guard facility at Diamond Head Crater, and at the Naval Magazine on the Island of Guam. Invasive, fire-prone

  4. Radon mitigation at Birch Cliff Public School.

    PubMed

    Moridi, R; Becker, E

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, Canadian Institute for Radiation Safety (CAIRS) conducted a radon screening program in all Metropolitan Toronto public schools. Birch Cliff Public School had a radon progeny level higher than the action level of 4.16 x 10(-7) Jm-3 (20 mWL). Follow-up radon testing was carried out at the school. Locations on the ground floor and in the basement were tested. All locations on the ground floor had radon progeny levels below the action level. Six locations in the basement had readings above the action level. All cracks and openings in the basement were sealed and a new heating/ventilating (HV) system for the basement was designed and installed. Then, the basement was tested again. Radon progeny levels are now well below the action level with an average of 7.43 x 10(-8) Jm-3 (3.57 mWL). This is about one fifth of the average radon progeny level found in the first stage of follow-up testing.

  5. Parent Proneness to Shame and the Use of Psychological Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Freeman, Wendy S.; Clara, Ian P.; Elgar, Frank J.; Walling, Bobbi R.; Mak, Leanne

    2007-01-01

    We examined the link between parent proneness to shame and two forms of psychological control, overprotection and critical/rejecting behavior, in parents of preschoolers. Because shame is self-condemning, proneness to shame affects intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning. We hypothesized that parents' emotion-regulatory responses to shame…

  6. Beyond prone position in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Tsakiris, Peter; Ferrandino, Michael N; Elsakka, Ahmed M; Rioja, Jorge; Preminger, Glenn M

    2008-12-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is traditionally performed with the patient in the prone position. To assess the efficacy and safety of the prone and supine positions, particularly in obese patients and in those with staghorn calculi. A Medline search was conducted for articles published during the last 10 yr related to PNL in the prone and supine positions. This search revealed 9 published studies for supine and 25 for prone PNL. None of the supine PNL studies reported visceral injuries, while transfusion rates were 0.0-9.4% and stone-free rates were 69.6-95.0%. One study of supine PNL evaluated a significant proportion of obese patients. Prone PNL studies in obese patients report transfusion rates of 3.2-8.8% and stone-free rates of 79.0-89.2%. In the only randomized study, excluding obese patients and staghorn calculi, operative time favors the supine position. A nonrandomized comparative study demonstrated similar complication rates with insignificant improvement in treatment success for supine PNL; however, when comparing series with similar proportions of staghorn calculi cases, there are slightly improved outcomes for prone PNL. Moreover, comparison of weighted means favors prone PNL. For obese patients and staghorn calculi, prone PNL appears to be associated with decreased operative times with similar bleeding rates and slightly better stone-free rates than supine PNL.

  7. RADON PREVENTION IN THE DESIGN & CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOLS & OTHER LARGE BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is typically easier and much less expensive to design and construct a new building with radon-resistant and/or easy-to-mitigate features, than to add these features after the building is completed and occupied. Therefore, when building in an area with the potential for elevate...

  8. INDOOR RADON REDUCTION IN CRAWL-SPACE HOUSES: A REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analysis has been completed of the performance, mechanisms, and costs of alternative technologies for preventing radon entry into the living areas of houses having crawl-space foundations. Sub-membrane depressurization (SMD) is consistently the most effective technique, often ...

  9. RADON REDUCTION AND RADON-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATIONS IN NEW YORK - VOLUME 2: APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Growing concern about health risks associated with exposure to indoor radon, a radioactive gas found in varying amounts in nearly all houses, has underscored the need for dependable radon reduction methods in existing and newly constructed houses. Responding to this need, the U....

  10. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kil Yong; Burnett, William C

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 °C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H 2 O and BigBottle RAD-H 2 O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods.

  11. Groundwater chemistry and radon-222 distribution in Jerba Island, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Telahigue, Faten; Agoubi, Belgacem; Souid, Fayza; Kharroubi, Adel

    2018-02-01

    The present study integrates hydrogeological, hydrochemical and radiogenic data of groundwater samples taken from the Plio-Quaternary unconfined aquifer of Jerba Island, southeastern Tunisia, in order to interpret the spatial variations of the groundwater quality and identify the main hydrogeochemical factors responsible for the high ion concentrations and radon-222 content in the groundwater analysed. Thirty-nine groundwater samples were collected from open wells widespread on the island. Physical parameters (EC, pH, TDS and T °) were measured, major ions (Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + , Cl - , SO 4 2- , NO 3 - and HCO 3 - ) were analysed and 222 Rn concentrations were determined using a RAD7-H 2 O. Hydrogeochemical characterisation revealed that groundwater from the Jerba aquifer has several origins. Basically, two water types exist in the island. The first one, characterized by a low to moderate salinity with a chemical facies CaMgClSO 4 , characterizes the central part of Jerba (a recharge area) due to carbonate and gypsum dissolution. The second water type with high salinities, dominated by NaKCl type, was observed in coastal areas and some parts having low topographic and piezometric levels. These areas seem to be affected by the seawater intrusion process. The 222 Rn concentrations in groundwater samples in Jerba varied from 0 Bq.L -1 to 2860 Bq.L -1 with an average of 867 Bq.L -1 . The highest values were registered in the western coastal wells and near the fault of Guellala. However, the central and eastern wells showed low radon levels. Compared to 222 Rn activity in some countries with the same lithology, radon concentrations in the Jerba unconfined aquifer have higher values influenced by the structure of the aquifer and by seawater inflow enriched with 222 Rn resulting from the decay of uranium derived from phosphogypsum deposits in the gulf of Gabes. The EC and 222 Rn spatial variability in the study area were mapped using ARC Map 10.3 software

  12. Error-proneness as a handicap signal.

    PubMed

    De Jaegher, Kris

    2003-09-21

    This paper describes two discrete signalling models in which the error-proneness of signals can serve as a handicap signal. In the first model, the direct handicap of sending a high-quality signal is not large enough to assure that a low-quality signaller will not send it. However, if the receiver sometimes mistakes a high-quality signal for a low-quality one, then there is an indirect handicap to sending a high-quality signal. The total handicap of sending such a signal may then still be such that a low-quality signaller would not want to send it. In the second model, there is no direct handicap of sending signals, so that nothing would seem to stop a signaller from always sending a high-quality signal. However, the receiver sometimes fails to detect signals, and this causes an indirect handicap of sending a high-quality signal that still stops the low-quality signaller of sending such a signal. The conditions for honesty are that the probability of an error of detection is higher for a high-quality than for a low-quality signal, and that the signaller who does not detect a signal adopts a response that is bad to the signaller. In both our models, we thus obtain the result that signal accuracy should not lie above a certain level in order for honest signalling to be possible. Moreover, we show that the maximal accuracy that can be achieved is higher the lower the degree of conflict between signaller and receiver. As well, we show that it is the conditions for honest signalling that may be constraining signal accuracy, rather than the signaller trying to make honest signals as effective as possible given receiver psychology, or the signaller adapting the accuracy of honest signals depending on his interests.

  13. Radon as a Source of External Background at Homestake Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Keenan; Mei, Dongming; Zhang, Chao; Gray, Fred; Gaitskell, Richard; Fiorucci, Simon

    2009-05-01

    External sources of radioactivity are important concerns for experiments planned for DUSEL at the Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota. Radon emanation and deposition is a major threat to the targeted sensitivity of low background experimentation such as double beta decay detection and dark matter searches. Methods to reduce and mitigate these measured levels will need to be developed to prevent experimental signals from contamination through airborne radon decays as well as the deposition of radon daughters. Radon levels were measured at various depths at the Homestake Mine in December of 2008, January and March of 2009. These measurements will be useful in the development of an underground ventilation system to dilute radon concentrations in the air and subsequent systems to provide radon-free air to clean rooms, as well as preparing researchers for the hazards they pose to their experiments. In addition, the measured radon level will be used to understand the radon emanation from different types of rock.

  14. Radon remediation and prevention status in 23 European countries.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, O; Arvela, H; Collignan, B; Jiránek, M; Ringer, W

    2013-12-01

    Radon remediation and prevention aim at reducing indoor radon concentrations in the existing and new buildings. This paper gives an estimate of the number of dwellings where remediation or preventive measures have been applied so far in Europe. Questionnaires were sent to contact persons in national radiation protection authorities and radon-related research institutes. Answers from 23 European countries were obtained. Approximately 26 000 dwellings have been remediated in total. Millions of dwellings remain to be remediated and the number is increasing due to the rare use of radon prevention. These facts imply a need for an efficient radon strategy to promote radon remediation. Moreover, the importance of radon prevention in new construction and the regulations concerning radon in the national building codes should be emphasised.

  15. RAETRAD MODEL OF RADON GAS GENERATION, TRANSPORT, AND INDOOR ENTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the theoretical basis, implementation, and validation of the Radon Emanation and Transport into Dwellings (RAETRAD) model, a conceptual and mathematical approach for simulating radon (222Rn) gas generation and transport from soils and building foundations to ...

  16. Intercomparison of active and passive instruments for radon and radon progeny in North America

    SciTech Connect

    George, A.C.; Tu, Keng-Wu; Knutson, E.O.

    1995-02-01

    An intercomparison exercise for radon and radon progeny instruments and methods was held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) from April 22--May 2, 1994. The exercise was conducted in the new EML radon test and calibration facility in which conditions of exposure are very well controlled. The detection systems of the intercompared instruments consisted of. (1) pulse ionization chambers, (2) electret ionization chambers, (3) scintillation detectors, (4) alpha particle spectrometers with silicon diodes, surface barrier or diffused junction detectors, (5) registration of nuclear tracks in solid-state materials, and (6) activated carbon collectors counted by gamma-ray spectrometry or by alpha- andmore » beta-liquid scintillation counting. 23 private firms, government laboratories and universities participated with a 165 passive integrating devices consisting of: Activated carbon collectors, nuclear alpha track detectors and electret ionization chambers, and 11 active and passive continuous radon monitors. Five portable integrating and continuous instruments were intercompared for radon progeny. Forty grab samples for radon progeny were taken by five groups that participated in person to test and evaluate their primary instruments and methods that measure individual radon progeny and the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) in indoor air. Results indicate that more than 80% of the measurements for radon performed with a variety of instruments, are within {plus_minus}10% of actual value. The majority of the instruments that measure individual radon progeny and the PAEC gave results that are in good agreement with the EML reference value. Radon progeny measurements made with continuous and integrating instruments are satisfactory with room for improvement.« less

  17. Development of a highly sensitive radon-222 amplifier (HiSRA) for low-level atmospheric measurements.

    PubMed

    Topin, Sylvain; Richon, Patrick; Thomas, Vincent; Gréau, Claire; Pujos, Julie; Moulin, Julien; Hovesepian, Alexandre; Deliere, Ludovic

    2017-05-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn), a radioactive gas with a half-life of 3.82 days, is continuously emanated from soil, rocks, and water by the radioactive decay of 226 Ra. Radon-222 is released from the ground into the atmosphere, where it is transported mainly by turbulent diffusion or convection. For precise measurement of radon-222 atoms in the atmosphere, the detectors typically used present a small volume or surface area and are therefore not very sensitive, especially for online measurements and short sample intervals (<1 h). This article deals with the development of a Highly Sensitive Radon Amplifier (HiSRA) consisting in an enrichment system placed prior to a classic radon-222 analyzer. This system uses permeation membranes that make it possible to treat large quantities of air online (30 m 3  h -1 ). The radon-222 concentration is increased instantaneously by at least a factor of 30 across the HiSRA system. Therefore, in this study, when coupling to an ionization chamber (AlphaGUARDTM) at the outlet of the HiSRA system, the detection limit of the overall system is multiplied by factor of 30 and induces a new LD for a radon 222 gas analyzer lower than 1 Bq m -3 for an integrating time of 10 min and 0.1 Bq m -3 for 1 h. We constructed one radon amplifier prototype that provided the preliminary results for amplification efficiency and the initial measurements presented herein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Real-time measurement of individual occupational radon exposures in tombs of the Valley of the Kings, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Gruber, E; Salama, E; Rühm, W

    2011-03-01

    The active radon exposure meter developed recently at the German Research Center for Environmental Health (Helmholtz Zentrum München) was used to measure radon concentrations in 12 tombs located in the Valley of the Kings, Egypt. Radon concentrations in air between 50 ± 7 and 12 100 ± 600 Bq m(-3) were obtained. The device was also used to measure individual radon exposures of those persons working as safeguards inside the tombs. For a measurement time of 2-3 d, typical individual radon exposures ranged from 1800 ± 400 to 240 000 ± 13 000 Bq h m(-3), depending on the duration of measurement and radon concentration in the different tombs. Based on current ICRP dose conversion conventions for workers and on equilibrium factors published in the literature for these tombs, individual effective dose rates that range from 1.5 ± 0.3 to 860 ± 50 µSv d(-1) were estimated. If it is assumed that the climatic conditions present at the measurement campaign persist for about half a year, in this area, then effective doses up to ∼ 66 mSv could be estimated for half a year, for some of the safeguards of tombs where F-values were known. To reduce the exposure of the safeguards, some recommendations are proposed.

  19. Whole-breast irradiation: a subgroup analysis of criteria to stratify for prone position treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ramella, Sara, E-mail: s.ramella@unicampus.it; Trodella, Lucio; Ippolito, Edy

    2012-07-01

    To select among breast cancer patients and according to breast volume size those who may benefit from 3D conformal radiotherapy after conservative surgery applied with prone-position technique. Thirty-eight patients with early-stage breast cancer were grouped according to the target volume (TV) measured in the supine position: small ({<=}400 mL), medium (400-700 mL), and large ({>=}700 ml). An ad-hoc designed and built device was used for prone set-up to displace the contralateral breast away from the tangential field borders. All patients underwent treatment planning computed tomography in both the supine and prone positions. Dosimetric data to explore dose distribution and volumemore » of normal tissue irradiated were calculated for each patient in both positions. Homogeneity index, hot spot areas, the maximum dose, and the lung constraints were significantly reduced in the prone position (p < 0.05). The maximum heart distance and the V{sub 5Gy} did not vary consistently in the 2 positions (p = 0.06 and p = 0.7, respectively). The number of necessary monitor units was significantly higher in the supine position (312 vs. 232, p < 0.0001). The subgroups analysis pointed out the advantage in lung sparing in all TV groups (small, medium and large) for all the evaluated dosimetric constraints (central lung distance, maximum lung distance, and V{sub 5Gy}, p < 0.0001). In the small TV group, a dose reduction in nontarget areas of 22% in the prone position was detected (p = 0.056); in the medium and high TV groups, the difference was of about -10% (p = NS). The decrease in hot spot areas in nontarget tissues was 73%, 47%, and 80% for small, medium, and large TVs in the prone position, respectively. Although prone breast radiotherapy is normally proposed in patients with breasts of large dimensions, this study gives evidence of dosimetric benefit in all patient subgroups irrespective of breast volume size.« less

  20. Radon

    MedlinePlus

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: March 3, 2011 Page ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Contact Us: Agency for Toxic Substances and ...

  1. Seasonal Variability in European Radon Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves-Kirkby, C. J.; Denman, A. R.; Phillips, P. S.; Crockett, R. G. M.; Sinclair, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    In temperate climates, domestic radon concentration levels are generally seasonally dependent, the level in the home reflecting the convolution of two time-dependent functions. These are the source soil-gas radon concentration itself, and the principal force driving radon into the building from the soil, namely the pressure-difference between interior and exterior environment. While the meteorological influence can be regarded as relatively uniform on a European scale, its variability being defined largely by the influence of North-Atlantic weather systems, soil-gas radon is generally more variable as it is essentially geologically dependent. Seasonal variability of domestic radon concentration can therefore be expected to exhibit geographical variability, as is indeed the case. To compensate for the variability of domestic radon levels when assessing the long term radon health risks, the results of individual short-term measurements are generally converted to equivalent mean annual levels by application of a Seasonal Correction Factor (SCF). This is a multiplying factor, typically derived from measurements of a large number of homes, applied to the measured short-term radon concentration to provide a meaningful annual mean concentration for dose-estimation purposes. Following concern as to the universal applicability of a single SCF set, detailed studies in both the UK and France have reported location-specific SCF sets for different regions of each country. Further results indicate that SCFs applicable to the UK differ significantly from those applicable elsewhere in Europe and North America in both amplitude and phase, supporting the thesis that seasonal variability in indoor radon concentration cannot realistically be compensated for by a single national or international SCF scheme. Published data characterising the seasonal variability of European national domestic radon concentrations, has been collated and analysed, with the objective of identifying

  2. Radon measurements in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Arpesella, C; Bam, B B; Bassignani, A; Cecchini, S; Colombo, G; Dekhissi, H; Fresca Fantoni, R; Giacomelli, G; Lembo, L; Maltoni, G; Mandrioli, G; Patrizii, L; Sartorio, C; Serra, P; Togo, V; Vilela, E

    1997-04-01

    Systematic radon monitoring in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory was performed in order to determine the background radon contribution to the sophisticated experimental apparatus and to check health physics standards for the personnel. As expected, the radon concentrations were found to depend strongly on the ventilation in the three experimental halls. Considerable reductions in the radon concentrations were obtained in 1993, when fresh air was drawn into the laboratory through a pipe and exhaust air was routed into the highway tunnel.

  3. Concentration en radon dans une maison du Calvados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leleyter, Lydia; Riffault, Benoit; Mazenc, Bernard

    2010-03-01

    Recent studies indicate a link between the risk of lung cancer and residential radon exposure. However, in France, awareness of this problem was made relatively late. Accordingly this study examines the radon concentration in a private home in Calvados. Findings show that the presence of a fireplace in a house can accelerate radon convective transfer, and that simple adjustments to interior and exterior accommodation can significantly reduce radon concentrations in the home.

  4. Development of a System to Perform, Record, and Analyze Measurements of Radon Concentrations on a Large Scale.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    Radiation Protection and Measurements. Measurement of Radon and Radon Daughters in Air, NCRP Report No. 97. 1988. 2. Cohen, Bernard L., et al. "Theory and...Measurements. Measurement of Radon and Radon Daughters in Air, NCRP Report No. 97. 1988. 4. Stein, Lawrence. "Chemical Properties of Radon," Radon and Its...Measurement of Radon and Radon Daughters in Air, NCRP Report No. 97. 1988. 6. Frame, R. "Radon and Its Daughters." ORNL Briefing, June 16, 1989. 7

  5. Suggestibility and signal detection performance in hallucination-prone students.

    PubMed

    Alganami, Fatimah; Varese, Filippo; Wagstaff, Graham F; Bentall, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    Auditory hallucinations are associated with signal detection biases. We examine the extent to which suggestions influence performance on a signal detection task (SDT) in highly hallucination-prone and low hallucination-prone students. We also explore the relationship between trait suggestibility, dissociation and hallucination proneness. In two experiments, students completed on-line measures of hallucination proneness (the revised Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale; LSHS-R), trait suggestibility (Inventory of Suggestibility) and dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale-II). Students in the upper and lower tertiles of the LSHS-R performed an auditory SDT. Prior to the task, suggestions were made pertaining to the number of expected targets (Experiment 1, N = 60: high vs. low suggestions; Experiment 2, N = 62, no suggestion vs. high suggestion vs. no voice suggestion). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that trait suggestibility and dissociation predicted hallucination proneness. Highly hallucination-prone students showed a higher SDT bias in both studies. In Experiment 1, both bias scores were significantly affected by suggestions to the same degree. In Experiment 2, highly hallucination-prone students were more reactive to the high suggestion condition than the controls. Suggestions may affect source-monitoring judgments, and this effect may be greater in those who have a predisposition towards hallucinatory experiences.

  6. An update on the prone position: Continuing Professional Development.

    PubMed

    Chui, Jason; Craen, Rosemary Ann

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this Continuing Professional Development module is to provide information needed to prepare for and clinically manage a patient in the prone position. Prone positioning is required for surgical procedures that involve the posterior aspect of a patient. We searched MEDLINE(®) and EMBASE™ from January 2000 to January 2015 for literature related to the prone position and retrieved only original articles in English. We reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of various equipment used in prone positioning, the physiological changes associated with prone positioning, and the complications that can occur. We also reviewed strategies for the safe conduct and management of position-related complications. Increased age, elevated body mass index, the presence of comorbidities, and long duration of surgery appear to be the most important risk factors for complications associated with prone positioning. We recommend a structured team approach and careful selection of equipment tailored to the patient and surgery. The systematic use of checklists is recommended to guide operating room teams and to reduce prone position-related complications. Anesthesiologists should be prepared to manage major intraoperative emergencies (e.g., accidental extubation) and anticipate postoperative complications (e.g., airway edema and visual loss).

  7. RESOLVING THE RADON PROBLEM IN CLINTON, NEW JERSEY HOUSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the resolution of a radon problem in Clinton, New Jersey, where significantly elevated radon concentrations were found in several adjacent houses. The U.S. EPA screened 56 of the houses and selected 10 for demonstration of radon reduction techniques. Each of t...

  8. 40 CFR 700.41 - Radon user fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radon user fees. 700.41 Section 700.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Fees § 700.41 Radon user fees. User fees relating to radon proficiency programs authorized under the...

  9. 30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037... Radon daughter exposure monitoring. (a) In all mines at least one sample shall be taken in exhaust mine...—radon daughter concentrations representative of worker's breathing zone shall be determined at least...

  10. Radon and lung cancer: assessing and mitigating the risk.

    PubMed

    Choi, Humberto; Mazzone, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas. Its progenies emit alpha particles capable of causing tissue damage. Radon exposure is estimated to be the second most common cause of lung cancer in the United States. Management of patients with a history of radon exposure should involve a lung cancer specialist. Copyright© 2014 The Cleveland Clinic Foundation.

  11. 40 CFR 700.41 - Radon user fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Radon user fees. 700.41 Section 700.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT GENERAL Fees § 700.41 Radon user fees. User fees relating to radon proficiency programs authorized under the...

  12. Radon Q & A. What You Need to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayham, Chris

    1994-01-01

    Because radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in this country, the article presents a question and answer sheet on where radon comes from, which buildings are most likely to have radon, how to tell whether there is a problem, and expenses involved in testing and fixing problems. (SM)

  13. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your Home

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Radon is the leading cause of lung cancer for non-smokers and the second leading cause of lung cancer for the general population. Learn more about testing your home for radon, and how to select a contractor if you have high levels of radon present.

  14. Inhalation dose due to radon, thoron, and progenies in dwellings of a hill station.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, R

    2017-02-01

    The general public spends a major portion of their time in an indoor environment and hence receives a considerable amount of radiation. Knowledge about indoor radiation is important in order to arrive at the actual effective dose received by residents. The indoor radon, thoron, and progeny concentrations observed in the present study were found to vary with seasons of a given year. The highest and lowest indoor average radon, thoron, and progeny levels were observed during winter and summer seasons, respectively. The concentrations of indoor radon, thoron, and progenies were found to vary with the type of houses. The highest 222 Rn, 220 Rn, and progeny concentrations were observed in mud houses and the lowest values were recorded in wooden houses. The indoor 222 Rn concentration correlated well with concentration of its grandparent 238 U in underlying soil with a correlation coefficient of 0.87. The correlation between indoor 220 Rn and 232 Th in the underlying soil was found to be 0.64. The estimated effective doses received by the general public in the present study due to indoor radon and thoron were 1.49 ± 0.49 and 1.30 ± 0.53 mSv/year, respectively. The annual effective doses due to radon and thoron progenies were estimated as 0.76 ± 0.27 and 0.47 ± 0.23 mSv/year, respectively. The contributions from 222 Rn, 220 Rn, and corresponding progenies to the annual effective doses received were 37, 32, 19, and 12%, respectively. The general public living in the study area receives an inhalation dose of 4.02 mSv/year due to indoor radon, thoron, and progenies, which were found to be less than the action limit of ICRP 2009.

  15. Study of the effect of electromagnetic fields on indoor and outdoor radon concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Lina M.; Shareef, N. R.; Darwoysh, H. H.; Mansour, H. L.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, the effect of electromagnetic fields produced by high voltage power lines(132kV) and indoor equipments on the indoor and outdoor average radon concentrations in Al-Kazaliya and Hay Al-Adil regions in Baghdad city were studied using CR-39 track detectors and a gauss-meter.Results of measurements of the present study, have shown that the highest value for the indoor average radon concentration (76.56± 8.44 Bq / m3) was recorded for sample A1(Hay Al-Adel) at a distance of (20 m) from the high voltage power lines, while the lowest value for the indoor average radon concentration (30.46 ± 8.44 Bq / m3) was recorded for sample A3 (Hay Al-Adil) at a distance of (50 m) from the high voltage power lines. The indoor gaussmeter measurements were found to be ranged from (30.2 mG) to (38.5 mG). The higest value for outdoor average radon concentration and the highest gaussmeter measurements were found for sample (1), with values (92.63 ±11.2 Bq / m3) and (87.24 ± 2.85 mG), directly under the high voltage power lines respectively, while the lowest outdoor average radon concentration and the lowest gaussmeter measurements were found in sample (4),with values (34.19 ± 6.33 Bq / m3) and (1.16 ± 0.14 Bq / m3),), at a distance of (120 m) from the high voltage power lines respectively. The results of the present work have shown that there might be an influence of the electromagnetic field on radon concentrations in areas which were close to high voltage power lines and houses which have used many electric equipment for a long period of time.

  16. Delusion proneness and 'jumping to conclusions': relative and absolute effects.

    PubMed

    van der Leer, L; Hartig, B; Goldmanis, M; McKay, R

    2015-04-01

    That delusional and delusion-prone individuals 'jump to conclusions' is one of the most robust and important findings in the literature on delusions. However, although the notion of 'jumping to conclusions' (JTC) implies gathering insufficient evidence and reaching premature decisions, previous studies have not investigated whether the evidence gathering of delusion-prone individuals is, in fact, suboptimal. The standard JTC effect is a relative effect but using relative comparisons to substantiate absolute claims is problematic. In this study we investigated whether delusion-prone participants jump to conclusions in both a relative and an absolute sense. Healthy participants (n = 112) completed an incentivized probabilistic reasoning task in which correct decisions were rewarded and additional information could be requested for a small price. This combination of rewards and costs generated optimal decision points. Participants also completed measures of delusion proneness, intelligence and risk aversion. Replicating the standard relative finding, we found that delusion proneness significantly predicted task decisions, such that the more delusion prone the participants were, the earlier they decided. This finding was robust when accounting for the effects of risk aversion and intelligence. Importantly, high-delusion-prone participants also decided in advance of an objective rational optimum, gathering fewer data than would have maximized their expected payoff. Surprisingly, we found that even low-delusion-prone participants jumped to conclusions in this absolute sense. Our findings support and clarify the claim that delusion formation is associated with a tendency to 'jump to conclusions'. In short, most people jump to conclusions, but more delusion-prone individuals 'jump further'.

  17. Weapons Storage Area Survey of 400 Series Buildings at Medina Annex, San Antonio, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-03

    due to build u p of radon daughters Initial Ins trument Readin~ Results Inst. 1 lnst. lnst. Field Lab Sample Gross alpha Gross beta Gross Map...readings are due to build up of radon daughters ReadiJlg Results lust. lust. Field Lab San1ple Gross alpha Map Area Room # Location Inst. 1 Sample...outside) NOTE : High alph readings are due to build up of radon daughters Initial Instrument Reading Results Area on Room # Inst . 1 Inst. 2 Field

  18. Comparison of CTAC and prone imaging for the detection of coronary artery disease using CZT SPECT.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shimpei; Endo, Akihiro; Okada, Taiji; Nakamura, Taku; Sugamori, Takashi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Tanabe, Kazuaki

    2017-10-01

    Cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) cameras have improved the evaluation of patients with chest pain. However, inferior/inferolateral attenuation artifacts similar to those seen with conventional Anger cameras persist. We added prone acquisitions and CT attenuation correction (CTAC) to the standard supine image acquisition and analyzed the resulting examinations. Seventy-two patients referred for invasive coronary angiography (CAG), and who also underwent rest/stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) on a CZT camera in the supine and prone positions plus CTAC imaging, to examine known or suspected CAD between April 2013 and March 2014 were included. A sixteen-slice CT scan acquired on a SPECT/CT scanner between rest and stress imaging provided data for iterative reconstruction. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) were calculated to compare MPI with CAG on a per-patient basis. Per-patient sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of supine images to predict coronary abnormalities on CAG were 35% [95% confidence interval (CI) 19-52], 86% (95% CI 80-92), and 74% (95% CI 66-82); those of prone imaging were 65% (95% CI 45-81), 82% (95% CI 76-87), and 78% (95% CI 68-85); and those of CTAC were 59% (95% CI 41-71), 93% (95% CI 87-97), and 85% (95% CI 76-91), respectively. Prone acquisition and CTAC images improve the ability to assess the inferior/inferolateral area.

  19. Occupant radon exposure in houses with basements

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, E.M.; Fuoss, S.

    1995-12-31

    This study compares basement and main-level radon exposure based on bi-level week-long radon measurements, occupancy and activity data collected in normal use during heating and non-heating seasons in a geographically-stratified random sample of about 600 Minnesota homes, in response to critiques of radon measurement protocol. Basement radon (RN1) (M=4.5, SD=4.5) and main level (Rn2)(M=2.9, SD=3.4) correlation was 0.8 (p=.00), including seasonal variation. In a 101-house subsample where Rn1 >=4.0 pCi/L and Rn2 <=3.9 pCi/L, maximum household exposure in basements was 1162 pCiHrs (M=120, Sd=207), main-level 2486 pCiHrs (M-434, SD=421). In same households, persons with most basement-time maxed 100 hrs (M=13,SD=23),more » persons with most main-level time maxed 160 hrs (M=79, SD=39). Basement activities show two patterns, (1) member used it for personal domain, e.g. sleeping, and (2) household used it for general activities, e.g. TV or children`s play. Basement occupancy justifies measurement of radon in the lowest livable housing level.« less

  20. Thermal diffusion of radon in porous media.

    PubMed

    Minkin, L

    2003-01-01

    Based on the non-intersection model of cylindrical capillaries, the mean radius of the pores of some soils and building materials are estimated. In size, the above-mentioned radii are usually of the order of the free path of gas molecules at atmospheric pressure. A review of pore size distribution data also reveals that a large fraction of concrete pores belong to Knudsen's region. This fact indicates that the thermal gradient in these media must cause gas (radon) transport. The interpretation of the experimental data concerning the rate of emanation of 222Rn from a concrete-capped source subjected to a sudden increase in temperature is given, based on irreversible thermodynamics theory. The calculations given here for radon flux, caused by concentration and thermal gradients, are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. It is shown that thermodiffusion can significantly contribute to radon flux in concrete. The need to include the thermodiffusion radon flux in the radon entry model is discussed.

  1. Radon in soil gas in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Kikaj, Dafina; Jeran, Zvonka; Bahtijari, Meleq; Stegnar, Peter

    2016-11-01

    An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to radon and gamma emitting radionuclides was conducted in southern Kosovo. This study deals with sources of radon in soil gas. A long-term study of radon concentrations in the soil gas was carried out using the SSNTDs (CR-39) at 21 different locations in the Sharr-Korabi zone. The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time, including at least three seasonal periods in a year and the sampling locations were chosen with respect to lithology. In order to determine the concentration of the natural radioactive elements 238 U and 226 Ra, as a precursor of 222 Rn, soil samples were collected from each measuring point from a depth of 0.8 m, and measured by gamma spectrometry. The levels (Bq kg -1 ) of naturally occurring radionuclides and levels (kBq m -3 ) of radon in soil gas obtained at a depth 0.8 m of soil were: 21-53 for 226 Ra, 22-160 for 238 U and 0.295-32 for 222 Rn. With respect to lithology, the highest value for 238 U and 226 Ra were found in limestone and the highest value for 222 Rn was found in metamorphic rocks. In addition, the results showed seasonal variations of the measured soil gas radon concentrations with maximum concentration in the spring months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: CASE STUDIES OF RADON MITIGATION SYSTEMS INSTALLED BY EPA IN FOUR MARYLAND SCHOOLS ARE PRESENTED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning -- HVAC-- system design and operation) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  3. Radon isotope measurements as a monitoring tool for CO2 leakage in geological storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandia, F.; Mazadiego, L. F.; de Elío, J.; Ortega, M.; Bruno, J.

    2011-12-01

    moderate to high CO2 fluxes (from 1×10-7 to 5×10-5 kg/m-2/s), along with other minor and trace gases (H2S, VOC, helium). The results in some sites show that not all Rn isotopes behave in the same way. In some cases, thoron (220Rn) does not flow with CO2 and 222Rn and, consequently, it appears to be a need to use methods capable of discriminating isotopes to avoid masking of unbounded radon to CO2 flux. The highest radon-thoron ratio is then related to CO2 flow. The behavior of radon isotopes could be caused by different rocks at depth. In addition, travel time for thoron could be too long compared to its very short half life (few hours). The methods tested provide similar radon data although some of them need further data refinement. SARAD alpha spectroscopy appears to be effective in the sites studied so far, which are characterized by high radon fluxes. Future work in the project is the testing of these techniques in areas with smaller radon fluxes and the determination of the gases that may interact with radon in some methods.

  4. Effects of Prone Position and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure on Noninvasive Estimators of ICP: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Robba, Chiara; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Bertuccio, Alessandro; Cardim, Danilo; Donnelly, Joseph; Sekhon, Mypinder; Lavinio, Andrea; Duane, Derek; Burnstein, Rowan; Matta, Basil; Bacigaluppi, Susanna; Lattuada, Marco; Czosnyka, Marek

    2017-07-01

    Prone positioning and positive end-expiratory pressure can improve pulmonary gas exchange and respiratory mechanics. However, they may be associated with the development of intracranial hypertension. Intracranial pressure (ICP) can be noninvasively estimated from the sonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) and from the transcranial Doppler analysis of the pulsatility (ICPPI) and the diastolic component (ICPFVd) of the velocity waveform. The effect of the prone positioning and positive end-expiratory pressure on ONSD, ICPFVd, and ICPPI was assessed in a prospective study of 30 patients undergoing spine surgery. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance, fixed-effect multivariate regression models, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were used to analyze numerical data. The mean values of ONSD, ICPFVd, and ICPPI significantly increased after change from supine to prone position. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that, among the noninvasive methods, the mean ONSD measure had the greatest area under the curve signifying it is the most effective in distinguishing a hypothetical change in ICP between supine and prone positioning (0.86±0.034 [0.79 to 0.92]). A cutoff of 0.43 cm was found to be a best separator of ONSD value between supine and prone with a specificity of 75.0 and a sensitivity of 86.7. Noninvasive ICP estimation may be useful in patients at risk of developing intracranial hypertension who require prone positioning.

  5. Carcinogenic and Cocarcinogenic Effects of Radon and Radon Daughters in Rats.

    PubMed Central

    Monchaux, G; Morlier, JP; Morin, M; Chameaud, J; Lafuma, J; Masse, R

    1994-01-01

    It has been previously established that lung cancer could be induced in rats by exposure to radon and radon daughters. Although the oat-cell carcinomas that are common in humans were not found in rats, other histological types of lung carcinomas, especially squamous cell carcinomas and primitive lung adenocarcinomas, were similar to those observed in humans. A dose-effect relationship was established for cumulative doses varying from 25 to 3000 working-level-months (WLM), which was similar for medium and high cumulative doses to that observed in uranium miners. This experimental protocol was also used to study the potential cocarcinogenic effects of other environmental or industrial airborne pollutants such as tobacco smoke, mineral fibers, diesel exhausts, or minerals from metallic mine ores that may act synergistically with radon exposure. In rats exposed to radon and tobacco smoke combined, the incidence of lung cancers was higher by a factor of 2-4 according to the cumulative radon exposure and the duration of tobacco smoke exposure. When mineral fibers were injected intrapleurally, an increased incidence of malignant thoracic tumors was observed in rats exposed to radon and fibers combined, but synergistic effects resulted in additivity. With diesel exhausts or minerals from metallic ores, a slight, nonsignificant increase in the incidence of lung carcinomas was observed compared with rats exposed to radon alone. These results demonstrated that it is possible to establish the potential cocarcinogenic action, showing either multiplicative, additive, or no effect of various environmental or industrial airborne pollutants combined with radon exposure. This radon model is valid for investigating possible interactions between two occupational exposures. Images p64-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:9719670

  6. RADON PROGENY AS AN EXPERIMENTAL TOOL FOR DOSIMETRY OF NANOAEROSOLS

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzer, Lev; Ruzer, Lev S.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-02-25

    The study of aerosol exposure and dosimetry measurements and related quantitation of health effects are important to the understanding of the consequences of air pollution, and are discussed widely in the scientific literature. During the last 10 years the need to correlate aerosol exposure and biological effects has become especially important due to rapid development of a new, revolutionary industry ?-- nanotechnology. Nanoproduct commerce is predicted to top $1 trillion by 2015. Quantitative assessment of aerosol particle behavior in air and in lung deposition, and dosimetry in different parts of the lung, particularly for nanoaerosols, remains poor despite several decadesmore » of study. Direct measurements on humans are still needed in order to validate the hollow cast, animal studies, and lung deposition modeling. We discuss here the use of nanoscale radon decay products as an experimental tool in the study of local deposition and lung dosimetry for nanoaerosols. The issue of the safe use of radon progeny in such measurements is discussed based on a comparison of measured exposure in 3 settings: general population, miners, and in a human experiment conducted at the Paul Scherer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. One of the properties of radon progeny is that they consist partly of 1 nm radioactive particles called unattached activity; having extremely small size and high diffusion coefficients, these particles can be potentially useful as radioactive tracers in the study of nanometer-sized aerosols. We present a theoretical and experimental study of the correlation between the unattached activity and aerosol particle surface area, together with a description of its calibration and method for measurement of the unattached fraction.« less

  7. [The methods of assessment of health risk from exposure to radon and radon daughters].

    PubMed

    Demin, V F; Zhukovskiy, M V; Kiselev, S M

    2014-01-01

    The critical analysis of existing models of the relationship dose-effect (RDE) for radon exposure on human health has been performed. Conclusion about the necessity and possibility of improving these models has been made. A new improved version ofthe RDE has been developed. A technique for assessing the human health risk of exposure to radon, including the method for estimating of exposure doses of radon, an improved model of RDE, proper methodology risk assessment has been described. Methodology is proposed for the use in the territory of Russia.

  8. Soil radon profile of the Alhama de Murcia Fault: implications in tectonic segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejar-Pizarro, M.; Perez Lopez, R.; Fernández Cortés, A.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Staller, A.; Sánchez-Malo, A.; Sanz, E.; Cuezva, S.; Sánchez-Moral, S.

    2017-12-01

    Soil radon exhalation in active faults has been reported in several cases. Mobilization of radon gas in tectonic areas is related to CO2emission, acting as gas carrier from deeper fractured zones. Fluctuation of radon values can be correlated with earthquake occurrence. We have used the soil radon emission for characterizing different tectonic segment of the Alhama de Murcia Fault (FAM), one of the most active on-shore tectonic faults in Spain. The FAM is a NE-SW trending strike-slip fault with reverse component, 90 km long and it is capable to trigger M7 earthquakes, as far as several paleoseismic studies shown. The last destructive earthquake took place in 2011 and killed 9 people. Tectonic segmentation of this fault has been proposed, with a tectonic slip-rate close to 0.1 mm/yr from geomorphic evidence, whereas 0.5 mm/yr has been suggested from GPS geodetic measurements. We have developed a perpendicular profile for measuring the soil radon exhalation, in relationship with three principal segments of FAM from west to east: (1) Goñar-Lorca segment, (2) Lorca Totana segment and (3) Alhama segment. We have introduced radon passive detectors equipped with LR115 films in colluvium detritic deposits and at 0.8 m depth. Using detritic deposits affected by Quaternary fault movement we assure equal permeability conditions for radon transport. We used passive closed housings type DRF, with a filter that avoid thoron disturbance. Results show the largest values of radon emission close to the Quaternary surface ruptures (ca 3-5.5 kBq/m3). Furthermore, the Goñar segment exhibits the highest value (6 kBq/m3) although the Lorca segment shows an isotopic signal of 13dCO2 (-7.24‰) which indicates this is a mantle-rootled CO2, i.e. non-soil derived CO2 flux, likely related to CO2 produced by thermal decarbonation of underlying sedimentary rocks containing more marine carbonate minerals. These results are part of the combined Spanish projects GEIs-SUB (CGL2016- 78318-C2-1-R

  9. Empathy, Guilt Proneness, and Gender: Relative Contributions to Prosocial Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Torstveit, Linda; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lugo, Ricardo Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Guilt is a moral emotion that is often looked upon as a negative trait. However, studies show that some individuals are more predisposed to think, feel and act in a more ethical manner because of a lower threshold to experience guilt. Some theories of helping behaviour emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms, while other theories stress the importance of social variables. This study investigated whether guilt proneness as a dispositional trait can be associated with prosocial behaviour. Five hundred sixty-nine participants reported in an online survey their own levels of guilt proneness, frequency of prosocial behaviour, and related cognitions such as empathy. This study is among the first to demonstrate how guilt proneness combined with empathy can explain additional variance in prosocial behaviour. The findings also indicate gender differences in the precursors of prosocial behaviour, suggesting women are more influenced by the effects of guilt proneness on prosocial behaviour than men. PMID:27298635

  10. The relation of seismic activity and radon concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Kulali, Feride, E-mail: feridekulali@gmail.com, E-mail: iskender@fef.sdu.edu.tr; Akkurt, İskender, E-mail: feridekulali@gmail.com, E-mail: iskender@fef.sdu.edu.tr; Vogiannis, Efstratios, E-mail: svog@env.aegean.gr

    Radon, which is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation, reaches to surface as gas or dissolved form in the ground water. Emanation of radon can has a profile is disposed to increasing or decreasing depending on the effects of meteorological events or crust movements. In this work, the radon concentration in soil gas, which is transported from soil to AlphaGUARD, is continuously measured in Mytilene (Greece). A graph of radon concentration is prepared for comparison with simultaneous earthquake data. As a consequence of comparison, we determined that the radon concentration indicates anomalies before the earthquakes.

  11. Measurements of radon concentrations in Spa waters in Amasya, Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Yigitoglu, I., E-mail: ibrahim.yigitoglu@gop.edu.tr; Ucar, B.; Oner, F.

    The aim of this study is to determine the radon concentrations in thermal waters in the Amasya basin in Turkey and to explore the relationship between radon anomalies and active geological faults. The radon concentration measurements were performed in four thermal Spas around Amasya basin. The water samples were collected from tap waters in thermal water sources. The obtained radon concentrations ranged from 0.15 ± 0.12 to 0.71 ± 0.32 BqL{sup −1} for Spa waters. The relationship between the radon concentration anomalies and earthquakes that occurred in the sampling period are discussed.

  12. Radon Diffusion Measurement in Polyethylene based on Alpha Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    We present a method to measure the diffusion of Radon in solid materials based on the alpha decay of the radon daughter products. In contrast to usual diffusion measurements which detect the radon that penetrates a thin barrier, we let the radon diffuse into the material and then measure the alpha decays of the radon daughter products in the material. We applied this method to regular and ultra high molecular weight poly ethylene and find diffusion lengths of order of mm as expected. However, the preliminary analysis shows significant differences between two different approaches we have chosen. These differences may be explained by the different experimental conditions.

  13. An electrical circuit model for simulation of indoor radon concentration.

    PubMed

    Musavi Nasab, S M; Negarestani, A

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a new model based on electric circuit theory was introduced to simulate the behaviour of indoor radon concentration. In this model, a voltage source simulates radon generation in walls, conductivity simulates migration through walls and voltage across a capacitor simulates radon concentration in a room. This simulation considers migration of radon through walls by diffusion mechanism in one-dimensional geometry. Data reported in a typical Greek house were employed to examine the application of this technique of simulation to the behaviour of radon.

  14. STUDY OF RADIATION EXPOSURE DUE TO RADON, THORON AND THEIR PROGENY IN THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT OF RAJPUR REGION OF UTTARAKHAND HIMALAYA.

    PubMed

    Kandari, Tushar; Aswal, Sunita; Prasad, Mukesh; Pant, Preeti; Bourai, A A; Ramola, R C

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, the measurements of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations have been carried out in the Rajpur region of Uttarakhand, Himalaya, India by using LR-115 solid-state nuclear track detector-based time-integrated techniques. The gas concentrations have been measured by single-entry pin-hole dosemeter technique, while for the progeny concentrations, deposition-based Direct Thoron and Radon Progeny Sensor technique has been used. The radiation doses due to the inhalation of radon, thoron and progeny have also been determined by using obtained concentrations of radon, thoron and their progeny in the study area. The average radon concentration varies from 75 to 123 Bq m -3 with an overall average of 89 Bq m -3 The average thoron concentration varies from 29 to 55 Bq m -3 with an overall average of 38 Bq m -3 The total annual effective dose received due to radon, thoron and their progeny varies from 2.4 to 4.1 mSv y -1 with an average of 2.9 mSv y -1 While the average equilibrium factor for radon and its progeny was found to be 0.39, for thoron and its progeny, it was 0.06. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Radon measurements aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kritz, Mark A.; Rosner, Stefan W.

    1995-01-01

    We have carried out three (piggyback) radon-related projects aboard the KAO. The first, which was limited to upper tropospheric measurements while in level flight, revealed the systematic occurrence of unexpectedly high radon concentrations in this region of the atmosphere. The second project was an instrument development project, which led to the installation of an automatic radon measurement system aboard the NASA ER-2 High Altitude Research Aircraft. In the third, we installed a new system capable of collecting samples during the normal climb and descent of the KAO. The results obtained in these projects have resulted in significant contributions to our knowledge of atmospheric transport processes, and are currently playing a key role in the validation of global circulation and transport models.

  16. Radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, E. S.; Frels, T.; Miller, E. H.; Schnee, R. W.; Street, J.

    2018-01-01

    Radiopure materials for detector components in rare event searches may be contaminated after manufacturing with long-lived 210Pb produced by the decay of atmospheric radon. Charged radon daughters deposited on the surface or implanted in the bulk of detector materials have the potential to cause noticeable backgrounds within dark matter regions of interest. Understanding the mechanics governing these background signals is therefore a paramount concern in dark matter experiments in order to distinguish a real signal from internal detector backgrounds. Teflon (i.e. PTFE) is a specific material of interest because it makes up the walls of the inner detector of many liquid noble detectors such as the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment. The rate of radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon can be orders of magnitude larger than the plate-out rate onto other materials. Mitigation of plate-out onto Teflon and steel by proximity to other materials is demonstrated.

  17. Radon program of the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Petrová, K; Pravdová, E

    2014-07-01

    The Radon Program of the Czech Republic 2010-2019--Action Plan is based on Governmental Decision No. 594/2009 (Radon Program of the Czech Republic 2010-2019--Action Plan, Government of the Czech Republic, Decision No. 594/2009, May 4 2009) and is coordinated by the State Office for Nuclear Safety. It covers both prevention in new house construction and intervention in existing houses with high indoor radon concentration. The Program is aimed at developing an effective public information system. It takes advantage of long-term experience and good scientific and technological background-staff, methods, standards and technologies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Radon monitor wins Healthy House Award

    SciTech Connect

    du Pont, P.

    The winning entry was a system for measuring radon gas in homes. The system, called E-Perm and manufactured by Rad-Elec, Inc. of Germantown, MD, uses a replaceable electret detector, rather than charcoal, to sense the decay of radon. The electret is a Teflon disk about 1.5 inches in diameter that is seated in a canister 3 inches in diameter and 2.5 inches high. In the absence of any outside influences, the electret maintains a constant voltage, making it a type of electrostatic battery. After entering the canister, radon gas decays, giving off high-energy positive ions called alpha particles. The alphamore » particles dissipate their energy within a couple of centimeters of air and produce electrons as they knock into air molecules. The E-Perm system measures the presence of these electrons as a changes in the voltage potential across the electret.« less

  19. Radon in ground water: A study of the measurement and release of waterborne radon and modeling of radon variation in bedrock wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiseppe, Vincente E.

    Naturally occurring radon gas (222Rn) exists in ground water and drinking water supplies. Research involving radon in ground water requires the ability to accurately measure radon in water. In the absence of a national program, an intercomparison study of laboratories was sanctioned by the State of Maine. The University of Maine research laboratory supplied each laboratory with water samples of various radon concentrations, served as the reference laboratory, and analyzed the results presented here. The external review of the University of Maine laboratory and agreement with some of the participating laboratories verifies its accuracy in measuring radon in water. A study of nine elementary schools in Maine examined the release of waterborne radon during water use. The release of radon into the kitchen air was measured to be greater than the EPA action level of 0.150 Bq L -1 (4 pCi L-1) in all schools but negligible concentrations of radon were found in adjacent classrooms. In two schools over a three-fold spatial radon variation was measured suggesting that multiple detectors are needed to accurately measure waterborne radon in air. During water use, the radon in water concentration was measured periodically and many of the schools showed an increase in the radon concentration by 200 BqL-1 or more. To explore this effect, nine bedrock wells were studied in detail. Measurements of the ambient and purged radon profiles in the wells showed variations of radon concentration of samples within the well. The rock chips removed during well-drilling were analyzed for radionuclides in the 238U decay series. The 226Ra concentrations in the rock chips do not explain the measured vertical variation of dissolved radon. The vertical flow and fracture locations were previously determined by borehole logging to determine location of ground water inflow. A mathematical model of the ground-water flow into and through the well with radon as a tracer was tested. The model was

  20. The role of a prone setup in breast radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Huppert, Nelly; Jozsef, Gabor; Dewyngaert, Keith; Formenti, Silvia Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Most patients undergoing breast conservation therapy receive radiotherapy in the supine position. Historically, prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. With the advent of CT planning, the prone technique has become both feasible and reproducible. It was shown to be advantageous not only for women with larger breasts but in most patients since it consistently reduces, if not eliminates, the inclusion of heart and lung within the field. The prone setup has been accepted as the best localizing position for both MRI and stereotactic biopsy, but its adoption has been delayed in radiotherapy. New technological advances including image-modulated radiation therapy and image-guided radiation therapy have made possible the exploration of accelerated fractionation schemes with a concomitant boost to the tumor bed in the prone position, along with better imaging and verification of reproducibility of patient setup. This review describes some of the available techniques for prone breast radiotherapy and the available experience in their application. The NYU prone breast radiotherapy approach is discussed, including a summary of the results from several prospective trials.

  1. Prone position for the prevention of lung infection.

    PubMed

    Beuret, P

    2002-04-01

    Pulmonary infection is frequent in brain injured patients. It has been identified as an independent predictor of unfavorable neurological outcome, calling for attempts of prevention. We recently evaluated intermittent prone positioning for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in comatose brain injured patients, in a randomized study. 25 patients were included in the prone position (PP) group: they were positioned on prone four hours once daily until they could get up to sit in an armchair; 26 patients were included in the supine position (SP) group. The main characteristics of the patients from the two groups were similar at randomization. The primary end-point was the incidence of lung worsening, defined by an increase in the Lung Injury Score by at least one point since the time of randomization. The incidence of lung worsening was lower in the PP group (12%) than in the SP group (50%) (p=0.003). The incidence of VAP was 38.4% in the SP group and 20% in the PP group (p=0.14). There was no serious complication attributable to prone positioning. In conclusion, the beneficial effect of prone positioning for prevention of lung infection in brain injured patients is not well established. However, in those patients, prone positioning is able to avoid the worsening of pulmonary function, especially in oxygenation.

  2. Radon Testing: Community Engagement By a Rural Family Medicine Office.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barcey T; Wolff, Cynthia K; Niles, Paul; Morehead, Heather; Xu, Yinghui; Daly, Jeanette M

    2015-01-01

    Iowa has the highest average radon concentrations in the nation, with an estimated 400 radon-induced lung cancer deaths each year. Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer death overall. The objectives of this study were (1) to educate the population attending a family medicine office about the dangers of radon, (2) to encourage homeowners to test for radon, (3) to work with the community to identify resources for mitigation, and (4) to assess the utility of working with a local family medicine office as a model that could be adopted for other communities with high home radon concentrations. Participants obtained a US Environmental Protection Agency-certified activated charcoal short-term radon kit through their primary care office or by attending a seminar held by their medical office. Participants completed a short investigator-developed questionnaire about their home, heating, and demographics. Of 746 radon kits handed out, 378 valid results (51%) were received, of which 351 questionnaires could be matched to the kit results. The mean radon result was 10.0 pCi/L (standard deviation, 8.5 pCi/L). A radon result of 4 pCi/L or higher, the Environmental Protection Agency action level for mitigation, was found in 81% of homes (n = 285). Four of 5 homes tested had elevated radon levels. This family medicine office/university collaborative educational model could be useful for educating patients about other environmental dangers. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  3. Zonation of Landslide-Prone Using Microseismic Method and Slope Analysis in Margoyoso, Magelang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aditya, Muchamad Reza; Fauqi Romadlon, Arriqo’; Agra Medika, Reymon; Alfontius, Yosua; Delva Jannet, Zukhruf; Hartantyo, Eddy

    2018-04-01

    Margoyoso Village, Salaman Sub-district, Magelang Regency, Central Java is one of the villages that were included in landslide prone areas. The steep slopes and land use in this village were quite apprehensive. There were fractures with 5 cm in width and a length of 50 m. Moreover, these fractures appeared in the home residents. Although the local government has established a disaster response organization, this village is still not getting adequate information about the landslide prone areas. Based on the description before, we conducted research with geophysical methods and geotechnical analysis to minimize the danger of landslides. The geophysical method used in this research was microseismic method and geotechnical analysis. The microseismic measurement and slope stability analysis at Margoyoso village was a step in analysing the landslide-prone zone boundary. The results of this research indicated that landslide potential areas had a low peak ground acceleration values with a range from 36 gal to 46 gal. Measurement of slope stability indicated that a slope angle values between 55°-78° are a potential landslide slope because the soil in this village has very loose properties so it is very easy to move.

  4. Impact of radon gas concentration in the aerosoles profile

    SciTech Connect

    Lukaj, Edmond, E-mail: mondilukaj@yahoo.com; Vila, Floran, E-mail: floranvila@yahoo.com; Mandija, Florian, E-mail: fmandija@yahoo.com

    Radon gases relased from building materials and from earth surface are the major responsibility of air ionization. Radon nuclear decay can produce an alpha particle with high energy and Radon progeny. This particle and gamma rays can deliver particles in the air and produce ions with different polarities. This ions, because of induced electric charge, can attach with air aerosols and charge them with their electric charge. The charged aerosols can interact with the other aerosols and ions. Because of this exchange, the air conductivity and the aerosol profiles will change dependently by Radon gas concentration and gamma radiation. Observationsmore » show an increase in concentration of Radon during the night, and a decrease during the daylight time. The Radon gas concentration changed hour by hour can induce aerosol profile to change. This dependency between the aerosol profiles and the Radon gas concentrations is discussed.« less

  5. Radon as a Tracer for Lunar Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friesen, Larry Jay

    1992-01-01

    Radon and its decay product polonium can be used as tracers to search for lunar volatiles. One effective technique to look for them would be by using alpha-particle spectrometers from lunar orbit. Alpha spectrometers were flown in the Apollo Service Modules during the Apollo 15 and 16 missions, and did observe Rn-222 and its decay product Po-210 on the lunar surface from orbit. This demonstrates that radon and polonium can be observed from orbit; what must next be shown is that such observations can reveal something about the locations of volatiles on the Moon.

  6. Radon free storage container and method

    DOEpatents

    Langner, Jr., G. Harold; Rangel, Mark J.

    1991-01-01

    A radon free containment environment for either short or long term storage of radon gas detectors can be provided as active, passive, or combined active and passive embodiments. A passive embodiment includes a resealable vessel containing a basket capable of holding and storing detectors and an activated charcoal adsorbing liner between the basket and the containment vessel wall. An active embodiment includes the resealable vessel of the passive embodiment, and also includes an external activated charcoal filter that circulates the gas inside the vessel through the activated charcoal filter. An embodiment combining the active and passive embodiments is also provided.

  7. Radon detection system, design, test and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcázar, M.; Chávez, A.; Piña-Villalpando, G.; Navarrete, M.

    1999-02-01

    A portable radon detection system (α-Inin) has been designed and constructed for using it in adverse environmental conditions where humidity, temperature and chemical vaporous are present. The minimum integration time is in periods of 15 min during 41 days. A 12 V battery and a photovoltaic module allow the α-Inin autonomy in field measurements. Data is collected by means of a laptop computer where data processing and α-Inin programming are carried out. α-Inin performance was simultaneously tested in a controlled radon chamber, together with a commercial α-Meter.

  8. Radon emanation of heterogeneous basin deposits in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girault, Frédéric; Gajurel, Ananta Prasad; Perrier, Frédéric; Upreti, Bishal Nath; Richon, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    in the vicinity of active faults. Importantly, the study also reveals that, above numerous sediments of Kathmandu Valley, radon concentration in dwellings can potentially exceed the level of 300 Bq m -3 for residential areas; a fact that should be seriously taken into account by the governmental and non-governmental agencies as well as building authorities.

  9. Quantitative health impact of indoor radon in France.

    PubMed

    Ajrouche, Roula; Roudier, Candice; Cléro, Enora; Ielsch, Géraldine; Gay, Didier; Guillevic, Jérôme; Marant Micallef, Claire; Vacquier, Blandine; Le Tertre, Alain; Laurier, Dominique

    2018-05-08

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. Since the previous quantitative risk assessment of indoor radon conducted in France, input data have changed such as, estimates of indoor radon concentrations, lung cancer rates and the prevalence of tobacco consumption. The aim of this work was to update the risk assessment of lung cancer mortality attributable to indoor radon in France using recent risk models and data, improving the consideration of smoking, and providing results at a fine geographical scale. The data used were population data (2012), vital statistics on death from lung cancer (2008-2012), domestic radon exposure from a recent database that combines measurement results of indoor radon concentration and the geogenic radon potential map for France (2015), and smoking prevalence (2010). The risk model used was derived from a European epidemiological study, considering that lung cancer risk increased by 16% per 100 becquerels per cubic meter (Bq/m 3 ) indoor radon concentration. The estimated number of lung cancer deaths attributable to indoor radon exposure is about 3000 (1000; 5000), which corresponds to about 10% of all lung cancer deaths each year in France. About 33% of lung cancer deaths attributable to radon are due to exposure levels above 100 Bq/m 3 . Considering the combined effect of tobacco and radon, the study shows that 75% of estimated radon-attributable lung cancer deaths occur among current smokers, 20% among ex-smokers and 5% among never-smokers. It is concluded that the results of this study, which are based on precise estimates of indoor radon concentrations at finest geographical scale, can serve as a basis for defining French policy against radon risk.

  10. Paloma-radon: Atmospheric radon-222 as a geochemical probe for water in the Martian subsoil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabroux, J.-C.; Michielsen, N.; Voisin, V.; Ferry, C.; Richon, P.; Pineau, J.-F.; Le Roulley, J.-C.; Chassefière, E.

    2003-04-01

    Radon exhalation from a porous soil is known to depend strongly on the soil moisture content: a minute amount of water, or water ice, in the pore space increases dramatically the possibility for radon to migrate far from its parent mineral. We propose to take advantage of this characteristic by using atmospheric radon-222 as a geochemical probe for water in the Martian soil, at least one order of magnitude deeper than the current Mars Odyssey neutron data. Strong thermal inversions during the Martian night will accumulate radon in the lowest atmospheric boundary layer, up to measurable levels despite the comparatively high environmental (cosmic and solar) background radiation and the assumed low uranium content of the upper crust of the planet. Preliminary studies and development of an instrument for the measurement of the Martian atmospheric alpha radioactivity is part of the CNES-supported PALOMA experiment. Two test benches have been implemented, one of them allowing differential measurements of the diffusion of radon in the Martian soil simulant NASA JSC Mars-1, under relevant temperatures and pressures. The other, a 1 m^3 radon-dedicated test bench, aims to characterize the instrument that will measure radon in the Mars environment (7 mb CO_2). Tests on several nuclear radiation detectors show that semiconductor alpha-particle detectors (PIPS) are the best option (already on board the Mars Pathfinder Rover and other platforms). In addition, the detection volume is left open in order to capitalize upon the long (ca. 4 m) alpha track at this low pressure. A stationary diffusion model was developed in order to assess the radon flux at the Mars soil surface. Diffusion of gas in Martian soil is governed by Knudsen diffusion. The radon Knudsen diffusion coefficient was estimated, depending on the soil moisture and relevant structural properties, leading to a radon diffusion length of the order of 20 m. The landed platform PALOMA-Radon instrument will consist of a

  11. Novel determination of radon-222 velocity in deep subsurface rocks and the feasibility to using radon as an earthquake precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafrir, Hovav; Ben Horin, Yochai; Malik, Uri; Chemo, Chaim; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-09-01

    A novel technique utilizing simultaneous radon monitoring by gamma and alpha detectors to differentiate between the radon climatic driving forces and others has been improved and used for deep subsurface investigation. Detailed long-term monitoring served as a proxy for studying radon movement within the shallow and deep subsurface, as well as for analyzing the effect of various parameters of the radon transport pattern. The main achievements of the investigation are (a) determination, for the first time, of the radon movement velocity within rock layers at depths of several tens of meters, namely, 25 m/h on average; (b) distinguishing between the diurnal periodical effect of the ambient temperature and the semidiurnal effect of the ambient pressure on the radon temporal spectrum; and (c) identification of a radon random preseismic anomaly preceding the Nuweiba, M 5.5 earthquake of 27 June 2015 that occurred within Dead Sea Fault Zone.

  12. Radioactivity Risk Assessment of Radon and Gamma Dose at One Uranium Tailings Pond in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yalong; Liu, Yong; Peng, Guowen; Zhao, Guodong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zhu

    2018-01-01

    A year-long monitoring of gamma radiation effective dose rate and radon concentration had been done in the reservoir area of one uranium tailings pond in Hunan province (The monitoring area included indoor and outdoor area of residential buildings and workshops, tailings dam slope). Afterwards, the annual effective radiation dose of the people in that radiation environment had been calculated based on the results of monitoring, as well as a radiation risk assessment. According to the assessment, gamma radiation effective dose rate and radon concentration in the monitoring area were low, and the annual effective radiation dose was far below the international standard (30mSv), which showed that the radiation would not put the people’s health at risk. However, the annual effective radiation dose of gamma was far above that of radon in the area of uranium tailings pond; therefore, it’s advisable to take quarantine measures in in the area of uranium tailings pond to keep the surrounding residents away from unnecessary ionizing radiation.

  13. Seismo-volcanic monitoring at Furnas Volcano (Azores): radon (222Rn) concentration in groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Catarina; Virgílio Cruz, José; Ferreira, Teresa; Viveiros, Fátima; Freire, Pedro; Allard, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Azores archipelago, located in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean, is composed of nine volcanic islands that formed at the triple junction of the North American, Eurasian and African (Nubian) tectonic plates. These volcanic islands were the sites of several eruptions and destructive earthquakes since human settlement in the 15th century. S. Miguel Island, the largest and most densely populated island of the Azores, hosts three active strato-volcanoes with calderas. Furnas Volcano is one of these. Its eruptive activity has been essentially explosive, involving magmas with trachytic (s.l.) composition. In the last 5000 years at least 10 explosive eruptions occurred inside the caldera of Furnas. The last one occurred in 1630 and was subplinian in character. Since then an intense hydrothermal activity has persisted, involving four main fumarolic fields, thermal springs, CO2-rich springs, several soil diffuse degassing areas (CO2 and 222Rn), as well as occasional hydrothermal explosions. In the past decade we have developed a radon survey of Furnas hydrothermal manifestations. Here we report on the radon survey of twelve water springs, located inside the caldera, and representative of the different water types encountered at the volcano (orthothermal, thermal and CO2-rich springs). Bimonthly sampling and determination of radon activity and water temperature was performed in the selected springs between years 2007 and 2011. At each sampling point two water samples were collected for radon dosing in laboratory with the RAD7 equipment. A decay correction was applied to each sample. The average radon activities were found to vary between 1.15 Bq/L and 29.77 Bq/L, while water temperatures ranged between 16.5 °C and 76.2 °C. As a whole radon activities inversely correlate with water temperature, with orthothermal springs showing higher radon activity than thermal springs. Temporal variations in both parameters appear to be mainly determined by seasonal variations of

  14. Passive radon/thoron personal dosimeter using an electrostatic collector and a diffused-junction detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigu, J.; Raz, R.

    1985-01-01

    A solid-state alpha dosimeter has been designed and tested suitable for personal and environmental radon/thoron monitoring. The dosimeter basically consists of an electrostatic collector and an alpha-particle counting system with spectroscopy capabilities. The sensitive volume (˜20 cm3) of the electrostatic collector consists of a cylindrically shaped metal wire screen and a diffused-junction silicon alpha-detector covered with a thin aluminized Mylar sheet. A dc voltage (˜500 V) is applied between the wire screen and the Mylar sheet, with the latter held at negative potential relative to the former. Data can be retrieved during or after sampling by means of a microcomputer (Epson HX20) via a RS-232 communication interface unit. The dosimeter has been calibrated in a large (26 m3) radon/thoron test facility. A linear relationship was found between the dosimeter's alpha-count and both radon gas concentration and radon daughter working level. The dosimeter is mounted on top of an ordinary miner's cap lamp battery and is ideally suited for personal monitoring in underground uranium mines and other working areas. The dosimeter presented here is a considerably improved version of an earlier prototype.

  15. Seasonal variability of soil-gas radon concentration in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, C.-Y.; Minissale, A.

    1994-01-01

    Radon concentrations in soil gas were measured by the track-etch method in 60 shallow holes, each 70 cm deep and supported by a capped plastic tube, along several major faults in central California during 1975-1985. This set of data was analyzed to investigate the seasonal variability of soil-gas radon concentration in an area which has various geological conditions but similar climate. The results show several different patterns of seasonal variations, but all of which can be largely attributed to the water-saturation and moisture-retention characteristics of the shallow part of the soil. During the rainy winter and spring seasons, radon tended to be confined underground by the water-saturated surface soil which had much reduced gas permeability, while during the sunny summer and autumn seasons, it exhaled more readily as the soil became drier and more permeable. At several sites located on creeping faults, the radon-variation patterns changed with time, possibly because of disturbance of site condition by fault movement. ?? 1994.

  16. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Pankaj; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, Rohit

    2017-03-01

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpur districts of Himachal Pradesh has been done with solid state alpha track detectors, LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors. The radon exhalation rate for the soil samples varies from 39.1 to 91.2 mBq kg-1 h-1 with a mean value 59.7 mBq kg-1 h-1. Also the radium concentration of the studied area is found and it varies from 30.6 to 51.9 Bq kg-1 with a mean value 41.6 Bq kg-1. The exhalation rate for the building material samples varies from 40.72 (sandstone) to 81.40 mBq kg-1 h-1 (granite) with a mean value of 59.94 mBq kg-1 h-1.

  17. Radon flux at King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, H; Pereira, E B

    2002-01-01

    Fluxes of 222Rn from the ice-free terrain to the atmosphere were measured directly, for the first time, at the Brazilian Antarctic Station Ferraz during the summer field campaign of 1998/99. Average value for the flux was 7.7 +/- 4.8 x 10(-2) atoms cm(-2) s(-1) and it ranged between 0.21 x 10(-2) atoms cm(-2) s(-1) and 28 x l0(-2) atoms cm(-2) s(-1). The average flux of 220Rn was estimated to be 23 atoms cm(-2) s(-1), using a combination of two techniques: nuclear track detection and alpha spectrometry of radon daughters. It was found that the production of radon by uranium (41.54 + /-7.17 Bq kg(-1)) and thorium (57.97 +/- 12.14 Bq kg(-1)) equivalent soil contents, and a diffusion coefficient derived from experimental data for the local terrain could account for this average flux. Nevertheless, the large surges of 222Rn in the atmosphere frequently observed for that area could not be explained by this flux only.

  18. Map showing flood-prone areas, greater Denver area, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCain, J.F.; Hotchkiss, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    The rapid growth of population in the Front Range Urban Corridor of Colorado is causing intense competition for available land resources. One form of competition posing serious problems in indiscriminate development on flood plains along creeks and rivers. Flood plains are natural features of the landscape developed by streams in carry water in excess of channel capacity. Although not used as often by the stream, flood plains are as much a part of the stream system as is the channel. Whenever man competes with this natural function of the flood plain he must inevitably pay the price through property damage and varying degrees of human suffering Flood damages in the United States have been estimated to average about \\$1 billion annually (American Public Works Association, 1966.) This tremendous waste of national resources is borne not only by those citizens in direct contact with floods but also to a lesser degree by all citizens through increased cost of public services. Thus, floods are of concern to the entire community, and solutions to existing or potential problems should be a community effort.

  19. Non-invasive ventilation in prone position for refractory hypoxemia after bilateral lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Feltracco, Paolo; Serra, Eugenio; Barbieri, Stefania; Persona, Paolo; Rea, Federico; Loy, Monica; Ori, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Temporary graft dysfunction with gas exchange abnormalities is a common finding during the postoperative course of a lung transplant and is often determined by the post-reimplantation syndrome. Supportive measures including oxygen by mask, inotropes, diuretics, and pulmonary vasodilators are usually effective in non-severe post-reimplantation syndromes. However, in less-responsive clinical pictures, tracheal intubation with positive pressure ventilation, or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV), is necessary. We report on the clinical course of two patients suffering from refractory hypoxemia due to post-reimplantation syndrome treated with NIV in the prone and Trendelenburg positions. NIV was well tolerated and led to resolution of atelectactic areas and dishomogeneous lung infiltrates. Repeated turning from supine to prone under non invasive ventilation determined a stable improvement of gas exchange and prevented a more invasive approach. Even though NIV in the prone position has not yet entered into clinical practice, it could be an interesting option to achieve a better match between ventilation and perfusion. This technique, which we successfully applied in lung transplantation, can be easily extended to other lung diseases with non-recruitable dorso-basal areas.